Full Text Available Using firm-level panel data for Korean multinational enterprises (MNEs, we make a distinction between being the only affiliate of a parent firm and being one of the multiple affiliates of a parent firm. In particular, we attempt to find a correlation between the sales of foreign affiliates and the productivity of multinational firms. Our main empirical results in this paper suggest that productive Korean MNEs would enlarge the number of affiliates in the host country.
The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations. ... African Journal of Finance and Management ... We also find that keiretsu multinationals are more exposed to exchange rate risk that non-keiretsu firms.
Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ
This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in develo...
Jan I. Haaland; Ian Wooton
We examine the economic justification for providing investment subsidies to foreign-owned multinationals. These provide employment opportunities and generate demand for domestic intermediate inputs, produced by domestic workers with increasing returns to scale. Offering subsidies to multinationals may be in the national interest if the investment raises the net value of domestic production. When agglomerative forces are sufficiently strong, a subsidy that attracts the first foreign firm may i...
Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ
Full Text Available This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in developed economies. In the economies in which they operate, they bring capital, technology transfer, improve the national reputation and influence the other companies to invest in this countries, they provide a substantial source of revenue for the government and always improve the balance of payments in the host country.
Full Text Available There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign investors bring with them brand new types of economic activities and in that way shifting the limits of business opportunities in the countries of penetration. But if the investments are implemented in markets protected with protectionist barriers of various kinds, then they could have negative effects. The negative effects are in particularly reflected in the inefficient use of domestic resources. Foreign investments depend on the macro and micro institutional reforms, low inflation, real exchange rate, and reasonably efficient legal system that protects the property rights and encourages savings and investment. The low level of corruption, together with the foregoing conditions is a prerequisite for the creation of a stimulating environment for foreign investments.
Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik
endogeneity of the acquisition dummy. Overall, our results give no support to the fears that foreign acquisition of domestic firms lead to a brain drain of R&D activity in Swedish MNEs. Rather, this paper finds robust evidence that foreign acquisitions lead to increasing R&D intensity in acquired domestic......The aim of this paper is to evaluate the causal effect of foreign acquisition on R&D intensity in targeted domestic firms. We are able to distinguish domestic multinationals and non-multinationals, which allows us to investigate the fear that the change in ownership of domestic to foreign...
Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the causal effect of foreign acquisition on R&D intensity in targeted domestic firms. We are able to distinguish domestic multinationals and non-multinationals, which allows us to investigate the fear that the change in ownership of domestic to foreign...... multinationals leads to a reduction in R&D activity in the country. We use unique and rich firm level data for the Swedish manufacturing sector and micro-econometric estimation strategies in order to control for the potential endogeneity of the acquisition decision. Overall, our results give no support...... to the fears that foreign acquisition of domestic firms lead to a relocation of R&D activity in Swedish MNEs. Rather, this paper finds robust evidence that foreign acquisitions lead to increasing R&D intensity in acquired domestic MNEs and non-MNEs....
USASAC leads the AMC Security Assistance Enterprise, develops and manages security assistance programs and foreign military sales cases to build...that leads to cost savings and cost avoidance. The Shadow’s FMS sales are currently 1.6% of the total units in operation and accounts for the same...SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales December 2015 MAJ James P. Allen, USA MAJ Scott A. Bailey, USA CPT
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ECONOMIC VALUE OF ARMY FOREIGN MILITARY SALES ...this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data...sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden
... Regarding Foreign Base Company Sales Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final... provide guidance relating to foreign base company sales income when personal property sold by a controlled... sales income (FBCSI) rules. Written comments were received in response to the notice of proposed...
G.S. Yip (George); A. Kudina; A.M. Rugman (Alan)
textabstractA large and robust emperical literature demonstrates that there is a strong relationship between the performance of a multinational enterprise (MNE) and its degree of multinationality. We develop a new metric to capture the return on foreign assets (ROFA), which we use as an alternative
Full Text Available In recent years, the most visible feature of globalization was the new trend of the capital flow which moves from the stage of nternalization to the stage of transnationalization. The decisive factor that led to this development was the trans-nationalization of production/ distribution networks by multinational companies (MNCs. MNCs, which are also frequently referred to as transnational corporations (TNCs, are conglomerate organizations which carry out multiple and diverse economic activities and they consists of a parent company and a large number of subsidiaries operating in various countries of the world. Japan has been worthy of note on the international business scene not only by the high competitiveness of its companies on the global markets, but especially through the transnationalization of the activities of these enterprises, a process which has resulted in the implementation, via Foreign Direct Investments (FDI of Japanese production units abroad, with significant positive impact both on the global economy and on the domestic economy. A great number of empirical studies since the mid-1990s, using firm-level data, have shown that multinational companies (MNCs dominate today the Japanese business environment. The paper puts together the findings of some interesting working papers published by Japanese researchers in recent years, trying to provide a scientific answer to the following question: “In what way do FDI undertaken by MNCs influence the level of performances achieved by Japanese companies at home?” The conclusion is that FDI and the activity carried out by Japanese MNCs abroad have indubitable positive effects on both countries and firms involved - such as raises in production, employment and productivity at firms’ level or increases in competition intensity among firms, improvements in real wage and welfare at macroeconomic level.
Chang Hoon Oh; Alan M. Rugman
This paper analyzes the regional characteristics and strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the world cosmetics and toiletries industry, based on the new work by Rugman on regional strategy. We test the proposition that MNEs may asymmetrically develop their upstream and downstream firm specific advantages (FSAs). We find that the upstream activities of the MNEs in cosmetics are home region based but that downstream activities are less so. Further, the asymmetry of FSAs in the world...
A Global Company is not just a Multinational Company, but on top it has developed an organizational structure, an overall governance and a set of operational decision making processes which allow running a significant percentage of business processes as a unique body across borders. Successful Global Companies have a clear setup and governance of local versus centralized decision making processes, as well as budget ownership. Corporations focused on global opportunities need to re-think their...
Catana Adina Mihaela
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the study of transnational corporations and their business development through foreign direct investments made in other countries, mostly greenfield type countries. The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of these companies enlargement on the Romanian retail market, especially on the consumer goods market. Transnational companies have experienced a very dynamic economic growth, enjoying success at first in their country and then expanding to other countries. As independent players on the international market, multinational corporations are becoming more and more powerful every day. Most of these companies record annual sales of ten million dollars each. The most important aspect of business globalization is the interdependence between national economies. In this process, Foreign Direct Investments have an important role, given the fact that the internal resources are not enough to ensure the development and support of businesses hence the need to obtain external resources. Generally, FDI have a strong training effect both in the national and global economy, providing the replacement and modernization of techniques and technologies, increasing production and supply of goods, improving their quality and competitiveness, creating new jobs and growing the quality of life. Thus, each national economy is building its economic development strategy in which investments have a predominant role. Foreign Direct Investment is a major driver of globalization that characterizes the modern economy. Increasing of Foreign Direct Investment flows, accompanied by the increasing of the portfolio investments, highlights the major role played by transnational corporations, especially in developing economies and transition economies. The most important areas in which FDI was made in Romania are: financial intermediation and insurance, trade, construction and real estate, information technology and communication. The entering of
Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance differences across and within foreign-owned firms and domestic multinationals in Italy. Used for the empirical analysis are non-parametric tests based on the concept of first order stochastic dominance and quantile regression technique. The firm-level analysis distinguishes between foreign-owned firms of different nationalities and domestic MNEs according to the location of their FDI, and it focuses not only on productivity but also on differences in average wages, capital intensity, and financial and non-financial indicators, namely ROS, ROI and debt leverage. Overall, the results provide evidence of remarkable heterogeneity across and within multinationals. In particular, it seems not possible to identify a clear foreign advantage at least in terms of productivity, because foreign-owned firms do not outperform domestic multinationals. Interesting results are obtained when focusing on ROS and ROI, where the profitability gaps change as one moves from the bottom to the top of the conditional distribution. Domestic multinationals investing only in developed countries present higher ROS and ROI compared with the subgroups of foreign-owned firms, but only at the lower quantiles, while at the upper quantiles the advantage seems to favour foreign firms. Finally, in regard to domestic multinationals, there is strong evidence that those active only in less developed countries persistently exhibit the worst performances
The Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program, a Defense Department operation that manages sales of defense equipment as well as services and training to allied governments, is becoming a source of increasing dissatisfaction for the U.S...
... foreign customers. 225.7303-1 Section 225.7303-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... for Foreign Military Sales 225.7303-1 Contractor sales to other foreign customers. If the contractor has made sales of the item required for the foreign military sale to foreign customers under...
Denise Barros de Azevedo; Liane Aparecida Aires da Silva Rengel; Guilherme Cunha Malafaia; Karim Marini Thomé
This paper addresses the question of the strategies involved in the import process of cages for laying hens, directed at the multinational enterprise distribution center. Identifies the reasons why a multinational company invests in Brazil, specifically in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo, where it is implementing a distribution center (DC). Developing the study of the strategies involved in the process, according to the main issue of the work, it took place through the exploratory analysis ...
Full Text Available In the last decades multinational firms have become the leading actors of the international markets, including markets in developing countries. A multinational firm’s decision to open a branch or a subsidiary in another country, thus to invest abroad, is based on efficiency criteria, the obtained profit having a primordial aspect. We mustn’t forget the various advantages the host country befits of, here mentioning the transfer of technology. The unprecedented foreign amalgamation of multinational firms was brought on by the continuous liberalization of international commerce and investment fluxes.
.... With the increasing financial situation, the purpose of this thesis is to research a surrogate third party firm and determine to what degree South Korea and other foreign military sales customers...
Denise Barros de Azevedo
Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of the strategies involved in the import process of cages for laying hens, directed at the multinational enterprise distribution center. Identifies the reasons why a multinational company invests in Brazil, specifically in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo, where it is implementing a distribution center (DC. Developing the study of the strategies involved in the process, according to the main issue of the work, it took place through the exploratory analysis of the current logistics process of the Company, identifying the strategies adopted and the advantages of the new process. In order to achieve the objectives, the study is based on the theoretical study of Porter's five competitive forces, SWOT analysis, generic strategies adopted to achieve return on investment and, based on issues such as import , logistics, warehousing and distribution center. The survey shows that deployment of the DC, the strategy involves the insertion in the national market, specifically in São Paulo that is the biggest market of laying hens in the country to gain competitive advantage, and the multinational also adopts the strategy generic differentiation, with regard to technology and product quality. Despite the high costs of construction and maintenance of the DC, they represent a barrier to market entry, have no financial risk for the multinational enterprise, since this deployment will also increase the demand for the product, allowing the return on invested capital.
Slangen, Arjen H. L.; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd
Prior studies have shown that institutional hazards in the form of formal governance deficiencies and informal cultural distance are both negatively related to the amount of foreign multinational activity in countries. We argue that the strength of these negative relationships varies systematically
Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong
direct investment. We argue that firms with marketized state ownership may derive institutional competitive advantages from their dual responsiveness to shifting global market conditions and home government expectations which has a positive impact on their foreign investment decisions. However...
Irina Ivanovna Skachkova
Full Text Available In the context of globalization and increasing international cooperation in different spheres of life the issue of national security and economic prosperity of nations is becoming increasingly urgent.Purpose: Consideration of sociolinguistic and cultural characteristics of the functioning of foreign languages in a multinational state, the example of the United States.Methodology: We used general scientific methods: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, systematic approach.Results: It is concluded that foreign languages in a multinational state, such as the U.S., are studied through active actions of government, public and educational institutions, and the main purpose of language learning is to maintain national security and economic competitiveness in the international arena.Practical implications: The results of the work may be used both in linguistic theory, and sociolinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-51
IVABSTRACTIn this paper, we investigate the firm-level mechanisms that underlie the sequential foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions of multinational corporations (MNCs). To understand inter-firm heterogeneity in the sequential FDI behaviors of MNCs, we develop a firm capability-based model of sequential FDI decisions. In the setting of Japanese electronics MNCs in East Asia, we empirically examine how prior investments in firm capabilities affect sequential investments into existingprodu...
Theo Eicher; Jong Woo Kang
We examine multinationalsâ€™ optimal entry modes into foreign markets as a function of market size, FDI fixed costs, tariffs and transport costs. Our results highlight why large countries are more likely to attract acquisition investment, while intermediate-sized countries may be served predominantly through trade, even in the presence of high tariffs. Small countries are most likely to experience either FDI or no entry. We also show how these results vary with the competition intensity in th...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign-owned military aircraft and naval vessels, and the Foreign Military Sales program. 126.6 Section 126.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS § 126.6 Foreign-owned military...
Eric D. Ramstetter
Using industrial census data for 2000, and smaller sets of survey data for 2001â€“2004, this paper examines the extent of wage differentials between medium-large (20 or more workers) foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) and local plants in Malaysia's manufacturing industries. On average, wages in sample MNEs were higher than in local plants by two-fifths or more. In addition to being more capital-intensive and relatively large, MNEs also hired higher shares of workers in highly paid occup...
エリック D., ラムステッター; Eric D. , Ramstetter
Using industrial census data for 2000, and smaller sets of survey data for 2001-2004, this paper examines the extent of wage differentials between medium-large (20 or more workers) foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) and local plants in Malaysia’s manufacturing industries. On average, wages in sample MNEs were higher than in local plants by two-fifths or more. MNEs also hired higher shares of workers in highly paid occupations and with moderate or high education, in addition to being mor...
This paper investigates the relationship between foreign currency translation differences and changes in firm’s market equity value of the Australian multinational firms in the oil and gas industry. The paper empirically examines this relationship under the former Australian accounting standard AASB 1012 “Foreign Currency Translation”. The paper thereby supports the new accounting standard AASB 121 “The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates” that adopted a functional currency approach....
.... Foreign military sales are made on an individual case basis. The cases are initiated by a foreign country representative sending a letter of request to DOD asking for various information, such as precise price data...
...-0063; Notice 2] Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...). ACTION: Denial of Petition. SUMMARY: Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS), as importer for ProMeter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company Limited, has...
...-0063; Notice 1] Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS) \\1\\, as importer of record for ProMeter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company Limited has determined that certain...
... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign Sales Corporation-general rules. 1.921... Corporation—general rules. (a) Definition of a FSC and the Effect of a FSC Election. Q-1. What is the definition of a Foreign Sales Corporation (hereinafter referred to as a “FSC” (All references to FSCs include...
Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Hooft, A.P.J.V. van; Planken, B.C.; Hendrix, C.
The relationship between personality dimensions, measured with the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and foreign language mastery were studied in a Dutch-based multinational company in the agricultural sector. In a survey, differences were studied between internal and external
International business decisions to be taken by executive managers of multinational firms are becoming more challenging due to uncertainties in business environment which is due to fast changing and unpredictable domestic, foreign, and global environment for long term sustainability. Even though firms are cautious and take precautions while taking decisions on international investment for production and marketing, their sustainability for a long time in a given business is shaking due to cont...
J. Emami Namini (Julian); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)
textabstractWe build a dynamic general equilibrium model with 2 countries, horizontal and vertical multinational activity and endogenous domestic and foreign investment. It is found that horizontal multinational activity always leads to a complementary relationship between domestic and foreign
S. Lael Brainard
This paper empirically investigates the role of transport costs, trade and investment barriers, production scale economies, and firm- specific advantages in determining the use of overseas production relative to exports. The proximity-concentration hypothesis is robust in explaining the share of total sales accounted for by affiliate sales: this share is greater the higher are transport costs and trade barriers and the lower are plant scale economies and investment barriers. Although strictly...
This is our final report on the Audit of Foreign Military Sales Trust Fund Disbursement Reporting, provided for your information and use. The audit was...made from August 1990 through March 1991. The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether disbursements from the Foreign Military Sales...implementation of the internal management control program required by the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act (FMFIA) as it pertained to the audit objectives.
Beatrice A. Dimba
Research purpose: Specifically, this study sought to investigate the extent to which employee cultural orientations moderate the link between SHRM practices and firm performance in large foreign manufacturing multinational companies in Kenya. Motivation for the study: Large foreign multinational companies have generally applied SHRM practices without adaptation when trying to improve employee performance even though resource based perspectives argue for the consideration of employees’ cultural orientations. Research design, approach and method: SHRM practices were conceptualised as independent variables measured through distinct practices. Organisational performance as a dependent variable was measured using constructs of image, interpersonal relations, and product quality. Cultural dimensions adopted for this study were power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism or collectivism, and masculinity or femininity. The above conceptual framework was tested by the use of both quantitative and qualitative techniques with data from fifty (50 large foreign multinational companies operating in Kenya. Main findings: Findings indicated that the relationship between SHRM practices and firm performance depend to a greater extent on employee cultural orientations when power distance is considered. Power distance (PD refers to the extent of people accepting that power in institutions and organisations when distributed unequally. The greater the PD, the greater the acceptance of this inequality. Practical/managerial implications: The study supported the notion that the relationship between SHRM practices and firm performance is moderated by power distance through motivation but not by the other three bipolar dimensions namely, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity or Femininity and Individualism or Collectivism. Contribution/value-add: This is the first large-scale empirical article that has focused on the moderating role of employees’ cultural orientations in large
... charges and net capital losses), that deficit shall be applied to reduce current earnings and profits, if... excess profits taxes imposed by a foreign country or possession of the United States may not be deducted... States § 1.921-3T Temporary regulations; Foreign sales corporation general rules. (a) Exclusion—(1...
Lima, Gonçalo Maria Eva Ferreira Neves
The company under scrutiny in this thesis is Aker Solutions Process Systems. As a part of the Aker Solutions group, Process Systems is a leading global supplier of processing equipment for oil, water and gas, operating worldwide. The company´s operational objective when implementing this process was to optimize the utilization of resources in it´s five different Business Units. The actions undertaken by the company to develop and implement a Sales and Operations Planning proces...
Zhang, Jianhong; Jacobs, Jan; Witteloostuijn, Arjen van
Multinational enterprises (MNEs) play a dominant role in the international business (IB) literature. Traditionally, by far the majority of IB studies deal with issues at the micro level of the individual MNE, or at the meso level of a sample of individual MNEs. This paper focuses on a macro-level
Marcelo André Machado
Full Text Available The relationship between a multinational and its subsidiaries abroad, according to many studies, is crucial for generating competitive advantages. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the relationship between a shoe company, Clarks International, and its Brazilian subsidiary with an emphasis on generating advantages to the multinational headquarters. Through a single case study, the subsidiary’s capacity for knowledge generation and diffusion was identified, as well as its level of autonomy in relation to the English headquarters. Data analysis indicated that the Brazilian subsidiary generated specific competitive advantages for the foreign multinational due to its close relationship with local suppliers in Brazil and due to its staff’s expertise in developing high quality shoes. It was perceived that the growth of subsidiary autonomy was related to the growth of specific advantages generated for the multinational.
Full Text Available The role of foreign capital and technology in the economic and social progress of late-developing countries remains a controversial issue in both academic and policy circles. In this essay, we examine the case of Spain in the light of the academic literature from the 1960s to the present. First, we identify and contextualize the intellectual concerns and controversies of two important generations of economists and historians and their approaches to the specific issue of multinational enterprises (MNEs. We then discuss what we consider to be the seven major contributions of recent Spanish scholarship in terms of: 1/ new quantitative evidence on FDI inward flows and firm demography analyses of foreign MNEs; 2/ new approaches to the transfer of technology by MNEs; 3/ collective and individual case studies of foreign MNEs, with a focus on their impact on local capabilities; 4/ identification of patterns of investment by MNE home countries; 5/ identification and study of the local actors of inward FDI; 6/ new perspectives gained from the history of international relations; and 7 new evidence on processes leading from inward FDI to outward FDI. We argue that the time is ripe for comprehensive re-assessments of the long-term impact of foreign MNEs and the role of Spain in the global economy.
recipient nations." The Foreign Military Sales Act of 1968 consolidated and revised provisions of the Foreign Assistance Act on reimburs - able military...RCCOVER FULL . COSTS OF REIMBURSABLE SATELLITE LAUNCHES. \\ Report to the Congtess. May 6, 1975, LCD- 7 4 -1. 0 7 • Defeuse and NASI\\ !National...Require that cost estimates and billings for reimburs - able launches be reviewed by internal .auditors to insure they are in ac~ord with agency
..., foreign military sales, and their ITO authorized dependents. 728.44 Section 728.44 National Defense... § 728.44 Members of security assistance training programs, foreign military sales, and their ITO... patient is an ITO authorized dependent), grade or rate, country of origin, diagnosis, type of elective...
... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gain from certain sales or exchanges of patents... Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1249-1 Gain from certain sales or exchanges of patents, etc., to foreign corporations. (a) General rule. Section 1249 provides that if gain is recognized from the sale or exchange...
Shudzeka, Basile N; Kum, Hyceinth N.
This research work analyses the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on firm value. It is based on a sample of 10 Swedish multinational companies selected from two market capitalization segments (Mid and Large Cap) according to the OMX index classification. A multiple linear regression model is used to explore the dependency of the log returns (continuously compounded returns) of each of the sampled companies to the percentage changes in the spot exchange rates for the SEK/U.S. Dollar and SEK...
Full Text Available An overall comparative study of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI from BRIC countries and strategies conducted by multinational companies (MNCs based in the BRICs is elaborated on with a same methodology for Brazil, Russia, India and China. The comparison pertains to the historical emergence of firms’ internationalisation, their booming expansion in the 2000s then their muddling through the current crisis, the specificities of OFDI from each home country, OFDI geographical distribution and industrial structure, econometric testing of the respective determinants of Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese OFDI, and the role of home countries’ governments vis-à-vis home-based MNCs. Beyond some common characteristics, BRICs’ MNCs exhibit a number of major country-specific features.
Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik
With foreign ownership of domestic companies becoming increasingly common, questions are mounting as to the consequences. One area of concern is the effect on research and development. This column presents new evidence from Sweden, where flagship firms such as Volvo and Saab are now foreign owned...
Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent
In this study we discuss and empirically test the assertion that over the last two decades multinational enterprises' (MNEs') configuration of value-adding activities has shifted from a sparse and simple (host-home) international division of labor among the foreign affiliates to a more specialized
Congress, the legislative and overseeing authority, enacts the laws, reviews sale requests, and appropriates funds for SA. The president, chief policy...financial thresholds and review periods vary by country, as shown in Table 2. Table 2. Foreign Military Sales Notification to Congress NATO...references the LOR and is a formal sales offer from the USG. Every customer country has its own structure and process for review and acceptance. When the
Alvaro Ferreira da Silva
Full Text Available A long-term perspective on the evolution of inward and outward foreign investment in Portugal over the twentieth century has been absent from the existing literature. In a few cases the analysis has a larger chronological depth, namely in the studies by Salgado de Matos (1973. However, even in this case the author zooms in a specific period of time: the 1960s and early 1970s. Other studies provide a long-term synthesis on foreign direct investment (see for all, Leite et al, 2001; Moreira and Dias, 2008, but they rely on a descriptive and very superficial approach. The chapters dedicated by the recent and in-depth História Económica de Portugal (Lains and Silva, 2005, vol. 3 to the internationalization of the Portuguese economy or to capital as a factor of production never address FDI, which constitutes one important weakness of this work.
Full Text Available In 2008 the global financial and economic crisis ended a six-year-long boom period with an average growth rate well above 5% in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Although not the originators of the crisis some CEE countries such as the Baltic States and Ukraine were among the worst hit by this economic downturn. The crisis did not only shatter the financial markets, banks and the real economy but also the growth image of CEE. The huge market potential and expected higher growth rates resulting from the catching-up process to West European standards have been the main reason for the flood of foreign direct investments into the countries of the region in the two decades before. Suddenly, foreign direct investors were confronted with stalled and even collapsing market growth, shrinking disposable household income, business customers and partners on the verge of bankruptcy and no real sign of a quick recovery. While the situation improved a little in 2011, the economic outlook and the sentiment of foreign investors have remained gloomy, at least for parts of the region. It is obvious that when faced with such a huge economic downturn companies stop geographic expansion and put the brakes on investments.
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the particularities of the procedures and legal instruments through which foreign persons, in the broadest sense of this term, may acquire, especially through sale-purchase contracts, agricultural lands situated outside of the built-up area, after Romania joined the European Union (1st of January, 2007. Likewise, this paper analyses specific international private law problems that may arise in relation with the application of the Romanian law regarding the legal transfer of agricultural and non-agricultural lands.
Gammeltoft, Peter; Hobdari, Bersant
International knowledge flows and innovation are becoming ever more important to the competitiveness of multinational corporations. Emerging market multinationals (EMNCs) in specific are deploying increasingly activist measures to harness foreign sources of knowledge and innovation as a strategy...... in which this disagreement can be reconciled through recognition of other EMNC advantages, particularly abilities to leverage country-specific assets, and possession and development of dynamic capabilities. Finally, we identify a set of core themes in the recent literature on strategic asset...
Duarte Moleiro Martins, José
The purpose of this article is to better understand the role of internal stakeholders in subsidiaries of multinational companies (MNCs) in order to offer potential insights into the cross-border transfer of knowledge from those companies' headquarters to their subsidiaries. The focus is upon subsidiaries in developing countries, here Mozambique.…
On Tuesday 28 November, a sale in aid of the animal protection society 'SOS Animaux Pays de Gex' will be held at the entrance to Restaurant No. 1 from 9 am to 5 pm. Mr Mpntagnel, a balloon sculptor, will also be on hand to create whatever kind of characters or animals your heart may desire.
On Tuesday 28 November, a sale in aid of the animal protection society 'SOS Animaux Pays de Gex' will be held at the entrance to Restaurant 1 from 9 am to 5 pm. Mr Montagnel, a balloon sculptor, will also be on hand to create whatever kind of characters or animals your heart may desire.
This study investigates how firm-level human resources management (HRM) practices are transformed to fit the organization's needs of developing skilled workers as core competence, in a changing environment where resources are scarce. This paper deals with the issue of factors influencing HRM practices in the development of competent workforce at two Japanese multinational companies (JMNCs)of Malaysian electric and electrical industry. This qualitative study applied longitudinal and comparat...
Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Slangen, Arjen; Maseland, Robbert; Onrust, Marjolijn
Research on how multinational firms deal with home-host cultural differences argues that cultural differences are minimized and assumes that foreign cultures are homogenous. In this paper we relax the cultural homogeneity assumption. In the presence of cultural variation in host countries the
Maria - Ramona SARBU
Full Text Available Capital, creating new jobs, innovation, advanced technologies and the know-how transfer to local firms, human resources with a high level of training, effective management capacity, providing the necessary inputs for the evolution of the activity under the best conditions of efficiency, the access of local consumers to a variety of products and services are the main advantages that multinational enterprises (MNEs bring in the countries where they expand their activities, with a significant impact on economic activities, between national economies. The purpose of this study is the analysis of the main non-financial multinationals in the world, based on the assets held abroad and depending on the transnationality index (TNI in 2013. In order to achieve the purpose of the current paper we employed data from UNCTAD database and the World Investment Report (WIR from 2015. Information on multinationals ranked by foreign assets according to the World Investment Report in 2015 show that, based on the TNI, European multinationals, such as the ones in France, Italy, Germany and Norway, have a higher transnationality index compared to multinationals from larger countries, such as the US and China. Among the top 10 European multinationals, the transnationality index reached an average of 55 % in 2013.
Ana Teresa Tavares; Aurora A. C. Teixeira
This paper contributes to the scarce empirical literature on the impact of foreign ownership on human capital intensity. New evidence is provided, based on a comprehensive, large-scale survey of technology-based firms located in Portugal. Using two alternatives measures of human capital (one based on skills, another on education), the key findings are that: (1) foreign ownership directly (and significantly) impacts on firms general human capital (education); (2) foreign ownership indirectly (...
arrangements available include coproduction, licensed production, subcontractor production, overseas investment, technology transfer, and countertrade ...commercial arrangement between the U.S. manufacturer and a foreign entity. Countertrade - Purchase of goods and services from the buyer country as a
.... The issues brought forth in this study will demonstrate the necessity for those employees who interact with people from foreign cultures to ensure that they posses adequate training in cross-cultural communications...
PDVSA seems poised to sell CITGO in the very near future. The United States and Venezuela have already begun to implement shifts in national behavior and policy, suggesting that they are expecting this transition within the next couple of years. Although nothing is guaranteed until after the Venezuelan presidential election of 2012, if President Chavez retains his grip on power past that point, expect CITGO to be sold by the year 2014, if not shortly thereafter. If the US Congress decides to impose CISADA sanctions on Venezuela or declare it a state sponsor of terrorism, CITGO could be sold significantly sooner. However, such legislative action seems unlikely. A move to sell CITGO would have far-reaching ramifications for both countries' energy and foreign policies. This restructuring of energy geopolitics could potentially lead to more conflicts in the international arena. With significantly less economic leverage on each other, the United States and Venezuela would be free to harden their rhetoric and policies. - Highlights: ► CITGO is no longer a profitable company. ► Worse still, it is in a considerable amount of debt. ► CITGO will be sold after the Venezuelan presidential of 2012 and the Panama Canal renovations of 2014. ► CITGO's sale will significantly change the geopolitical orientation of the United States and Venezuela. ► With the completion of the Keystone XL pipeline, the United States will be ready for the end of Venezuelan oil. ► The US Congress probably not impose CISADA sanctions on Venezuela, or declare it a state sponsor of terrorism.
Eric D., Ramstetter
This paper investigates the effects of foreign worker shares and MNE ownership on wages after controlling for worker sex and occupation in Malaysian manufacturing plants during 1994-1996, an important period during which use of foreign workers began to increase substantially. In a previous paper, I estimated similar wage equations separately for five occupation groups of both sexes in large heterogeneous samples of plants in many industries and more homogeneous samples of plants in seven indu...
The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...
Kamal, F.; Englis-Danskin, Paula
Research on foreign direct investment is a rich vein of inquiry in international business and management literature. Scholars explore various aspects of FDI including the reasons for location selection. Chen and Yeh's research is in that tradition. Under the title of “Re-examining location
Eric D. , Ramstetter
This paper investigates the effects of foreign worker shares and MNE ownership on wages paid to males and female in five occupation groups in Malaysian manufacturing plants during 1994-1996, an important period coinciding with the end of the decade-long economic boom that preceded the Asian financial crisis. Random effects estimates of Mincer-type equations by occupation group and sex in large samples of all industries and in seven industry-level samples both suggest that use of foreign worke...
Elissa Braunstein; Gerald Epstein
Foreign direct investment (FDI) has become a much desired commodity by nations, regions and cities throughout the world. Indeed, governments bid for FDI because it is commonly thought to be an important engine of economic growth, job creation, and technological upgrading. The People’s Republic of China (PRC), the developing world’s largest recipient of FDI and one of the world’s fastest growing economies, is often cited as evidence for the beneficial effects of FDI. Given the PRC’s size and t...
Drogendijk, Rian; van Tulder, Rob; Verbeke, Alain; van Tulder, Rob; Verbeke, Alain; Drogendijk, Rian
The rapidly changing and volatile institutional environments, within which Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) must operate, have put traditional organisational forms under pressure. Globalization and regionalism develop at the same time, whereas regulation facilitating Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
other activities under direct commercial arrangement between the U.S. manufacturer and a foreign entity. • Countertrade -- Countertrade involves the...and Countertrade Transactions on U.S. Industries. Concurrent with the ITC’s investigation, Congress enacted the Defense Production Act Amendments of...butnot yet specified - 1 3 - 81 Total 373 1,990 263 707 1,430 Indirect: Foreign investment - - - 5 32 Technology transfer - - 5 6 1 Countertrade 14 302 73
... operational decisions, including decisions related to acceptable performance of the manufacturing process, stoppages of that process, and decisions related to product and manufacturing process design. DP's employees... in connection with the purchase of personal property from a related person and its sale to any person...
During the past two decades, governments all around the world have spent millions of dollars to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of multinational companies. The large sums of money spent in this way have been justified on grounds of the alleged benefits of such activities in terms of domestic
Consequently, the Army developed deeper relationships with partner security forces, such as those of Colombia , to help curtail drug production and buttress...organizations around the globe. Figure 5, M1A2 Unloading from C17, shows the massive M1A2 tank being offloaded on foreign soil . Figure 5. M1A2
Electricite de France is committed with the French designers to realize nuclear power plants in foreign countries, (South Africa and Iran). It intervenes in this field, in cooperation with industrial firms, through a new created entity: SOFINEL (Societe Francaise d'Ingenierie Electronucleaire et d'assitance pour l'exportation) [fr
depreciation and replacement costs. The FMS process is an acquisition process where a foreign country or international organization identifies a need for a... Mexico , Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Somalia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tunisia and NATO. In
Barrios Cobos, Salvador; Huizinga, Harry; Laeven, Luc; Nicodème, Gaëtan J.A.
Using a large international firm-level data set, we estimate separate effects of host and parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. In fact, the impact of parent country taxation is estimated to be relatively large, possibly reflecting its international discriminatory nature. For the cross-section of multinational firms, we find that parent firms tend to ...
Full Text Available This study analyses the media coverage of the privatization of Knjaz Miloš, Serbia’s most famous mineral water factory, as well as the manner in which the multinational companies were presented in this process. The focus of the paper is on the conflict between major stakeholders as they were presented in analyzed media texts. Three phases of the privatization process are analysed in this paper. The first phase is the period from October 2000 to September 2003, when the news about privatization came out in the media; the second phase is from August 2003 to December 2003, when the first potential buyers appeared; and third is the period from August 2004 to September 2005, when Knjaz Miloš was finally privatized. The conclusion of this analysis is that a negative image of multinational companies prevails in the domestic media. Such an image is not ideologically coloured (as it was in the 1990s and is seldom openly presented. The general attitude is sceptical, even though an awareness of the importance of the participation of multinational companies in the process of privatization is present.
Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich
are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....
partly fall on investment and thus workers in the former country. This tax exporting mechanism introduces a scope for corporate taxes, which is not present in standard models of international taxation. Accounting for the internal capital markets of multinational firms thus represents a way to resolve......This paper develops a theoretical model of corporate taxation in the presence of financially integrated multinational firms. Under the assumption that multinational firms at least partly use internal loans to finance foreign investment, we find that the optimal corporate tax rate is positive from...... the perspective of a small, open economy. This finding contrasts the standard result that the optimal source based capital tax is zero. Intuitively, to the extent that multinational firms finance investment in country i with loans from affiliates in country j, the burden of corporate taxes in the latter country...
Barrios, S.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.
Using a large international firm-level data set, we examine the separate effects of host and additional parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. The impact of
Hansen, Michael W.; Hoenen, Anne Kristin
The contemporary International Business (IB) literature has ’forgotten’ a key insight of the early foreign direct investment (FDI) literature, namely that FDI often is driven by strategic interaction of multinational corporations (MNCs) in oligopolistic industries. Instead, the IB literature has ...
Chang Hoon Oh; Alan M. Rugman
This paper analyzes the market penetration and expansion strategy of cosmetics and toiletries multinational enterprises (MNEs) in South Korea from the perspective of regional strategy as developed recently by Rugman. We find that MNEs have different market entry and expansion strategies in the home region and in the foreign region. Home region MNEs (Japanese MNEs in this case), in general, utilize their firm-specific advantages (FSAs) better than foreign region MNEs (European and MNEs from th...
9 Over the last year, China has surpassed the United States as the largest consumer of GM automobiles with ―[a]utomakers… looking to China to...YUM brands, owner of fast-food chains like KFC and Pizza Hut, reported $1.2 billion in Chinese sales in its most recent quarter, surpassing its...representatives of large and small businesses, farm organizations, trade associations and consumer groups wrote to Clinton telling him that a failure
DUDUIALĂ POPESCU LORENA
Full Text Available The multinational firms now have a very important role to play in all countries' economies and international economic relations, turning into an increasingly important issue for governments. Through foreign direct investment, these firms can bring substantial gains to both home and host states by contributing to the efficient use of capital, technology and human resources across countries, and thus can play an important role in the development of economic prosperity and social issues. So the common goal of all countries is to stimulate positive contributions by which multinational firms can make economic and social progress and reduce or solve the difficulties that may arise from their operations.
Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ
Full Text Available This paper investigates the location decisions of foreign direct investments by the most important global multinational companies in Romania. The study covers the top 100 multinational companies, according to Fortune and underline that all of them have the headquarters location in the United States. In particular, this analysis presents the distribution of global companies based on the main industry and major economic sectors. The first company, from the rank 100, that invests in our country is Exxon Mobil (the number two on the list and has numerous projects in petroleum refining industry in many other countries, because energy sector is one of the most important ones in the global economy.
... involving direct sales to F, each of X and Y is a related supplier of F. (b) Definition of related party... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; definitions and special... REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Earned Income...
... for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1248-1 Treatment of gain from certain sales or exchanges... purposes the avoidance of Federal income taxes, then no amount is includible in the gross income of such... redemption of stock to pay death taxes) applies; (2) Gain realized on exchanges to which section 356...
Expanding educational access and opportunities: The globalization and foreign direct investment of multinational corporations and their influence on STEM, project-based learning and the national science and technology fair in schools in Costa Rica
Valdez, Joaquin G.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the influence of globalization and the foreign direct investment (FDI) of multinational corporations (MNCs) on the curriculum in schools in Costa Rica. The study focused primarily on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Project-Based Learning (PBL), 21st century skills, and the national science and technology fair. The high influx of MNCs such as Intel has changed the global and educational culture of the country increasing the number of knowledge-based workers in Costa Rica. As a result, policy changes have been instituted in education to mirror the demands of sustaining the country's global economy. This study was supported by the creation of three research questions that would attempt to answer 1) the extent that teachers implementing STEM curriculum trace their practices back to policy, globalization, and multinational corporations as well as the extent to which the economic growth of Costa Rica and STEM education are related, 2) how mandating the national science and technology fair has influenced 21st century skills through project-based learning and the use of technology by teachers and its impact on curriculum and instruction, and 3) how has the national science and technology fair policy changed the value of STEM education for students, teachers, and educational leaders. To further understand the outcome of this study, four theoretical frameworks were applied that included, Spring's theory of world educational culture, Friedman's world flatteners, Wagner's 21st century skills and partnerships for 21st century skills, and Slough and Milam's STEM project-based learning theoretical framework. Each framework was applied to support the changes to the educational system; survival skills necessary to compete in the global job market; application of 21st century skills in the classroom and in the science projects students created. A research team comprised of 14 doctoral students, led by Dr
Evers, S.; Seagle, C.; Krijtenburg, F.
The past several decades have witnessed a rise in foreign and domestic investments in Africa's arable land. While such land projects are currently the focus of widespread media and scholarly interest, the role of the state in driving, negotiating and facilitating these acquisitions deserves closer
Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Park, Jung Chul
We investigate whether and how multinationality affects the opaqueness of the firm. We use multiple alternative measurements of multinationality and opaqueness. Spanning nearly three decades for a large sample of US non-financial firms, we find a statistically and economically significant, positi...
Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn
This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....
Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben; Andersson, Ulf
in multinational firms. Data collected from 2107 foreign-owned subsidiaries in seven European countries is used to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that mutual dependence and dependence imbalance provide strong explanations for subsidiary power. Furthermore, subsidiary power over strategic decisions...... in the MNC is gained through functional power, notably the possession of technological, rather than business-related, power or by the possession of both as they reinforce each other in strengthening the subsidiary's strategic power in the MNC network...
Full Text Available The buying-selling currency activity is a specific kind of trade within which currency is considered to be a good. The result of this trade is a price (currency rate of exchange that depends on the demand-supply conditions existing on the market; this price may be limited from legal point of view. The purpose of this article is to define various transactions on the currency market including that of the Republic of Moldova and to single out currency transactions within foreign currency accounts of the residents and non-residents.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct sales. 212.7 Section 212.7... REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.7 Direct sales. (a) Certificated and foreign air carriers may sell or offer for sale, and operate, as principal, Public Charter flights under...
Full Text Available Expansion of international operations has imposed new demands to multinational companies, especially in the area of human resource management. International human resource management is primarily characterized by movement of employees across the boundaries of one country in order to take various roles in foreign subsidiaries of multinational companies. One of the most important decisions a multinational company has to make refers to selection of employees to fill in positions in its foreign subsidiaries depending on nationality of employees. This paper tends to explore the significance and roles of expatriates in obtaining success of multinational company in international operations in order to emphasize the advantages expatriates may bring to a multinational company. This paper aims to analyze one of crucial issues that multinational companies face in global environment - the process of expatriation, particularly focusing on the number of expatriates (parent country nationals in subsidiaries of foreign multinational companies in Serbia and the tendency of changing their number in these subsidiaries, as well as nationality of managers in key positions in these subsidiaries (CEO and HR manager. Empirical research performed through a questionnaire has shown certain features of subsidiaries of multinational companies in Serbia, indicating that the number of expatriates has increased since their founding until today (contrary to expectations based on theoretical concepts and results of studies performed in other countries and environments. However, as it was expected, the analysis of results has shown that most subsidiaries in Serbia have replaced their expatriates in the position of CEO (and HR manager, which has brought companies numerous benefits, such as lower expenses.
The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary sale. 904.505 Section 904.505 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.505 Summary sale. (a) In view of the perishable nature of fish, any...
I assess the theoretical basis for the existence of a relationship between the size of a firm's foreign footprint (its multinationality) and its performance. I argue that multinationality results from a firm's choice between coordinating internally the stages of its value chain and letting them be
of internationalization. Data on 5827 country pages of 240 multinational firms on Facebook, the most popular SNS today, is used. Creating a foreign country-specific Facebook page is considered the SNS equivalent of opening a physical subsidiary in that country. The data show that multinationals exhibit...
Whitfield, J. Michael; And Others
Examines effects of two organizational design parameters, divisionalization and centralization, on the media richness choices of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of multinational enterprises in obtaining information from foreign subsidiaries on strategic issues. Samples 86 US multinationals; finds formal divisional structure affects CEOs' use of…
Full Text Available International business development is a complex phenomenon, characterized by a particularly dynamic due both to external and internal factors of the company and the need to foreshadow future directions in the development of the economic, social, political framework. Taking into consideration the ways that a company can expand, this article aims to analyse the evolution of multinational corporations operating in Romania in 2007-2012. Using data provided by The National Institute of Statistics (NIS, we focus on the multinationals groups that entered Romanian market in the period mentioned above. In this regard, we compared the multinational groups with the national ones, identifying the concentration of foreign capital by country. The results show that although has been recorded a significant variation of multinational groups in Romania, especially during the financial crisis period, the companies from Deutschland occupy first place by number of employees.
Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi
Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.
Gammeltoft, Peter; Filatotchev, Igor; Hobdari, Bersant
There is an increasing awareness in international business that institutional factors need to be better incorporated into the understanding of international investments decisions of multinational companies. This applies equally to outward foreign direct investment by emerging economy firms...... has been suggested in terms of integrating various theoretical frameworks however and developing a more holistic understanding of these new investment flows. In this Editorial we propose that outward FDI from emerging economies can be better understood by analyzing them within a broad institutional...... which considers flows of outward investment from emerging economies as framed by institutional pressures at the firm level towards achieving fit between the environment, strategies, structures, resources and practices of the firm. For the multinational firm this fit must be attained along multiple...
In this thesis the intention is to identify and analyze the sales strategy and sales process of Robert Bosch Oy, which is a subsidiary of the multinational Robert Bosch GmbH. This thesis focuses on the mobility solutions business sector. The reason behind this research is to illuminate the problems the organization faces in implementing their sales strategy and sales process, and then offer improvement ideas on how they could be implemented in the Finnish market. The literature review giv...
The Bachelor's Thesis ,,Organizational architecture of multinational company" sets the target to analyse organizational structures used in multinational companies at present. In the teoretical section is briefly described development of this subject, basic concepts associated with organizational architecture such as globalization, multinational companies and organizational architecture. I also generalized main characteristics of organizational forms and describe their pros and cons. The pract...
Abstract: This paper investigates the credit supply of banks in response to domestic and foreign real estate price changes. Using a large international dataset of multinational banks, we find evidence of a significant transmission of domestic real estate shocks into lending abroad. A 1% decrease in
Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using
Morgan, Glenn; Hull Kristensen, Peer; Whitley, Richard
. These processes occur at a number of levels which are explored in different empirical settings. Firstly, at the level of governance, multinational firms may develop conflicts between investors from different national contexts, for example between the arms-length orientation of Anglo-Saxon institutional investors...
Multinational colleges and universities pose numerous challenges to the traditional models of quality assurance that are designed to validate domestic higher education. When institutions cross international borders, at least two quality assurance protocols are involved. To guard against fraud and abuse, quality assurance in the host country is…
Menno, Dominik Francesco
This paper studies the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the transmission of international business cycles. I document for the G7 countries between 1991 and 2006 that increases in bilateral FDI linkages are associated with more synchronized investment cycles. I also find...... that the relation between FDI integration and synchronization of gross domestic product (GDP) is - yet positive - statistically insignificant after controlling for time fixed effects. I then study a model of international business cycles with an essential role for FDI and shocks to multinational activity...
This Thesis consists of an introduction followed by three independent chapters. Each chapter is a self-contained paper that can be read independently. They cover different topics of international economics with a specific focus on multinational production and international trade. A common feature...... the intensity of spillovers to local suppliers. Domestic firms benefit only from the activity of foreign clients that are not vertically integrated in their industry. In the last chapter, I use a detailed dataset of international transactions of Danish companies to study the impact of Chinese competition...
Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.
Notes introductory undergraduate economics textbooks have no formal analysis of the rationale for direct foreign investment by multinational firms. Examines this area in an attempt to develop more content information for undergraduate courses. (RKM)
Fredrick O. Aila, Hazel Mumbo; Odhiambo Odera; Gerald Ondiek; Jairo K. Mise; Eddy Owaga
This paper examines the impact of multinational channel strategy on customer value by assessing customer demand side issues. It assess the relationship between order cycle time, stock availability and sales to describe the impact of distribution strategy on customer value. The study was carried in locations comprised of Equator Bottlers Limited franchise territory within five districts in Western Kenya. A cross-section survey using a structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data wa...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales... Sales Reporting Requirements, is being withdrawn. The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is currently...: Contact Peter W. Burr, Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting...
Harvey, Michael G.; Kerin, Roger A.
The problem of identifying and training college students to be effective multinational marketing managers is investigated in three parts: (1) Identification of multinational manager attributes, (2) selection of multinational managers, and (3) multiple "track" training programs. (TA)
Nicolas Berman; Antoine Berthou; Jérôme Héricourt
How do firms’ sales interact across markets? Are foreign and domestic sales complements or substitutes? Using a large French firm-level database that combines balance-sheet and product-destination specific export information over the period 1995-2001, we study the interconnections between exports and domestic sales. We identify exogenous shocks that affect the firms’ demand on foreign markets to instrument yearly variations in exports. We use alternatively as instruments product-destination s...
Hendriks, G. (Guus)
textabstractEmerging-market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) play an increasingly important role as investors in developing economies. When certain conditions are met, their foreign investment can contribute to host-country progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Moreover,
Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.
Multinationals with relatively poor environmental policy establish themselves in countries with weak environmental regulation. These activities are not undertaken in the poorest or most corrupt countries though. The question arises if multinationals with relatively developed environmental behavior settle less or more often in countries with environmental legislation. [mk] [nl
Franciane Freitas Silveira
Full Text Available Abstract Subsidiaries conduct innovation activities in foreign markets either to capture valuable knowledge that is necessary to adapt their products to local markets or to create valuable knowledge for headquarters. For emerging market multinationals, most studies have overlooked the determinants of successful reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiaries located in emerging and developed markets. This paper analyzed the responses of a survey administered to 78 Brazilian multinationals that own subsidiaries in developed and emerging markets. We found that knowledge complexity developed at the subsidiary, its autonomy and embeddedness in the foreign market determine the successful reverse knowledge transfer to headquarters of emerging market multinationals. This paper contributes to previous studies of reverse knowledge transfer by underlying the main drivers for emerging market multinationals.
The use of multinational institutional arrangements to control sensitive nuclear-fuel-cycle activities has interested policymakers since the dawn of the nuclear age. Several such ventures have been tried in the past, largely for economic, commercial, or technical reasons, and they have enjoyed varying degrees of success. More recently, with the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies, multinational arrangements have received increasing attention as a means of reinforcing international safeguards which, together with political commitments on peaceful use, have been the principal components of the nonproliferation regime. The political acceptability and efficacy of multinational arrangements is related to the historic experience with multinational ventures, the changed political circumstances of the 1970s, and the probable requirements for constructive future cooperation. As part of a comprehensive regime covering the development of sensitive nuclear activities, multinational arrangements can reinforce the regime in a manner that is widely acceptable. A political effort to win support for such arrangements is thus worthwhile. 29 references
Bakker, H.G.M.; Koppert, P.
An effective tool has been developed by means of which companies can investigate their foreign offices or establishments with respect to people (labor conditions), planet (environmental effects), and profit (economic efficiency). In order to test the tool, offices and establishments of multinational enterprises in both the Netherlands and in China were visited. The Dutch offices perform better than the offices in China, although claims of the main office of the multinationals could not be verified on the 'shop-floor' [nl
Burger, Anže; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp
survey-based business function indicators with longitudinal accounting data for a representative sample of multinational subsidiaries located in six Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs), we assess the impact of functional upgrading on foreign subsidiaries' value capture. The results provide......This paper investigates the relationship between the value capture of multinational subsidiaries and functional upgrading, which is defined as a diversification of employment from primary business functions to higher value adding activities such as ICT, R&D, marketing or logistics. By combining...... robust evidence that the breadth as well as the scope of functional upgrading induces an upward shift of subsidiaries' value added. The effect of functional upgrading is stronger in the earlier phases after entry of the foreign investor, while the long-term growth trend remains unaffected....
Rienda, Laura; Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Quer, Diego
In recent years, there is an increasing number of papers focusing on the internationalisation process of Indian multinationals. However, there is still a gap in understanding the determinants of their outward foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions. Thus, this paper analyses the factors influencing the choice between FDI modes by Indian firms. Our findings show that industry technological intensity, host country risk, host market attractiveness, previous international experience and the vol...
The paper investigates how the overseas activity of multinational retailers (MRs) affects the global export patters of host country firms. Recent empirical work testifies that the entry of foreign retailers leads to a productivity upgrade in the domestic upstream sectors. Combined with the main result of the new new international trade theory on firm heterogeneity, an increase in the export capacity of local firms should also follow. The current paper establishes a connection between these em...
De Beule, Filip; Van Beveren, Ilke
This paper analyzes the drivers of multinational affiliates' R&D intensity, using a unique dataset based on the fourth Community Innovation Survey for Belgium. Specifically, we investigate the role of foreign affiliates' local (host country) embeddedness and of host country spillovers on foreign affiliates' research efforts. Our findings show that foreign affiliates who are able to tap into local knowledge sources demonstrate a higher research intensity, compared to firms lacking such access....
Andersen, Torben Juul
A multinational presence can diversify corporate business activities and provide access to diverse overseas resources. This can enhance operational flexibility and create new business propositions that increase responsiveness to global market changes. Establishing an international corporate...... cross-sectional dataset, we find that flexibility and responsiveness thrives on a multinational presence among firms operating in information-driven knowledge businesses. In contrast, internationalizing firms in capital-based network services display adverse risk effects........ Consistent with the rationales of the OLI paradigm, we argue that multinational reach particularly in knowledge-based industries can reduce downside risk and enhance upside potential. These results introduce more nuances to the ongoing debate about multinational risk and performance effects. Based on a large...
Peter Egger; Simon Loretz; Michael Pfaffermayr; Hannes Winner
This paper assesses the impact of corporate taxation on multinational activity. A numerically solvable general equilibrium model of trade and multinational firms is used to incorporate the following components of corporate taxation: parent and host country statutory corporate tax rates, withholding tax rates, and parent and host country depreciation allowances. We account for their differential impact under alternative methods of double taxation relief (i.e., credit, exemption, and deduction)...
The main goal of the bachelor thesis Organizational Architecture of Multinational Companies is to elaborate the overview of organizational structures that are used by modern global companies. The thesis contains an analysis of such companies development, principles of functioning, pros and cons and the opportunities which these brings. It also contains a description of the basic concepts associated with organizational architecture such as globalization, multinational companies and organizatio...
Matthiesen, Rikke Vestergaard; Johansen, John
triggered. This paper reports on exploratory studies from a multinational company adopting centrally managed pilot projects as a transformation mechanism for continuous change towards a lean business system and an organizational culture of continuous improvements (CI). Competitive pressure demands...... from a multinational company adopting centrally managed pilot projects as a transformation mechanism for continuous change towards a lean business system and an organizational culture of continuous improvements (CI)....
Bhatia, N.K.; Garb, R.H.; Statton, T.D.
This paper discusses the basis and mechanics for forming a multinational joint venture. The topics of the paper include the motivations for a joint venture, selection of the appropriate co-venturer, management of the multinational joint venture, and the joint venture agreement. The authors state that a joint venture is not applicable or desirable in all instances and to be successful, must be carefully planned
Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn
Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....
Goerzen, Anthony; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard
We combine the concept of location derived by economic geographers with theories of the multinational enterprise (MNE) and the liability of foreignness developed by international business scholars, to examine the factors that propel MNEs toward, or away from, “global cities”. We argue that three...... distinctive characteristics of global cities – global interconnectedness, cosmopolitanism, and abundance of advanced producer services – help MNEs overcome the costs of doing business abroad, and we identify the contingencies under which these characteristics combine with firm attributes to exert......- and subsidiary-level factors, including investment motives, proprietary capabilities, and business strategy. Our study provides important insights for international business scholars by shedding new light on MNE location choices and also contributes to our understanding of economic geography by examining...
Book Trade Research and Statistics. Prices of U.S. and Foreign Published Materials; Book Title Output and Average Prices: 2000 Final and 2001 Preliminary Figures; Book Sales Statistics, 2001: AAP Preliminary Estimates; U.S. Book Exports and Imports: 2001; Number of Book Outlets in the United States and Canada; Review Media Statistics.
Sullivan, Sharon G.; Barr, Catherine; Grabois, Andrew
Includes six articles that report on prices of U.S. and foreign published materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and review media statistics. (LRW)
Book Trade Research and Statistics. Prices of U.S. and Foreign Published Materials; Book Title Output and Average Prices: 2001 Final and 2002 Preliminary Figures; Book Sales Statistics, 2002: AAP Preliminary Estimates; U.S. Book Exports and Imports:2002; Number of Book Outlets in the United States and Canada; Review Media Statistics.
Sullivan, Sharon G.; Grabois, Andrew; Greco, Albert N.
Includes six reports related to book trade statistics, including prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and numbers of books and other media reviewed by major reviewing publications. (LRW)
Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)
Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)
Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.
Doğrudan Yabancı Sermaye Yatırımlarında Çok Uluslu Şirketlerin Çin Pazarına Yönelme Eğilimleri Türkiye Yönünden Bir Değerlendirme(The Tendency of Multinational Corporations Towards China In The Context of Foreign Direct Investment An Evaluation On The Basıs of Turkey
Full Text Available Today, foreign investments, which are not considered to be so much important before the globalization process, became focus of interest for both the developed and developing countries as their contribution to the development process is realized.The developed countries transfer technology and capital to the areas where raw materials are cheap and the legal proceedings, system of taxation and taxing provisions are more appropriate to increase their competitive advantage.The main problem of developing countries is the lack of capital and technology. The lack of internal savings, low purchasing power, the block of foreign exchange bottleneck of the development of domestic industry and the competitive advantage, more elastic legislation than the standarts of developed countries, cheap labor and the other conditions provide a convenient environment for the foreign capitals in developing countries.Also, the developing countries, especially China, is very successful to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. Within this context, the goal of this study is to make some evaluations of Multinational Corporations’ intentions of FDI in China and of Turkish firms’ investments in China and also some advices are given for the future.
Niger Delta Region, Nigeria), the concept of corporate social responsibility must be fully imbibed by the multinational oil companies. Therefore, this study examines multinational oil companies and corporate social responsibilities with particular ...
Andersen, Torben Juul
Purpose – Multinational structure has been linked to operational flexibilities that can improve corporate adaptability and a knowledge-based view suggests that multinational resource diversity can facilitate responsive opportunities. The enhanced maneuverability from this can reduce earnings vola...
Review of: Innovation and Institutional Embeddedness of Multinational Corporations / edited by Martin Heidenreich. (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2012)......Review of: Innovation and Institutional Embeddedness of Multinational Corporations / edited by Martin Heidenreich. (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2012)...
Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik
A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore.......A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore....
Holger Görg; Eric Strobl
This paper examines the effect of the presence of multinational companies on plant survival in the host country. We postulate that multinational companies can impact positively on plant survival through technology spillovers. We study the nature of the effect of multinationals using a Cox proportional hazard model which we estimate using plant level data for Irish manufacturing industries. Our results show that the presence of multinationals has a life enhancing effect only on indigenous plan...
Cheptea, Angela; Latouche, Karine; Emlinger, Charlotte
This article questions whether food exports to a given national market are impacted by a domestic retailer opening in that market. To answer this question, we considered an empirical gravity-type trade model. We tested our model with data on bilateral exports of food products sold in supermarkets (groceries) on a large panel of countries, as well as the foreign grocery sales of the world’s 100 largest retail companies from 2001–2010. We found a strong positive effect of the overseas presence ...
Pedersen, Kurt; Svendsen, Gunnar L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
across borders. We review the literature and identify a gap regarding social capital as a potential instrument for reducing the level of volatility. An existing stock of social capital may be advantageous not only to the host country but also to the MNE in the sense that optimal in-company resource......It is generally assumed that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are more volatile than local firms. From the viewpoint of host countries, the volatility of MNE subsidiaries is often seen as a problem. Therefore it becomes relevant to look for ways to reduce the volatility of multinational activity...... allocation and profits could be improved even further. Thus, the dominating theory of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), the eclectic paradigm as developed by John Dunning, offers a relevant opportunity to fill a gap in the literature and include social capital in FDI decisions as a new location factor....
de Haas, R.; van Lelyveld, I.
We use data on the 48 largest multinational banking groups to compare the lending of their 199 foreign subsidiaries during the Great Recession with lending by a benchmark of 202 domestic banks. Contrary to earlier and more contained crises, parent banks were not a significant source of strength to
Galema, R.; Koetter, M.; Liesegang, C.
In a proposed model of a multinational bank, interest margins determine local lending by foreign affiliates and the internal funding by parent banks. We exploit detailed parent-affiliate-level data of all German banks to empirically test our theoretical predictions in pre-crisis times. Local lending
Belderbos, R.A.; Lykogianni, E.; Veugelers, R.
We analyse strategic interaction in R&D internationalization decisions by two multinational firms competing both abroad and in their home markets and examine different incentives for foreign R&D faced by technology leaders and technology laggards. The model takes into account the impact of local
de Jong, Dirk Johan
Will multinational SMEs use internationalisation to achieve labour cost savings at the expense of employees both in their home country and abroad or will they transfer their existing employee-oriented practices to their foreign subsidiaries? This paper argues that the answer to this question is
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-34] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: a Foreign Military Sales Order II (FMSO II) to provide funds for blanket order requisitions, under...
This article explores the impact of institutional variation on the extent to which subsidiary firms learn from multinational corporations. Learning is conceptualized here as consisting of two aspects: knowledge flow and reinforcement of or change in routines to incorporate the behaviourist
This paper aims to shed some more light on the current debate related to corporate social responsibility (CSR), specifically considering multinational enterprises (MNEs) and the complexities they face when dealing with international issues and a range of stakeholders. It discusses notions of CSR in
McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.
McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates
... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-5... international sales corporation described in paragraph (b) of this section, (ii) It is a real property holding...) Foreign international sales corporation—(1) In general. A foreign corporation is a foreign international...
Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai J.; Pedersen, Torben
Foreign subsidiaries in multinational corporations (MNCs) possess knowledge that has different sources (e.g., the firm itself or various sources in the environment). How such sources influence knowledge transfer is not well understood. Drawing on the "accommodation effect" from cognitive psychology...... if a certain tipping point of internally sourced knowledge has been surpassed. This suggests that subsidiary knowledge stocks that are balanced in terms of their origins tend to be more valuable, congruous, and fungible, and therefore more likely to be transferred to other MNC units...
Birkinshaw, J; Hood, N
In multinational corporations, growth-triggering innovation often emerges in foreign subsidiaries from employees closest to customers and least attached to the procedures and politeness of the home office. But too often, heavy-handed responses from headquarters squelch local enthusiasm and drive out good ideas--and good people. The authors' research into more than 50 multinationals suggests that encouraging innovation in foreign subsidiaries requires a change in attitude. Companies should start to think of foreign subsidiaries as peninsulas rather than as islands--as extensions of the company's strategic domain rather than as isolated outposts. If they do, innovative ideas will flow more freely from the periphery to the corporate center. Basing their arguments on a rich array of examples, the authors say that encouraging such "innovation at the edges" also requires a new set of practices, with two aims: to improve the formal and informal channels of communication between headquarters and subsidiaries and to give foreign subsidiaries more authority to see their ideas through. The challenge for executives of multinationals is to find ways to liberalize, not tighten, internal systems and to delegate more authority to local subsidiaries. It isn't enough to ask subsidiary managers to be innovative; corporate managers need to give them incentives and support systems to facilitate their efforts. The authors suggest four approaches: give seed money to subsidiaries; use formal requests for proposals as a way of increasing the demand for seed money; encourage subsidiaries to be incubators for fledgling businesses; and build international networks. As part of the last approach, multinationals also need to create roles for idea brokers who can link entrepreneurs in foreign subsidiaries with other parts of the company.
This paper examines firm internationalization on social networking sites (SNS). It systematically examines costs faced by an internationalizing firm and how firms react to these costs according to “distance-dependent” (gradual and regional) and “distance-invariant” (born-global) explanations...... of internationalization. Data on 5827 country pages of 240 multinational firms on Facebook, the most popular SNS today, is used. Creating a foreign country-specific Facebook page is considered the SNS equivalent of opening a physical subsidiary in that country. The data show that multinationals exhibit...
Andersen, Torben Juul; Hallin, Carina Antonia
insights that can be used strategically if management at headquarters is cognizant about its existence and able to collect this information. We introduce the notion of democratizing the strategic engagement of managers and employees at all levels and locations of the multinational corporation (MNC......) as an essential leadership paradigm. The implied interaction between slow central analytical reasoning at headquarters and updated insights from fast decentralized initiatives in local subsidiaries constitutes an effective dynamic responsive mechanism. This dynamic interaction implies that critical strategic...
multinational commanders may be faced with nations refusing to perform assigned tasks. The term “national red card” using a soccer simile has been coined...human rights of individuals and groups must be respected. Impartiality. Humanitarian assistance must be provided without discrimination . Relief is...given without regard to nationality, political or ideological beliefs, race, religion, sex , or ethnicity, but only on the basis of the urgency of
Weller, Christian E.; Scher, Mark J.
Financial market recommendations for less industrialized economies, particularly in the wake of the recent financial crises, have included a push for more international financial competition. The entry of multinational banks (MNBs) into developing economies is supposed to create more market discipline for domestic banks, thus making them more efficient, and enhancing financial stability. Using data from the BIS and the IMF, we look at the determinants of MNB presence, at MNB activities, and t...
This press release brings information on the AREVA group sales data. First quarter 2005 sales for the group were 2,496 millions of euros, up 3,6% year-on-year from 2,41 millions. The change in foreign exchange rates between the two periods show a negative impact of 22 millions euros, which is much lower than in the first quarter of 2004. It analyzes also in more details the situation of the front end, the reactors and service division, the back end division, the transmission and distribution division and the connectors division. (A.L.B.)
James R. Markusen; Anthony J. Venables
A model is constructed in which multinational firms may arise endogenously. Multinationals exist in equilibrium when transport and tariff costs are high, incomes are high, and firm-level scale economies are important relative to plant-level scale economies. Less obvious, multinationals are more important in total economic activity when countries are more similar in incomes, relative factor endowments, and technologies. The model may thus be useful in explaining several stylized facts, includi...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale or transfer of business. 303.18 Section 303.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS...
Stewart, K; Christie, M
.... It is proposed that future Multinational Force (MNF) military headquarters (HQ) can achieve this flexibility through a modular organizational structure enabled by networked information management and communication technologies...
Andersson, Ulf; Dellestrand, Henrik; Pedersen, Torben
This paper examines the competence development of subsidiaries in multinational enterprises. We analyze how local subsidiary environments affect the development of technological and business competencies among other units in the multinational enterprise. We test our predictions using data from 2......,107 foreign-owned subsidiaries located in seven European countries, by means of structural equation modeling — namely, LISREL. By bringing the local environment to the fore, we contribute to the literature on the emergence and determinants of firm-specific advantages. We link local subsidiary environments...... throughout the organization. Thus, we contribute to an enhanced understanding of location as a determinant of the creation of units of competence and centers of excellence within multinational enterprises. In other words, we demonstrate that country-specific advantages are beneficial for competence creation...
Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann
The choice of location of foreign direct investments (FDI) by multinational enterprises (MNEs) has been the subject of intense scrutiny for decades and continues to be so. Yet, the vast diversity in methodological approaches, levels of analysis, and empirical evidence precludes a comprehensive...
To assure unity of command in future multinational air operations, combatant commanders must embrace the necessity of multinational air forces, maximize the integration of allied officers within air...
Much unease, distrust and criticism is being expressed in the current debate about the potential power of multinational corporations and the possibilities of abuse. What is the basis for the power of the multinationals, and what possibilities are available for controlling and limiting that power?
Derviz, Alexis; Podpiera, J.
Roč. 1, č. 1 (2011), s. 19-36 ISSN 2077-429X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Multinational bank * Contagion * Substitution * Agency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/derviz-lending behavior of multinational bank affiliates.pdf
Full Text Available Foreign multinational companies with a production subsidiary in Brazil are in general recognized as high-level productive companies; however, their productivity potential is mostly not fully achieved. Lean Manufacturing (LM has been proved as a valuable aid to achieve competitiveness in the long run. Regarding the rising importance of successfully implementing LM at multinationals in Brazil and an apparent lack of discussion regarding LM in Brazil this paper aims to propose a comprehensive implementation roadmap, which enables a multinational on a basis of a systematic approach, to achieve an advanced sustainable LM system in a practical manner. The insights of literature and case studies are combined to develop the roadmap. The roadmap was developed so that both companies, those, which have not started yet their journey towards LM, as well as those that have taken already the first steps can use the roadmap. However, the roadmap was built on a broad empirical basis. It should be noticed that it is impossible to consider all factors influencing the LMI at multinationals operating in Brazil in a real world setting. As a result, the roadmap should not be regarded as a ready implementation plan, which has to be strictly followed. Instead, it should be seen as a guideline, which helps a multinational to develop its own, detailed and fitted plan for successfully implementing LM and establishing a learning organization.
Overview of Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ or Zone) and their impact on economic development, goods : movement jobs creation and retention. Zones provide a competitive advantage for multi-national : manufacturing and distribution firms resulting in the ret...
Hanane Beddi; Ulrike Mayrhofer
International audience; This paper examines the role of location in the relationships established between headquarters and foreign subsidiaries. The analysis focuses on new challenges faced by MNEs from mature economies, considering the growing importance of subsidiaries located in emerging countries. The empirical study is based on three in-depth case-studies of French multinationals. The authors conducted 31 interviews with managers from both the headquarters and foreign subsidiaries. The f...
Full Text Available Our paper provides an insight into the universe of Russian multinationals and their influence upon the Romanian economy. Even if statistical data on foreign direct investment stock by country of origin do not prove the existence of Russian capital in Romania, it is a fact that the high values of foreign direct investment stock from the Netherlands, Austria, Germany or Switzerland are largely due to the investment projects undertaken in Romania by Russian multinationals. Despite the lack of relevant statistical data, we can say that the impact of Russian MNC’s on the Romanian economy is huge. Among positive influences we can mention: global employment opportunities for highly qualified workforce in the region; the transfer of advanced technologies to Romanian enterprises and the local markets; the awareness of business partners and public opinion on social responsibility; the insert of higher performance standards, competitiveness and managerial ethics.
.... foreign military sales policy. Despite efforts spearheaded by the United States Air Force and the State Departinent to see the deal through, the Clinton Administration wrthdrew its support to broker...
Direction of trade in machinery industries and role of foreign firms. 115 .... Thailand's export structure and revealed comparative advantage indices by ISIC category ..... It is based on the organizational theories of Coase (1937) and Williamson ...
This dissertation applies the theory of technology accumulation to explain the internationalisation of foreign and West German multinational enterprises (MNEs) into East Germany. This theory shifts the focus from technology transfer to the international diffusion of innovation within the MNE. It rejects the position that all MNEs offer the same technological opportunities to host economies. Yet, most of the existing empirical research on postcommunist transition economies including East Germa...
As the Chinese economy maintains its near double digit growth, opportunities for foreign investors continue to emerge. But away from the staggering statistics, how realistic is the China dream for multinational companies (MNCs)? The messages are mixed. On the one hand are those who continue to hail the Chinese consumer revolution, pointing to market size as reason enough for entering the fray. O'n the other
Kaiser, Ulrich; Sofka, Wolfgang
companies. Such liabilities of foreignness are persistent in nature. We investigate the causes behind these detrimental effects. We identify two major factors conceptually: a lack of legitimacy in the host country on the demand side and a lack of responsiveness on the side of the multinational corporation......Globalization has provided many companies with new opportunities for growth and efficiency. This requires them to operate successfully across cultural and social borders. These can be stumbling blocks to internationalization and have been found to cause frequent errors and delays for multinational...... that legitimacy is the dominant factor behind the effects of liability of foreignness. As customer experience increases, liability of foreignness caused by a lack of responsiveness becomes more of an issue....
... conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. 14.9 Section 14.9 Commercial... and conspicuous disclosures in foreign language advertising and sales materials. The Federal Trade...” disclosure of certain information in an advertisement or sales material in a newspaper, magazine, periodical...
Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals investigates a broad variety of cases presenting clear evidence of fast successful internationalization of emerging economy multinationals originating not only from big economic players such as China, India and Russia but also from other...... successfully internationalizing emerging countries, namely South Africa and Poland. In terms of size, the firms vary from huge multinational firms such as Huawei, Tata and Gazprom, to really small high technology firms. The in-depth analysis conducted in this book leads to the indication of numerous novel...
The paper supplements CC/WG.2/9 in presenting the Japanese delegation's contribution in the areas of non-proliferation and multi-national enterprises. The paper questions whether multinational enrichment enterprises would constitute a significant non-proliferation factor, noting that the nature of the venture might create a potential for the dissemination of sensitive information. The paper also argues that a multi-national venture which was not economically competitive (with national facilities) would have questionable viability. The conclusion is that non-proliferation advantages, if any, would be a result, not an objective of such a venture
Andersson, Ulf; Forsgren, Mats; Pedersen, Torben
are then tested in a LISREL model based on data concerning 98 subsidiaries belonging to Swedish MNCs. Our empirical results indicate that technology embeddedness has a positive, direct, impact on subsidiary market performance, and a positive, but indirect, impact on subsidiary organizational performance.......Subsidiaries have access to different types of resources and therefore perform differently in their market-place and within a multinational corporation (MNC). Yet, even though subsidiaries are the object of intense interest, remarkably little has been written about the assessment of subsidiary...... performance. In short, the strategic opportunities of subsidiaries seem to generate more attention in the literature than their results. The two distinctive features of this paper are the development of the concept of subsidiary performance and the exploration of the linkage between subsidiary business...
Haakonsson, Stine Jessen
markets, which are significantly different from MNCs' traditional locations. As globalisation progresses, internationalisation increasingly involves exploitation strategies, i.e., offshoring of production; market access; and exploration strategies such as internationalisation of innovation. This article......Multinational corporations (MNCs) strategise in a dynamic multi-polar world consisting of changing environments at home and abroad. They continuously face a new set of push- and pull-factors for internationalising activities. In recent decades, internationalisation has been reaching into emerging...... looks into how Danish MNCs have evolved into the Chinese economy, investigating the trajectories of how and when four Danish MNCs entered the Chinese economy and how the strategy patterns have emerged from cost reduction, to market access, and recently to innovation. Over 30 years, China has developed...
The terrain on which states, trade unions and social movements confront multinational corporations has changed dramatically over the last two decades as a result of two phenomena – the disaggregation of the supply chain and the financialization of corporations. Trade unions and social movements...... have increasingly challenged the inequalities and unfairnesses which have emerged from the globalization of supply chains. However, issues of financialization, although increasingly high profile since 2008, have generally been treated separately. This article argues that the two phenomena...... are integrally related within the same process of neoliberal globalization. It argues that trade unions and social movements need to connect together issues to do with the relocation and restructuring of employment with issues of financialization and the need for financial reform. Change will only be effective...
General Services Administration — This dataset contains sale data information for Agency reported items sold via GSA Auctions® Sales. The data is for closed sales during FY2009. GSA Auctions® offers...
Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben
This work contributes to the understanding of knowledge governance in the multinational corporation. Intra-firm and inter-firm processes of knowledge creation, sharing and exploitation have attracted increasingly managerial and scholarly interest. However the relation between particular knowledge...
Estrin, Saul; Nielsen, Bo B.; Nielsen, Sabina
We develop a multilevel theoretical framework for investigating the role of home country urbanization for emerging market multinational companies' (EMNCs) international expansion. We propose that more urbanized home environments directly increase EMNC's proclivity to internationalize and moderate...
Higginbotham, Matthew T
In this monograph, by analyzing the UN, NATO and the US Army's evolving Modular Logistics Doctrine, the author integrates the key areas from each doctrine into a multinational logistics joint task force (MLJTF) organization...
Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Estrin, Saul; Nielsen, Sabina
This paper furthers our understanding of the role of contextual conditions influencing internationalization of emerging market multinational companies (EMNCs). We use resource-based, industrial organization, and economic development theories to develop a multilevel theoretical framework...
Minbaeva, Dana; Michailova, Snejina
Research on multinational corporation (MNC) knowledge transfer has argued continuously for the behavior of knowledge senders to be a determinant of knowledge transfer. Although the importance of disseminative capacity regarding knowledge transfer has been illustrated in numerous conceptual studies...
Křečková Kroupová, Zuzana
Nowadays the world is becoming increasingly economically connected, and cultural diversity of employees is gaining importance as a crucial competitive advantage. Cross-cultural communication ability is becoming a key management skill in multinational firms and is equally important for other employees who are exposed to other cultures in the workplace. This work mainly focuses on cultural specifics of management in multinational firms. The goal of this thesis is to discover how different natio...
Sales of petroleum products rose by 4.3 % in 1998 compared to 1997, and totalled 9.15 million tonnes. Sales of traffic fuels increased by 1.1 %, and those of heating and fuel oil by 3.7 %. The last time sales of petroleum products were at an equivalent level was back in 1990
... produced, mangos beyond the person's own family use and having value at first point of sale. ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign...
... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...
The sales plan is put into practice through the tasks associated with sales plan implementation. Whereas sales plan formulation focuses on "doing the right things," implementation emphasizes "doing things right." The three major tasks involved in implementing a sales plan are (1) salesforce recruitment and selection, (2) salesforce training, and (3) salesforce motivation and compensation.
Ganesh Babu Kumaran
Full Text Available Role of Multinational Corporations ( MNC’s in developing countries is not new in the arena of International business and global macroeconomics. One of the most significant economic developments of recent decades is the economic LPG process (Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation is reflected in the rapid growth in international trade and the surge in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. This process is to a large extent driven by new investments from multinational corporations. A rapidly growing share of MNC’s in India and Mexico in last decade was evident in various sector and in particular to automobile sector. Multinational Corporations are seeking to exploit the vast but also precarious market potentials in these emerging economies. Simultaneously, India and Mexico are increasingly embarking on economic development strategies aimed at attracting MNC’s Foreign Direct Investment as a means to access technology, capital, organizational and marketing know how, etc. This study does comparative analyses on the performance of automobile sector in India and Mexico, mainly in passenger car and Utility vehicles sector. It examines the impact and the role of MNC’s in these economies since 1990’s, with derived empirical quantitative and qualitative data analysis that would illustrate and reinforce some of the contemporary status.
The influence of sales promotion elements on consumer is analyzed in the Bachelor‘s Thesis. The thesis examines the information published by various foreign and Lithuanian authors. The main aim of this paper is to analyze different theories of sales promotion effectiveness, sales promotion relevance and factors influencing consumer‘s behavior. This paper analyses the theoretical aspects of sales promotion. It has become more popular in the beginning of the sixth decade. The definition of conc...
Andersen, Torben Juul
Purpose: This study aims to analyze how leadership influenced corporate responsible behavior in a complex multinational organization with ethical principles imposed by concrete actions on regulatory, environmental and international labor issues. Increasing functional specialization, multinational...... diversification and global expansion also diluted those values. Originality/value: Corporate responsible behavior is a significant challenge in large organizations with many and diverse multinational stakeholders. Ethical conduct derives from executive morality, but the role of leaders as instigators...... diversity and business acquisitions challenged the core values and called for more formal enforcement. Core values executed through investment in positive economic externalities enhanced the reputation and facilitated sustainable collaborative solutions. Design/methodology/approach: This single-case study...
Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersson, Ulf; Palmié, Maximilian
for global efficiencies and autonomy for effective local responses. Strategic guidance from headquarters frames subsidiary decisions in line with corporate priorities and distributed decision power coupled with informal exchange of information facilitates strategic responses in tune with local market......We outline commonalities between studies of subsidiary decentralization and autonomous strategy-making in the international business and strategic management fields. This suggests that corporate headquarters should engage in strategy-making processes that provide a combination of formal direction...... requirements. We identify some important nuances in the integration-responsiveness conundrum supported by an empirical study of 351 multinational subsidiaries. We discuss the implications for multinational strategy practice and suggest future research venues to investigate strategy-making in multinational...
Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.
This article explores the international dimensions of multinationals' corporate political activities, focusing on an international issue - climate change - being implemented differently in a range of countries. Analyzing data from Financial Times Global 500 firms, it examines the influence on types and process of multinationals' political strategies, reckoning with institutional contexts and issue saliency. Findings show that the type of political activities can be characterized as an information strategy to influence policy makers toward market-based solutions, not so much withholding action on emission reduction. Moreover, multinationals pursue self-regulation, targeting a broad range of political actors. The process of political strategy is mostly one of collective action. International differences particularly surface in the type of political actors aimed at, with U.S. and Australian firms focusing more on non-government actors (voluntary programs) than European and Japanese firms. Influencing home-country (not host-country) governments is the main component of international political strategy on climate change
Urze, Paula; Manatos, Maria João
Based on the final results of the R&D.COM - Local R&D COMpetencies within Global Value Chains project, this paper aims at mapping the trajectories of delocalised R&D units within a multinational’s global strategy and designing the knowledge flows within the global value chain. This analysis was performed using typologies proposed in the theoretical framework, which help us to have an overview of the network. The methodology is grounded on one extended case study that involves a local R&D unit (Portugal), a foreign R&D unit (Netherlands) and the headquarters (Norway) - developed on a multinational from the electronics industry. This case is an example of a multinational company where R&D is developed mainly in the headquarters but it is also delocalised to some subsidiaries with a certain level of autonomy.
Full Text Available This paper seeks to expand the efficiency paradigm of the eclectic theory in multinational banking within the context of a developing country banking sector. We employ the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method to examine the efficiency of multinational banks operating in the Malaysian banking sector from 1995 to 2007. We then employ the panel regression analysis to examine the impact of origins on bank efficiency. We find foreign banks from North America to be the most efficient banking group, providing support to the ‘limited form’ of the global advantage hypothesis. On the other hand, we do not find evidence on both the liability of unfamiliarness and home field advantage hypotheses.
Karina Regina Vieira Bazuchi
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs. Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationalization process of domestic companies and firms’ political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.
Belderbos, R.A.; Zou, J.
Although foreign divestment and international relocation by multinational firms carry important economic implications for the industrialization of East Asian countries, there has been little empirical research on these issues. In this paper we analyze the magnitude and pattern of foreign divestment
This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage
Priscila Rezende da Costa
Full Text Available Understanding the dissipation of innovations is necessary to develop them, as a company on its own does not have all the capabilities that it needs. On the contrary, they are increasingly spread over internal and external contexts, and are not developed in isolation. Most of the time, they depend on interactive, innovative processes in a global context. The aim of this study is to evaluate how the global organizational structure of innovation affects the dynamic capability of cooperation (cooperability in Brazilian multinationals (BMNs. To achieve this goal, we conducted a survey of BMNs, and a final sample of 60 companies answered a structured questionnaire. We performed statistical tests such as Factor Analysis, Cronbach's Alpha, Multiple Regression and Hierarchical Cluster, and cross-analysis of quantitative results that enabled us to create a Cooperability Model, that is, a model of local, international and global development for a dynamic capability of cooperation in BMNs. The results show that technological strengths of foreign subsidiaries and the reverse transfer of their capabilities to the parent company and technology partners affect the dynamics of cooperation in BMNs (inputs and results of cooperability. Furthermore, we detected an inverse relationship between the autonomy of foreign subsidiaries and the dynamic of cooperation in BMNs.
Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti
The concept of customer relationship management (CRM) resonates with managers in today's competitive economy. As more and more organizations realize the significance of becoming customer-centric in today's competitive era, they embrace CRM as a core business strategy. CRM an integration of information technology and relationship marketing provides the infrastructure that facilitates long-term relationship building with customers at an enterprise-wide level. Successful CRM implementation is a complex, expensive and rarely technical projects. This paper presents the successful implementation of CRM in a multinational organization. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of CRM in multinational enterprises.
of their core self-evaluations. A study of over 230 individuals from 46 nationalities working in 36 self-managing teams generally supports the expected main and moderation effects. Individual core self-evaluations enhance an otherwise weak effect of English proficiency, but compensate for low levels of national......This article examines the emergence of informal leadership in multinational teams. Building on and extending status characteristics theory, the article proposes and tests a model that describes how global inequalities reproduce in multinational teams, and accounts for who gets to lead these teams...
Del Toro, Wanda
Few studies have addressed the issue of cultural penetration of Latin American countries by multinational corporations (MNCs) and multinational advertising agencies (MAAs). Whether they are considered multinational or transnational, MAAs have expanded as a form of international communication in the global market, forming the backbone of MNCs.…
Poelhekke, S.; van der Ploeg, F.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is seen as a way to import technology and catch up with economic leaders. It is therefore important to understand why some countries attract more investments by multinationals than others. We expand the set of common determinants of FDI with urban agglomerations and
Aabo, Tom; Hansen, Marianna Andryeyeva; Muradoglu, Yaz Gulnur
Finance theory suggests that a positive (long) foreign exchange exposure can be offset by debt denominated in foreign currency (“foreign debt”) and empirical studies confirm that foreign debt is used for hedging purposes. We use detailed exposure information on a sample of medium-sized nonfinancial...... firms and show that in its practical hedging application, foreign debt is used distinctively different from derivatives (e.g. forward contracts). While the use of derivatives is associated with flow measures (foreign sales revenue), the use of foreign debt is solely associated with stock measures...... level which makes it possible to go deeper than previous studies in detecting the drivers behind foreign debt usage. The empirical results are important in order to understand the factors driving the use of foreign debt in non-financial firms....
de Graaf, Frank Jan
By assessing four cases, this paper develops propositions about the transfer of employee oriented corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices within multinational SMEs. Specifically we explore whether an individual owner-manager can add value within a foreign subsidiary by means of
Wernicke, Georg; Mehlsen, Kristian
In this paper, we combine the concepts of location, liability of foreignness (LoF), and their relation to factors that drive multinational enterprises (MNEs) towards, or away from, global cities. We argue that three interrelated characteristics of global cities - cosmopolitanism, availability...... indicate that MNEs have a stronger propensity to locate in global cities than in metropolitan or peripheral areas, and that these locational choices are affected by institutional distance and industrial characteristics. The results provide empirical support for our argument that locating in a global city...... can reduce the liability of foreignness suffered by MNEs, and that global cities play a central role in the process of globalisation....
M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)
textabstractThe taxation of multinational companies has been attracting a great deal of attention in recent years. Com- pany tax planning and country tax competition have increasingly been questioned, by the general public, media, in politics and academia. Countries compete for investment, reducing
Construction projects' high uncertainty rates make them unattractive to non-risk takers. Construction companies are therefore necessarily risk takers, albeit, to varying degrees. This study made an inquiry into the risk management (RM) practices of multinational and indigenous construction companies (MCCs and ICCs, ...
Ray Chaudhuri, A.
Abstract This paper develops a theoretical framework where a multinational firm (MNE) is allowed to acquire or sell a productive asset in multiple segmented asset markets. The asset is used to produce a final good which can be sold in multiple countries, with segmented product markets, undergoing
Patricia Morilha Muritiba
Full Text Available Four cases of Brazilian Multinationals from the information technology [IT] sector were compared in their international Human Resources strategy. The analysis is focused on the development and application of two research models. One analyzes the level of subsidiary autonomy in terms of strategic HR decisions, including difficult decisions regarding coordination in multinationals, following the theoretical approach of the autonomy of subsidiaries (Kidger, 2002; Nohria & Ghoshal, 1997. The other is related to the level of internationalization of HR strategies, defined as the capacity to take advantage of globalization, providing the best resources for the company regardless of where they are located (Sparrow, 2007. Both models were applied in a multiple case study method (Eisenhardt, 1989. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and company reports, and analyzed through content analysis. The results show: (a a more centralizing characteristic of the multinational companies examined, despite the limitations of this choice as shown by the literature; and (b that Brazilian IT multinationals tend to rely more on their national competencies when managing human resources instead of going global to aggregate differentiated competencies.
Purpose: To develop more sensitivity for different patterns of human resource management in multinational companies. Design/methodology/approach: Systemic approach; the concepts and models are based on the evaluation of consulting projects in the field of human resource management. Findings: A concept of four typical varieties of human resource…
Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Minbaeva, Dana
Globaliseringen er en udfordring for såvel ledere som ansatte i multinationale selskaber. En analyse af ledere og medarbejderes relationer er afgørende for at forstå ledelse, forretningsforhold og arbejdsmarkedsrelationer i Danmark. Tilstedeværelsen af multinationale selskaber (Multinational Comp...
de Waegenaere, A.; Sansing, R.C.; Wielhouwer, J.L.
This study examines the effects of taxation on the incentives of multinational firms to develop and use intellectual property. We model optimal investment and production decisions by firms that engage in a patent race by making R&D investments. We investigate how taxes affect the level and
De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Sansing, R.; Wielhouwer, J.L.
This study examines the effects of taxation on the incentives of multinational firms to develop and use intellectual property. We model optimal investment and production decisions by firms that engage in a patent race by making R&D investments. We investigate how taxes affect the level and
Mors, Marie Louise; Miller, Stewart; McDonald, Michael
This study develops a framework that draws upon the socio-psychology and network literatures to explain helping behavior in an executive’s multinational network. Focusing on executives' perceptions of willingness to help, we examine network structure (geographic and organizational boundaries), st...
The study seeks to ascertain the factors that contribute to the performance of multinational subsidiary banks in Ghana. Using an unbalanced random effects panel regression estimation following the Hausman specification test, the study found that increasing bank size does not necessarily lead to performance. As it stands ...
Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich; Heinicke, Patrick; Rasche, Andreas
This paper examines the factors that drive the success of multinational corporations (MNCs) in their pursuit of regional strategies. We develop a comprehensive regional success factor model to investigate the effects of regional management autonomy and regional product/service adaption...... management autonomy and regional product/service adaption are higly contingent upon contextual influences on MNCs....
Many large Japanese-owned multinational corporations have established successful subsidiaries in the United States, but distinct ethnic and cultural differences have caused communication problems between Japanese managers and American laborers and business people. Many top executives of the Japanese subsidiaries are sent to the United States on a…
Full Text Available A nascent literature in finance and accounting on tail risk in individual stock returns concludes that bad news hoarding by corporate managers engenders sudden, extreme crashes in a firm’s stock price when the bad news is eventually made public. This literature finds that firm-specific crash risk is higher among firms with more severe asymmetric information and agency problems. A hitherto disjointed literature spanning the fields of international business, finance, and accounting suggests that geographic dispersion in a firm’s operations, and especially dispersion across different countries, gives rise to organizational complexities and greater costs of monitoring that can exacerbate asymmetric information and agency problems. Motivated by the confluence of arguments and findings from these two strands of literature, this paper examines whether stock price crash risk is higher among multinational firms than domestic firms. Using a large sample of U.S. headquartered firms during 1987-2011, we find robust evidence that multinational firms are significantly more likely to crash than domestic firms. Moreover, we show that the difference in crash risk between multinational and domestic firms is most acute among firms with weaker corporate governance mechanisms, including weaker shareholder rights, less independent boards, and less stable institutional ownership. Our analysis indicates that stronger monitoring from each of these three governance mechanisms significantly attenuates the positive relation between crash risk and multinationality. Our findings are robust to the use of alternative measures of crash risk and to controlling for known determinants of crash risk identified in prior studies. Our study offers new insights that should hold value for scholars and market participants interested in understanding the implications of heighted agency problems that multinational firms are likely to encounter and scholars and market participants
Claver Cortes, E.; Carmen del Zaragoza Saez, P.; Quer Ramon, D.
The increasing globalization and the importance of knowledge as a strategic resource are leading to the companies to cross the nacional borders and establish subsidiaries in the foreign countries when they try to transfer assets highly tacit and difficult to codify. The present work tries to contribute to light in the existing relation between knowledge and the multinational corporation, analyzing the flows of this resource and proposing a theoretical frame to identify gaps of knowledge that could be originated based on the chosen international competitive strategy. (Author) 43 refs
Tax rates on business income in many countries increased enormously during World War I and stayed at a much higher level than before the war. Particularly, the UK multinationals with subsidiaries based elsewhere other than the Empire suffered from the situation because the UK did not provide a foreign tax relief until 1945, when a tax treaty with US was signed. The aim of this paper is to clarify the historical premises of establishment of the tax treaty in 1945. The major premise of this pap...
Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad
Using a unique database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises in Poland and the export structure of their ...... Using a unique database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises in Poland and the export structure...... of their affiliates. We find that labour intensity and foreign control are the main explanatory variables for the export intensity of the affiliates. Given the overall rise in export intensity over the period of investigation, our findings suggest that export-platform FDI has become a more important mode...
Asani Sarkar; Kai Li
U.S. investors have traditionally been reluctant to acquire foreign securities_in part, perhaps, because they fear that restrictions on trading in foreign markets will sharply limit any gains they might realize from diversifying their portfolios. An analysis of the effects of one type of restriction, short-sale constraints, on stock returns between 1976 and 1999 suggests that investing in emerging market stocks offers substantial benefits even when a ban on short sales is in place.
.... manufacturer of trucks, sold a trash collection truck to Y, a company in France. The sale was tax free under... exported, (iv) Where the foreign country has no customs administration, a statement of the foreign...
Full Text Available We study the parent influence on lending by affiliates of a multinational bank. In the proposed theoretical model, local lending is influenced by shareholder-affiliate manager delegation and precautionary motives. The outcome is either contagion (the loan volume in the affiliate follows the direction of the parent bank country shock or performance-based reallocation of funds (substitution, depending on the degree of manager delegation in the affiliate and the liquidity-sensitivity in theparent bank. Empirical investigation, deliberately conducted on a sample not covering the latest financial crisis, shows that also in “normal” times, multinational banks that are likely to delegate lending decisions or be more liquidity-sensitive are more inclined towards contagionist behavior.
The purpose of this study is to describe, from a sociolinguistic perspective, major language functions during which Japanese-American communication occurs in multinational companies in the United States. Comparing communication problems across major language functions and research memos, five major themes emerged: (1)foramlity; (2)social hierarchical distinctons; (3)ambiguous communication strategies; (4)consensus making; and (5)language attitudes. This paper also aims to identify the intercu...
The purpose of this study is to describe, from a sociolinguistic perspective, major language functions during which Japanese-American communication occurs in multinational companies in the United States. Comparing communication problems across major language functions and research memos, five major themes emerged: (1)foramlity; (2)social hierarchical distinctons; (3)ambiguous communication strategies; (4)consensus making; and (5)language attitudes. This paper also aims to identify the intercu...
Haufler, Andreas; Klemm, Alexander; Schjelderup, Guttorm
Increased activity of multinational firms exposes national corporate tax bases to cross-country profit shifting, but also leads to rising profitability of the corporate sector. We incorporate these two effects of economic integration into a simple political economy model where the median voter decides on a redistributive income tax rate. In this setting economic integration may raise or lower the equilibrium tax rate, and it is more likely to raise the tax rate of a low-tax country. The impli...
Ralph de Haas
We use a two-country model to examine how endogenous changes in monitoring intensity and exogenous changes in monitoring efficiency affect multinational-bank lending. First, an endogenous decline in monitoring intensity limits the amount of deposits that banks can attract. This lowers bank lending. Shocks that reduce bank capital relative to firm capital therefore have a stronger negative effect on bank lending compared to a model with exogenous monitoring intensity. Second, international dif...
Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm
We examine how a multinational's choice to centralize or de-centralize itsdecision structure is affected by country tax differentials. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs — here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax manipulation...... commitment and non-commitment to transfer prices, and for alternative modes of competition.Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, transfer prices, MNEs.JEL-Classification: H25, F23, L23....
This dissertation analyzes ways in which Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) shift profits from one country to another to reduce their income tax expense. This is an important topic for a number of reasons. From a country’s perspective, its income tax rates and policies can have a significant impact upon its tax revenue, economic competitiveness, and the vibrancy of its economy. From the MNE’s perspective, income tax rates and policies determine a firm’s tax obligations, and thus ...
Incorporating team context into research and practice concerning team effectiveness in multinational organizations still remains an ongoing challenge. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the influence of industry, corporate culture, structure, strategy and task characteristics on MNTs in business organizations and to develop a more comprehensive framework connecting the internal dynamics with contextual aspects of MNTs functioning in companies in Europe and the USA. The study was ...
Egger, H; Egger, P; Greenaway, D
Recent developments, including the analysis of firm-level adjustment to falling trade costs, have contributed to a revival of interest in intra-industry trade (IIT). Most empirical work still relies on the standard Grubel–Lloyd measure. This however refers only to international trade, disregarding income flows stimulated by repatriated profits of multinational firms. Given the overwhelming importance of the latter, this is a major shortcoming. This paper provides a guide to measurement and es...
Ahmad, Ali; Salahieh, Sidra; Snyder, Ryan
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) agreed to by Iran and the P5+1 in July 2015 placed restrictions on Iran’s nuclear program while other Middle Eastern countries– Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates–are planning to build their own nuclear power plants to meet increasing electricity demands. Although the JCPOA restricts Iran's uranium enrichment program for 10–15 years, Iran's neighbors may choose to develop their own national enrichment programs giving them a potential nuclear weapons capability. This paper argues that converting Iran's national enrichment program to a more proliferation-resistant multinational arrangement could offer significant economic benefits–reduced capital and operational costs–due to economies of scale and the utilization of more efficient enrichment technologies. In addition, the paper examines policy aspects related to financing, governance, and how multinational enrichment could fit into the political and security context of the Middle East. A multinational enrichment facility managed by regional and international partners would provide more assurance that it remains peaceful and could help build confidence between Iran and its neighbors to cooperate in managing other regional security challenges. - Highlights: • Freezing Iran's nuclear program is an opportunity to launch joint initiatives in ME. • A joint uranium enrichment program in the Middle East offers economic benefits. • Other benefits include improved nuclear security and transparency in the region.
Roxana L. IONESCU
Full Text Available Companies operating in a global economy that is constantly changing and developming, especially during the financial crisis and political instability. It is necessary to adapt and develop sales methods in such environment. For large companies who base their activity on sales it has become a necessity to learn different types of sales approaches because their knowledge enables them to grow the number of customers and therefore the sales and the turnover. This paper aims to exame the most effective sales methods used on the highly sensitive economic and social environment – the insurance market. In the field of insurances, the sales process is even more important because sellers need to sell an intangible product that may materialize in the future, but there is no certainty.
Moss, R; Thompson, J
The sales professional course "Introduction to the Operating Room" offered by the AORN Center for Nursing Practice, Health Policy, and Research is an introductory program in OR etiquette. Its purpose is to provide sales professionals a working knowledge of OR protocol for them to function appropriately in OR settings. Sales professionals who have completed this course establish mutually beneficial perioperative partnerships with OR personnel. Sales professionals' effectiveness is strengthened as a result of their newly acquired knowledge of OR protocol, and patient safety is protected. An AORN Certificate of Recognition is awarded on completion of the course.
The editorial theme for this issue of the OSBR is Sales Strategy. While "marketing" is everything a company does to build interest in its offers, "sales" consists of converting these offers into cash. By "sales strategy," we refer to all sales planning and process development activities leading up to the actual selling of a product or service. In his recent blog post at MaRS Discovery District, Mark Zimmerman answered a question he is frequently asked by the founders of startups: "How do we f...
Full Text Available The editorial theme for this issue of the OSBR is Sales Strategy. While "marketing" is everything a company does to build interest in its offers, "sales" consists of converting these offers into cash. By "sales strategy," we refer to all sales planning and process development activities leading up to the actual selling of a product or service. In his recent blog post at MaRS Discovery District, Mark Zimmerman answered a question he is frequently asked by the founders of startups: "How do we find a good sales person?" In short, his answer is "Don't." This is not meant as a slight to sales professionals, but rather, Zimmerman is advocating that companies should not equate having sales professionals to having a sales strategy. Sales professionals have a critical role to play in a company's success, but they are being given an impossible task if asked to sell something that has not been validated with customers. Zimmerman explains that sales professionals should be hired only once a company has validated that the value proposition resonates with customers and that the sales model will be effective. This lesson also applies to established companies, where existing sales staff require this same foundation to be effective. So how does a company determine whether its value proposition resonates with customers? The answer, of course, is to talk to customers. In the OSBR and elsewhere, the need for early customer input is a dominant theme in recent discussions of product development, marketing, and now sales strategy. By talking to customers, listening to how they describe their needs, and interpreting how their needs could be met, a value proposition can tested and refined. It is far more efficient and effective to iteratively refine a value proposition before attempting to sell than to attempt a salvage operation in response to slumping sales. Customer input is also a critical ingredient in developing an effective sales strategy. In this issue of the
Final Environmental Assessment for the Update and Implementation of the Total Force Training Mission for Visiting Units (Operation Snowbird, Multi-Service, and Foreign Military Sales), Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona
audience at a music festival . Noise & Health, 2003, 5(19):51- 58. 34. Smith PA et al. The prevalence and type of social noise exposure in young adults...foreign and domestic pilots/aircraft (substandard) 21 4% 3.1; 3.4; 4.1; 4.4 Economic risk/reduce tourism , pro, cons 23 3 5% 220.127.116.11 Impact on low...impacts are underestimated as the increase in sorties and noise would certainly affect local businesses, especially the tourism industry. 16 6 As
Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper
We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...... and the urgency of the sale also affect the average discount: Discounts are larger when house prices contract, in thin markets where demand is lower, and when the sale is more likely to be a fire sale because of financial or liquidity constraints. Late fire sales are more likely when the house price...... forced sales lead to fire sale discounts....
Brian J. Arnold
Full Text Available Aggressive international tax planning by multinational corporations has lately fallen under intense political scrutiny. U.S. politicians have called out some American multinationals, including Apple, Amazon, Starbucks and Google, for relocating profits abroad to avoid American taxes. More recently, politicians accused Burger King of being unpatriotic for its own purported “tax inversion” maneuver, in which it would acquire Canada’s Tim Hortons and shift the head office from Florida to Ontario, benefitting from the lower northern tax rates. The Chicago-based Walgreens pharmacy chain recently backed off a “tax inversion” plan to relocate to Switzerland (the former headquarters of Alliance Boots, a company acquired by Walgreens, apparently having assessed the political risk as too high. This sort of aggressive international tax planning by multinational corporations was what G20 members had committed to fighting against when they endorsed the OECD’s “action plan” against base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS. Canada has been vigilant about improving its tax framework to prevent non-resident corporations from eroding the Canadian tax base, having enacted thin-capitalization rules and, more recently, foreign-affiliate-dumping rules, as well as proposing anti-treaty-shopping measures. But despite Canada’s commitment to the OECD’s BEPS Action Plan, the Canadian government has been reluctant to follow through on implementing rules that might affect its own resident corporations and their international competitiveness. This is most notably visible in the generous participation exemption for dividends from foreign affiliates, the absence of rules restricting the deductibility of interest expenses incurred to earn exempt dividends from foreign affiliates. Canada may be reluctant to fully follow through on all aspects of the OECD’s BEPS Action Plan. As the examples of Apple, Amazon, Google and Starbucks demonstrate, the American
Germano Glufke Reis
Full Text Available This article aims to verify the factors associated with the development of human resource management (HRM competences in foreign subsidiaries of Brazilian multinationals. These competences are essential in that they allow foreign units to adopt HRM practices that are consistent with the countries or markets in which they operate. A multilevel research was conducted, involving headquarters and subsidiaries of major Brazilian companies; the empirical analysis employed hierarchical linear modelling. Despite the recurrent debate on global standardisation versus local adaptation, it was identified that the integration of international HRM policies (addressing simultaneously global guidelines and local response may stimulate competences development. In addition, interaction in external networks in the host country may enhance the development of HRM competences in the subsidiaries. However, specific cultural factors of the company may inhibit development activity in units abroad.
Full Text Available Several studies about knowledge transfer in multinational corporations have found that the process is influenced by factors such as absorptive capacity, tacit knowledge and power relations, all of which impact knowledge sharing strategies between corporate headquarters and foreign subsidiaries. A multiple case study of Brazilian subsidiaries of three multinational corporations using in-depth interviews, based on a conceptual model consisting of four propositions, was conducted to identify factors linked to the knowledge transfer process and to assess their influence on that transfer. The first proposition tries to assess explicit knowledge, primarily through the use of IT tools; the second analyzes the role of the subsidiary within the corporate network and how it influences the degree of knowledge sharing. The third assesses the influence of subsidiary absorptive capacity and the fourth analyzes the impact of worker exchange programs on knowledge sharing between headquarters and foreign subsidiaries. Study results confirm the four propositions and enable the identification of relationships between factors, especially explicit knowledge and worker expatriation as complementary factors in knowledge transfer strategies.
Koch, Michael; Smolka, Marcel
Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle on the relat......Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle...... firms due to access to foreign markets through the foreign parent. This market size effect, coupled with a technology-skill complementarity, raises the demand for high-skilled workers as well as worker training upon acquisition. The largest productivity gains predicted by the model accrue to those firms...... empirical evidence that foreign-acquired firms, not only increase their technology level, but also engage in skill upgrading upon acquisition (through both hiring and training). Moreover, we show that these changes are driven by the market size effect, and not by changes in the ownership structure per se...
Canei, Robert A.
The manual is a 12-hour program for adults who are working or preparing to work as retail salespeople. It can also be used as a summarization manual for high school students. The manual consists of five sessions which take the individual from the human aspect of sales to the related sales technique. The sessions are entitled: employee and customer…
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Large yachts imported for sale. 4.94a Section 4.94a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.94a Large yachts imported for sale. (a...
... Retail Carrier Bags From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and... did not appear to experience significant changes in the cost of manufacturing during the period of... by exporters or producers ``in connection with the sale, for consumption in the foreign country, of...
Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...
Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...
Smith, C.B.; Chayes, A.
The paper lists some of the major issues that would have to be faced in negotiating the institutional structure of a multinational nuclear-fuel center. None of the organization problems is inherently insoluble. Difficulties are exacerbated by the large number of questions, their interrelations, and the complexity of the assumed structure. However, the assumptions posed the most difficult case. A reduction in membership and in the ambitious scope of the enterprise, at least at the outset, would greatly reduce the complexity of the organizational structure and the difficulty of negotiations. The analysis suggests that multinational fuel-cycle activities should start out more modestly, perhaps only with joint appraisal by a relatively few countries with existing geographic or economic connections. If operations are contemplated it would seem that the first step should be joint arrangements for spent-fuel storage, with the decision to go forward to more elaborate activities deferred. This approach would not only be simpler and permit the parties to gain experience working together, but it would have the virtue of delaying reprocessing until it was clear that there was a real need for it. Even on this reduced basis, the negotiating task would not be easy. The key, of course, to overcoming difficult technical problems of institutional structure is politial will--the genuine commitment of the participants to the aims and values of the enterprise. This suggests that any effort to cajole--not to say coerce--participation in a multinational fuel-cycle enterprise would be wholly misplaced. A reluctant partner would have available an infinitude of points and issues to create plausible, irritating, and ultimately defeating delay and complication in the negotiating process. Only assent freely given in the perception that the enterprise really serves the interest of the countries involved will be able to surmount the many institutional problems that will inevitably arise
Li, Peter Ping
Despite the growing interest in the emerging-economy multinational enterprise (EMNE), there is little knowledge about the underlying mechanism for EMNEs as latecomers to catch up with and even leapfrog the traditional MNEs as early-movers. The cross-fertilization between the research streams...... of latecomer innovation as a special DI by EMNE at BOP to provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the trajectories of catching up and leapfrogging. Built upon latecomer innovation, EMNEs at BOP can emerge as the most disruptive challengers to the MNE incumbents at TOP. The implications of reframed...... constructs, integrative typology, and emerging theory for research and practice are also discussed....
Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Thorup-Jensen, Line
CSR is a context-specific phenomenon, which makes working strategically with CSR particularly challenging for multinational corporation as it must allow for the various contexts of operation. Based on the extant literature, this article provides a conceptual presentation of MNC's opportunities...... to work with CSR acknowledging and taking into account the the context embeddedness of CSR. We propose that MNCs consider four decision areas establishwhen developing strategic CSR. Furthermore, we present a framework model for CSR that takes into account the MNC's need to consider both a local...
... integrated oil company must treat as foreign mineral income from sources within a foreign country or... of crude oil into gasoline, the distribution of gasoline to marketing outlets, and the retail sale of gasoline. Similarly, income from such sources from the refining, distribution, or marketing of fuel oil by...
Rao, Hema; Golen, Steven
A key characteristic of multinational companies is a worldwide perspective and orientation in managerial decision making. In its quest for international opportunities, a multinational company confronts many problems and uncertainties in evaluating and dealing with political, legal, economic, social, cultural, and governmental policy variables and…
De Haas, Ralph; van Lelyveld, Iman
We use new panel data on the intra-group ownership structure and the balance sheets of 45 of the largest multinational bank holdings to analyze what determines the credit growth of their subsidiaries. We find evidence for the existence of internal capital markets through which multinational banks
How shared leadership is enacted in teams that are nationally diverse is currently under- researched, despite the increasing presence of multinational teams in the workplace. To better understand the phenomenon of shared leadership in multinational team contexts, we propose two ways in which...
Hildebrandt, Herbert W.
International researchers need to be aware of international problems and multinational managerial codes when they work with worldwide organizations. This paper develops the premise that consulting with German multinational companies is more complex than consulting with or researching for American firms. Discussion focuses on the following three…
Roč. 9, č. 9 (2009), s. 1-48 ISSN 1803-7070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multinational banks * bank loan pricing * internal capital market Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/derviz- funding costs and loan pricing by multinational bank affiliates.pdf
Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.J.M.
How do multinationals address conflicting norms and expectations? This article focuses on corporate codes of ethics in the area of child labor as possible expressions of Strategic International Human Resource Management. It analyses whether fifty leading multinational adopt universal ethical norms
.... Government and contractor technical and logistic support services, repair and return, Quality Assurance Teams... equipment, personnel training and training equipment, U.S. Government and contractor technical and logistic... logistics support. The estimated cost is $179 million. This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign...
... equipment and support will not alter the basic military balance in the region. There are no prime... Consideration for Purchase: a Foreign Military Sales Order (FMSO) II to provide funds for blanket order...), equipment, support vehicles and other related logistics support. (iv) Military Department: Army (KYM) (v...
Full Text Available This article sketches the evolution of Brazilian multinational companies, from the perspective of the development of Latin-American multinational companies, with respect to the process of globalization. With this article, we looked to characterize the typical profile of these enterprises in agreement with the Dunning Model to confirm if this typology is adequate for the characterization of internationalization strategies. We also explored the Theory of the Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede. While doing this, we analyzed which model measures the strategic alignment and is more orientated in terms of: (i exploration of natural resources and advantages of costs of labor not qualified (resource seeking, advantages; (ii location and synergies of market (market seeking, investments; (iii search of strategic assets of the type efficiency seeking (for what they look to rationalize the production and to explore savings of specialization and location, investments; and (iv type of strategic asset seeking (turned to the acquisition of resources and competences with the objective to develop competitiveness through of the innovation and growth of strategic capacities. We also summarize the referential system that makes possible the development of future inquiries for the delineation of the principal strategies, of the public politics of the National States, and also the financial strategies of these enterprises. Keywords: Strategic innovation; Brazilian multinationals; foreign investment; globalization; Latin American multinationals and multinationals from emerging countries
Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Park, Jung Chul
Previous literature provides multiple conflicting arguments on why and when multinationality should enhance or impede the value-relevance of firms’ real options. We address this issue by examining whether the relationship between stock returns and changes in return volatility varies with multinat......Previous literature provides multiple conflicting arguments on why and when multinationality should enhance or impede the value-relevance of firms’ real options. We address this issue by examining whether the relationship between stock returns and changes in return volatility varies...... with multinationality. Our results indicate that multinationality does indeed act as a real option facilitator. Furthermore, we show that, consistent with the notion that there are limits to the operating flexibility associated with multinationality this benefit only accrues fully if the firm is not financially...
The combined sales of petroleum products in Finland during 1999 totalled more than nine million tonnes, which was little changed from the figure for 1998. Sales of traffic fuels increased, while those of fuel oil fell. Diesel fuel sales reached a record level, while sales of gasoline continued their downward trend
Hoshower, Leon; Gupta, Ashok K.
Improper sales revenue recognition is the single largest issue contributing to financial restatements. Understanding and applying the rules of sales revenue recognition is not just an accounting problem; it is a marketing problem, too. Thus, it is important that the sales force has a basic understanding of the rules of sales recognition and be…
Marinov, Marin Alexandrov; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova
facilities there. These processes result in intensive penetration of companies through foreign direct investment into the CEE region. Simultaneously, the foreign investing companies face the specific context of a region that poses new requirements to their investment strategies, approaches and practices....... Covering a diverse range of CEE countries, as well as referring to the characteristics of the region as a whole, this book examines the inflow and outflow of foreign direct investment from both home and host company and country perspectives. By analyzing foreign direct investment in terms of process......, content and context, the book provides a holist approach towards foreign direct investment in the transitional context of CEE. The book includes a comprehensive study of the motives of multi-national companies for investing in Central and Eastern Europe through various investment modes and the degree...
Hansen, Michael W.; Hoenen, Anne K.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to re-visit and re-invigorate the oligopolistic industry perspective on multinational corporations (MNC) strategy. Design/methodology/approach: Based on insights from the industrial organization tradition and strategic management, the paper brings the original...... to a key insight of the early IB literature, namely, that foreign direct investment (FDI) often is driven by strategic interaction among MNCs in oligopolistic industries. Instead, the contemporary IB literature focuses on the FDI as a way to reduce transaction costs and/or as a way to leverage and build...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...
This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted....... This interdisciplinary book aims to understand how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are defined, delineated, contested and understood in different places and times. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their on their own research, discuss on going theoretical issues and analytical...... challenges Some chapters focuses on how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale have been regulated by the authorities and what understandings this regulation builds on. Other chapters investigate the experiences of the sex workers and sex buyers asking how these actors adjust to or resist the categorisation...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List of properties up for auction at a Sheriff Sale. Datasets labeled "Current" contain this month's postings, while those labeled "Archive" contain a running list...
City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...
Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...
Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper
This study investigates when forced sales of real estate turn into fire sales by using a natural experiment that allows us to separate supply and demand effects: Forced sales result from sudden death of house owners and are thus unrelated to current market conditions. We find that forced sales...
Ustüner, Tuba; Godes, David
Anyone in sales will tell you that social networks are critical. The more contacts you have, the more leads you'll generate, and, ultimately, the more sales you'll make. But that's a vast oversimplification. Different configurations of networks produce different results, and the salesperson who develops a nuanced understanding of social networks will outshine competitors. The salesperson's job changes over the course of the selling process. Different abilities are required in each stage of the sale: identifying prospects, gaining buy-in from potential customers, creating solutions, and closing the deal. Success in the first stage, for instance, depends on the salesperson acquiring precise and timely information about opportunities from contacts in the marketplace. Closing the deal requires the salesperson to mobilize contacts from prior sales to act as references. Managers often view sales networks only in terms of direct contacts. But someone who knows lots of people doesn't necessarily have an effective network because networks often pay off most handsomely through indirect contacts. Moreover, the density of the connections in a network is important. Do a salesperson's contacts know all the same people, or are their associates widely dispersed? Sparse networks are better, for example, at generating unique information. Managers can use three levers--sales force structure, compensation, and skills development--to encourage salespeople to adopt a network-based view and make the best possible use of social webs. For example, the sales force can be restructured to decouple lead generation from other tasks because some people are very good at building diverse ties but not so good at maintaining other kinds of networks. Companies that take steps of this kind to help their sales teams build better networks will reap tremendous advantages.
Full Text Available Direct sale represents a modern product distribution system directly to consumers, generally, directly to their homes, to their workplace or other places, beside retail shops. The best known type of direct sale, the Network Marketing or Multilevel Marketing implies the existence of a network of distributors which earn income from selling on commission, to which they add the trade markup. This paper is based upon the analysis of these types of sales starting with the study of specialized literature especially by foreign authors, mainly Americans, with the analysis of statistical data presented by several organizations such as SELDIA (The European Direct Selling Association, MLM International Romania, ACVD (Association of Direct Selling Companies in Romania, as well as the legal regulations within this field. In conclusion, the paper presents an interesting comparison of the sales and structure volume between the Europe and Romania.
Interpersonal communication tends to guide the way of management in companies worldwide. For multinational company, where expatriate is exist to blend with local partners or employee, the way they communicate to each other will determine the future of their company communication activities. The result of this research could be utilized by foreign managers and their Indonesian colleagues. Based on this research, which is supported by qualitative and literature methods, it can be found the effe...
Leonard K. Cheng
By developing a Ricardian trade model that features technology transfer via foreign direct investment (FDI), we show that technology transfer via multinational enterprises (MNEs) increases world output and trade in goods and services. When there are many goods a continuous reduction in the cost of technology transfer will cause increasingly more technologically advanced goods to go through the product cycle, i.e., goods initially produced in the advanced North are later produced in the backwa...
Full Text Available The foreign direct investments are joined with the process of world globalisation. Foreign direct investments are carried out especially by multinational companies. The basic forms of the foreign direct investments are “greenfield” investments and “brownfield“ investments in the form of the privatization. The Czech Republic has shown mass inflow of foreign direct investments since 1998. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the inflow of foreign direct investments in the context of the balance of payments and the evaluation their impact on the outside economic equilibrium and gross value added in the Czech Republic. The subject of the analysis is the identification of the most important factors of foreign direct investments inflow and the classification of foreign direct investments inflow from the point of view of branches and technological intensity of production as well. The aim is fulfilled by analysis of selected indicators of the balance of payments, analysis of gross value added and international comparison of foreign direct investments inflow in countries of Visegrad Group. The results show the part of privatization in foreign capital inflow, increasing import intensity and export efficiency linked with foreign direct investments. The results are subject of research focused on the process of world globalisation and regional development.
Noone, B. M; Hultberg, T.
Revenue management and sales staffs collaborate substantially in making decisions regarding rate setting, accepting group business, and forecasting. However, according to a survey of 82 sales and revenue management executives at three hotel chains (47 revenue managers and 35 sales executives), hotels could foster even better coordination between revenue management and sales by educating each group regarding the other group’s responsibilities. This might reduce sales staff frustrations about t...
Jounes, Nadia Jafa
In 2012 the Colombian government and the FARC guerrilla commenced peace talks for the first time in many years. This thesis looks at the Colombian land struggle from its earliest stages to understand the roots of the issue. Then this thesis links these issues with contemporary land contention and the invasion by multinational corporations and the African oil palm industry. Also, in the light of the current peace process, this thesis takes a look at how such foreign investment i...
As part of a current trend towards so-called ‘foreign direct liability cases’, attempts are being made to hold parent companies of multinational corporations liable in their home countries for damage caused in host countries. This trend, of which the Trafi gura case serves as a recent example here,
Zeira Y; Shenkar O
ILO pub. Working paper, research report on personnel management decision making in foreign owned subsidiarys of multinational enterprises and international joint ventures - discusses legal aspects, the role of absentee top management, host country employers organizations and other interest groups, etc.; examines employees attitudes, management attitudes, trade union attitudes government attitude, particularly regarding workers participation, recruitment and promotion. References, statistical ...
d' Alcantara, G; Italianer, A
This paper describes the HERMES project, a multinational macrosectoral European econometric modelling effort, sponsored by the Directorates General II (Economic and Financial Affairs), XII (Science, Research and Development), XVII (Energy) and the SOEC. The set-up of the model is sketched against the background of problems of growth, unemployment, inflation, trade balances, government balances and energy policy. Although the definitions of the variables and a complete specification of the model are given in the Appendix, the major features of the model are described extensively in the text. These include private and collective consumption (incl. a consumer demand system), the putty-clay production process, price and wage formation, sectoral bilateral trade flows and integrated energy economy modelling.
Lauring, Jakob; Andersen, Poul Houman; Storgaard, Marianne
in four Danish MNCs. Findings: They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating. Originality/value: Very few studies have dealt......Purpose: This paper aims to identify antecedents for, and consequences of, low-intensity inter-unit conflict in multinational corporations (MNCs). Inter-unit conflict in MNCs is an important and well-researched theme. However, while most studies have focused on open conflict acknowledged by both...... parties, much less research has dealt with low-intensity conflicts. Still, low-intensity conflicts can be highly damaging – not least because they are rarely resolved. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a qualitative approach to understanding low-intensity conflict relying on 170 interviews...
Hasliza Abdul Halim
Full Text Available This paper examines the consequence of the organization internalization on the practice of human resource (HR outsourcing among manufacturing organizations. The assumption is that HR outsourcing is perceived as an innovative practice and that multinational enterprise (MNEs will employ this practice more than local organizations. The data was gathered from survey questionnaires of 232 manufacturing organizations. Of the sample, 113 organizations engaged with HR outsourcing, and 71 are MNEs that partially outsource their HR functions. The findings reveal that HR outsourcing among MNEs is used to a greater extent than local organizations. A significant difference is found in the extent of outsourcing payroll, benefits, training and recruitment between MNEs and in local organizations.
The world is now deeply into the second great wave of globalization, in which product, capital, and markets are becoming more and more integrated across countries. Multinational corporations are gaining their rapid growth around the globe and playing a significant role in the world economy. Meanwhile, the accelerated rate of globalization has also imposed pressures on MNCs, left them desperately seeking overseas alliances in order to remain competitive. International strategic alliances, which bring together large and commonly competitive firms for specific purposes, have gradual y shown its importance in the world market. And the form of international joint venture is now widely adopted. Then after the formation of alliances, selecting the right partner, formulating right strategies, establishing harmonious and effective partnership are generally the key to success.
Dörrenbacher, Christoph; Gammelgaard, Jens
This paper investigates the political maneuvering that accompanies subsidiary initiative taking in multinational corporations. On the basis of an explorative empirical investigation of subsidiary initiative taking in the French subsidiaries of six German MNCs, the paper explores the activities...... that subsidiaries undertake to sell their initiatives, and the relationships among issue selling, subsidiary power and headquarters’ hierarchical power. The findings suggest that the use of issue-selling tactics is common when subsidiaries engage in initiative taking. In addition, the paper demonstrates that a low...... degree of issue selling is needed to obtain approval of an initiative in less asymmetrical headquarters–subsidiary power relationships (i.e. relationships in which subsidiaries are relatively powerful). In cases where power relationships are highly asymmetrical, issue selling is a necessity...
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the main motivational factors within a multinational company. The first objective is to identify work functions, formulated on Abraham Maslow’s pyramid, following the identification of the key characteristics that motivate an employee at the work place and last, but not least, the type of motivation that employees focus, intrinsic or extrinsic. The research method targeted a questionnaire based survey, including various company employees and an interview with the manager. The results confirmed that in Romania, employees put great emphasis on extrinsic motivation, a certain income and job security being primary. These results have implications for managers that in order to effectively motivate staff, first, must know their needs and expectations. To identify the main needs and motivational factors we had as a starting point Maslow's pyramid.
Rossing, Christian Plesner; Cools, Martine; Rohde, Carsten
Current curricula in management accounting stress the role of transfer pricing as a tool for measuring the performance of responsibility centers and their managers. Recently, however, multinational enterprises (MNEs) have felt increasing pressure to comply with transfer pricing tax regulation...... of responsibility accounting. Specifically, the case study is a fictional MNE, allowing you to apply the OECD Guidelines in practice to cross-border transfers within an MNE, and to discuss the implications of tax-based transfer pricing for responsibility accounting. As a basis for working on the case study....... As a result, tax risk management considerations play a key role in the transfer pricing decisions of MNEs today. This case seeks to provide you with examples of the core principles of international transfer pricing, as well as to allow you to discuss international transfer pricing in the context...
Full Text Available Multinational Brigade Operations involving NATO and its European Partners are the norm in the post-Cold War Era. Commonplace today are Multinational Brigades, composed of staffs and subordinate units representing almost every NATO Country and Partner, participating in training exercises or actual operations in both the European and Southwest Asian Theatres. Leadership challenges are prevalent for the Multinational Brigade Commander and his staff, especially those challenges they face in achieving an effective level of brigade interoperability in order to conduct successful operations in NATO’s present and future operating environments. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to examine the major interoperability obstacles a multinational brigade commander and his staff are likely to encounter during the planning and execution of brigade operations; and, to recommend actions and measures a multinational brigade commander and his staff can implement to facilitate interoperability in a multinational brigade operating environment. Several key interoperability topics considered integral to effective multinational brigade operations will be examined and analysed to include understanding partner unit capabilities and limitations facilitated by an integration plan, appropriate command and support relationships, compatible communications, synchronized intelligence and information collection, establishing effective liaison, and fratricide prevention. The paper conclusion will urge for a NATO land brigade doctrine considering doctrine’s critical importance to effective brigade command and control interoperability and the expected missions a land brigade will encounter in future NATO operating environments as part of the NATO Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF.
Hamilton, John Maxwell
Despite the importance of foreign news, its history, transformation and indeed its future have not been much studied. The scholarly community often calls attention to journalism's shortcomings covering the world, yet the topic has not been systematically examined across countries or over time. The need to redress this neglect and the desire to assess the impact of new media technologies on the future of journalism - including foreign correspondence - provide the motivation for this stimulating, exciting and thought-provoking book. While the old economic models supporting news have crumbled in
Natacha Bertoia Silva
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge transfer process between the subsidiaries and the headquarter of Brazilian multinationals, and to identify the most used mechanisms for transferring knowledge. This paper also aims to point out existing barriers in this process, comparing acquired subsidiaries to the greenfield ones. International studies have shown differences in the process of knowledge transfer due to the origin of foreign units (entry mode. We surveyed in 2006 and 2007 a sample of 66 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals with overseas activities. As a result, the knowledge transfer from the headquarter to the subsidiary has occurred through meetings with top executives and the reception of Brazilian executives in both types of units. The barriers to knowledge transfer are bland, being clearer in acquired subsidiaries. Cultural resistance is the most prominent. When we focus on the acquired units, the hierarchical structure is seen as a barrier, probably reflecting the centralized attitude by the headquarters. At the same time, the lack of incentives for sharing knowledge is more evident in greenfield units. Also, the syndrome of not invented here is a perceived barrier by acquired units.
Full Text Available The paper analyses the new trend of outward foreign direct investment (FDI by multinational companies from emerging countries, in particular the BRICs, in developed countries to question the applicability of the traditional HOS theoretical framework to this trend. A literature review shows that labour costs do not play any significant role in the first attempts to provide an analytical explanation of this new trend. A HOS equation, amended in order to encompass FDI, is elaborated in order to explain outward FDI from developed to developing and emerging countries based on differences in labour endowment and therefore in wage rates. Step by step, the equation introduces the technological gap, institutions and government policies. Then it is shown that such equation when reversed to explain outward FDI from emerging to developed countries is at odds with the traditional HOS framework. Turning the HOS theory upside down does not help to explain reverse FDI outflows from emerging to developed countries. An alternative approach is called for, in which a labour cost advantage (a lower wage rate than abroad is a home market advantage for emerging countries to invest abroad. A final section provides some empirical examples that labour matters and a lower home wage rate is a decisive comparative advantage for Indian and Chinese multinationals investing in developed countries. Additional evidence shows that the technological gap and the home country’s institutions and government policy matter as well
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium
Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and
Alexander, Eleanore; Yach, Derek; Mensah, George A
In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the
Gilstad, Heidi; Faxvaag, Arild; Hyppönen, Hannele
Development of multinational variables for monitoring eHealth policy implementations is a complex task and requires multidisciplinary, knowledgebased international collaboration. Experts in an interdisciplinary workshop identified useful data and pitfalls for comparative variable development...
Sofka, Wolfgang; Shehu, Edlira; de Faria, Pedro
International knowledge spillovers, especially through multinational companies (MNCs), have recently been a major topic of academic and management debate. However, most studies treat MNC subsidiaries as relatively passive actors. We challenge this assumption by investigating the drivers of knowledge
Hildebrandt, Herbert W.
Describes three issues involved in communication research and consulting for multinational companies, particularly those in Germany: qualifications for doing international consulting and research, problems of American scholar-researchers in those firms, and suggestions for dealing with those issues. (JMF)
Corporate Social Responsibility of Multinational Oil Corporations to Host ... Exxon Mobil and Elf oil Nigeria Limited within their corporate-community relations strategy in the ... The paper concludes by exploring the implications for partnerships' ...
ILO pub. Working paper on decision making processes in multinational enterprises - gives definition, type and classification of decision making in large enterprises; outlines the centralization decentralization theory and the iterative process; notes research needs. Bibliography.
Full Text Available When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.
Flavian Clipa; Raluca Irina Clipa
When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.
Hanindia Hajjar Damayanti
Full Text Available Abstract: OECD's Role in Minimizing Tax Aggressiveness Efforts at Multinationality Companies. This paper aims to prove the relation between multinationality transaction of tax heaven countries and the tax investigation toward the tax aggressiveness. This research is done by quantitative approach upon the companies registered in BEI for 2010-2014 periods. The findings denote the tax heaven countries have no effort to conduct the tax aggressiveness on which the multinationality negatively has no effect since the occurrence in the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines as the guideline for both the taxing authority and the multinational companies in accomplishing the transfer pricing matter. In contrary, the investigation does not influence the tax aggressiveness.
MSc. Florida Veljanoska
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.
The OECD in its BEPS action plan 4 addresses tax base erosion by profit shifting through the use of tax deductible interest payments. Their main concern is interest deductions between outbound and inbound investment by groups. Studies of multinational firms show that the tax sensitivity of debt is more modest than what one would expect given the incentives for profit shifting. The purpose of this paper is to review existing literature and to add new knowledge on multinational firm behavior th...
The business world started to integrate internationally; therefore, it is likely to say that the multinational companies have become one of the key actors in international business. Since the multinational companies operate in many countries simultaneously; they face to multicultural challenges. The organisational culture is also influenced by the cultural diversity. It is possible to state that the transfer of the organisational culture is essential for the creation of the compatibility in t...
Maria Cristina BÃLÃNEASA
The intensification of the global economic activity has generated changes in working relations. The intensification of the activities within multinational companies has determined greater employment flexibility, but also a lower collective bargaining power of the employees, because the multinationals attempted to weaken the power of trade unions. The purpose of this paper is precisely to identify the attitude of these companies towards trade union activity and the reaction of labour organizat...
Quer, Diego; Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Rienda, Laura
Over the last few years, a new generation of Chinese multinationals has set out to conquer global markets, featuring major international acquisitions that were unthinkable until very recently. This work seeks to analyze the nature of this emerging phenomenon, illustrating the reasons behind the international expansion of Chinese multinationals, the factors that facilitate and hinder this process, the entry modes that they use and the strategic implications for Western companies of their sudde...
Sex segregation in the workplace has been related to a variety of economic, institutional, and social factors. An issue that has only been explored to a limited extent is the role that multinational firms might play in promoting or inhibiting employment discrimination and sex segregation in developing countries. This study focuses on this issue within the context of Thailand, one of the world's most rapidly growing economies and a country with considerable investment by multinational firms. T...
Tzu-Han YANG; Deng-Shing HUANG
The phenomenon of fast-growing business activities of multinational corporations around the world has generated much interest in understanding its implications for the development of the world economy as well as the relationships among national economies. By analyzing the world's top 2000 firms published by Forbes Magazine (the Forbes Global 2000), this article first investigates the contents and structural evolution of these giant multinational firms and their relationship with national fore...
The concept and current status of multinational and regional repositories are presented in the paper. Particular emphasis is given to the results and findings of the recent EU project SAPIERR, investigating the feasibility of regional repository concepts in Europe. Prospects for further development of multinational repositories are also brought forward and the impact and potential benefits of this approach to our national disposal programme are discussed as well. (author)
Division SPL, groupe logistique; A. Notar
From 3 January 2000 there will be a security barrier in front of the storage-recycling area in bldg 133, which will be accessible only to authorised staff and contractors.You are reminded that the equipment delivered to this area must be unpolluted and non-radioactive. The cost of recycling the equipment will be debited to the budget code of the Division concerned, with the prior approval of the Group Leader.Reminder relating to equipment salesThe Sales Section is open on Thursdays from 13.30 to 15.00 hours only.SPL DivisionLogistics GroupA. Notari
Full Text Available This paper investigates organisational-level attributes that allow European SMEs to choose equity-based modes of entry to foreign markets, thus becoming micro-multinationals. We hypothesize that international R&D cooperation (hypothesis 1 and using digital marketing (hypothesis 2 by SMEs increase their likelihood of becoming a mMNE. These hypotheses are tested through a logistic regression analysis based on a large sample of European companies drawn from the Flash Eurobarometer study. Separate regression models are estimated for companies originating from EU-13 and EU-15. Hypothesis 1 is supported by both samples. Hypothesis 2 is supported in the EU-15 sample. Our identification of organisational-level attributes that increase the likelihood of SMEs choosing equity-based internationalisation contributes to International Entrepreneurship entry mode literature.
The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) was established in 2006 as a multinational initiative to develop innovative approaches to leverage the resources and knowledge of the national regulatory authorities who are currently or will be tasked with the review of new reactor power plant designs. MDEP comprises 13 countries' nuclear regulatory authorities and is structured under 3 design-specific working groups and 3 issue-specific working groups which meet several times a year. The OECD/NEA facilitates MDEP's activities by acting as technical secretariat for the programme. The MDEP Policy Group (PG) and the Steering Technical Committee (STC) oversee the programme. MDEP's main objectives can be defined as follows: - to enhance multilateral co-operation within existing regulatory frameworks; - to encourage multinational convergence of codes, standards and safety goals; - to implement the MDEP products in order to facilitate the licensing of new reactors, including those being developed by the Generation IV International Forum. To carry out the work, two main lines of activity have been implemented: - the exploration of opportunities for harmonisation of regulatory practices; - the cooperation on the safety reviews of specific reactor designs. MDEP engages with key stakeholders involved in ensuring the safety of new reactor designs, manufacturing, construction and operation. At this time, these stakeholders include other national regulatory authorities and international organisations involved in ensuring nuclear safety including the IAEA, Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA), NEA Committees on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), the various reactor vendors, nuclear component manufacturers, mechanical and electrical standards development organisations, reactor operators and licensees and key industry representatives such as World Nuclear Association (WNA). To this end, the MDEP has organised a
First half 2005 sales for the AREVA group were up 1.1% to 5,396 million euros and 2.6% like-for-like, compared with 5,339 million euros for the same period in 2004.The change in foreign exchange rates had a negative impact of nearly (34) million euros between these two periods, which was much less than between the first half of 2003 and the same period in 2004. Sales are up 1.1% compared with the first half of 2004 (up 2.6% like-for-like); the euros (17.3) M impact of IFRS adoption is limited to the Front End division; Energy is up: Nuclear Power: up 4.4% (up 5.5% like-for-like), driven by the Front End and Reactors and Services divisions; T and D: down 3.9% (-2.1% like-for-like) due to the one time peak observed in early 2004; Connectors sales are stable (+0.3% like-for-like): Automotive performed well, while the communication market continued to be a difficult one
General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...
Full Text Available Building an effective sales force starts with selecting good salespeople, but good salespeople are very difficult to find. The reason for this is that most sales jobs are very demanding and require a great deal from the salesperson. There are many different types of sales jobs. Before it can hire salespeople, each company must do a careful job analysis to see what particular types of selling and other skills are necessary for each sales job. One task of the market planner is to establish clear objectives each year for the entire sales force, for each region, each sales office, and each salesperson. Sales jobs are different from in-house jobs in some significant ways. Nevertheless, each company must continually work on building and maintaining an effective sales force using the following steps: recruitment, selection, training, compensation and evaluation of each salesperson.
Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...
T.B. Klos (Tomas); D.J.A. Somefun (Koye); J.A. La Poutré (Han)
htmlabstractWhen we look at successful sales processes occurring in practice, we find they combine two techniques which have been studied separately in the literature. Recommender systems are used to suggest additional products or accessories to include in the bundle under consideration, and
Describes the programs and courses of the sales training department at British Airways from induction to management level. The staff uses one of the largest commercial computer facilities in the world to provide seat reservations, fare quotations and tickets, hotel reservations, and tours. (MF)
Duker, Laurie, Ed.
Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…
Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka
This paper investigates sales and operations planning (S&OP) at four Scandinavian industrial food producers in order to explore how the use of S&OP might help leaders to deal with the challenges set by the planning environment. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g., frequency of new...
Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka
This paper explores how the use of sales and operations planning (S&OP) may deal with the challenges set by the planning environment by investigating S&OP at four Scandinavian industrial food producers. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g. perishability, customer service elements...
A two-year master's degree program in international business studies was initiated by the College of Business Administration at the University of South Carolina to educate the business manager who will deal with foreign countries. The language component comprises an important part of the program. (SW)
Decisions in the sales area, including customer and product selection and margin discipline, shape profits for companies in agribusiness. Management of the sales function takes place at the organizational, managerial, and practitioner level, each of which requires data about the process. Individual salespeople benefit from better knowledge of customers (Dixon & Adamson, 2011), and sales managers benefit from understanding the activities of salespeople. Organizationally, data on sales activiti...
Full Text Available The planning of operations is regulated by documents covering the participation of forces in military actions in a national and multinational context. The process of planning the operations has been adapted to conceptual planning progress. The concept of allied effect-based operations, which was an alternative to old national concepts, has undergone transformations, so the process of planning operations at allied level is currently based on the concept of a comprehensive approach, which is a strategic concept, do not give up effects. The term action-based operations has been replaced by the term “thought-based thinking” and belongs to the general concept of comprehensive approach. If the planning process meant the effects, so the main planning objectives were the effects, then the planning was based on concrete objectives, the effects being maintained for the economy of effort and maximizing efficiency, the main purpose of the effects being the evaluation of the operations. From this point of view, we consider that the concept has not been abandoned, what has changed, it was just the working method, the subject being still topical.
Loos, M.B.M.; Schelhaas, H.
If the Common European Sales Law (CESL) is adopted, commercial parties will have the opportunity to choose between two international legal instruments for the regulation of their international commercial sales contracts. Whereas CESL is available to both consumer and commercial sales contracts, the
Bolander, William; Bonney, Leff; Satornino, Cinthia
Sales education is on the rise and for good reason. Statistics say that sales jobs will continue to grow at a rapid rate over the next few years. Many universities are preparing their students to start their careers in the professional selling function through the inclusion of sales education in their business curriculum. Yet little research…
Ann Harrison; Jason Scorse
During the 1990s, anti-sweatshop activists campaigned to improve conditions for workers in developing countries. This paper analyzes the impact of anti-sweatshop campaigns in Indonesia on wages and employment. Identification is based on comparing the wage growth of workers in foreign-owned and exporting firms in targeted regions or sectors before and after the initiation of anti-sweatshop campaigns. We find the campaigns led to large real wage increases for targeted enterprises. There were so...
Jeffrey E. Jarrett
Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is to shed light on problems associated with lost sales and the incurring of cost associated with lost sales. An investigation is made to determine if seasonality in sales and lost sales have effects on the efficient operations of supply chains. Optimization is always a goal of management supply chains, but cost increases due to insufficient inventory, low-quality product and the like lead to customers not returning. These are lost sales that occur for many reasons. We study a data set to determine if the ignoring of time series component also has an effect on the variation in lost sales. If so, can we measure the magnitude of the effects of seasonal variation in lost sales, and what are their consequences?
April2009, 6-10, Military & Government Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed November 6, 2014). l Eric Schmitt and Michael Gordon, "The Iraqi Army Was...transrers and seek to fill an open arms market . u Ibid. 1" DSCA website, "ResourcesfF AQ", hlt(t:lfwww.dsca.mil/resourceslfaq (accessed December I 0...supremacy and security cooperation. s Cordesman and Khazai, 222. 6 A wad Mustafa, "Russia Making Major Push Into Mideast Market ," Defense News, Oct
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...) design and construction services. In addition, we examined the role of the Air Force in the administration of FMS construction projects at the request of the then Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense...
Various proposals have been put forward to establish multinational undertakings for enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, spent fuel storage and waste management. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the legal, institutional framework aspects of multinational undertakings in the field of nuclear fuel cycle. The selection of the appropriate bodies representing the interest of participating countries would largely depend on the object or role of multinational undertakings. Regarding the principle of formation, URENCO is a much informative model of formation, which distinguishes the equity participation at national level and multinational level. The allocation of service between equity participants and non-equity participants depends on the objective of establishing business. Some priority in service allocation should be given to equity participants, and the participants having non-proliferation objective may require service allocation to avoid proliferation risk. The degree of achieving non-proliferation goal is related to the scope of participation. The experience in the field of nuclear energy seems to suggest that the concept of two-tiered decisionmaking structure is generally accepted. Various legal instruments appropriate to constitute multinational fuel cycle arrangement were examined, referring to the precedents and experience. (Kako, I.)
Presents world trends in coal production, consumption and sales. The Swedish state-owned concern Wattenfall AB announced construction in Sweden of a new power station burning coal dust and generating 3.5 billion kWh/a. According to forecasts of MITI coal consumption in Japan will increase to 121 Mt by 2000. It is expected that coal will become the main power fuel in USSR by 2000 in conjunction with huge coal deposits discovered recently east of the Urals. Statistics on coal imports to Europe and on world coal prodcution are given. Describes the situation in the Australian coal industry. From 100 collieries in New South Wales and Queensland, 7 have been shutdown with 21 more to follow. In the FRG the coal industry is subsidized by the state and a reduction in coal production by 29 Mt/a is expected by 1990. 8 tabs.
Full Text Available Experience from prior successful sale of many companies from different business activities, tells us that it is necessary to create approach system, flexible to different buyers and environment. The base of this system is a belief that salesmen can stimulate big buyers to make buying decisions, if the selling process is done well. Emphasis is made on practical selling techniques which are used in the whole selling process.
VINTILA DENISIA MARIANA
Full Text Available The fundamental idea of International capital flows is that short-term flows can be easily reversed, while flows on a longer time horizon are more stable. Crises are associated with withdrawals of short-term capital flows and growth of the foreign direct investment flows. The current crisis has meant a major decline of international capital flows, also of the foreign direct investment. The analysis in this article tries to establish if and under which conditions foreign direct investments can bring greater stability during the crisis, comparing the evolution of foreign direct investments in the current crisis with their response in previous crises. We show that during previous crises foreign direct investments were stable, behaving differently from other types of capital. Yet, during the current crisis, foreign direct investments have proven to be not so stable and all the components declined, raising questions about the resumption of the positive trend. The stability of foreign direct investments in the past was given by the increase of mergers and acquisitions during the crisis, reflecting fire-sale FDI. This feature is not found in the current crisis as mergers and acquisitions were severe affected by the crises and recorded a major decline. The current paper is realized in the doctoral program entitled PhD in economics at the standards of European knowledge- DoEsEc, scientific coordinator Prof. PhD Rodica Zaharia, institution The Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Faculty of International Business, period of research 2009-2012.
Muller, A.; Kolk, A.
Anecdotal evidence often suggests that multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in developing countries "exploit their multinationality" to avoid paying taxes to host governments. This article explores the concept of "responsible tax" as a corporate social responsibility (CSR) issue for MNEs,
Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Erlendsson, J.
INTRODUCTION: The multinational initiative "3e Initiative in Rheumatology - Multi-national Recommendations for the Management of Ankylosing Spondylitis 2006-7" served the primary purpose of providing specific recommendations for the management of ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthritis...
Juul Andersen, Torben
Multinational enterprise in control of dispersed overseas resources and capabilities has been linked to strategic flexibility that allows the firm to take advantage of opportunities and manage exposures imposed by changing environmental conditions. This paper analyzes the implied performance...... and risk management effects in a comprehensive sample of public firms and finds supportive evidence for the proposition that multinationality can enhance performance across industries. However, the ability to exploit upside potential and avoid downside risk is industry specific. The positive effects...... of multinationality are found particularly pronounced among firms operating in knowledge intensive service industries while firms in capital-intensive primary industries display the inverse relationships. Keywords: Strategic flexibility, Real options, Risk management...
Suliman, Wafika A
This is a descriptive study conducted at a multinational working environment, where 1500 nurses representing 52 nationalities are employed. The study aimed at exploring the predominant leadership style of nurse managers through self-evaluation and staff nurses' evaluation and the impact of working in a multinational environment on their intention to stay or quit. The value lies in its focus on leadership styles in an environment where national diversity among managers, staff, and patients is very challenging. The study included 31 nurse managers and 118 staff nurses using Bass and Avolio's (1995) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results showed that nurse managers and staff nurses reported transformational leadership as predominant with significant difference in favor of nurse managers. Participants' nationality and intention to stay or quit affected their perception of transformational leadership as a predominant style. The implications highlight the need for senior nursing management to set effective retention strategies for transformational nurse managers who work at multinational environments.
Sajadirad, Solmaz; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann
Conducting a multiple-case study in five companies from Danish industry, this paper explores how multinational companies orchestrate knowledge from their globally distributed subsidiaries for innovation. Comparisons of knowledge orchestration within headquarter and subsidiaries for improvement...... and innovation show that a combination of the dynamic use of inter-firm objects and a well-established knowledge orchestration process underlies knowledge orchestration for innovation in multinational companies, as it advances headquarters’ abilities to effectively acquire, evaluate, disseminate, and utilize...... globally distributed knowledge. This study contributes to the understanding of knowledge orchestration between headquarter and distributed subsidiaries in multinational companies and how it is related to innovation. Specifically, this paper has important implications regarding the use of inter-firm objects...
The main drivers for a Safe, Secure and Global Energy future become clear and unequivocal: Security of supply for energy sources, Low-carbon electricity generation and Extended nuclear power assuring economic nuclear energy production, safe nuclear facilities and materials, safe and secure radioactive waste management and public acceptance. Responsible use of nuclear power requires that – in addition to safety, security and environmental protection associated with NPPs operation – credible solutions to be developed for dealing with the radioactive waste produced and especially for a responsible long term radioactive waste management. The paper deals with the existing multinational initiative in nuclear fuel cycle and the technical documents sustaining the multinational/regional disposal approach. Meantime, the paper far-reaching goal is to highlight on: What is offering the multinational waste storage and disposal solutions in terms of improved nuclear security ‽
Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.
Wang Jian; Li Hanling; Wu Weiwei
China's aerospace enterprises carry on the multinational operation and participate in the international competition and the international division of labor and cooperation positively.This article first analyzs China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational business control objective and constructes its model.Then the article analyzes the tangible and intangible control mechanism of China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational operation respectively.Finally,the article constructs the model of China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational operation mechanisms.
Brem Markus; Tucha Thomas
This paper deploys Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) to elaborate on the shortcomings of “mainstream” transfer pricing in multinational firms. Departing from the notion that multinationals increasingly (re-)organize their business along multinational value chains irrespective of jurisdictional borders, the paper discusses the nature of the multinational firm and the problem of choosing the right intra-group (transfer) price. The mainstream transfer pricing approach derived from the Arm´s Lengt...
Andris A. Zoltners; Prabhakant Sinha
The sales territory alignment problem may be viewed as the problem of grouping small geographic sales coverage units into larger geographic clusters called sales territories in a way that the sales territories are acceptable according to managerially relevant alignment criteria. This paper first reviews sales territory alignment models which have appeared in the marketing literature. A framework for sales territory alignment and several properties of a good sales territory alignment are devel...
The author argues that international markets and multinational suppliers provide large benefits to utilities. It represents a long term commitment to the nuclear business that these companies will be able to supply nuclear technology on the long haul. The technology that is available around the world becomes available to everyone through the international markets and multinational suppliers. The increased experience base is seen as valuable in that errors that have been made or have not been made yet can be avoided through the transfer or experience. The security of supply is discussed as important to any utility that is operating a reactor
Full Text Available Taking into account the rising dependence of Central and Eastern Europe on multinational banks’ credits, the main purpose of the article is to identify and examine the determinants of cross-border credits through a methodology based on “push” and “pull” factors. The author presents the results of a regression analysis on the determinants of cross-border credits provided by multinational banks from EU-15 to Central and Eastern Europe over the period of 1990-2015 by using the statistical data compiled and published by the Bank for International Settlements. The obtained results suggest that global as well as home and host country level determinants influence cross-border credits but to a different extent. According to our results, higher stability and predictability of global economic environment contribute to higher cross-border credit growth. The results of the host country determinants analysis indicate that more effective and profitable economies receive more credits from multinational banks. We also find that multinational banks provide more credits to countries with small markets, low inflation rate, high external debt burden, high capital account deficit, fixed exchange rate regime, and developed institutional environment. Regarding home level determinants, we find the existence of a negative correlation between home country economic cycle and the amount of cross-border credits received by the host country, which can be explained by low economic growth in continental Europe over the period under consideration that stimulated European banks to expand lending on foreign markets with higher profit opportunities. Thus, cross-border credits appear to have been countercyclical to growth in home countries and procyclical to growth in host countries. Finally, it is found that host country level determinants play the most important role in explaining changes in cross-border credits on host countries in Central and Eastern Europe during
Full Text Available Today's world is shaped by the processes of globalization and economic liberalization, which dominantly determine the social, economic, environmental and political conditions. As part of these processes, there is an increasing rhetoric about the activities of the state to build a legal system 'ideal for attracting' foreign investment, to establish state institutions in charge of 'attracting foreign investment', and to create a business environment conducive to 'attract' foreign investment. Faced with citizen requests and pressure to create conditions for employment, in initial negotiations with foreign investors state, authorities articulate their willingness to meet these requests. The affirmative stance of governments towards the investments of multinational companies easily can be changed. Once the investment begins, the pledges made by one contracting party to the other may prove to be unrealistic and economically unjustified. The tensions generated between the host state and foreign investors jeopardize the foreign investment contract concluded by the contracting parties. Further fulfillment of contractual obligations from foreign investment contracts will be possible if the contracting parties resolve the resulting conflict through mutual negotiations. Through negotiations, the contracting parties can depreciate the impact of the changed circumstances, including a range of economic, political, legislative and environmental conditions. Initiating negotiations at the right time and conducting them in good faith may lead to a solution. Even if an agreement is not reached, the renegotiation may contribute to a better understanding of contractual partners and redefining the positions of the contracting parties.
With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the sales figures of the group for the third quarter of 2005: sales revenues in the front end division, in the reactor and services division, in the back end division and in the transmission and distribution division
The aim of this thesis was to find a best way to advertise short-term sales and reduce paper waste. Another aim was to help the seller to identify a potential customer for a specific product, by means of providing a number of people accessing an advertisement. A mobile phone is one of the widely used electronic devices by many people. Modern mobile phones support a good internet connection. Also, people carry their mobile devices with them even outside their homes. So a mobile application ...
Courty, Pascal; Li, Hao
We present a model of timing of seasonal sales where stores choose several designs at the beginning of the season without knowing wich one, if any, will be fashionable. Fashionable designs have a chance to fetch high prices in fashion markets while non-fashionable ones must be sold in a discount market. In the beginning of the season, stores charge high prices in the hope of capturing their fashion market. As the end of the season approaches with goods still on the shelves, stores adjust down...
Komtesse af Rosenborg, Desiree Christina; Buhl-Andersen, Ida; Nilsson, Line Bygvrå
This paper examines the relationship between social media engagement and financial performance of the global fast fashion company, H&M. We analyze big social data from Facebook on the seven H&M style collections that occurred during 2012 and 2013 to investigate if style icon campaigns have a larger...... effect on quarterly sales than designer collaborations. We find that style icons such as David Beckham generate more social buzz than designer collaborations. Social Set Analysis of the Facebook data shows that the overlap between the users H&M reach with their different style collections is fairly small...
... payments on the foreign status components used in export production. On its domestic sales, METC would be... of transmissions, flywheels, gear boxes, electric motors and generators, batteries, lamps, radios and... be admitted to the proposed subzone under privileged foreign status (19 CFR 146.41) or domestic (duty...
The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenue, and average revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels
Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...
Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment sales. 11.22... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Unlawful Sales Arrangements § 11.22 Consignment sales. Consignment sales are arrangements wherein the trade buyer is under no obligation to pay for distilled spirits...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Negotiated sales. 644.544 Section 644.544... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.544 Negotiated sales. (a) To private parties. Negotiated sales to private parties are not viewed with favor. Generally, such negotiated sales will be approved...
Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.
Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wholesale sales. 779.327 Section 779.327 Labor Regulations... Particular Industryâ § 779.327 Wholesale sales. A wholesale sale, of course, is not recognized as a retail sale. If an establishment derives more than 25 percent of its annual dollar volume from sales made at...
Levin, Michael A.; Peterson, Lori T.
Job openings for nonscientific business-to-business sales professionals will increase over the next 10 years. A small private university in the Midwest has developed an innovative sales course to help create professionals who are ready to fill this need. This article addresses the challenges of creating a meaningful, hands-on, experiential course…
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new product rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new products come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight selected products are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new product sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel toets die akkuraatheid van die gebruik van linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes by die bekendstelling van nuwe produkte gebaseer op verkoopsdata. Die geselekteerde nuwe produkte is uit die elektriese en elektroniese asook informasietegnologie- en kommunikasie bedrywe. Linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes word vergelyk ten opsigte van vooruitskatting deur variansie te ontleed. Die akkuraatheid word ontleed en gevolgtrekkings gemaak. Die doel is om vooruitskatting van nuwe produkverkope te verbeter.
Economists in both India and China see signs of slackening economic activity, from currency fluctuations in India to a falloff in imports, electricity consumption, and real-estate sales in China. A weakening of the economies in the two countries could be worrisome news for American colleges, for which an uptick in full-paying foreign students has…
Nekvapil, Jiri; Sherman, Tamah
This article is devoted to the linguistic, communicative and sociocultural situation in branches of multinational companies located in the Czech Republic and Hungary. There are typically several languages used in these branches. In addition to the local languages, there are the languages of the parent companies--most commonly English or German,…
Haas, Ralph Theodoor Anna de
This thesis examines the impact of multinational banks (MNBs) on the financial development of European transition countries. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the gradual deepening of the banking systems in Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries (CEB) has enabled firms to
Drs. A.J.G. Silvius
This chapter explores the theory and practice of Business & IT Alignment in multinational companies. In the first part of the chapter an overview of the theory is presented. In this part the familiar frameworks for Business & IT Alignment are put in perspective in an Alignment development model.
Paul Marginson; Jonathan Lavelle; Javier Quintanilla; Duncan Adam; Roc'o S?nchez-Mangas
Drawing on a unique international data set of multinational companies' employment practices, the authors use logistic regression analysis to address variation in the existence of and management practice toward transnational social dialogue through European Works Councils (EWCs). Adopting a contingency perspective, they find that the degree of internationalization of companies' operations and management organization, international HR structure, and the presence of workforce organization exerci...
Johannesen, Niels; Tørsløv, Thomas Rasmusen; Wier, Ludvig
We use a global dataset with information on 210,000 corporations in 102 countries to investigate whether cross-border profit shifting by multinational firms is more prevalent in less developed countries. We propose a novel technique to study aggressive profit shifting and improve the credibility ...
Eije, Henk von; Westerman, Wim
We discuss the impact of liberalisation, deregulation and the introduction of a single currency on cash management within multinationals in the euro zone. The developments in the euro zone reduce financial market imperfections in transferring cash and diminish the need for separate local cash
Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul
This article provides a counterpoint to Hashai and Buckley's article ‘Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the multinational enterprise?’ We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind thi...
Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.; Sterken, E.
This paper analyses international location decisions of corporations based on corporate governance considerations. Using firm level data on 540 Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) with 44,149 subsidiaries in 188 countries, we test whether firms with relatively good governance standards are more often
Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.
Behind pessimistic expectations regarding the future of an international climate treaty, substantial changes can be observed in company positions. Multinationals in the oil and car industries are increasingly moving toward support for the Kyoto Protocol, and take measures to address climate change.
Effectiviteit van leiderschap en diversiteit krijgen veel aandacht binnen de multinationals van vandaag. De belangrijkste reden is een groeiend geloof en vertrouwen dat leiders en diversiteit een verschil kunnen maken voor de prestatie van een organisatie. In dit onderzoek zijn deze onderwerpen
Sadreghazi, S.; Duijsters, G.M.; Dolfsma, W.; Duysters, G.M.; Costa, I.
The global economy is changing rapidly and multinational corporations (MNCs) are at the forefront of this transformation. This book provides novel and profound analyses of how MNCs and emerging economies are related, and how this relationship affects the dynamics of the global economy. In
assigned in different positions gain experience in working in multinational and multicultural environments. 25 Megan Hart, “Kansas National Guard...comes from various internet publications and printed materials provided by the online Combined Arms Research Library . Although there were not many
Case studies of British and Australian multinational corporations in the food and drink industry investigated how training and development are managed. Competency-based education and industry boards are important elements in both countries. Lack of a training culture in the industry and little innovation in training were observed. (SK)
Dam, Lammertjan; Scholtens, Bert
This study investigates how ownership concentration in European multinational firms is associated with these firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR). We employ factor analysis on responsibility data from EIRiS and use a regression analysis. Using firm-level data for almost 700 European firms,
Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F.
Attention has increased for the potential role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for MNEs to
Bos-Nehles, Anna; Bondarouk, Tanya; Labrenz, Soren
This study explores why the subsidiary line managers of multinational companies (MNCs) implement HRM practices differently than intended by headquarters. HRM implementation is understood as a process in which one has to differentiate between a range of multifaceted HRM implementation scenarios. We
A. Kolk (Ans); F. Lenfant (François)
textabstractAttention has increased for the potential role of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for
Wentling, Rose Mary; Palma-Rivas, Nilda
Interviews with eight diversity managers in multinational corporations revealed a variety of domestic and international diversity initiatives, especially in leadership and management. Formal and informal methods were used to plan them. Business unit managers were responsible for implementation. Evaluation was difficult and time consuming. (SK)
Østergaard, Christian Richter; Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Park, Eun Kyung
This chapter shows that multinational corporations play a dual role in cluster evolution through the case of the wireless communications cluster in Northern Denmark. On the one hand, they bring in resources to the cluster, such as financial resources, technology, knowledge, innovation networks, a...
Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm
The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax...
The quest for skills development perhaps accounts for why developing countries like Nigeria attract multinational corporations (MNCs) to their territories to invest in their economies. MNCs are the custodians of skills vital for social and economic transformation of any nation. However, despite their skills advantage, Nigeria ...
ILO pub. Working paper, evaluation of three case studies of decision making regarding enterprise restructuring in multinational enterprises originating in Canada, the USA and Western Europe - examines the role of management attitude, business organization, capital resources and size of enterprise in determining subsidiary enterprise creation, enterprise takeover, plant shutdown, resource allocation, labour utilization, etc. Diagrams, organigrams, references, tables.
Colby, L.J. Jr.
The author takes an existing private business venture (Barnwell) with its assets of facilities, personnel, technology and domestic business commitments (past, present, and future) and develops a role for it which will be compatible with the advancement of multinational reprocessing facilities under international control
R. Krämer (Romy)
textabstractWhat does it mean when a corporation claims to have a ‘license to operate’ in a local community? How does a member of an indigenous tribe make it to London to protest against a multinational mining company? How do managers perceive and speak about protest against their company and how
One of the aims of the NEA's Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is to work towards greater harmonisation of regulatory requirements. To achieve this aim, it is necessary that there is a degree of convergence on the safety goals that are required to be met by designers and operators. The term 'safety goals' is defined to cover all health and safety requirements which must be met: these may be deterministic rules and/or probabilistic targets. They should cover the safety of workers, public and the environment in line with the IAEA's Basic Safety Objective; encompassing safety in normal operation through to severe accidents. MDEP is also interested in how its work can be extended to future reactors, which may use significantly different technology to the almost ubiquitous LWRs used today and in the next generation, building on the close co-operation within MDEP between the regulators who are currently engaged in constructing or carrying out design reviews on new designs. For two designs this work has involved several regulators sharing their safety assessments and in some cases issuing statements on issues that need to be addressed. Work is also progressing towards joint regulatory position statements on specific assessment areas. Harmonisation of safety goals will enhance the cooperation between regulators as further developments in design and technology occur. All regulators have safety goals, but these are expressed in many different ways and exercises in comparing them frequently are done at a very low level eg specific temperatures in the reactor vessel of a specific reactor type. The differences in the requirements from different regulators are difficult to resolve as the goals are derived using different principles and assumptions and are often for a specific technology. Therefore a different approach is being investigated, starting with the top-level safety goals and try to derive a structure and means of deriving lower tier
vis-à-vis local firms and raise doubts about the assumption that more distance necessarily translates into higher costs. This article adds to this criticism with a historical analysis of German multinational enterprises in preindependence India. The case proves (1) the relevance of specific......Much of international business literature has dealt with the costs of engaging in business abroad. Recently, several authors have called into question the basic assumptions of the “liability of foreignness” argument. They plead for a more nuanced look at nationality beyond the dichotomy of foreign...... with nationality are, thus making a thorough historical analysis of commercial, political, and cultural links between host and home country indispensable....
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a) Each...
The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.
Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.
A one-size-fits-all global sales strategy that fails to take into account the cultural, regulatory, geographic, and economic differences that exist across borders is a blueprint for failure. For training organizations tasked with educating globally dispersed sales forces, the challenge is adapting to these differences while simultaneously…
De La Hoz, Alejandro; Díaz, Eduardo; Feinstein, Max Moses
In a large Colombian teaching hospital, a fifty-five-year-old woman complaining of stomach pain is examined by a foreign-exchange medical student from the United States. Speaking in Spanish, the student elicits a medical history that suggests a possible recurrence of gallstones, but nothing further. Upon discussing the patient's case in private with the attending physician, the student is shocked to learn that the patient is suffering from terminal, metastatic gastric cancer but is unaware of her diagnosis. The attending physician explains that the patient's husband instructed the health care providers not to tell the patient what her diagnosis is. The medical student feels uncomfortable withholding the diagnosis from the patient. The thought of disclosure feels equally uncomfortable, however, as it would mean contradicting the instructions of the attending physician at the host hospital as well as violating what the student suspects, but is not sure, may be acceptable medical practice in Colombia. How should the medical student proceed? © 2017 The Hastings Center.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7302 Competitive sales. ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia is a region with great potential for the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus. Global efforts to improve influenza surveillance in this region have documented the burden and seasonality of influenza viruses and have informed influenza prevention strategies, but little information exists about influenza vaccination guidelines and vaccine sales. METHODS: To ascertain the existence of influenza vaccine guidelines and define the scope of vaccine sales, we sent a standard three-page questionnaire to the ten member nations of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. We also surveyed three multinational manufacturers who supply influenza vaccines in the region. RESULTS: Vaccine sales in the private sector were <1000 per 100,000 population in the 10 countries. Five countries reported purchasing vaccine for use in the public sector. In 2011, Thailand had the highest combined reported rate of vaccine sales (10,333 per 100,000. In the 10 countries combined, the rate of private sector sales during 2010-2011 (after the A(H1N12009pdm pandemic exceeded 2008 pre-pandemic levels. Five countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam had guidelines for influenza vaccination but only two were consistent with global guidelines. Four recommended vaccination for health care workers, four for elderly persons, three for young children, three for persons with underlying disease, and two for pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of vaccine sales in Southeast Asia remains low, but there was a positive impact in sales after the A(H1N12009pdm pandemic. Low adherence to global vaccine guidelines suggests that more work is needed in the policy arena.
Econometric testing shows that push factors are major determinants of OFDI. The results demonstrate that OFDI is determined by the home country's level of economic development, the size of its home market, and its rate of growth as well as technological variables: OFDI decreases with an increase in the number of scientists in the home economy and with an increase in the share of high-tech products in overall exports, exhibiting a negative technological gap. A lagged relationship between OFDI and previous inward FDI suggests that Mathews’ linkage-leverage-learning theory is relevant in the case of PTEs.
Full Text Available Based on a heterogeneous firm set-up, we model firms’ access to the internal capital market, bank finance as well as bond finance and investigate how firms’ adjustment among multiple sources of finance affects their performance in foreign direct investment and aggregate industry productivity. We find that when facing a bank credit shock (e.g. tighter bank lending, firms with different productivities react differently. Less productive firms exit from the foreign market due to a lack of funds while the more productive resort to bond finance to sustain their multinational status. The increased demand for bond finance as compensation for decreased bank finance by the surviving multinationals exacerbates the competition in the bond market and bids up the bond return rate, which triggers a Melitz-type selection effect through the bond market and brings aggregate industry gains.However, the divestment of those failing FDI firms and the consequently reduced bond financing demand mitigate this effect.
The Gas, Electricity and Water Works Cologne (GEW) supplies 4,115 objects with district heat. The connected load totals 830,000 kJ/s, which over the last 10 years has been expanded by an average of 5.3% annually and is currently 2.2% above the national average. The extension of district heat supply has been accomplished without subsidies from the two ZIP programmes. The major objects in Cologne city are to a large extent linked to the GEW district heating network. The goal now is to win more smaller objects in the supply area. To achieve notable new connected load increases in the future, the GEW is conducting a sales promotion drive together with Cologne heating construction firms. The promotion is running under the slogan 'Magically Simple: Heating with District Heat'. Its strategy and execution are described here by the author.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study to analyze and compare the profitability of domestic (Public & Private and foreign banks operating in the Pakistan Banking market between 2004 and 2010 on quarterly basis. Total 36 Commercial Banks of Pakistani Industry have represented our sample. To control for the effect of bank ownership on performance, we split the sample into three categories: (1 domestic banks with Government Control, (2 domestic banks with Private control, and (3 foreign banks. This study also finds that foreign banks are more profitable than all domestic banks regardless of their ownership structure by applying regression analysis. This may suggest that it is better for a multinational bank to establish a subsidiary/branch rather than acquiring an “existing player” in the host country. We also found that domestic and foreign banks have different profitability determinants, i.e. factors that are important in shaping domestic banks’ profitability are not necessary important for the foreign banks and vice versa. Empirical results show that foreign banks are less affected by the macroeconomic factors of the host country than domestic banks and they have a higher profitability margin in Pakistan.
Dischinger, Matthias; Riedel, Nadine
Using a large panel data set for European firms, this paper provides evidence that operations at multinational headquarters are significantly more profitable than perations at their foreign subsidiaries. The effect turns out to be robust and quantitatively large. Our findings suggest that the profitability gap is partly driven by agency costs which arise if value-driving functions are managed by a subsidiary that is geographically separated from the headquarters management. In line with falli...
Ruwe, A.H. Jr.
A listing is given of Mound Facility's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur for Fiscal Year 1977. Purchasers are listed alphabeticaly and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. A cross-reference index by location is included for domestic customers. Cross-reference listings by isotope purchased are included for all customers
A listing is given of Mound Laboratory's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur for Fiscal Year 1975. Purchasers are listed alphabetically and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. A cross reference index by location is included for domestic customers. Cross reference listings by isotope purchased are included for all customers
Ruwe, A.H. Jr.
A listing is given of Mound Facility's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur for Fiscal Year 1981. Purchasers are listed alphabetically and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. A cross-reference index by location is included for domestic customers. Cross-reference listings by isotope purchased are included for all customers
The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels
Slangen, A.H.L.; van Tulder, R.J.M.
It is well accepted that multinational enterprises (MNEs) prefer equity joint ventures (JVs) over wholly owned subsidiaries (WOSs) in foreign countries where the formal and informal external environment is highly uncertain. Many entry mode studies have modeled the external uncertainty faced by MNEs
This paper synthesises the existing literature on human capital formation and foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries. The aim is to take a bird's eye view of the complex linkages between the activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and policies of host developing countries. In doing so, general trends, best practices and…
Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad
Using a database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises (MNE) in Poland and the intra-industry trade of their...... become a more important mode of organization for multinational enterprises as Poland has evolved into a relatively stable economic environment where MNEs feel comfortable basing their regional operations.......Using a database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises (MNE) in Poland and the intra-industry trade...... of their affiliates (IIAT). We find labour intensity; scale economies and absorptive capacity of affiliates are the main explanatory variables for IIAT. Given the overall rise in export and import intensities of foreign affiliates over the period of investigation, our findings suggest that export-platform FDI has...
The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.
The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.
Germano Glufke Reis
Full Text Available This study investigates the simultaneous influences of culture and global mindedness on the foreign subsidiaries of Brazilian multinationals (B rMNs. Because the ability to develop competences abroad is critical for emerging multina tionals competitiveness, we proposed hypotheses and tested a model for how the competenc es of subsidiaries may be affected by the dimensions of global mindedness and culture. To do so, we conducted a multilevel survey involving the headquarters and subsidiaries of majo r BrMNs. The results suggest that global mindedness, which encompasses global orientation, g lobal knowledge, and global skills, is positively related to the development of subsidiari es ́ competences. By contrast, cultural factors, including power distance and uncertainty a voidance, are negatively related to competences development. Therefore, these dimension s may exert simultaneous and opposing stimuli and unaligned forces that affect the develo pment of competences abroad, generating a “tug of war” effect.
Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna
on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks...... and non value-chain networks; because they may provide the subsidiary knowledge with market opportunities that it lacks and that the other types of networks cannot effectively provide. However, value-chain networks have a negative effect on entrepreneurial output of a subsidiary operating...... in an environment of high uncertainty; because they can constrain the exploration and creation of new knowledge that cannot be provided by any of the networks. Contrary to our expectations, the combined effect of value-chain and non-value chain networks has a negative influence on entrepreneurial output; and...
Full Text Available The competitiveness of multinational corporations is a particularly complex concept due to the fact that at present this type of company represents economic entities which continue to develop in the context of the process of internationalization and the transition to the use of global strategies. Competitiveness is a competition between corporations for new positions on the markets. With regard to the competitiveness of multinational corporations, the most accurate description was given by Gilbert Abraham Frois who believed these businesses must think globally, but act locally. In the competitive global market, emphasis is laid on plus – the value given by the competitiveness of the human element, taking into account the fact that the human resource doesn’t run out, and its value doesn’t decrease over time, but on the contrary, its value increases on condition that it is rigorously managed and developed.
Boutellier, C.; McCombie, C.; Mele, I.
Concepts for shared multinational repositories face a great challenge in achieving acceptance, despite the fact that they promise advantages in safety, security, environmental protection and costs. When considering advantages of shared multinational repositories, it is instructive to examine which are the ethical, legal and political issues that mostly affect the feasibility of implementing such facilities. This paper addresses the key questions from two opposite sides. The early part takes a 'top-down' view, looking at the international debate on ethical issues, summarising a wide range of national political attitudes and identifying relevant international legislation and treaties. The latter looks 'bottom-up' at the problem, by discussing the situation of a small country, Slovenia. Slovenia has limited financial resources for implementing disposal - but it has a firm commitment to fulfilling its responsibilities for safely managing all Radioactive Wastes (RAW) arising in the country. Strategies considered to do so are laid out in this paper. (author)
Koehler, JR, W C
The growth of energy demand projected for Latin America could be met by nuclear generated electricity if a multinational arrangement can be set up to meet the proliferation containment requirements and develop economies of scale that are satisfactory to all parties. A regionalized fuel-cycle center is outlined as a possible prototype for Latin America. A satisfactory operation there would indicate export feasibiltiy of the concept to other developing areas. The international strategies already in place have a heavy emphasis on weapons proliferation and have not been adequate. A multinational fuel-cycle concept with co-location technologies has the advantages of cost sharing, acceptable safeguards, and institutional barriers to proliferation. Security and cooperation between participants could be problems. 17 references. (DCK)
The mission objectives, findings of an on-site visit, and recommendations of a multinational United Nations team who assessed the Komi oil spill in Russia were discussed, combined with a discussion of the findings and field work of Russian investigators, whose work preceded that of the UN team. Concern was expressed over spring flooding as a unique problem that might well complicate the cleanup. Areas of serious concern were identified by the group and recommendations for remediation were made, and described in detail. It was found that the multinational team approach was a successful answer in this particular situation in that the diverse backgrounds and experiences of the team members resulted in better solutions and recommendations for remediation than would have been possible otherwise. Access to information provided by EMERCOM (the Russian Ministry for Emergency Response to Natural Disasters) and the Russian consulting firm, helped the UN team in overcoming time constraints and other obstructions affecting their work. 5 refs., 2 figs.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the drivers of the international expansion of emerging market multinationals and the strategies applied by these companies in other emerging and developed markets. The paper applies a conceptual approach combined with analyses of statistics and secondary material and presents the company and the country specific advantages. The proposals for the Romanian companies and institutions are based on the comparison between the drivers of expansion in the BRIC countries.
Fortuin, Frances T.J.M.; Batterink, Maarten H.; Omta, S.W.F. (Onno)
The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) assesses a companyâ€™s drivers and barriers to innovation and benchmarks the critical success and failure factors of its innovation projects with data of agrifood prospector companies around the world. The present paper discusses its application in 12 multinational agrifood prospector companies in the Netherlands and France. It is concluded that WIAT by uncovering the tacit knowledge of the innovation project team creates opportunities for subs...
Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles
multinational corporations. The ERP distribution decision in MNCs has been mainly associated with the corporate strategy and governance structure. As global ERP deployment benefits mainly come from business consolidation, and as there are significant costs and risks associated with centralized ERP...... to be more directly affected by the factors prohibiting further divergence, namely the corporate business process governance structure and the degree of similarity of its business models....
Aleksandra Patoska; Branko Dimeski
The process of globalization and liberalization is further accelerated by the growing expansion of multinational companies in post-communist transition countries. Transition countries improve their technological development, increase the exports and gain better access to global markets. On other hand, global companies maximize their profits by employing cheaper resources, paying lower taxes and using a number of benefits that the transition countries offer to them. The main purpose of the pap...
Purpose - Although the wireless internet attracts more and more interest from marketers and researchers, there is little empirical evidence of multinational corporations' (MNCs) adoption of pulltype mobile advertising in global markets. The aim of this study is to fill this research gap, by conducting an empirical survey of the perceptions of MNCs operating in Europe regarding SMSbased mobile advertising adoption. Design/methodology/approach - The study proposes six basic const...
Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm
The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs – here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax manipulation instrument –, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large. Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs. ...
With the increasing emergence of multinational companies and the increased popularity of these companies, the question of the organization of their activities becomes interesting for the HR community worldwide. These companies are renowned for deliberate management structure of human resources and their effective use. For effective use of employees’ skills and knowledge the company has to constantly motivate them by intrinsic and extrinsic motivational tools. Motivational tools which use a co...
The allowance trading market has started a slow march to maturity. Competitive developers should understand the risks and opportunities now presented. The marketplace for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions allowances - the centerpiece of Title 4's acid rain reduction program - remains enigmatic 19 months after the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 were passed. Yet it is increasingly clear that the emission allowance market will likely confound the gloom and doom of its doubters. The recently-announced $10 million dollar Wisconsin Power and Light allowance sales to Duquesne Light and the Tennessee Valley Authority are among the latest indications of momentum toward a stabilizing market. This trend puts additional pressure on independent developers to finalize their allowance strategies. Developers who understand what the allowance trading program is and what it is not, know the key players, and grasp the unresolved regulatory issues will have a new competitive advantage. The topics addressed in this article include the allowance marketplace, marketplace characteristics, the regulatory front, forward-looking strategies, and increasing marketplace activity
A fusion machine, in the form of a sphere small enough to fit on a desktop, is described. It can be switched on and off at will and produces virtually no radioactive waste. The fusion sphere creates an electric potential which forms deuterium ions into beams and accelerates them towards the centre. Nuclei of deuterium inside a central spherical wire grid fuse to create neutrons, helium -3 and traces of hydrogen and tritium. The rudimentary device is expected to go on sale in a commercial form in 1998. The immediate applications are those which require a yield of neutrons falling in the range 10 7 to 10 10 neutrons per second. This is expected to be well within the capability of the sphere and would allow neutron activation analysis to be carried out for the detection of hidden high explosives in airport baggage checks, or impurities in ores as they are mined for example. With higher neutron yields other applications such as the treatment of tumours could become viable but the technical problems are likely to multiply with the increasing yields. (UK)
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains data on all Real Property parcels that have sold since 2013 in Allegheny County, PA. Before doing any market analysis on property sales, check...
The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is a multinational initiative to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities that are, or will shortly be, undertaking the review of new reactor power plant designs. MDEP incorporates a broad range of activities including enhancing multilateral co-operation within existing regulatory frameworks, and increasing multinational convergence of codes, standards, guides, and safety goals. A key concept throughout the work of MDEP is that national regulators retain sovereign authority for all licensing and regulatory decisions. Working groups are implementing the activities in accordance with programme plans with specific activities and goals, and have established the necessary interfaces both within and outside of MDEP. This report provides a status of the programme after its eighth year of implementation. Content: Executive Summary; 1 - Introduction; 2 - Programme goals and outcomes; 3 - Programme implementation (Membership, Organizational structure, MDEP Library, Common positions); 4 - Interactions with other organizations; 5 - Current activities (EPR Working Group (EPRWG), AP1000 Working Group (AP1000WG), APR1400 Design-specific Working Group (APR1400WG), VVER Working Group (VVERWG), ABWR Working Group (ABWRWG), Vendor Inspection Co-operation Working Group (VICWG), Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG), Digital Instrumentation and Controls Working Group (DICWG); 6 - Interim results; 7 - Next steps - future of the programme; appendix 1: List of abbreviations and acronyms; Appendix 2: Revised documents and publications; Appendix 3: Photographs of reactors considered within MDEP
Full Text Available Over the past few years, large multinational companies originating from Russia have shown outstanding performances alongside their road from regional dominance to global leaders. Taking stock of recent approaches in the literature and statistical data released by well-known international organizations, our papers aims to provide some new insights from the amazing universe of Russian multinationals, following the 2008-2009 global economic crisis. The list of the largest multinationals from Russia shows that corporations from oil & gas and metallurgical sector are prevailing, as a consequence of the resource – based character of the Russian economy. Although Russian giants represents a quite heterogeneous class of companies, they do share several common features such as their propel mechanism of expansion on the global business stage (leveraged by the resource-based nature of their home economy, their tendency to invest in the neighboring countries (like Commonwealth of Independent States or East European countries, their modes of entry (through brownfield projects etc.
The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is a multinational initiative to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities who are, or will shortly be, undertaking the review of new reactor power plant designs. MDEP incorporates a broad range of activities including enhancing multilateral co-operation within existing regulatory frameworks, and increasing multinational convergence of codes, standards, guides and safety goals. A key concept throughout the work of MDEP is that national regulators retain sovereign authority for all licensing and regulatory decisions. Working groups are implementing the activities in accordance with programme plans with specific activities and goals, and have established the necessary interfaces both within and outside of MDEP. This report provides a status of the programme after its seventh year of implementation. Content: Executive summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Programme goals and outcomes; 3. Programme implementation (Membership, Organisational structure, MDEP Library, Common positions); 4. Interactions with other organisations; 5. Current activities (EPR Working Group (EPRWG), AP1000 Working Group (AP1000WG), APR1400 Working Group (APR1400WG), VVER Working Group (VVERWG), AVBWR Working Group (ABWRWG), Vendor Inspection Co-operation Working Group (VICWG), Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG), Digital Instrumentation and Controls Working Group (DICWG)); 6. Interim results; 7. Next steps - Future of the programme; Appendix 1 - List of abbreviations and acronyms; Appendix 2 - Revised documents and publications; Appendix 3 - Photographs of reactors considered within MDEP
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be at prices offered through the competitive...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales methods. 291.90 Section 291....90 Sales methods. HUD will prescribe the terms and conditions for all methods of sale. HUD may, in... following methods of sale: (a) Future REO acquisition method. The Future Real Estate-Owned (REO) acquisition...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiated sales. 290.13 Section... DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS AND SALE OF HUD-HELD MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.13 Negotiated sales. When HUD conducts a negotiated sale...
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct sales. 73.72 Section 73.72... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.72 Direct sales. Allowances that were formerly part of the direct sale program, which has been terminated under...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sales services. 245.7306... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7306 Sales services. When sale services are needed, the plant clearance officer will document the reasons in...
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental sales. 256.12 Section 256.12..., General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale in accordance with the provisions of this section. (b) Supplemental sales shall be governed by the regulations in this...
Gjedrem, William Gilje
Master's thesis in Finance In this paper I analyze whether an intervention program increases productivity and sales, by reducing potential procrastination problems that employees face at work. The intervention was introduced to stores in a large retail chain in Norway, and contained different tools that could lead to lower perceived costs of higher effort. In a difference-in-differences analysis I find that the intervention increases sales after a 14 weeks long implementation period. Fu...
This document presents the sales revenue of the 3. quarter 2006 for the Group AREVA. The sales revenues for the first nine months of 2006 are up by 8,1% to 7,556 millions euros; the nuclear operations are up by 5,2% reflecting strong performance in the front end division; the transmission and distribution division is up by 14%. (A.L.B.)
Danny Pimentel Claro
Full Text Available This paper argues that an informal network can itself be a basis for the increase in a sales manager’s performance. Informal networks create a structure that surpasses the formal hierarchical structure defined by the firm. We concentrated on the advice network and considered two different views of network structure that claim to have impact on performance. To explore this claim, we examined whether sales managers develop either a highly cohesive network structure (i.e. Coleman’s view or one containing structural holes (i.e. Burt’s view in order to achieve higher sales. We also investigated the matter of tie strength put forward by Granovetter in his seminal 1973 work. Census data was collected from about 500 personnel from an agricultural input retailer having 23 divisions. Estimates from a sample of 101 sales managers showed the importance of a highly cohesive structure (degree centrality for the three measures of sales manager’s performance. The strong ties have a positive impact on performance, suggesting the importance of building up strong bonds with network contacts. Sales managers’ age, time within the retailer and education also influence performance. These results imply that firms should stimulate contacts among personnel to spread technical and commercial information.
Priscila Rezende da Costa
Full Text Available The objective of this article was to evaluate the technological and managerial elements that determine the results of the cooperability in Brazilian multinationals (BMN.We conducted a survey among the universe of BMN and the data analysis was supported by Cronbach's Alpha testing, factorial analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis. As a conclusion of the study on the elements of the technological trajectory, we found that the greater the experience in R&D in the headquarters, the more effective will be the technological results of cooperability and the greater the accumulated experience in R&D in foreign subsidiaries and international cooperation the more effective will be the managerial results of cooperability. We also found that the greater the degree of relevance of strategies for technological capacity building the more effective will be the results of cooperability, both technological and managerial. The aggregated analysis of technological inputs showed that the higher the investments in R&D and the number of internal and cooperative projects the more effective will be the technological results. However, as the company expands its project portfolio, grow the difficulties regarding alignment and management of the BMN, which may adversely affect the managerial results of cooperability.
Full Text Available Interpersonal communication tends to guide the way of management in companies worldwide. For multinational company, where expatriate is exist to blend with local partners or employee, the way they communicate to each other will determine the future of their company communication activities. The result of this research could be utilized by foreign managers and their Indonesian colleagues. Based on this research, which is supported by qualitative and literature methods, it can be found the effective method of communication to enhance job performance. The purpose of qualitative method that used by the author is to gain much information from employees and foreign managers in several companies. Besides interviewing them, author also joined in their interpersonal. The effective way of interpersonal communication to improve employee working performance is to form a sharing forum, informal meetings or communities of practice.
Di Minin, Alberto; Zhang, Jieyin; Gammeltoft, Peter
’ investment in R&D in Europe, focusing on three different aspects: technology exploration vs. technology exploitation as investment motive; locational strategies for R&D investments; and the dynamics of motives of overseas R&D units. The analysis proceeds to draw out differences between the R...... rather than technological innovation, as the extant literature tends to assume. Chinese R&D units appear to evolve often from a strategy of pure technology exploration, over fusion of foreign technologies with R&D activities back home, into one of technology exploitation in foreign locations.......&D internationalization process of multinationals from developed economies and those from emerging economies. Evidence of Chinese R&D internationalization is provided through analyses of five cases of international R&D units set up by Chinese companies in Europe: ZTE Corporation, JAC Motors, Chang’an Motors, Hisense...
Jiménez Peña, Gabriel
This paper focuses on the role of the multinational corporations in the Colombian peace process. First a theoretical frame work is built which aims to shed light on the significance of multinationals in this process. The study then presents the specific Colombian experience with relation to the role of multinationals in the peace process. The penultimate section deals with the relation between peace, corporate social responsibility, and the UN Global Compact. Finally it offers a conclusion wi...
Mullins, C Daniel; Sikirica, Mirko; Seneviratne, Viran; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Akhras, Kasem S
This study identifies and compares the individual cost components of hospital and ambulatory services that manage the care of hypertensive patients in eight countries: the US, the UK, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Canada and Australia. Hypertension-related costs are classified according to four major cardiovascular events: (i) acute myocardial infarction; (ii) congestive heart failure; (iii) stroke; and (iv) renal failure, which was subdivided into renal failure treated by dialysis and renal failure treated by kidney transplantation. To make cross-country costs comparisons, we used the DRG codes used in the US and DRG-like codes from each country. US cost information was obtained from hypertension data available from the literature and health economics researchers. For costs in other countries, we consulted with national health economics experts in each country, used analyses by the Research Triangle Institute, and performed Medline and international literature searches. When available, we obtained information from the countries' public and private nationally representative data sources. For cross-country currency adjustments, all currencies were converted using the Purchasing Power Parities from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and then converted into inflation-adjusted year 2000 US dollars. There exists considerable variation in hypertension-related costs from multinational clinical studies. This study documents that costs are generally higher in the US than in other countries; however, this is not always true. In particular, costs of treating heart failure in France and the costs of renal failure without transplantation in Germany and the UK are relatively high. While analysing multinational hypertensive cost data, this study also addresses the impact of cross-country cost variations on cost analyses. During the last decade, drug-development researchers have drawn extensively upon multinational trials to resolve enrollment problems and
The Multinational Design Evaluation Program (MDEP) is a multinational initiative to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities that are currently, or will shortly be, undertaking the review of new reactor power plant designs. MDEP was launched in 2006. In the past ten years, MDEP's reputation as an effective organisation for leveraging the resources and experiences of multiple nations in the regulatory review of new reactors has grown significantly. As a result, the portfolio of new reactor designs that are being addressed have increased from two in 2006 to five in 2017, with a possibility of adding more new reactor designs in the coming years. MDEP's membership has grown from the original 10 national regulators to 15. Over the past year, MDEP design specific working groups have all completed their common positions to address the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on new reactor designs. New reactor commissioning activities are a major part of all design specific working groups. The EPR and AP1000 Working Groups are particularly active in this area, as together they are overseeing 12 new reactor constructions worldwide. The design specific working groups have finalised a common position to provide high-level guidance to applicants and licensees that wish to take credit for a first plant only test (FPOT). This common position was first implemented in March 2017 at the Taishan 1 plant in China, where regulators and licensees from the United Kingdom, France and Finland witnessed reactor pressure vessel internals vibration tests. The FPOT marked a significant milestone for MDEP since it provided a unique opportunity for regulators involved to demonstrate the efficiency of using common positions to effectively collaborate and share information on test results. This model should be followed as much as possible in other MDEP co-operation areas. Another significant step in multinational regulatory co
As of June 30, 2008, AREVA's backlog stood at 38.1 billion euro, for 13.6% growth since June 30, 2007, with 9.9% growth in Nuclear and 40.7% growth in Transmission and Distribution. In Nuclear, the backlog came to 32.3 billion euro as of the end of June 2008. In the front end of the cycle, AREVA signed multi-year contracts in the first half of the year with Japanese and American utilities and with EDF, for a combined total of more than 1 billion euro. Of note in the back end of the cycle is the contract AREVA signed with the U.S. Department of Energy to build a MOX fuel fabrication facility. In Transmission and Distribution, the backlog came to 5.8 billion euro as of the end of period. A total of 3.2 billion euro in orders was booked in the first half, an increase of 20.0% year-on-year. The division won several important contracts, most notably a contract with Dubai Electricity (more than 130 million euro), a contract with National Grid and RTE for the renovation of the IFA 2000 grid interconnection between France and Great Britain (more than 60 million euro), and, in the industrial field, a contract with Rio Tinto Alcan (close to 65 million euro). The group cleared revenue of 6.2 billion euro in the first half of 2008, up 14.8% (+16.4% like-for-like) compared with the first half of 2007. Sales outside France were up 14.3% to 4.2 billion euro or 68.6% of total sales; the latter were stable compared with the first half of 2007. All businesses were up, with growth of 15.9% in Nuclear operations (+19.1% LFL1) - particularly in Reactors and Services (+31.3% LFL1) - and 13.0% growth in Transmission and Distribution operations (+12.0% LFL T 1). Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 155 million euro, primarily due to the change in the U.S. dollar in relation to the euro. Changes in the consolidated group had a positive impact of 97 million euro, mainly reflecting acquisitions in the Transmission and Distribution division and in Renewable Energies. Sales revenue for
This thesis makes an analysis of price and terms of payment in the sales contract. Both elements are conceived in terms of legal framework and in terms of importance for the parties to an international sales contract. The theoretical part deals with the role of the sales contract in business relations, structure and legal norms of the international sales contract. The practical part includes an analysis of specific international sales contract.
Lauring, Jakob; Jonassson, Charlotte
It has been argued that multinational teams create a number of competitive advantages when used strategically. However, multinational teams are not always successful, and a number of studies indicate that communication between team members may be the main obstacle. The purpose of this article...... is to investigate communication problems in organizations consisting of multinational teams. It is argued that researchers should not only look for differences in national culture when analyzing barriers to the communication flow. Challenges to communication may also develop in the locally constituted...... organizational culture. This is illustrated by an ethnographic field study in a multinational department of a Danish organization....
Full Text Available How do institutional voids influence emerging market multinationals (EMNEs foreign direct investment (FDI in developing countries? In this article we respond to this question by examining Brazilian FDI in Angola as our analytical setting. We focus on the host country’s institutions and its institutional voids as essential factors that attract the FDI of EMNES to developing countries. The research indicates that Brazilian companies fill in much of these voids within the market intermediaries, often creating a point of competitive advantage, and also creating advantages in relation to FDI from other economies that invest in Angola. The scarce literature on FDI in Africa has been largely dedicated to the analysis of Chinese investment in the region. We aim to complement recent research on the influence of the host country’s institutions on the behavior of FDI in developing countries, explaining how some EMNEs are able to use the institutional voids of developing countries as market opportunities. Our findings should provide also implications for EMNEs managers from other emerging markets by providing a better understanding of how Brazilian multinationals expand their business in less developed countries, handle institutional voids and manage relationships with local and foreign institutions in the host country.
... and currency swap contracts or other national principal contracts) by regularly and actively offering...) Gain from commodities transactions as defined in paragraph (f) of this section; (iv) Foreign currency... derived from a qualified hedging transaction or qualified active sales), or foreign currency gain under...
Constantly advancing market-led interest rate led to the financial institution traditional business profit margins shrinking. Finance companies which are financial institutions within the enterprise groups withstand greater impact than commercial banks. Therefore, the financial company's top priority is to expand the intermediary business, including settlement and sales, and to develop new profit growth point. This paper compares the existing domestic and foreign currency clearing modes and their efficiencies, combines with the company's business situation, and makes corresponding analysis of the prior preparations and considerations of conducting settlement and sales. (author)
Zimmermann, Jörg; Sofka, Wolfgang
Many modern firms compete globally. However, research is inconclusive on whether foreignness provides an asset or a liability in competition with domestic firms. We argue that foreign MNC subsidiaries are not per se advantaged or disadvantaged. We suggest that the distinction originates from...... the nature of the subsidiary’s activity in the host country. We focus on two activities: knowledge search and deployment. We predict theoretically that domestic firms have advantages from their embeddedness in the host country when they search for knowledge. However, foreign MNC subsidiaries have advantages...... in knowledge deployment because they draw from a richer, international knowledge pool. Still, these advantages accrue to all multinational firms, foreign and domestic. We test and support these predictions for a longitudinal dataset of 2900 firm observations in Spain. We develop recommendations for research...
US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...
Full Text Available ... the body. When your physician suspects that a blunt foreign body is stuck in the esophagus, you ... tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the digestive tract by ...
Full Text Available ... foreign objects that have been ingested through the mouth or airway or introduced into the soft tissues. ... through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the ...
Full Text Available ... can leak into the bowel and cause mercury poisoning. Magnetic toys can obstruct the bowel when they ... soft tissue foreign body, contact your physician immediately. Treatment will depend on the type of foreign body ...
Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...
US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...
Full Text Available ... able to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in ... helps dilate, or widen, the esophagus. This helps advance the foreign body into the stomach, from where ...
Dr. A.O.A. Ogunleye
A large variety of foreign bodies may be encountered in the external auditory meatus 1 . The objects may be organic or inorganic. Organic foreign bodies include paper, cotton wool, rubber, seeds, etc while inorganic objects include beads, ball bearings, stones, and crayons 1- 4. Foreign bodies are inserted into the ear.
Full Text Available Purpose and/or objectives: The primary objective of this study is to empirically test Kotler's (2003 high-performance model which ensures an increase in sales growth. More specifically, the study explores the influence of process variables (as measured by marketing strategies, resources management (as measured by the management of labour, materials, machines, information technology and energy and organisational variables (as measured by TQM and organisational culture on sales growth in the food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing industries. Problem investigated Various research studies suggest that the managers of firms are continuously challenged in their attempts to increase their sales (Morre, 2007; Pauwels, Silva Risso, Srinivasan & Hanssens, 2004: 142-143; Gray & Hayes, 2007: 1. Kotler (2003 suggests a model that leads to a high performing business. The question is posed as to whether this model can be used to increase sales growth in all businesses. This study seeks to develop a generic model to increase sales growth across industries by using an adapted version of Kotler's (2003 high-performance model. The study investigates the application of this adapted model on the food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing industries. Design and/or methodology and/or approach: An empirical causal research design that includes 770 marketing and product development practitioners from multinational food, motorcar and high-technology manufacturing firms, was used in this study. A response rate of 76.1% was achieved as only 571 useable questionnaires were returned. The internal reliability and discriminant validity of the measuring instrument were assessed by the calculation of Cronbach alpha coefficients and the conducting an exploratory factor analysis respectively. Structural Equation Modelling SEM was used to statistically test the relationships between the independent variables (marketing strategies, resource management, TQM and
Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard
foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...
The aim of this action based thesis was to create new sales material in English for international sales of Holiday Club Katinkulta. The material concentrates on the services offered in the spa hotel side. The spa hotel was sold to its former owner Holiday Club Resorts ltd during the thesis writing process and all sales material required updating after the ownership change. The new sales material is produced for the aid of daily sales work of sales representatives in the field of internati...
Full Text Available The fundamental objective of this paper was to identify and analyze the main antecedents of sales organization effectiveness in order to offer the guidelines for improving the standard sales practice. In addition to the customary challenges of achieving anticipated sales results, rising pressures of the contemporary business environment underscore the importance of establishing a more effective sales organization. The aim of the empirical research was to identify the sources of effectiveness of sales organizations based on the comparison between two groups of organizations, namely, the relatively high and low performing ones. The concept of sales performance was observed through five distinct factors: sales management activities, sales force characteristics, sales organization design and sales force effectiveness with regard to the sales outcome of these organizations and their behavior. The analysis of the results led to the conclusion that the most important sources of sales effectiveness are the activities of sales managers targeted towards monitoring and rewarding. Moreover, sales managers in relatively more effective organizations reported much higher satisfaction with the design of sales territories. Sales people in effective companies are highly motivated and committed to the organization. In addition, they are also considerably better at achieving high levels of outcome performance. The research presents an addition to a number of similar studies conducted worldwide but, more importantly, it contributes to the exceptionally small number of sales management studies carried out in Croatia. For a more complete analysis it would be necessary to include the variables of the external environment and examine the potential moderating impact of product type and industry on the overall sales effectiveness.
Liberalisation of the electricity market pushes Slovak distribution companies to upgrade their sale technologies. The first one to invest into a complex electronic sales system will be Stredoslovenska energetika, a.s., Zilina. The system worth 200 million Sk (4,83 million Euro) will be supplied by Polish software company Winuel. The company should also supply a software that would allow forecasting and planning of sales. The system should be fully operational by 2006. TREND has not managed to obtain information regarding plans Zapadoslovenska energetika - the largest and most active distribution company - might have in this area. In eastern Slovakia distribution company Vychodoslovenska energetika, a.s., Kosice has also started addressing this issue. (Author)
Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg
Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced
Ram, Srinivasan; Smith, M.E.; Walker, T.F.
The next generation of nuclear plants would be fabricated, constructed and licensed in markedly different ways than the present light water reactors. Non-traditional commercial nuclear industry suppliers, shipyards in Usa and international fabricators, would be a source to supply major components and subsystems. The codes of construction may vary depending upon the prevailing codes and standards used by the respective supplier. Such codes and standards need to be reconciled with the applicable regulations (e.g., 10 CFR 52). A Construction Inspection Program is an integral part of the Quality Assurance Measures required during the Construction Phase of the power plant. In order to achieve the stated cost and schedule goals of the new build plants, a nontraditional multi-national approach would be required. In lieu of the traditional approach of individual utility inspecting the quality of fabrication and construction, a multi-utility team approach is a method that will be discussed. Likewise, a multinational cooperative licensing approach is suggested taking advantage of inspectors of the regulatory authority where the component would be built. The multi-national approach proposed here is based on the principle of forming teaming agreements between the utilities, vendors and the regulators. For instance, rather than sending Country A's inspectors all over the world, inspectors of the regulator in Country B where a particular component is being fabricated would in fact be performing the required inspections for Country A's regulator. Similarly teaming arrangements could be set up between utilities and vendors in different countries. The required oversight for the utility or the vendor could be performed by their counterparts in the country where a particular item is being fabricated
Juul Andersen, Torben
and economic risks that can be monitored within conventional reporting systems and managed through use of various derivative instruments. All the while, a dispersed multinational structure can be vulnerable to disruptions caused by changing economic conditions, competitive moves, and geopolitical developments......-frequency high-impact disaster events based on scenario analyses. Hence, there is a need to consider risk management approaches that integrate relatively transparent financial exposures with the consequences of uncertain and hard-to-quantify event risks. This paper outlines the contours of such a strategic risk...
R&D. This paper establishes the connection between amultinational corporation that follows a capability-motivated acquisition strategy and theR&D role new subsidiaries should play in order for the acquired resources to be utilizedcorporation-wide. Statistical findings reveal the need to follow......This paper presents the results of a survey of 54 Danish multinational corporations that haveacquired activities abroad. The role of the acquired R&D units was the focus of the survey,particularly with respect to the schism between basic and applied R&D, and the schismbetween autonomous and network...
Pierre Moscovici, the European Commissioner for economy and taxation, met in Brussels with representatives of the S&D fraction in de European Parliament, and of the European Trade Unions. All want the Member States to approve a novel temporary tax on big internet multinationals such as Apple, fB, Google, Amazon; and this before the EP elections of 2019. The number of customers and income from advertisements will be used as tax base. Paul Tang, MEP for the PvdA (NL), is leading the campaign a...
Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Minbaeva, Dana
As multinational corporations operate in multiple countries, headquarters must take into account differences in local settings when seeking the means to coordinate and control subsidiaries. The local system of industrial relations sets the framework for what kind of human resource management......, that a shift from a stakeholder to a shareholder management style and an increased degree of HQ control have an effect on the whole cooperative atmosphere in each of the companies. In the long run, they may affect the collective bargaining system as such....
textabstractWhat does it mean when a corporation claims to have a ‘license to operate’ in a local community? How does a member of an indigenous tribe make it to London to protest against a multinational mining company? How do managers perceive and speak about protest against their company and how does this discourse matter for social movement repression? First, I argue, based on a literature review, that responsiveness to local community needs has become an important factor influencing the ab...
Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter
The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes...... in the shape of physical capital transfers. We therefore turn to an empirical analysis of the relationship between FDI and disaggregated aid flows. Our results strongly support the hypotheses that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in foreign capital while aid invested in physical capital crowds out...
This press release brings information on the AREVA group sales data. First quarter 2005 sales for the group were 2,496 millions of euros, up 3,6% year-on-year from 2,41 millions. The change in foreign exchange rates between the two periods show a negative impact of 22 millions euros, which is much lower than in the first quarter of 2004. It analyzes also in more details the situation of the front end, the reactors and service division, the back end division, the transmission and distribution division and the connectors division. (A.L.B.)
Gusc, J.S.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.
Using transaction cost theory and the theory of multinational enterprise, this study examines the extent of the degree to which management of multinational companies can control over its subsidiaries' configuration and coordination abilities. Empirical results showed that the subsidiaries enjoyed a
This study examines the international risks faced by multinational enterprises to understand their impact on the evaluation of investment projects. Moreover, it establishes a 'three-dimensional' theoretical framework of risk identification to analyse the composition of international risk indicators of multinational enterprises based on the theory…
Farndale, E.; Brewster, C.; Poutsma, F.
The impact of institutionalized contexts on the HRM activities of multinational firms has become a focus of increasing attention in recent literature. However, theories of how different types of business systems or market economies may influence HRM, and the impact of context on multinational
Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign-exclusively Exhibition Corporations In Feb, Ministry of Commerce issued its 1st decree on temporary regulation for foreign-investing corporations; the regulation allows foreign investors to set up foreign-investing convention & exhibition corporations exclusively or through cooperation with other Chinese corporations, enterprises or organizations. With legal protection on their regulatory management and legal rights, these foreign-investing corporations are in the charge of Department of Foreign Investment Administration, Ministry of Commerce.
case study of Nicaragua deeper than the previous thesis. It relates a study to the larger, ongoing dialogue in the literature, filling in gaps and...RUSSIA FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA — CASE STUDY OF NICARAGUA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...countries, in which case further publication or sale of copyrighted images is not permissible. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...
General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...
Grimmett, Richard F
This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...
Grimmett, Richard F
This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated sales log which collects information on sales of raw coral, including weight and revenue. Also includes seller and buyer information....