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Sample records for multileaf collimator hd-mlc

  1. Introduction and feasibility study of the HD-270 MLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Young; Kim Won Taek; Lee, Hwa Jung; Lee, Kang Hyeok

    2003-01-01

    The multileaf collimator(MLC) has many advantages, but use of the MLC increased effective penumbra and isodose undulation in dose distribution compared with that of an alloy block. In this work, we introduced the HD-270 MLC, which can improve the above disadvantages of MLC, and reported its feasibility study. The HD-270 MLC is a technique which combines the use of the existing Siemens multileaf collimator(3D MLC) with patient translation perpendicular to the leaf plane. The technique produces a smoothed isodose distribution with the reduced isodose undulation and effective penumbra. To assess the efficacy of the HD-270 technique and determine the appropriate resolution, a polygonal shaped MLC field was made to produce field edge angles from 0 degree to 75 degree with a step of 15 degree. Each HD-270 group was generated according to the allowed resolution, i. e., 5, 3, and 2 mm. The experiment was carried out on Primus, a Siemens linear accelerator configured with HD-270 MLC. The total 60 MU of 6 MV photon beam was delivered to X-Omat film (Kodak, USA) at a SAD of 100 cm and 1.5 cm depth in solid water phantom. Exposed films were scanned by Lumiscan75(LUMISYS) and analyzed using RIT113 software (Radiological Imaging Technology Inc., USA). To test the mechanical accuracy of table movement, the transverse, longitudinal, and vertical positions were controlled by a consol with ±5 mm, ±4 mm, ±3 mm, and ±2 mm steps, and then measured using a dial gauge with an accuracy of 0.001 inch. During the experiments, the table loaded with about 50 Kg human phantom to simulate the real treatment situation. The effective penumbra and isodose undulation became larger with increase the resolution and field edge angle. The accuracy of the table movement on each direction is good within the ±1 mm. Clinical use of the MLC can be increased by using of the HD-270 MLC which complements to the disadvantages of the MLC.

  2. Multileaf collimator in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeraj, M.; Robar, V.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Basic goal of radiotherapy treatment is the irradiation of a target volume while minimizing the amount of radiation absorbed in healthy tissue. Shaping the beam is an important way of minimizing the absorbed dose in healthy tissue and critical structures. Conventional collimator jaws are used for shaping a rectangular treatment field; but, as usually treatment volume is not rectangular, additional shaping is required. On a linear accelerator, lead blocks or individually made Cerroben TM blocks are attached onto the treatment head under standard collimating system. Another option is the use of multileaf collimator (MLC). Conclusions. Multileaf collimator is becoming the main tool for beam shaping on the linear accelerator. It is a simple and useful system in the preparation and performance of radiotherapy treatment. Multileaf collimators are reliable, as their manufacturers developed various mechanisms for their precision, control and reliability, together with reduction of leakage and transmission of radiation between and through the leaves. Multileaf collimator is known today as a very useful clinical system for simple field shaping, but its use is getting even more important in dynamic radiotherapy, with the leaves moving during irradiation. This enables a precise dose delivery on any part of a treated volume. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the therapy of the future, is based on the dynamic use of MLC. (author)

  3. Algorithms for optimal sequencing of dynamic multileaf collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Srijit [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-01-07

    Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is used to deliver intensity modulated beams using a multileaf collimator (MLC), with the leaves in motion. DMLC-IMRT requires the conversion of a radiation intensity map into a leaf sequence file that controls the movement of the MLC while the beam is on. It is imperative that the intensity map delivered using the leaf sequence file be as close as possible to the intensity map generated by the dose optimization algorithm, while satisfying hardware constraints of the delivery system. Optimization of the leaf-sequencing algorithm has been the subject of several recent investigations. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of leaf-sequencing algorithms for dynamic multileaf collimator beam delivery and provide rigorous mathematical proofs of optimized leaf sequence settings in terms of monitor unit (MU) efficiency under the most common leaf movement constraints that include leaf interdigitation constraint. Our analytical analysis shows that leaf sequencing based on unidirectional movement of the MLC leaves is as MU efficient as bi-directional movement of the MLC leaves.

  4. Algorithms for optimal sequencing of dynamic multileaf collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Srijit; Sahni, Sartaj; Palta, Jatinder; Ranka, Sanjay

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is used to deliver intensity modulated beams using a multileaf collimator (MLC), with the leaves in motion. DMLC-IMRT requires the conversion of a radiation intensity map into a leaf sequence file that controls the movement of the MLC while the beam is on. It is imperative that the intensity map delivered using the leaf sequence file be as close as possible to the intensity map generated by the dose optimization algorithm, while satisfying hardware constraints of the delivery system. Optimization of the leaf-sequencing algorithm has been the subject of several recent investigations. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of leaf-sequencing algorithms for dynamic multileaf collimator beam delivery and provide rigorous mathematical proofs of optimized leaf sequence settings in terms of monitor unit (MU) efficiency under the most common leaf movement constraints that include leaf interdigitation constraint. Our analytical analysis shows that leaf sequencing based on unidirectional movement of the MLC leaves is as MU efficient as bi-directional movement of the MLC leaves

  5. Leakage of the Siemens 160 MLC multileaf collimator on a dual energy linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueter, Sebastian; Sroka-Perez, Gabriele; Schubert, Kai; Debus, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Multileaf collimators (MLCs) have been in clinical use for many years and meanwhile are commonly used to deliver intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beams. For this purpose it is important to know their dosimetric properties precisely, one of them being inter- and intraleaf leakage. The Siemens 160 MLC features a single focus design with flat-sided and tilted leaves instead of tongue-and-groove. The leakage performance of the 160 MLC was investigated on a dual energy linear accelerator Siemens ARTISTE with 6 MV and 18 MV photon energies. While the intraleaf leakage amounted to nearly the same dose for 6 and for 18 MV, a much higher interleaf leakage for 6 MV was measured. It could be reduced by simply rotating the collimator, and also by changing the voltage applied to the beam steering coils. The leakage of the 160 MLC is shown to be sensitive to beam alignment. This is of special interest for dual energy accelerators, as the two focal spots of both energies, neither in position nor in shape, do not necessarily always coincide. As a consequence of that, a higher leakage can be expected for one out of two energies for the 160 MLC. (note)

  6. Independent checks of linear accelerators equipped with multileaf collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlikova, I.; Ekendahl, D.; Horakova, I.

    2005-01-01

    National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) provides independent checks of therapeutic equipment as a part of state supervision. In the end of 2003, the audit was broaden for linear accelerators equipped with multileaf collimators (MLC). NRPI provides TLD postal audits and on-site independent checks. This contribution describes tests for multileaf collimators and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique that are accomplished within the independent on-site check of linear accelerators. The character and type of tests that are necessary to pursue for multileaf collimator depends on application technique. There are three basic application of the MLC. The first we call 'static MLC' and it serves for replacing conventional blocking or for adjusting the field shape to match the beam's-eye view projection of a planning target volume during an arc rotation of the x-ray beam. This procedure is called conformal radiotherapy. The most advanced technique with MLC is intensity modulated radiation therapy. The dose can be delivered to the patient with IMRT in various different ways: dynamic MLC, segmented MLC and IMRT arc therapy. Independent audits represent an important instrument of quality assurance. Methodology for independent check of static MLC was successfully verified on two types of accelerators: Varian and Elekta. Results from pilot measurements with dynamic MLC imply that the methodology is applicable for Varian accelerators. In the future, the experience with other types of linear accelerators will contribute to renovation, modification, and broaden independent checks methodology. (authors)

  7. Clinical use of a simulation-multileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, M; Vacha, P; Riis, B; Feyerabend, T; Richter, E [Medizinische Univ., Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin

    1998-07-01

    Background: At the University of Luebeck, radiotherapy is delivered by a 6/18-MV linear accelerator. Using the integrated multileaf collimator, irradiation of individually shaped treatment fields is possible in place of alloy blocks. Due to unsatisfactory pretherapeutic review of the radiation-field-specific multileaf collimator (MLC) configuration, we developed a simulation-multileaf collimator (SMLC) and assessed its feasibility at different tumor sites. Material and Methods: The SMLC is made of a perspex carrier with 52 horizontal sliding leaves. The position of each leaf is calculated by a 3D treatment-planning computer. The technician manually adjusts the leaves according to the beams-eye-view plot of the planning computer. Consequently, the SMLC is mounted on the therapy simulator at a distance of 64.8 cm from the focus. The treatment fields and the position of the leaves are documented by X-ray films. Results: Using the SMLC, radiation oncologists are able to review exactly the leaf configuration of each MLC-shaped radiation field and to correlate the MLC-shaped radiation field with the treated volume, the organs at risk and the port films acquired by the Portal Vision {sup trademark} system. Conclusion: The SMLC is a new tool to review radiation planning that uses an MLC in daily routine. The use of the SMLC improves the documentation and the quality assurance. It accelerates the treatment field review at the linear accelerator by comparing the SMLC simulator films with the portal images. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Seit 1994 werden Patienten an der Luebecker Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin an einem Linearbeschleuniger bestrahlt, der mit einem Multileaf-Kollimator ausgeruestet ist. Dieser ermoeglicht die Bestrahlung individuell geformter Zielvolumina ohne gegossene Individualsatelliten. Wegen der unzureichenden praetherapeutischen Kontrolle der Lamellenkonfiguration des Multileaf-Kollimators wurde ein Simulations-Multileaf

  8. Leaf sequencing algorithms for segmented multileaf collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Srijit; Sahni, Sartaj; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Ranka, Sanjay

    2003-01-01

    The delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator (MLC) requires the conversion of a radiation fluence map into a leaf sequence file that controls the movement of the MLC during radiation delivery. It is imperative that the fluence map delivered using the leaf sequence file is as close as possible to the fluence map generated by the dose optimization algorithm, while satisfying hardware constraints of the delivery system. Optimization of the leaf sequencing algorithm has been the subject of several recent investigations. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of leaf sequencing algorithms for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery and provide rigorous mathematical proofs of optimized leaf sequence settings in terms of monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation constraint and leaf interdigitation constraint. Our analytical analysis shows that leaf sequencing based on unidirectional movement of the MLC leaves is as MU efficient as bidirectional movement of the MLC leaves

  9. Leaf sequencing algorithms for segmented multileaf collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Srijit [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2003-02-07

    The delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator (MLC) requires the conversion of a radiation fluence map into a leaf sequence file that controls the movement of the MLC during radiation delivery. It is imperative that the fluence map delivered using the leaf sequence file is as close as possible to the fluence map generated by the dose optimization algorithm, while satisfying hardware constraints of the delivery system. Optimization of the leaf sequencing algorithm has been the subject of several recent investigations. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of leaf sequencing algorithms for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery and provide rigorous mathematical proofs of optimized leaf sequence settings in terms of monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation constraint and leaf interdigitation constraint. Our analytical analysis shows that leaf sequencing based on unidirectional movement of the MLC leaves is as MU efficient as bidirectional movement of the MLC leaves.

  10. Clinical use of a simulation-multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, M.; Vacha, P.; Riis, B.; Feyerabend, T.; Richter, E.

    1998-01-01

    Background: At the University of Luebeck, radiotherapy is delivered by a 6/18-MV linear accelerator. Using the integrated multileaf collimator, irradiation of individually shaped treatment fields is possible in place of alloy blocks. Due to unsatisfactory pretherapeutic review of the radiation-field-specific multileaf collimator (MLC) configuration, we developed a simulation-multileaf collimator (SMLC) and assessed its feasibility at different tumor sites. Material and Methods: The SMLC is made of a perspex carrier with 52 horizontal sliding leaves. The position of each leaf is calculated by a 3D treatment-planning computer. The technician manually adjusts the leaves according to the beams-eye-view plot of the planning computer. Consequently, the SMLC is mounted on the therapy simulator at a distance of 64.8 cm from the focus. The treatment fields and the position of the leaves are documented by X-ray films. Results: Using the SMLC, radiation oncologists are able to review exactly the leaf configuration of each MLC-shaped radiation field and to correlate the MLC-shaped radiation field with the treated volume, the organs at risk and the port films acquired by the Portal Vision trademark system. Conclusion: The SMLC is a new tool to review radiation planning that uses an MLC in daily routine. The use of the SMLC improves the documentation and the quality assurance. It accelerates the treatment field review at the linear accelerator by comparing the SMLC simulator films with the portal images. (orig.) [de

  11. Dose Distribution and Characterization for Radiation Fields of Multileaf Collimator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Sung Sil; Kim, Gwi Eon

    1996-01-01

    Purpose : Multileaf collimator(MLC) is very suitable tool for conformal radiotherapy and commissioning measurements for a multileaf collimator installed on a dual energy accelerator with 6 and 10MV photons are required. For modeling the collimator with treatment planning software, detailed dosimetric characterization of the multileaf collimator including the penumbra width, leaf transmission between leaf leakage and localization of the leaf ends and sides is an essential requirement. Measurement of characteristic data of the MLC with 26 pair block leaves installed on CLINAC 2100C linear accelerator was performed. Low sensitive radiographic film(X-omatV) was used for the penumbra measurement and separate experiments using radiographic film and thermoluminescent dosimeters were performed to verify the dose distribution, Measured films were analyzed with a photo densitometer of WP700i scanner. For 6 and 10 MV x-ray energies, approximately 2.0% of photons incident on the multileaf collimator were transmitted and an additional 0.5% leakage occurs between the leaves. Localizing the physical end of the leaves showed less than 1mm deviation from the 50% decrement line and this difference is attributed to the curved shaped end on the leaves. One side of a single leaf corresponded to the 50% decrement line, but the opposite face was aligned with a lower value. this difference is due to the tongue and groove used to decrease between leaf leakage. Alignment of the leaves to form a straight edge resulted larger penumbra at far position from isocenter as compare with divergent alloy blocks. When the MLC edge is stepped by sloping field, the isodose lines follow the leaf pattern and produce scalloping isodose curves in tissue. The effective penumbra by 45 degree stepped MLC is about 10mm at 10cm depth for 6MV x-ray. The difference of effective penumbra in deep tissue between MLC and divergent alloy blocks is small (5mm). Using the characteristic data of MLC, the MLC has the

  12. Execution of mantle field with multileaf collimator: A simple approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Ramachandran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until very recently mantle field radiotherapy remained the gold standard for the treatment of favorable early-stage Hodgkin′s lymphoma. The classic mantle includes all the major lymph nodes above the diaphragm and extends from the inferior portion of the mandible to the level of the insertion of the diaphragm. Aims: To describe a simple technique that has been devised to treat the mantle field with the help of multileaf collimator and using computed tomography (CT-based treatment planning. Materials and Methods: CT scan was performed with the patient in the supine position and the datasets were transferred to the Eclipse™ treatment planning system. Elekta Precise™ linear accelerator equipped with 40 pairs of multileaf collimator (MLC was used for the execution of the mantle field. The MLC′s shapes were designed to take the shape of the conventional customized blocks used for treatment of mantle field. The anterior mantle field was divided into three separate MLC segments with the collimator kept at 0°. The first MLC segment was shaped to cover the neck, clavicular regions, and mediastinum. The second and the third MLC segments covered the right and left axilla, respectively. The posterior fields were opposed to the anterior subfields in a similar fashion. The dose was prescribed at the midplane, using reference points. Results and Conclusion: The technique described in this study is very simple, easy to implement, and avoids unnecessary delay in the execution of the mantle field. The mantle field can be easily shaped with the multileaf collimators, without any collimator rotation.

  13. 3-D dosimetric evaluation of 2.5 mm HD120 multileaf system for intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery using optical CT based polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuu, C-S; Kessel, Jack; Xu, Y

    2009-01-01

    A Trilogy TX equipped with a 2.5 mm HD120 multileaf collimator system is available for the treatment of radiosurgery and IMRT. In this study, we evaluated the 3-D dosimetric impact of leaf width on an IMRT radiosurgery plan by comparing the target coverage and the dose gradient around the target, produced from both a 2.5 mm HD120 high-definition MLC system and a 5mm-leaf-width millennium 120 MLC system, using an optical CT based polymer gel dosimetry system. The 2.5 mm MLC improves target conformity and surrounding tissue sparing when compared to that of 5 mm MLC.

  14. Dynamic and quasi-dynamic multileaf collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeld, T.

    1995-01-01

    Several recent investigations deal with the problem of how to produce arbitrary two-dimensional x-ray fluence distributions by means of a multileaf collimator (MLC), an approach, which could be called multileaf modulation. The goal of this approach is to facilitate the delivery of compensated or intensity-modulated fields. The present work gives an overview of these developments. The hardware requirements on MLCs for this special application are specified. Most commercially available MLCs fulfill these requirement sufficiently, however, the MLC control software is generally not capable of controlling an MLC dynamically. There is also the question of how to verify the dynamic movement of the leaves. Some minimum requirements on a control software suitable for application in clinical practice are therefore specified. An alternative, the stepwise or 'quasi-dynamic' movement of the MLC-leaves, is also discussed with respect to practicality. In this case the control is easier, but the demands on the stability of the accelerator for small dose deliveries are higher. Nevertheless, it can be expected that, for reasons of ease of control and verification, the quasi-dynamic technique will become the method of choice in the near future, while the slightly more effective fully dynamic technique will become available later in the future. In any case, multileaf modulation is an interesting and important alternative to the tomotherapy-concept

  15. Development and validation of a BEAMnrc component module for a miniature multileaf collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, E.; Hartmann, G. H.

    2012-05-01

    A new component module (CM) named mini multileaf collimator (mMLC) was developed for the Monte Carlo code BEAMnrc. It models the geometry of the add-on miniature multileaf collimator ModuLeaf (MRC Systems GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany, now part of Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The new CM is partly based on the existing CM called DYNVMLC. The development was performed using a modified EGSnrc platform which enables us to work in the Microsoft Visual Studio environment. In order to validate the new CM, the PRIMUS linac with 6 MV x-rays (Siemens OCS, Concord, CA, USA) equipped with the ModuLeaf mMLC was modelled. Validation was performed by two methods: (a) a ray-tracing method to check the correct geometry of the multileaf collimator (MLC) and (b) a comparison of calculated and measured results of the following dosimetrical parameters: output factors, dose profiles, field edge position penumbra, MLC interleaf leakage and transmission values. Excellent agreement was found for all parameters. It was, in particular, found that the relationship between leaf position and field edge depending on the shape of the leaf ends can be investigated with a higher accuracy by this new CM than by measurements demonstrating the usefulness of the new CM.

  16. Development and validation of a BEAMnrc component module for a miniature multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, E; Hartmann, G H

    2012-01-01

    A new component module (CM) named mini multileaf collimator (mMLC) was developed for the Monte Carlo code BEAMnrc. It models the geometry of the add-on miniature multileaf collimator ModuLeaf (MRC Systems GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany, now part of Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The new CM is partly based on the existing CM called DYNVMLC. The development was performed using a modified EGSnrc platform which enables us to work in the Microsoft Visual Studio environment. In order to validate the new CM, the PRIMUS linac with 6 MV x-rays (Siemens OCS, Concord, CA, USA) equipped with the ModuLeaf mMLC was modelled. Validation was performed by two methods: (a) a ray-tracing method to check the correct geometry of the multileaf collimator (MLC) and (b) a comparison of calculated and measured results of the following dosimetrical parameters: output factors, dose profiles, field edge position penumbra, MLC interleaf leakage and transmission values. Excellent agreement was found for all parameters. It was, in particular, found that the relationship between leaf position and field edge depending on the shape of the leaf ends can be investigated with a higher accuracy by this new CM than by measurements demonstrating the usefulness of the new CM. (paper)

  17. Dose distributions of x-ray fields as shaped with multileaf collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.; Boyer, A.L.; Desobry, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Multileaf collimators (MLC) with various blade widths were simulated using standard cerrobend blocks, and three-dimensional dose computations were carried out to study the resultant radiation field edges. The study suggests that multileaf collimation to the outside of the desired field edge will lead to overdose outside the field, whereas multileaf collimation to the inside of the desired field edge will lead to underdose inside the field. When the direction of travel of the leaves with respect to the field edge is near 45 o , the 50% isodose of a multileaf-collimated beam will fall close to the desired edge with no underdose when the leaf corners are allowed to insert into the desired field edge by 1.2 mm for 6 MV x-rays and 1.4 mm for 18 MV x-rays using a 1 cm wide leaf. These blade offsets account for the scattering of photons and electrons in the medium within the penumbral region. (author)

  18. Implementation of intensity modulation with dynamic multileaf collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J W; Yu, C; Jaffray, D [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The computer-controlled multileaf collimator (MLC) marks one of the most important advances in radiation therapy. The device efficiently replaces manual blocking to shape fields and can be used to modulate beam intensity. The results of a research programme at William Beaumont Hospital, aimed at bringing dynamic intensity modulation into clinical use, are discussed.

  19. 6 MV dosimetric characterization of the 160 MLC, the new Siemens multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, Martin B.; Nill, Simeon; Haering, Peter; Oelfke, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    New technical developments constantly aim at improving the outcome of radiation therapy. With the use of a computer-controlled multileaf collimator (MLC), the quality of the treatment and the efficiency in patient throughput is significantly increased. New MLC designs aim to further enhance the advantages. In this article, we present the first detailed experimental investigation of the new 160 MLC TM , Siemens Medical Solutions. The assessment included the experimental investigation of typical MLC characteristics such as leakage, tongue-and-groove effect, penumbra, leaf speed, and leaf positioning accuracy with a 6 MV treatment beam. The leakage is remarkably low with an average of 0.37% due to a new design principle of slightly tilted leaves instead of the common tongue-and-groove design. But due to the tilt, the triangular tongue-and-groove effect occurs. Its magnitude of approximately 19% is similar to the dose defect measured for MLCs with the common tongue-and-groove design. The average longitudinal penumbra measured at depth d max =15 mm with standard 100x100 mm 2 fields is 4.1±0.5 mm for the central range and increases to 4.9±1.3 mm for the entire field range of 400x400 mm 2 . The increase is partly due to the single-focusing design and the large distance between the MLC and the isocenter enabling a large patient clearance. Regarding the leaf speed, different velocity tests were performed. The positions of the moving leaves were continuously recorded with the kilovoltage-imaging panel. The maximum leaf velocities measured were 42.9±0.6 mm/s. In addition, several typical intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments were performed and the delivery times compared to the Siemens OPTIFOCUS MLC. An average decrease of 11% in delivery time was observed. The experimental results presented in this article indicate that the dosimetric characteristics of the 160 MLC are capable of improving the quality of dose delivery with respect to precision and dose

  20. A multileaf collimator field prescription preparation system for conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, M.N.; Yu, C. X.; Symons, M.; Yan, D.; Taylor, R.; Matter, R.C.; Gustafson, G.; Martinez, A.; Wong, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a prescription preparation system for efficient field shaping using a multileaf collimator that can be used in community settings as well as research institutions. The efficiency advantage of the computer-controlled multileaf collimator, over cerrobend blocks, to shape radiation fields has been shown in conformal treatments, which typically require complete volumetric computerized tomographic data for three-dimensional radiation treatment planning--a utility not readily available to the general community. As a result, most patients today are treated with conventional radiation therapy. Therefore, we believe that it is very important to fully use the same efficiency advantage of multileaf collimator as a block replacement in conventional practice. Methods and Material: The multileaf collimator prescription preparation system developed by us acquires prescription images from different sources, including film scanner and radiation treatment planning systems. The multileaf collimator angle and leaf positions are set from the desired field contour defined on the prescription image, by minimizing the area discrepancies. Interactive graphical tools include manual adjustment of collimator angle and leaf positions, and definition of portions of the field edges that require maximal conformation. Data files of the final leaf positions are transferred to the multileaf collimator controller via a dedicated communication link. Results: We have implemented the field prescription preparation system and a network model for integrating the multileaf collimator and other radiotherapy modalities for routine treatments. For routine plan evaluation, isodose contours measured with film in solid water phantom at prescription depth are overlaid on the prescription image. Preliminary study indicates that the efficiency advantage of the MLC over cerrobend blocks in conformal therapy also holds true for conventional treatments. Conclusion: Our

  1. Clinical significance of multi-leaf collimator calibration errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norvill, Craig; Jenetsky, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This planning study investigates the clinical impact of multi-leaf collimator (MLC) calibration errors on three common treatment sites; head and neck (H&N), prostate and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung. All plans used using either volumetric modulated adaptive therapy or dynamic MLC techniques. Five patient plans were retrospectively selected from each treatment site, and MLC errors intentionally introduced. MLC errors of 0.7, 0.4 and 0.2 mm were sufficient to cause major violations in the PTV planning criteria for the H&N, prostate and SBRT lung plans. Mean PTV dose followed a linear trend with MLC error, increasing at rates of 3.2–5.9 % per millimeter depending on treatment site. The results indicate that an MLC quality assurance program that provides sub-millimeter accuracy is an important component of intensity modulated radiotherapy delivery techniques.

  2. A proposal for quality assurance of multi-leaf collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hounsell, A R; Jordan, T J; Williams, P C

    1995-01-01

    Multi-leaf collimators (MLC's) are rapidly entering clinical service in many Institutes through-out the World. Commercial MLC's are reliable but highly complex devices that have new and sometimes complex maintenance and quality assurance (QA) requirements. The experience gained from installing the prototype Philips MLC and from using and maintaining two production model Philips MLC's - one four years old, one six months old - will be used to define the requirements of a QA schedule for MLC's. Problems specific to MLC's such as leaf positioning and radiation leakage between the leaves will be discussed and methods for measuring these problems presented. Recommendations for the frequency for performing these checks based on our experiences will be made. Preventative maintenance times, machine down times due to the MLC and planned Quality Control down times will be reported

  3. Peripheral dose in photon beams from a linear accelerator with a multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lope Lope, R.; Lozano Flores, F.; Gracia Sorrosal, J.; Font Gomez, J.A.; Hernandez Vitoria, A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation doses outside the radiotherapy treatment field are of radiation protection interest when anatomical structures with very low dose tolerances might be involved. One of the major sources of peripheral dose, scatter from secondary collimators, depends on the configuration of the collimator. In this study, peripheral dose was measured at two depths for 6 and 18 MV photons from a linac Primus (Siemens) with a multileaf collimator (MLC). Comparative measurements were made both with leaves and with the upper jaw positioned at the field edge near to the detector. Configuring the MLC leaves at the field edge yielded a reduction in peripheral dose. (author)

  4. SU-E-T-646: Quality Assurance of Truebeam Multi-Leaf Collimator Using a MLC QA Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Lu, J; Hong, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a routine quality assurance procedure for Truebeam multi-leaf collimator (MLC) using MLC QA phantom, verify the stability and reliability of MLC during the treatment. Methods: MLC QA phantom is a specialized phantom for MLC quality assurance (QA), and contains five radio-opaque spheres that are embedded in an “L” shape. The phantom was placed isocentrically on the Truebeam treatment couch for the tests. A quality assurance plan was setted up in the Eclipse v10.0, the fields that need to be delivered in order to acquire the necessary images, the MLC shapes can then be obtained by the images. The images acquired by the electronic portal imaging device (EPID), and imported into the PIPSpro software for the analysis. The tests were delivered twelve weeks (once a week) to verify consistency of the delivery, and the images are acquired in the same manner each time. Results: For the Leaf position test, the average position error was 0.23mm±0.02mm (range: 0.18mm∼0.25mm). The Leaf width was measured at the isocenter, the average error was 0.06mm±0.02mm (range: 0.02mm∼0.08mm) for the Leaf width test. Multi-Port test showed the dynamic leaf shift error, the average error was 0.28mm±0.03mm (range: 0.2mm∼0.35mm). For the leaf transmission test, the average inter-leaf leakage value was 1.0%±0.17% (range: 0.8%∼1.3%) and the average inter-bank leakage value was 32.6%±2.1% (range: 30.2%∼36.1%). Conclusion: By the test of 12 weeks, the MLC system of the Truebeam is running in a good condition and the MLC system can be steadily and reliably carried out during the treatment. The MLC QA phantom is a useful test tool for the MLC QA

  5. Multileaf collimator characteristics and reliability requirements for IMRT Elekta system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chihray; Simon, Thomas A; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder R

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of a multileaf collimator (MLC) system, modeling MLC in a treatment planning system, and maintaining the mechanical accuracy of the linear accelerator gantry head system are important factors in the safe implementation of an intensity-modulated radiotherapy program. We review the characteristics of an Elekta MLC system, discuss the necessary MLC modeling parameters for a treatment planning system, and provide a novel method to establish an MLC leaf position quality assurance program. To perform quality assurance on 40 pairs of individual MLC leaves is a time-consuming and difficult task. In this report, an effective routine MLC quality assurance method based on the field edge of a backup jaw as referenced in conjunction with a diode array as a radiation detector system is discussed. The sensitivity of this test for determining the relative leaf positions was observed to be better than 0.1 mm. The Elekta MLC leaf position accuracy measured with this system has been better than 0.3 mm.

  6. Multileaf Collimator Characteristics and Reliability Requirements for IMRT Elekta System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chihray; Simon, Thomas A.; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of a multileaf collimator (MLC) system, modeling MLC in a treatment planning system, and maintaining the mechanical accuracy of the linear accelerator gantry head system are important factors in the safe implementation of an intensity-modulated radiotherapy program. We review the characteristics of an Elekta MLC system, discuss the necessary MLC modeling parameters for a treatment planning system, and provide a novel method to establish an MLC leaf position quality assurance program. To perform quality assurance on 40 pairs of individual MLC leaves is a time-consuming and difficult task. In this report, an effective routine MLC quality assurance method based on the field edge of a backup jaw as referenced in conjunction with a diode array as a radiation detector system is discussed. The sensitivity of this test for determining the relative leaf positions was observed to be better than 0.1 mm. The Elekta MLC leaf position accuracy measured with this system has been better than 0.3 mm

  7. Optimized dose conformation of multi-leaf collimator fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serago, Christopher F.; Buskirk, Steven J.; Foo, May L.; McLaughlin, Mark P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Current commercially available multi-leaf collimators (MLC) have leaf widths of about 1 cm. These leaf widths may produce stepped dose gradients at the fields edges at the 50% dose level. Small local perturbations of the dose distribution from the prescribed/expected dose distribution may not be acceptable for some clinical applications. Improvements to the conformation of the MLC dose distribution may be achieved using multiple exposures per MLC field, with either shifting the table/patient position, or rotating the orientation of the MLC jaws between exposures. Material and Methods: Dose distributions for MLC, primary jaws only, and lead alloy block fields were measured with film dosimetry for 6 and 20 MV photon beams in a solid water phantom. Square, circular, and typical clinical prostate, brain, lung, esophagus, and head and neck fields were measured. MLC field shapes were produced using a commercial MLC with a leaf width of 1 cm at the treatment isocenter. The dose per MLC field was delivered in either single (conventional) or multiple exposures. The table(patient) position or the collimator rotation was shifted between exposures when multiple exposure MLC fields were used. Differences in the dose distribution were evaluated at the 90% and 50% isodose level. Displacements of the measured 50% isodose from the prescribed/expected 50% isodose were measured at 5 degree intervals. Results: Measurements of the penumbra at a 10 cm depth for square fields show that using double exposure MLC fields with .5 cm table index decreases the effective penumbra by 1 mm. For clinical shaped fields, displacements between the prescribed/expected 50% isodose and the measured 50% isodose for conventional single exposure MLC fields are measured to be as great as 9 mm, and discrepancies on the order of 5 to 6 mm are common. In contrast, the maximum displacement errors measured with multiple exposure MLC fields are less than 5 mm and rarely more than 4 mm. In some

  8. Segmental and dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery techniques for micro-multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agazaryan, Nzhde; Solberg, Timothy D.

    2003-01-01

    A leaf sequencing algorithm has been implemented to deliver segmental and dynamic multileaf collimated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SMLC-IMRT and DMLC-IMRT, respectively) using a linear accelerator equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator (mMLC). The implementation extends a previously published algorithm for the SMLC-IMRT to include the dynamic MLC-IMRT method and several dosimetric considerations. The algorithm has been extended to account for the transmitted radiation and minimize the leakage between opposing and neighboring leaves. The underdosage problem associated with the tongue-and-groove design of the MLC is significantly reduced by synchronizing the MLC leaf movements. The workings of the leaf sequencing parameters have been investigated and the results of the planar dosimetric investigations show that the sequencing parameters affect the measured dose distributions as intended. Investigations of clinical cases suggest that SMLC and DMLC delivery methods produce comparable results with leaf sequences obtained by root-mean-square (RMS) errors specification of 1.5% and lower, approximately corresponding to 20 or more segments. For SMLC-IMRT, there is little to be gained by using an RMS error specification smaller than 2%, approximately corresponding to 15 segments; however, more segments directly translate to longer treatment time and more strain on the MLC. The implemented leaf synchronization method does not increase the required monitor units while it reduces the measured TG underdoses from a maximum of 12% to a maximum of 3% observed with single field measurements of representative clinical cases studied

  9. SU-F-T-629: Effect of Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) Width On Plan Quality of Single-Isocenter VMAT Intracranial Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Multiple Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, J; Thomas, E; Wu, X; Fiveash, J; Popple, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single-isocenter VMAT has been shown able to create high quality plans for complex intracranial multiple metastasis SRS cases. Linacs capable of the technique are typically outfitted with an MLC that consists of a combination of 5 mm and 10 mm leaves (standard) or 2.5 mm and 5 mm leaves (high-definition). In this study, we test the hypothesis that thinner collimator leaves are associated with improved plan quality. Methods: Ten multiple metastasis cases were identified and planned for VMAT SRS using a 10 MV flattening filter free beam. Plans were created for a standard (std) and a high-definition (HD) MLC. Published values for leaf transmission factor and dosimetric leaf gap were utilized. All other parameters were invariant. Conformity (plan and individual target), moderate isodose spill (V50%), and low isodose spill (mean brain dose) were selected for analysis. Results: Compared to standard MLC, HD-MLC improved overall plan conformity (median: Paddick CI-HD = 0.83, Paddick CI-std = 0.79; p = 0.004 and median: RTOG CI-HD =1.18, RTOG CI-std =1.24; p = 0.01 ), improved individual lesion conformity (median: Paddick CI-HD,i =0.77, Paddick CI-std,i =0.72; p < 0.001 and median: RTOG CI-HD,i = 1.28, RTOG CI-std,i =1.35; p < 0.001), improved moderate isodose spill (median: V50%-HD = 37.0 cc, V50%-std = 45.7 cc; p = 0.002), and improved low dose spill (median: dmean-HD = 2.90 Gy, dmean-std = 3.19 Gy; p = 0.002). Conclusion: For the single-isocenter VMAT SRS of multiple metastasis plans examined, use of HD-MLC modestly improved conformity, moderate isodose, and low isodose spill compared to standard MLC. However, in all cases we were able to generate clinically acceptable plans with the standard MLC. More work is need to further quantify the difference in cases with higher numbers of small targets and to better understand any potential clinical significance. This research was supported in part by Varian Medical Systems.

  10. SU-F-T-629: Effect of Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) Width On Plan Quality of Single-Isocenter VMAT Intracranial Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Multiple Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, J; Thomas, E; Wu, X; Fiveash, J; Popple, R [University Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Single-isocenter VMAT has been shown able to create high quality plans for complex intracranial multiple metastasis SRS cases. Linacs capable of the technique are typically outfitted with an MLC that consists of a combination of 5 mm and 10 mm leaves (standard) or 2.5 mm and 5 mm leaves (high-definition). In this study, we test the hypothesis that thinner collimator leaves are associated with improved plan quality. Methods: Ten multiple metastasis cases were identified and planned for VMAT SRS using a 10 MV flattening filter free beam. Plans were created for a standard (std) and a high-definition (HD) MLC. Published values for leaf transmission factor and dosimetric leaf gap were utilized. All other parameters were invariant. Conformity (plan and individual target), moderate isodose spill (V50%), and low isodose spill (mean brain dose) were selected for analysis. Results: Compared to standard MLC, HD-MLC improved overall plan conformity (median: Paddick CI-HD = 0.83, Paddick CI-std = 0.79; p = 0.004 and median: RTOG CI-HD =1.18, RTOG CI-std =1.24; p = 0.01 ), improved individual lesion conformity (median: Paddick CI-HD,i =0.77, Paddick CI-std,i =0.72; p < 0.001 and median: RTOG CI-HD,i = 1.28, RTOG CI-std,i =1.35; p < 0.001), improved moderate isodose spill (median: V50%-HD = 37.0 cc, V50%-std = 45.7 cc; p = 0.002), and improved low dose spill (median: dmean-HD = 2.90 Gy, dmean-std = 3.19 Gy; p = 0.002). Conclusion: For the single-isocenter VMAT SRS of multiple metastasis plans examined, use of HD-MLC modestly improved conformity, moderate isodose, and low isodose spill compared to standard MLC. However, in all cases we were able to generate clinically acceptable plans with the standard MLC. More work is need to further quantify the difference in cases with higher numbers of small targets and to better understand any potential clinical significance. This research was supported in part by Varian Medical Systems.

  11. Characterization of megavoltage electron beams delivered through a photon multi-leaf collimator (pMLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessis, F C P du; Leal, A; Stathakis, S; Xiong, W; Ma, C-M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States)

    2006-04-21

    A study is presented that characterizes megavoltage electron beams delivered through an existing double-focused photon multi-leaf collimator (pMLC) using film measurements in a solid water phantom. Machine output stability and linearity were evaluated as well as the effect of source-to-surface distance (SSD) and field size on the penumbra for electron energies between 6 and 18 MeV over an SSD range of 60-100 cm. Penumbra variations as a function of field size, depth of measurement and the influence of the jaws were also studied. Field abutment, field flatness and target coverage for segmented beams were also addressed. The measured field size for electrons transported through the pMLC was the same as that for an x-ray beam up to SSDs of 70 cm. At larger SSD, the lower energy electron fields deviated from the projected field. Penumbra data indicated that 60 cm SSD was the most favourable treatment distance. Backprojection of P{sub 20-80} penumbra data yielded a virtual source position located at 98.9 cm from the surface for 18 MeV electrons. For 6 MeV electrons, the virtual source position was at a distance of 82.6 cm. Penumbra values were smaller for small beam slits and reached a near-constant value for field widths larger than 5 cm. The influence of the jaws had a small effect on the penumbra. The R{sub 90} values ranged from 1.4 to 4.8 cm between 6 and 21 MeV as measured at 60 cm SSD for a 9 x 9 cm{sup 2} field. Uniformity and penumbra improvement could be demonstrated using weighted abutted fields especially useful for small segments. No detectable electron leakage through the pMLC was observed. Bremsstrahlung measurements taken at 60 cm SSD for a 9 x 9 cm{sup 2} field as shaped by the pMLC compared within 1% to bremsstrahlung measurements taken at 100 cm SSD for a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} electron applicator field at 100 cm SSD.

  12. Electron beam collimation with a photon MLC for standard electron treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S.; Fix, M. K.; Henzen, D.; Frei, D.; Frauchiger, D.; Loessl, K.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.; Manser, P.

    2018-01-01

    Standard electron treatments are currently still performed using standard or molded patient-specific cut-outs placed in the electron applicator. Replacing cut-outs and electron applicators with a photon multileaf collimator (pMLC) for electron beam collimation would make standard electron treatments more efficient and would facilitate advanced treatment techniques like modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) and mixed beam radiotherapy (MBRT). In this work, a multiple source Monte Carlo beam model for pMLC shaped electron beams commissioned at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 70 cm is extended for SSDs of up to 100 cm and validated for several Varian treatment units with field sizes typically used for standard electron treatments. Measurements and dose calculations agree generally within 3% of the maximal dose or 2 mm distance to agreement. To evaluate the dosimetric consequences of using pMLC collimated electron beams for standard electron treatments, pMLC-based and cut-out-based treatment plans are created for a left and a right breast boost, a sternum, a testis and a parotid gland case. The treatment plans consist of a single electron field, either alone (1E) or in combination with two 3D conformal tangential photon fields (1E2X). For each case, a pMLC plan with similar treatment plan quality in terms of dose homogeneity to the target and absolute mean dose values to the organs at risk (OARs) compared to a cut-out plan is found. The absolute mean dose to an OAR is slightly increased for pMLC-based compared to cut-out-based 1E plans if the OAR is located laterally close to the target with respect to beam direction, or if a 6 MeV electron beam is used at an extended SSD. In conclusion, treatment plans using cut-out collimation can be replaced by plans of similar treatment plan quality using pMLC collimation with accurately calculated dose distributions.

  13. Characterization of an extendable multi-leaf collimator for clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, Tuathan P; Foley, Mark J; Ge Yuanyuan; Faddegon, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    An extendable x-ray multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) is investigated for collimation of electron beams on a linear accelerator. The conventional method of collimation using an electron applicator is impractical for conformal, modulated and mixed beam therapy techniques. An eMLC would allow faster, more complex treatments with potential for reduction in dose to organs-at-risk and critical structures. The add-on eMLC was modelled using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code and validated against dose measurements at 6–21 MeV with the eMLC mounted on a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator at 71.6 and 81.6 cm source-to-collimator distances. Measurements and simulations at 8.4–18.4 cm airgaps showed agreement of 2%/2 mm. The eMLC dose profiles and percentage depth dose curves were compared with standard electron applicator parameters. The primary differences were a wider penumbra and up to 4.2% reduction in the build-up dose at 0.5 cm depth, with dose normalized on the central axis. At 90 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD)-–relevant to isocentric delivery-–the applicator and eMLC penumbrae agreed to 0.3 cm. The eMLC leaves, which were 7 cm thick, contributed up to 6.3% scattered electron dose at the depth of maximum dose for a 10 × 10 cm 2 field, with the thick leaves effectively eliminating bremsstrahlung leakage. A Monte Carlo calculated wedge shaped dose distribution generated with all six beam energies matched across the maximum available eMLC field width demonstrated a therapeutic (80% of maximum dose) depth range of 2.1–6.8 cm. Field matching was particularly challenging at lower beam energies (6–12 MeV) due to the wider penumbrae and angular distribution of electron scattering. An eMLC isocentric electron breast boost was planned and compared with the conventional applicator fixed SSD plan, showing similar target coverage and dose to critical structures. The mean dose to the target differed by less than 2%. The low bremsstrahlung dose from the 7 cm thick MLC leaves

  14. Characterization of an extendable multi-leaf collimator for clinical electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Tuathan P.; Ge, Yuanyuan; Foley, Mark J.; Faddegon, Bruce A.

    2011-12-01

    An extendable x-ray multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) is investigated for collimation of electron beams on a linear accelerator. The conventional method of collimation using an electron applicator is impractical for conformal, modulated and mixed beam therapy techniques. An eMLC would allow faster, more complex treatments with potential for reduction in dose to organs-at-risk and critical structures. The add-on eMLC was modelled using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code and validated against dose measurements at 6-21 MeV with the eMLC mounted on a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator at 71.6 and 81.6 cm source-to-collimator distances. Measurements and simulations at 8.4-18.4 cm airgaps showed agreement of 2%/2 mm. The eMLC dose profiles and percentage depth dose curves were compared with standard electron applicator parameters. The primary differences were a wider penumbra and up to 4.2% reduction in the build-up dose at 0.5 cm depth, with dose normalized on the central axis. At 90 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD)--relevant to isocentric delivery--the applicator and eMLC penumbrae agreed to 0.3 cm. The eMLC leaves, which were 7 cm thick, contributed up to 6.3% scattered electron dose at the depth of maximum dose for a 10 × 10 cm2 field, with the thick leaves effectively eliminating bremsstrahlung leakage. A Monte Carlo calculated wedge shaped dose distribution generated with all six beam energies matched across the maximum available eMLC field width demonstrated a therapeutic (80% of maximum dose) depth range of 2.1-6.8 cm. Field matching was particularly challenging at lower beam energies (6-12 MeV) due to the wider penumbrae and angular distribution of electron scattering. An eMLC isocentric electron breast boost was planned and compared with the conventional applicator fixed SSD plan, showing similar target coverage and dose to critical structures. The mean dose to the target differed by less than 2%. The low bremsstrahlung dose from the 7 cm thick MLC leaves had the added

  15. The application in detection the position accuracy of the multi-leaf collimator of Varian linear accelerator with dynamic therapy log files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changhu; Xu Liming; Teng Jianjian; Ge Wei; Zhang Jun; Ma Guangdong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explorer the application in detection the position accuracy of the multileaf collimator of Varian accelerator with dynamic therapy log files. Methods: A pre-designed MLC format files named PMLC for two Varian accelerators, the dynamic treatment log files were recorded 10 times on a different date, and be converted into the MLC format files named DMLC, compared with the original plan PMLC, so we can analysis two files for each leaf position deviation. In addition, we analysis the repeatability of MLC leaves position accuracy between 10 dynalog files of two accelerators. Results: No statistically significant difference between the average position of the 10 times leaf position of the two accelerators,their were 0.29 -0.29 and 0.29 -0.30 (z = -0.77, P=0.442). About 40%, 30%, 20% and 10% of the leaf position deviation was at ≤0.2 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.4 mm, respectively. the maximum value was 0.5 mm. More than 86% of the leaf position are completely coincident between 10 dynamic treatment files of two accelerators. The rate of position deviation no more 0. 05 mm was 96. 6% and 97.3%, respectively. And the maximum value was 0.09 mm. Conclusions: Dynamic treatment log file is a splendid tool in testing the actual position of multi-leaf collimator. The multi-leaf collimator of two accelerators be detected are precise and stabilized. (authors)

  16. A comparison of arc-based and static mini-multileaf collimator-based radiosurgery treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hideo Dale; Pappas, Conrad T.E.; Wilder, Richard B.

    1997-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare arc-based and mini-multileaf collimator (mMLC)-based radiosurgery treatment plans using isodose distributions and dose-volume histograms. Methods: Of 11 patients who underwent conventional arc-based radiosurgery for intracranial malignancies, four were treated with one isocenter, four were treated with two isocenters and three were treated with three isocenters. The same cases were re-planned using a test version of mMLC-based radiosurgery software for multiple static non-coplanar fields. Results and conclusion: For non-spherical targets, treatment planning is relatively intuitive with mMLC-based radiosurgery, reducing the amount of time required for planning. Moreover, a lower dose of radiation is delivered to normal tissue with mMLC-based radiosurgery than with arc-based radiosurgery, which theoretically should lead to a reduced risk of complications

  17. Dosimetric and qualitative analysis of kinetic properties of millennium 80 multileaf collimator system for dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Anup

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the positional accuracy, kinetic properties of the dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC and dosimetric evaluation of fractional dose delivery for the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for step and shoot and sliding window (dynamic techniques of Varian multileaf collimator millennium 80. Various quality assurance tests such as accuracy in leaf positioning and speed, stability of dynamic MLC output, inter and intra leaf transmission, dosimetric leaf separation and multiple carriage field verification were performed. Evaluation of standard field patterns as pyramid, peaks, wedge, chair, garden fence test, picket fence test and sweeping gap output was done. Patient dose quality assurance procedure consists of an absolute dose measurement for all fields at 5 cm depth on solid water phantom using 0.6cc water proof ion chamber and relative dose verification using Kodak EDR-2 films for all treatment fields along transverse and coronal direction using IMRT phantom. The relative dose verification was performed using Omni Pro IMRT film verification software. The tests performed showed acceptable results for commissioning the millennium 80 MLC and Clinac DHX for dynamic and step and shoot IMRT treatments.

  18. Effect of MLC leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Sen; Li, Guangjun; Wang, Maojie; Jiang, Qinfeng; Zhang, Yingjie [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Wei, Yuquan, E-mail: yuquawei@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To compare dosimetric differences between the simulating plans and the clinical plans with evaluation parameters, 6 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected for simulation of systematic and random MLC leaf position errors, collimator rotation angle errors, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for systematic MLC leaf position errors in response to field size. When the systematic MLC position errors were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm, respectively, the maximum values of the mean dose deviation, observed in parotid glands, were 4.63%, 8.69%, and 18.32%, respectively. The dosimetric effect was comparatively small for systematic MLC shift errors. For random MLC errors up to 2 mm and collimator and gantry rotation angle errors up to 0.5°, the dosimetric effect was negligible. We suggest that quality control be regularly conducted for MLC leaves, so as to ensure that systematic MLC leaf position errors are within 0.5 mm. Because the dosimetric effect of 0.5° collimator and gantry rotation angle errors is negligible, it can be concluded that setting a proper threshold for allowed errors of collimator and gantry rotation angle may increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment time.

  19. Testing of dynamic multileaf collimator by dynamic log file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kaoru; Nakamura, Tetsuji; Yamato, Shinichirou; Miyazawa, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) represents one of the most significant technical advances in radiation therapy. In the dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) method of IMRT delivery, because of the relatively small gaps between opposed leaves and because most regions are shielded by leaves most of the time, the delivered dose is very sensitive to MLC leaf positional accuracy. A variation of ±0.2 mm in the gap width can result in a dose variation of ±3% for each clinical dynamic MLC field. Most often the effects of leaf motion are inferred from dose deviations on film or from variations in ionization measurements. These techniques provide dosimetric information but do not provide detailed information for diagnosing delivery problems. Therefore, a dynamic log file (Dynalog file) was used to verify dynamic MLC leaf positional accuracy. Measuring for narrow gaps using the thickness gauge could detect a log file accuracy of approximately 0.1 mm. The accuracy of dynamic MLC delivery depends on the accuracy with which the velocity of each leaf is controlled. We studied the relationship between leaf positional accuracy and leaf velocity. Leaf velocity of 0.7 cm/sec caused approximately 0.2 mm leaf positional variation. We then analyzed leaf positional accuracy for the clinical dynamic MLC field using Dynalog File Viewer (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, California (CA)), and developed a new program that can analyze more detailed leaf motions. Using this program, we can obtain more detailed information, and therefore can determine the source of dose uncertainties for the dynamic MLC field. (author)

  20. High-resolution field shaping utilizing a masked multileaf collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P C; Cooper, P

    2000-08-01

    Multileaf collimators (MLCs) have become an important tool in the modern radiotherapy department. However, the current limit of resolution (1 cm at isocentre) can be too coarse for acceptable shielding of all fields. A number of mini- and micro-MLCs have been developed, with thinner leaves to achieve approved resolution. Currently however, such devices are limited to modest field sizes and stereotactic applications. This paper proposes a new method of high-resolution beam collimation by use of a tertiary grid collimator situated below the conventional MLC. The width of each slit in the grid is a submultiple of the MLC width. A composite shaped field is thus built up from a series of subfields, with the main MLC defining the length of each strip within each subfield. Presented here are initial findings using a prototype device. The beam uniformity achievable with such a device was examined by measuring transmission profiles through the grid using a diode. Profiles thus measured were then copied and superposed to generate composite beams, from which the uniformity achievable could be assessed. With the average dose across the profile normalized to 100%, hot spots up to 5.0% and troughs of 3% were identified for a composite beam of 2 x 5.0 mm grids, as measured at Dmax for a 6 MV beam. For a beam composed from 4 x 2.5 mm grids, the maximum across the profile was 3.0% above the average, and the minimum 2.5% below. Actual composite profiles were also formed using the integrating properties of film, with the subfield indexing performed using an engineering positioning stage. The beam uniformity for these fields compared well with that achieved in theory using the diode measurements. Finally sine wave patterns were generated to demonstrate the potential improvements in field shaping and conformity using this device as opposed to the conventional MLC alone. The scalloping effect on the field edge commonly seen on MLC fields was appreciably reduced by use of 2 x 5.0 mm

  1. Manual multi-leaf collimator for electron beam shaping - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, B Paul; Singh, I Rabi Raja; Brindha, S; Sathyan, S

    2002-01-01

    In electron beam therapy, lead or low melting point alloy (LMA) sheet cutouts of sufficient thickness are commonly used to shape the beam. In order to avoid making cutouts for each patient, an attempt has been made to develop a manual multi-leaf collimator for electron beams (eMLC). The eMLC has been developed using LMA for a 15x15 cm 2 applicator. Electron beam characteristics such as depth dose, beam profiles, surface dose, output factors and virtual source position with the eMLC have been studied and compared with those of an applicator electron beam. The interleaf leakage radiation has also been measured with film dosimetry. Depth dose values obtained using the eMLC were found to be identical to those with the applicator for depths larger than D max . However, a decrease in the size of the beam penumbra with the eMLC and increase in the values of surface dose, output factors and virtual source position with eMLC were observed. The leakage between the leaves was less than 5% and the leakage between the opposing leaves was 15%, which could be minimized further by careful positioning of the leaves. It is observed that it is feasible to use such a manual eMLC for patients and eliminate the fabrication of cutouts for each patient

  2. Variable Circular Collimator in Robotic Radiosurgery: A Time-Efficient Alternative to a Mini-Multileaf Collimator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Nuyttens, Joost J.M.E.; Schaart, Dennis R.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Compared with many small circular beams used in CyberKnife treatments, beam's eye view-shaped fields are generally more time-efficient for dose delivery. However, beam's eye view-shaping devices, such as a mini-multileaf collimator (mMLC), are not presently available for CyberKnife, although a variable-aperture collimator (Iris, 12 field diameters; 5-60 mm) is available. We investigated whether the Iris can mimic noncoplanar mMLC treatments using a limited set of principal beam orientations (nodes) to produce time-efficient treatment plans. Methods and Materials: The data from 10 lung cancer patients and the beam-orientation optimization algorithm 'Cycle' were used to generate stereotactic treatment plans (3 x 20 Gy) for a CyberKnife virtually equipped with a mMLC. Typically, 10-16 favorable beam orientations were selected from 117 available robot node positions using beam's eye view-shaped fields with uniform fluence. Second, intensity-modulated Iris plans were generated by inverse optimization of nonisocentric circular candidate beams targeted from the same nodes selected in the mMLC plans. The plans were evaluated using the mean lung dose, lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy, conformality index, number of nodes, beams, and monitor units, and estimated treatment time. Results: The mMLC plans contained an average of 12 nodes and 11,690 monitor units. For a comparable mean lung dose, the Iris plans contained 12 nodes, 64 beams, and 21,990 monitor units. The estimated fraction duration was 12.2 min (range, 10.8-13.5) for the mMLC plans and 18.4 min (range, 12.9-28.5) for the Iris plans. In contrast to the mMLC plans, the treatment time for the Iris plans increased with an increasing target volume. The Iris plans were, on average, 40% longer than the corresponding mMLC plans for small targets ( 3 ) and ≤121% longer for larger targets. For a comparable conformality index, similar results were obtained. Conclusion: For stereotactic lung irradiation, time

  3. Geometrical and dosimetrical characterization of the photon source using a micro-multileaf collimator for stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treuer, H; Hoevels, M; Luyken, K; Hunsche, S; Kocher, M; Mueller, R-P; Sturm, V

    2003-01-01

    A micro-multileaf collimatorMLC) for stereotactic radiosurgery is used for determination of the spatial intensity distribution of the photon source of a linear accelerator. The method is based on grid field dose measurements using film dosimetry and is easy to perform. Since the μMLC does not allow 'direct' imaging of the photon source, special software has been developed to analyse grid field measurements. Besides the source-density function, grid field analysis yields the position of the focal spot in the room laser coordinate system of the linear accelerator and the position of the treatment head rotation axis and the inclination angle of the leaf bank. Thus the method can be used for base dosimetry and for quality assurance in radiosurgery using a μMLC

  4. Sensitivity of volumetric modulated arc therapy patient specific QA results to multileaf collimator errors and correlation to dose volume histogram based metrics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, Linda

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the impact of systematic multileaf collimator (MLC) positional errors on gamma analysis results used for quality assurance (QA) of Rapidarc treatments. In addition, this study evaluates the relationship of these gamma analysis results and clinical dose volume histogram metrics (DVH) for Rapidarc treatment plans.

  5. Adverse impact of multileaf collimator field shaping on lens dose in children with acute leukemia receiving cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Sathiaseelan, Vythialingam; Bista, Tomasz C.; Marymont, Maryanne H.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the impact of multileaf collimator (MLC) on lens dose in children with leukemia undergoing cranial irradiation. Methods and Materials: This is a prospective study utilizing three common cranial irradiation techniques. Technique A uses a half-beam, nondivergent radiation field. Technique B has the anterior divergent field edge at the lateral bony canthus. Technique C is similar to B, but with a field collimator angle. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) lens dose measurements were obtained in children and phantom with all three techniques. Results: Seventeen children were studied. Lens dose measurements were obtained in 14 children with technique A using MLC and blocks. In 7 of 14 children, dose measurements were obtained with MLC only. One child was treated with technique B and 2 children were treated with C, with MLC ± blocks. In all 3 techniques, with MLC alone, the lens dose increased by 64%, 119%, and 72%, respectively. Similar results were obtained in phantom. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that independent of irradiation technique, additional custom blocking is required to maximally protect the lens with MLC shaped fields. This is due to the lack of conformity between MLC and the desired field edge at the lateral bony canthus

  6. Modification of a 3D-planning system for use with a multileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Duyse, B [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde; Colle, C; De Wagter, C; De Neve, W

    1995-12-01

    Recently, the Philips SL25 linear accelerator of the Radiotherapy Department at the University Hospital of Gent was retro-fitted with a multileaf collimator (MLC). To allow treatment planning with the MLC, the currently use GRATISTM 3D-planning system (developed by G. Sherouse) needed some adaptations, using the C source code. The virtual Simulator section was extended so that the leaves are graphically set in the Beams Eye View. The leaves can be set manually or automatically, based on a previously defined margin around the target. Once the leaves are set, a data file is created for each beam, containing the leaf settings. This file is finally transferred to the MLC computer over the network or by disk. The entire process does not require any manual transfer of leaf settings, not only adding a time-saving but also an error preventing factor to the GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Measurements to verify the accuracy of the adaptations to the planning system are addressed.

  7. Modification of a 3D-planning system for use with a multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Duyse, B.; Colle, C.; De Wagter, C.; De Neve, W.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, the Philips SL25 linear accelerator of the Radiotherapy Department at the University Hospital of Gent was retro-fitted with a multileaf collimator (MLC). To allow treatment planning with the MLC, the currently use GRATISTM 3D-planning system (developed by G. Sherouse) needed some adaptations, using the C source code. The virtual Simulator section was extended so that the leaves are graphically set in the Beams Eye View. The leaves can be set manually or automatically, based on a previously defined margin around the target. Once the leaves are set, a data file is created for each beam, containing the leaf settings. This file is finally transferred to the MLC computer over the network or by disk. The entire process does not require any manual transfer of leaf settings, not only adding a time-saving but also an error preventing factor to the GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Measurements to verify the accuracy of the adaptations to the planning system are addressed

  8. Technology assessment of multileaf collimation: a North American users survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Eric E.; Tepper, Joel; Sontag, Mark; Franklin, Michael; Ling, Clifton; Kubo, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) initiated an Assessment of Technology Subcommittee (ATS) to help the radiotherapy community evaluate emerging technologies. The ATS decided to first address multileaf collimation (MLC) by means of a North American users survey. The survey attempted to address issues such as MLC utility, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and customer satisfaction. Methods and Materials: The survey was designed with 38 questions, with cross-tabulation set up to decipher a particular clinic's perception of MLC. The surveys were coded according to MLC types, which were narrowed to four: Elekta, Siemens, Varian 52-leaf, and Varian 80-leaf. A 40% return rate was desired. Results: A 44% (108 of 250) return was achieved. On an MLC machine, 76.5% of photon patients are being treated with MLC. The main reasons for not using MLC were stair stepping, field size limitation, and physician objection. The most common sites in which MLC is being used are lung, pelvis, and prostate. The least used sites are head and neck and mantle fields. Of the facilities, 31% claimed an increase in number of patients being treated since MLC was installed, and 44% claimed an increase in the number of fields. Though the staffing for block cutting has decreased, therapist staffing has not. However, 91% of the facilities claimed a decreased workload for the therapists, despite the increase in daily treated patients and fields. Of the facilities that justified MLC purchase for more daily patients, 63% are actually treating more patients. Only 26% of the facilities that justified an MLC purchase for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are currently using it for that purpose. The satisfaction rating (1 = low to 5 = high) for department groups averaged 4.0. Therapists ranked MLC as 4.6. Conclusions: Our survey shows that most users have successfully introduced MLC into the clinic as a block replacement. Most have found MLC to be cost-effective and

  9. Delivery of modulated electron beams with conventional photon multi-leaf collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Eric E; Mamalui-Hunter, Maria; Low, Daniel A

    2009-01-01

    Electron beam radiotherapy is an accepted method to treat shallow tumors. However, modulation of electrons to customize dose distributions has not readily been achieved. Studies of bolus and tertiary collimation systems have been met with limitations. We pursue the use of photon multi-leaf collimators (MLC) for modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) to achieve customized distributions for potential clinical use. As commercial planning systems do not support the use of MLC with electrons, planning was conducted using Monte Carlo calculations. Segmented and dynamic modulated delivery of multiple electron segments was configured, calculated and delivered for validation. Delivery of electrons with segmented or dynamic leaf motion was conducted. A phantom possessing an idealized stepped target was planned and optimized with subsequent validation by measurements. Finally, clinical treatment plans were conducted for post-mastectomy and cutaneous lymphoma of the scalp using forward optimization techniques. Comparison of calculations and measurements was successful with agreement of ±2%/2 mm for the energies, segment sizes, depths tested for delivered segments for the dynamic and segmented delivery. Clinical treatment plans performed provided optimal dose coverage of the target while sparing distal organs at risk. Execution of plans using an anthropomorphic phantom to ensure safe and efficient delivery was conducted. Our study validates that MERT is not only possible using the photon MLC, but the efficient and safe delivery inherent with the dynamic delivery provides an ideal technique for shallow tumor treatment.

  10. Geometrical and dosimetrical characterization of the photon source using a micro-multileaf collimator for stereotactic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treuer, H [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Hoevels, M [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Luyken, K [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Hunsche, S [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Kocher, M [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Mueller, R-P [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Sturm, V [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2003-08-07

    A micro-multileaf collimator ({mu}MLC) for stereotactic radiosurgery is used for determination of the spatial intensity distribution of the photon source of a linear accelerator. The method is based on grid field dose measurements using film dosimetry and is easy to perform. Since the {mu}MLC does not allow 'direct' imaging of the photon source, special software has been developed to analyse grid field measurements. Besides the source-density function, grid field analysis yields the position of the focal spot in the room laser coordinate system of the linear accelerator and the position of the treatment head rotation axis and the inclination angle of the leaf bank. Thus the method can be used for base dosimetry and for quality assurance in radiosurgery using a {mu}MLC.

  11. Initiation of conformal radiotherapy with a multileaf-collimator - An approach to clinical routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannach, B.; Doll, Th.; Pape, H.; Schmitt, G.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of a three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy facility in the radiotherapy department of the Heinrich Heine University is described. Complex radiotherapy techniques with commercially available networked systems are introduced to improve clinical work. Over 18 month we have gained clinical experience with a PHILIPS Multileaf Collimator (MLC) mounted on a SL 25 linear accelerator. For a limited period the MLC was used as a conventional blocking device. The standard MLC-shapes are controlled with a stand-alone computer system. In addition, a three-dimensional treatment planning system (3-D-TPS / TMS-Radix, Helax AB) based on convolution/superposition algorithms was recently installed. Treatment optimization is achieved using static field arrangements with complete volumetric computerized tomographic patient data for 3-D-TPS. Conformal adaptation of the 95%-isodose to the Planning Target Volume (PTV, ICRU 50) results in MLC-field-shaping concerning size, position and contour to PTV-projection in beams-eye-view (BEV). Field prescription with defined leaf positions of the MLC-setting for geometrical beam shaping is transferred from TPS via TCP/IP. Patient treatment with complex coplanar and non-coplanar field arrangements is performed with an automatic set-up for gantry and collimator angle position contolled by a verification system. Quality assurance for treatment set-up is gained with a mega-voltage imaging device (MVI / PHILIPS SRI 100). Actual treatment outcome and accurate dose delivery for conformal therapy is verified by intercomparison of geometrical field matching of MVI and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) for each delivered beam in BEV

  12. Incorporating multi-leaf collimator leaf sequencing into iterative IMRT optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Lauterbach, Marc; Keall, Paul J.; Mohan, Radhe

    2002-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning typically considers beam optimization and beam delivery as separate tasks. Following optimization, a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) or other beam delivery device is used to generate fluence patterns for patient treatment delivery. Due to limitations and characteristics of the MLC, the deliverable intensity distributions often differ from those produced by the optimizer, leading to differences between the delivered and the optimized doses. Objective function parameters are then adjusted empirically, and the plan is reoptimized to achieve a desired deliverable dose distribution. The resulting plan, though usually acceptable, may not be the best achievable. A method has been developed to incorporate the MLC restrictions into the optimization process. Our in-house IMRT system has been modified to include the calculation of the deliverable intensity into the optimizer. In this process, prior to dose calculation, the MLC leaf sequencer is used to convert intensities to dynamic MLC sequences, from which the deliverable intensities are then determined. All other optimization steps remain the same. To evaluate the effectiveness of deliverable-based optimization, 17 patient cases have been studied. Compared with standard optimization plus conversion to deliverable beams, deliverable-based optimization results show improved isodose coverage and a reduced dose to critical structures. Deliverable-based optimization results are close to the original nondeliverable optimization results, suggesting that IMRT can overcome the MLC limitations by adjusting individual beamlets. The use of deliverable-based optimization may reduce the need for empirical adjustment of objective function parameters and reoptimization of a plan to achieve desired results

  13. Feasibility of replacing patient specific cutouts with a computer-controlled electron multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldib, Ahmed; Jin Lihui; Li Jinsheng; Ma, C-M Charlie

    2013-01-01

    A motorized electron multileaf collimator (eMLC) was developed as an add-on device to the Varian linac for delivery of advanced electron beam therapy. It has previously been shown that electron beams collimated by an eMLC have very similar penumbra to those collimated by applicators and cutouts. Thus, manufacturing patient specific cutouts would no longer be necessary, resulting in the reduction of time taken in the cutout fabrication process. Moreover, cutout construction involves handling of toxic materials and exposure to toxic fumes that are usually generated during the process, while the eMLC will be a pollution-free device. However, undulation of the isodose lines is expected due to the finite size of the eMLC. Hence, the provided planned target volume (PTV) shape will not exactly follow the beam's-eye-view of the PTV, but instead will make a stepped approximation to the PTV shape. This may be a problem when the field edge is close to a critical structure. Therefore, in this study the capability of the eMLC to achieve the same clinical outcome as an applicator/cutout combination was investigated based on real patient computed tomographies (CTs). An in-house Monte Carlo based treatment planning system was used for dose calculation using ten patient CTs. For each patient, two plans were generated; one with electron beams collimated using the applicator/cutout combination; and the other plan with beams collimated by the eMLC. Treatment plan quality was compared for each patient based on dose distribution and dose–volume histogram. In order to determine the optimal position of the leaves, the impact of the different leaf positioning strategies was investigated. All plans with both eMLC and cutouts were generated such that 100% of the target volume receives at least 90% of the prescribed dose. Then the percentage difference in dose between both delivery techniques was calculated for all the cases. The difference in the dose received by 10% of the volume of the

  14. Feasibility of replacing patient specific cutouts with a computer-controlled electron multileaf collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldib, Ahmed; Jin, Lihui; Li, Jinsheng; Ma, C.-M. Charlie

    2013-08-01

    A motorized electron multileaf collimator (eMLC) was developed as an add-on device to the Varian linac for delivery of advanced electron beam therapy. It has previously been shown that electron beams collimated by an eMLC have very similar penumbra to those collimated by applicators and cutouts. Thus, manufacturing patient specific cutouts would no longer be necessary, resulting in the reduction of time taken in the cutout fabrication process. Moreover, cutout construction involves handling of toxic materials and exposure to toxic fumes that are usually generated during the process, while the eMLC will be a pollution-free device. However, undulation of the isodose lines is expected due to the finite size of the eMLC. Hence, the provided planned target volume (PTV) shape will not exactly follow the beam's-eye-view of the PTV, but instead will make a stepped approximation to the PTV shape. This may be a problem when the field edge is close to a critical structure. Therefore, in this study the capability of the eMLC to achieve the same clinical outcome as an applicator/cutout combination was investigated based on real patient computed tomographies (CTs). An in-house Monte Carlo based treatment planning system was used for dose calculation using ten patient CTs. For each patient, two plans were generated; one with electron beams collimated using the applicator/cutout combination; and the other plan with beams collimated by the eMLC. Treatment plan quality was compared for each patient based on dose distribution and dose-volume histogram. In order to determine the optimal position of the leaves, the impact of the different leaf positioning strategies was investigated. All plans with both eMLC and cutouts were generated such that 100% of the target volume receives at least 90% of the prescribed dose. Then the percentage difference in dose between both delivery techniques was calculated for all the cases. The difference in the dose received by 10% of the volume of the

  15. Dosimetric advantage and clinical implication of a micro-multileaf collimator in the treatment of prostate with intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Hoban, Peter; Paskalev, Kamen; Yang Jie; Li Jinsheng; Chen Lili; Xiong Weijun; Ma, Charlie

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the dosimetric benefits of a micro-multileaf (4-mm leaf width) collimator (mMLC) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning of the prostate cancer and its potential application for dose escalation and hypofractionation. We compared treatment plans for IMRT delivery using 2 different multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths (4 vs. 10 mm) for 10 patients with prostate cancer. Treatment planning was performed on the XknifeRT2 treatment planning system. All beams and optimization parameters were identical for the mMLC and MLC plans. All of the plans were normalized to ensure that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received 100% of the prescribed dose (74 Gy). The differences in dose distribution between the 2 groups of plans using the mMLC and the MLC were assessed by dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis of the target and critical organs. Significant reductions in the volume of rectum receiving medium to higher doses were achieved using the mMLC. The average decrease in the volume of the rectum receiving 40, 50, and 60 Gy using the mMLC plans was 40.2%, 33.4%, and 17.7%, respectively, with p-values less than 0.0001 for V 40 and V 50 and 0.012 for V 60 . The mean dose reductions for D 17 and D 35 for the rectum were 20.0% (p 0.78). Because of the reduction of rectal volume receiving medium to higher doses, dose to the prostate target can be escalated by about 20 Gy to over 74 Gy, while keeping the rectal dose (either denoted by D 17 or D 35 ) the same as those with the use of the MLC. The maximum achievable dose, derived when the rectum is allowed to reach the tolerance level, was found to be in the range of 113-172 Gy (using the tolerance value of D 17 ). We conclude that the use of the mMLC for IMRT of the prostate may facilitate dose hypofractionation due to its dosimetric advantage in significantly improving the DVH parameters of the prostate and critical organs. When used for conventional fractionation scheme, mMLC

  16. An effective method for smoothing the staggered dose distribution of multi-leaf collimator field edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I.-M.; Lin, S.-Y.; Lee, M.-S.; Wang, C.-J.; Chuang, K.-S.; Ding, H.-J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To smooth the staggered dose distribution that occurs in stepped leaves defined by a multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Materials and methods: The MLC Shaper program controlled the stepped leaves, which were shifted in a traveling range, the pattern of shift was from the position of out-bound to in-bound with a one-segment (cross-bound), three-segment, and five-segment shifts. Film was placed at a depth of 1.5 cm and irradiated with the same irradiation dose used for the cerrobend block experiment. Four field edges with the MLC defining at 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg. angels relative to the jaw edge were performed, respectively, in this study. For the field edge defined by the multi-segment technique, the amplitude of the isodose lines for 50% isodose line and both the 80% and 20% isodose lines were measured. The effective penumbra widths with 90-10% and 80-20% distances for different irradiations were determined at four field edges with the MLC defining at 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg. angels relative to the jaw edge. Results: Use of the five-segment technique for multi-leaf collimation at the 60 deg. angle field edge smoothes each isodose line into an effectively straight line, similar to the pattern achieved using a cerrobend block. The separation of these lines is also important. The 80-20% effective penumbra width with five-segment techniques (8.23 mm) at 60 deg. angle relative to the jaw edge is little wider (1.9 times) than the penumbra of cerrobend block field edge (4.23 mm). We also found that the 90-10% effective penumbra width with five-segment techniques (12.68 mm) at 60 deg. angle relative to the jaw edge is little wider (1.28 times) than the penumbra of cerrobend block field edge (9.89 mm). Conclusion: The multi-segment technique is effective in smoothing the MLC staggered field edge. The effective penumbra width with more segment techniques at larger degree angles relative to the field edge is little wider than the penumbra for a

  17. Measurement of back-scattered radiation from micro multileaf collimator into the beam monitor chamber from a dual energy linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements designed to find the collimator backscatter into the beam monitor chamber from Micro Multileaf collimator of 6 MV photon beams of the Siemens Primus linear accelerator were made with the help of dose rate feedback control. The photons and electrons backscattered from the upper and lower secondary collimator jaws give rise to a significant increase in the ion charge measured by monitor chamber. This increase varies between the different accelerators. The output measurements were carried out in air at the isocenter. The effect of collimator backscatter was investigated by measuring the pulse width, number of beam pulses per monitor unit, monitor unit rate and dose for different mMLC openings. These measurements were made with and without dose rate feedback control, i.e., with constant electron beam current in the accelerator. Monitor unit rate (MU/min was almost constant for all field sizes. The maximum variation between the open and the closed feedback control circuits was 2.5%. There was no difference in pulse width and negligible difference in pulse frequency. Maximum value of backscattered radiation from the micro Multileaf collimator into the beam monitor chamber was found to be 0.5%.

  18. Assessment of diagnostic multileaf collimator for cephalometric exposure reduction using optically stimulated luminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Su Chul; Kim, Kum Bae; Jung, Haijo; Ji, YoungHoon; Park, Seungwoo

    2017-01-01

    A diagnostic multileaf collimator (MLC) was developed for diagnostic radiography dose reduction. Optically stimulated luminescent dosemeters (OSLDs) were used to evaluate the efficacy of this device for dental radiography cephalometric exposure reduction. The OSLD dosimetric characteristics for 80 kVp cephalometric exposure were first obtained. The batch homogeneity and reproducibility were 1.67 % and 0.18-1.58, respectively. Good linearity was obtained between the OSLD dose and response, and the angular dependence was within ±4 %. The equivalent organ doses for the left eye, right eye and thyroid were 41.20±6.58, 178.86±1.71 and 171.12±8.78 mSv and 36.80±0.33, 156.63±0.22 and 22.04±0.13 mSv for the open and MLC fields, respectively. The MLC-induced dose reductions for the left and right eyes of in field were 10.67±16.78 and 12.42±8.84 %, respectively, and that of the thyroid gland of out of field was 87±8.82 %, considering combined uncertainty. Therefore, use of diagnostic MLC for dose reduction during dental radiography cephalometric exposure is both feasible and effective. (authors)

  19. Intensity modulation of therapeutic photon beams using a rotating multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Karl

    2004-01-01

    The thesis describes the development and implementation of a novel method of delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) that provides greater accuracy and spatial resolution than currently available methods. Through improvements in multileaf collimator (MLC) based fluence generation, a dose distribution may be generated that conforms more closely to the tumour target volume. Healthy tissue surrounding the target volume will therefore receive less dose, reducing the probability of side effects and allowing the physician to increase the prescribed tumor dose (dose escalation). As a preamble to the description of the IMRT delivery method a new model for evaluating the spatial resolution capabilities of dose delivery techniques is presented. Flexibility and complexity in patient treatment due to advances in radiotherapy techniques necessitates a simple method for evaluating spatial resolution capabilities of the dose delivery device. The model is based on linear systems theory and is analogous to methods used to describe resolution degradation in imaging systems. The spatial resolution capabilities of different delivery components can be quantified separately, providing a simple method for comparing different treatment machine characteristics. Also, the model provides the ability to evaluate spatial resolution changes independent of the tumor that is being treated, providing a means of comparing delivery techniques that is not biased by the characteristics of any particular treatment volume. MLC based IMRT techniques are well established but suffer several physical limitations. Dosimetric spatial resolution is limited by the MLC leaf width, interleaf leakage and tongue-and-groove effects degrade dosimetric accuracy and the range of leaf motion limits the maximum deliverable field size. Based on observations from the linear systems model it is hypothesized that, by rotating the entire MLC between each sub-field, improvements will be obtained in spatial

  20. Characterization of a commercial multileaf collimator used for intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Daniel A.; Sohn, Jason W.; Klein, Eric E.; Markman, Jerry; Mutic, Sasa; Dempsey, James F.

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of a commercial multileaf collimator (MLC) to deliver static and dynamic multileaf collimation (SMLC and DMLC, respectively) were investigated to determine their influence on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning and quality assurance. The influence of MLC leaf positioning accuracy on sequentially abutted SMLC fields was measured by creating abutting fields with selected gaps and overlaps. These data were also used to measure static leaf positioning precision. The characteristics of high leaf-velocity DMLC delivery were measured with constant velocity leaf sequences starting with an open field and closing a single leaf bank. A range of 1-72 monitor units (MU) was used providing a range of leaf velocities. The field abutment measurements yielded dose errors (as a percentage of the open field max dose) of 16.7±0.7% mm-1 and 12.8±0.7% mm-1 for 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams, respectively. The MLC leaf positioning precision was 0.080±0.018 mm (single standard deviation) highlighting the excellent delivery hardware tolerances for the tested beam delivery geometry. The high leaf-velocity DMLC measurements showed delivery artifacts when the leaf sequence and selected monitor units caused the linear accelerator to move the leaves at their maximum velocity while modulating the accelerator dose rate to deliver the desired leaf and MU sequence (termed leaf-velocity limited delivery). According to the vendor, a unique feature to their linear accelerator and MLC is that the dose rate is reduced to provide the correct cm MU-1 leaf velocity when the delivery is leaf-velocity limited. However, it was found that the system delivered roughly 1 MU per pulse when the delivery was leaf-velocity limited causing dose profiles to exhibit discrete steps rather than a smooth dose gradient. The root mean square difference between the steps and desired linear gradient was less than 3% when more than 4 MU were used. The average dose per MU was

  1. Analysis of Radiation Field and Block Pattern for Optimal Size in Multileaf Collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seoung Do; Yang, Kwang Mo; Yi, Byong Yong; Choi, Eun Kyong; Chang, Hye Sook

    1994-01-01

    The patterns of the conventional radiation treatment fields and their shielding blocks are analysed to determine the optimal dimension of the MultiLeaf Collimator (MLC) which is considered as an essential tool for conformal therapy. Total 1169 radiation fields from 303 patients (203 from Asan Medical center, 50 from Baek Hosp and 50 from Hanyang Univ. Hosp.) were analysed for this study. Weighted case selection treatment site (from The Korean Society of Therapeutic Radiology 1003). Ninety one percent of total fields have shielding blocks. Y axis is defined as leaf movement direction and it is assumed that MLC is installed on the cranial-caudal direction. The length of X axis were distributed from 4cm to 40cm (less than 21cm for 95% of cases), and Y axis from 5cm to 38cm (less than 22cm for 95% of cases). The shielding blocks extended to less than 6cm from center of the filed for 95% of the cases. Start length for ninety five percent of block is less than 10cm for X axis and 11cm for Y axis. Seventy six percent of shielding blocks could be placed by either X or Y axis direction, 7.9% only by Y axis, 5.1% only by X axis and it is reasonable to install MLC for Y direction. Ninety five percent of patients can be treated with coplanar rotation therapy without changing the collimator angle. Eleven percent of cases of cases were impossible to replace with MLC. Futher study of shielding should be larger than 21cm X 22cm. The MLC should be designed as a pair of 21 leaves with 1cm wide for an acceptable resolution and 17cm long to enable the leaf to overtravel at least 6cm from the treatment field center

  2. Characterization of an add-on multileaf collimator for electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauer, T; Sokoll, J; Cremers, F; Schmidt, R [Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Harmansa, R [3D Line, Schwarzenbruck (Germany); Luzzara, M [3D Line, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: t.gauer@uke.uni-hamburg.de

    2008-02-21

    An add-on multileaf collimator for electrons (eMLC) has been developed that provides computer-controlled beam collimation and isocentric dose delivery. The design parameters result from the design study by Gauer et al (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5987-6003) and were configured such that a compact and light-weight eMLC with motorized leaves can be industrially manufactured and stably mounted on a conventional linear accelerator. In the present study, the efficiency of an initial computer-controlled prototype was examined according to the design goals and the performance of energy- and intensity-modulated treatment techniques. This study concentrates on the attachment and gantry stability as well as the dosimetric characteristics of central-axis and off-axis dose, field size dependence, collimator scatter, field abutment, radiation leakage and the setting of the accelerator jaws. To provide isocentric irradiation, the eMLC can be placed either 16 or 28 cm above the isocentre through interchangeable holders. The mechanical implementation of this feature results in a maximum field displacement of less than 0.6 mm at 90{sup 0} and 270{sup 0} gantry angles. Compared to a 10 x 10 cm applicator at 6-14 MeV, the beam penumbra of the eMLC at a 16 cm collimator-to-isocentre distance is 0.8-0.4 cm greater and the depth-dose curves show a larger build-up effect. Due to the loss in energy dependence of the therapeutic range and the much lower dose output at small beam sizes, a minimum beam size of 3 x 3 cm is necessary to avoid suboptimal dose delivery. Dose output and beam symmetry are not affected by collimator scatter when the central axis is blocked. As a consequence of the broader beam penumbra, uniform dose distributions were measured in the junction region of adjacent beams at perpendicular and oblique beam incidence. However, adjacent beams with a high difference in a beam energy of 6 to 14 MeV generate cold and hot spots of approximately 15% in the abutting region. In

  3. Characterization of an add-on multileaf collimator for electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauer, T; Sokoll, J; Cremers, F; Schmidt, R; Harmansa, R; Luzzara, M

    2008-01-01

    An add-on multileaf collimator for electrons (eMLC) has been developed that provides computer-controlled beam collimation and isocentric dose delivery. The design parameters result from the design study by Gauer et al (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5987-6003) and were configured such that a compact and light-weight eMLC with motorized leaves can be industrially manufactured and stably mounted on a conventional linear accelerator. In the present study, the efficiency of an initial computer-controlled prototype was examined according to the design goals and the performance of energy- and intensity-modulated treatment techniques. This study concentrates on the attachment and gantry stability as well as the dosimetric characteristics of central-axis and off-axis dose, field size dependence, collimator scatter, field abutment, radiation leakage and the setting of the accelerator jaws. To provide isocentric irradiation, the eMLC can be placed either 16 or 28 cm above the isocentre through interchangeable holders. The mechanical implementation of this feature results in a maximum field displacement of less than 0.6 mm at 90 0 and 270 0 gantry angles. Compared to a 10 x 10 cm applicator at 6-14 MeV, the beam penumbra of the eMLC at a 16 cm collimator-to-isocentre distance is 0.8-0.4 cm greater and the depth-dose curves show a larger build-up effect. Due to the loss in energy dependence of the therapeutic range and the much lower dose output at small beam sizes, a minimum beam size of 3 x 3 cm is necessary to avoid suboptimal dose delivery. Dose output and beam symmetry are not affected by collimator scatter when the central axis is blocked. As a consequence of the broader beam penumbra, uniform dose distributions were measured in the junction region of adjacent beams at perpendicular and oblique beam incidence. However, adjacent beams with a high difference in a beam energy of 6 to 14 MeV generate cold and hot spots of approximately 15% in the abutting region. In order to

  4. Analytical model of the binary multileaf collimator of tomotherapy for Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E; Vynckier, S; Salvat, F; Olivera, G H

    2008-01-01

    Helical Tomotherapy (HT) delivers intensity-modulated radiotherapy by the means of many configurations of the binary multi-leaf collimator (MLC). The aim of the present study was to devise a method, which we call the 'transfer function' (TF) method, to perform the transport of particles through the MLC much faster than the time consuming Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and with no significant loss of accuracy. The TF method consists of calculating, for each photon in the phase-space file, the attenuation factor for each leaf (up to three) that the photon passes, assuming straight propagation through closed leaves, and storing these factors in a modified phase-space file. To account for the transport through the MLC in a given configuration, the weight of a photon is simply multiplied by the attenuation factors of the leaves that are intersected by the photon ray and are closed. The TF method was combined with the PENELOPE MC code, and validated with measurements for the three static field sizes available (40x5, 40x2.5 and 40x1 cm 2 ) and for some MLC patterns. The TF method allows a large reduction in computation time, without introducing appreciable deviations from the result of full MC simulations

  5. Characterization of a multileaf collimator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, J.M.; Smith, A.R.; Lally, B.

    1993-01-01

    Commissioning measurements for a multileaf collimator installed on a dual energy accelerator with 6 and 15 MV photons are described. Detailed dosimetric characterization of the multileaf collimator is a requirement for modeling the collimator with treatment planning software. Measurements include a determination of the penumbra width, leaf transmission, between-leaf leakage, and localization of the leaf ends and sides. Standard radiographic film was used for the penumbra measurements, and separate experiments using radiochromic film and thermoluminescent dosimeters were performed to verify that distortions of the dose distribution at an edge due to changing energy sensitivity of silver bromide film are negligible. Films were analyzed with a scanning laser densitometer with a 210 micron spot. Little change in the penumbra edge distribution was noted for different positions of a leaf in the field. Experiments localizing the physical end of the leaves showed less than 1 mm deviation from the 50% decrement line. This small difference is attributed to the shaped end on the leaves. One side of a single leaf corresponded to the 50% decrement line, but the opposite face was aligned with a lower value. This difference is due to the tongue and groove used to decrease between-leaf leakage. For both energies, approximately 2% of photons incident on the multileaf collimator are transmitted and an additional 0.5% leakage occurs between the leaves. Alignment of the leaves to form a straight edge results in a penumbra profile which compares favorably with the standard technique of using alloy blocks. When the edge is stepped, the isodose lines follow the leaf pattern and the boundary is poorly defined compared to divergent blocks. 19 refs., 13 figs

  6. Pitfalls of tungsten multileaf collimator in proton beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskvin, Vadim; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States) and Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center (Formerly Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute), Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: Particle beam therapy is associated with significant startup and operational cost. Multileaf collimator (MLC) provides an attractive option to improve the efficiency and reduce the treatment cost. A direct transfer of the MLC technology from external beam radiation therapy is intuitively straightforward to proton therapy. However, activation, neutron production, and the associated secondary cancer risk in proton beam should be an important consideration which is evaluated. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation with FLUKA particle transport code was applied in this study for a number of treatment models. The authors have performed a detailed study of the neutron generation, ambient dose equivalent [H*(10)], and activation of a typical tungsten MLC and compared with those obtained from a brass aperture used in a typical proton therapy system. Brass aperture and tungsten MLC were modeled by absorber blocks in this study, representing worst-case scenario of a fully closed collimator. Results: With a tungsten MLC, the secondary neutron dose to the patient is at least 1.5 times higher than that from a brass aperture. The H*(10) from a tungsten MLC at 10 cm downstream is about 22.3 mSv/Gy delivered to water phantom by noncollimated 200 MeV beam of 20 cm diameter compared to 14 mSv/Gy for the brass aperture. For a 30-fraction treatment course, the activity per unit volume in brass aperture reaches 5.3 x 10{sup 4} Bq cm{sup -3} at the end of the last treatment. The activity in brass decreases by a factor of 380 after 24 h, additional 6.2 times after 40 days of cooling, and is reduced to background level after 1 yr. Initial activity in tungsten after 30 days of treating 30 patients per day is about 3.4 times higher than in brass that decreases only by a factor of 2 after 40 days and accumulates to 1.2 x 10{sup 6} Bq cm{sup -3} after a full year of operation. The daily utilization of the MLC leads to buildup of activity with time. The overall activity continues to increase

  7. Monte Carlo modeling and simulations of the High Definition (HD120) micro MLC and validation against measurements for a 6 MV beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, C.; Zarza-Moreno, M.; Heath, E.; Teixeira, N.; Vaz, P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The most recent Varian micro multileaf collimator (MLC), the High Definition (HD120) MLC, was modeled using the BEAMNRC Monte Carlo code. This model was incorporated into a Varian medical linear accelerator, for a 6 MV beam, in static and dynamic mode. The model was validated by comparing simulated profiles with measurements. Methods: The Varian Trilogy (2300C/D) accelerator model was accurately implemented using the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulation program BEAMNRC and validated against off-axis and depth dose profiles measured using ionization chambers, by adjusting the energy and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the initial electron beam. The HD120 MLC was modeled by developing a new BEAMNRC component module (CM), designated HDMLC, adapting the available DYNVMLC CM and incorporating the specific characteristics of this new micro MLC. The leaf dimensions were provided by the manufacturer. The geometry was visualized by tracing particles through the CM and recording their position when a leaf boundary is crossed. The leaf material density and abutting air gap between leaves were adjusted in order to obtain a good agreement between the simulated leakage profiles and EBT2 film measurements performed in a solid water phantom. To validate the HDMLC implementation, additional MLC static patterns were also simulated and compared to additional measurements. Furthermore, the ability to simulate dynamic MLC fields was implemented in the HDMLC CM. The simulation results of these fields were compared with EBT2 film measurements performed in a solid water phantom. Results: Overall, the discrepancies, with and without MLC, between the opened field simulations and the measurements using ionization chambers in a water phantom, for the off-axis profiles are below 2% and in depth-dose profiles are below 2% after the maximum dose depth and below 4% in the build-up region. On the conditions of these simulations, this tungsten-based MLC has a density of 18.7 g

  8. Dose deviations caused by positional inaccuracy of multileaf collimator in intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.C.; Chui, C.S.; Tsai, H.Y.; Chen, C.H.; Tsai, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Multileaf collimator (MLC) is currently a widely used system in the delivery of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The accuracy of the multileaf position plays an important role in the final outcome of the radiation treatment. According to ICRU recommendation, a dose inaccuracy over than 5% of prescribed dose affects treatment results. In order to quantify the influence of leaf positional errors on dose distribution, we set different MLC positional inaccuracy from 0 to 6 mm for step-and-shoot IMRT in clinical cases. Two-dimensional dose distributions of radiotherapy plans with different leaf displacements generated with a commercial treatment planning system. And verification films were used to measure two-dimensional dose distributions. Then a computerized dose comparison system will be introduced to analyze the dose deviations. Materials/methods: We assumed MLC positional inaccuracy from 0 to 6 mm for step-and-shoot IMRT in clinical cases by simulating the different leaf displacements with a commercial treatment planning system. Then we transferred the treatment plans with different leaf offset that may be happened in clinical situation to linear accelerator. Verification films (Kodat EDR2) were well positioned within solid water phantoms to be irradiated by the simulated plans. The films were scanned to display two-dimensional dose distributions. Finally, we compared with the dose distributions with MLC positional inaccuracy by a two-dimensional dose comparison software to analyze the deviations in Gamma indexes and normalized agreement test (NAT) values. Results: In general, the data show that larger leaf positional error induces larger dose error. More fields used for treatment generate lesser errors. Besides, leaf position relative to a field influences the degree of dose error. A leaf lying close to the border of a field leads to a more significant dose deviation than a leaf in the center. Algorithms for intensity modulation also affect

  9. SU-F-T-540: Comprehensive Fluence Delivery Optimization with Multileaf Collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weppler, S; Villarreal-Barajas, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); McGeachy, P [Department of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Khan, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequencing is performed via commercial black-box implementations, on which a user has limited to no access. We have developed an explicit, generic MLC sequencing model to serve as a tool for future investigations of fluence map optimization, fluence delivery optimization, and rotational collimator delivery methods. Methods: We have developed a novel, comprehensive model to effectively account for a variety of transmission and penumbra effects previously treated on an ad hoc basis in the literature. As the model is capable of quantifying a variety of effects, we utilize the asymmetric leakage intensity across each leaf to deliver fluence maps with pixel size smaller than the narrowest leaf width. Developed using linear programming and mixed integer programming formulations, the model is implemented using state of the art open-source solvers. To demonstrate the versatility of the algorithm, a graphical user interface (GUI) was developed in MATLAB capable of accepting custom leaf specifications and transmission parameters. As a preliminary proof-ofconcept, we have sequenced the leaves of a Varian 120 Leaf Millennium MLC for five prostate cancer patient fields and one head and neck field. Predetermined fluence maps have been processed by data smoothing methods to obtain pixel sizes of 2.5 cm{sup 2}. The quality of output was analyzed using computer simulations. Results: For the prostate fields, an average root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.82 and gamma (0.5mm/0.5%) of 91.4% were observed compared to RMSE and gamma (0.5mm/0.5%) values of 7.04 and 34.0% when the leakage considerations were omitted. Similar results were observed for the head and neck case. Conclusion: A model to sequence MLC leaves to optimality has been proposed. Future work will involve extensive testing and evaluation of the method on clinical MLCs and comparison with black-box leaf sequencing algorithms currently used by commercial treatment planning systems.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of a multi-leaf collimator design for telecobalt machine using BEAMnrc code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Narayan, Pradush; Jesuraj, Fenedit; Raju, M.R.; Dinesh Kumar, M.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation aims to design a practical multi-leaf collimator (MLC) system for the cobalt teletherapy machine and check its radiation properties using the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The cobalt machine was modeled using the BEAMnrc Omega-Beam MC system, which could be freely downloaded from the website of the National Research Council (NRC), Canada. Comparison with standard depth dose data tables and the theoretically modeled beam showed good agreement within 2%. An MLC design with low melting point alloy (LMPA) was tested for leakage properties of leaves. The LMPA leaves with a width of 7 mm and height of 6 cm, with tongue and groove of size 2 mm wide by 4 cm height, produced only 4% extra leakage compared to 10 cm height tungsten leaves. With finite 60 Co source size, the interleaf leakage was insignificant. This analysis helped to design a prototype MLC as an accessory mount on a cobalt machine. The complete details of the simulation process and analysis of results are discussed. (author)

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of a multi-leaf collimator design for telecobalt machine using BEAMnrc code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyangar Komanduri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to design a practical multi-leaf collimator (MLC system for the cobalt teletherapy machine and check its radiation properties using the Monte Carlo (MC method. The cobalt machine was modeled using the BEAMnrc Omega-Beam MC system, which could be freely downloaded from the website of the National Research Council (NRC, Canada. Comparison with standard depth dose data tables and the theoretically modeled beam showed good agreement within 2%. An MLC design with low melting point alloy (LMPA was tested for leakage properties of leaves. The LMPA leaves with a width of 7 mm and height of 6 cm, with tongue and groove of size 2 mm wide by 4 cm height, produced only 4% extra leakage compared to 10 cm height tungsten leaves. With finite 60 Co source size, the interleaf leakage was insignificant. This analysis helped to design a prototype MLC as an accessory mount on a cobalt machine. The complete details of the simulation process and analysis of results are discussed.

  12. Modeling Monte Carlo of multileaf collimators using the code GEANT4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Alex C.H.; Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: oliveira.ach@yahoo.com, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Luciano S.; Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: lusoulima@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Radiotherapy uses various techniques and equipment for local treatment of cancer. The equipment most often used in radiotherapy to the patient irradiation is linear accelerator (Linac). Among the many algorithms developed for evaluation of dose distributions in radiotherapy planning, the algorithms based on Monte Carlo (MC) methods have proven to be very promising in terms of accuracy by providing more realistic results. The MC simulations for applications in radiotherapy are divided into two parts. In the first, the simulation of the production of the radiation beam by the Linac is performed and then the phase space is generated. The phase space contains information such as energy, position, direction, etc. of millions of particles (photons, electrons, positrons). In the second part the simulation of the transport of particles (sampled phase space) in certain configurations of irradiation field is performed to assess the dose distribution in the patient (or phantom). Accurate modeling of the Linac head is of particular interest in the calculation of dose distributions for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), where complex intensity distributions are delivered using a multileaf collimator (MLC). The objective of this work is to describe a methodology for modeling MC of MLCs using code Geant4. To exemplify this methodology, the Varian Millennium 120-leaf MLC was modeled, whose physical description is available in BEAMnrc Users Manual (20 11). The dosimetric characteristics (i.e., penumbra, leakage, and tongue-and-groove effect) of this MLC were evaluated. The results agreed with data published in the literature concerning the same MLC. (author)

  13. Characteristics and performance of the first commercial multileaf collimator for a robotic radiosurgery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fürweger, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.fuerweger@cyber-knife.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam 3075 EA, The Netherlands and European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany); Prins, Paulette; Coskan, Harun; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam 3075 EA (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The “InCise™ multileaf-collimator (MLC)” is the first commercial MLC to be mounted on a robotic SRS/SBRT platform (CyberKnife). The authors assessed characteristics and performance of this novel device in a preclinical five months test period. Methods: Commissioning beam data were acquired with unshielded diodes. EBT3 radiochromic films were employed for measurement of transmission, leaf/bank position accuracy (garden fence) before and after exercising the MLC, for end-to-end testing and further characterization of the beam. The robot workspace with MLC was assessed analytically by transformation to an Euler geometry (“plane,” “gantry,” and “collimator” angles) and by measuring pointing accuracy at each node. Stability over time was evaluated in picket fence and adapted Winston–Lutz tests (AQA). Results: Beam penumbrae (80%–20%, with 100% = 2 × dose at inflection point for field sizes ≥ 50 × 50 mm{sup 2}) were 2.2–3.7 mm for square fields in reference condition (source-axis-distance 800 mm, depth 15 mm) and depended on field size and off-axis position. Transmission and leakage did not exceed 0.5%. Accessible clinical workspace with MLC covered non-coplanar gantry angles of [−113°; +112°] and collimator angles of [−100°; +107°], with an average robot pointing accuracy of 0.12 ± 0.09 mm. For vertical beams, garden fence tests exhibited an average leaf positioning error of ≤0.2 mm, which increased by 0.25 and 0.30 mm (banks X1 and X2) with leaves traveling parallel to gravity. After execution of a leaf motion stress routine, garden fence tests showed slightly increased jaggedness and allowed to identify one malfunctioning leaf motor. Total system accuracy with MLC was 0.38 ± 0.05 mm in nine end-to-end tests. Picket fence and AQA tests displayed stable results over the test period. Conclusions: The InCise™ MLC for CyberKnife showed high accuracy and adequate characteristics for SRS/SBRT applications. MLC performance

  14. Characteristics and performance of the first commercial multileaf collimator for a robotic radiosurgery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fürweger, Christoph; Prins, Paulette; Coskan, Harun; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The “InCise™ multileaf-collimator (MLC)” is the first commercial MLC to be mounted on a robotic SRS/SBRT platform (CyberKnife). The authors assessed characteristics and performance of this novel device in a preclinical five months test period. Methods: Commissioning beam data were acquired with unshielded diodes. EBT3 radiochromic films were employed for measurement of transmission, leaf/bank position accuracy (garden fence) before and after exercising the MLC, for end-to-end testing and further characterization of the beam. The robot workspace with MLC was assessed analytically by transformation to an Euler geometry (“plane,” “gantry,” and “collimator” angles) and by measuring pointing accuracy at each node. Stability over time was evaluated in picket fence and adapted Winston–Lutz tests (AQA). Results: Beam penumbrae (80%–20%, with 100% = 2 × dose at inflection point for field sizes ≥ 50 × 50 mm"2) were 2.2–3.7 mm for square fields in reference condition (source-axis-distance 800 mm, depth 15 mm) and depended on field size and off-axis position. Transmission and leakage did not exceed 0.5%. Accessible clinical workspace with MLC covered non-coplanar gantry angles of [−113°; +112°] and collimator angles of [−100°; +107°], with an average robot pointing accuracy of 0.12 ± 0.09 mm. For vertical beams, garden fence tests exhibited an average leaf positioning error of ≤0.2 mm, which increased by 0.25 and 0.30 mm (banks X1 and X2) with leaves traveling parallel to gravity. After execution of a leaf motion stress routine, garden fence tests showed slightly increased jaggedness and allowed to identify one malfunctioning leaf motor. Total system accuracy with MLC was 0.38 ± 0.05 mm in nine end-to-end tests. Picket fence and AQA tests displayed stable results over the test period. Conclusions: The InCise™ MLC for CyberKnife showed high accuracy and adequate characteristics for SRS/SBRT applications. MLC performance after

  15. A multileaf collimator phantom for the quality assurance of radiation therapy planning systems and CT simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNiven, Andrea; Kron, Tomas; Van Dyk, Jake

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The evolution of three-dimensional conformal radiation treatment has led to the use of multileaf collimators (MLCs) in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and other treatment techniques to increase the conformity of the dose distribution. A new quality assurance (QA) phantom has been designed to check the handling of MLC settings in treatment planning and delivery. Methods and materials: The phantom consists of a Perspex block with stepped edges that can be rotated in all planes. The design allows for the assessment of several MLC and micro-MLC types from various manufacturers, and is therefore applicable to most radiation therapy institutions employing MLCs. The phantom is computed tomography (CT) scanned as is a patient, and QA assessments can be made of field edge display for a variety of shapes and orientations on both radiation treatment planning systems (RTPS) and computed tomography simulators. Results: The dimensions of the phantom were verified to be physically correct within an uncertainty range of 0-0.7 mm. Errors in leaf position larger than 1 mm were easily identified by multiple observers. Conclusions: The MLC geometry phantom is a useful tool in the QA of radiation therapy with application to RTPS, CT simulators, and virtual simulation packages with MLC display capabilities

  16. Two-argument total scatter factor for small fields simultaneously collimated by MLC and jaws: application to stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Friesen, Scott; Hacker, Fred; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Direct use of the total scatter factor (S tot) for independent monitor unit (MU) calculations can be a good alternative approach to the traditional separate treatment of head/collimator scatter (S c) and phantom scatter (S p), especially for stereotactic small fields under the simultaneous collimation of secondary jaws and tertiary multileaf collimators (MLC). We have carried out the measurement of S tot in water for field sizes down to 0.5  ×  0.5 cm2 on a Varian TrueBeam STx medical linear accelerator (linac) equipped with high definition MLCs. Both the jaw field size (c) and MLC field size (s) significantly impact the linac output factors, especially when c \\gg s and s is small (e.g. s  effectively transforms the measured trapezoidal domain in (c,s) plane to a rectangular domain to facilitate easier two-dimensional interpolation to determine S tot for arbitrary (c,s) combinations. Both the empirical fit and interpolation showed good agreement with experimental validation data.

  17. A method for photon beam Monte Carlo multileaf collimator particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Keall, Paul J.; Kim, Jong Oh; Mohan, Radhe

    2002-09-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms are recognized as the most accurate methodology for patient dose assessment. For intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered with dynamic multileaf collimators (DMLCs), accurate dose calculation, even with MC, is challenging. Accurate IMRT MC dose calculations require inclusion of the moving MLC in the MC simulation. Due to its complex geometry, full transport through the MLC can be time consuming. The aim of this work was to develop an MLC model for photon beam MC IMRT dose computations. The basis of the MC MLC model is that the complex MLC geometry can be separated into simple geometric regions, each of which readily lends itself to simplified radiation transport. For photons, only attenuation and first Compton scatter interactions are considered. The amount of attenuation material an individual particle encounters while traversing the entire MLC is determined by adding the individual amounts from each of the simplified geometric regions. Compton scatter is sampled based upon the total thickness traversed. Pair production and electron interactions (scattering and bremsstrahlung) within the MLC are ignored. The MLC model was tested for 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams by comparing it with measurements and MC simulations that incorporate the full physics and geometry for fields blocked by the MLC and with measurements for fields with the maximum possible tongue-and-groove and tongue-or-groove effects, for static test cases and for sliding windows of various widths. The MLC model predicts the field size dependence of the MLC leakage radiation within 0.1% of the open-field dose. The entrance dose and beam hardening behind a closed MLC are predicted within +/-1% or 1 mm. Dose undulations due to differences in inter- and intra-leaf leakage are also correctly predicted. The MC MLC model predicts leaf-edge tongue-and-groove dose effect within +/-1% or 1 mm for 95% of the points compared at 6 MV and 88% of the points compared at 18 MV

  18. A method for photon beam Monte Carlo multileaf collimator particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia Hospitals, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)]. E-mail: jsiebers@vcu.edu; Keall, Paul J.; Kim, Jong Oh; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia Hospitals, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2002-09-07

    Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms are recognized as the most accurate methodology for patient dose assessment. For intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered with dynamic multileaf collimators (DMLCs), accurate dose calculation, even with MC, is challenging. Accurate IMRT MC dose calculations require inclusion of the moving MLC in the MC simulation. Due to its complex geometry, full transport through the MLC can be time consuming. The aim of this work was to develop an MLC model for photon beam MC IMRT dose computations. The basis of the MC MLC model is that the complex MLC geometry can be separated into simple geometric regions, each of which readily lends itself to simplified radiation transport. For photons, only attenuation and first Compton scatter interactions are considered. The amount of attenuation material an individual particle encounters while traversing the entire MLC is determined by adding the individual amounts from each of the simplified geometric regions. Compton scatter is sampled based upon the total thickness traversed. Pair production and electron interactions (scattering and bremsstrahlung) within the MLC are ignored. The MLC model was tested for 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams by comparing it with measurements and MC simulations that incorporate the full physics and geometry for fields blocked by the MLC and with measurements for fields with the maximum possible tongue-and-groove and tongue-or-groove effects, for static test cases and for sliding windows of various widths. The MLC model predicts the field size dependence of the MLC leakage radiation within 0.1% of the open-field dose. The entrance dose and beam hardening behind a closed MLC are predicted within {+-}1% or 1 mm. Dose undulations due to differences in inter- and intra-leaf leakage are also correctly predicted. The MC MLC model predicts leaf-edge tongue-and-groove dose effect within {+-}1% or 1 mm for 95% of the points compared at 6 MV and 88% of the points compared at 18 MV

  19. Multileaf collimator intercomparison for intensity modulated radiation therapy implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viteri, Juan Fernando Delgado

    2006-01-01

    In this work a dosimetric comparison between three multileaf collimator systems is presented: a Varian Millennium with 120 leaves, Brainlab mMLC m3 and Varian Mark II both with 52 leaves. The width projection at isocenter level in field's central region are: 0,5 cm; 0,35 cm and 1,0 cm respectively. Common dosimetric characteristics for the three systems in static mode and dynamic capabilities for the two first were compared. In dynamic mode, tests validating proper MLC function through film irradiation were done, such MLC stability, MU linearity, treatment interruptions sensitivity, stability of MLC in dynamic mode, leaf speed stability, were found within ±3% deviation in all cases. Dose rate linearity showed differences when this parameter decreases in dynamic mode. Average dose errors for fixed width gaps moving at constant speed were found to be proportional to gap errors and inversely proportional to the gap width. Output factors differences delivered through a sweeping gap were found less than ±1% when the gantry was in a lateral position. For the three MLC systems, when comparing beam profiles for the same field was observed that for mMLC presents the sharpest dose gradient region. In the output factors small differences where observed in every MLC system. Dosimetric leaf gap was determined for MLC 120, mMLC and MLC 52, obtained values for a 6 MV beam are: (0,202 ± 0,054) cm; (0,157 ± 0,070) cm and (0,189 ± 0,081) cm respectively. The transmission showed an increase with depth and field width for 6 MV in all the three systems. Average values obtained with ionization chamber for this energy were: (1,630 ± 0,018)% for MLC 120; (1,291 ± 0,029)% for mMLC and (1,638 ± 0,010)% for MLC 52. When obtained through film irradiation, inter and intra leaf transmission showed an off axis dependent behavior for MLC 120 and mMLC. Scatter produced by MLC as a 6 MV open reference field ratio was: (0,297 ± 0,024)% for MLC 120; (0,239 ± 0,052)% for mMLC and (0,202 ± 0

  20. Verification of multileaf collimator leaf positions using an electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, Sanjiv S.; Zheng Wei; Parra, Nestor Andres; Chandler, Jason; Gopal, Arun; Wu Jian; Jain Jinesh; Zhu Yunping; Sontag, Marc

    2002-01-01

    An automated method is presented for determining individual leaf positions of the Siemens dual focus multileaf collimator (MLC) using the Siemens BEAMVIEW(PLUS) electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Leaf positions are computed with an error of 0.6 mm at one standard deviation (σ) using separate computations of pixel dimensions, image distortion, and radiation center. The pixel dimensions are calculated by superimposing the film image of a graticule with the corresponding EPID image. A spatial correction is used to compensate for the optical distortions of the EPID, reducing the mean distortion from 3.5 pixels (uncorrected) per localized x-ray marker to 2 pixels (1 mm) for a rigid rotation and 1 pixel for a third degree polynomial warp. A correction for a nonuniform dosimetric response across the field of view of the EPID images is not necessary due to the sharp intensity gradients across leaf edges. The radiation center, calculated from the average of the geometric centers of a square field at 0 deg. and 180 deg. collimator angles, is independent of graticule placement error. Its measured location on the EPID image was stable to within 1 pixel based on 3 weeks of repeated extensions/retractions of the EPID. The MLC leaf positions determined from the EPID images agreed to within a pixel of the corresponding values measured using film and ionization chamber. Several edge detection algorithms were tested: contour, Sobel, Roberts, Prewitt, Laplace, morphological, and Canny. These agreed with each other to within ≤1.2 pixels for the in-air EPID images. Using a test pattern, individual MLC leaves were found to be typically within 1 mm of the corresponding record-and-verify values, with a maximum difference of 1.8 mm, and standard deviations of <0.3 mm in the daily reproducibility. This method presents a fast, automatic, and accurate alternative to using film or a light field for the verification and calibration of the MLC

  1. Segmented abutting fields irradiation using multileaf collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tetsuo

    1998-01-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the clinical feasibility of segmented abutting fields irradiation (SAFI) using multileaf collimators (MLCs), in which the target volume is divided into several segments to create complex irregular field without use of alloy blocks. A linear accelerator with 26 pairs of roundly ended MLCs of 1 cm in width was tested in this study. In SAFI, radiation leakage occurs at the abutment sites with these MLCs. Film dosimetry was used to determine the optimal length of the MLC overlap to minimize dose profile variation in abutting fields. A mantle field was investigated as a clinical application. Without overlapping the MLCs, radiation leakage at the abutments appeared as a peak of the dose profile. With more overlapping, the profile exhibited a minimized variation with a two-peak pattern. With excessive overlapping, the peak was reversed due to decreased dose. Variation of the profile was minimized with an overlap of 2.0-2.2 mm. The level of variation and the optimal length of overlap were found to be independent of the sites of measurement. Reproducibility was confirmed by repeated measurements. With the mantle field, SAFI using MLCs revealed an profile equivalent to use of alloy blocking fields in all respects other than the variations at the abutting sites. If the length of the MLC abutment overlap differs by site, clinical application of SAFI using MLCs would be quite complicated. The optimal length of the overlap was found to be 2.0 mm and to be independent of the sites of abutment. Therefore, we conclude that SAFI using MLCs of 1 cm in width is feasible for clinical use. (author)

  2. Cost-minimization analysis: radiation treatment with and without a multi-leaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroudi, Farshad; Lapsley, Helen; Manderson, Christine; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the costs of radiation treatment on a linear accelerator with a multileaf collimator (MLC) versus treatment on a linear accelerator without an MLC. The study was designed to determine whether the increased throughput of fields and decreased block cutting made the MLC cost effective from an institutional perspective. Methods and Materials: The number of fields, basic treatment equivalent, equivalent simple treatment visits, and blocks were prospectively collected for the four linear accelerators. Building, equipment, staffing, and service costs were all obtained in 1999 Australian dollars from the manufacturers and hospital department heads. The Joint Radiation Oncology Centre at Westmead and Nepean Hospitals, which are Australian public hospitals, runs as one unit, with the same staff, and currently operates five linear accelerators. Currently, four of the linear accelerators are used for general radiotherapy, operating for exactly the same hours; the final machine operates more limited hours and is used for specialized radiotherapy techniques and emergency cases. Results: The two machines with MLCs, on average, treated 5,169 fields each, while the two machines without MLCs treated 4,543 fields in a 3-month period, a 12% increase in throughput. The two non-MLC machines required 155 premounted trays (PMTs) in total, while the MLC machines required 17 PMTs. Linear accelerators with MLCs were demonstrably more efficient, and while their capital costs were higher, the reduction in labor costs associated with block cutting and, particularly the increased throughput, more than offset these initial costs. The total cost of a radiation field with an MLC was found to be $A101.69 compared to $A106.98 without an MLC. A multiway sensitivity analysis showed the results to be robust. The worst-case scenario was a departmental savings of $A168,000 per year; the best-case scenario was a savings of $A680,000 per year. Conclusion: Under the conditions pertaining

  3. Methodology for Multileaf Collimator Quality Assurance in clinical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz M, R. M.; Rodriguez Z, M.; Juarez D, A.; Romero R, R.

    2013-01-01

    Multileaf Collimators (MLCs) have become an important technological advance as part of clinical linear accelerators (linacs) for radiotherapy. Treatment planning and delivery were substantially modified after these devices. However, it was needed to develop Quality Assurance (QA) methodologies related to the performance of these developments. The most common methods for QA of MLC are made in basic conditions that hardly cover all possible difficulties in clinical practice. Diaz et. el. developed a methodology based upon volumetric detectors bidimensional arrays that can be extended to more demanding situations. In this work, the Auril methodology of Diaz et. al. was implemented to the irradiation with the linac gantry in horizontal position. A mathematical procedure was developed to ease the dosimetric centering of the device with the Auril centering tool. System calibration was made as in the typical Auril methodology. Patterns with leaf misplacements in known positions were irradiated. the method allowed the detection of leafs' misplacements with a minimum number of false positives. We concluded that Auril methodology can be applied in clinical conditions. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of the penumbras of a Philips multileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafay, F; Malet, C; Mombard, C; Ginestet, C [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Blondel, E [Isotec, Saint-Quentin (France); Desfarges, Y; Dupin, G [Philips Medical System, Lyon (France)

    1995-12-01

    Since January 1995, a Philips SL20 linear accelerator which is connected to a multileaf collimator has been used. Computer-controlled multileaf collimators open up the opportunity to practice conformal radiotherapy. Its aim is to adjust as well as possible the Planning Target Volume (PTV) to the effective treated volume with an homogeneous dose distribution in the PTV, and to protect healthy tissues and delicate organs. This is possible by means of a multileaf collimator by increasing the number of complex fields with different incidences during a same session. Moreover, the Beam`s Eye View function of the three-dimensional treatment planning system allows to define the shape of complex fields. For rectangular fields, the penumbra is defined by the distance between the 80% and 20% isodoses relative to the beam axis. In addition, the distances between, respectively, the 95% and 50% isodoses, the 90% and 50% isodoses, the 50% and 20% isodoses relative to the beam axis have been analysed. Different penumbras were evaluated. The result of this work will enable to adjust the reference isodose to the PTV either by integrating this result into dosimetry software, or by taking it into account for drawing the PTV.

  5. Evaluation of the penumbras of a Philips multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafay, F.; Malet, C.; Mombard, C.; Ginestet, C.; Blondel, E.; Desfarges, Y.; Dupin, G.

    1995-01-01

    Since January 1995, a Philips SL20 linear accelerator which is connected to a multileaf collimator has been used. Computer-controlled multileaf collimators open up the opportunity to practice conformal radiotherapy. Its aim is to adjust as well as possible the Planning Target Volume (PTV) to the effective treated volume with an homogeneous dose distribution in the PTV, and to protect healthy tissues and delicate organs. This is possible by means of a multileaf collimator by increasing the number of complex fields with different incidences during a same session. Moreover, the Beam's Eye View function of the three-dimensional treatment planning system allows to define the shape of complex fields. For rectangular fields, the penumbra is defined by the distance between the 80% and 20% isodoses relative to the beam axis. In addition, the distances between, respectively, the 95% and 50% isodoses, the 90% and 50% isodoses, the 50% and 20% isodoses relative to the beam axis have been analysed. Different penumbras were evaluated. The result of this work will enable to adjust the reference isodose to the PTV either by integrating this result into dosimetry software, or by taking it into account for drawing the PTV

  6. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3DCRT and IMRT Using Different Multileaf Collimators in the Treatment of Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Meisong; Newman, Francis M.S.; Chen Changhu; Stuhr, Kelly; Gaspar, Laurie E.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the differences between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and the impact of collimator leaf-width on IMRT plans for the treatment of nonspherical brain tumors. Eight patients treated by 3DCRT with Novalis were selected. We developed 3 IMRT plans with different multileaf collimators (Novalis m3, Varian MLC-120, and Varian MLC-80) with the same treatment margins, number of beams, and gantry positions as in the 3DCRT treatment plans. Treatment planning utilized the BrainLAB treatment planning system. For each patient, the dose constraints and optimization parameters remained identical for all plans. The heterogeneity index, the percentage target coverage, critical structures, and normal tissue volumes receiving 50% of the prescription dose were calculated to compare the dosimetric difference. Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and tumor control probability (TCP) were also introduced to evaluate the radiobiological effect for different plans. We found that IMRT significantly improved the target dose homogeneity compared to the 3DCRT. However, IMRT showed the same radiobiological effect as 3DCRT. For the brain tumors adjacent to (or partially overlapping with) critical structures, IMRT dramatically spared the volume of the critical structures to be irradiated. In IMRT plans, the smaller collimator leaf width could reduce the volume of critical structures irradiated to the 50% level for those partially overlapping with the brain tumors. For relatively large and spherical brain tumors, the smaller collimator leaf widths give no significant benefit

  7. Use of an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device for multileaf collimator quality control and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S J K; Budgell, G J; MacKay, R I

    2005-01-01

    Multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration and quality control is a time-consuming procedure typically involving the processing, scanning and analysis of films to measure leaf and collimator positions. Faster and more reliable calibration procedures are required for these tasks, especially with the introduction of intensity modulated radiotherapy which requires more frequent checking and finer positional leaf tolerances than previously. A routine quality control (QC) technique to measure MLC leaf bank gain and offset, as well as minor offsets (individual leaf position relative to a reference leaf), using an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been developed. The technique also tests the calibration of the primary and back-up collimators. A detailed comparison between film and EPID measurements has been performed for six linear accelerators (linacs) equipped with MLC and amorphous silicon EPIDs. Measurements of field size from 4 to 24 cm with the EPID were systematically smaller than film measurements over all field sizes by 0.4 mm for leaves/back-up collimators and by 0.2 mm for conventional collimators. This effect is due to the gain calibration correction applied by the EPID, resulting in a 'flattening' of primary beam profiles. Linac dependent systematic differences of up to 0.5 mm in individual leaf/collimator positions were also found between EPID and film measurements due to the difference between the mechanical and radiation axes of rotation. When corrections for these systematic differences were applied, the residual random differences between EPID and film were 0.23 mm and 0.26 mm (1 standard deviation) for field size and individual leaf/back-up collimator position, respectively. Measured gains (over a distance of 220 mm) always agreed within 0.4 mm with a standard deviation of 0.17 mm. Minor offset measurements gave a mean agreement between EPID and film of 0.01 ± 0.10 mm (1 standard deviation) after correction for the tilt of the

  8. Monte Carlo simulation based study of a proposed multileaf collimator for a telecobalt machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahani, G.; Dash Sharma, P. K.; Hussain, S. A.; Dutt Sharma, Sunil; Sharma, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present work was to propose a design of a secondary multileaf collimator (MLC) for a telecobalt machine and optimize its design features through Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: The proposed MLC design consists of 72 leaves (36 leaf pairs) with additional jaws perpendicular to leaf motion having the capability of shaping a maximum square field size of 35 × 35 cm 2 . The projected widths at isocenter of each of the central 34 leaf pairs and 2 peripheral leaf pairs are 10 and 5 mm, respectively. The ends of the leaves and the x-jaws were optimized to obtain acceptable values of dosimetric and leakage parameters. Monte Carlo N-Particle code was used for generating beam profiles and depth dose curves and estimating the leakage radiation through the MLC. A water phantom of dimension 50 × 50 × 40 cm 3 with an array of voxels (4 × 0.3 × 0.6 cm 3 = 0.72 cm 3 ) was used for the study of dosimetric and leakage characteristics of the MLC. Output files generated for beam profiles were exported to the PTW radiation field analyzer software through locally developed software for analysis of beam profiles in order to evaluate radiation field width, beam flatness, symmetry, and beam penumbra. Results: The optimized version of the MLC can define radiation fields of up to 35 × 35 cm 2 within the prescribed tolerance values of 2 mm. The flatness and symmetry were found to be well within the acceptable tolerance value of 3%. The penumbra for a 10 × 10 cm 2 field size is 10.7 mm which is less than the generally acceptable value of 12 mm for a telecobalt machine. The maximum and average radiation leakage through the MLC were found to be 0.74% and 0.41% which are well below the International Electrotechnical Commission recommended tolerance values of 2% and 0.75%, respectively. The maximum leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was observed to be 8.6% which is less than the values reported for other MLCs designed for medical linear

  9. SU-E-T-467: Implementation of Monte Carlo Dose Calculation for a Multileaf Collimator Equipped Robotic Radiotherapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, JS; Fan, J; Ma, C-M [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To improve the treatment efficiency and capabilities for full-body treatment, a robotic radiosurgery system has equipped with a multileaf collimator (MLC) to extend its accuracy and precision to radiation therapy. To model the MLC and include it in the Monte Carlo patient dose calculation is the goal of this work. Methods: The radiation source and the MLC were carefully modeled to consider the effects of the source size, collimator scattering, leaf transmission and leaf end shape. A source model was built based on the output factors, percentage depth dose curves and lateral dose profiles measured in a water phantom. MLC leaf shape, leaf end design and leaf tilt for minimizing the interleaf leakage and their effects on beam fluence and energy spectrum were all considered in the calculation. Transmission/leakage was added to the fluence based on the transmission factors of the leaf and the leaf end. The transmitted photon energy was tuned to consider the beam hardening effects. The calculated results with the Monte Carlo implementation was compared with measurements in homogeneous water phantom and inhomogeneous phantoms with slab lung or bone material for 4 square fields and 9 irregularly shaped fields. Results: The calculated output factors are compared with the measured ones and the difference is within 1% for different field sizes. The calculated dose distributions in the phantoms show good agreement with measurements using diode detector and films. The dose difference is within 2% inside the field and the distance to agreement is within 2mm in the penumbra region. The gamma passing rate is more than 95% with 2%/2mm criteria for all the test cases. Conclusion: Implementation of Monte Carlo dose calculation for a MLC equipped robotic radiosurgery system is completed successfully. The accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation with MLC is clinically acceptable. This work was supported by Accuray Inc.

  10. SU-E-T-467: Implementation of Monte Carlo Dose Calculation for a Multileaf Collimator Equipped Robotic Radiotherapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, JS; Fan, J; Ma, C-M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the treatment efficiency and capabilities for full-body treatment, a robotic radiosurgery system has equipped with a multileaf collimator (MLC) to extend its accuracy and precision to radiation therapy. To model the MLC and include it in the Monte Carlo patient dose calculation is the goal of this work. Methods: The radiation source and the MLC were carefully modeled to consider the effects of the source size, collimator scattering, leaf transmission and leaf end shape. A source model was built based on the output factors, percentage depth dose curves and lateral dose profiles measured in a water phantom. MLC leaf shape, leaf end design and leaf tilt for minimizing the interleaf leakage and their effects on beam fluence and energy spectrum were all considered in the calculation. Transmission/leakage was added to the fluence based on the transmission factors of the leaf and the leaf end. The transmitted photon energy was tuned to consider the beam hardening effects. The calculated results with the Monte Carlo implementation was compared with measurements in homogeneous water phantom and inhomogeneous phantoms with slab lung or bone material for 4 square fields and 9 irregularly shaped fields. Results: The calculated output factors are compared with the measured ones and the difference is within 1% for different field sizes. The calculated dose distributions in the phantoms show good agreement with measurements using diode detector and films. The dose difference is within 2% inside the field and the distance to agreement is within 2mm in the penumbra region. The gamma passing rate is more than 95% with 2%/2mm criteria for all the test cases. Conclusion: Implementation of Monte Carlo dose calculation for a MLC equipped robotic radiosurgery system is completed successfully. The accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation with MLC is clinically acceptable. This work was supported by Accuray Inc

  11. Multileaf collimator and related apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    In radiotherapy apparatus using a multileaf collimator, the adjustment positions of the individual leaves can be determined optically by means of a video camera which observes the leaves via a radiation transparent mirror in the beam path. In order to overcome problems of low contrast and varying object brightness, the improvement comprises adding retroreflectors to the collimator leaves whose positions are known relative to the inner edge of the respective leaf. The retroreflectors can extend along the length of the leaf or they can be small. For setting up, corresponding manually adjustable optical diaphragm leaves can be used to project an optical simulation of the treatment area onto the patient, retroreflectors being similarly located relative to the shadow-casting edge of the leaves. (author)

  12. Dosimetric performance of the new high-definition multileaf collimator for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabaan, Anees; Elder, Eric; Schreibmann, Eduard; Crocker, Ian; Curran, Walter J; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Fox, Tim

    2010-06-21

    The objective was to evaluate the performance of a high-definition multileaf collimator (MLC) of 2.5 mm leaf width (MLC2.5) and compare to standard 5 mm leaf width MLC (MLC5) for the treatment of intracranial lesions using dynamic conformal arcs (DCA) technique with a dedicated radiosurgery linear accelerator. Simulated cases of spherical targets were created to study solely the effect of target volume size on the performance of the two MLC systems independent of target shape complexity. In addition, 43 patients previously treated for intracranial lesions in our institution were retrospectively planned using DCA technique with MLC2.5 and MLC5 systems. The gross tumor volume ranged from 0.07 to 40.57 cm3 with an average volume of 5.9 cm3. All treatment parameters were kept the same for both MLC-based plans. The plan evaluation was performed using figures of merits (FOM) for a rapid and objective assessment on the quality of the two treatment plans for MLC2.5 and MLC5. The prescription isodose surface was selected as the greatest isodose surface covering >or= 95% of the target volume and delivering 95% of the prescription dose to 99% of target volume. A Conformity Index (CI) and conformity distance index (CDI) were used to quantifying the dose conformity to a target volume. To assess normal tissue sparing, a normal tissue difference (NTD) was defined as the difference between the volume of normal tissue receiving a certain dose utilizing MLC5 and the volume receiving the same dose using MLC2.5. The CI and normal tissue sparing for the simulated spherical targets were better with the MLC2.5 as compared to MLC5. For the clinical patients, the CI and CDI results indicated that the MLC2.5 provides better treatment conformity than MLC5 even at large target volumes. The CI's range was 1.15 to 2.44 with a median of 1.59 for MLC2.5 compared to 1.60-2.85 with a median of 1.71 for MLC5. Improved normal tissue sparing was also observed for MLC2.5 over MLC5, with the NTD always

  13. Modification of a three-dimensional treatment planning system for the use of multi-leaf collimators in conformation radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesecke, R.; Becker, G.; Alandt, K.; Pastyr, O.; Doll, J.; Schlegel, W.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The multi-leaf collimator of the DKFZ is designed as a low cost add-on device for conventional linear accelerators for radiotherapy. The technical specification of the computer controlled collimator is briefly described . A major limitation in the use of the wide capabilities of multi-leaf collimators in the clinic is still an appropriate treatment planning system. This paper describes treatment planning and dose calculation techniques for multi-leaf collimators and shows examples where the capabilities of the collimators are used extensively. (author). 18 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Quality control program of multi-leaf collimation based EPID for teams with Rapidarc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujades Claumarchirant, M. C.; Richart Sancho, J.; Gimeno Olmos, J.; Lliso Valverde, F.; Carmona Mesenguer, V.; Garcia Martinez, M. T.; Palomo Llinares, R.; Ballester Pallares, F.; Perez Calatayud, J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to show a collection of different recommendations on the control of quality of collimation multi-leaf system and present the selection of tests based on the electronic imaging device (EPID) portal that have decided to establish in our Center, where in addition to the requirements of quality assurance generic for collimation multi-leaf system quality control methods have been included for RapidArc. (Author)

  15. Penumbra characteristics of square photon beams delimited by a GEMS multi-leaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briot, E; Julia, F [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    1995-12-01

    A multi-leaf collimator (MLC) has been designed to replace directly the standard collimator of a SATURNE IV Series linac. It consists of 2 x 32 tungsten leaves and one set of upper block jaws. Isodose curves and dose profiles were measured for symmetric fields at the depth of the maximum and the reference depths for 6 MV, 10 MV, 18 MV photon beams. The penumbra (80%-20%) corresponding to the face and the side of the leaves have been compared with the standard collimators. Along with the X direction, the field delimitation is performed primarily with the leaves which are continuously variable in position. Along the Y direction, the field is initially approximated by the closure of opposite leaf pairs; then the Y upper jaws produce the exact size of the required field. As the leaves move linearly the penumbra (80%-20%) corresponding to the leaf ends is minimized and held constant at all positions by curvature of their faces. Penumbra obtained with the superposition of leaves and Y jaws depend on their relative position. The penumbra is minimum when the leaf side and the Y jaw edge coincide and the comparison of the measurement values with the conventional collimator shows that the differences are within 1 mm. When the leaves delineating the field are not entirely covered by the Y block upper jaws, the penumbra increases, and the junction of the opposing leaves, a width increase up to 3.5 mm has been measured.

  16. SU-F-T-527: A Novel Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Leaf-Sequencing Algorithm in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, J; Lin, H [Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui (China); Chow, J [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A novel leaf-sequencing algorithm is developed for generating arbitrary beam intensity profiles in discrete levels using dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC). The efficiency of this dynamic MLC leaf-sequencing method was evaluated using external beam treatment plans delivered by intensity modulated radiation therapy technique. Methods: To qualify and validate this algorithm, integral test for the beam segment of MLC generated by the CORVUS treatment planning system was performed with clinical intensity map experiments. The treatment plans were optimized and the fluence maps for all photon beams were determined. This algorithm started with the algebraic expression for the area under the beam profile. The coefficients in the expression can be transformed into the specifications for the leaf-setting sequence. The leaf optimization procedure was then applied and analyzed for clinical relevant intensity profiles in cancer treatment. Results: The macrophysical effect of this method can be described by volumetric plan evaluation tools such as dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The DVH results are in good agreement compared to those from the CORVUS treatment planning system. Conclusion: We developed a dynamic MLC method to examine the stability of leaf speed including effects of acceleration and deceleration of leaf motion in order to make sure the stability of leaf speed did not affect the intensity profile generated. It was found that the mechanical requirements were better satisfied using this method. The Project is sponsored by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.

  17. SU-F-T-527: A Novel Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Leaf-Sequencing Algorithm in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, J; Lin, H; Chow, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A novel leaf-sequencing algorithm is developed for generating arbitrary beam intensity profiles in discrete levels using dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC). The efficiency of this dynamic MLC leaf-sequencing method was evaluated using external beam treatment plans delivered by intensity modulated radiation therapy technique. Methods: To qualify and validate this algorithm, integral test for the beam segment of MLC generated by the CORVUS treatment planning system was performed with clinical intensity map experiments. The treatment plans were optimized and the fluence maps for all photon beams were determined. This algorithm started with the algebraic expression for the area under the beam profile. The coefficients in the expression can be transformed into the specifications for the leaf-setting sequence. The leaf optimization procedure was then applied and analyzed for clinical relevant intensity profiles in cancer treatment. Results: The macrophysical effect of this method can be described by volumetric plan evaluation tools such as dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The DVH results are in good agreement compared to those from the CORVUS treatment planning system. Conclusion: We developed a dynamic MLC method to examine the stability of leaf speed including effects of acceleration and deceleration of leaf motion in order to make sure the stability of leaf speed did not affect the intensity profile generated. It was found that the mechanical requirements were better satisfied using this method. The Project is sponsored by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.

  18. Results of daily monitoring of positioning MLC multileaf collimator for Siemens 160 with an array of cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Fernandez, A.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, C.; Martin Martin, G.; Saez Beltran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Modern techniques of radiotherapy, and in particular the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), require sub-millimeter accuracy in the positioning of multileaf collimators to ensure that patients receive the prescribed dose. It is difficult to include checks of positioning accuracy as high on the agendas of regular monitoring of the accelerators of a hospital. This paper presents the results of a method that enables rapid verification of the position of the sheets with an accuracy of tenths of a millimeter by using an ionization chamber array. The procedure has been applied to the daily control of the two accelerators of our service for 12 months.

  19. Quality assurance for multileaf collimator with radiographic film exposed by slit beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinli; Jiang Guoliang; Fu Xiaolong; Liao Yuan; Wu Kailiang; Zhou Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of Kodak X-OMAT-V film exposed by slit beam in the check of various leaf positions of multileaf collimator(MLC), and to check the status of Varian 26 leaf pairs MLC in the Department of Radiation Oncology in Shanghai Cancer Hospital affiliated to Fudan University. Methods: At first, some position errors of different sizes were produced for different leaves so as to determine the minimal leaf position error that could be seen on film. Then, exposure conditions including the exposure dose and source to film distance were changed to find the optimal one. Finally, a Kodak X-OMAT-V film was exposed with a leaf sequence file which was designated randomly by a physicist with leaf position errors of different sizes. After the film was developed, two doctors and two physicists were invited to observe, on blind basis, in order to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the film in the check of leaf positions. Ultimately, leaf positions of the Varian 26 leaf pairs MLC were checked, in which way, the leaf motor status and the carriage stability were checked indirectly. Results: Leaf position errors no less than 0.2 mm could be found using Kodak X-OMAT-V film under the following conditions: source to film distance 100 cm, exposure dose 25 MU, which had been considered as the optimal exposure conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of this method were 73.4% and 96.4%. Any MLC leaf position errors more than 0.2 mm could not be detected. Thus, it was deemed that all leaf motors of the Varian 26 leaf pairs MLC were well in gear and the carriages were stable. Conclusions: MLC leaf position errors can be detected by Kodak X-OMAT-V film exposed by slit beam with high accuracy, but the ability to find leaf position errors with the naked eye may vary from person to person. It is proposed that the Kodak X-OMAT-V film exposed by slit beam be used to check the MLC leaf positions, i. e. the leaf motor status and carriage stability, at regular

  20. Real-Time Dynamic MLC Tracking for Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Marianne

    Motion management of intra-fraction tumour motion during radiotherapy treatment can be a challenging task in order to achieve tumour control as well as minimizing the dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. Real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking is a novel method for intra-fraction...

  1. An alternative effective method for verifying the multileaf collimator leaves speed by using a digital-video imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ing-Ming; Wu, Jay; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Ding, Hueisch-Jy

    2010-01-01

    We present an alternative effective method for verifying the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves speed using a digital-video imaging system in daily dynamic conformal radiation therapy (DCRT) and intensity-modulation radiation therapy (IMRT) in achieving increased convenience and shorter treatment times. The horizontal leaves speed measured was within 1.76-2.08 cm/s. The mean full range of traveling time was 20 s. The initial speed-up time was within 1.5-2.0 s, and the slowing-down time was within 2.0-2.5 s. Due to gravity the maximum speed-up effect in the X1 bank was +0.10 cm/s, but the lagging effect in the X2 bank was -0.20 cm/s. This technique offered an alternative method with electronic portal imaging device (EPID), charged coupled device (CCD) or a light field for the measurement of MLC leaves speed. When time taken on the linac was kept to a minimum, the image could be processed off-line.

  2. Dosimetric comparison of different multileaf collimator leaves in treatment planning of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shichao; Ai, Ping; Xie, Li; Xu, Qingfeng; Bai, Sen; Lu, You; Li, Ping; Chen, Nianyong

    2013-01-01

    To study the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths (standard MLC [sMLC] width of 10 mm and micro-MLC [mMLC] width of 4 mm) on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer. Between January 2010 and August 2010, a retrospective analysis was conducted on 12 patients with cervical cancer. The treatment plans for all patients were generated with the same machine setup parameters and optimization methods in a treatment planning system (TPS) based on 2 commercial Elekta MLC devices. The dose distribution for the planning tumor volume (PTV), the dose sparing for organs at risk (OARs), the monitor units (MUs), and the number of IMRT segments were evaluated. For the delivery efficiency, the MUs were significantly higher in the sMLC-IMRT plan than in the mMLC-IMRT plan (802 ± 56.9 vs 702 ± 56.7; p 0.05). For the planning quality, the conformity index (CI) between the 2 paired IMRT plans with the mMLC and the sMLC did not differ significantly (average: 0.817 ± 0.024 vs 0.810 ± 0.028; p > 0.05). The differences of the homogeneity index (HI) between the 2 paired plans were statistically significant (average: 1.122 ± 0.010 vs 1.132 ± 0.014; p 10 , V 20 , V 30 , and V 40 , percentage of contoured OAR volumes receiving 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy, respectively, and the mean dose (D mean ) received. The IMRT plans with the mMLC protected the OARs better than the plans with the sMLC. There were significant differences (p 30 and V 40 of the rectum and V 10 , V 20 , V 40 , and D mean of the bladder. IMRT plans with the mMLC showed advantages over the plans with the sMLC in dose homogeneity for targets, dose sparing of OARs, and fewer MUs in cervical cancer

  3. An analytical approach for optimizing the leaf design of a multi-leaf collimator in a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolnjak, R; Heide, U A van der

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we present an analytical approach for optimizing the leaf design of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) in a linear accelerator. Because leaf designs vary between vendors, our goal is to characterize and quantify the effects of different compromises which have to be made between performance parameters. Subsequently, an optimal leaf design for an earlier proposed six-bank MLC which combines a high-resolution field-shaping ability with a large field size is determined. To this end a model of the linac is created that includes the following parameters: the source size, the maximum field size, the distance between source and isocenter, and the leaf's design parameters. First, the optimal radius of the leaf tip was found. This optimum was defined by the requirement that the fluence intensity should fall from 80% of the maximum value to 20% in a minimal distance, defining the width of the fluence penumbra. A second requirement was that this penumbra width should be constant when a leaf moves from one side of the field to the other. The geometric, transmission and total penumbra width (80-20%) were calculated depending on the design parameters. The analytical model is in agreement with Elekta, Varian and Siemens collimator designs. For leaves thinner than 4 cm, the transmission penumbra becomes dominant, and for leaves close to the source the geometric penumbra plays a role. Finally, by choosing the leaf thickness of 3.5 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm from the lowest to the highest bank, respectively, an optimal leaf design for a six-bank MLC is achieved

  4. TH-AB-BRA-01: A Novel Doubly-Focused Multileaf Collimator Design for MR-Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H; Mutic, S; Green, O [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Low, D [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Fought, G; Kawrakow, I; Sharma, A; Shvartsman, S; Dempsey, J [ViewRay, Inc., Oakwood Village, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To describe the physical and dosimetric properties of a novel double-stack multileaf collimator (MLC). Methods: One of the compromises made in the MLC design has been to employ linear-motion singly-divergent shapes. Because the MLC leading edge moves linearly, it is rounded to provide a consistent, albeit compromised penumbra. The MLC employed in the new linac-based MR-IGRT unit is designed to be doubly focused in that each leaf moves in an arc centered at the source, and the sides of the leaves are machined such that they lie parallel to a line between the leaf edge and the source. The curvature of the MLC keeps motors and encoders in lower magnetic field. However, high spatial-resolution leaves are difficult to manufacture to sufficiently tight tolerances and difficult to move due to restricted space on the gantry. Wider leaves alleviate this problem with less moving parts but the coarse resolution disallows treating very small lesions. This compromise has been overcome by splitting the MLC leaf bank into two sets, stacked one upon the other and offset half of a leaf width. The dosimetry has been simulated using Monte-Carlo and a 6 MV linac in a 0.35 T magnetic field. Results: The combined MLC leaf set has a spatial resolution of effectively half of the leaf width, 4mm here. The dosimetry resolution and conformality are consistent with 4mm wide MLC assisted by inverse fluence modulation. Also, because each leaf junction is backed up by the stacked leaf that lies over the junction, the problem of tongue-and-groove dosimetry has been greatly reduced. The novel MLC design allows the use of more powerful leaf motors than would be otherwise possible if a single MLC bank is employed. Conclusions: The stacked MLC will provide highly conformal dose distributions suitable for stereotactic radiation therapy of small lesions. The research was funded by ViewRay, Inc.

  5. TH-AB-BRA-01: A Novel Doubly-Focused Multileaf Collimator Design for MR-Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Mutic, S; Green, O; Low, D; Fought, G; Kawrakow, I; Sharma, A; Shvartsman, S; Dempsey, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the physical and dosimetric properties of a novel double-stack multileaf collimator (MLC). Methods: One of the compromises made in the MLC design has been to employ linear-motion singly-divergent shapes. Because the MLC leading edge moves linearly, it is rounded to provide a consistent, albeit compromised penumbra. The MLC employed in the new linac-based MR-IGRT unit is designed to be doubly focused in that each leaf moves in an arc centered at the source, and the sides of the leaves are machined such that they lie parallel to a line between the leaf edge and the source. The curvature of the MLC keeps motors and encoders in lower magnetic field. However, high spatial-resolution leaves are difficult to manufacture to sufficiently tight tolerances and difficult to move due to restricted space on the gantry. Wider leaves alleviate this problem with less moving parts but the coarse resolution disallows treating very small lesions. This compromise has been overcome by splitting the MLC leaf bank into two sets, stacked one upon the other and offset half of a leaf width. The dosimetry has been simulated using Monte-Carlo and a 6 MV linac in a 0.35 T magnetic field. Results: The combined MLC leaf set has a spatial resolution of effectively half of the leaf width, 4mm here. The dosimetry resolution and conformality are consistent with 4mm wide MLC assisted by inverse fluence modulation. Also, because each leaf junction is backed up by the stacked leaf that lies over the junction, the problem of tongue-and-groove dosimetry has been greatly reduced. The novel MLC design allows the use of more powerful leaf motors than would be otherwise possible if a single MLC bank is employed. Conclusions: The stacked MLC will provide highly conformal dose distributions suitable for stereotactic radiation therapy of small lesions. The research was funded by ViewRay, Inc.

  6. Using the volumetric effect of a finite-sized detector for routine quality assurance of multileaf collimator leaf positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Xing Lei

    2003-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced form of radiation therapy and promises to improve dose conformation while reducing the irradiation to the sensitive structures. The modality is, however, more complicated than conventional treatment and requires much more stringent quality assurance (QA) to ensure what has been planned can be achieved accurately. One of the main QA tasks is the assurance of positioning accuracy of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves during IMRT delivery. Currently, the routine quality assurance of MLC in most clinics is being done using radiographic films with specially designed MLC leaf sequences. Besides being time consuming, the results of film measurements are difficult to quantify and interpret. In this work, we propose a new and effective technique for routine MLC leaf positioning QA. The technique utilizes the fact that, when a finite-sized detector is placed under a leaf, the relative output of the detector will depend on the relative fractional volume irradiated. A small error in leaf positioning would change the fractional volume irradiated and lead to a deviation of the relative output from the normal reading. For a given MLC and detector system, the relation between the relative output and the leaf displacement can be easily established through experimental measurements and used subsequently as a quantitative means for detecting possible leaf positional errors. The method was tested using a linear accelerator with an 80-leaf MLC. Three different locations, including two locations on central plane (X1=X2=0) and one point on an off-central plane location (X1=-7.5, X=7.5), were studied. Our results indicated that the method could accurately detect a leaf positional change of ∼0.1 mm. The method was also used to monitor the stability of MLC leaf positioning for five consecutive weeks. In this test, we intentionally introduced two positional errors in the testing MLC leaf sequences: -0.2 mm and 1.2 mm. The technique

  7. Postoperative modified stereotactic radiotherapy using a micro-multileaf collimator in patients with malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Toshihiko; Nishiyama, Kinji; Nakagawa, Hidemitsu; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Kouichi

    2002-06-01

    To achieve local control of malignant glioma, we designed a postoperative stereotactic radiotherapy using a micro-multileaf collimator (micro-MLC). The purpose of this study was to clarify the feasibility of this treatment. The treatment was performed in six patients who met the following eligibility criteria: (1) supratentorial tumor, (2) residual tumor volume or = 70. The three planning target volumes (PTVs), which consisted of restricted PTV (RPTV), intermediate PTV (IPTV), and extended PTV (EPTV), defined as the residual tumor plus a 1 cm, 2 cm, and 3 cm margins, respectively, and total dose delivery of 60-68 Gy, 52-60 Gy, and 44-52 Gy to the isocenters of RPTV, IPTV, and EPTV, respectively, in 4 Gy per fraction at five fractions per week, were established. The beam arrangement and the conformal blockade with a micro-MLC for the optimal treatment plan were designed. The treatment plans showed the high dose conformation to EPTV, the appropriate dose gradients in the three PTVs with the high dose homogeneity to RPTV, and the tolerated dose to critical structures. Following the plans, treatment was performed. The clinical findings more than 12 months after the treatment supported its possible use. We conclude that this treatment is feasible at least in selected patients.

  8. Optimized procedure for calibration and verification multileaf collimator from Elekta Synergy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castel Millan, A.; Perellezo Mazon, A.; Fernandez Ibiza, J.; Arnalte Olloquequi, M.; Armengol Martinez, S.; Rodriguez Rey, A.; Guedea Edo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to design an optimized procedure for calibration and verification of a multileaf collimator used so as to allow the EPID and the image plate in a complementary way, using different processing systems. With this procedure we have two equivalent alternative as the same parameters obtained for the calibration of multileaf Elekta Synergy accelerator.

  9. SU-E-T-247: Multi-Leaf Collimator Model Adjustments Improve Small Field Dosimetry in VMAT Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, L; Yang, F [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Elekta beam modulator linac employs a 4-mm micro multileaf collimator (MLC) backed by a fixed jaw. Out-of-field dose discrepancies between treatment planning system (TPS) calculations and output water phantom measurements are caused by the 1-mm leaf gap required for all moving MLCs in a VMAT arc. In this study, MLC parameters are optimized to improve TPS out-of-field dose approximations. Methods: Static 2.4 cm square fields were created with a 1-mm leaf gap for MLCs that would normally park behind the jaw. Doses in the open field and leaf gap were measured with an A16 micro ion chamber and EDR2 film for comparison with corresponding point doses in the Pinnacle TPS. The MLC offset table and tip radius were adjusted until TPS point doses agreed with photon measurements. Improvements to the beam models were tested using static arcs consisting of square fields ranging from 1.6 to 14.0 cm, with 45° collimator rotation, and 1-mm leaf gap to replicate VMAT conditions. Gamma values for the 3-mm distance, 3% dose difference criteria were evaluated using standard QA procedures with a cylindrical detector array. Results: The best agreement in point doses within the leaf gap and open field was achieved by offsetting the default rounded leaf end table by 0.1 cm and adjusting the leaf tip radius to 13 cm. Improvements in TPS models for 6 and 10 MV photon beams were more significant for smaller field sizes 3.6 cm or less where the initial gamma factors progressively increased as field size decreased, i.e. for a 1.6cm field size, the Gamma increased from 56.1% to 98.8%. Conclusion: The MLC optimization techniques developed will achieve greater dosimetric accuracy in small field VMAT treatment plans for fixed jaw linear accelerators. Accurate predictions of dose to organs at risk may reduce adverse effects of radiotherapy.

  10. Multileaf collimator leaf position verification and analysis for adaptive radiation therapy using a video-optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Sohrab B.

    External beam radiation therapy is commonly used to eliminate and control cancerous tumors. High-energy beams are shaped to match the patient's specific tumor volume, whereby maximizing radiation dose to malignant cells and limiting dose to normal tissue. A multileaf collimator (MLC) consisting of multiple pairs of tungsten leaves is used to conform the radiation beam to the desired treatment field. Advanced treatment methods utilize dynamic MLC settings to conform to multiple treatment fields and provide intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Future methods would further increase conformity by actively tracking tumor motion caused by patient cardiac and respiratory motion. Leaf position quality assurance for a dynamic MLC is critical as variation between the planned and actual leaf positions could induce significant errors in radiation dose. The goal of this research project is to prototype a video-optical quality assurance system for MLC leaf positions. The system captures light-field images of MLC leaf sequences during dynamic therapy. Image acquisition and analysis software was developed to determine leaf edge positions. The mean absolute difference between QA prototype predicted and caliper measured leaf positions was found to be 0.6 mm with an uncertainty of +/- 0.3 mm. Maximum errors in predicted positions were below 1.0 mm for static fields. The prototype served as a proof of concept for quality assurance of future tumor tracking methods. Specifically, a lung tumor phantom was created to mimic a lung tumor's motion from respiration. The lung tumor video images were superimposed on MLC field video images for visualization and analysis. The toolbox is capable of displaying leaf position, leaf velocity, tumor position, and determining errors between planned and actual treatment fields for dynamic radiation therapy.

  11. SU-E-T-545: MLC Distance Travelled as a Predictor for Motor Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathakis, S; Defoor, D; Linden, P; Kirby, N; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the frequency of Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) leaf failures, investigate methods to predict them and reduce linac downtime. Methods: A Varian HD120 MLC was used in our study. The hyperterminal MLC errors logged from 06/2012 to 12/2014 were collected. Along with the hyperterminal errors, the MLC motor changes and all other MLC interventions by the linear accelerator engineer were recorded. The MLC dynalog files were also recorded on a daily basis for each treatment and during linac QA. The dynalog files were analyzed to calculate root mean square errors (RMS) and cumulative MLC travel distance per motor. An in-house MatLab code was used to analyze all dynalog files, record RMS errors and calculate the distance each MLC traveled per day. Results: A total of 269 interventions were recorded over a period of 18 months. Of these, 146 included MLC motor leaf change, 39 T-nut replacements, and 84 MLC cleaning sessions. Leaves close to the middle of each side required the most maintenance. In the A bank, leaves A27 to A40 recorded 73% of all interventions, while the same leaves in the B bank counted for 52% of the interventions. On average, leaves in the middle of the bank had their motors changed approximately every 1500m of travel. Finally, it was found that the number of RMS errors increased prior to an MLC motor change. Conclusion: An MLC dynalog file analysis software was developed that can be used to log daily MLC usage. Our eighteen-month data analysis showed that there is a correlation between the distance an MLC travels, the RMS and the life of the MLC motor. We plan to use this tool to predict MLC motor failures and with proper and timely intervention, reduce the downtime of the linac during clinical hours

  12. SU-E-T-545: MLC Distance Travelled as a Predictor for Motor Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathakis, S; Defoor, D; Linden, P; Kirby, N; Papanikolaou, N [UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX (United States); Mavroidis, P [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study the frequency of Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) leaf failures, investigate methods to predict them and reduce linac downtime. Methods: A Varian HD120 MLC was used in our study. The hyperterminal MLC errors logged from 06/2012 to 12/2014 were collected. Along with the hyperterminal errors, the MLC motor changes and all other MLC interventions by the linear accelerator engineer were recorded. The MLC dynalog files were also recorded on a daily basis for each treatment and during linac QA. The dynalog files were analyzed to calculate root mean square errors (RMS) and cumulative MLC travel distance per motor. An in-house MatLab code was used to analyze all dynalog files, record RMS errors and calculate the distance each MLC traveled per day. Results: A total of 269 interventions were recorded over a period of 18 months. Of these, 146 included MLC motor leaf change, 39 T-nut replacements, and 84 MLC cleaning sessions. Leaves close to the middle of each side required the most maintenance. In the A bank, leaves A27 to A40 recorded 73% of all interventions, while the same leaves in the B bank counted for 52% of the interventions. On average, leaves in the middle of the bank had their motors changed approximately every 1500m of travel. Finally, it was found that the number of RMS errors increased prior to an MLC motor change. Conclusion: An MLC dynalog file analysis software was developed that can be used to log daily MLC usage. Our eighteen-month data analysis showed that there is a correlation between the distance an MLC travels, the RMS and the life of the MLC motor. We plan to use this tool to predict MLC motor failures and with proper and timely intervention, reduce the downtime of the linac during clinical hours.

  13. Serial tomotherapy vs. MLC-IMRT (Multileaf Collimator Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy) for simultaneous boost treatment large intracerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Dirk; Lohr, Frank; Mai, Sabine; Polednik, Martin; Wenz, Frederik; Dobler, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Recent data suggest that a radiosurgery boost treatment for up to three brain metastases in addition to whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is beneficial. Sequential treatment of multiple metastatic lesions is time-consuming and optimal normal tissue sparing is not trivial for larger metastases when separate plans are created and are only superimposed afterwards. Sequential Tomotherapy with noncoplanar arcs and Multi-field IMRT may streamline the process and enable easy simultaneous treatment. We compared plans for 2-3 intracerebral targets calculated with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) based on treatment with MLC or sequential Tomotherapy using the Peacock-System. Treatment time was not to exceed 90 min on a linac with standart dose rate. MIMiC plans without treatment-time restrictions were created as a benchmark. Materials and methods: Calculations are based on a Siemens KD2 linac with a dose rate of 200 MU/min. Step-and-Shoot IMRT is performed with a standard MLC (2 x 29 leaves, 1 cm), serial Tomotherapy with the Multivane-Collimator MIMiC (NOMOS Inc. USA). Treatment plans are created with Corvus 5.0. To create plans with good conformity we chose a noncoplanar beam- and arc geometry for each approach (IMRT 4-, MIMiC 5-couch angles). The benchmark MIMiC plans with maximally steep dose gradients had 9 couch angles. For plan comparison reasons, 10Gy were prescribed to 90% of the PTV. Steepness of dose gradients, homogeneity and conformity were assessed by the following parameters: Volume encompassed by certain isodoses outside the target as well as homogeneity and conformity as indicated by Homogeneity- and Conformity-Index. Results: Plans without treatment-time restrictions had slightest dose to organ at risk (OAR), normal tissue and least Conformity-index. MIMiC- and MLC-IMRT based plans can be treated within the intended period of 90 min, all plans met the required dose. MLC based plans resulted in higher dose to organs at risk (OAR) and dose

  14. Dosimetric assessment of the field abutment region in head and neck treatments using a multileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Hakim, K.; Nishimura, T.; Sakahara, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Takaih, M.; Suzuki, S. [Dept. of Informatics, Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    Background and Purpose: The use of conventional asymmetric collimators for junctioning of abutted fields can lead to significant dose inhomogeneity, due to jaw misalignment. However, recent technologic advances enable us to fabricate much finer leaf-positioning accuracy. Consequently, it is anticipated that the use of multileaf collimator (MLC) will potentially improve dose homogeneity at the junction of abutted fields. In this work, we evaluated the dose inhomogeneities at the match-plane in monoisocentric three-field head and neck setups, using MLC for field abutment. Material and Methods: To define either the anterior or the lateral fields, the MLC was used with either the longitudinal (0 angle) or the transverse (90 angle) settings. For 0 setting, each leaf moves in a direction perpendicular to the gantry rotation axis, hence the ''tongue and groove'' (T and G) design can effect matching-area dose at the side of the leaf (Figure 1a). For 90 setting, the rounded shape of the leaf produces its effect at the leaf end. Four combinations of abutted anterior field and abutted lateral field defined by MLC, i.e., abutted using MLC side-by-side, side-by-end, end-by-side and end-by-end, were compared. Dose inhomogeneity was measured at the junction of the two abutted fields with films in a solid water phantom. The effect of jaw settings as a backup diaphragm on the dose distribution was also studied. Reproducibility of the results was confirmed by repeated measurements over a 1-year period. Results: Abutted fields using MLC side-by-side caused underdose of approximately 15%. Abutted fields using MLC side-by-end produced > 10% overdose that could be improved to {+-} 1% for 0.5 mm overlap of the leaf end from the lateral portals. When using end-by-side, an overdose of approximately 15% was observed. However, the dose improved to a homogeneous dose for 0.8 mm overlap of leaf end from the anterior portal. End-by-end showed an overdose of > 20%. This

  15. Dosimetric assessment of the field abutment region in head and neck treatments using a multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hakim, K.; Nishimura, T.; Sakahara, H.; Takaih, M.; Suzuki, S.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The use of conventional asymmetric collimators for junctioning of abutted fields can lead to significant dose inhomogeneity, due to jaw misalignment. However, recent technologic advances enable us to fabricate much finer leaf-positioning accuracy. Consequently, it is anticipated that the use of multileaf collimator (MLC) will potentially improve dose homogeneity at the junction of abutted fields. In this work, we evaluated the dose inhomogeneities at the match-plane in monoisocentric three-field head and neck setups, using MLC for field abutment. Material and Methods: To define either the anterior or the lateral fields, the MLC was used with either the longitudinal (0 angle) or the transverse (90 angle) settings. For 0 setting, each leaf moves in a direction perpendicular to the gantry rotation axis, hence the ''tongue and groove'' (T and G) design can effect matching-area dose at the side of the leaf (Figure 1a). For 90 setting, the rounded shape of the leaf produces its effect at the leaf end. Four combinations of abutted anterior field and abutted lateral field defined by MLC, i.e., abutted using MLC side-by-side, side-by-end, end-by-side and end-by-end, were compared. Dose inhomogeneity was measured at the junction of the two abutted fields with films in a solid water phantom. The effect of jaw settings as a backup diaphragm on the dose distribution was also studied. Reproducibility of the results was confirmed by repeated measurements over a 1-year period. Results: Abutted fields using MLC side-by-side caused underdose of approximately 15%. Abutted fields using MLC side-by-end produced > 10% overdose that could be improved to ± 1% for 0.5 mm overlap of the leaf end from the lateral portals. When using end-by-side, an overdose of approximately 15% was observed. However, the dose improved to a homogeneous dose for 0.8 mm overlap of leaf end from the anterior portal. End-by-end showed an overdose of > 20%. This overdose could be smoothed

  16. Electronic compensation using multileaf collimation for involved field radiation to the neck and mediastinum in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Shelly; Bernard, Shelley; Balogh, Alex; Spencer, David; Sawchuk, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    An efficient procedure is required for the preparation, planning, and delivery of radiation therapy for involved field radiation to the neck and mediastinum. This technique must reduce tissue complications while maintaining dose uniformity. An elegant intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment that is forward planned has been developed. Both static fields and static subfields shaped by multileaf collimators (MLCs) and asymmetric jaws are used. Patients receiving involved field radiation to the neck and mediastinum are planned in 3 dimensions (3D), where 3D dose compensation is provided using subfields consisting of MLC or asymmetric jaws instead of physical compensators or wedges. Forward planning is performed, usually generating 2 pairs of parallel-opposed fields, with at least 1 of them consisting of subfields to eliminate elevated dose regions. Efficiency in the preparation, planning, and delivery of treatment has been achieved for more than 10 patients. Verification of treatment setup, target anatomy, and MLC configuration is quick when using an electronic portal imaging device. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) have verified point-dose uniformity noticeably to ± 5%. An efficient technique using forward planning for simple IMRT consisting of static MLC and asymmetric jaws has been developed

  17. SU-G-TeP4-03: A Multileaf Collimator Calibration and Quality Assurance Technique Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebron, S; Yan, G; Li, J; Lu, B; Liu, C [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an accurate and quick multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration and quality assurance technique using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) Methods: The MLC models used include the MLCi and Agility (Elekta Ltd). This technique consists of two 22(L)x10(W) cm{sup 2} fields with 0{sup 0} and 180{sup 0} collimator angles centered to an offset EPID. The MLC opening is estimated by calculating the profile at the image’s center in the image’s horizontal direction. Scans in the image’s vertical direction were calculated every 20 pixels in the inner 70% of estimated MLC opening. The profiles’ edges were fitted with linear equations to determine the image’s rotation angle. Then, crossline profiles were scanned at the center of each leaf taking into account the leaf’s width at isocenter and the rotation angle. The profiles’ edges determine the location of the leaves’ edges and these were subtracted from the reference leaf’s position in order to determine the relative leaf offsets. The edge location of all profiles was determined by using the parameterized gradient of the penumbra region. The technique was tested against an established diode array-based method, and for different MLC systems, patterns, gantry angles, days, energies, beam modalities and MLC openings. Results: The differences between the proposed and established methods were 0.26±0.19mm. The leaf offsets’ deviation was <0.3mm (5 months period). For pattern fields, the differences between predetermined and calculated offsets were 0.18±0.18mm. The leaf offset deviation of measurements with different energies and MLC openings were <0.1mm and <0.3mm, respectively. The differences between offsets of FF and FFF beams were 0.01±0.02mm (<0.07mm). The differences between the offsets at different gantry angles were 0.08±0.15mm. Conclusion: The proposed method proved to be accurate and efficient in calculating the relative leaf offsets. Parameterized field edge is essential to

  18. Multileaf collimator performance monitoring and improvement using semiautomated quality control testing and statistical process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Létourneau, Daniel; McNiven, Andrea; Keller, Harald; Wang, An; Amin, Md Nurul; Pearce, Jim; Norrlinger, Bernhard; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: High-quality radiation therapy using highly conformal dose distributions and image-guided techniques requires optimum machine delivery performance. In this work, a monitoring system for multileaf collimator (MLC) performance, integrating semiautomated MLC quality control (QC) tests and statistical process control tools, was developed. The MLC performance monitoring system was used for almost a year on two commercially available MLC models. Control charts were used to establish MLC performance and assess test frequency required to achieve a given level of performance. MLC-related interlocks and servicing events were recorded during the monitoring period and were investigated as indicators of MLC performance variations. Methods: The QC test developed as part of the MLC performance monitoring system uses 2D megavoltage images (acquired using an electronic portal imaging device) of 23 fields to determine the location of the leaves with respect to the radiation isocenter. The precision of the MLC performance monitoring QC test and the MLC itself was assessed by detecting the MLC leaf positions on 127 megavoltage images of a static field. After initial calibration, the MLC performance monitoring QC test was performed 3–4 times/week over a period of 10–11 months to monitor positional accuracy of individual leaves for two different MLC models. Analysis of test results was performed using individuals control charts per leaf with control limits computed based on the measurements as well as two sets of specifications of ±0.5 and ±1 mm. Out-of-specification and out-of-control leaves were automatically flagged by the monitoring system and reviewed monthly by physicists. MLC-related interlocks reported by the linear accelerator and servicing events were recorded to help identify potential causes of nonrandom MLC leaf positioning variations. Results: The precision of the MLC performance monitoring QC test and the MLC itself was within ±0.22 mm for most MLC leaves

  19. Multileaf collimator performance monitoring and improvement using semiautomated quality control testing and statistical process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Daniel; Wang, An; Amin, Md Nurul; Pearce, Jim; McNiven, Andrea; Keller, Harald; Norrlinger, Bernhard; Jaffray, David A

    2014-12-01

    High-quality radiation therapy using highly conformal dose distributions and image-guided techniques requires optimum machine delivery performance. In this work, a monitoring system for multileaf collimator (MLC) performance, integrating semiautomated MLC quality control (QC) tests and statistical process control tools, was developed. The MLC performance monitoring system was used for almost a year on two commercially available MLC models. Control charts were used to establish MLC performance and assess test frequency required to achieve a given level of performance. MLC-related interlocks and servicing events were recorded during the monitoring period and were investigated as indicators of MLC performance variations. The QC test developed as part of the MLC performance monitoring system uses 2D megavoltage images (acquired using an electronic portal imaging device) of 23 fields to determine the location of the leaves with respect to the radiation isocenter. The precision of the MLC performance monitoring QC test and the MLC itself was assessed by detecting the MLC leaf positions on 127 megavoltage images of a static field. After initial calibration, the MLC performance monitoring QC test was performed 3-4 times/week over a period of 10-11 months to monitor positional accuracy of individual leaves for two different MLC models. Analysis of test results was performed using individuals control charts per leaf with control limits computed based on the measurements as well as two sets of specifications of ± 0.5 and ± 1 mm. Out-of-specification and out-of-control leaves were automatically flagged by the monitoring system and reviewed monthly by physicists. MLC-related interlocks reported by the linear accelerator and servicing events were recorded to help identify potential causes of nonrandom MLC leaf positioning variations. The precision of the MLC performance monitoring QC test and the MLC itself was within ± 0.22 mm for most MLC leaves and the majority of the

  20. Lateral Penumbra Modelling Based Leaf End Shape Optimization for Multileaf Collimator in Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral penumbra of multileaf collimator plays an important role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Growing evidence has revealed that, for a single-focused multileaf collimator, lateral penumbra width is leaf position dependent and largely attributed to the leaf end shape. In our study, an analytical method for leaf end induced lateral penumbra modelling is formulated using Tangent Secant Theory. Compared with Monte Carlo simulation and ray tracing algorithm, our model serves well the purpose of cost-efficient penumbra evaluation. Leaf ends represented in parametric forms of circular arc, elliptical arc, Bézier curve, and B-spline are implemented. With biobjective function of penumbra mean and variance introduced, genetic algorithm is carried out for approximating the Pareto frontier. Results show that for circular arc leaf end objective function is convex and convergence to optimal solution is guaranteed using gradient based iterative method. It is found that optimal leaf end in the shape of Bézier curve achieves minimal standard deviation, while using B-spline minimum of penumbra mean is obtained. For treatment modalities in clinical application, optimized leaf ends are in close agreement with actual shapes. Taken together, the method that we propose can provide insight into leaf end shape design of multileaf collimator.

  1. Lateral Penumbra Modelling Based Leaf End Shape Optimization for Multileaf Collimator in Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Ye, Peiqing

    2016-01-01

    Lateral penumbra of multileaf collimator plays an important role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Growing evidence has revealed that, for a single-focused multileaf collimator, lateral penumbra width is leaf position dependent and largely attributed to the leaf end shape. In our study, an analytical method for leaf end induced lateral penumbra modelling is formulated using Tangent Secant Theory. Compared with Monte Carlo simulation and ray tracing algorithm, our model serves well the purpose of cost-efficient penumbra evaluation. Leaf ends represented in parametric forms of circular arc, elliptical arc, Bézier curve, and B-spline are implemented. With biobjective function of penumbra mean and variance introduced, genetic algorithm is carried out for approximating the Pareto frontier. Results show that for circular arc leaf end objective function is convex and convergence to optimal solution is guaranteed using gradient based iterative method. It is found that optimal leaf end in the shape of Bézier curve achieves minimal standard deviation, while using B-spline minimum of penumbra mean is obtained. For treatment modalities in clinical application, optimized leaf ends are in close agreement with actual shapes. Taken together, the method that we propose can provide insight into leaf end shape design of multileaf collimator. PMID:27110274

  2. Lateral Penumbra Modelling Based Leaf End Shape Optimization for Multileaf Collimator in Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Ye, Peiqing

    2016-01-01

    Lateral penumbra of multileaf collimator plays an important role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Growing evidence has revealed that, for a single-focused multileaf collimator, lateral penumbra width is leaf position dependent and largely attributed to the leaf end shape. In our study, an analytical method for leaf end induced lateral penumbra modelling is formulated using Tangent Secant Theory. Compared with Monte Carlo simulation and ray tracing algorithm, our model serves well the purpose of cost-efficient penumbra evaluation. Leaf ends represented in parametric forms of circular arc, elliptical arc, Bézier curve, and B-spline are implemented. With biobjective function of penumbra mean and variance introduced, genetic algorithm is carried out for approximating the Pareto frontier. Results show that for circular arc leaf end objective function is convex and convergence to optimal solution is guaranteed using gradient based iterative method. It is found that optimal leaf end in the shape of Bézier curve achieves minimal standard deviation, while using B-spline minimum of penumbra mean is obtained. For treatment modalities in clinical application, optimized leaf ends are in close agreement with actual shapes. Taken together, the method that we propose can provide insight into leaf end shape design of multileaf collimator.

  3. Sensitivity of 3D Dose Verification to Multileaf Collimator Misalignments in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Spinal Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-Ye, Ni; Ren, Lei; Yan, Hui; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to detect the sensitivity of Delt 4 on ordinary field multileaf collimator misalignments, system misalignments, random misalignments, and misalignments caused by gravity of the multileaf collimator in stereotactic body radiation therapy. (1) Two field sizes, including 2.00 cm (X) × 6.00 cm (Y) and 7.00 cm (X) × 6.00 cm (Y), were set. The leaves of X1 and X2 in the multileaf collimator were simultaneously opened. (2) Three cases of stereotactic body radiation therapy of spinal tumor were used. The dose of the planning target volume was 1800 cGy with 3 fractions. The 4 types to be simulated included (1) the leaves of X1 and X2 in the multileaf collimator were simultaneously opened, (2) only X1 of the multileaf collimator and the unilateral leaf were opened, (3) the leaves of X1 and X2 in the multileaf collimator were randomly opened, and (4) gravity effect was simulated. The leaves of X1 and X2 in the multileaf collimator shifted to the same direction. The difference between the corresponding 3-dimensional dose distribution measured by Delt 4 and the dose distribution in the original plan made in the treatment planning system was analyzed with γ index criteria of 3.0 mm/3.0%, 2.5 mm/2.5%, 2.0 mm/2.0%, 2.5 mm/1.5%, and 1.0 mm/1.0%. (1) In the field size of 2.00 cm (X) × 6.00 cm (Y), the γ pass rate of the original was 100% with 2.5 mm/2.5% as the statistical standard. The pass rate decreased to 95.9% and 89.4% when the X1 and X2 directions of the multileaf collimator were opened within 0.3 and 0.5 mm, respectively. In the field size of 7.00 (X) cm × 6.00 (Y) cm with 1.5 mm/1.5% as the statistical standard, the pass rate of the original was 96.5%. After X1 and X2 of the multileaf collimator were opened within 0.3 mm, the pass rate decreased to lower than 95%. The pass rate was higher than 90% within the 3 mm opening. (2) For spinal tumor, the change in the planning target volume V 18 under various modes calculated using treatment planning system

  4. Study on the tongue and groove effect of the elekta multileaf collimator using Monte Carlo simulation and film dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, F.; Fippel, M.; Bakai, A.; Nuesslin, F. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Radiooncologic Univ. Clinic, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Background: nowadays, multileaf collimation of the treatment fields from medical linear accelerators is a common option. Due to the design of the leaf sides, the tongue and groove effect occurs for certain multileaf collimator applications such as the abutment of fields where the beam edges are defined by the sides of the leaves. Material and methods: in this study, the tongue and groove effect was measured for two pairs of irregular multileaf collimator fields that were matched along leaf sides in two steps. Measurements were made at 10 cm depth in a polystyrene phantom using Kodak EDR2 films for a photon beam energy of 6 MV on an elekta sli-plus accelerator. To verify the measurements, full Monte Carlo simulations were done. In the simulations, the design of the leaf sides was taken into account and one component module of BEAM code was modified to correctly simulate the elekta multileaf collimator. Results and conclusion: the results of measurements and simulations are in good agreement and within the tolerance of film dosimetry. (orig.)

  5. SU-E-T-515: Field-In-Field Compensation Technique Using Multi-Leaf Collimator to Deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, T [The State University of New York at Buffalo (United States); Wang, IZ [The State University of New York at Buffalo (United States); Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been used conventionally to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern field-in-field (FIF) technique with the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the FIF technique to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Treatment fields include one pair of opposed open large fields (collimator=45°) with a specific weighting and a succession of smaller fields (collimator=90°) each with their own weighting. The smaller fields are shaped by moving MLC to block the sections of the patient which have already received close to 100% of the prescribed dose. The weighting factors for each of these fields were calculated using the attenuation coefficient of the initial lead compensators and the separation of the patient in different positions in the axial plane. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the FIF compensation technique. The maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 179.3% to 148.2% in the FIF plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the FIF compensation. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits and exceeded those of the original lead compensation plan by less than 50 MU (only ~1.1% increase). Conclusion: MLC FIF technique for TBI will not significantly increase the beam on time while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup time and the potential risk of errors in manually placing lead compensators.

  6. Hyperbolic projections of siemens 3d-mlc leaf paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzies, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Siemens Primus linear accelerator has the option of being fitted with a multi-leaf collimator (3D-MLC) that is marketed as having 'double focus', to achieve a constant dose penumbra for all leaf settings. This is achieved by moving the leaves through arcs (similar to some conventional collimator jaws), as well as shaping the leaf side-faces as divergent planes from the x-ray source. One consequence of the mechanical design of the 3D-MLC is that as individual leaves are moved, their projections from the light / x-ray source to the treatment plane follow paths that are hyperbolic, as shown in the figure below. (The eccentricity of the hyperbola is a function of leaf number / distance from centre.) The trajectories of the MLC leaves were modelled (in a spreadsheet) using geometrical projections of the MLC leaves to the treatment plane, with construction details provided in Siemens documentation. The results were checked against the image of the leaf in the linac light field. This problem belongs to the class of conic sections in mathematics, where the intersection of a plane with both nappes of a double right circular cone results in a hyperbola. The good agreement between the model and the light field image provided confirmation of the MLC construction details. AS/NZS 4434.1:1996 (reproduced from IEC 976:1989) provides specifications for maximum deviation from orthogonality of adjacent edges, which can be interpreted for MLC collimators to parallelism of the direction of leaf travel and the adjacent collimator edge (e.g. Elekta ATS). However for the Siemens 'double focused' MLC, it is demonstrated that the geometrical construction of the MLC militates against the leaf image being used for this kind of test. It is also demonstrated that at last one commercial treatment planning system models the Siemens leaf trajectories linearly. The clinical significance of the error in this model is shown to be negligible. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of

  7. Technical Note: Modeling a complex micro-multileaf collimator using the standard BEAMnrc distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairn, T.; Kenny, J.; Crowe, S. B.; Fielding, A. L.; Franich, R. D.; Johnston, P. N.; Knight, R. T.; Langton, C. M.; Schlect, D.; Trapp, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The component modules in the standard BEAMnrc distribution may appear to be insufficient to model micro-multileaf collimators that have trifaceted leaf ends and complex leaf profiles. This note indicates, however, that accurate Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams defined by a complex collimation device can be completed using BEAMnrc's standard VARMLC component module. Methods: That this simple collimator model can produce spatially and dosimetrically accurate microcollimated fields is illustrated using comparisons with ion chamber and film measurements of the dose deposited by square and irregular fields incident on planar, homogeneous water phantoms. Results: Monte Carlo dose calculations for on-axis and off-axis fields are shown to produce good agreement with experimental values, even on close examination of the penumbrae. Conclusions: The use of a VARMLC model of the micro-multileaf collimator, along with a commissioned model of the associated linear accelerator, is therefore recommended as an alternative to the development or use of in-house or third-party component modules for simulating stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery treatments. Simulation parameters for the VARMLC model are provided which should allow other researchers to adapt and use this model to study clinical stereotactic radiotherapy treatments.

  8. SU-G-JeP1-12: Head-To-Head Performance Characterization of Two Multileaf Collimator Tracking Algorithms for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillet, V; Colvill, E; O’Brien, R; Keall, P; Poulsen, P; Moore, D; Booth, J; Sawant, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multi-leaf collimator (MLC) tracking is being clinically pioneered to continuously compensate for thoracic and abdominal motion during radiotherapy. The purpose of this work is to characterize the performance of two MLC tracking algorithms for cancer radiotherapy, based on a direct optimization and a piecewise leaf fitting approach respectively. Methods: To test the algorithms, both physical and in silico experiments were performed. Previously published high and low modulation VMAT plans for lung and prostate cancer cases were used along with eight patient-measured organ-specific trajectories. For both MLC tracking algorithm, the plans were run with their corresponding patient trajectories. The physical experiments were performed on a Trilogy Varian linac and a programmable phantom (HexaMotion platform). For each MLC tracking algorithm, plan and patient trajectory, the tracking accuracy was quantified as the difference in aperture area between ideal and fitted MLC. To compare algorithms, the average cumulative tracking error area for each experiment was calculated. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test was used to evaluate the cumulative tracking errors between algorithms. Results: Comparison of tracking errors for the physical and in silico experiments showed minor differences between the two algorithms. The KS D-statistics for the physical experiments were below 0.05 denoting no significant differences between the two distributions pattern and the average error area (direct optimization/piecewise leaf-fitting) were comparable (66.64 cm2/65.65 cm2). For the in silico experiments, the KS D-statistics were below 0.05 and the average errors area were also equivalent (49.38 cm2/48.98 cm2). Conclusion: The comparison between the two leaf fittings algorithms demonstrated no significant differences in tracking errors, neither in a clinically realistic environment nor in silico. The similarities in the two independent algorithms give confidence in the use

  9. SU-G-JeP1-12: Head-To-Head Performance Characterization of Two Multileaf Collimator Tracking Algorithms for Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillet, V; Colvill, E [School of Medecine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Sydney (Australia); O’Brien, R; Keall, P [School of Medecine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Poulsen, P [Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Moore, D [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Booth, J [Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Sydney (Australia); Sawant, A [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Multi-leaf collimator (MLC) tracking is being clinically pioneered to continuously compensate for thoracic and abdominal motion during radiotherapy. The purpose of this work is to characterize the performance of two MLC tracking algorithms for cancer radiotherapy, based on a direct optimization and a piecewise leaf fitting approach respectively. Methods: To test the algorithms, both physical and in silico experiments were performed. Previously published high and low modulation VMAT plans for lung and prostate cancer cases were used along with eight patient-measured organ-specific trajectories. For both MLC tracking algorithm, the plans were run with their corresponding patient trajectories. The physical experiments were performed on a Trilogy Varian linac and a programmable phantom (HexaMotion platform). For each MLC tracking algorithm, plan and patient trajectory, the tracking accuracy was quantified as the difference in aperture area between ideal and fitted MLC. To compare algorithms, the average cumulative tracking error area for each experiment was calculated. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test was used to evaluate the cumulative tracking errors between algorithms. Results: Comparison of tracking errors for the physical and in silico experiments showed minor differences between the two algorithms. The KS D-statistics for the physical experiments were below 0.05 denoting no significant differences between the two distributions pattern and the average error area (direct optimization/piecewise leaf-fitting) were comparable (66.64 cm2/65.65 cm2). For the in silico experiments, the KS D-statistics were below 0.05 and the average errors area were also equivalent (49.38 cm2/48.98 cm2). Conclusion: The comparison between the two leaf fittings algorithms demonstrated no significant differences in tracking errors, neither in a clinically realistic environment nor in silico. The similarities in the two independent algorithms give confidence in the use

  10. First Demonstration of Combined kV/MV Image-Guided Real-Time Dynamic Multileaf-Collimator Target Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byungchul; Poulsen, Per R.; Sloutsky, Alex; Sawant, Amit; Keall, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For intrafraction motion management, a real-time tracking system was developed by combining fiducial marker-based tracking via simultaneous kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imaging and a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) beam-tracking system. Methods and Materials: The integrated tracking system employed a Varian Trilogy system equipped with kV/MV imaging systems and a Millennium 120-leaf MLC. A gold marker in elliptical motion (2-cm superior-inferior, 1-cm left-right, 10 cycles/min) was simultaneously imaged by the kV and MV imagers at 6.7 Hz and segmented in real time. With these two-dimensional projections, the tracking software triangulated the three-dimensional marker position and repositioned the MLC leaves to follow the motion. Phantom studies were performed to evaluate time delay from image acquisition to MLC adjustment, tracking error, and dosimetric impact of target motion with and without tracking. Results: The time delay of the integrated tracking system was ∼450 ms. The tracking error using a prediction algorithm was 0.9 ± 0.5 mm for the elliptical motion. The dose distribution with tracking showed better target coverage and less dose to surrounding region over no tracking. The failure rate of the gamma test (3%/3-mm criteria) was 22.5% without tracking but was reduced to 0.2% with tracking. Conclusion: For the first time, a complete tracking system combining kV/MV image-guided target tracking and DMLC beam tracking was demonstrated. The average geometric error was less than 1 mm, and the dosimetric error was negligible. This system is a promising method for intrafraction motion management.

  11. Independent dose calculation of the Tps Iplan in radiotherapy conformed with MLC; Calculo independiente de dosis del TPS Iplan en radioterapia conformada con MLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrada, A.; Tello, Z.; Medina, L.; Garrigo, E.; Venencia, D., E-mail: jorge.alberto.adrada@gmail.com [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia, Obispo Oro 423, X5000BFI Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    The systems utilization of independent dose calculation in three dimensional-Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-Crt) treatments allows a direct verification of the treatments times. The utilization of these systems allows diminishing the probability of errors occurrence generated by the treatment planning system (Tps), allowing a detailed analysis of the dose to delivering and review of the normalization point (Np) or prescription. The independent dose calculation is realized across the knowledge of dosimetric parameters of the treatment machine and particular characteristics of every individual field. The aim of this work is develops a calculation system of punctual doses for isocentric fields conformed with multi-leaf collimation systems (MLC), where the dose calculation is in conformity with the suggested ones by ICRU Report No. 42, 1987. Calculation software was realized in C ++ under a free platform of programming (Code::Blocks). The system uses files in format Rtp, exported from the Tps to systems of record and verification (Lantis). This file contains detailed information of the dose, Um, position of the MLC sheets and collimators for every field of treatment. The size of equivalent field is obtained from the positions of every sheet; the effective depth of calculation can be introduced from the dosimetric report of the Tps or automatically from the DFS of the field. The 3D coordinates of the isocenter and the Np for the treatment plan must be introduced manually. From this information the system looks the dosimetric parameters and calculates the Um. The calculations were realized in two accelerators a NOVALIS Tx (Varian) with 120 sheets of high definition (hd-MLC) and a PRIMUS Optifocus (Siemens) with 82 sheets. 705 patients were analyzed for a total of 1082, in plans made for both equipment s, the average uncertainty with regard to the calculation of the Tps is-0.43% ± 2.42% in a range between [-7.90 %, 7.50 %]. The major uncertainty was in Np near of the

  12. Evaluation of the vidar`s VXR-12 digitizer performances for film dosimetry of beams delimited by multileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia, F [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Briot, E

    1995-12-01

    The development of new irradiation techniques such as conformal radiotherapy increasingly implies the use of a multileaf collimator. The measurement of dose gradients in the penumbra region, and of dose distributions at the edge of complex shaped fields defined by multileaf collimators requires a high definition dosimetric method. Nowadays film digitizers have been notably improved and allow the film dosimetry to be faster, more accurate, presenting a sensitivity and high spatial resolution. To be able to perform the study of physical and dosimetric specifications of a multileaf collimator, we have evaluated the performances of the Vidar VCR-12 digitizer, with respect to its sensitivity, linearity, optical density range and the resolution. These performances were compared with the performances of different systems already in use in our department, either manual or automatic, using specific patterns. The main limitation for dosimetric use is the detection threshold that can introduce errors in isodose calculation, especially for the lowest values. The result of the intercomparisons have allowed corrections to be added, taking into account this Vidar problem. The results obtained after correction for the dose profiles of squared fields are in good agreement with ionization chamber measurements in a water phantom. It is concluded that Vidar digitizer is suitable for the use of film dosimetry for the dose distributions in fields defined by multileaf collimator.

  13. SU-E-T-11: A Dosimetric Comparison of Robotic Prostatic Radiosugery Using Multi- Leaf Collimation Vs Circular Collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J; Yang, J; Lamond, J; Lavere, N; Laciano, R; Ding, W; Arrigo, S; Brady, L [Philadelphia Cyberknife, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The study compared the dosimetry plans of Stereotatic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) prostate cancer patients using the M6 Cyberknife with Multi-leaf Collimation (MLC) compared with the plans using G4 Cyberknife with circular collimators. Methods: Eight previously treated prostate cancer patients' SBRT plans using circular collimators, designed with Multiplan v3.5.3, were used as a benchmark. The CT, contours and the optimization scripts were imported into Multiplan v5.0 system and replanned with MLC. The same planning objectives were used: more than 95% of PTV received 36.25Gy, 90% of prostate received 40Gy and maximum dose <45Gy, in five fractions. For organs at risk, less than 1cc of rectum received 36Gy and less than 10cc of bladder received 37Gy. Plans were evaluated on parameters derived from dose volume. The beam number, MU and delivery time were recorded to compare the treatment efficiency. Results: The mean CTV volume was 41.3cc (27.5∼57.6cc) and mean PTV volume was 76.77cc (59.1∼99.7cc). The mean PTV coverage was comparable between MLC (98.87%) and cone (98.74%). MLC plans had a slightly more favorable homogeneity index (1.22) and conformity index (1.17), than the cone (1.24 and 1.15). The mean rectum volume of 36 Gy (0.52cc) of MLC plans was slightly larger than cone (0.38cc) and the mean bladder volume of 37 Gy was smaller in MLC (1.82cc) than in cone plans (3.09cc). The mean number of nodes and beams were 65.9 and 80.5 in MLC vs 65.9 and 203.6 in cone. The mean MUs were significantly less for MLC plans (24,228MUs) than cone (32,347MUs). The total delivery time (which included 5 minutes for setup) was less, 29.6min (26∼32min) for MLC vs 45min (35∼55min) for cone. Conclusion: While the differences in the dosimetry between the MLC and circular collimator plans were rather minor, the MLC plans were much more efficient and required significantly less treatment time.

  14. Calibration and quality assurance for rounded leaf-end MLC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, Maria N.; Thompson, Antoinette V.; Martel, Mary K.; McShan, Daniel L.; Fraass, Benedick A.

    2001-01-01

    Multileaf collimator (MLC) systems are available on most commercial linear accelerators, and many of these MLC systems utilize a design with rounded leaf ends and linear motion of the leaves. In this kind of system, the agreement between the digital MLC position readouts and the light field or radiation field edges must be achieved with software, since the leaves do not move in a focused motion like that used for most collimator jaw systems. In this work we address a number of the calibration and quality assurance issues associated with the acceptance, commissioning, and routine clinical use of this type of MLC system. These issues are particularly important for MLCs used for various types of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and small, conformal fields. For rounded leaf end MLCs, it is generally not possible to make both the light and radiation field edges agree with the digital readout, so differences between the two kinds of calibrations are illustrated in this work using one vendor's MLC system. It is increasingly critical that the MLC leaf calibration be very consistent with the radiation field edges, so in this work a methodology for performing accurate radiation field size calibration is discussed. A system external to the vendor's MLC control system is used to correct or handle limitations in the MLC control system. When such a system of corrections is utilized, it is found that the MLC radiation field size can be defined with an accuracy of approximately 0.3 mm, much more accurate than most vendor's specifications for MLC accuracy. Quality assurance testing for such a calibration correction system is also demonstrated

  15. Non-dosimetric quality assurance for the three-dimensional radiation treatment planning systems using a multi-leaf collimator phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateoka, Kunihiko; Nagase, Daiki; Sato, Takahito; Shimizume, Kazunari; Ouchi, Atsushi; Nakata, Kensei; Hareyama, Masato

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of errors and limitations in simulation software for three-dimensional radiation treatment systems (3D-RTPS) is an important issue. Non-dosimetric quality assurance (QA) of the simulation software of 3D-RTPS was evaluated by graphical displays of JAW and multi-leaf collimator (MLC) settings in a 3D-RTPS. The influence of observations made using the phantom depends on human errors and several parameters of the CT scan set, such as slice thickness and spacing, pixel size, partial volume effects and the reconstructed image orientation. We explored the methods that were minimally influenced by these errors and parameters. The QA phantom (MLC phantom) has been designed for checking a JAW and MLC settings in a 3D-RTPS is used for non-dosimetric QA. We analyzed the CT value of the boundary the structures of the MLC phantom. The relative CT value for thickness 1 mm slice in border of each structure body of MLC phantom respectively shows a decrease of about 2%, 4%, 10% by 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm. In case of thickness 5 mm slice, the mean deference of border of virtual radiation beams and phantom was 0.8 mm, and standard deviation of them was 0.6 mm. And the mean difference of border of a DRR image and phantom was 0.08 mm and the standard deviation of them 0.6 mm. In case of thickness 2 mm slice, the mean deference of border of virtual radiation beams and phantom was -0.18 mm, and standard deviation of them was 0.32 mm. And the mean difference of border of a DRR image and phantom was 0.87 mm and the standard deviation of them 0.54 mm. The result of the study is useful for improvement in a precision of non-dosimetric QA. Our method of non-dosimetric QA can minimize human error and influence of several parameters of the CT scan set. The MLC phantom is a useful tool in the QA of radiation therapy with application to 3D-RTPS, CT simulators, and virtual simulation packages with MLC display capabilities. (author)

  16. SU-E-T-610: Comparison of Treatment Times Between the MLCi and Agility Multileaf Collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, C; Bowling, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Agility is a new 160-leaf MLC developed by Elekta for use in their Infinity and Versa HD linacs. As compared to the MLCi, the Agility increased the maximum leaf speed from 2 cm/s to 3.5 cm/s, and the maximum primary collimator speed from 1.5 cm/s to 9.0 cm/s. The purpose of this study was to determine if the Agility MLC resulted in improved plan quality and/or shorter treatment times. Methods: An Elekta Infinity that was originally equipped with a 80 leaf MLCi was upgraded to an 160 leaf Agility. Treatment plan quality was evaluated using the Pinnacle planning system with SmartArc. Optimization was performed once for the MLCi and once for the Agility beam models using the same optimization parameters and the same number of iterations. Patient treatment times were measured for all IMRT, VMAT, and SBRT patients treated on the Infinity with the MLCi and Agility MLCs. Treatment times were extracted from the EMR and measured from when the patient first walked into the treatment room until exiting the treatment room. Results: 11,380 delivery times were measured for patients treated with the MLCi, and 1,827 measurements have been made for the Agility MLC. The average treatment times were 19.1 minutes for the MLCi and 20.8 minutes for the Agility. Using a t-test analysis, there was no difference between the two groups (t = 0.22). The dose differences between patients planned with the MLCi and the Agility MLC were minimal. For example, the dose difference for the PTV, GTV, and cord for a head and neck patient planned using Pinnacle were effectively equivalent. However, the dose to the parotid glands was slightly worse with the Agility MLC. Conclusion: There was no statistical difference in treatment time, or any significant dosimetric difference between the Agility MLC and the MLCi

  17. Implementation of multileaf collimator in a LINAC MCNP5 simulation coupled with the radiation treatment planing system PLUNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abella, Vicente; Miro, Rafael; Juste, Belen; Verdu, Gumersindo

    2010-01-01

    Multileaf collimators are used on linear accelerators to provide conformal shaping of radiotherapy treatment beams, being an important tool for radiation therapy dose delivery. In this work, a multileaf collimator has been designed and implemented in the MCNP model of an Elekta Precise Linear Accelerator and introduced in PLUNC, a set of software tools for radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) which was coupled in previous works with MCNP5 (Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code), with the purpose of comparing its effect on deterministic and Monte Carlo dose calculations. A 3D Shepp-Logan phantom was utilized as the patient model for validation purposes. Once the multileaf collimator model is implemented in the PLUNC LINAC model, a series of Matlab interfaces extract phantom and beam information created with PLUNC during the treatment plan and write it in MCNP5 input deck format. After the Monte Carlo simulation is performed, results are input back again in PLUNC in order to continue with the plan evaluation. The comparison is made via mapping of dose distribution inside the phantom with different field sizes, utilizing the MCNP5 tool EMESH, superimposed mesh tally, which allows registering the results over the problem geometry. This work follows a valid methodology for multileaf LINAC MC calculations during radiation treatment plans. (author)

  18. WE-AB-BRB-10: Filmless QA of CyberKnife MLC-Collimated and Iris-Collimated Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersh, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Current methods of CK field shape QA is based on the use of radiochromic film. Though accurate results can be attained, these methods are prone to error, time consuming, and expensive. The techniques described herein perform similar QA using the FOIL Detector (Field, Output, and Image Localization). A key feature of this in-house QA solution, and central to this study, is an aSi flat-panel detector which provides the user with the means to perform accurate, immediate, and quantitative field analysis. Methods: The FOIL detector is automatically aligned in the CK beam using fiducial markers implanted within the detector case. Once the system is aligned, a treatment plan is delivered which irradiates the flat-panel imager using the field being tested. The current study tests each of the clinically-used fields shaped using the Iris variable-aperture collimation system using a plan which takes 6 minutes to deliver. The user is immediately provided with field diameter and beam profile, as well as a comparison to baseline values. Additionally, the detector is used to acquire and analyze leaf positions of the InCise multi-leaf collimation system. Results: Using a 6-minute plan consisting of 11 beams of 25MU-per-beam, the FOIL detector provided the user with a quantitative analysis of all clinically-used field shapes. The FOIL detector was also able to clearly resolve field edge junctions in a picket fence test, including slight over-travel of individual leaves as well as inter-leaf leakage. Conclusion: The FOIL system provided comparable field diameter and profile data when compared to methods using film; providing results much faster and with 5% of the MU used for film. When used with the MLC system, the FOIL detector provided the means for immediate quantification of the performance of the system through analysis of leaf positions in a picket fence test field. Author is the President/Owner of Spectrum Medical Physics, LLC, a company which maintains contracts

  19. WE-AB-BRB-10: Filmless QA of CyberKnife MLC-Collimated and Iris-Collimated Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersh, J [Gibbs Cancer Center and Research Institute - Pelham, Greer, SC (United States); Spectrum Medical Physics, LLC, Greenville, SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Current methods of CK field shape QA is based on the use of radiochromic film. Though accurate results can be attained, these methods are prone to error, time consuming, and expensive. The techniques described herein perform similar QA using the FOIL Detector (Field, Output, and Image Localization). A key feature of this in-house QA solution, and central to this study, is an aSi flat-panel detector which provides the user with the means to perform accurate, immediate, and quantitative field analysis. Methods: The FOIL detector is automatically aligned in the CK beam using fiducial markers implanted within the detector case. Once the system is aligned, a treatment plan is delivered which irradiates the flat-panel imager using the field being tested. The current study tests each of the clinically-used fields shaped using the Iris variable-aperture collimation system using a plan which takes 6 minutes to deliver. The user is immediately provided with field diameter and beam profile, as well as a comparison to baseline values. Additionally, the detector is used to acquire and analyze leaf positions of the InCise multi-leaf collimation system. Results: Using a 6-minute plan consisting of 11 beams of 25MU-per-beam, the FOIL detector provided the user with a quantitative analysis of all clinically-used field shapes. The FOIL detector was also able to clearly resolve field edge junctions in a picket fence test, including slight over-travel of individual leaves as well as inter-leaf leakage. Conclusion: The FOIL system provided comparable field diameter and profile data when compared to methods using film; providing results much faster and with 5% of the MU used for film. When used with the MLC system, the FOIL detector provided the means for immediate quantification of the performance of the system through analysis of leaf positions in a picket fence test field. Author is the President/Owner of Spectrum Medical Physics, LLC, a company which maintains contracts

  20. A machine learning approach to the accurate prediction of multi-leaf collimator positional errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joel N. K.; Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; In Park, Jong; Choi, Yunseok; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2016-03-01

    Discrepancies between planned and delivered movements of multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) are an important source of errors in dose distributions during radiotherapy. In this work we used machine learning techniques to train models to predict these discrepancies, assessed the accuracy of the model predictions, and examined the impact these errors have on quality assurance (QA) procedures and dosimetry. Predictive leaf motion parameters for the models were calculated from the plan files, such as leaf position and velocity, whether the leaf was moving towards or away from the isocenter of the MLC, and many others. Differences in positions between synchronized DICOM-RT planning files and DynaLog files reported during QA delivery were used as a target response for training of the models. The final model is capable of predicting MLC positions during delivery to a high degree of accuracy. For moving MLC leaves, predicted positions were shown to be significantly closer to delivered positions than were planned positions. By incorporating predicted positions into dose calculations in the TPS, increases were shown in gamma passing rates against measured dose distributions recorded during QA delivery. For instance, head and neck plans with 1%/2 mm gamma criteria had an average increase in passing rate of 4.17% (SD  =  1.54%). This indicates that the inclusion of predictions during dose calculation leads to a more realistic representation of plan delivery. To assess impact on the patient, dose volumetric histograms (DVH) using delivered positions were calculated for comparison with planned and predicted DVHs. In all cases, predicted dose volumetric parameters were in closer agreement to the delivered parameters than were the planned parameters, particularly for organs at risk on the periphery of the treatment area. By incorporating the predicted positions into the TPS, the treatment planner is given a more realistic view of the dose distribution as it will truly be

  1. Determination of Tongue and Groove parameters for multileaf collimators; Determinaco de parametros de Tongue and Groove de colimadores de multilaminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Aluisio; Almeida, Carlos E. de, E-mail: alu_neto@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas; Nguyen, Bihn [Prowess Inc., Concord, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The Tongue and Groove effect (TandG) is characterized by an additional attenuation between adjacent and opposing leaves on multileaf collimators (MLCs) in adjacent or complementary fields. This is a typical situation in of intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatments. The aim of this study was to measure the width and transmission of TandG effect for two commercial MLCs: Varian Millennium 120 (6 MV and 16 MV beams) and BrainLab m3 (only for 6 MV). The methodology used was based on the creation of MLC shapes that emphasizes TandG effect, the irradiation of these fields on radiochromic film and the sensitometric evaluation of the films in order to determine the TandG width and transmission. The results for TandG width for studied MLCs were 2.5, 1.8 and 2 mm, respectively, whit transmission TandG values of 87, 90 and 85%. (author)

  2. Motion management during IMAT treatment of mobile lung tumors-A comparison of MLC tracking and gated delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Marianne; Pommer, Tobias; Keall, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:To compare real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking, respiratory amplitude and phase gating, and no compensation for intrafraction motion management during intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT). Methods: Motion management with MLC tracking and gating was evaluated for four...... tracking reduced the effects of the target movements, although the gated delivery showed a better dosimetric accuracy and enabled a larger reduction of the margins in some cases. MLC tracking did not prolong the treatment time compared to delivery with no motion compensation while gating had a considerably...... of the dosimetric error contributions showed that the gated delivery mainly had errors in target localization, while MLC tracking also had contributions from MLC leaf fitting and leaf adjustment. The average treatment time was about three times longer with gating compared to delivery with MLC tracking (that did...

  3. A strategy to minimize errors from differential intrafraction organ motion using a single configuration for a 'breathing' multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S; Binnie, D M

    2006-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be delivered by the 'sliding-leaves' dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) technique. Intrafraction organ motion can be accommodated by arranging an identical tracking motion for 'breathing leaves'. However, this is only possible for very specific circumstances such as regular, mathematically parameterizable, rigid-body, density-conserving, one-dimensional translations. In this paper, we investigate what happens when planes of tissue in the line of sight of the MLC have differential motion with respect to the moving leaves. In this situation, there is no solution to the problem and a perfect tracking motion cannot be arranged. However, an iterative minimization-of-errors 'solution' (or strategy) can be found and the technique is presented for this. From this, under certain mathematically simple differential motions it is possible to obtain some elegant algebraic solutions which are presented. In general, however, a lengthy computational minimization is required and results of examples of these are presented

  4. Intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery using dynamic micro-multileaf collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, Stanley H.; Cardinale, Robert M.; Wu Qiuwen; Zwicker, Robert D.; Broaddus, William C.; Mohan, Radhe

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The implementation of dynamic leaf motion on a micro-multileaf collimator system provides the capability for intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMSRS), and the consequent potential for improved dose distributions for irregularly shaped tumor volumes adjacent to critical organs. This study explores the use of IMSRS to provide improved tumor coverage and normal tissue sparing for small cranial tumors relative to plans based on multiple fixed uniform-intensity beams or traditional circular collimator arc-based stereotactic techniques. Methods and Materials: Four patient cases involving small brain lesions are presented and analyzed. The cases were chosen to include a representative selection of target shapes, number of targets, and adjacent critical areas. Patient plans generated for these comparisons include standard arcs with multiple circular collimators, and fixed noncoplanar static fields with uniform-intensity beams and IMSRS. Parameters used for evaluation of the plans include the percentage of irradiated volume to tumor volume (PITV), normal tissue dose-volume histograms, and dose-homogeneity ratios. All IMSRS plans were computed using previously established IMRT techniques adapted for use with the BrainLAB M3 micro-multileaf collimator. The algorithms comprising the IMRT system for optimization of intensity distributions and conversion into leaf trajectories of the BrainLab M3 were developed at our institution. The ADAC Pinnacle 3 radiation treatment-planning system was used for dose calculations and for input of contours for target volumes and normal critical structures. Results: For all cases, the IMSRS plans showed a high degree of conformity of the dose distribution with the target shape. The IMSRS plans provided either (1) a smaller volume of normal tissue irradiated to significant dose levels, generally taken as doses greater than 50% of the prescription, or (2) a lower dose to an important adjacent critical organ. The reduction in

  5. Independent dose calculation of the Tps Iplan in radiotherapy conformed with MLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrada, A.; Tello, Z.; Medina, L.; Garrigo, E.; Venencia, D.

    2014-08-01

    The systems utilization of independent dose calculation in three dimensional-Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-Crt) treatments allows a direct verification of the treatments times. The utilization of these systems allows diminishing the probability of errors occurrence generated by the treatment planning system (Tps), allowing a detailed analysis of the dose to delivering and review of the normalization point (Np) or prescription. The independent dose calculation is realized across the knowledge of dosimetric parameters of the treatment machine and particular characteristics of every individual field. The aim of this work is develops a calculation system of punctual doses for isocentric fields conformed with multi-leaf collimation systems (MLC), where the dose calculation is in conformity with the suggested ones by ICRU Report No. 42, 1987. Calculation software was realized in C ++ under a free platform of programming (Code::Blocks). The system uses files in format Rtp, exported from the Tps to systems of record and verification (Lantis). This file contains detailed information of the dose, Um, position of the MLC sheets and collimators for every field of treatment. The size of equivalent field is obtained from the positions of every sheet; the effective depth of calculation can be introduced from the dosimetric report of the Tps or automatically from the DFS of the field. The 3D coordinates of the isocenter and the Np for the treatment plan must be introduced manually. From this information the system looks the dosimetric parameters and calculates the Um. The calculations were realized in two accelerators a NOVALIS Tx (Varian) with 120 sheets of high definition (hd-MLC) and a PRIMUS Optifocus (Siemens) with 82 sheets. 705 patients were analyzed for a total of 1082, in plans made for both equipment s, the average uncertainty with regard to the calculation of the Tps is-0.43% ± 2.42% in a range between [-7.90 %, 7.50 %]. The major uncertainty was in Np near of the

  6. SU-E-T-604: Penumbra Characteristics of a New InCiseâ„¢ Multileaf Collimator of CyberKnife M6â„¢ System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, M; Jang, S; Ozhasoglu, C; Lalonde, R; Heron, D; Huq, M [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The InCise™ Multileaf Collimator (MLC) of CyberKnife M6™ System has been released recently. The purpose of this study was to explore the dosimetric characteristics of the new MLC. In particular, the penumbra characteristics of MLC fields at varying locations are evaluated. Methods: EBT3-based film measurements were performed with varying MLC fields ranging from 7.5 mm to 27.5 mm. Seventeen regions of interests (ROIs) were identified for irradiation. These are regions located at the central area (denoted as reference field), at the left/right edge areas of reference open field, at an intermediate location between central and edge area. Single beam treatment plans were designed by using the MultiPlan and was delivered using the Blue Phantom. Gafchromic films were irradiated at 1.5 cm depth in the Blue Phantom and analyzed using the Film Pro software. Variation of maximum dose, penumbra of MLC-defined fields, and symmetry/flatness were calculated as a function of locations of MLC fields. Results: The InCise™ MLC System showed relatively consistent dose distribution and penumbra size with varying locations of MLC fields. The measured maximum dose varied within 5 % at different locations compared to that at the central location and agreed with the calculated data well within 2%. The measured penumbrae were in the range of 2.9 mm and 3.7 mm and were relatively consistent regardless of locations. However, dose profiles in the out-of-field and in-field regions varied with locations and field sizes. Strong variation was seen for all fields located at 55 mm away from the central field. The MLC leakage map showed that the leakage is dependent on position. Conclusion: The size of penumbra and normalized maximum dose for MLC-defined fields were consistent in different regions of MLC. However, dose profiles in the out-field region varied with locations and field sizes.

  7. SU-E-T-604: Penumbra Characteristics of a New InCiseâ„¢ Multileaf Collimator of CyberKnife M6â„¢ System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, M; Jang, S; Ozhasoglu, C; Lalonde, R; Heron, D; Huq, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The InCise™ Multileaf Collimator (MLC) of CyberKnife M6™ System has been released recently. The purpose of this study was to explore the dosimetric characteristics of the new MLC. In particular, the penumbra characteristics of MLC fields at varying locations are evaluated. Methods: EBT3-based film measurements were performed with varying MLC fields ranging from 7.5 mm to 27.5 mm. Seventeen regions of interests (ROIs) were identified for irradiation. These are regions located at the central area (denoted as reference field), at the left/right edge areas of reference open field, at an intermediate location between central and edge area. Single beam treatment plans were designed by using the MultiPlan and was delivered using the Blue Phantom. Gafchromic films were irradiated at 1.5 cm depth in the Blue Phantom and analyzed using the Film Pro software. Variation of maximum dose, penumbra of MLC-defined fields, and symmetry/flatness were calculated as a function of locations of MLC fields. Results: The InCise™ MLC System showed relatively consistent dose distribution and penumbra size with varying locations of MLC fields. The measured maximum dose varied within 5 % at different locations compared to that at the central location and agreed with the calculated data well within 2%. The measured penumbrae were in the range of 2.9 mm and 3.7 mm and were relatively consistent regardless of locations. However, dose profiles in the out-of-field and in-field regions varied with locations and field sizes. Strong variation was seen for all fields located at 55 mm away from the central field. The MLC leakage map showed that the leakage is dependent on position. Conclusion: The size of penumbra and normalized maximum dose for MLC-defined fields were consistent in different regions of MLC. However, dose profiles in the out-field region varied with locations and field sizes

  8. Dosimetric evaluation of multi-pattern spatially fractionated radiation therapy using a multi-leaf collimator and collapsed cone convolution superposition dose calculation algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathakis, Sotirios [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, 7979 Wurzbach Rd, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)], E-mail: stathakis@uthscsa.edu; Esquivel, Carlos; Gutierrez, Alonso N.; Shi, ChengYu; Papanikolaou, Niko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, 7979 Wurzbach Rd, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: In this paper, we present an alternative to the originally proposed technique for the delivery of spatially fractionated radiation therapy (GRID) using multi-leaf collimator (MLC) shaped fields. We employ the MLC to deliver various pattern GRID treatments to large solid tumors and dosimetrically characterize the GRID fields. Methods and materials: The GRID fields were created with different open to blocked area ratios and with variable separation between the openings using a MLC. GRID designs were introduced into the Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system, and the dose was calculated in a water phantom. Ionization chamber and film measurements using both Kodak EDR2 and Gafchromic EBT film were performed in a SolidWater phantom to determine the relative output of each GRID design as well as its spatial dosimetric characteristics. Results: Agreement within 5.0% was observed between the Pinnacle{sup 3} predicted dose distributions and the measurements for the majority of experiments performed. A higher magnitude of discrepancy (15%) was observed using a high photon beam energy (18 MV) and small GRID opening. Skin dose at the GRID openings was higher than the corresponding open field by a factor as high as three for both photon energies and was found to be independent of the open-to-blocked area ratio. Conclusion: In summary, we reaffirm that the MLC can be used to deliver spatially fractionated GRID therapy and show that various GRID patterns may be generated. The Pinnacle{sup 3} TPS can accurately calculate the dose of the different GRID patterns in our study to within 5% for the majority of the cases based on film and ion chamber measurements. Disadvantages of MLC-based GRID therapy are longer treatment times and higher surface doses.

  9. SU-F-T-481: Physics Evaluation of a Newly Released InCise™ Multileaf Collimator for CyberKnife M6™ System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L; Chin, E; Lo, A [Stanford University Cancer Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work reports the results of the physics evaluation of a newly released InCise™2 Multileaf Collimator (MLC) installed in our institution. Methods: Beam property data was measured with unshielded diode and EBT2 films. The measurements included MLC leaf transmission, beam profiles, output factors and tissue-phantom ratios. MLC performance was evaluated for one month after commissioning. Weekly Garden Fence tests were performed for leaf / bank positioning in standard (A/P) and clinically relevant non-standard positions, before and after MLC driving exercises of 10+ minutes. Daily Picket Fence test and AQA test, End-to-End tests and dosimetric quality assurance were performed to evaluate the overall system performance. Results: All measurements including beam energy, flatness and symmetry, were within manufacture specifications. Leaf transmission was 0.4% <0.5% specification. The values of output factors ranged from 0.825 (7.6 mm × 7.5 mm) to 1.026 (115.0 mm × 100.1 mm). Average beam penumbra at 10 cm depth ranged from 2.7mm/2.7mm(7.6 mm × 7.5 mm) to 6.0 mm/6.2mm(84.6 mm × 84.7 mm). Slight penumbra difference (<10% from average penumbra for fields >20 mm) was observed in the direction perpendicular to leaf motion due to the tilting of the leaf housing. Mean leaf position offsets was −0.08±0.07mm and −0.13 ± 0.08 for X1 and X2 leaf banks in 13 Garden Fence tests. No significant difference on average leaf positioning offsets was observed between different leaf orientations and before/after MLC driving exercises. Six End-to-End tests showed 0.43±0.23mm overall targeting accuracy. Picket-Fence and AQA showed stable performance of MLC during the test period. Dosimetric point dose measurements for test cases agreed with calculation within 3%. All film measurements on relative dose had Gamma (2%, 2mm) passing rate of >95%. Conclusion: The Incise™2 MLC for CyberKnife M6™ was proven to be accurate and reliable, and it is currently in clinical use

  10. IMRT sequencing for a six-bank multi-leaf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolnjak, R; Heide, U A van der; Lagendijk, J J W

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we present a sequencer for delivering step-and-shoot IMRT using a six-bank multi-leaf system. Such a system was proposed earlier and combines a high-resolution field-shaping ability with a large field size. It consists of three layers of two opposing leaf banks with 1 cm leaves. The layers are rotated relative to each other at 60 0 . A low-resolution mode of sequencing is achieved by using one layer of leaves as primary MLC, while the other two are used to improve back-up collimation. For high-resolution sequencing, an algorithm is presented that creates segments shaped by all six banks. Compared to a hypothetical mini-MLC with 0.4 cm leaves, a similar performance can be achieved, but a trade-off has to be made between accuracy and the number of segments

  11. SU-E-T-88: Acceptance Testing and Commissioning Measurements of a Newly Released InCiseâ„¢ Multileaf Collimator for CyberKnife M6â„¢ System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, M Saiful; Ozhasoglu, C; Jang, S; Hwang, M; Heron, D; Lalonde, R [UPMC CancerCenter, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Accuray recently released a new collimator, the InCise™ Multileaf Collimator (MLC), for clinical use with the CyberKnife M6™ System. This work reports the results of acceptance testing and commissioning measurements for this collimator. Methods: The MLC consists of 41 pairs of 2.5 mm wide leaves projecting a clinical maximum field size of 110 mm x 97.5 mm at 800 mm SAD. The leaves are made of tungsten, 90 mm in height and tilted by 0.5 degree. The manufacturer stated leaf positioning accuracy and reproducibility are 0.5 mm and 0.4 mm respectively at 800 mm SAD. The leaf over-travel is 100% with full interdigitation capability. Acceptance testing included, but are not limited to, the verification of the specifications of various parameters described above, leakage measurements and end-to-end tests. Dosimetric measurements included, but not limited to, measurements of output factors, open beam profiles, tissue-phantom ratios, beam flatness and symmetry, and patient specific QA. Results: All measurements were well within the manufacturer specifications. The values of output factors ranged from 0.804 (smallest field size of 7.6 mm x 7.5 mm) to 1.018 (largest field size of 110.0 mm x 97.5 mm). End-to-end test results for the various tracking modes are: Skull (0.27mm), fiducial (0.16mm), Xsight Spine (0.4mm), Xsight Lung (0.93 mm) and Synchrony (0.43mm). Measured maximum and average leakage was 0.37% and 0.3%, respectively. Patient-specific QA measurements with chamber were all within 5% absolute dose agreement, and film measurements all passed 2%/2mm gamma evaluation for more than 95% of measurement points. Conclusion: The presented results are the first set of data reported on the InCise™ MLC. The MLC proved to be very reliable and is currently in clinical use.

  12. Monte Carlo study of MLC fields for cobalt therapy machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komanduri M Ayyangar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An automated Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC system has been developed as add-on for the cobalt-60 teletherapy machines available in India. The goal of the present computational study is to validate the MLC design using Monte Carlo (MC modeling. The study was based on the Kirloskar-supplied Phoenix model machines that closely match the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL theratron-80 machine. The MLC is a retrofit attachment to the collimator assembly, with 14 non-divergent leaf pairs of 40 mm thick, 7 mm wide, and 150 mm long tungsten alloy plates with rounded edges and 20 mm tongue and 2 mm groove in each leaf. In the present work, the source and collimator geometry has been investigated in detail to arrive at a model that best represents the measured dosimetric data. The authors have studied in detail the proto-I MLC built for cobalt-60. The MLC field sizes were MC simulated for 2 × 2 cm 2 to 14 × 14 cm 2 square fields as well as irregular fields, and the percent depth dose (PDD and profile data were compared with ROPS† treatment planning system (TPS. In addition, measured profiles using the IMATRIXX system‡ were also compared with the MC simulations. The proto-I MLC can define radiation fields up to 14 × 14 cm΂ within 3 mm accuracy. The maximum measured leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was 3.4% and interleaf leakage observed was 7.3%. Good agreement between MC results, ROPS and IMATRIXX results has been observed. The investigation also supports the hypothesis that optical and radiation field coincidence exists for the square fields studied with the MLC. Plots of the percent depth dose (PDD data and profile data for clinically significant irregular fields have also been presented. The MC model was also investigated to speed up the calculations to allow calculations of clinically relevant conformal beams.

  13. The dosimetric impact of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan modulation for real-time dynamic MLC tracking delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Marianne; Larsson, Tobias; Keall, P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking for management of intrafraction tumor motion can be challenging for highly modulated beams, as the leaves need to travel far to adjust for target motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction. The plan modulation can be reduced......-to-peak displacement of 2 cm and a cycle time of 6 s. The delivery was adjusted to the target motion using MLC tracking, guided in real-time by an infrared optical system. The dosimetric results were evaluated using gamma index evaluation with static target measurements as reference. Results: The plan quality...

  14. Fast regional readout CMOS Image Sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, H.; Harris, E.; Osmond, J.; Evans, P.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ~400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  15. Fast regional readout CMOS image sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, H; Harris, E; Osmond, J; Evans, P

    2014-01-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ∼400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  16. An experimental comparison of conventional two-bank and novel four-bank dynamic MLC tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, G A; Clowes, P; McQuaid, D; Evans, P M; Webb, S; Poludniowski, G

    2013-01-01

    The AccuLeaf mMLC featuring four multileaf-collimator (MLC) banks has been used for the first time for an experimental comparison of conventional two-bank with novel four-bank dynamic MLC tracking of a two-dimensional sinusoidal respiratory motion. This comparison was performed for a square aperture, and for three conformal treatment apertures from clinical radiotherapy lung cancer patients. The system latency of this prototype tracking system was evaluated and found to be 1.0 s and the frequency at which MLC positions could be updated, 1 Hz, and therefore accurate MLC tracking of irregular patient motion would be difficult with the system in its current form. The MLC leaf velocity required for two-bank-MLC and four-bank-MLC tracking was evaluated for the apertures studied and a substantial decrease was found in the maximum MLC velocity required when four-banks were used for tracking rather than two. A dosimetric comparison of the two techniques was also performed and minimal difference was found between two-bank-MLC and four-bank-MLC tracking. The use of four MLC banks for dynamic MLC tracking is shown to be potentially advantageous for increasing the delivery efficiency compared with two-bank-MLC tracking where difficulties are encountered if large leaf shifts are required to track motion perpendicular to the direction of leaf travel. (paper)

  17. Tolerances on MLC leaf position accuracy for IMRT delivery with a dynamic MLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Alejandra; Dunscombe, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The objective determination of performance standards for radiation therapy equipment requires, ideally, establishing the quantitative relationship between performance deviations and clinical outcome or some acceptable surrogate. In this simulation study the authors analyzed the dosimetric impact of random (leaf by leaf) and systematic (entire leaf bank) errors in the position of the MLC leaves on seven clinical prostate and seven clinical head and neck IMRT plans delivered using a dynamic MLC. In-house software was developed to incorporate normally distributed errors of up to ±2 mm in individual leaf position or systematic errors (±1 and ±0.5 mm in all leaves of both leaf banks or +1 mm in one bank only) into the 14 plans, thus simulating treatment delivery using a suboptimally performing MLC. The dosimetric consequences of suboptimal MLC performance were quantified using the equivalent uniform doses (EUDs) of the clinical target volumes and important organs at risk (OARs). The deviation of the EUDs of the selected structures as the performance of the MLC deteriorated was used as the objective surrogate of clinical outcome. Random errors of 2 mm resulted in negligible changes for all structures of interest in both sites. In contrast, systematic errors can lead to potentially significant dosimetric changes that may compromise clinical outcome. If a 2% change in EUD of the target and 2 Gy for the OARs were adopted as acceptable levels of deviation in dose due to MLC effects alone, then systematic errors in leaf position will need to be limited to 0.3 mm. This study provides guidance, based on a dosimetric surrogate of clinical outcome, for the development of one component, leaf position accuracy of performance standards for multileaf collimators.

  18. SU-E-T-214: Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) Based On Passively Scattered Protons and Multi-Leaf Collimation: Prototype TPS and Dosimetry Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, D; Carabe-Fernandez, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Intensity-modulated proton therapy is usually implemented with multi-field optimization of pencil-beam scanning (PBS) proton fields. However, at the view of the experience with photon-IMRT, proton facilities equipped with double-scattering (DS) delivery and multi-leaf collimation (MLC) could produce highly conformal dose distributions (and possibly eliminate the need for patient-specific compensators) with a clever use of their MLC field shaping, provided that an optimal inverse TPS is developed. Methods. A prototype TPS was developed in MATLAB. The dose calculation process was based on a fluence-dose algorithm on an adaptive divergent grid. A database of dose kernels was precalculated in order to allow for fast variations of the field range and modulation during optimization. The inverse planning process was based on the adaptive simulated annealing approach, with direct aperture optimization of the MLC leaves. A dosimetry study was performed on a phantom formed by three concentrical semicylinders separated by 5 mm, of which the inner-most and outer-most were regarded as organs at risk (OARs), and the middle one as the PTV. We chose a concave target (which is not treatable with conventional DS fields) to show the potential of our technique. The optimizer was configured to minimize the mean dose to the OARs while keeping a good coverage of the target. Results. The plan produced by the prototype TPS achieved a conformity index of 1.34, with the mean doses to the OARs below 78% of the prescribed dose. This Result is hardly achievable with traditional conformal DS technique with compensators, and it compares to what can be obtained with PBS. Conclusion. It is certainly feasible to produce IMPT fields with MLC passive scattering fields. With a fully developed treatment planning system, the produced plans can be superior to traditional DS plans in terms of plan conformity and dose to organs at risk

  19. Matching extended-SSD electron beams to multileaf collimated photon beams in the treatment of head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steel, Jared; Stewart, Allan; Satory, Philip [Auckland Regional Blood and Cancer Service, Auckland City Hospital, 2 Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 1023 (New Zealand)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: Matching the penumbra of a 6 MeV electron beam to the penumbra of a 6 MV photon beam is a dose optimization challenge, especially when the electron beam is applied from an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD), as in the case of some head and neck treatments. Traditionally low melting point alloy blocks have been used to define the photon beam shielding over the spinal cord region. However, these are inherently time consuming to construct and employ in the clinical situation. Multileaf collimators (MLCs) provide a fast and reproducible shielding option but generate geometrically nonconformal approximations to the desired beam edge definition. The effects of substituting Cerrobend for the MLC shielding mode in the context of beam matching with extended-SSD electron beams are the subject of this investigation. Methods: Relative dose beam data from a Varian EX 2100 linear accelerator were acquired in a water tank under the 6 MeV electron beam at both standard and extended-SSD and under the 6 MV photon beam defined by Cerrobend and a number of MLC stepping regimes. The effect of increasing the electron beam SSD on the beam penumbra was assessed. MLC stepping was also assessed in terms of the effects on both the mean photon beam penumbra and the intraleaf dose-profile nonuniformity relative to the MLC midleaf. Computational techniques were used to combine the beam data so as to simulate composite relative dosimetry in the water tank, allowing fine control of beam abutment gap variation. Idealized volumetric dosimetry was generated based on the percentage depth-dose data for the beam modes and the abutment geometries involved. Comparison was made between each composite dosimetry dataset and the relevant ideal dosimetry dataset by way of subtraction. Results: Weighted dose-difference volume histograms (DDVHs) were produced, and these, in turn, summed to provide an overall dosimetry score for each abutment and shielding type/angle combination. Increasing the

  20. Matching extended-SSD electron beams to multileaf collimated photon beams in the treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, Jared; Stewart, Allan; Satory, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Matching the penumbra of a 6 MeV electron beam to the penumbra of a 6 MV photon beam is a dose optimization challenge, especially when the electron beam is applied from an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD), as in the case of some head and neck treatments. Traditionally low melting point alloy blocks have been used to define the photon beam shielding over the spinal cord region. However, these are inherently time consuming to construct and employ in the clinical situation. Multileaf collimators (MLCs) provide a fast and reproducible shielding option but generate geometrically nonconformal approximations to the desired beam edge definition. The effects of substituting Cerrobend for the MLC shielding mode in the context of beam matching with extended-SSD electron beams are the subject of this investigation. Methods: Relative dose beam data from a Varian EX 2100 linear accelerator were acquired in a water tank under the 6 MeV electron beam at both standard and extended-SSD and under the 6 MV photon beam defined by Cerrobend and a number of MLC stepping regimes. The effect of increasing the electron beam SSD on the beam penumbra was assessed. MLC stepping was also assessed in terms of the effects on both the mean photon beam penumbra and the intraleaf dose-profile nonuniformity relative to the MLC midleaf. Computational techniques were used to combine the beam data so as to simulate composite relative dosimetry in the water tank, allowing fine control of beam abutment gap variation. Idealized volumetric dosimetry was generated based on the percentage depth-dose data for the beam modes and the abutment geometries involved. Comparison was made between each composite dosimetry dataset and the relevant ideal dosimetry dataset by way of subtraction. Results: Weighted dose-difference volume histograms (DDVHs) were produced, and these, in turn, summed to provide an overall dosimetry score for each abutment and shielding type/angle combination. Increasing the

  1. Matching extended-SSD electron beams to multileaf collimated photon beams in the treatment of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jared; Stewart, Allan; Satory, Philip

    2009-09-01

    Matching the penumbra of a 6 MeV electron beam to the penumbra of a 6 MV photon beam is a dose optimization challenge, especially when the electron beam is applied from an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD), as in the case of some head and neck treatments. Traditionally low melting point alloy blocks have been used to define the photon beam shielding over the spinal cord region. However, these are inherently time consuming to construct and employ in the clinical situation. Multileaf collimators (MLCs) provide a fast and reproducible shielding option but generate geometrically nonconformal approximations to the desired beam edge definition. The effects of substituting Cerrobend for the MLC shielding mode in the context of beam matching with extended-SSD electron beams are the subject of this investigation. Relative dose beam data from a Varian EX 2100 linear accelerator were acquired in a water tank under the 6 MeV electron beam at both standard and extended-SSD and under the 6 MV photon beam defined by Cerrobend and a number of MLC stepping regimes. The effect of increasing the electron beam SSD on the beam penumbra was assessed. MLC stepping was also assessed in terms of the effects on both the mean photon beam penumbra and the intraleaf dose-profile nonuniformity relative to the MLC midleaf. Computational techniques were used to combine the beam data so as to simulate composite relative dosimetry in the water tank, allowing fine control of beam abutment gap variation. Idealized volumetric dosimetry was generated based on the percentage depth-dose data for the beam modes and the abutment geometries involved. Comparison was made between each composite dosimetry dataset and the relevant ideal dosimetry dataset by way of subtraction. Weighted dose-difference volume histograms (DDVHs) were produced, and these, in turn, summed to provide an overall dosimetry score for each abutment and shielding type/angle combination. Increasing the electron beam SSD increased

  2. Monte Carlo design and simulation of a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator for radiotherapy: feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae-Suk [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In order to confirm the possibility of field application of a different type collimator with a multileaf collimator (MLC), we constructed a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator (GTPC) by using a Monte Carlo n-particle simulation (MCNPX). In this research, a number of factors related to the performance of the GPTC were evaluated using simulated output data of a basic MLC model. A layer was comprised of a 1024-pixel collimator (5.0 x 5.0 mm{sup 2}) which could operate individually as a grid-type collimator (32 x 32). A 30-layer collimator was constructed for a specific portal form to pass radiation through the opening and closing of each pixel cover. The radiation attenuation level and the leakage were compared between the GTPC modality simulation and MLC modeling (tungsten, 17.50 g/cm{sup 3}, 5.0 x 70.0 x 160.0 mm{sup 3}) currently used for a radiation field. Comparisons of the portal imaging, the lateral dose profile from a virtual water phantom, the dependence of the performance on the increase in the number of layers, the radiation intensity modulation verification, and the geometric error between the GTPC and the MLC were done using the MCNPX simulation data. From the simulation data, the intensity modulation of the GTPC showed a faster response than the MLC's (29.6%). In addition, the agreement between the doses that should be delivered to the target region was measured as 97.0%, and the GTPC system had an error below 0.01%, which is identical to that of MLC. A Monte Carlo simulation of the GTPC could be useful for verification of application possibilities. Because the line artifact is caused by the grid frame and the folded cover, a lineal dose transfer type is chosen for the operation of this system. However, the result of GTPC's performance showed that the methods of effective intensity modulation and the specific geometric beam shaping differed with the MLC modality.

  3. Monte Carlo design and simulation of a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator for radiotherapy: Feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk

    2014-05-01

    In order to confirm the possibility of field application of a different type collimator with a multileaf collimator (MLC), we constructed a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator (GTPC) by using a Monte Carlo n-particle simulation (MCNPX). In this research, a number of factors related to the performance of the GPTC were evaluated using simulated output data of a basic MLC model. A layer was comprised of a 1024-pixel collimator (5.0 × 5.0 mm2) which could operate individually as a grid-type collimator (32 × 32). A 30-layer collimator was constructed for a specific portal form to pass radiation through the opening and closing of each pixel cover. The radiation attenuation level and the leakage were compared between the GTPC modality simulation and MLC modeling (tungsten, 17.50 g/cm3, 5.0 × 70.0 × 160.0 mm3) currently used for a radiation field. Comparisons of the portal imaging, the lateral dose profile from a virtual water phantom, the dependence of the performance on the increase in the number of layers, the radiation intensity modulation verification, and the geometric error between the GTPC and the MLC were done using the MCNPX simulation data. From the simulation data, the intensity modulation of the GTPC showed a faster response than the MLC's (29.6%). In addition, the agreement between the doses that should be delivered to the target region was measured as 97.0%, and the GTPC system had an error below 0.01%, which is identical to that of MLC. A Monte Carlo simulation of the GTPC could be useful for verification of application possibilities. Because the line artifact is caused by the grid frame and the folded cover, a lineal dose transfer type is chosen for the operation of this system. However, the result of GTPC's performance showed that the methods of effective intensity modulation and the specific geometric beam shaping differed with the MLC modality.

  4. Monte Carlo design and simulation of a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator for radiotherapy: feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility of field application of a different type collimator with a multileaf collimator (MLC), we constructed a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator (GTPC) by using a Monte Carlo n-particle simulation (MCNPX). In this research, a number of factors related to the performance of the GPTC were evaluated using simulated output data of a basic MLC model. A layer was comprised of a 1024-pixel collimator (5.0 x 5.0 mm 2 ) which could operate individually as a grid-type collimator (32 x 32). A 30-layer collimator was constructed for a specific portal form to pass radiation through the opening and closing of each pixel cover. The radiation attenuation level and the leakage were compared between the GTPC modality simulation and MLC modeling (tungsten, 17.50 g/cm 3 , 5.0 x 70.0 x 160.0 mm 3 ) currently used for a radiation field. Comparisons of the portal imaging, the lateral dose profile from a virtual water phantom, the dependence of the performance on the increase in the number of layers, the radiation intensity modulation verification, and the geometric error between the GTPC and the MLC were done using the MCNPX simulation data. From the simulation data, the intensity modulation of the GTPC showed a faster response than the MLC's (29.6%). In addition, the agreement between the doses that should be delivered to the target region was measured as 97.0%, and the GTPC system had an error below 0.01%, which is identical to that of MLC. A Monte Carlo simulation of the GTPC could be useful for verification of application possibilities. Because the line artifact is caused by the grid frame and the folded cover, a lineal dose transfer type is chosen for the operation of this system. However, the result of GTPC's performance showed that the methods of effective intensity modulation and the specific geometric beam shaping differed with the MLC modality.

  5. SU-F-T-366: Dosimetric Parameters Enhancement of 120-Leaf Millennium MLC Using EGSnrc and IAEA Phase-Space Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, K; Alopoor, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, the multileaf collimators (MLC) have become an important part of any LINAC collimation systems because they reduce the treatment planning time and improves the conformity. Important factors that affects the MLCs collimation performance are leaves material composition and their thickness. In this study, we investigate the main dosimetric parameters of 120-leaf Millennium MLC including dose in the buildup point, physical penumbra as well as average and end leaf leakages. Effects of the leaves geometry and density on these parameters are evaluated Methods: From EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc modules are used to evaluate the dosimetric parameters of a water phantom exposed to a Varian xi for 100cm SSD. Using IAEA phasespace data just above MLC (Z=46cm) and BEAMnrc, for the modified 120-leaf Millennium MLC a new phase space data at Z=52cm is produces. The MLC is modified both in leaf thickness and material composition. EGSgui code generates 521ICRU library for tungsten alloys. DOSXYZnrc with the new phase space evaluates the dose distribution in a water phantom of 60×60×20 cm3 with voxel size of 4×4×2 mm3. Using DOSXYZnrc dose distributions for open beam and closed beam as well as the leakages definition, end leakage, average leakage and physical penumbra are evaluated. Results: A new MLC with improved dosimetric parameters is proposed. The physical penumbra for proposed MLC is 4.7mm compared to 5.16 mm for Millennium. Average leakage in our design is reduced to 1.16% compared to 1.73% for Millennium, the end leaf leakage suggested design is also reduced to 4.86% compared to 7.26% of Millennium. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed MLC with enhanced dosimetric parameters could improve the conformity of treatment planning.

  6. SU-F-T-366: Dosimetric Parameters Enhancement of 120-Leaf Millennium MLC Using EGSnrc and IAEA Phase-Space Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, K; Alopoor, H [Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, the multileaf collimators (MLC) have become an important part of any LINAC collimation systems because they reduce the treatment planning time and improves the conformity. Important factors that affects the MLCs collimation performance are leaves material composition and their thickness. In this study, we investigate the main dosimetric parameters of 120-leaf Millennium MLC including dose in the buildup point, physical penumbra as well as average and end leaf leakages. Effects of the leaves geometry and density on these parameters are evaluated Methods: From EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc modules are used to evaluate the dosimetric parameters of a water phantom exposed to a Varian xi for 100cm SSD. Using IAEA phasespace data just above MLC (Z=46cm) and BEAMnrc, for the modified 120-leaf Millennium MLC a new phase space data at Z=52cm is produces. The MLC is modified both in leaf thickness and material composition. EGSgui code generates 521ICRU library for tungsten alloys. DOSXYZnrc with the new phase space evaluates the dose distribution in a water phantom of 60×60×20 cm3 with voxel size of 4×4×2 mm3. Using DOSXYZnrc dose distributions for open beam and closed beam as well as the leakages definition, end leakage, average leakage and physical penumbra are evaluated. Results: A new MLC with improved dosimetric parameters is proposed. The physical penumbra for proposed MLC is 4.7mm compared to 5.16 mm for Millennium. Average leakage in our design is reduced to 1.16% compared to 1.73% for Millennium, the end leaf leakage suggested design is also reduced to 4.86% compared to 7.26% of Millennium. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed MLC with enhanced dosimetric parameters could improve the conformity of treatment planning.

  7. The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy photon beams for improving the dose uniformity of electron beams shaped with MLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalaei, Homeira; Karnas, Scott; Shah, Sheel; Van Doodewaard, Sharon; Foster, Tim; Chen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Electrons are ideal for treating shallow tumors and sparing adjacent normal tissue. Conventionally, electron beams are collimated by cut-outs that are time-consuming to make and difficult to adapt to tumor shape throughout the course of treatment. We propose that electron cut-outs can be replaced using photon multileaf collimator (MLC). Two major problems of this approach are that the scattering of electrons causes penumbra widening because of a large air gap, and available commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs) do not support MLC-collimated electron beams. In this study, these difficulties were overcome by (1) modeling electron beams collimated by photon MLC for a commercial TPS, and (2) developing a technique to reduce electron beam penumbra by adding low-energy intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) photons (4 MV). We used blocks to simulate MLC shielding in the TPS. Inverse planning was used to optimize boost photon beams. This technique was applied to a parotid and a central nervous system (CNS) clinical case. Combined photon and electron plans were compared with conventional plans and verified using ion chamber, film, and a 2D diode array. Our studies showed that the beam penumbra for mixed beams with 90 cm source to surface distance (SSD) is comparable with electron applicators and cut-outs at 100 cm SSD. Our mixed-beam technique yielded more uniform dose to the planning target volume and lower doses to various organs at risk for both parotid and CNS clinical cases. The plans were verified with measurements, with more than 95% points passing the gamma criteria of 5% in dose difference and 5 mm for distance to agreement. In conclusion, the study has demonstrated the feasibility and potential advantage of using photon MLC to collimate electron beams with boost photon IMRT fields. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Weiliang; Gao Song; Wang Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston-Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10 deg. gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior-inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0 deg. to 180 deg. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90 deg. collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90 deg. collimator angle.

  9. Treatment planning systems for external whole brain radiation therapy: With and without MLC (multi leaf collimator) optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiyono, T.; Budi, W. S.; Hidayanto, E.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation therapy for brain malignancy is done by giving a dose of radiation to a whole volume of the brain (WBRT) followed by a booster at the primary tumor with more advanced techniques. Two external radiation fields given from the right and left side. Because the shape of the head, there will be an unavoidable hotspot radiation dose of greater than 107%. This study aims to optimize planning of radiation therapy using field in field multi-leaf collimator technique. A study of 15 WBRT samples with CT slices is done by adding some segments of radiation in each field of radiation and delivering appropriate dose weighting using a TPS precise plan Elekta R 2.15. Results showed that this optimization a more homogeneous radiation on CTV target volume, lower dose in healthy tissue, and reduced hotspots in CTV target volume. Comparison results of field in field multi segmented MLC technique with standard conventional technique for WBRT are: higher average minimum dose (77.25% ± 0:47%) vs (60% ± 3:35%); lower average maximum dose (110.27% ± 0.26%) vs (114.53% ± 1.56%); lower hotspot volume (5.71% vs 27.43%); and lower dose on eye lenses (right eye: 9.52% vs 18.20%); (left eye: 8.60% vs 16.53%).

  10. Treatment planning systems for external whole brain radiation therapy: With and without MLC (multi leaf collimator) optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiyono, T; Budi, W S; Hidayanto, E

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy for brain malignancy is done by giving a dose of radiation to a whole volume of the brain (WBRT) followed by a booster at the primary tumor with more advanced techniques. Two external radiation fields given from the right and left side. Because the shape of the head, there will be an unavoidable hotspot radiation dose of greater than 107%. This study aims to optimize planning of radiation therapy using field in field multi-leaf collimator technique. A study of 15 WBRT samples with CT slices is done by adding some segments of radiation in each field of radiation and delivering appropriate dose weighting using a TPS precise plan Elekta R 2.15. Results showed that this optimization a more homogeneous radiation on CTV target volume, lower dose in healthy tissue, and reduced hotspots in CTV target volume. Comparison results of field in field multi segmented MLC technique with standard conventional technique for WBRT are: higher average minimum dose (77.25% ± 0:47%) vs (60% ± 3:35%); lower average maximum dose (110.27% ± 0.26%) vs (114.53% ± 1.56%); lower hotspot volume (5.71% vs 27.43%); and lower dose on eye lenses (right eye: 9.52% vs 18.20%); (left eye: 8.60% vs 16.53%). (paper)

  11. Dose linearity and uniformity of a linear accelerator designed for implementation of multileaf collimation system-based intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, Cheng B.; Li Sicong; Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Yoe-Sein, Maung; Pillai, Susha; Enke, Charles A.; Celi, Juan C.

    2003-01-01

    The dose linearity and uniformity of a linear accelerator designed for multileaf collimation system- (MLC) based IMRT was studied as a part of commissioning and also in response to recently published data. The linear accelerator is equipped with a PRIMEVIEW, a graphical interface and a SIMTEC IM-MAXX, which is an enhanced autofield sequencer. The SIMTEC IM-MAXX sequencer permits the radiation beam to be 'ON' continuously while delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy subfields at a defined gantry angle. The dose delivery is inhibited when the electron beam in the linear accelerator is forced out of phase with the microwave power while the MLC configures the field shape of a subfield. This beam switching mechanism reduces the overhead time and hence shortens the patient treatment time. The dose linearity, reproducibility, and uniformity were assessed for this type of dose delivery mechanism. The subfields with monitor units ranged from 1 MU to 100 MU were delivered using 6 MV and 23 MV photon beams. The doses were computed and converted to dose per monitor unit. The dose linearity was found to vary within 2% for both 6 MV and 23 MV photon beam using high dose rate setting (300 MU/min) except below 2 MU. The dose uniformity was assessed by delivering 4 subfields to a Kodak X-OMAT TL film using identical low monitor units. The optical density was converted to dose and found to show small variation within 3%. Our results indicate that this linear accelerator with SIMTEC IM-MAXX sequencer has better dose linearity, reproducibility, and uniformity than had been reported

  12. Can cost make a difference dosimetrically? Volumetric modulated arc therapy study for multileaf collimators of various widths for head and neck and prostate cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Jong-Han, E-mail: jonghanho@gmail.com; Hagler, Shane; Lujano, Carrie; Seng, Sopaul; Starks, Christine; Perrin, Kelly; Turner, Lehendrick; Court, Laurence

    2017-04-01

    Cancer is a global health issue that disproportionately kills based on stage of disease, cellular pathology, and genetics, to name a few. Another variable to consider in this ongoing fight is treatment machine complexity that leads to elevated development and purchasing cost, leading to a reduced use. Reducing the complexity (in hopes of lowering costs) would benefit underdeveloped, low- and middle-income countries by introducing newer treatment technology, as their currently accepted standards do not meet standards of more advanced, developed countries. In this study, unilateral head and neck (H&N), and prostate cases using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were tested with multiple segment widths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm to create treatable plans. Pinnacle 9.10v was used for planning purposes. A total of 12 cases were planned with varying multileaf collimator (MLC) widths. Treatment plans were evaluated retrospectively. Results show that altering the MLC widths from 5 through 20 mm produces both comparable and treatable plans up to 99% and 98% target coverage for H&N and prostate, respectively, albeit clinically significant hot spots were shown to increase with increasing segment width. Furthermore, the results show that increasing widths can produce comparable treatment plans as measured against our current Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved treatment devices—leading to an increase in treatment efficacy in economically underdeveloped countries.

  13. Dosimetric comparison using different multileaf collimeters in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for upper thoracic esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuchuan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To study the impacts of multileaf collimators (MLC width [standard MLC width of 10 mm (sMLC and micro-MLC width of 4 mm (mMLC] in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT planning for the upper thoracic esophageal cancer (UTEC. Methods and materials 10 patients with UTEC were retrospectively planned with the sMLC and the mMLC. The monitor unites (MUs and dose volume histogram-based parameters [conformity index (CI and homogeneous index (HI] were compared between the IMRT plans with sMLC and with mMLC. Results The IMRT plans with the mMLC were more efficient (average MUs: 703.1 ± 68.3 than plans with the sMLC (average MUs: 833.4 ± 73.8 (p p 5 (3260.3 ± 374.0 vs 3404.5 ± 374.4/gEUD (1815.1 ± 281.7 vs 1849.2 ± 297.6 of the spinal cord, the V10 (33.2 ± 6.5 vs 34.0 ± 6.7, V20 (16.0 ± 4.6 vs 16.6 ± 4.7, MLD (866.2 ± 174.1 vs 887.9 ± 172.1 and gEUD (938.6 ± 175.2 vs 956.8 ± 171.0 of the lungs were observed in the plans with the mMLC, respectively (p Conclusions Comparing to the sMLC, the mMLC not only demonstrated higher efficiencies and more optimal target coverage, but also considerably improved the dose sparing of OARs in the IMRT planning for UTEC.

  14. An independent dose calculation algorithm for MLC-based stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Friedlieb; Killoran, Joseph H.; Wenz, Frederik; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm to calculate dose in a homogeneous phantom for radiotherapy fields defined by multi-leaf collimator (MLC) for both static and dynamic MLC delivery. The algorithm was developed to supplement the dose algorithms of the commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). The motivation for this work is to provide an independent dose calculation primarily for quality assurance (QA) and secondarily for the development of static MLC field based inverse planning. The dose calculation utilizes a pencil-beam kernel. However, an explicit analytical integration results in a closed form for rectangular-shaped beamlets, defined by single leaf pairs. This approach reduces spatial integration to summation, and leads to a simple method of determination of model parameters. The total dose for any static or dynamic MLC field is obtained by summing over all individual rectangles from each segment which offers faster speed to calculate two-dimensional dose distributions at any depth in the phantom. Standard beam data used in the commissioning of the TPS was used as input data for the algorithm. The calculated results were compared with the TPS and measurements for static and dynamic MLC. The agreement was very good (<2.5%) for all tested cases except for very small static MLC sizes of 0.6 cmx0.6 cm (<6%) and some ion chamber measurements in a high gradient region (<4.4%). This finding enables us to use the algorithm for routine QA as well as for research developments

  15. Comparative Analysis of Different Measurement Techniques for MLC Characterization: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation transmission, leakage and beam penumbra are essential dosimetric parameters related to the commissioning of a multileaf collimation system. This work shows a comparative analysis of commonly used film detectors: X-OMAT V2 and EDR2 radiographic films, and GafChromic EBT registered radiochromic film. The results show that X-OMAT over-estimates radiation leakage and 80-20% beam penumbra. However, according to the reference values reported by the manufacturer for these dosimetric parameters, all three films are adequate for MLC dosimetric characterization, but special care must be taken when X-OMAT V2 film is used due to its low energy photon dependence

  16. VMAT optimization with dynamic collimator rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Qihui; O'Connor, Daniel; Ruan, Dan; Yu, Victoria; Nguyen, Dan; Sheng, Ke

    2018-04-16

    Although collimator rotation is an optimization variable that can be exploited for dosimetric advantages, existing Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization uses a fixed collimator angle in each arc and only rotates the collimator between arcs. In this study, we develop a novel integrated optimization method for VMAT, accounting for dynamic collimator angles during the arc motion. Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) for Dynamic Collimator in VMAT (DC-VMAT) was achieved by adding to the existing dose fidelity objective an anisotropic total variation term for regulating the fluence smoothness, a binary variable for forming simple apertures, and a group sparsity term for controlling collimator rotation. The optimal collimator angle for each beam angle was selected using the Dijkstra's algorithm, where the node costs depend on the estimated fluence map at the current iteration and the edge costs account for the mechanical constraints of multi-leaf collimator (MLC). An alternating optimization strategy was implemented to solve the DAO and collimator angle selection (CAS). Feasibility of DC-VMAT using one full-arc with dynamic collimator rotation was tested on a phantom with two small spherical targets, a brain, a lung and a prostate cancer patient. The plan was compared against a static collimator VMAT (SC-VMAT) plan using three full arcs with 60 degrees of collimator angle separation in patient studies. With the same target coverage, DC-VMAT achieved 20.3% reduction of R50 in the phantom study, and reduced the average max and mean OAR dose by 4.49% and 2.53% of the prescription dose in patient studies, as compared with SC-VMAT. The collimator rotation co-ordinated with the gantry rotation in DC-VMAT plans for deliverability. There were 13 beam angles in the single-arc DC-VMAT plan in patient studies that requires slower gantry rotation to accommodate multiple collimator angles. The novel DC-VMAT approach utilizes the dynamic collimator rotation during arc

  17. Multileaf collimator intercomparison for intensity modulated radiation therapy implementation; Intercomparacao de colimadores de multiplas laminas para implementacao de terapia de feixes de intensidade modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viteri, Juan Fernando Delgado

    2006-07-01

    In this work a dosimetric comparison between three multileaf collimator systems is presented: a Varian Millennium with 120 leaves, Brainlab mMLC m3 and Varian Mark II both with 52 leaves. The width projection at isocenter level in field's central region are: 0,5 cm; 0,35 cm and 1,0 cm respectively. Common dosimetric characteristics for the three systems in static mode and dynamic capabilities for the two first were compared. In dynamic mode, tests validating proper MLC function through film irradiation were done, such MLC stability, MU linearity, treatment interruptions sensitivity, stability of MLC in dynamic mode, leaf speed stability, were found within {+-}3% deviation in all cases. Dose rate linearity showed differences when this parameter decreases in dynamic mode. Average dose errors for fixed width gaps moving at constant speed were found to be proportional to gap errors and inversely proportional to the gap width. Output factors differences delivered through a sweeping gap were found less than {+-}1% when the gantry was in a lateral position. For the three MLC systems, when comparing beam profiles for the same field was observed that for mMLC presents the sharpest dose gradient region. In the output factors small differences where observed in every MLC system. Dosimetric leaf gap was determined for MLC 120, mMLC and MLC 52, obtained values for a 6 MV beam are: (0,202 {+-} 0,054) cm; (0,157 {+-} 0,070) cm and (0,189 {+-} 0,081) cm respectively. The transmission showed an increase with depth and field width for 6 MV in all the three systems. Average values obtained with ionization chamber for this energy were: (1,630 {+-} 0,018)% for MLC 120; (1,291 {+-} 0,029)% for mMLC and (1,638 {+-} 0,010)% for MLC 52. When obtained through film irradiation, inter and intra leaf transmission showed an off axis dependent behavior for MLC 120 and mMLC. Scatter produced by MLC as a 6 MV open reference field ratio was: (0,297 {+-} 0,024)% for MLC 120; (0,239 {+-} 0,052)% for

  18. Multileaf collimator intercomparison for intensity modulated radiation therapy implementation; Intercomparacao de colimadores de multiplas laminas para implementacao de terapia de feixes de intensidade modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viteri, Juan Fernando Delgado

    2006-07-01

    In this work a dosimetric comparison between three multileaf collimator systems is presented: a Varian Millennium with 120 leaves, Brainlab mMLC m3 and Varian Mark II both with 52 leaves. The width projection at isocenter level in field's central region are: 0,5 cm; 0,35 cm and 1,0 cm respectively. Common dosimetric characteristics for the three systems in static mode and dynamic capabilities for the two first were compared. In dynamic mode, tests validating proper MLC function through film irradiation were done, such MLC stability, MU linearity, treatment interruptions sensitivity, stability of MLC in dynamic mode, leaf speed stability, were found within {+-}3% deviation in all cases. Dose rate linearity showed differences when this parameter decreases in dynamic mode. Average dose errors for fixed width gaps moving at constant speed were found to be proportional to gap errors and inversely proportional to the gap width. Output factors differences delivered through a sweeping gap were found less than {+-}1% when the gantry was in a lateral position. For the three MLC systems, when comparing beam profiles for the same field was observed that for mMLC presents the sharpest dose gradient region. In the output factors small differences where observed in every MLC system. Dosimetric leaf gap was determined for MLC 120, mMLC and MLC 52, obtained values for a 6 MV beam are: (0,202 {+-} 0,054) cm; (0,157 {+-} 0,070) cm and (0,189 {+-} 0,081) cm respectively. The transmission showed an increase with depth and field width for 6 MV in all the three systems. Average values obtained with ionization chamber for this energy were: (1,630 {+-} 0,018)% for MLC 120; (1,291 {+-} 0,029)% for mMLC and (1,638 {+-} 0,010)% for MLC 52. When obtained through film irradiation, inter and intra leaf transmission showed an off axis dependent behavior for MLC 120 and mMLC. Scatter produced by MLC as a 6 MV open reference field ratio was: (0,297 {+-} 0,024)% for MLC 120; (0,239 {+-} 0

  19. Measurement for the MLC leaf velocity profile by considering the leaf leakage using a radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C L; Grigorov, Grigor N

    2006-01-01

    A method to measure the velocity profile of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf along its travel range using a radiographic film is reported by considering the intra-leaf leakage. A specific dynamic MLC field with leaves travelling from the field edge to the isocentre line was designed. The field was used to expose a radiographic film, which was then scanned, and the dose profile along the horizontal leaf axis was measured. The velocity at a sampling point on the film can be calculated by considering the horizontal distance between the sampling point and the isocentre line, dose at the sampling point, dose rate of the linear accelerator, the total leaf travel time from the field edge to isocentre line and the pre-measured dose rate of leaf leakage. With the leaf velocities and velocity profiles for all MLC leaves measured routinely, a comprehensive and simple QA for the MLC can be set up to test the consistency of the leaf velocity performance which is essential to the IMRT delivery using a sliding window technique. (note)

  20. Determination of the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in sliding window and VMAT techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, V.; Abella, R.; Calvo, J. F.; Jurado-Bruggemann, D.; Sancho, I.; Carrasco, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Several authors have recommended a 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning in sliding window treatments. In volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments, however, the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning remains unknown. In this paper, the authors present the results of a multicenter study to determine the optimal tolerance for both techniques. Methods: The procedure used is based on dynalog file analysis. The study was carried out using seven Varian linear accelerators from five different centers. Dynalogs were collected from over 100 000 clinical treatments and in-house software was used to compute the number of tolerance faults as a function of the user-defined tolerance. Thus, the optimal value for this tolerance, defined as the lowest achievable value, was investigated. Results: Dynalog files accurately predict the number of tolerance faults as a function of the tolerance value, especially for low fault incidences. All MLCs behaved similarly and the Millennium120 and the HD120 models yielded comparable results. In sliding window techniques, the number of beams with an incidence of hold-offs >1% rapidly decreases for a tolerance of 1.5 mm. In VMAT techniques, the number of tolerance faults sharply drops for tolerances around 2 mm. For a tolerance of 2.5 mm, less than 0.1% of the VMAT arcs presented tolerance faults. Conclusions: Dynalog analysis provides a feasible method for investigating the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in dynamic fields. In sliding window treatments, the tolerance of 2 mm was found to be adequate, although it can be reduced to 1.5 mm. In VMAT treatments, the typically used 5 mm tolerance is excessively high. Instead, a tolerance of 2.5 mm is recommended

  1. Impact of Multileaf Collimator Configuration Parameters on the Dosimetric Accuracy of 6-MV Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Nick; Perrin, David; Newhauser, Wayne; Zhang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of selected configuration parameters that govern multileaf collimator (MLC) transmission and rounded leaf offset in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) (Pinnacle 3 , Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA, USA) on the accuracy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose calculation. The MLC leaf transmission factor was modified based on measurements made with ionization chambers. The table of parameters containing rounded-leaf-end offset values was modified by measuring the radiation field edge as a function of leaf bank position with an ionization chamber in a scanning water-tank dosimetry system and comparing the locations to those predicted by the TPS. The modified parameter values were validated by performing IMRT quality assurance (QA) measurements on 19 gantry-static IMRT plans. Planar dose measurements were performed with radiographic film and a diode array (MapCHECK2) and compared to TPS calculated dose distributions using default and modified configuration parameters. Based on measurements, the leaf transmission factor was changed from a default value of 0.001 to 0.005. Surprisingly, this modification resulted in a small but statistically significant worsening of IMRT QA gamma-index passing rate, which revealed that the overall dosimetric accuracy of the TPS depends on multiple configuration parameters in a manner that is coupled and not intuitive because of the commissioning protocol used in our clinic. The rounded leaf offset table had little room for improvement, with the average difference between the default and modified offset values being -0.2 ± 0.7 mm. While our results depend on the current clinical protocols, treatment unit and TPS used, the methodology used in this study is generally applicable. Different clinics could potentially obtain different results and improve their dosimetric accuracy using our approach.

  2. Impact of multileaf collimator configuration parameters on the dosimetric accuracy of 6-MV Intensity-Modulated radiation therapy treatment plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of selected configuration parameters that govern multileaf collimator (MLC transmission and rounded leaf offset in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS (Pinnacle3, Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA, USA on the accuracy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT dose calculation. The MLC leaf transmission factor was modified based on measurements made with ionization chambers. The table of parameters containing rounded-leaf-end offset values was modified by measuring the radiation field edge as a function of leaf bank position with an ionization chamber in a scanning water-tank dosimetry system and comparing the locations to those predicted by the TPS. The modified parameter values were validated by performing IMRT quality assurance (QA measurements on 19 gantry-static IMRT plans. Planar dose measurements were performed with radiographic film and a diode array (MapCHECK2 and compared to TPS calculated dose distributions using default and modified configuration parameters. Based on measurements, the leaf transmission factor was changed from a default value of 0.001 to 0.005. Surprisingly, this modification resulted in a small but statistically significant worsening of IMRT QA gamma-index passing rate, which revealed that the overall dosimetric accuracy of the TPS depends on multiple configuration parameters in a manner that is coupled and not intuitive because of the commissioning protocol used in our clinic. The rounded leaf offset table had little room for improvement, with the average difference between the default and modified offset values being −0.2 ± 0.7 mm. While our results depend on the current clinical protocols, treatment unit and TPS used, the methodology used in this study is generally applicable. Different clinics could potentially obtain different results and improve their dosimetric accuracy using our approach.

  3. The effect of electron collimator leaf shape on the build-up dose in narrow electron MLC fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatanen, T; Vaeaenaenen, A; Lahtinen, T; Traneus, E

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we have found that the build-up dose from abutting narrow electron beams formed with unfocussed electron multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) steal leaves was higher than with the respective open field. To investigate more closely the effect of leaf material and shape on dose in the build-up region, straight, round (radius 1.5 cm) and leaf ends with a different front face angle of α (leaf front face pointing towards the beam axis at an angle of 90 - α) made of steel, brass and tungsten were modelled using the BEAMnrc code. Based on a treatment head simulation of a Varian 2100 C/D linac, depth-dose curves and profiles in water were calculated for narrow 6, 12 and 20 MeV eMLC beams (width 1.0 cm, length 10 cm) at source-to-surface distances (SSD) of 102 and 105 cm. The effects of leaf material and front face angle were evaluated based on electron fluence, angle and energy spectra. With a leaf front face angle of 15 deg., the dose in the build-up region of the 6 MeV field varied between 91 and 100%, while for straight and round leaf shapes the dose varied between 89 and 100%. The variation was between 94 and 100% for 12 and 20 MeV. For abutting narrow 6 MeV fields with total field size 5 x 10 cm 2 , the build-up doses at 5 mm depth for the face angle 15 deg. and straight and round leaf shapes were 96% and 86% (SSD 102 cm) and 89% and 85% (SSD 105 cm). With higher energies, the effect of eMLC leaf shape on dose at 5 mm was slight (3-4% units with 12 MeV) and marginal with 20 MeV. The fluence, energy and angle spectra for total and leaf scattered electrons were practically the same for different leaf materials with 6 MeV. With high energies, the spectra for tungsten were more peaked due to lower leaf transmission. Compared with straight leaf ends, the face angle of 15 deg. and round leaf ends led to a 1 mm (for 6 MeV) and between 1 and 5 mm (12 and 20 MeV at a SSD of 105 cm) decrease of therapeutic range and increase of the field size, respectively. However

  4. SU-E-T-428: Dosimetric Impact of Multileaf Collimator Leaf Width On Single and multiple Isocenter Stereotactic IMRT Treatment Plans for multiple Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giem, J; Algan, O; Ahmad, S; Ali, I; Young, J; Hossain, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts that multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width has on the dose conformity and normal brain tissue doses of single and multiple isocenter stereotactic IMRT (SRT) plans for multiple intracranial tumors. Methods: Fourteen patients with 2–3 targets were studied retrospectively. Patients treated with multiple isocenter treatment plans using 9 to 12 non-coplanar beams per lesion underwent repeat planning using single isocenter and 10 to 12 non-coplanar beams with 2.5mm, 3mm and 5mm MLC leaf widths. Brainlab iPlan treatment planning system for delivery with the 2.5mm MLC served as reference. Identical contour sets and dose-volume constraints were applied. The prescribed dose to each target was 25 Gy to be delivered over 5 fractions with a minimum of 99% dose to cover ≥ 95% of the target volume. Results: The lesions and normal brains ranged in size from 0.11 to 51.67cc (median, 2.75cc) and 1090 to 1641cc (median, 1401cc), respectively. The Paddick conformity index for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) was (0.79±0.08 vs. 0.79±0.07 and 0.77±0.08) and (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.77±0.09 and 0.76±0.08), respectively. The average normal brain volumes receiving 15 Gy for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) were (3.65% vs. 3.95% and 4.09%) and (2.89% vs. 2.91% and 2.92%), respectively. Conclusion: The average dose conformity observed for the different leaf width for single and multiple isocenter plans were similar, throughout. However, the average normal brain volumes receiving 2.5 to 15 Gy were consistently lower for the 2.5mm MLC leaf width, especially for single isocenter plans. The clinical consequences of these integral normal brain tissue doses are still unknown, but employing the use of the 2.5mm MLC option is desirable at sparing normal brain tissue for both single and multiple isocenter cases

  5. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J; St Aubin, J; Rathee, S; Fallone, B G

    2010-05-01

    Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450 +/- 10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000 +/- 10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600 +/- 10 G. The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of

  6. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the

  7. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450±10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000±10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600±10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance

  8. Implementation and acceptance of dynamic MLC for IMRT and VMAT; Implementacion y aceptacion de MLC dinamicos para IMRT y VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.; Marquina, J.; Ramirez, J.; Gonzales, A., E-mail: bertha.garcia@aliada.com.pe [ALIADA, Oncologia Integral, Av. Jose Galvez Barrenechea 1044, San Isidro, Lima 27 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The use of Multi-leaf Collimator (MLC) in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for dynamic treatment techniques as Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) makes that the movement controls as the speed of the MLC are quantified by means of an acceptance test. The objective determination of the operation regulations of the radiotherapy equipment requires ideally the establishment of the quantitative relationship among the performance deviations and clinical results or some acceptable substitute. Different protocols exist detailed with parameters and acceptance ranges according to the MLC thickness. In our case the acceptance test was carried out for 120-MLC of Trilogy equipment brand Varian. For all the test were used 300-200 Um for each formed beam lets; source-surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm. 9 acceptance tests were used each one with different purposes like to quantify, synchronization, stability, complexity, precision, positioning, conformity, dynamic movements for the case of dynamic wedges, consecutive moves, among others, for the measurements were used film badges dosimetry (Gafchromic Ebt-3 scanner Epson expression 10000 XL); additionally the results were compared with a diodes arrangement Map-Check 2 brand Sun Nuclear; that consists of 1527 diodes prepared in a field of 32 x 26 cm located at a distance of 1 cm parallel, 0.5 cm diagonally. All the developed tests were inside the acceptance tolerance parameters when comparing the obtained result regarding the badges and the Map-Check was found a discrepancy of 0.01%, what gives a treatment certainty to the moment to impart volumetric dose in dynamic fields to the patients. (Author)

  9. The effect on IMRT conformality of elastic tissue movement and a practical suggestion for movement compensation via the modified dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S

    2005-01-01

    A major remaining problem in delivering radiotherapy, specifically intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), is the need to accommodate and correct for intrafraction movement. The developing availability of 4D computed tomographic images can potentially form the basis of the new field of image-guided IMRT. It is important to understand the effects on delivered dose of the patient breathing during IMRT and this paper models the effect which applies whether there is or is not a time component to the IMRT delivery method. It then goes on to suggest a practical correction strategy. The 'stretch-and-shift-the-planned-modulations' strategy is proposed and a practical method to deliver this is explained. This practical strategy is based on a modification of the dynamic multileaf collimator IMRT method whereby the leaves are arranged to 'breath' in tandem with the breathing of the patient. Some examples are also given from a study of mismatching the patient and leaf-correction motions

  10. Preliminary studies for implementation of a MCL quality control using EPID (Portal Dosimetry); Estudos preliminares para implementacao de um controle de qualidade de MLC com o uso do EPID (Portal Dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Furnari, Laura [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-01

    A Quality Control (CQ) to ensure the expected performance of a Multileaf Collimator System (MLC) is essential for delivering dose in a safety and appropriate way. The time required for equipment control and dosimetry may be lowered when the Electronic Portal Image Device (EPID) is used. The aim of this paper was to check the resolution limits of the detection system for IMRT mode, and to do the analysis of three tests of MLC performance: Picket Fence, Slinding GAP, MLC versus Gantry. A Varian iX Clinac equipped with an 80 leaf Millennium MLC and with amorphous silicon based EPID (aS1000) was use. The EPID proved Effective, where errors up to 0,5 mm can be detected. Information about interleaf transmissions, dose profile and gravity influence in the leaf banks also were included. (author)

  11. An EPID response calculation algorithm using spatial beam characteristics of primary, head scattered and MLC transmitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Florin; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an independent algorithm for the prediction of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) response. The algorithm uses a set of images [open beam, closed multileaf collimator (MLC), various fence and modified sweeping gap patterns] to separately characterize the primary and head-scatter contributions to EPID response. It also characterizes the relevant dosimetric properties of the MLC: Transmission, dosimetric gap, MLC scatter [P. Zygmansky et al., J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 8(4) (2007)], inter-leaf leakage, and tongue and groove [F. Lorenz et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 5985-5999 (2007)]. The primary radiation is modeled with a single Gaussian distribution defined at the target position, while the head-scatter radiation is modeled with a triple Gaussian distribution defined downstream of the target. The distances between the target and the head-scatter source, jaws, and MLC are model parameters. The scatter associated with the EPID is implicit in the model. Open beam images are predicted to within 1% of the maximum value across the image. Other MLC test patterns and intensity-modulated radiation therapy fluences are predicted to within 1.5% of the maximum value. The presented method was applied to the Varian aS500 EPID but is designed to work with any planar detector with sufficient spatial resolution

  12. Dosimetric impact of systematic MLC positional errors on step and shoot IMRT for prostate cancer: a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ung, N.M.; Harper, C.S.; Wee, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The positional accuracy of multileaf collimators (MLC) is crucial in ensuring precise delivery of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of this planning study was to investigate the dosimetric impact of systematic MLC positional errors on step and shoot IMRT of prostate cancer. A total of 12 perturbations of MLC leaf banks were introduced to six prostate IMRT treatment plans to simulate MLC systematic positional errors. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) were generated for the extraction of dose endpoint parameters. Plans were evaluated in terms of changes to the defined endpoint dose parameters, conformity index (CI) and healthy tissue avoidance (HTA) to planning target volume (PTV), rectum and bladder. Negative perturbations of MLC had been found to produce greater changes to endpoint dose parameters than positive perturbations of MLC (p 9 5 of -1.2 and 0.9% respectively. Negative and positive synchronised MLC perturbations of I mm in one direction resulted in median changes in D 9 5 of -2.3 and 1.8% respectively. Doses to rectum were generally more sensitive to systematic MLC en-ors compared to bladder (p < 0.01). Negative and positive synchronised MLC perturbations of I mm in one direction resulted in median changes in endpoint dose parameters of rectum and bladder from 1.0 to 2.5%. Maximum reduction of -4.4 and -7.3% were recorded for conformity index (CI) and healthy tissue avoidance (HT A) respectively due to synchronised MLC perturbation of 1 mm. MLC errors resulted in dosimetric changes in IMRT plans for prostate. (author)

  13. On the suitability of Elekta’s Agility 160 MLC for tracked radiation delivery: closed-loop machine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glitzner, M; Crijns, S P M; De Senneville, B Denis; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-01-01

    For motion adaptive radiotherapy, dynamic multileaf collimator tracking can be employed to reduce treatment margins by steering the beam according to the organ motion. The Elekta Agility 160 MLC has hitherto not been evaluated for its tracking suitability. Both dosimetric performance and latency are key figures and need to be assessed generically, independent of the used motion sensor. In this paper, we propose the use of harmonic functions directly fed to the MLC to determine its latency during continuous motion. Furthermore, a control variable is extracted from a camera system and fed to the MLC. Using this setup, film dosimetry and subsequent γ statistics are performed, evaluating the response when tracking (MRI)-based physiologic motion in a closed-loop. The delay attributed to the MLC itself was shown to be a minor contributor to the overall feedback chain as compared to the impact of imaging components such as MRI sequences. Delay showed a linear phase behaviour of the MLC employed in continuously dynamic applications, which enables a general MLC-characterization. Using the exemplary feedback chain, dosimetry showed a vast increase in pass rate employing γ statistics. In this early stage, the tracking performance of the Agility using the test bench yielded promising results, making the technique eligible for translation to tracking using clinical imaging modalities. (paper)

  14. Leaf transmission reduction using moving jaws for dynamic MLC IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidhalter, D.; Fix, M. K.; Niederer, P.; Mini, R.; Manser, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate to what extent it is possible to use the secondary collimator jaws to reduce the transmitted radiation through the multileaf collimator (MLC) during an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A method is developed and introduced where the jaws follow the open window of the MLC dynamically (dJAW method). With the aid of three academic cases (Closed MLC, Sliding-gap, and Chair) and two clinical cases (prostate and head and neck) the feasibility of the dJAW method and the influence of this method on the applied dose distributions are investigated. For this purpose the treatment planning system Eclipse and the Research-Toolbox were used as well as measurements within a solid water phantom were performed. The transmitted radiation through the closed MLC leads to an inhomogeneous dose distribution. In this case, the measured dose within a plane perpendicular to the central axis differs up to 40% (referring to the maximum dose within this plane) for 6 and 15 MV. The calculated dose with Eclipse is clearly more homogeneous. For the Sliding-gap case this difference is still up to 9%. Among other things, these differences depend on the depth of the measurement within the solid water phantom and on the application method. In the Chair case, the dose in regions where no dose is desired is locally reduced by up to 50% using the dJAW method instead of the conventional method. The dose inside the chair-shaped region decreased up to 4% if the same number of monitor units (MU) as for the conventional method was applied. The undesired dose in the volume body minus the planning target volume in the clinical cases prostate and head and neck decreased up to 1.8% and 1.5%, while the number of the applied MU increased up to 3.1% and 2.8%, respectively. The new dJAW method has the potential to enhance the optimization of the conventional IMRT to a further step

  15. MLC quality assurance using EPID: A fitting technique with subpixel precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamalui-Hunter, Maria; Li, Harold; Low, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous silicon based electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have been shown to be a good alternative to radiographic film for routine quality assurance (QA) of multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning accuracy. In this work, we present a method of acquiring an EPID image of a traditional strip-test image using analytical fits of the interleaf and leaf abutment image signatures. After exposure, the EPID image pixel values are divided by an open field image to remove EPID response and radiation field variations. Profiles acquired in the direction orthogonal to the leaf motion exhibit small peaks caused by interleaf leakage. Gaussian profiles are fitted to the interleaf leakage peaks, the results of which are, using multiobjective optimization, used to calculate the image rotational angle with respect to the collimator axis of rotation. The relative angle is used to rotate the image to align the MLC leaf travel to the image pixel axes. The leaf abutments also present peaks that are fitted by heuristic functions, in this case modified Lorentzian functions. The parameters of the Lorentzian functions are used to parameterize the leaf gap width and positions. By imaging a set of MLC fields with varying gaps forming symmetric and asymmetric abutments, calibration curves with regard to relative peak height (RPH) versus nominal gap width are obtained. Based on this calibration data, the individual leaf positions are calculated to compare with the nominal programmed positions. The results demonstrate that the collimator rotation angle can be determined as accurate as 0.01 deg. . A change in MLC gap width of 0.2 mm leads to a change in RPH of about 10%. For asymmetrically produced gaps, a 0.2 mm MLC leaf gap width change causes 0.2 pixel peak position change. Subpixel resolution is obtained by using a parameterized fit of the relatively large abutment peaks. By contrast, for symmetrical gap changes, the peak position remains unchanged with a standard deviation of 0

  16. [A review of progress of real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy technology based on dynamic multi-leaf collimator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fubo; Li, Guangjun; Shen, Jiuling; Li, Ligin; Bai, Sen

    2017-02-01

    While radiation treatment to patients with tumors in thorax and abdomen is being performed, further improvement of radiation accuracy is restricted by the tumor intra-fractional motion due to respiration. Real-time tumor tracking radiation is an optimal solution to tumor intra-fractional motion. A review of the progress of real-time dynamic multi-leaf collimator(DMLC) tracking is provided in the present review, including DMLC tracking method, time lag of DMLC tracking system, and dosimetric verification.

  17. Implementation and acceptance of dynamic MLC for IMRT and VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, B.; Marquina, J.; Ramirez, J.; Gonzales, A.

    2014-08-01

    The use of Multi-leaf Collimator (MLC) in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for dynamic treatment techniques as Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) makes that the movement controls as the speed of the MLC are quantified by means of an acceptance test. The objective determination of the operation regulations of the radiotherapy equipment requires ideally the establishment of the quantitative relationship among the performance deviations and clinical results or some acceptable substitute. Different protocols exist detailed with parameters and acceptance ranges according to the MLC thickness. In our case the acceptance test was carried out for 120-MLC of Trilogy equipment brand Varian. For all the test were used 300-200 Um for each formed beam lets; source-surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm. 9 acceptance tests were used each one with different purposes like to quantify, synchronization, stability, complexity, precision, positioning, conformity, dynamic movements for the case of dynamic wedges, consecutive moves, among others, for the measurements were used film badges dosimetry (Gafchromic Ebt-3 scanner Epson expression 10000 XL); additionally the results were compared with a diodes arrangement Map-Check 2 brand Sun Nuclear; that consists of 1527 diodes prepared in a field of 32 x 26 cm located at a distance of 1 cm parallel, 0.5 cm diagonally. All the developed tests were inside the acceptance tolerance parameters when comparing the obtained result regarding the badges and the Map-Check was found a discrepancy of 0.01%, what gives a treatment certainty to the moment to impart volumetric dose in dynamic fields to the patients. (Author)

  18. Lens sparing technique using multi-leaf collimators in irradiation of the unilateral retro-orbital space for benign disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, Mark; Medwell, Stephen; Bennie, David; Fogarty, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The authors present a case of a 30-year-old woman with pseudolymphoma of the left medial rectus muscle. A multi-field technique was planned for irradiating the unilateral retro-orbital space to 20 Gray (GY) in 15 fractions while keeping the average dose to the lens of 8 Gy and the peak dose to the lens of 11 Gy using multi-leaf collimators is described. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Radiography

  19. Impact of MLC leaf position errors on simple and complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, G; Ludlum, E; Xia, P

    2008-01-01

    The dosimetric impact of random and systematic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position errors is relatively unknown for head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) patients. In this report we studied 17 head and neck IMRT patients, including 12 treated with simple plans ( 100 segments). Random errors (-2 to +2 mm) and systematic errors (±0.5 mm and ±1 mm) in MLC leaf positions were introduced into the clinical plans and the resultant dose distributions were analyzed based on defined endpoint doses. The dosimetric effect was insignificant for random MLC leaf position errors up to 2 mm for both simple and complex plans. However, for systematic MLC leaf position errors, we found significant dosimetric differences between the simple and complex IMRT plans. For 1 mm systematic error, the average changes in D 95% were 4% in simple plans versus 8% in complex plans. The average changes in D 0.1cc of the spinal cord and brain stem were 4% in simple plans versus 12% in complex plans. The average changes in parotid glands were 9% in simple plans versus 13% for the complex plans. Overall, simple IMRT plans are less sensitive to leaf position errors than complex IMRT plans

  20. Independent monitor unit calculation for intensity modulated radiotherapy using the MIMiC multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Xing Lei; Nath, Ravinder

    2002-01-01

    A self-consistent monitor unit (MU) and isocenter point-dose calculation method has been developed that provides an independent verification of the MU for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using the MIMiC (Nomos Corporation) multileaf collimator. The method takes into account two unique features of IMRT using the MIMiC: namely the gantry-dynamic arc delivery of intensity modulated photon beams and the slice-by-slice dose delivery for large tumor volumes. The method converts the nonuniform beam intensity planned at discrete gantry angles of 5 deg. or 10 deg. into conventional nonmodulated beam intensity apertures of elemental arc segments of 1 deg. This approach more closely simulates the actual gantry-dynamic arc delivery by MIMiC. Because each elemental arc segment is of uniform intensity, the MU calculation for an IMRT arc is made equivalent to a conventional arc with gantry-angle dependent beam apertures. The dose to the isocenter from each 1 deg. elemental arc segment is calculated by using the Clarkson scatter summation technique based on measured tissue-maximum-ratio and output factors, independent of the dose calculation model used in the IMRT planning system. For treatments requiring multiple treatment slices, the MU for the arc at each treatment slice takes into account the MU, leakage and scatter doses from other slices. This is achieved by solving a set of coupled linear equations for the MUs of all involved treatment slices. All input dosimetry data for the independent MU/isocenter point-dose calculation are measured directly. Comparison of the MU and isocenter point dose calculated by the independent program to those calculated by the Corvus planning system and to direct measurements has shown good agreement with relative difference less than ±3%. The program can be used as an independent initial MU verification for IMRT plans using the MIMiC multileaf collimators

  1. Effect of MLC leaf width on the planning and delivery of SMLC IMRT using the CORVUS inverse treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, Jay; McDermott, Patrick N.; Bossenberger, Todd; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Levin, Kenneth; Forman, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans delivered via the segmented multileaf collimator (SMLC) technique. IMRT plans were calculated using the Corvus treatment planning system for three brain, three prostate, and three pancreas cases using leaf widths of 0.5 and 1 cm. Resulting differences in plan quality and complexity are presented here. Plans calculated using a 1 cm leaf width were chosen over the 0.5 cm leaf width plans in seven out of nine cases based on clinical judgment. Conversely, optimization results revealed a superior objective function result for the 0.5 cm leaf width plans in seven out of the nine comparisons. The 1 cm leaf width objective function result was superior only for very large target volumes, indicating that expanding the solution space for plan optimization by using narrower leaves may result in a decreased probability of finding the global minimum. In the remaining cases, we can conclude that we are often not utilizing the objective function as proficiently as possible to meet our clinical goals. There was often no apparent clinically significant difference between the two plans, and in such cases the issue becomes one of plan complexity. A comparison of plan complexity revealed that the average 1 cm leaf width plan required roughly 60% fewer segments and over 40% fewer monitor units than required by 0.5 cm leaf width plans. This allows a significant decrease in whole body dose and total treatment time. For very complex IMRT plans, the treatment delivery time may affect the biologically effective dose. A clinically significant improvement in plan quality from using narrower leaves was evident only in cases with very small target volumes or those with concavities that are small with respect to the MLC leaf width. For the remaining cases investigated in this study, there was no clinical advantage to reducing the MLC leaf width from 1 to 0.5 cm. In

  2. The sensitivity of gamma-index method to the positioning errors of high-definition MLC in patient-specific VMAT QA for SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-in; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Jin Ho; Ye, Sung-Joon; Park, Jong Min

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of various gamma criteria used in the gamma-index method for patient-specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam. Three types of intentional misalignments were introduced to original high-definition multi-leaf collimator (HD-MLC) plans. The first type, referred to Class Out, involved the opening of each bank of leaves. The second type, Class In, involved the closing of each bank of leaves. The third type, Class Shift, involved the shifting of each bank of leaves towards the ground. Patient-specific QAs for the original and the modified plans were performed with MapCHECK2 and EBT2 films. The sensitivity of the gamma-index method using criteria of 1%/1 mm, 1.5%/1.5 mm, 1%/2 mm, 2%/1 mm and 2%/2 mm was investigated with absolute passing rates according to the magnitudes of MLCs misalignments. In addition, the changes in dose-volumetric indicators due to the magnitudes of MLC misalignments were investigated. The correlations between passing rates and the changes in dose-volumetric indicators were also investigated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (γ). The criterion of 2%/1 mm was able to detect Class Out and Class In MLC misalignments of 0.5 mm and Class Shift misalignments of 1 mm. The widely adopted clinical criterion of 2%/2 mm was not able to detect 0.5 mm MLC errors of the Class Out or Class In types, and also unable to detect 3 mm Class Shift errors. No correlations were observed between dose-volumetric changes and gamma passing rates (γ < 0.8). Gamma criterion of 2%/1 mm was found to be suitable as a tolerance level with passing rates of 90% and 80% for patient-specific VMAT QA for SBRT when using MapCHECK2 and EBT2 film, respectively

  3. Multibeam tomotherapy: A new treatment unit devised for multileaf collimation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achterberg, Nils; Mueller, Reinhold G.

    2007-01-01

    A fully integrated system for treatment planning, application, and verification for automated multileaf collimator (MLC) based, intensity-modulated, image-guided, and adaptive radiation therapy (IMRT, IGRT and ART, respectively) is proposed. Patient comfort, which was the major development goal, will be achieved through a new unit design and short treatment times. Our device for photon beam therapy will consist of a new dual energy linac with five fixed treatment heads positioned evenly along one plane but one electron beam generator only. A minimum of moving parts increases technical reliability and reduces motion times to a minimum. Motion is allowed solely for the MLCs, the robotic patient table, and the small angle gantry rotation of ±36 deg. . Besides sophisticated electron beam guidance, this compact setup can be built using existing modules. The flattening-filter-free treatment heads are characterized by reduced beam-on time and contain apertures restricted in one dimension to the area of maximum primary fluence output. In the case of longer targets, this leads to a topographic intensity modulation, thanks to the combination of ''step and shoot'' MLC delivery and discrete patient couch motion. Owing to the limited number of beam directions, this multislice cone beam serial tomotherapy is referred to as ''multibeam tomotherapy.'' Every patient slice is irradiated by one treatment head at any given moment but for one subfield only. The electron beam is then guided to the next head ready for delivery, while the other heads are preparing their leaves for the next segment. The ''Multifocal MLC-positioning'' algorithm was programmed to enable treatment planning and optimize treatment time. We developed an overlap strategy for the longitudinally adjacent fields of every beam direction, in doing so minimizing the field match problem and the effects of possible table step errors. Clinical case studies show for the same or better planning target volume coverage

  4. An MLC calibration method using a detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Thomas A.; Kahler, Darren; Simon, William E.; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Liu, Chihray

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors have developed a quantitative calibration method for a multileaf collimator (MLC) which measures individual leaf positions relative to the MLC backup jaw on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Methods: The method utilizes a commercially available two-axis detector array (Profiler 2; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). To calibrate the MLC bank, its backup jaw is positioned at the central axis and the opposing jaw is retracted to create a half-beam configuration. The position of the backup jaws field edge is then measured with the array to obtain what is termed the radiation defined reference line. The positions of the individual leaf ends relative to this reference line are then inferred by the detector response in the leaf end penumbra. Iteratively adjusting and remeasuring the leaf end positions to within specifications completes the calibration. Using the backup jaw as a reference for the leaf end positions is based on three assumptions: (1) The leading edge of an MLC leaf bank is parallel to its backup jaw's leading edge, (2) the backup jaw position is reproducible, and (3) the measured radiation field edge created by each leaf end is representative of that leaf's position. Data from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) were used in a similar analysis to check the results obtained with the array. Results: The relative leaf end positions measured with the array differed from those measured with the EPID by an average of 0.11 ±0.09 mm per leaf. The maximum leaf positional change measured with the Profiler 2 over a 3 month period was 0.51 mm. A leaf positional accuracy of ±0.4 mm is easily attainable through the iterative calibration process. The method requires an average of 40 min to measure both leaf banks. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that the Profiler 2 is an effective tool for efficient and quantitative MLC quality assurance and calibration.

  5. An MLC calibration method using a detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Thomas A.; Kahler, Darren; Simon, William E.; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Liu, Chihray [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Science Building, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tulane University, 1415 Tulane Ave, HC65, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The authors have developed a quantitative calibration method for a multileaf collimator (MLC) which measures individual leaf positions relative to the MLC backup jaw on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Methods: The method utilizes a commercially available two-axis detector array (Profiler 2; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). To calibrate the MLC bank, its backup jaw is positioned at the central axis and the opposing jaw is retracted to create a half-beam configuration. The position of the backup jaws field edge is then measured with the array to obtain what is termed the radiation defined reference line. The positions of the individual leaf ends relative to this reference line are then inferred by the detector response in the leaf end penumbra. Iteratively adjusting and remeasuring the leaf end positions to within specifications completes the calibration. Using the backup jaw as a reference for the leaf end positions is based on three assumptions: (1) The leading edge of an MLC leaf bank is parallel to its backup jaw's leading edge, (2) the backup jaw position is reproducible, and (3) the measured radiation field edge created by each leaf end is representative of that leaf's position. Data from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) were used in a similar analysis to check the results obtained with the array. Results: The relative leaf end positions measured with the array differed from those measured with the EPID by an average of 0.11 {+-}0.09 mm per leaf. The maximum leaf positional change measured with the Profiler 2 over a 3 month period was 0.51 mm. A leaf positional accuracy of {+-}0.4 mm is easily attainable through the iterative calibration process. The method requires an average of 40 min to measure both leaf banks. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that the Profiler 2 is an effective tool for efficient and quantitative MLC quality assurance and calibration.

  6. Dosimetric evaluation of the conformation of the multileaf collimator to irregularly shaped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, Arthur; Du, Maria; Wong, John; Vicini, Frank; Taylor, Roy; Yu, Cedric; Matter, Richard; Martinez, Alvaro; Yan Di

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of geometric MLC prescription strategies and compare them to those of conventional shielding block. Methods and Materials: Circular fields, square fields, and 12 irregular fields for patients with cancer of the head and neck, lung, and pelvis were included in this study. All fields were shaped using the MLC and conventional blocks. A geometric criterion was defined as the amount of area discrepancy between the MLC and the prescription outline. The 'least area discrepancy' (LAD) of the MLC conformation was searched by selecting the collimator angle, meanwhile keeping a preselected position along the width of the leaf into the prescribed field. Five LAD conventions were studied. These included the LAD-0, LAD-(1(3)), LAD-(1(2)), and LAD-(2(3)) that inserted the leaves at the 0, (1(3)), (1(2)), and (2(3)) of the leaf end into the prescription field, respectively. In addition, the LAD optimization was applied to the transecting (TRN) approach for leaf conformation that prescribed an equal area of overblocking and underblocking under each leaf. Film dosimetry was performed in a 20 cm polystyrene phantom at 10 cm depth 100 cm from source to axis distance (SAD) for both 6 and 18 MV photons with each of the above MLC conformations and conventional blocks. The field penumbra width, defined as the mean of the separation between the 20% and 80% isodose lines along the normal of the prescription field edge, was calculated using both the MLC and conventional block film dosimetry and compared. In a similar way, the d20 is defined as the mean separation between the 20% isodose line and the prescription field edge, and the d80 is defined as the mean separation between the 80% isodose line and the prescription field edge. Results: The field penumbra width for all MLC conventions was approximately 2 mm larger than that of the conventional block. However, there was a larger variation of the separation

  7. The dosimetric impact of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plan modulation for real-time dynamic MLC tracking delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Marianne; Larsson, Tobias; Keall, Paul; Chul Cho, Byung; Aznar, Marianne; Korreman, Stine; Poulsen, Per; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking for management of intrafraction tumor motion can be challenging for highly modulated beams, as the leaves need to travel far to adjust for target motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction. The plan modulation can be reduced by using a leaf position constraint (LPC) that reduces the difference in the position of adjacent MLC leaves in the plan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the LPC on the quality of inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans and the effect of the MLC motion pattern on the dosimetric accuracy of MLC tracking delivery. Specifically, the possibility of predicting the accuracy of MLC tracking delivery based on the plan modulation was investigated. Methods: Inversely optimized arc radiotherapy plans were created on CT-data of three lung cancer patients. For each case, five plans with a single 358 deg. arc were generated with LPC priorities of 0 (no LPC), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 (highest possible LPC), respectively. All the plans had a prescribed dose of 2 Gy x 30, used 6 MV, a maximum dose rate of 600 MU/min and a collimator angle of 45 deg. or 315 deg. To quantify the plan modulation, an average adjacent leaf distance (ALD) was calculated by averaging the mean adjacent leaf distance for each control point. The linear relationship between the plan quality [i.e., the calculated dose distributions and the number of monitor units (MU)] and the LPC was investigated, and the linear regression coefficient as well as a two tailed confidence level of 95% was used in the evaluation. The effect of the plan modulation on the performance of MLC tracking was tested by delivering the plans to a cylindrical diode array phantom moving with sinusoidal motion in the superior-inferior direction with a peak-to-peak displacement of 2 cm and a cycle time of 6 s. The delivery was adjusted to the target motion using MLC tracking, guided in real-time by an infrared optical system

  8. SU-E-T-195: Gantry Angle Dependency of MLC Leaf Position Error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, S; Hong, C; Kim, M; Chung, K; Kim, J; Han, Y; Ahn, S; Chung, S; Shin, E; Shin, J; Kim, H; Kim, D; Choi, D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the gantry angle dependency of the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position error. Methods: An automatic MLC quality assurance system (AutoMLCQA) was developed to evaluate the gantry angle dependency of the MLC leaf position error using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). To eliminate the EPID position error due to gantry rotation, we designed a reference maker (RM) that could be inserted into the wedge mount. After setting up the EPID, a reference image was taken of the RM using an open field. Next, an EPID-based picket-fence test (PFT) was performed without the RM. These procedures were repeated at every 45° intervals of the gantry angle. A total of eight reference images and PFT image sets were analyzed using in-house software. The average MLC leaf position error was calculated at five pickets (-10, -5, 0, 5, and 10 cm) in accordance with general PFT guidelines using in-house software. This test was carried out for four linear accelerators. Results: The average MLC leaf position errors were within the set criterion of <1 mm (actual errors ranged from -0.7 to 0.8 mm) for all gantry angles, but significant gantry angle dependency was observed in all machines. The error was smaller at a gantry angle of 0° but increased toward the positive direction with gantry angle increments in the clockwise direction. The error reached a maximum value at a gantry angle of 90° and then gradually decreased until 180°. In the counter-clockwise rotation of the gantry, the same pattern of error was observed but the error increased in the negative direction. Conclusion: The AutoMLCQA system was useful to evaluate the MLC leaf position error for various gantry angles without the EPID position error. The Gantry angle dependency should be considered during MLC leaf position error analysis.

  9. An automatic CT-guided adaptive radiation therapy technique by online modification of multileaf collimator leaf positions for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Laurence E.; Dong Lei; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Bonnen, Mark D.; O'Daniel, Jennifer; Wang He; Mohan, Radhe; Kuban, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and evaluate online adaptive radiation therapy (ART) using in-room computed tomography (CT) imaging that detects changes in the target position and shape of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SVs) and then automatically modifies the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf pairs in a slice-by-slice fashion. Methods and materials: For intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using a coplanar beam arrangement, each MLC leaf pair projects onto a specific anatomic slice. The proposed strategy assumes that shape deformation is a function of only the superior-inferior (SI) position. That is, there is no shape change within a CT slice, but each slice can be displaced in the anteroposterior (AP) or right-left (RL) direction relative to adjacent slices. First, global shifts (in SI, AP, and RL directions) were calculated by three-dimensional (3D) registration of the bulk of the prostate in the treatment planning CT images with the daily CT images taken immediately before treatment. Local shifts in the AP direction were then found using slice-by-slice registration, in which the CT slices were individually registered. The translational shift within a slice could then be projected to a translational shift in the position of the corresponding MLC leaf pair for each treatment segment for each gantry angle. Global shifts in the SI direction were accounted for by moving the open portal superiorly or inferiorly by an integral number of leaf pairs. The proposed slice-by-slice registration technique was tested by using daily CT images from 46 CT image sets (23 each from 2 patients) taken before the standard delivery of IMRT for prostate cancer. A dosimetric evaluation was carried out by using an 8-field IMRT plan. Results: The shifts and shape change of the prostate and SVs could be separated into 3D global shifts in the RL, AP, and SI directions, plus local shifts in the AP direction, which were different for each CT slice. The MLC leaf positions were successfully

  10. Multileaf collimator-based linear accelerator radiosurgery: five-year efficiency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Joshua D; Fox, Tim; Waller, Anthony F; Davis, Lawrence; Crocker, Ian

    2009-03-01

    In 1989, Emory University initiated a linear accelerator (linac) radiosurgery program using circular collimators. In 2001, the program converted to a multileaf collimator. Since then, the treatment parameters of each patient have been stored in the record-and-verify system. Three major changes have occurred in the radiosurgery program in the past 6 years: in 2002, treatment was changed from static conformal beams to dynamic conformal arc (DCA) therapy, and all patients were imaged before treatment. Beginning in 2005, a linac was used, with the opportunity to treat at higher dose rates (600-1,000 monitor units/min). The aim of this study was to analyze the time required to deliver radiosurgery and the factors affecting treatment delivery. Benchmark data are provided for centers contemplating initiating linac radiosurgery programs. Custom software was developed to mine the record-and-verify system database and automatically perform a chart review on patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery from March 2001 to October 2006. The software extracted 510 patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery, and the following information was recorded for each patient: treatment technique, treatment time (from initiation of imaging, if done, to completion of therapy), number of isocenters, number of fields, total monitor units, and dose rate. Of the 510 patients, 395 were treated with DCA therapy and 115 with static conformal beams. The average number of isocenters treated was 1.06 (range, 1-4). The average times to deliver treatment were 24.1 minutes for patients who underwent DCA therapy and 19.3 minutes for those treated with static conformal beams, reflecting the lack of imaging in the latter patients. Eighty percent of patients were treated in question the need for a dedicated radiosurgery unit for even busy treatment centers.

  11. Dosimetry of a prototype retractable eMLC for fixed-beam electron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Boyd, Robert A.; Antolak, John A.; Svatos, Michelle M.; Faddegon, Bruce A.; Rosenman, Julian G.

    2004-01-01

    An electron multileaf collimator (eMLC) has been designed that is unique in that it retracts to 37 cm from the isocenter [63-cm source-to-collimator distance (SCD)] and can be deployed to distances of 20 and 10 cm from the isocenter (80 and 90 cm SCD, respectively). It is expected to be capable of arc therapy at 63 cm SCD; isocentric, fixed-beam therapy at 80 cm SCD; and source-to-surface distance (SSD), fixed-beam therapy at 90 cm SCD. In all positions, its leaves could be used for unmodulated or intensity-modulated therapy. Our goal in the present work is to describe the general characteristics of the eMLC and to demonstrate that its leakage characteristics and dosimetry are adequate for SSD, fixed-beam therapy as an alternative to Cerrobend cutouts with applicators once the prototype's leaves are motorized. Our eMLC data showed interleaf electron leakage at 15 MeV to be less than 0.1% based on a 0.0025 cm manufacturing tolerance, and lateral electron leakage at 5 and 15 MeV to be less than 2%. X-ray leakage through the leaves was 1.6% at 15 MeV. Our data showed that beam penumbra was independent of direction and leaf position. The dosimetric properties of square fields formed by the eMLC were very consistent with those formed by Cerrobend inserts in the 20x20 cm 2 applicator. Output factors exhibited similar field-size dependence. Airgap factors exhibited almost identical field-size dependence at two SSDs (105 and 110 cm), consistent with the common assumption that airgap factors are applicator independent. Percent depth-dose curves were similar, but showed variations up to 3% in the buildup region. The pencil-beam algorithm (PBA) fit measured data from the eMLC and applicator-cutout systems equally well, and the resulting two-dimensional (2-D) dose distributions, as predicted by the PBA, agreed well at common airgap distance. Simulating patient setups for breast and head and neck treatments showed that almost all fields could be treated using similar SSDs as

  12. Impact of collimator leaf width on stereotactic radiosurgery and 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, H. Dale; Wilder, Richard B.; Pappas, Conrad T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The authors undertook a study to analyze the impact of collimator leaf width on stereotactic radiosurgery and 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Twelve cases involving primary brain tumors, metastases, or arteriovenous malformations that had been planned with BrainLAB's conventional circular collimator-based radiosurgery system were re-planned using a β-version of BrainLAB's treatment planning software that is compatible with MRC Systems' and BrainLAB's micro-multileaf collimators. These collimators have a minimum leaf width of 1.7 mm and 3.0 mm, respectively, at isocenter. The clinical target volumes ranged from 2.7-26.1 cc and the number of static fields ranged from 3-5. In addition, for 4 prostate cancer cases, 2 separate clinical target volumes were planned using MRC Systems' and BrainLAB's micro-multileaf collimators and Varian's multileaf collimator: the smaller clinical target volume consisted of the prostate gland and the larger clinical target volume consisted of the prostate and seminal vesicles. For the prostate cancer cases, treatment plans were generated using either 6 or 7 static fields. A 'PITV ratio', which the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group defines as the volume encompassed by the prescription isodose surface divided by the clinical target volume, was used as a measure of the quality of treatment plans (a PITV ratio of 1.0-2.0 is desirable). Bladder and rectal volumes encompassed by the prescription isodose surface, isodose distributions and dose volume histograms were also analyzed for the prostate cancer patients. Results: In 75% of the cases treated with radiosurgery, a PITV ratio between 1.0-2.0 could be achieved using a micro-multileaf collimator with a leaf width of 1.7-3.0 mm at isocenter and 3-5 static fields. When the clinical target volume consisted of the prostate gland, the micro-multileaf collimator with a minimum leaf width of 3.0 mm allowed one to decrease the median volume of bladder and

  13. Dosimetric verification and evaluation of segmental multileaf collimator (SMLC)-IMRT for quality assurance. The second report. Absolute dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateoka, Kunihiko; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atsushi; Nakata, Kensei; Nagase, Daiki; Saikawa, Tsunehiko; Shimizume, Kazunari; Sugimoto, Harumi; Waka, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    volume, taking account of the variations in the ionization chamber replacement effect and the ionization chamber positioning error. Deviations of the central point dose and the average dose calculated in the V-F and a V-P were about 8% and 2%, respectively, in regions with a high dose gradient, and about 3% and 1%, respectively, in regions with a low dose gradient. Therefore, when the accuracy of the beam commissioning of the RTP, point of measurement for the ionization chamber and the deviation of the geometry of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves are considered, it was thought that the average dose derived from the RTP should be used for comparisons of measured doses. If the average dose and dose gradient of ±2 mm were used for a measurement point, verification of the absolute dose was possible within about 3% in regions where the dose gradient was less 10%, and within ±2 mm in regions where dose gradient was over 10%. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the output factor algorithm we developed made possible useful dose calculation independent of the RTP. (author)

  14. Quality assurance of MLC leaf position accuracy and relative dose effect at the MLC abutment region using an electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated an electronic portal image device (EPID)-based method to see whether it provides effective and accurate relative dose measurement at abutment leaves in terms of positional errors of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position. A Siemens ONCOR machine was used. For the garden fence test, a rectangular field (0.2x20 cm) was sequentially irradiated 11 times at 2-cm intervals. Deviations from planned leaf positions were calculated. For the nongap test, relative doses at the MLC abutment region were evaluated by sequential irradiation of a rectangular field (2x20 cm) 10 times with a MLC separation of 2 cm without a leaf gap. The integral signal in a region of interest was set to position A (between leaves) and B (neighbor of A). A pixel value at position B was used as background and the pixel ratio (A/Bx100) was calculated. Both tests were performed at four gantry angles (0, 90, 180 and 270deg) four times over 1 month. For the nongap test the difference in pixel ratio between the first and last period was calculated. Regarding results, average deviations from planned positions with the garden fence test were within 0.5 mm at all gantry angles, and at gantry angles of 90 and 270deg tended to decrease gradually over the month. For the nongap test, pixel ratio tended to increase gradually in all leaves, leading to a decrease in relative doses at abutment regions. This phenomenon was affected by both gravity arising from the gantry angle, and the hardware-associated contraction of field size with this type of machine. (author)

  15. SU-E-T-312: Dosimetric Consideration for the Agility MLC When Planning Rotational SRT/SBRT Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, X; Harris, J; Spitznagel, D; Walker, J [Avera Medical Group - Radiation Oncology, Sioux Falls, SD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To analyze the radiation transmission of the Agility MLC and make recommendation based on the MLC dosimetric characteristics for SRT, SBRT and VMAT planning Method and Materials: Agility MLC is the newest model from Elekta and has no back up diaphragm behind leaves for this generation. Leaves are single focused with rounded end; composed of leafs each 0.5cm wide, 9cm thick, constructed from tungsten alloy and provide low transmission <0.5%. Total radiation transmission from leaves and diaphragm is <0.13%. A 360degree arc was generated using iCom tools; leaves were programmed closed while keeping the diaphragm fully open to maximize the MLC transmission effect. Gafchromic EBT films were sandwiched between 4cm of solid water and situated at midplane to take dose measurement. 5000MU was delivered using 6MV VersaHD, various collimator angles, and a 5cm central axis offset was tested also. Films were scanned with Epson 10000XL scanner and analyzed using DoseLab Pro. Results: Due to the rounded leaf end and nature of rotation therapy, dose accumulation through the leaf gap is significant. By offsetting the leaf gap from central axis, this accumulation can be greatly reduced. There are dark bands showing accumulation of interleaf transmission which is improved by increasing collimator angle from 0 to 45dgree. However for 45 degree, in most cases, there are larger volumes sweeping under MLC alone, which needs considered planning. Conclusions: While inter-leaf leakage is minimized by using collimator angles greater than 0 degrees, the location of the leaf gap must also be managed. The leaf gap position becomes critically important when the treatment area is off axis such is the case when more than one PTV is being treated. With VMAT for SRT, SBRT becoming a more popular planning technique, special attention needs to be paid when initially setting up the field geometry.

  16. ‘Inverted Y’ field radiotherapy planning with multi-leaf collimator: A single isocentric technique using multiple fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sahai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to describe a planning technique using multi-leaf collimator and asymmetric fields for irradiating an ‘inverted Y’ shaped geometry in a patient with testicular seminoma. The entire target area covering the para-aortic, pelvic, and inguinal nodal regions was split into three fields. Single isocenter half-beam block technique was employed. The fields were planned with antero-posterior and postero-anterior portals with a differential weightage. The dose was prescribed at the respective reference points of the fields. A uniform dose distribution for the entire portal was achieved without any under- or over-dosing at the field junctions.  

  17. SU-F-BRB-12: A Novel Haar Wavelet Based Approach to Deliver Non-Coplanar Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Using Sparse Orthogonal Collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D; Ruan, D; Low, D; Sheng, K [Deparment of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); O’Connor, D [Deparment of Mathematics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Boucher, S [RadiaBeam Technologies, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Existing efforts to replace complex multileaf collimator (MLC) by simple jaws for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) resulted in unacceptable compromise in plan quality and delivery efficiency. We introduce a novel fluence map segmentation method based on compressed sensing for plan delivery using a simplified sparse orthogonal collimator (SOC) on the 4π non-coplanar radiotherapy platform. Methods: 4π plans with varying prescription doses were first created by automatically selecting and optimizing 20 non-coplanar beams for 2 GBM, 2 head & neck, and 2 lung patients. To create deliverable 4π plans using SOC, which are two pairs of orthogonal collimators with 1 to 4 leaves in each collimator bank, a Haar Fluence Optimization (HFO) method was used to regulate the number of Haar wavelet coefficients while maximizing the dose fidelity to the ideal prescription. The plans were directly stratified utilizing the optimized Haar wavelet rectangular basis. A matching number of deliverable segments were stratified for the MLC-based plans. Results: Compared to the MLC-based 4π plans, the SOC-based 4π plans increased the average PTV dose homogeneity from 0.811 to 0.913. PTV D98 and D99 were improved by 3.53% and 5.60% of the corresponding prescription doses. The average mean and maximal OAR doses slightly increased by 0.57% and 2.57% of the prescription doses. The average number of segments ranged between 5 and 30 per beam. The collimator travel time to create the segments decreased with increasing leaf numbers in the SOC. The two and four leaf designs were 1.71 and 1.93 times more efficient, on average, than the single leaf design. Conclusion: The innovative dose domain optimization based on compressed sensing enables uncompromised 4π non-coplanar IMRT dose delivery using simple rectangular segments that are deliverable using a sparse orthogonal collimator, which only requires 8 to 16 leaves yet is unlimited in modulation resolution. This work is

  18. First evaluation of the feasibility of MLC tracking using ultrasound motion estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Martin F., E-mail: martin.fast@icr.ac.uk; O’Shea, Tuathan P., E-mail: tuathan.oshea@nhs.net; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe; Harris, Emma J. [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To quantify the performance of the Clarity ultrasound (US) imaging system (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) for real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking. Methods: The Clarity calibration and quality assurance phantom was mounted on a motion platform moving with a periodic sine wave trajectory. The detected position of a 30 mm hypoechogenic sphere within the phantom was continuously reported via Clarity’s real-time streaming interface to an in-house tracking and delivery software and subsequently used to adapt the MLC aperture. A portal imager measured MV treatment field/MLC apertures and motion platform positions throughout each experiment to independently quantify system latency and geometric error. Based on the measured range of latency values, a prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivery was performed with three realistic motion trajectories. The dosimetric impact of system latency on MLC tracking was directly measured using a 3D dosimeter mounted on the motion platform. Results: For 2D US imaging, the overall system latency, including all delay times from the imaging and delivery chain, ranged from 392 to 424 ms depending on the lateral sector size. For 3D US imaging, the latency ranged from 566 to 1031 ms depending on the elevational sweep. The latency-corrected geometric root-mean squared error was below 0.75 mm (2D US) and below 1.75 mm (3D US). For the prostate SBRT delivery, the impact of a range of system latencies (400–1000 ms) on the MLC tracking performance was minimal in terms of gamma failure rate. Conclusions: Real-time MLC tracking based on a noninvasive US input is technologically feasible. Current system latencies are higher than those for x-ray imaging systems, but US can provide full volumetric image data and the impact of system latency was measured to be small for a prostate SBRT case when using a US-like motion input.

  19. First evaluation of the feasibility of MLC tracking using ultrasound motion estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, Martin F.; O’Shea, Tuathan P.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe; Harris, Emma J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the performance of the Clarity ultrasound (US) imaging system (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) for real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking. Methods: The Clarity calibration and quality assurance phantom was mounted on a motion platform moving with a periodic sine wave trajectory. The detected position of a 30 mm hypoechogenic sphere within the phantom was continuously reported via Clarity’s real-time streaming interface to an in-house tracking and delivery software and subsequently used to adapt the MLC aperture. A portal imager measured MV treatment field/MLC apertures and motion platform positions throughout each experiment to independently quantify system latency and geometric error. Based on the measured range of latency values, a prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivery was performed with three realistic motion trajectories. The dosimetric impact of system latency on MLC tracking was directly measured using a 3D dosimeter mounted on the motion platform. Results: For 2D US imaging, the overall system latency, including all delay times from the imaging and delivery chain, ranged from 392 to 424 ms depending on the lateral sector size. For 3D US imaging, the latency ranged from 566 to 1031 ms depending on the elevational sweep. The latency-corrected geometric root-mean squared error was below 0.75 mm (2D US) and below 1.75 mm (3D US). For the prostate SBRT delivery, the impact of a range of system latencies (400–1000 ms) on the MLC tracking performance was minimal in terms of gamma failure rate. Conclusions: Real-time MLC tracking based on a noninvasive US input is technologically feasible. Current system latencies are higher than those for x-ray imaging systems, but US can provide full volumetric image data and the impact of system latency was measured to be small for a prostate SBRT case when using a US-like motion input.

  20. TH-AB-202-02: Real-Time Verification and Error Detection for MLC Tracking Deliveries Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J Zwan, B; Colvill, E; Booth, J; J O’Connor, D; Keall, P; B Greer, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The added complexity of the real-time adaptive multi-leaf collimator (MLC) tracking increases the likelihood of undetected MLC delivery errors. In this work we develop and test a system for real-time delivery verification and error detection for MLC tracking radiotherapy using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Methods: The delivery verification system relies on acquisition and real-time analysis of transit EPID image frames acquired at 8.41 fps. In-house software was developed to extract the MLC positions from each image frame. Three comparison metrics were used to verify the MLC positions in real-time: (1) field size, (2) field location and, (3) field shape. The delivery verification system was tested for 8 VMAT MLC tracking deliveries (4 prostate and 4 lung) where real patient target motion was reproduced using a Hexamotion motion stage and a Calypso system. Sensitivity and detection delay was quantified for various types of MLC and system errors. Results: For both the prostate and lung test deliveries the MLC-defined field size was measured with an accuracy of 1.25 cm 2 (1 SD). The field location was measured with an accuracy of 0.6 mm and 0.8 mm (1 SD) for lung and prostate respectively. Field location errors (i.e. tracking in wrong direction) with a magnitude of 3 mm were detected within 0.4 s of occurrence in the X direction and 0.8 s in the Y direction. Systematic MLC gap errors were detected as small as 3 mm. The method was not found to be sensitive to random MLC errors and individual MLC calibration errors up to 5 mm. Conclusion: EPID imaging may be used for independent real-time verification of MLC trajectories during MLC tracking deliveries. Thresholds have been determined for error detection and the system has been shown to be sensitive to a range of delivery errors.

  1. TomoTherapy MLC verification using exit detector data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Quan; Westerly, David; Fang Zhenyu; Sheng, Ke; Chen Yu [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Xinghua Cancer Hospital, Xinghua, Jiangsu 225700 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. Methods: The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. Results: The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. Conclusions: The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment

  2. TomoTherapy MLC verification using exit detector data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Westerly, David; Fang Zhenyu; Sheng, Ke; Chen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment delivery verification (DV) is important in the field of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). While IMRT and image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), allow us to create more conformal plans and enables the use of tighter margins, an erroneously executed plan can have detrimental effects on the treatment outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a DV technique to verify TomoTherapy's multileaf collimator (MLC) using the onboard mega-voltage CT detectors. Methods: The proposed DV method uses temporal changes in the MVCT detector signal to predict actual leaf open times delivered on the treatment machine. Penumbra and scattered radiation effects may produce confounding results when determining leaf open times from the raw detector data. To reduce the impact of the effects, an iterative, Richardson-Lucy (R-L) deconvolution algorithm is applied. Optical sensors installed on each MLC leaf are used to verify the accuracy of the DV technique. The robustness of the DV technique is examined by introducing different attenuation materials in the beam. Additionally, the DV technique has been used to investigate several clinical plans which failed to pass delivery quality assurance (DQA) and was successful in identifying MLC timing discrepancies as the root cause. Results: The leaf open time extracted from the exit detector showed good agreement with the optical sensors under a variety of conditions. Detector-measured leaf open times agreed with optical sensor data to within 0.2 ms, and 99% of the results agreed within 8.5 ms. These results changed little when attenuation was added in the beam. For the clinical plans failing DQA, the dose calculated from reconstructed leaf open times played an instrumental role in discovering the root-cause of the problem. Throughout the retrospective study, it is found that the reconstructed dose always agrees with measured doses to within 1%. Conclusions: The exit detectors in the TomoTherapy treatment systems

  3. SU-F-T-429: Craniospinal Irradiation by VMAT Technique: Impact of FFF Beam and High Resolution MLC On Plan Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, T; Sarkar, B; Munshi, A; Mohanti, B [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of using flattening filter free (FFF) beam with 0.5 cm multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves over conventional flattened beam with 1 cm leaf width MLC on the treatment plan quality in cranio-spinal irradiation (CSI). Methods: For five medulloblastoma cases (3 males and 2 females), who were previously treated by volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique using conventional flattened beam shaped by 1 cm width MLC leaves, four test plans were generated and compared against the delivered plan. These retrospective plans consisted of four different combinations of flattened and FFF beams from Elekta’s Agility treatment head with 0.5 cm width MLC leaves. Sparing of organs at risks (OAR) in terms of dose to 5%, 50%, 75% and 90% volumes, mean and maximum dose were evaluated. Results: All plans satisfied the planning objective of covering 95% of PTV by at least 95% of prescription dose. Marginal variation of dose spillage was observed between different VMAT plans at very low dose range (1–5 Gy). Variation in dose statistics for PTVs and OARs were within 1% or 1 Gy. Amongst the five plans, the plan with flattened beam with 1 cm MLC had the highest number of MUs, 2.13 times higher than the plan with Agility MLC with FFF beam that had the least number of MUs. No statistically significant difference (p≥0.05) was observed between the reference plan and the retrospectively generated plans in terms of PTV coverage, cold spot, hot spot and organ at risk doses. Conclusion: In the treatment of CSI cases by VMAT technique, FFF beams and/or finer width MLC did not exhibit advantage over the flattened beams or wider MLC in terms of plan quality except for reduction in MUs.

  4. SU-E-T-784: Using MLC Log Files for Daily IMRT Delivery Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathakis, S; Defoor, D; Linden, P; Kirby, N; Papanikolaou, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To verify daily intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments using multi-leaf collimator (MLC) log files. Methods: The MLC log files from a NovalisTX Varian linear accelerator were used in this study. The MLC files were recorded daily for all patients undergoing IMRT or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The first record of each patient was used as reference and all records for subsequent days were compared against the reference. An in house MATLAB software code was used for the comparisons. Each MLC log file was converted to a fluence map (FM) and a gamma index (γ) analysis was used for the evaluation of each daily delivery for every patient. The tolerance for the gamma index was set to 2% dose difference and 2mm distance to agreement while points with signal of 10% or lower of the maximum value were excluded from the comparisons. Results: The γ between each of the reference FMs and the consecutive daily fraction FMs had an average value of 99.1% (ranged from 98.2 to 100.0%). The FM images were reconstructed at various resolutions in order to study the effect of the resolution on the γ and at the same time reduce the time for processing the images. We found that the comparison of images with the highest resolution (768×1024) yielded on average a lower γ (99.1%) than the ones with low resolution (192×256) (γ 99.5%). Conclusion: We developed an in-house software that allows us to monitor the quality of daily IMRT and VMAT treatment deliveries using information from the MLC log files of the linear accelerator. The information can be analyzed and evaluated as early as after the completion of each daily treatment. Such tool can be valuable to assess the effect of MLC positioning on plan quality, especially in the context of adaptive radiotherapy.

  5. Electromagnetic guided couch and multileaf collimator tracking on a TrueBeam accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rune; Ravkilde, Thomas; Worm, Esben Schjødt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Couch and MLC tracking are two promising methods for real-time motion compensation during radiation therapy. So far, couch and MLC tracking experiments have mainly been performed by different research groups, and no direct comparison of couch and MLC tracking of volumetric modulated arc...... to characterize the geometric and dosimetric performance of electromagnetic guided couch and MLC tracking on a TrueBeam accelerator equipped with a Millennium MLC. The tracking system latency was determined without motion prediction as the time lag between sinusoidal target motion and the compensating motion...

  6. Detailed analysis of latencies in image-based dynamic MLC tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous measurements of the accuracy of image-based real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking show that the major contributor to errors is latency, i.e., the delay between target motion and MLC response. Therefore the purpose of this work was to develop a method for detailed analysis of latency contributions during image-based DMLC tracking. Methods: A prototype DMLC tracking system integrated with a linear accelerator was used for tracking a phantom with an embedded fiducial marker during treatment delivery. The phantom performed a sinusoidal motion. Real-time target localization was based on x-ray images acquired either with a portal imager or a kV imager mounted orthogonal to the treatment beam. Each image was stored in a file on the imaging workstation. A marker segmentation program opened the image file, determined the marker position in the image, and transferred it to the DMLC tracking program. This program estimated the three-dimensional target position by a single-imager method and adjusted the MLC aperture to the target position. Imaging intervals ΔT image from 150 to 1000 ms were investigated for both kV and MV imaging. After the experiments, the recorded images were synchronized with MLC log files generated by the MLC controller and tracking log files generated by the tracking program. This synchronization allowed temporal analysis of the information flow for each individual image from acquisition to completed MLC adjustment. The synchronization also allowed investigation of the MLC adjustment dynamics on a considerably finer time scale than the 50 ms time resolution of the MLC log files. Results: For ΔT image =150 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment was 380±9 ms for MV and 420±12 ms for kV images. The main part of this time was from image acquisition to completed image file writing (272 ms for MV and 309 ms for kV). Image file opening (38 ms), marker segmentation (4 ms), MLC position

  7. Detailed analysis of latencies in image-based dynamic MLC tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Oncology and Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Previous measurements of the accuracy of image-based real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking show that the major contributor to errors is latency, i.e., the delay between target motion and MLC response. Therefore the purpose of this work was to develop a method for detailed analysis of latency contributions during image-based DMLC tracking. Methods: A prototype DMLC tracking system integrated with a linear accelerator was used for tracking a phantom with an embedded fiducial marker during treatment delivery. The phantom performed a sinusoidal motion. Real-time target localization was based on x-ray images acquired either with a portal imager or a kV imager mounted orthogonal to the treatment beam. Each image was stored in a file on the imaging workstation. A marker segmentation program opened the image file, determined the marker position in the image, and transferred it to the DMLC tracking program. This program estimated the three-dimensional target position by a single-imager method and adjusted the MLC aperture to the target position. Imaging intervals {Delta}T{sub image} from 150 to 1000 ms were investigated for both kV and MV imaging. After the experiments, the recorded images were synchronized with MLC log files generated by the MLC controller and tracking log files generated by the tracking program. This synchronization allowed temporal analysis of the information flow for each individual image from acquisition to completed MLC adjustment. The synchronization also allowed investigation of the MLC adjustment dynamics on a considerably finer time scale than the 50 ms time resolution of the MLC log files. Results: For {Delta}T{sub image}=150 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment was 380{+-}9 ms for MV and 420{+-}12 ms for kV images. The main part of this time was from image acquisition to completed image file writing (272 ms for MV and 309 ms for kV). Image file opening (38 ms), marker segmentation (4 ms

  8. Planning and delivering high doses to targets surrounding the spinal cord at the lower neck and upper mediastinal levels: static beam-segmentation technique executed by a multileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelfhout, J; Derycke, S; Fortan, L; Van Duyse, B; Colle, C; De Wagter, C; De Neve, W [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde

    1995-12-01

    The possibility to plan and deliver beam intensity modulated radiotherapy using a general purpose 3D-planning system (Sherouse`s GRATISTM) and a linear accelerator equipped with a standard multileaf collimator (MLC) was investigated in view of limiting the dose at the spinal cord below tolerance. During the planning process, dose homogenization at the target is obtained by the calculation of the weights, given to beam segments of a specific predetermined geometry. This specific geometry maximizes the area of each segment and thus reduces the number of segments. With a virtual patient in supine position, a first planning using a single isocenter, with gantry positions of -60, -30, 0, 30 and 60 degrees was performed. Medial edges of all segments were located tangential to the spinal cord. The resulting dose distribution allowed to encompass the target by an isodose surface of 66-70 Gy without exceeding spinal cord tolerance but required 42 segments distributed over 5 gantry angles. Therefore, dose-volume histogram analysis were performed for those cases where: (1) for some gantry positions, all beam segments could be omitted; (2) at the remaining gantry angles, segments could be omitted; (3) at least 2 segments could be traded off against 1 additional gantry angle. This procedure resulted in a final plan containing 22 segments spread over 8 gantry angles. Preliminary dosimetric results on a RANDO phantom support the robustness of the method. The first clinical applications have been planned. Although up to 99 beam segments can be programmed on the Philips SL25 linear accelerator, it remained impossible to use these segments synchronized with the MLC. From a clinical viewpoint, the proposed treatment for irradiating lower neck and upper mediastinal targets could be used as a standard against which other solutions might be tested.

  9. Planning and delivering high doses to targets surrounding the spinal cord at the lower neck and upper mediastinal levels: static beam-segmentation technique executed by a multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelfhout, J.; Derycke, S.; Fortan, L.; Van Duyse, B.; Colle, C.; De Wagter, C.; De Neve, W.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility to plan and deliver beam intensity modulated radiotherapy using a general purpose 3D-planning system (Sherouse's GRATISTM) and a linear accelerator equipped with a standard multileaf collimator (MLC) was investigated in view of limiting the dose at the spinal cord below tolerance. During the planning process, dose homogenization at the target is obtained by the calculation of the weights, given to beam segments of a specific predetermined geometry. This specific geometry maximizes the area of each segment and thus reduces the number of segments. With a virtual patient in supine position, a first planning using a single isocenter, with gantry positions of -60, -30, 0, 30 and 60 degrees was performed. Medial edges of all segments were located tangential to the spinal cord. The resulting dose distribution allowed to encompass the target by an isodose surface of 66-70 Gy without exceeding spinal cord tolerance but required 42 segments distributed over 5 gantry angles. Therefore, dose-volume histogram analysis were performed for those cases where: 1) for some gantry positions, all beam segments could be omitted; 2) at the remaining gantry angles, segments could be omitted; 3) at least 2 segments could be traded off against 1 additional gantry angle. This procedure resulted in a final plan containing 22 segments spread over 8 gantry angles. Preliminary dosimetric results on a RANDO phantom support the robustness of the method. The first clinical applications have been planned. Although up to 99 beam segments can be programmed on the Philips SL25 linear accelerator, it remained impossible to use these segments synchronized with the MLC. From a clinical viewpoint, the proposed treatment for irradiating lower neck and upper mediastinal targets could be used as a standard against which other solutions might be tested

  10. SU-F-T-402: The Effect of Extremely Narrow MLC Leaf Width On the Plan Quality of VMAT for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J; Park, S; Kim, J; Choi, C; Park, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) with leaf width of 1.25 mm on the plan quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer. Methods: A total of 20 patients with prostate cancer were retrospectively selected. Using a high definition MLC (HD MLC), primary and boost VMAT plans with two full arcs were generated for each patient (original plan). After that, by shifting patient CT images by 1.25 mm in the cranio-caudal direction between the 1st and the 2nd arc, we simulated fluences made with MLCs with leaf width of 1.25 mm. After shifting, primary and boost plans were generated for each patient (shifted plan). A sum plan was generated by summation of the primary and boost plan for each patient. Dose-volumetric parameters were calculated and compared. Results: Both homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI) of the shifted plans were better than those of the original plans in primary plans (HI = 0.044 vs. 0.040 with p < 0.001 and CI = 1.056 vs. 1.044 with p = 0.006). Similarly, the shifted plans for boost target volume showed better homogeneity and conformity than did the original plans (HI = 0.042 vs. 0.037 with p = 0.006 and CI = 1.015 vs. 1.009 with p < 0.001). The total body volumes of the original plans irradiated by the prescription dose were larger than those of the shifted plans in sum plans (60.9 cc vs. 49.0 cc with p = 0.007). Conclusion: Use of extremely narrow MLCs could increase dose homogeneity and conformity of the target volume for prostate VMAT. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1C1A1A02036331).

  11. Dose domain regularization of MLC leaf patterns for highly complex IMRT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dan; Yu, Victoria Y.; Ruan, Dan; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); O’Connor, Daniel [Department of Mathematics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The advent of automated beam orientation and fluence optimization enables more complex intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning using an increasing number of fields to exploit the expanded solution space. This has created a challenge in converting complex fluences to robust multileaf collimator (MLC) segments for delivery. A novel method to regularize the fluence map and simplify MLC segments is introduced to maximize delivery efficiency, accuracy, and plan quality. Methods: In this work, we implemented a novel approach to regularize optimized fluences in the dose domain. The treatment planning problem was formulated in an optimization framework to minimize the segmentation-induced dose distribution degradation subject to a total variation regularization to encourage piecewise smoothness in fluence maps. The optimization problem was solved using a first-order primal-dual algorithm known as the Chambolle-Pock algorithm. Plans for 2 GBM, 2 head and neck, and 2 lung patients were created using 20 automatically selected and optimized noncoplanar beams. The fluence was first regularized using Chambolle-Pock and then stratified into equal steps, and the MLC segments were calculated using a previously described level reducing method. Isolated apertures with sizes smaller than preset thresholds of 1–3 bixels, which are square units of an IMRT fluence map from MLC discretization, were removed from the MLC segments. Performance of the dose domain regularized (DDR) fluences was compared to direct stratification and direct MLC segmentation (DMS) of the fluences using level reduction without dose domain fluence regularization. Results: For all six cases, the DDR method increased the average planning target volume dose homogeneity (D95/D5) from 0.814 to 0.878 while maintaining equivalent dose to organs at risk (OARs). Regularized fluences were more robust to MLC sequencing, particularly to the stratification and small aperture removal. The maximum and

  12. SU-E-T-225: Correction Matrix for PinPoint Ionization Chamber for Dosimetric Measurements in the Newly Released Incise™ Multileaf Collimator Shaped Small Field for CyberKnife M6™ Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Li, T; Heron, D; Huq, M [University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and UPMC CancerCenter, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For small field dosimetry, such as measurements of output factors for cones or MLC-shaped irregular small fields, ion chambers often Result in an underestimation of the dose, due to both the volume averaging effect and the lack of lateral charged particle equilibrium. This work presents a mathematical model for correction matrix for a PTW PinPoint ionization chamber for dosimetric measurements made in the newly released Incise™ Multileaf collimator fields of the CyberKnife M6™ machine. Methods: A correction matrix for a PTW 0.015cc PinPoint ionization chamber was developed by modeling its 3D dose response in twelve cone-shaped circular fields created using the 5mm, 7.5mm, 10mm, 12.5mm, 15mm, 20mm, 25mm, 30mm, 35mm, 40mm, 50mm, 60mm cones in a CyberKnife M6™ machine. For each field size, hundreds of readings were recorded for every 2mm chamber shift in the horizontal plane. The contribution of each dose pixel to a measurement point depended on the radial distance and the angle to the chamber axis. These readings were then compared with the theoretical dose as obtained with Monte Carlo calculation. A penalized least-square optimization algorithm was developed to generate the correction matrix. After the parameter fitting, the mathematical model was validated for MLC-shaped irregular fields. Results: The optimization algorithm used for parameter fitting was stable and the resulted response factors were smooth in spatial domain. After correction with the mathematical model, the chamber reading matched with the calculation for all the tested fields to within 2%. Conclusion: A novel mathematical model has been developed for PinPoint chamber for dosimetric measurements in small MLC-shaped irregular fields. The correction matrix is dependent on detector, treatment unit and the geometry of setup. The model can be applied to non-standard composite fields and provides an access to IMRT point dose validation.

  13. SU-E-T-225: Correction Matrix for PinPoint Ionization Chamber for Dosimetric Measurements in the Newly Released Incise™ Multileaf Collimator Shaped Small Field for CyberKnife M6™ Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Li, T; Heron, D; Huq, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: For small field dosimetry, such as measurements of output factors for cones or MLC-shaped irregular small fields, ion chambers often Result in an underestimation of the dose, due to both the volume averaging effect and the lack of lateral charged particle equilibrium. This work presents a mathematical model for correction matrix for a PTW PinPoint ionization chamber for dosimetric measurements made in the newly released Incise™ Multileaf collimator fields of the CyberKnife M6™ machine. Methods: A correction matrix for a PTW 0.015cc PinPoint ionization chamber was developed by modeling its 3D dose response in twelve cone-shaped circular fields created using the 5mm, 7.5mm, 10mm, 12.5mm, 15mm, 20mm, 25mm, 30mm, 35mm, 40mm, 50mm, 60mm cones in a CyberKnife M6™ machine. For each field size, hundreds of readings were recorded for every 2mm chamber shift in the horizontal plane. The contribution of each dose pixel to a measurement point depended on the radial distance and the angle to the chamber axis. These readings were then compared with the theoretical dose as obtained with Monte Carlo calculation. A penalized least-square optimization algorithm was developed to generate the correction matrix. After the parameter fitting, the mathematical model was validated for MLC-shaped irregular fields. Results: The optimization algorithm used for parameter fitting was stable and the resulted response factors were smooth in spatial domain. After correction with the mathematical model, the chamber reading matched with the calculation for all the tested fields to within 2%. Conclusion: A novel mathematical model has been developed for PinPoint chamber for dosimetric measurements in small MLC-shaped irregular fields. The correction matrix is dependent on detector, treatment unit and the geometry of setup. The model can be applied to non-standard composite fields and provides an access to IMRT point dose validation

  14. Dosimetric effect of multileaf collimator leaf width on volumetric modulated arc stereotactic radiotherapy for spine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoush, Ahmad, E-mail: aamoush@augusta.edu [Augusta University, 1120 15th St, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States); Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Long, Huang [University of Utah, 1950 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Subedi, Laxmi [Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Qi, Peng; Djemil, Toufik; Xia, Ping [Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This work aimed to study the dosimetric effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths in treatment plans for patients receiving volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Thirteen patients treated with spine SBRT were retrospectively selected for this study. The patients were treated following the protocol of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0631 (RTOG 0631) for spine metastasis. The prescription dose was 16 Gy in 1 fraction to 90% of the target volume (V16 > 90%). The maximum spinal cord dose of 14 Gy and 10% of the spinal cord receiving < 10 Gy (V10) were the acceptable tolerance doses. For the purpose of this study, 2 dual-arc VMAT plans were created for each patient using 3 different MLC leaf widths: 2.5 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm. The compliance with the RTOG 0631 protocol, conformity index (CI), dose gradient index (DGI), and number of monitor units (MUs) were compared. The average V16Gy of the targets was 91.8 ± 1.2%, 92.2 ± 2.1%, and 91.7 ± 2.3% for 2.5-mm, 4-mm, and 5-mm leaf widths, respectively (p = 0.78). Accordingly, the average CI was 1.45 ± 0.4, 1.47 ± 0.29, and 1.47 ± 0.31 (p = 0.98), respectively. The average DGI was 0.22 ± 0.04, 0.20 ± 0.06, and 0.22 ± 0.05, respectively (p = 0.77). The average maximum dose to the spinal cord was 12.45 ± 1.0 Gy, 12.80 ± 1.0 Gy, and 12.48 ± 1.1 (p = 0.62) and V10% of the spinal cord was 3.6 ± 2.1%, 5.6 ± 2.8%, and 5.5 ± 3.0% (p = 0.11) for 2.5-mm, 4-mm, and 5-mm leaf widths, respectively. Accordingly, the average number of MUs was 4341 ± 500 MU, 5019 ± 834 MU, and 4606 ± 691 MU, respectively (p = 0.053). The use of 2.5-mm, 4-mm, and 5-mm MLCs achieved similar VMAT plan quality as recommended by the RTOG 0631. The dosimetric parameters were also comparable for the 3 MLCs. In general, any of these leaf widths can be used for spine

  15. A study of inverse planning by simulated annealing for photon beams modulated by a multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Walter; Carol, Mark; Geis, Paul; Boyer, Arthur L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To demonstrate the feasibility of inverse planning for multiple fixed-field conformal therapy with a prototype simulated annealing technique and to deliver the treatment plan with an engineering prototype dynamic multileaf collimator. Methods and Materials: A version of the NOMOS inverse-planning algorithm was used to compute weighting distributions over the areas of multiple fixed-gantry fields. The algorithm uses simulated annealing and a cost function based on physical dose. The algorithm is a modification of a NOMOS Peacock planning implementation being used clinically. The computed weighting distributions represented the relative intensities over small 0.5 cm x 1.0 cm areas of the fields. The inverse planning was carried out using a Sun Model 20 computer using four processors. Between five and nine fixed-gantry beams were used in the plans. The weighting distributions were rendered into leaf-setting sequences using an algorithm developed for use with a Varian experimental dynamic-multileaf collimator. The sequences were saved as computer files in a format that was used to drive the Varian control system. X-ray fields having 6-MV and 18-MV energies were planned and delivered using tumor target and sensitive structure volumes segmented from clinical CT scans. Results: The resulting beam-modulation sequences could be loaded into the accelerator control systems and initiated. Each fixed-gantry angle beam was delivered in 30 s to 50 s. The resulting dose distributions were measured in quasi-anatomical phantoms using film. Dose distributions that could achieve significant tissue-sparing were demonstrated. There was good agreement between the delivered dose distributions and the planned distributions. Conclusion: The prototype inverse-planning system under development by NOMOS can be integrated with the prototype dynamic-delivery system being developed by Varian Associates. Should these commercial entities chose to offer compatible FDA

  16. A multi-institution evaluation of MLC log files and performance in IMRT delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, James R; Childress, Nathan; Kry, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    The multileaf collimator (MLC) is a critical component to accurate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery. This study examined MLC positional accuracy via MLC logs from Varian machines from six institutions and three delivery techniques to evaluate typical positional accuracy and treatment and mechanical parameters that affect accuracy. Typical accuracy achieved was compared against TG-142 recommendations for MLC performance; more appropriate recommendations are suggested. Over 85,000 Varian MLC treatment logs were collected from six institutions and analyzed with FractionCHECK. Data were binned according to institution and treatment type to determine overall root mean square (RMS) and 95 th percentile error values, and then to look for correlations between those errors and with mechanical and treatment parameters including mean and maximum leaf speed, gantry angle, beam-on time, mean leaf error, and number of segments. Results of treatment logs found that leaf RMS error and 95 th percentile leaf error were consistent between institutions, but varied by treatment type. The step and shoot technique had very small errors: the mean RMS leaf error was 0.008 mm. For dynamic treatments the mean RMS leaf error was 0.32 mm, while volumetric-modulated arc treatment (VMAT) showed an RMS leaf error of 0.46 mm. Most MLC leaf errors were found to be well below TG-142 recommended tolerances. For the dynamic and VMAT techniques, the mean and maximum leaf speeds were significantly linked to the leaf RMS error. Additionally, for dynamic delivery, the mean leaf error was correlated with RMS error, whereas for VMAT the average gantry speed was correlated. For all treatments, the RMS error and the 95 th percentile leaf error were correlated. Restricting the maximum leaf speed can help improve MLC performance for dynamic and VMAT deliveries. Furthermore, the tolerances of leaf RMS and error counts for all treatment types should be tightened from the TG-142 values to make them

  17. Validation of dynamic MLC-controller log files using a two-dimensional diode array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jonathan G.; Dempsey, James F.; Ding Li; Liu, Chihray; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2003-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered with multi-leaf collimator (MLC) in the step-and-shoot mode uses multiple static MLC segments to achieve intensity modulation. For typical IMRT treatment plans, significant numbers of segments are delivered with monitor units (MUs) of much less than 10. Verification of the ability of the linear accelerator (linac) to deliver small MU segments accurately is an important step in the IMRT commissioning and quality assurance (QA) process. Recent studies have reported large discrepancies between the intended and delivered segment MUs. These discrepancies could potentially cause large errors in the delivered patient dose. We have undertaken a systematic study to evaluate the accuracy of the dynamic MLC log files, which are created automatically by our commercial MLC workstation after each delivery, in recording the fractional MU delivered in the step-and-shoot mode. Two linac models were evaluated with simple-geometry leaf sequences and delivered with different total MUs and different nominal dose rates. A commercial two-dimensional diode array was used for the measurement. Large discrepancies between the intended and delivered segment MUs were found. The discrepancies were larger for small MU segments at higher dose rate, with some small MU segments completely undelivered. The recorded fractional MUs in the log files were found to agree with what was delivered within the limits of our experimental uncertainty. Our results indicate that it is important to verify the delivery accuracy of small MU segments that could potentially occur in a patient treatment and that the log files are useful in checking the integrity of the linac delivery once validated. Thus validated log files can be used as a QA tool for general IMRT delivery and patient-specific plan verification

  18. Evaluation of two methods of predicting MLC leaf positions using EPID measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, Laure; Seco, Joao; Evans, Phil M.; Dance, David R.; Fielding, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In intensity modulated radiation treatments (IMRT), the position of the field edges and the modulation within the beam are often achieved with a multileaf collimator (MLC). During the MLC calibration process, due to the finite accuracy of leaf position measurements, a systematic error may be introduced to leaf positions. Thereafter leaf positions of the MLC depend on the systematic error introduced on each leaf during MLC calibration and on the accuracy of the leaf position control system (random errors). This study presents and evaluates two methods to predict the systematic errors on the leaf positions introduced during the MLC calibration. The two presented methods are based on a series of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. A comparison with film measurements showed that the EPID could be used to measure leaf positions without introducing any bias. The first method, referred to as the 'central leaf method', is based on the method currently used at this center for MLC leaf calibration. It mimics the manner in which leaf calibration parameters are specified in the MLC control system and consequently is also used by other centers. The second method, a new method proposed by the authors and referred to as the ''individual leaf method,'' involves the measurement of two positions for each leaf (-5 and +15 cm) and the interpolation and extrapolation from these two points to any other given position. The central leaf method and the individual leaf method predicted leaf positions at prescribed positions of -11, 0, 5, and 10 cm within 2.3 and 1.0 mm, respectively, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The individual leaf method provided a better prediction of the leaf positions than the central leaf method. Reproducibility tests for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm were performed. The reproducibility was within 0.4 mm on the same day and 0.4 mm six weeks later (1 SD). Measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg., 90 deg., and 270 deg

  19. Technical Note: A novel leaf sequencing optimization algorithm which considers previous underdose and overdose events for MLC tracking radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisotzky, Eric, E-mail: eric.wisotzky@charite.de, E-mail: eric.wisotzky@ipk.fraunhofer.de; O’Brien, Ricky; Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking radiotherapy is complex as the beam pattern needs to be modified due to the planned intensity modulation as well as the real-time target motion. The target motion cannot be planned; therefore, the modified beam pattern differs from the original plan and the MLC sequence needs to be recomputed online. Current MLC tracking algorithms use a greedy heuristic in that they optimize for a given time, but ignore past errors. To overcome this problem, the authors have developed and improved an algorithm that minimizes large underdose and overdose regions. Additionally, previous underdose and overdose events are taken into account to avoid regions with high quantity of dose events. Methods: The authors improved the existing MLC motion control algorithm by introducing a cumulative underdose/overdose map. This map represents the actual projection of the planned tumor shape and logs occurring dose events at each specific regions. These events have an impact on the dose cost calculation and reduce recurrence of dose events at each region. The authors studied the improvement of the new temporal optimization algorithm in terms of the L1-norm minimization of the sum of overdose and underdose compared to not accounting for previous dose events. For evaluation, the authors simulated the delivery of 5 conformal and 14 intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)-plans with 7 3D patient measured tumor motion traces. Results: Simulations with conformal shapes showed an improvement of L1-norm up to 8.5% after 100 MLC modification steps. Experiments showed comparable improvements with the same type of treatment plans. Conclusions: A novel leaf sequencing optimization algorithm which considers previous dose events for MLC tracking radiotherapy has been developed and investigated. Reductions in underdose/overdose are observed for conformal and IMRT delivery.

  20. Photon beam commissioning of an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mashud, Md Abdullah; Tariquzzaman, M.; Jahangir Alam, M.; Zakaria, GA

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to present the results of commissioning of Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (linac). The acceptance test and commissioning were performed for three photon beams energies 4 MV, 6 MV and 15 MV and for the multileaf collimator (MLC). The percent depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane beam profiles, head scatter factors (Sc), relative photon output factors (Scp), universal wedge transmission factor and MLC transmission factors were measured. The size of gantry, collimator, and couch isocenter were also measured.

  1. EPID-based verification of the MLC performance for dynamic IMRT and VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; Barnes, Michael P.; O’Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In advanced radiotherapy treatments such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), verification of the performance of the multileaf collimator (MLC) is an essential part of the linac QA program. The purpose of this study is to use the existing measurement methods for geometric QA of the MLCs and extend them to more comprehensive evaluation techniques, and to develop dedicated robust algorithms to quantitatively investigate the MLC performance in a fast, accurate, and efficient manner. Methods: The behavior of leaves was investigated in the step-and-shoot mode by the analysis of integrated electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images acquired during picket fence tests at fixed gantry angles and arc delivery. The MLC was also studied in dynamic mode by the analysis of cine EPID images of a sliding gap pattern delivered in a variety of conditions including different leaf speeds, deliveries at fixed gantry angles or in arc mode, and changing the direction of leaf motion. The accuracy of the method was tested by detection of the intentionally inserted errors in the delivery patterns. Results: The algorithm developed for the picket fence analysis was able to find each individual leaf position, gap width, and leaf bank skewness in addition to the deviations from expected leaf positions with respect to the beam central axis with sub-pixel accuracy. For the three tested linacs over a period of 5 months, the maximum change in the gap width was 0.5 mm, the maximum deviation from the expected leaf positions was 0.1 mm and the MLC skewness was up to 0.2°. The algorithm developed for the sliding gap analysis could determine the velocity and acceleration/deceleration of each individual leaf as well as the gap width. There was a slight decrease in the accuracy of leaf performance with increasing leaf speeds. The analysis results were presented through several graphs. The accuracy of the method was assessed as 0.01 mm

  2. SU-E-T-569: Evaluation of VMAT Plans Generated with HD120 and Millennium 120 MLC Between Two Matched Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, G; Ballas, L; Chang, E; Chung, E; Chiu, R; Cummings, D; Shiu, A [University Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate VMAT treatment plans generated with HD120 MLC and Millennium 120 MLC between two matched linacs and to determine if one can back up the other. Methods: The 6x photon beams are matched for our Varian TrueBeam STx and Trilogy linacs, which are equipped with HD120 MLC and Millennium 120 MLC, respectively. Three prostate and three brain VMAT plans were used for the evaluation. Five plans (three prostate and two brain plans) were originally generated with the TrueBeam STx and re-computed with the Trilogy. One brain plan was evaluated the other way around. For each plan, the PTV coverage of V95 was made the same between two linacs. The dosimetric differences associated with the plans were compared using: 1) Percentage mean dose differences to the PTV, 2) Homogeneity index, HI = (Dmax − Dmin)/Dmean for the PTV. For prostate plans, the mean dose differences to the rectum were evaluated. While for brain plans, the percentage max dose differences to the lenses (left and right lens) were evaluated. Results: For three prostate plans, the average of the percentage mean dose differences to the PTV was 0.5 ± 0.1% and the HI was 0.1 ± 0.0%. The average of the percentage mean dose difference to the rectum was 3.5 ± 0.5%. For three brain plans, the average of the percentage mean dose differences to the PTV was 0.2 ± 1.1% and the HI was 0.2 ± 0.1%. The average of the percentage max dose differences to the lenses was 22.9 ± 4.0%. Conclusion: For prostate VMAT plans, changing the treatment from the TrueBeam STx to the Trilogy does not necessarily need re-optimization. But for brain plans, in order to minimize dose to the lenses, it is recommended to re-optimize the plan if changing the treatment between these two linacs.

  3. SU-E-T-569: Evaluation of VMAT Plans Generated with HD120 and Millennium 120 MLC Between Two Matched Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, G; Ballas, L; Chang, E; Chung, E; Chiu, R; Cummings, D; Shiu, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate VMAT treatment plans generated with HD120 MLC and Millennium 120 MLC between two matched linacs and to determine if one can back up the other. Methods: The 6x photon beams are matched for our Varian TrueBeam STx and Trilogy linacs, which are equipped with HD120 MLC and Millennium 120 MLC, respectively. Three prostate and three brain VMAT plans were used for the evaluation. Five plans (three prostate and two brain plans) were originally generated with the TrueBeam STx and re-computed with the Trilogy. One brain plan was evaluated the other way around. For each plan, the PTV coverage of V95 was made the same between two linacs. The dosimetric differences associated with the plans were compared using: 1) Percentage mean dose differences to the PTV, 2) Homogeneity index, HI = (Dmax − Dmin)/Dmean for the PTV. For prostate plans, the mean dose differences to the rectum were evaluated. While for brain plans, the percentage max dose differences to the lenses (left and right lens) were evaluated. Results: For three prostate plans, the average of the percentage mean dose differences to the PTV was 0.5 ± 0.1% and the HI was 0.1 ± 0.0%. The average of the percentage mean dose difference to the rectum was 3.5 ± 0.5%. For three brain plans, the average of the percentage mean dose differences to the PTV was 0.2 ± 1.1% and the HI was 0.2 ± 0.1%. The average of the percentage max dose differences to the lenses was 22.9 ± 4.0%. Conclusion: For prostate VMAT plans, changing the treatment from the TrueBeam STx to the Trilogy does not necessarily need re-optimization. But for brain plans, in order to minimize dose to the lenses, it is recommended to re-optimize the plan if changing the treatment between these two linacs

  4. High-Dose Spatially Fractionated GRID Radiation Therapy (SFGRT): A Comparison of Treatment Outcomes With Cerrobend vs. MLC SFGRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuner, Geoffrey; Mohiuddin, Majid M.; Vander Walde, Noam; Goloubeva, Olga; Ha, Jonathan; Yu, Cedric X.; Regine, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Spatially fractionated GRID radiotherapy (SFGRT) using a customized Cerrobend block has been used to improve response rates in patients with bulky tumors. The clinical efficacy of our own multileaf collimator (MLC) technique is unknown. We undertook a retrospective analysis to compare clinical response rates attained using these two techniques. Methods and Materials: Seventy-nine patients with bulky tumors (median diameter, 7.6 cm; range, 4–30 cm) treated with SFGRT were reviewed. Between 2003 and late 2005, the Cerrobend block technique (n = 39) was used. Between late 2005 and 2008, SFGRT was delivered using MLC-shaped fields (n = 40). Dose was prescribed to dmax (depth of maximum dose) and was typically 15 Gy. Eighty percent of patients in both groups received external beam radiotherapy in addition to SFGRT. The two-sided Fisher-Freeman-Halton test was used to compare pain and mass effect response rates between the two groups. Results: Sixty-one patients (77%) were treated for palliative intent and 18 (23%) for curative intent. The majority of patients had either lung or head-and-neck primaries in both groups; the most frequent site of SFGRT application was the neck. The majority of patients complained of either pain (65%) or mass effect (58%) at intake. Overall response rates for pain and mass response were no different between the Cerrobend and MLC groups: pain, 75% and 74%, respectively (p = 0.50), and mass effect, 67% and 73%, respectively (p = 0.85). The majority of toxicities were Grade 1 or 2, and only 3 patients had late Grade 3-4 toxicities. Conclusions: MLC-based and Cerrobend-based SFGRT have comparable and encouraging response rates when used either in the palliative or curative setting. MLC-based SGFRT should allow clinics to more easily adopt this novel treatment approach for the treatment of bulky tumors.

  5. SU-E-T-766: Treatment Planning Comparison Study On Two Different Multileaf Collimators Delivered with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Xiaomei, F; Bai, W [The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China); Zhang, X [The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China); Gao, Y [Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate the performance of two different multileaf collimators(MLCi2 and Agility) delivery with volumetric modulated arc therapy techniques. Methods: Treatment plans were graded four (Low, Moderate, Moderate-High and High complexity) accorrding to the complexity. This includes 1 Low complexity(brain metastasis), 2 Moderate complexity(Lung and Liver), 1 Moderate-High complexity(prostate) and 1 High complexity ( head and neck) cases. Total dose of 60 Gy was given for all the plans. All cases were desigined two VMAT plans, one with MLCi2(group A) and the other with Agility(group B). All plans were done on Elekta VMAT with Monaco treatment planning system. All plans were generated with 6 MV X-rays for both Plan A and Plan B. Plans were evaluated based on the ability to meet the dose volume histogram, radiation conformity index, estimated radiation delivery time, dose homogeneity index(HI) and monitor units(MU) needed to deliver the prescribed dose. Results: Plans of group B achieved the best HI (HI = 1.05 Vs. 1.06) at the Low complexity cases while plans of group A were slightly better at the high complexity cases (HI = 1.12 Vs. 1.14). Faster VMAT plan delivery with Agility than with MLCi2 as plan complexity increased (Low complexity:52s Vs.52s, Moderate complexity:58s Vs. 55s, Moderate-High complexity: 171s Vs.152s, High complexity : 326s Vs. 202s ), especially for the most complex paradigms delivered time can be decresed 38%. No Significant changes were observed between the group B and group A plans in terms of the healthy tissue mean dose and MU. Both plans respected the planning objective for all organs at risk. Conclusion: The study concludes that VMAT plans with the novel Agility MLC can significant decrease the delivering time at the high complexity cases, while a slight compromise in the dose homogeneity index should be noted. This work was supported by The Medical Science Foundation of The health department of Hebei Province (No

  6. SU-E-T-766: Treatment Planning Comparison Study On Two Different Multileaf Collimators Delivered with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R; Xiaomei, F; Bai, W; Zhang, X; Gao, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate the performance of two different multileaf collimators(MLCi2 and Agility) delivery with volumetric modulated arc therapy techniques. Methods: Treatment plans were graded four (Low, Moderate, Moderate-High and High complexity) accorrding to the complexity. This includes 1 Low complexity(brain metastasis), 2 Moderate complexity(Lung and Liver), 1 Moderate-High complexity(prostate) and 1 High complexity ( head and neck) cases. Total dose of 60 Gy was given for all the plans. All cases were desigined two VMAT plans, one with MLCi2(group A) and the other with Agility(group B). All plans were done on Elekta VMAT with Monaco treatment planning system. All plans were generated with 6 MV X-rays for both Plan A and Plan B. Plans were evaluated based on the ability to meet the dose volume histogram, radiation conformity index, estimated radiation delivery time, dose homogeneity index(HI) and monitor units(MU) needed to deliver the prescribed dose. Results: Plans of group B achieved the best HI (HI = 1.05 Vs. 1.06) at the Low complexity cases while plans of group A were slightly better at the high complexity cases (HI = 1.12 Vs. 1.14). Faster VMAT plan delivery with Agility than with MLCi2 as plan complexity increased (Low complexity:52s Vs.52s, Moderate complexity:58s Vs. 55s, Moderate-High complexity: 171s Vs.152s, High complexity : 326s Vs. 202s ), especially for the most complex paradigms delivered time can be decresed 38%. No Significant changes were observed between the group B and group A plans in terms of the healthy tissue mean dose and MU. Both plans respected the planning objective for all organs at risk. Conclusion: The study concludes that VMAT plans with the novel Agility MLC can significant decrease the delivering time at the high complexity cases, while a slight compromise in the dose homogeneity index should be noted. This work was supported by The Medical Science Foundation of The health department of Hebei Province (No

  7. Improving IMRT-plan quality with MLC leaf position refinement post plan optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Ying; Zhang Guowei; Berman, Barry L.; Parke, William C.; Yi Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning, reducing the pencil-beam size may lead to a significant improvement in dose conformity, but also increase the time needed for the dose calculation and plan optimization. The authors develop and evaluate a postoptimization refinement (POpR) method, which makes fine adjustments to the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions after plan optimization, enhancing the spatial precision and improving the plan quality without a significant impact on the computational burden. Methods: The authors’ POpR method is implemented using a commercial treatment planning system based on direct aperture optimization. After an IMRT plan is optimized using pencil beams with regular pencil-beam step size, a greedy search is conducted by looping through all of the involved MLC leaves to see if moving the MLC leaf in or out by half of a pencil-beam step size will improve the objective function value. The half-sized pencil beams, which are used for updating dose distribution in the greedy search, are derived from the existing full-sized pencil beams without need for further pencil-beam dose calculations. A benchmark phantom case and a head-and-neck (HN) case are studied for testing the authors’ POpR method. Results: Using a benchmark phantom and a HN case, the authors have verified that their POpR method can be an efficient technique in the IMRT planning process. Effectiveness of POpR is confirmed by noting significant improvements in objective function values. Dosimetric benefits of POpR are comparable to those of using a finer pencil-beam size from the optimization start, but with far less computation and time. Conclusions: The POpR is a feasible and practical method to significantly improve IMRT-plan quality without compromising the planning efficiency.

  8. SU-E-T-194: Commissioning of Monaco Treatment Planning System On An Elekta VersaHD Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanasamy, G; Bosse, C; Saenz, D; Cruz, W; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Mavroidis, P [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Monaco treatment planning system (TPS) uses a Monte-Carlo algorithm based dose computation engine to model the photon beams of a linear accelerator. The aim is to perform verification of Monaco TPS beam modeling of a Elekta VersaHD linac with 6MV, 6MV FFF, 10 MV, 10MV FFF, 18MV photon beams and 160 multileaf collimators (MLC) with a projected width of 5-mm at the isocenter. Methods: A series of dosimetric tests were performed to validate Monaco calculated beams including point dose measurement in water with and without heterogeneity and 2-dimensional dose distributions on a Delta4 bi-planar diode dosimeter array (Scandidos, Uppsala, Sweden). 3D conformal beams of different field sizes, source-to-surface distances, wedges, and gantry angles were delivered onto a phantom consisting of several plastic water and Styrofoam slabs. Point dose measurements were verified with a PTW 31013 Semiflex 0.3 cc ionization chamber (PTW, Freiburg, Germany). In addition, 8 step and shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) beams included in the Monaco TPS commissioning suite were verified against measurements on Delta4 to test and fine tune parameters in the beam model. IMRT verification was computed using gamma analysis with dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria of 3%/3mm with a dose threshold of 10%. Results: Point dose measurements agreed within 2% in the homogeneous phantom and within 3% in the heterogeneous phantom for all photon energies. IMRT beams yielded a passing percentage of 99.1±1.1% in the gamma analysis which is well above the institutional passing threshold of 90%. Conclusion: Monaco TPS commissioning was successfully performed for all the photon energies on the Elekta VersaHD linac prior to clinical usage.

  9. SU-E-T-194: Commissioning of Monaco Treatment Planning System On An Elekta VersaHD Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanasamy, G; Bosse, C; Saenz, D; Cruz, W; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S; Mavroidis, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Monaco treatment planning system (TPS) uses a Monte-Carlo algorithm based dose computation engine to model the photon beams of a linear accelerator. The aim is to perform verification of Monaco TPS beam modeling of a Elekta VersaHD linac with 6MV, 6MV FFF, 10 MV, 10MV FFF, 18MV photon beams and 160 multileaf collimators (MLC) with a projected width of 5-mm at the isocenter. Methods: A series of dosimetric tests were performed to validate Monaco calculated beams including point dose measurement in water with and without heterogeneity and 2-dimensional dose distributions on a Delta4 bi-planar diode dosimeter array (Scandidos, Uppsala, Sweden). 3D conformal beams of different field sizes, source-to-surface distances, wedges, and gantry angles were delivered onto a phantom consisting of several plastic water and Styrofoam slabs. Point dose measurements were verified with a PTW 31013 Semiflex 0.3 cc ionization chamber (PTW, Freiburg, Germany). In addition, 8 step and shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) beams included in the Monaco TPS commissioning suite were verified against measurements on Delta4 to test and fine tune parameters in the beam model. IMRT verification was computed using gamma analysis with dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria of 3%/3mm with a dose threshold of 10%. Results: Point dose measurements agreed within 2% in the homogeneous phantom and within 3% in the heterogeneous phantom for all photon energies. IMRT beams yielded a passing percentage of 99.1±1.1% in the gamma analysis which is well above the institutional passing threshold of 90%. Conclusion: Monaco TPS commissioning was successfully performed for all the photon energies on the Elekta VersaHD linac prior to clinical usage

  10. Technical Note: Motion-perturbation method applied to dosimetry of dynamic MLC target tracking—A proof-of-concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feygelman, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.feygelman@moffitt.org; Tonner, Brian; Hunt, Dylan; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Stambaugh, Cassandra [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Previous studies show that dose to a moving target can be estimated using 4D measurement-guided dose reconstruction based on a process called virtual motion simulation, or VMS. A potential extension of VMS is to estimate dose during dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC)-tracking treatments. The authors introduce a modified VMS method and quantify its performance as proof-of-concept for tracking applications. Methods: Direct measurements with a moving biplanar diode array were used to verify accuracy of the VMS dose estimates. A tracking environment for variably sized circular MLC apertures was simulated by sending preprogrammed control points to the MLC while simultaneously moving the accelerator treatment table. Sensitivity of the method to simulated tracking latency (0–700 ms) was also studied. Potential applicability of VMS to fast changing beam apertures was evaluated by modeling, based on the demonstrated dependence of the cumulative dose on the temporal dose gradient. Results: When physical and virtual latencies were matched, the agreement rates (2% global/2 mm gamma) between the VMS and the biplanar dosimeter were above 96%. When compared to their own reference dose (0 induced latency), the agreement rates for VMS and biplanar array track closely up to 200 ms of induced latency with 10% low-dose cutoff threshold and 300 ms with 50% cutoff. Time-resolved measurements suggest that even in the modulated beams, the error in the cumulative dose introduced by the 200 ms VMS time resolution is not likely to exceed 0.5%. Conclusions: Based on current results and prior benchmarks of VMS accuracy, the authors postulate that this approach should be applicable to any MLC-tracking treatments where leaf speeds do not exceed those of the current Varian accelerators.

  11. Technical Note: Motion-perturbation method applied to dosimetry of dynamic MLC target tracking—A proof-of-concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feygelman, Vladimir; Tonner, Brian; Hunt, Dylan; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Stambaugh, Cassandra; Nelms, Benjamin E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies show that dose to a moving target can be estimated using 4D measurement-guided dose reconstruction based on a process called virtual motion simulation, or VMS. A potential extension of VMS is to estimate dose during dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC)-tracking treatments. The authors introduce a modified VMS method and quantify its performance as proof-of-concept for tracking applications. Methods: Direct measurements with a moving biplanar diode array were used to verify accuracy of the VMS dose estimates. A tracking environment for variably sized circular MLC apertures was simulated by sending preprogrammed control points to the MLC while simultaneously moving the accelerator treatment table. Sensitivity of the method to simulated tracking latency (0–700 ms) was also studied. Potential applicability of VMS to fast changing beam apertures was evaluated by modeling, based on the demonstrated dependence of the cumulative dose on the temporal dose gradient. Results: When physical and virtual latencies were matched, the agreement rates (2% global/2 mm gamma) between the VMS and the biplanar dosimeter were above 96%. When compared to their own reference dose (0 induced latency), the agreement rates for VMS and biplanar array track closely up to 200 ms of induced latency with 10% low-dose cutoff threshold and 300 ms with 50% cutoff. Time-resolved measurements suggest that even in the modulated beams, the error in the cumulative dose introduced by the 200 ms VMS time resolution is not likely to exceed 0.5%. Conclusions: Based on current results and prior benchmarks of VMS accuracy, the authors postulate that this approach should be applicable to any MLC-tracking treatments where leaf speeds do not exceed those of the current Varian accelerators

  12. Fast leaf-fitting with generalized underdose/overdose constraints for real-time MLC tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Douglas, E-mail: douglas.moore@utsouthwestern.edu; Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Ruan, Dan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Real-time multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking is a promising approach to the management of intrafractional tumor motion during thoracic and abdominal radiotherapy. MLC tracking is typically performed in two steps: transforming a planned MLC aperture in response to patient motion and refitting the leaves to the newly generated aperture. One of the challenges of this approach is the inability to faithfully reproduce the desired motion-adapted aperture. This work presents an optimization-based framework with which to solve this leaf-fitting problem in real-time. Methods: This optimization framework is designed to facilitate the determination of leaf positions in real-time while accounting for the trade-off between coverage of the PTV and avoidance of organs at risk (OARs). Derived within this framework, an algorithm is presented that can account for general linear transformations of the planned MLC aperture, particularly 3D translations and in-plane rotations. This algorithm, together with algorithms presented in Sawant et al. [“Management of three-dimensional intrafraction motion through real-time DMLC tracking,” Med. Phys. 35, 2050–2061 (2008)] and Ruan and Keall [Presented at the 2011 IEEE Power Engineering and Automation Conference (PEAM) (2011) (unpublished)], was applied to apertures derived from eight lung intensity modulated radiotherapy plans subjected to six-degree-of-freedom motion traces acquired from lung cancer patients using the kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring system developed at the University of Sydney. A quality-of-fit metric was defined, and each algorithm was evaluated in terms of quality-of-fit and computation time. Results: This algorithm is shown to perform leaf-fittings of apertures, each with 80 leaf pairs, in 0.226 ms on average as compared to 0.082 and 64.2 ms for the algorithms of Sawant et al., Ruan, and Keall, respectively. The algorithm shows approximately 12% improvement in quality-of-fit over the Sawant et al

  13. Fast leaf-fitting with generalized underdose/overdose constraints for real-time MLC tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Douglas; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking is a promising approach to the management of intrafractional tumor motion during thoracic and abdominal radiotherapy. MLC tracking is typically performed in two steps: transforming a planned MLC aperture in response to patient motion and refitting the leaves to the newly generated aperture. One of the challenges of this approach is the inability to faithfully reproduce the desired motion-adapted aperture. This work presents an optimization-based framework with which to solve this leaf-fitting problem in real-time. Methods: This optimization framework is designed to facilitate the determination of leaf positions in real-time while accounting for the trade-off between coverage of the PTV and avoidance of organs at risk (OARs). Derived within this framework, an algorithm is presented that can account for general linear transformations of the planned MLC aperture, particularly 3D translations and in-plane rotations. This algorithm, together with algorithms presented in Sawant et al. [“Management of three-dimensional intrafraction motion through real-time DMLC tracking,” Med. Phys. 35, 2050–2061 (2008)] and Ruan and Keall [Presented at the 2011 IEEE Power Engineering and Automation Conference (PEAM) (2011) (unpublished)], was applied to apertures derived from eight lung intensity modulated radiotherapy plans subjected to six-degree-of-freedom motion traces acquired from lung cancer patients using the kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring system developed at the University of Sydney. A quality-of-fit metric was defined, and each algorithm was evaluated in terms of quality-of-fit and computation time. Results: This algorithm is shown to perform leaf-fittings of apertures, each with 80 leaf pairs, in 0.226 ms on average as compared to 0.082 and 64.2 ms for the algorithms of Sawant et al., Ruan, and Keall, respectively. The algorithm shows approximately 12% improvement in quality-of-fit over the Sawant et al

  14. Evaluating efficiency of coaxial MLC VMAT plan for spine SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Sang Jun; Mun, Jun Ki; Kim, Dae Ho; Yoo, Suk Hyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of Coaxial MLC VMAT plan (Using 273° and 350° collimator angle) That the leaf motion direction aligned with axis of OAR (Organ at risk, It means spinal cord or cauda equine in this study.) compare to Universal MLC VMAT plan (using 30° and 330 ° collimator angle) for spine SBRT. The 10 cases of spine SBRT that treated with VMAT planned by Coaxial MLC and Varian TBX were enrolled. Those cases were planned by Eclipse (Ver. 10.0.42, Varian, USA), PRO3 (Progressive Resolution Optimizer 10.0.28) and AAA (Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Ver. 10.0.28) with coplanar 260 ° arcs and 10MV FFF (Flattening filter free). Each arc has 273° and 350 ° collimator angle, respectively. The Universal MLC VMAT plans are based on existing treatment plans. Those plans have the same parameters of existing treatment plans but collimator angle. To minimize the dose difference that shows up randomly on optimizing, all plans were optimized and calculated twice respectively. The calculation grid is 0.2 cm and all plans were normalized to the target V100%=90%. The indexes of evaluation are V10Gy, D0.03cc, Dmean of OAR (Organ at risk, It means spinal cord or cauda equine in this study.), H.I (Homogeneity index) of the target and total MU. All Coaxial VMAT plans were verified by gamma test with Mapcheck2 (Sun Nuclear Co., USA), Mapphan (Sun Nuclear Co., USA) and SNC patient (Sun Nuclear Co., USA Ver 6.1.2.18513). The difference between the coaxial and the universal VMAT plans are follow. The coaxial VMAT plan is better in the V10Gy of OAR, Up to 4.1%, at least 0.4%, the average difference was 1.9% and In the D0.03cc of OAR, Up to 83.6 cGy, at least 2.2 cGy, the average difference was 33.3 cGy. In Dmean, Up to 34.8 cGy, at least -13.0 cGy, the average difference was 9.6 cGy that say the coaxial VMAT plans are better except few cases. H.I difference Up to 0.04, at least 0.01, the average difference was 0.02 and the difference of average

  15. A six-bank multi-leaf system for high precision shaping of large fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolnjak, R; Heide, U A van der; Raaymakers, B W; Kotte, A N T J; Welleweerd, J; Lagendijk, J J W

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we present the design for an alternative MLC system that allows high precision shaping of large fields. The MLC system consists of three layers of two opposing leaf banks. The layers are rotated 60 deg. relative to each other. The leaves in each bank have a standard width of 1 cm projected at the isocentre. Because of the symmetry of the collimator set-up it is expected that collimator rotation will not be required, thus simplifying the construction considerably. A 3D ray tracing computer program was developed in order to simulate the fluence profile for a given collimator and used to optimize the design and investigate its performance. The simulations show that a six-bank collimator will afford field shaping of fields of about 40 cm diameter with a precision comparable to that of existing mini MLCs with a leaf width of 4 mm

  16. TH-AB-202-03: A Novel Tool for Computing Deliverable Doses in Dynamic MLC Tracking Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, M; Kamerling, C; Menten, M; Nill, S; Oelfke, U [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Crijns, S; Raaymakers, B [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In tracked dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) treatments, segments are continuously adapted to the target centroid motion in beams-eye-view. On-the-fly segment adaptation, however, potentially induces dosimetric errors due to the finite MLC leaf width and non-rigid target motion. In this study, we outline a novel tool for computing the 4d dose of lung SBRT plans delivered with MLC tracking. Methods: The following automated workflow was developed: A) centroid tracking, where the initial segments are morphed to each 4dCT phase based on the beams-eye-view GTV shift (followed by a dose calculation on each phase); B) re-optimized tracking, in which all morphed initial plans from (A) are further optimised (“warm-started”) in each 4dCT phase using the initial optimisation parameters but phase-specific volume definitions. Finally, both dose sets are accumulated to the reference phase using deformable image registration. Initial plans were generated according to the RTOG-1021 guideline (54Gy, 3-Fx, equidistant 9-beam IMRT) on the peak-exhale (reference) phase of a phase-binned 4dCT. Treatment planning and delivery simulations were performed in RayStation (research v4.6) using our in-house segment-morphing algorithm, which directly links to RayStation through a native C++ interface. Results: Computing the tracking plans and 4d dose distributions via the in-house interface takes 5 and 8 minutes respectively for centroid and re-optimized tracking. For a sample lung SBRT patient with 14mm peak-to-peak motion in sup-inf direction, mainly perpendicular leaf motion (0-collimator) resulted in small dose changes for PTV-D95 (−13cGy) and GTV-D98 (+18cGy) for the centroid tracking case compared to the initial plan. Modest reductions of OAR doses (e.g. spinal cord D2: −11cGy) were achieved in the idealized tracking case. Conclusion: This study presents an automated “1-click” workflow for computing deliverable MLC tracking doses in RayStation. Adding a non

  17. TH-AB-202-03: A Novel Tool for Computing Deliverable Doses in Dynamic MLC Tracking Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, M; Kamerling, C; Menten, M; Nill, S; Oelfke, U; Crijns, S; Raaymakers, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In tracked dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) treatments, segments are continuously adapted to the target centroid motion in beams-eye-view. On-the-fly segment adaptation, however, potentially induces dosimetric errors due to the finite MLC leaf width and non-rigid target motion. In this study, we outline a novel tool for computing the 4d dose of lung SBRT plans delivered with MLC tracking. Methods: The following automated workflow was developed: A) centroid tracking, where the initial segments are morphed to each 4dCT phase based on the beams-eye-view GTV shift (followed by a dose calculation on each phase); B) re-optimized tracking, in which all morphed initial plans from (A) are further optimised (“warm-started”) in each 4dCT phase using the initial optimisation parameters but phase-specific volume definitions. Finally, both dose sets are accumulated to the reference phase using deformable image registration. Initial plans were generated according to the RTOG-1021 guideline (54Gy, 3-Fx, equidistant 9-beam IMRT) on the peak-exhale (reference) phase of a phase-binned 4dCT. Treatment planning and delivery simulations were performed in RayStation (research v4.6) using our in-house segment-morphing algorithm, which directly links to RayStation through a native C++ interface. Results: Computing the tracking plans and 4d dose distributions via the in-house interface takes 5 and 8 minutes respectively for centroid and re-optimized tracking. For a sample lung SBRT patient with 14mm peak-to-peak motion in sup-inf direction, mainly perpendicular leaf motion (0-collimator) resulted in small dose changes for PTV-D95 (−13cGy) and GTV-D98 (+18cGy) for the centroid tracking case compared to the initial plan. Modest reductions of OAR doses (e.g. spinal cord D2: −11cGy) were achieved in the idealized tracking case. Conclusion: This study presents an automated “1-click” workflow for computing deliverable MLC tracking doses in RayStation. Adding a non

  18. SU-G-JeP1-05: Clinical Impact of MLC Tracking for Lung SABR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillet, V; Colvill, E [Faculty of Medecine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Szymura, K; Stevens, M; Booth, J [Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Keall, P [Faculty of Medecine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits of multi-leaf collimator (MLC) tracking for lung SABR treatments in end-to-end clinically realistic planning and delivery scenarios. Methods: The clinical benefits of MLC tracking were assessed using previously delivered treatment plans and physical experiments. The 10 most recent single lesion lung SABR patients were re-planned following a 4D-GTV-based real-time adaptive protocol (PTV defined as the end-of-exhalation GTV plus 5.0 mm margins). The plans were delivered on a Trilogy Varian linac. Electromagnetic transponders (Calypso, Varian Medical Systems, USA) were embedded into a programmable moving phantom (HexaMotion platform) tracked with the Varian Calypso system. For each physical experiment, the MLC positions were collected and used as input for dose reconstruction. For both planned and physical experiments, the OAR dose metrics from the conventional and real-time adaptive SABR plans (Mean Lung Dose (MLD), V20 for lung, and near-maximum dose (D2%) for spine and heart) were statistically compared. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare plan and physical experiment dose metrics. Results: While maintaining target coverage, percentage reductions in dose metrics to the OARs were observed for both planned and physical experiments. Comparing the two plans showed MLD percentage reduction (MLDr) of 25.4% (absolute differences of 1.41 Gy) and 28.9% (1.29%) for the V20r. D2% percentage reduction for spine and heart were respectively 27.9% (0.3 Gy) and 20.2% (0.3 Gy). For the physical experiments, MLDr was 23.9% (1.3 Gy), and V20r 37.4% (1.6%). D2% reduction for spine and heart were respectively 27.3% (0.3 Gy) and 19.6% (0.3 Gy). For both plans and physical experiments, significant OAR dose differences (p<0.05) were found between the conventional SABR and real-time adaptive plans. Conclusion: Application of MLC tracking for lung SABR patients has the potential to reduce the dose to OARs

  19. Implementation of DMLC quality control using EPID (Portal Dosimetry); Implementacao de um controle de qualidade de DMLC utilizando um EPID (Portal Dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Furnari, Laura, E-mail: mattos.fr@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Universidade de Sao Paulo (INRAD/HC/FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Radiologia. Setor de Radioterapia

    2017-11-01

    A Quality Assurance (QA) to ensure the expected performance of a Multileaf Collimator System (MLC) is essential to deliver dose in a safety and appropriate way. The time required for equipment control and dosimetry may be reduced when the Electronic Portal Image Device (EPID) is used. The aim of this work was to check the resolution limits of the detection system for IMRT mode, and to propose a set of tests that can provide positioning analysis of a multileaf system. A Varian iX Clinac equipped with an 80 leaf Millenium MLC, and an amorphous silicon based EPID (aS1000) was used. The EPID proved itself effective for detecting errors up to 0.5 mm. The proposed tests provided relevant results of leaf position, and revealed that the MLC system is within acceptable limits found in literature. (author)

  20. Effect of MLC Leaf Width and PTV Margin on the Treatment Planning of Intensity-Modulated Stereotactic Radiosurgery (IMSRS) or Radiotherapy (IMSRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Jenghwa; Yenice, Kamil M.; Jiang Kailiu; Hunt, Margie; Narayana, Ashwatha

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of MLC (multileaf collimator) leaf width and PTV (planning target volume) margin on treatment planning of intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMSRS) or radiotherapy (IMSRT). Twelve patients previously treated with IMSRS/IMSRT were retrospectively planned with 5- and 3-mm MLC leaf widths and 3- and 2-mm PTV margins using the already contoured clinical target volume and critical structures. The same beam arrangement, planning parameters, and optimization method were used in each of the 4 plans for a given patient. Each plan was normalized so that the prescription dose covered at least 99% of the PTV. Plan indices - D mean (mean dose), conformity index (CI), V 70 (volume receiving ≥ 70% of the prescription dose), and V 50 (volume receiving ≥ 50% of the prescription dose) - were calculated from the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the PTV, normal tissue, and organs at risk (OARs). Hypothesis testing was performed on the mean ratios of plan indices to determine the statistical significance of the relative differences. The PTV was well covered for all plans, as no significant differences were observed for D 95 , V 95 , D max , D min , and D mean of the PTV. The irradiated volume was ∼23% smaller when 2-mm instead of 3-mm PTV margin was used, but it was only reduced by ∼6% when the MLC leaf width was reduced from 5 mm to 3 mm. For normal tissue and brainstem, V 70 , V 50 , and D mean were reduced more effectively by a decrease in MLC width, while D mean of optic nerve and chiasm were more sensitive to a change in PTV margin. The DVH statistics for the PTV and normal structures from the treatment plan with 5-mm MLC and 2-mm PTV margin were equal to those with 3-mm MLC and 3-mm PTV margin. PTV margin reduction is more effective in sparing the normal tissue and OARs than a reduction in MLC leaf width. For IMSRS, where highly accurate setup and small PTV margins are routinely employed, the use of 5-mm MLC is therefore less desirable.

  1. Photon and electron collimator effects on electron output and abutting segments in energy modulated electron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Lennart; Karlsson, Magnus G.; Karlsson, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    In energy modulated electron therapy a large fraction of the segments will be arranged as abutting segments where inhomogeneities in segment matching regions must be kept as small as possible. Furthermore, the output variation between different segments should be minimized and must in all cases be well predicted. For electron therapy with add-on collimators, both the electron MLC (eMLC) and the photon MLC (xMLC) contribute to these effects when an xMLC tracking technique is utilized to reduce the x-ray induced leakage. Two add-on electron collimator geometries have been analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations: One isocentric eMLC geometry with an isocentric clearance of 35 cm and air or helium in the treatment head, and one conventional proximity geometry with a clearance of 5 cm and air in the treatment head. The electron fluence output for 22.5 MeV electrons is not significantly affected by the xMLC if the shielding margins are larger than 2-3 cm. For small field sizes and 9.6 MeV electrons, the isocentric design with helium in the treatment head or shielding margins larger than 3 cm is needed to avoid a reduced electron output. Dose inhomogeneity in the matching region of electron segments is, in general, small when collimator positions are adjusted to account for divergence in the field. The effect of xMLC tracking on the electron output can be made negligible while still obtaining a substantially reduced x-ray leakage contribution. Collimator scattering effects do not interfere significantly when abutting beam techniques are properly applied

  2. A practical method to calculate head scatter factors in wedged rectangular and irregular MLC shaped beams for external and internal wedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Olofsson, Joergen; Kuenzler, Thomas; Aiginger, Hannes; Karlsson, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    Factor based methods for absorbed dose or monitor unit calculations are often based on separate data sets for open and wedged beams. The determination of basic beam parameters can be rather time consuming, unless equivalent square methods are applied. When considering irregular wedged beams shaped with a multileaf collimator, parametrization methods for dosimetric quantities, e.g. output ratios or wedge factors as a function of field size and shape, become even more important. A practical method is presented to derive wedged output ratios in air (S c,w ) for any rectangular field and for any irregular MLC shaped beam. This method was based on open field output ratios in air (S c ) for a field with the same collimator setting, and a relation f w between S c,w and S c . The relation f w can be determined from measured output ratios in air for a few open and wedged fields including the maximum wedged field size. The function f w and its parametrization were dependent on wedge angle and treatment head design, i.e. they were different for internal and external wedges. The proposed method was tested for rectangular wedged fields on three accelerators with internal wedges (GE, Elekta, BBC) and two accelerators with external wedges (Varian). For symmetric regular beams the average deviation between calculated and measured S c,w /S c ratios was 0.3% for external wedges and about 0.6% for internal wedges. Maximum deviations of 1.8% were obtained for elongated rectangular fields on the GE and ELEKTA linacs with an internal wedge. The same accuracy was achieved for irregular MLC shaped wedged beams on the accelerators with MLC and internal wedges (GE and Elekta), with an average deviation <1% for the fields tested. The proposed method to determine output ratios in air for wedged beams from output ratios of open beams, combined with equivalent square approaches, can be easily integrated in empirical or semi-empirical methods for monitor unit calculations

  3. The multi leaf collimator for fast neutron therapy at louvain-la-Neuve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.M.; Richard, F.; Vynckier, S.; Wambersie, A.; Meulders, J.P.; Lannoye, E.; Longree, Y.; Ryckewaert, G.

    1996-01-01

    The multi-leaf collimator of the fast neutron therapy facility at Louvain-la-Neuve is described, as well as some of the physics experiments performed in order to evaluate the attenuation of neutron beams in different materials and thus optimize the composition of collimator leaves. The multi-leaf collimator consists of two sets of 22 leaves each, which can be moved independently. They are made of iron and their thickness is 95 cm. Seven borated polyethylene disks are located in the distal part of the leaves in order to absorb more efficiently the low-energy component of the neutron spectrum. The width of the leaves is 1 cm at their distal part. The leaves can more 11 cm outwards and 6 cm inwards from their reference position, and field size up to 25.7 x 24.8 cm as well as irregular field shapes, can be obtained. The inner part of the leaves and their two sides are always focused on the target. The complete multi-leaf collimator can rotate around the beam axis, from -90 deg to + 90 deg from the reference position. The width of the penumbra (80 - 20 % isodoses) is 0.64 cm and 1.17 cm at the depth of the maximum buildup and at 10 cm in depth respectively, for a 10 x 10 cm field size. The collimator is adequate for the energy of the p(65)+Be neutron beam of Louvain-la-Neuve and has been adapted to the fixed vertical beam. It has been designed following the original plans of Scanditronix, adjusted and fully assembled at the workshop of the Centre de Recherches du Cyclotron (CRC). Systematic measurements were performed in order to optimize the design and the composition of the leaves. In particular the attenuations of the actual beam and of monoenergetic neutron beams were measured in different materials such as iron and polyethylene. Above (upstream) the multi-leaf collimator, a fixed pre-collimator (iron thickness 50 cm; section 1 x 1 m) defines a conical aperture aligned on the largest opening of the leaves. It contains the two transmission chambers and a 2 cm thick

  4. Dynamic-MLC leaf control utilizing on-flight intensity calculations: A robust method for real-time IMRT delivery over moving rigid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Ryan; Papiez, Lech; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy

    2007-01-01

    An algorithm is presented that allows for the control of multileaf collimation (MLC) leaves based entirely on real-time calculations of the intensity delivered over the target. The algorithm is capable of efficiently correcting generalized delivery errors without requiring the interruption of delivery (self-correcting trajectories), where a generalized delivery error represents anything that causes a discrepancy between the delivered and intended intensity profiles. The intensity actually delivered over the target is continually compared to its intended value. For each pair of leaves, these comparisons are used to guide the control of the following leaf and keep this discrepancy below a user-specified value. To demonstrate the basic principles of the algorithm, results of corrected delivery are shown for a leading leaf positional error during dynamic-MLC (DMLC) IMRT delivery over a rigid moving target. It is then shown that, with slight modifications, the algorithm can be used to track moving targets in real time. The primary results of this article indicate that the algorithm is capable of accurately delivering DMLC IMRT over a rigid moving target whose motion is (1) completely unknown prior to delivery and (2) not faster than the maximum MLC leaf velocity over extended periods of time. These capabilities are demonstrated for clinically derived intensity profiles and actual tumor motion data, including situations when the target moves in some instances faster than the maximum admissible MLC leaf velocity. The results show that using the algorithm while calculating the delivered intensity every 50 ms will provide a good level of accuracy when delivering IMRT over a rigid moving target translating along the direction of MLC leaf travel. When the maximum velocities of the MLC leaves and target were 4 and 4.2 cm/s, respectively, the resulting error in the two intensity profiles used was 0.1±3.1% and -0.5±2.8% relative to the maximum of the intensity profiles. For

  5. Dosimetric commissioning and system for stereotactic radiation treatments based on linear accelerators with dynamic micromultilaminas collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascension, Yudy; Alfonso, Rodolfo; Silvestre, Ileana

    2009-01-01

    Once installed and accepted, a system for stereotactic radiosurgery / stereotactic radiotherapy (CERs / RTE) requires, before starting to be used clinically in patients undergoing a process of commissioning dosimetry, which evaluates all geometric parameters, physical, Dosimetric and technical impact on the precision and accuracy of treatment to administer, and therefore its effectiveness. This process includes training and familiarization of the multidisciplinary team (medical physicists, radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons, dosimetrists, biomedical engineers) with the equipment and techniques used, the quality assurance program and special radiation protection standards for this technology. The aim of this work is to prepare the pre-clinical dosimetric conditions to ensure the quality and radiation safety of treatment with CER RTE. Treatment with CER RTE INOR has a linear accelerator equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator dynamic tertiary (dMLC 3Dline). The system aceleradordMLC geometric and dosimetric was calibrated, using ionization chambers miniature, diode and film dosimetry. The immobilization of the patient and location of the lesion is made by both invasive stereotactic frames and relocatable. The computerized planning of the CER / TEN is done with the ERGO system, for which commissioning is designed test cases of increasing complexity, using planes and anthropomorphic dummies, which help assess the accuracy of the dosimetric calculations and accuracy of the system as a whole. We compared the results of the planning system with measurements, showing that the discrepancies are within tolerances, so it is concluded that from the standpoint of physical dosimetry, the system-under-ERGO accelerator MLC is eligible for clinical use. (author)

  6. Comparison of conventional inserts and an add-on electron MLC for chest wall irradiation of left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatanen, Tero; Lahtinen, Tapani; Traneus, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background. Collimation of irregularly shaped clinical electron beams is currently based on electron inserts made of low melting point alloys. The present investigation compares a conventional electron applicator with insert and add-on eMLC-based dose distributions in the postoperative chest wall irradiation of left-sided breast cancer. Material and methods. Voxel Monte Carlo++ (VMC++) calculated dose distributions related to electron fields were compared with 10 left-sided breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. The prescription dose was 50 Gy at a build-up maximum. The same dose was prescribed for the ipsilateral axillary, parasternal and supraclavicular lymph nodes that were treated with photons and calculated with a pencil beam algorithm. The insert beams were shaped with 1.5 cm thick Wood's metal electron inserts in an electron applicator of a Varian 2100 C/D linac. Doses for the eMLC-shaped beams were calculated for an eMLC prototype with 2 cm thick and 5 mm wide steel leaves. The same collimator-to-surface distance (CSD) of 5.8 cm was used for both collimators. Results. The mean PTV dose was slightly higher for the eMLC plans (50.7 vs 49.5 Gy, p<0.001, respectively). The maximum doses assessed by D5% for the eMLC and insert were 60.9 and 59.1 Gy (p<0.001). The difference was due to the slightly higher doses near the field edges for the eMLC. The left lung V20 volumes were 34.5% and 34.0% (p<0.001). There was only a marginal difference in heart doses. Discussion: Despite a slight increase of maximum dose in PTV the add-on electron MLC for chest wall irradiation results in practically no differences in dose distributions compared with the present insert-based collimation

  7. Independent collimators are sufficient to conform and combine adjacent fields?; Os colimadores independentes sao suficientes para conformar e combinar campos adjacentes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Neto, Enock de A. [Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Sociedade Beneficente de Senhoras. Servico de Radioterapia; Santos Neto, Geraldo [Grupo COI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Sant' Anna, Marcelo C., E-mail: enock92@gmail.com [RADCLIN Centro de Oncologia, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2014-12-15

    Consider a radiotherapy treatment in which the tumor is located in the region of head and neck. In general, isocentric technique combined with three tangents half-beam fields are used. How these fields must be collimated? We show that the combination of independent collimators and multi-leaf results in a uniform dose in the region which these fields touch each other. Moreover, we recommend a setup that minimizes the heterogeneity for LINAC's that doesn't possess a multi-leaf collimator. (author)

  8. Validation of Varian TrueBeam electron phase–spaces for Monte Carlo simulation of MLC-shaped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Samantha A. M.; Gagne, Isabelle M.; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work evaluates Varian’s electron phase–space sources for Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) and combined, modulated photon and electron radiation therapy (MPERT) where fields are shaped by the photon multileaf collimator (MLC) and delivered at 70 cm SSD. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations performed with EGSnrc-based BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and PENELOPE-based PRIMO are compared against diode measurements for 5 × 5, 10 × 10, and 20 × 20 cm 2 MLC-shaped fields delivered with 6, 12, and 20 MeV electrons at 70 cm SSD (jaws set to 40 × 40 cm 2 ). Depth dose curves and profiles are examined. In addition, EGSnrc-based simulations of relative output as a function of MLC-field size and jaw-position are compared against ion chamber measurements for MLC-shaped fields between 3 × 3 and 25 × 25 cm 2 and jaw positions that range from the MLC-field size to 40 × 40 cm 2 . Results: Percent depth dose curves generated by BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and PRIMO agree with measurement within 2%, 2 mm except for PRIMO’s 12 MeV, 20 × 20 cm 2 field where 90% of dose points agree within 2%, 2 mm. Without the distance to agreement, differences between measurement and simulation are as large as 7.3%. Characterization of simulated dose parameters such as FWHM, penumbra width and depths of 90%, 80%, 50%, and 20% dose agree within 2 mm of measurement for all fields except for the FWHM of the 6 MeV, 20 × 20 cm 2 field which falls within 2 mm distance to agreement. Differences between simulation and measurement exist in the profile shoulders and penumbra tails, in particular for 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm 2 fields of 20 MeV electrons, where both sets of simulated data fall short of measurement by as much as 3.5%. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc simulated outputs agree with measurement within 2.3% except for 6 MeV MLC-shaped fields. Discrepancies here are as great as 5.5%. Conclusions: TrueBeam electron phase–spaces available from Varian have been

  9. Use of an amorphous silicon EPID for measuring MLC calibration at varying gantry angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M F; Budgell, G J

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are used to perform routine quality control (QC) checks on the multileaf collimators (MLCs) at this centre. Presently, these checks are performed at gantry angle 0 0 and are considered to be valid for all other angles. Since therapeutic procedures regularly require the delivery of MLC-defined fields to the patient at a wide range of gantry angles, the accuracy of the QC checks at other gantry angles has been investigated. When the gantry is rotated to angles other than 0 0 it was found that the apparent pixel size measured using the EPID varies up to a maximum value of 0.0015 mm per pixel due to a sag in the EPID of up to 9.2 mm. A correction factor was determined using two independent methods at a range of gantry angles between 0 deg. and 360 deg. The EPID was used to measure field sizes (defined by both x-jaws and MLC) at a range of gantry angles and, after this correction had been applied, any residual gravitational sag was studied. It was found that, when fields are defined by the x-jaws and y-back-up jaws, no errors of greater than 0.5 mm were measured and that these errors were no worse when the MLC was used. It was therefore concluded that, provided the correction is applied, measurements of the field size are, in practical terms, unaffected by gantry angle. Experiments were also performed to study how the reproducibility of individual leaves is affected by gantry angle. Measurements of the relative position of each individual leaf (minor offsets) were performed at a range of gantry angles and repeated three times. The position reproducibility was defined by the RMS error in the position of each leaf and this was found to be 0.24 mm and 0.21 mm for the two leaf banks at a gantry angle of 0 0 . When measurements were performed at a range of gantry angles, these reproducibility values remained within 0.09 mm and 0.11 mm. It was therefore concluded that the calibration of the Elekta MLC is stable at

  10. Measuring the wobble of radiation field centers during gantry rotation and collimator movement on a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.

  11. Measuring the wobble of radiation field centers during gantry rotation and collimator movement on a linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, 77030 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.

  12. The pitfalls of dosimetric commissioning for intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Naoki; Kodama, Takashi; Hatano, K.

    2013-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows higher radiation dose to be focused to the target volumes while minimizing the dose to OAR. To start of clinical treatment in IMRTvwe must perform commissioning strictly than 3D-conformal radiotherapy (CRT). In this report, pitfalls of dosimetric commissioning for intensity modulated radiation therapy were reviewed. Multileaf collimator (MLC) offsets and MLC transmissions are important parameters in commissioning of RTPS for IMRT. Correction of depth scaling and fluence scaling is necessary for dose measurement using solid phantom. (author)

  13. An MLC-based version for the ecliptic method for the determination of backscatter into the beam monitor chambers in photon beams of medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelli, Flavio Enrico

    2016-01-01

    A very simple method to measure the effect of the backscatter from secondary collimators into the beam monitor chambers in linear accelerators equipped with multi-leaf collimators (MLC) is presented here. The backscatter to the monitor chambers from the upper jaws of the secondary collimator was measured on three beam-matched linacs by means of three methods: this new methodology, the ecliptic method, and assessing the variation of the beam-on time per monitor unit with dose rate feedback disabled. This new methodology was used to assess the backscatter characteristics of asymmetric over-traveling jaws. Excellent agreement between the backscatter values measured using the new methodology introduced here and the ones obtained using the other two methods was established. The experimental values reported here differ by less than 1 % from published data. The sensitivity of this novel technique allowed differences in backscatter due to the same opening of the jaws, when placed at different positions on the beam path, to be resolved. The introduction of the ecliptic method has made the determination of the backscatter to the monitor chambers an easy procedure. The method presented here for machines equipped with MLCs makes the determination of backscatter to the beam monitor chambers even easier, and suitable to characterize linacs equipped with over-traveling asymmetric secondary collimators. This experimental procedure could be simply implemented to fully characterize the backscatter output factor constituent when detailed dosimetric modeling of the machine’s head is required. The methodology proved to be uncomplicated, accurate and suitable for clinical or experimental environments.

  14. Approach the National Quality Audit System for Radiotherapy in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Dehtjars, J; Popovs, S; Plaude, S

    2008-01-01

    It is very important to make National Quality Audit to ensure accurate conformal RT delivery. It is necessary to develop an Audit system to inspect all Conformal RT and IMRT delivery chain including the Quality checks of linear accelerator, Multileaf Collimator (MLC), Computer Tomography (CT) scanner or simulator, target and tissue delineation, plan evaluation, and delivery.

  15. Implementation of a Quality Control using portal imaging dynamic MLC; Implementacion de un programa de control de calidad de MLC dinamico mediante imagen portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Freire, C. J.; Vazquez Galinanes, A.; Collado Chamorro, P. M.; Diaz Pascual, V.; Gomez Amez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, S.; Ossola Lentati, G. A

    2011-07-01

    The precision in the correct beam irradiation in the treatment of highly modulated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) depends largely on the characteristics and behavior of the multi leaf collimator (MLC). Quality control (QC) of this element is essential to ensure proper delivery of the beams calculated. It is important to know the absolute position of each sheet, the motion characteristics of each behavior and stability. Among the numerous methods for carrying out the QC MLC, the use of portal imaging is a practical and high resolution. This paper describes the development of a quality control program based dynamic MLC portal image, self-developed software that enables analysis and the results of two years experience following the implementation of IMRT treatments at our center. (Author)

  16. Potential of discrete Gaussian edge feathering method for improving abutment dosimetry in eMLC-delivered segmented-field electron conformal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, John G.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Matthews, Kenneth L.; Parker, Brent C.; Price, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States) and Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809-3482 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States) and Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809-3482 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential of discrete Gaussian edge feathering of the higher energy electron fields for improving abutment dosimetry in the planning volume when using an electron multileaf collimator (eMLC) to deliver segmented-field electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: A discrete (five-step) Gaussian edge spread function was used to match dose penumbras of differing beam energies (6-20 MeV) at a specified depth in a water phantom. Software was developed to define the leaf eMLC positions of an eMLC that most closely fit each electron field shape. The effect of 1D edge feathering of the higher energy field on dose homogeneity was computed and measured for segmented-field ECT treatment plans for three 2D PTVs in a water phantom, i.e., depth from the water surface to the distal PTV surface varied as a function of the x-axis (parallel to leaf motion) and remained constant along the y-axis (perpendicular to leaf motion). Additionally, the effect of 2D edge feathering was computed and measured for one radially symmetric, 3D PTV in a water phantom, i.e., depth from the water surface to the distal PTV surface varied as a function of both axes. For the 3D PTV, the feathering scheme was evaluated for 0.1-1.0-cm leaf widths. Dose calculations were performed using the pencil beam dose algorithm in the Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system. Dose verification measurements were made using a prototype eMLC (1-cm leaf width). Results: 1D discrete Gaussian edge feathering reduced the standard deviation of dose in the 2D PTVs by 34, 34, and 39%. In the 3D PTV, the broad leaf width (1 cm) of the eMLC hindered the 2D application of the feathering solution to the 3D PTV, and the standard deviation of dose increased by 10%. However, 2D discrete Gaussian edge feathering with simulated eMLC leaf widths of 0.1-0.5 cm reduced the standard deviation of dose in the 3D PTV by 33-28%, respectively. Conclusions: A five-step discrete Gaussian edge

  17. Impact of the MLC on the MRI field distortion of a prototype MRI-linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolling, Stefan; Keall, Paul; Oborn, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To cope with intrafraction tumor motion, integrated MRI-linac systems for real-time image guidance are currently under development. The multileaf collimator (MLC) is a key component in every state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment system, allowing for accurate field shaping and tumor tracking. This work quantifies the magnetic impact of a widely used MLC on the MRI field homogeneity for such a modality.Methods: The finite element method was employed to model a MRI-linac assembly comprised of a 1.0 T split-bore MRI magnet and the key ferromagnetic components of a Varian Millennium 120 MLC, namely, the leaves and motors. Full 3D magnetic field maps of the system were generated. From these field maps, the peak-to-peak distortion within the MRI imaging volume was evaluated over a 30 cm diameter sphere volume (DSV) around the isocenter and compared to a maximum preshim inhomogeneity of 300 μT. Five parametric studies were performed: (1) The source-to-isocenter distance (SID) was varied from 100 to 200 cm, to span the range of a compact system to that with lower magnetic coupling. (2) The MLC model was changed from leaves only to leaves with motors, to determine the contribution to the total distortion caused by MLC leaves and motors separately. (3) The system was configured in the inline or perpendicular orientation, i.e., the linac treatment beam was oriented parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. (4) The treatment field size was varied from 0 × 0 to 20×20 cm 2 , to span the range of clinical treatment fields. (5) The coil currents were scaled linearly to produce magnetic field strengths B 0 of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 T, to estimate how the MLC impact changes with B 0 .Results: (1) The MLC-induced MRI field distortion fell continuously with increasing SID. (2) MLC leaves and motors were found to contribute to the distortion in approximately equal measure. (3) Due to faster falloff of the fringe field, the field distortion was

  18. SU-E-T-627: Precision Modelling of the Leaf-Bank Rotation in Elekta’s Agility MLC: Is It Necessary?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujicic, M; Belec, J [Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Heath, E; Gholampourkashi, S [Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cygler, J [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the method used to determine the leaf bank rotation angle (LBROT) as a parameter for modeling the Elekta Agility multi-leaf collimator (MLC) for Monte Carlo simulations and to evaluate the clinical impact of LBROT. Methods: A detailed model of an Elekta Infinity linac including an Agility MLC was built using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. The Agility 160-leaf MLC is modelled using the MLCE component module which allows for leaf bank rotation using the parameter LBROT. A precise value of LBROT is obtained by comparing measured and simulated profiles of a specific field, which has leaves arranged in a repeated pattern such that one leaf is opened and the adjacent one is closed. Profile measurements from an Agility linac are taken with gafchromic film, and an ion chamber is used to set the absolute dose. The measurements are compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and the LBROT is adjusted until a match is found. The clinical impact of LBROT is evaluated by observing how an MC dose calculation changes with LBROT. A clinical Stereotactic Body Radiation Treatment (SBRT) plan is calculated using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc simulations with different input values for LBROT. Results: Using the method outlined above, the LBROT is determined to be 9±1 mrad. Differences as high as 4% are observed in a clinical SBRT plan between the extreme case (LBROT not modeled) and the nominal case. Conclusion: In small-field radiation therapy treatment planning, it is important to properly account for LBROT as an input parameter for MC dose calculations with the Agility MLC. More work is ongoing to elucidate the observed differences by determining the contributions from transmission dose, change in field size, and source occlusion, which are all dependent on LBROT. This work was supported by OCAIRO (Ontario Consortium of Adaptive Interventions in Radiation Oncology), funded by the Ontario Research Fund.

  19. SU-E-T-627: Precision Modelling of the Leaf-Bank Rotation in Elekta’s Agility MLC: Is It Necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujicic, M; Belec, J; Heath, E; Gholampourkashi, S; Cygler, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the method used to determine the leaf bank rotation angle (LBROT) as a parameter for modeling the Elekta Agility multi-leaf collimator (MLC) for Monte Carlo simulations and to evaluate the clinical impact of LBROT. Methods: A detailed model of an Elekta Infinity linac including an Agility MLC was built using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. The Agility 160-leaf MLC is modelled using the MLCE component module which allows for leaf bank rotation using the parameter LBROT. A precise value of LBROT is obtained by comparing measured and simulated profiles of a specific field, which has leaves arranged in a repeated pattern such that one leaf is opened and the adjacent one is closed. Profile measurements from an Agility linac are taken with gafchromic film, and an ion chamber is used to set the absolute dose. The measurements are compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and the LBROT is adjusted until a match is found. The clinical impact of LBROT is evaluated by observing how an MC dose calculation changes with LBROT. A clinical Stereotactic Body Radiation Treatment (SBRT) plan is calculated using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc simulations with different input values for LBROT. Results: Using the method outlined above, the LBROT is determined to be 9±1 mrad. Differences as high as 4% are observed in a clinical SBRT plan between the extreme case (LBROT not modeled) and the nominal case. Conclusion: In small-field radiation therapy treatment planning, it is important to properly account for LBROT as an input parameter for MC dose calculations with the Agility MLC. More work is ongoing to elucidate the observed differences by determining the contributions from transmission dose, change in field size, and source occlusion, which are all dependent on LBROT. This work was supported by OCAIRO (Ontario Consortium of Adaptive Interventions in Radiation Oncology), funded by the Ontario Research Fund

  20. MO-FG-BRA-06: Electromagnetic Beacon Insertion in Lung Cancer Patients and Resultant Surrogacy Errors for Dynamic MLC Tumour Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardcastle, N; Booth, J; Caillet, V; Haddad, C; Crasta, C [Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW (Australia); O’Brien, R; Keall, P [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Szymura, K [Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess endo-bronchial electromagnetic beacon insertion and to quantify the geometric accuracy of using beacons as a surrogate for tumour motion in real-time multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking of lung tumours. Methods: The LIGHT SABR trial is a world-first clinical trial in which the MLC leaves move with lung tumours in real time on a standard linear accelerator. Tracking is performed based on implanted electromagnetic beacons (CalypsoTM, Varian Medical Systems, USA) as a surrogate for tumour motion. Five patients have been treated and have each had three beacons implanted endo-bronchially under fluoroscopic guidance. The centre of mass (C.O.M) has been used to adapt the MLC in real-time. The geometric error in using the beacon C.O.M as a surrogate for tumour motion was measured by measuring the tumour and beacon C.O.M in all phases of the respiratory cycle of a 4DCT. The surrogacy error was defined as the difference in beacon and tumour C.O.M relative to the reference phase (maximum exhale). Results: All five patients have had three beacons successfully implanted with no migration between simulation and end of treatment. Beacon placement relative to tumour C.O.M varied from 14 to 74 mm and in one patient spanned two lobes. Surrogacy error was measured in each patient on the simulation 4DCT and ranged from 0 to 3 mm. Surrogacy error as measured on 4DCT was subject to artefacts in mid-ventilation phases. Surrogacy error was a function of breathing phase and was typically larger at maximum inhale. Conclusion: Beacon placement and thus surrogacy error is a major component of geometric uncertainty in MLC tracking of lung tumours. Surrogacy error must be measured on each patient and incorporated into margin calculation. Reduction of surrogacy error is limited by airway anatomy, however should be taken into consideration when performing beacon insertion and planning. This research is funded by Varian Medical Systems via a collaborative research agreement.

  1. MO-FG-BRA-06: Electromagnetic Beacon Insertion in Lung Cancer Patients and Resultant Surrogacy Errors for Dynamic MLC Tumour Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardcastle, N; Booth, J; Caillet, V; Haddad, C; Crasta, C; O’Brien, R; Keall, P; Szymura, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess endo-bronchial electromagnetic beacon insertion and to quantify the geometric accuracy of using beacons as a surrogate for tumour motion in real-time multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking of lung tumours. Methods: The LIGHT SABR trial is a world-first clinical trial in which the MLC leaves move with lung tumours in real time on a standard linear accelerator. Tracking is performed based on implanted electromagnetic beacons (CalypsoTM, Varian Medical Systems, USA) as a surrogate for tumour motion. Five patients have been treated and have each had three beacons implanted endo-bronchially under fluoroscopic guidance. The centre of mass (C.O.M) has been used to adapt the MLC in real-time. The geometric error in using the beacon C.O.M as a surrogate for tumour motion was measured by measuring the tumour and beacon C.O.M in all phases of the respiratory cycle of a 4DCT. The surrogacy error was defined as the difference in beacon and tumour C.O.M relative to the reference phase (maximum exhale). Results: All five patients have had three beacons successfully implanted with no migration between simulation and end of treatment. Beacon placement relative to tumour C.O.M varied from 14 to 74 mm and in one patient spanned two lobes. Surrogacy error was measured in each patient on the simulation 4DCT and ranged from 0 to 3 mm. Surrogacy error as measured on 4DCT was subject to artefacts in mid-ventilation phases. Surrogacy error was a function of breathing phase and was typically larger at maximum inhale. Conclusion: Beacon placement and thus surrogacy error is a major component of geometric uncertainty in MLC tracking of lung tumours. Surrogacy error must be measured on each patient and incorporated into margin calculation. Reduction of surrogacy error is limited by airway anatomy, however should be taken into consideration when performing beacon insertion and planning. This research is funded by Varian Medical Systems via a collaborative research agreement.

  2. Toward the development of intrafraction tumor deformation tracking using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Yuanyuan; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Booth, Jeremy T. [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intrafraction deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy. Studies show tumor deformation of over 10 mm for both single tumor deformation and system deformation (due to differential motion between primary tumors and involved lymph nodes). Such deformation cannot be adapted to with current radiotherapy methods. The objective of this study was to develop and experimentally investigate the ability of a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) tracking system to account for tumor deformation. Methods: To compensate for tumor deformation, the DMLC tracking strategy is to warp the planned beam aperture directly to conform to the new tumor shape based on real time tumor deformation input. Two deformable phantoms that correspond to a single tumor and a tumor system were developed. The planar deformations derived from the phantom images in beam's eye view were used to guide the aperture warping. An in-house deformable image registration software was developed to automatically trigger the registration once new target image was acquired and send the computed deformation to the DMLC tracking software. Because the registration speed is not fast enough to implement the experiment in real-time manner, the phantom deformation only proceeded to the next position until registration of the current deformation position was completed. The deformation tracking accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the ideal aperture. The individual contributions from the deformable registration algorithm and the finite leaf width to the tracking uncertainty were analyzed. Clinical proof-of-principle experiment of deformation tracking using previously acquired MR images of a lung cancer patient was implemented to represent the MRI-Linac environment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment delivered with enabled deformation tracking was simulated and demonstrated. Results: The first

  3. Validation of Varian TrueBeam electron phase–spaces for Monte Carlo simulation of MLC-shaped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Samantha A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 3P6 5C2 (Canada); Gagne, Isabelle M., E-mail: imgagne@bccancer.bc.ca; Zavgorodni, Sergei [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5, Canada and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 5C2 (Canada); Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 5C2 (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work evaluates Varian’s electron phase–space sources for Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) and combined, modulated photon and electron radiation therapy (MPERT) where fields are shaped by the photon multileaf collimator (MLC) and delivered at 70 cm SSD. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations performed with EGSnrc-based BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and PENELOPE-based PRIMO are compared against diode measurements for 5 × 5, 10 × 10, and 20 × 20 cm{sup 2} MLC-shaped fields delivered with 6, 12, and 20 MeV electrons at 70 cm SSD (jaws set to 40 × 40 cm{sup 2}). Depth dose curves and profiles are examined. In addition, EGSnrc-based simulations of relative output as a function of MLC-field size and jaw-position are compared against ion chamber measurements for MLC-shaped fields between 3 × 3 and 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} and jaw positions that range from the MLC-field size to 40 × 40 cm{sup 2}. Results: Percent depth dose curves generated by BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and PRIMO agree with measurement within 2%, 2 mm except for PRIMO’s 12 MeV, 20 × 20 cm{sup 2} field where 90% of dose points agree within 2%, 2 mm. Without the distance to agreement, differences between measurement and simulation are as large as 7.3%. Characterization of simulated dose parameters such as FWHM, penumbra width and depths of 90%, 80%, 50%, and 20% dose agree within 2 mm of measurement for all fields except for the FWHM of the 6 MeV, 20 × 20 cm{sup 2} field which falls within 2 mm distance to agreement. Differences between simulation and measurement exist in the profile shoulders and penumbra tails, in particular for 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm{sup 2} fields of 20 MeV electrons, where both sets of simulated data fall short of measurement by as much as 3.5%. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc simulated outputs agree with measurement within 2.3% except for 6 MeV MLC-shaped fields. Discrepancies here are as great as 5.5%. Conclusions: TrueBeam electron phase

  4. Penumbra measurements of BeamModulatorTM multi leaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiaoguang; Wang Yunlai; Huo Xiaoqing; Sha Xiangyan; Miao Xiongfei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the penumbra of a new multileaf collimator equipped with Elekta Synergy accelerator. Methods: The penumbra were derived from beam profiles measured in air and water using PinPoint ion chamber with PTW MP3 water phantom. Variations of penumbra with X-ray beam energy, depth in water, and leaf position were investigated. Results: The penumbra in air for 6 MV X-ray was 2 mm less than that at depth of maximal dose in water. The penumbra of leaf side was 1 mm less than that of the leaf end. The penumbra had close relationship with beam energy, depth in water and leaf position. penumbra increased with beam quality and water depth. The leaf position had great influence on the penumbra. Conclusions: The penumbra of the multileaf collimator is related to its original design and radiation delivery technique. Special considerations should be taken into during treatment planning. Regular measurement should be performed to guarantee the delivery quality. (authors)

  5. Modulated electron radiotherapy treatment planning using a photon multileaf collimator for post-mastectomized chest walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salguero, Francisco Javier; Palma, Bianey; Arrans, Rafael; Rosello, Joan; Leal, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using a photon MLC (xMLC) for modulated electron radiotherapy treatment (MERT) as an alternative to conventional post-mastectomy chest wall (CW) irradiation. A Monte Carlo (MC) based planning system was developed to overcome the inaccuracy of the 'pencil beam' algorithm. MC techniques are known to accurately calculate the dose distributions of electron beams, allowing the explicit simulation of electron interactions within the MLC. Materials and methods: Four real clinical CW cases were planned using MERT which were compared with the conventional electron treatments based on blocks and by a straightforward approach using the MLC, and not the blocks (as an intermediate step to MERT) to shape the same segments with SSD between 60 and 70 cm depending on PTV size. MC calculations were verified with an array of ionization chambers and radiochromic films in a solid water phantom. Results: Tests based on gamma analysis between MC dose distributions and radiochromic film measurements showed an excellent agreement. Differences in the absolute dose measured with a plane-parallel chamber at a reference point were below 3% for all cases. MERT solution showed a better PTV coverage and a significant reduction of the doses to the organs at risk (OARs). Conclusion: MERT can effectively improve the current electron treatments by obtaining a better PTV coverage and sparing healthy tissues. More directly, block-shaped treatments could be replaced by MLC-shaped non-modulated segments providing similar results.

  6. Polymer gel measurement of dose homogeneity in the breast: comparing MLC intensity modulation with standard wedged delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, P A; Evans, P M; Leach, M O; Webb, S

    2003-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimetry has been used to measure the radiotherapy dose homogeneity in a breast phantom for two different treatment methods. The first 'standard' method uses two tangential wedged fields while the second method has three static fields shaped by multileaf collimators (MLCs) in addition to the standard wedged fields to create intensity modulated fields. Gel dose distributions from the multileaf modulation treatment show an improved dose uniformity in comparison to the standard treatment with a decreased volume receiving doses over 105%

  7. Comparison of two methods for quantifying the accuracy of the positioning of the blades of the MLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Yip, Fernando; Silvestre Patallo, Ileana; Diaz Moreno, Rogelio

    2009-01-01

    Conformal radiotherapy treatment (3DCRT) and intensity modulated (IMRT) require more accurate positioning of the blades collimator. The procedure Stanford Quality Control (QC) is based MLC determine the possibility of small errors in positioning (<1mm) to from the variation that occurs in the relative response of a small detector depending on the irradiated fraction of its volume. The aim of this work was to establish a methodology to characterize quantitatively individual displacements of each layer, taking into account the tolerances established for 3DCRT and IMRT are ± 1mm. We determined the accuracy of the positioning of the throttle blades MLC Elekta Precise linear (S/N1220) of INOR. The MLC has 40 pairs of sheets tungsten 1 cm wide at the isocenter. The lower jaws of the collimator side is backed by the MLC. We compare two variants Stanford technique, one, using as detector portal imaging system Electronics (EPID) and the other using the two-dimensional camera system ionization 2D array (PTW 729). We used analysis tools programmed in MatLab image and application to MLC Checker processing the signals of the 2D array. We established the reference values of the relative response of detectors employees (EPID and 2D array) for the 40 pairs of blades to MLC and positions of both banks from 13cm-13cm and up to 1cm intervals. It implemented a procedure for the routine application of this test in MLC monthly checks. Procedure was applied as part of systematic quality control of MLC and found the mean error of positioning of each blade from the implementation of the QC procedure and to carry out this work. It was verified that the linac MLC 1220 of INOR meets tolerances established for the delivery of advanced treatment techniques 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT. (author)

  8. Independent Monte-Carlo dose calculation for MLC based CyberKnife radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackeprang, P.-H.; Vuong, D.; Volken, W.; Henzen, D.; Schmidhalter, D.; Malthaner, M.; Mueller, S.; Frei, D.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.; Dal Pra, A.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.

    2018-01-01

    This work aims to develop, implement and validate a Monte Carlo (MC)-based independent dose calculation (IDC) framework to perform patient-specific quality assurance (QA) for multi-leaf collimator (MLC)-based CyberKnife® (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) treatment plans. The IDC framework uses an XML-format treatment plan as exported from the treatment planning system (TPS) and DICOM format patient CT data, an MC beam model using phase spaces, CyberKnife MLC beam modifier transport using the EGS++ class library, a beam sampling and coordinate transformation engine and dose scoring using DOSXYZnrc. The framework is validated against dose profiles and depth dose curves of single beams with varying field sizes in a water tank in units of cGy/Monitor Unit and against a 2D dose distribution of a full prostate treatment plan measured with Gafchromic EBT3 (Ashland Advanced Materials, Bridgewater, NJ) film in a homogeneous water-equivalent slab phantom. The film measurement is compared to IDC results by gamma analysis using 2% (global)/2 mm criteria. Further, the dose distribution of the clinical treatment plan in the patient CT is compared to TPS calculation by gamma analysis using the same criteria. Dose profiles from IDC calculation in a homogeneous water phantom agree within 2.3% of the global max dose or 1 mm distance to agreement to measurements for all except the smallest field size. Comparing the film measurement to calculated dose, 99.9% of all voxels pass gamma analysis, comparing dose calculated by the IDC framework to TPS calculated dose for the clinical prostate plan shows 99.0% passing rate. IDC calculated dose is found to be up to 5.6% lower than dose calculated by the TPS in this case near metal fiducial markers. An MC-based modular IDC framework was successfully developed, implemented and validated against measurements and is now available to perform patient-specific QA by IDC.

  9. Photon caliper to achieve submillimeter positioning accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kyle J.; Wong, Jennifer; Zhang, Junan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a commercial two-dimensional (2D) detector array with an inherent detector spacing of 5 mm to achieve submillimeter accuracy in localizing the radiation isocenter. This was accomplished by delivering the Vernier ‘dose’ caliper to a 2D detector array where the nominal scale was the 2D detector array and the non-nominal Vernier scale was the radiation dose strips produced by the high-definition (HD) multileaf collimators (MLCs) of the linear accelerator. Because the HD MLC sequence was similar to the picket fence test, we called this procedure the Vernier picket fence (VPF) test. We confirmed the accuracy of the VPF test by offsetting the HD MLC bank by known increments and comparing the known offset with the VPF test result. The VPF test was able to determine the known offset within 0.02 mm. We also cross-validated the accuracy of the VPF test in an evaluation of couch hysteresis. This was done by using both the VPF test and the ExacTrac optical tracking system to evaluate the couch position. We showed that the VPF test was in agreement with the ExacTrac optical tracking system within a root-mean-square value of 0.07 mm for both the lateral and longitudinal directions. In conclusion, we demonstrated the VPF test can determine the offset between a 2D detector array and the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Until now, no method to locate the radiation isocenter using a 2D detector array has been able to achieve such accuracy.

  10. Comparison of dosimetric properties of three commercial multi leaf collimator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoever, K.H.; Hesse, B.M.; Haering, P.; Rhein, B.; Bannach, B.; Doll, T.; Doerner, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The dosimetric properties of different designs of multi leaf collimators used for the generation of irregular fields will be measured and compared with each other. Using multi leaf collimators is a practical method of achieving conformal therapy. The use for complex conformal treatment fields to be given in either in static or dynamic mode depends much on the leaf end penumbra and the leaf side penumbra as well as the transmission through the leafs. Penumbra and leakage caused by the leaves therefore are of special interest in this intercomparison. Material and Methods: To investigate the dosimetric properties of three multi leaf collimators of different technical design, measurements have been taken at two different facilities. Until now, comparative measurements have been performed for the following devices. The new Siemens double focusing MLC with 29 opposite leaf pairs, installed at the Mevatron Experimental in the German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg. The energy used was 15 MV and 6 MV. The Philips quasi-double focusing MLC with 40 opposite leaf pairs, installed at the SL25 in the University Duesseldorf. The leaves move in a plane rather than on a circular arc and have rounded ends to reduce penumbra. The energy used was 25 MV and 6 MV. The Leibinger non-focusing micro-MLC with 40 opposite leaf pairs. This MLC was specially designed for stereotactic irradiation of the brain. The comparative study is to be continued and extended to involve additional devices in the future. Both, the film densitometry and a newly designed ten-bit Beam Imaging System BIS-710 developed by Wellhoefer company were used. The BIS-710 was developed especially for quantitative dose measuring, whereas most of the existing Portal Imaging Systems are used for image display only. The BIS-710 contains a camera for 10-bit digital data output. The size of each of the 512 x 512 detector elements is 0.6 mm x 0.6 mm Results: Measurements taken with the BIS-710 and with film

  11. An accurate calibration method of the multileaf collimator valid for conformal and intensity modulated radiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastre-Padro, Maria; Heide, Uulke A van der; Welleweerd, Hans [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-06-21

    Because for IMRT treatments the required accuracy on leaf positioning is high, conventional calibration methods may not be appropriate. The aim of this study was to develop the tools for an accurate MLC calibration valid for conventional and IMRT treatments and to investigate the stability of the MLC. A strip test consisting of nine adjacent segments 2 cm wide, separated by 1 mm and exposed on Kodak X-Omat V films at D{sub max} depth, was used for detecting leaf-positioning errors. Dose profiles along the leaf-axis were taken for each leaf-pair. We measured the dose variation on each abutment to quantify the relative positioning error (RPE) and the absolute position of the abutment to quantify the absolute positioning error (APE). The accuracy of determining the APE and RPE was 0.15 and 0.04 mm, respectively. Using the RPE and the APE the MLC calibration parameters were calculated in order to obtain a flat profile on the abutment at the correct position. A conventionally calibrated Elekta MLC was re-calibrated using the strip test. The stability of the MLC and leaf-positioning reproducibility was investigated exposing films with 25 adjacent segments 1 cm wide during three months and measuring the standard deviation of the RPE values. A maximum shift over the three months of 0.27 mm was observed and the standard deviation of the RPE values was 0.11 mm.

  12. An accurate calibration method of the multileaf collimator valid for conformal and intensity modulated radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre-Padro, Maria; Heide, Uulke A van der; Welleweerd, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Because for IMRT treatments the required accuracy on leaf positioning is high, conventional calibration methods may not be appropriate. The aim of this study was to develop the tools for an accurate MLC calibration valid for conventional and IMRT treatments and to investigate the stability of the MLC. A strip test consisting of nine adjacent segments 2 cm wide, separated by 1 mm and exposed on Kodak X-Omat V films at D max depth, was used for detecting leaf-positioning errors. Dose profiles along the leaf-axis were taken for each leaf-pair. We measured the dose variation on each abutment to quantify the relative positioning error (RPE) and the absolute position of the abutment to quantify the absolute positioning error (APE). The accuracy of determining the APE and RPE was 0.15 and 0.04 mm, respectively. Using the RPE and the APE the MLC calibration parameters were calculated in order to obtain a flat profile on the abutment at the correct position. A conventionally calibrated Elekta MLC was re-calibrated using the strip test. The stability of the MLC and leaf-positioning reproducibility was investigated exposing films with 25 adjacent segments 1 cm wide during three months and measuring the standard deviation of the RPE values. A maximum shift over the three months of 0.27 mm was observed and the standard deviation of the RPE values was 0.11 mm

  13. SU-F-T-604: Dosimetric Evaluation of Intracranial Stereotactic Radiotherapy Plans On a LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, N; Tabibian, A; Rose, J; Alvelo, M; Perel, C; Laiken, K; Kim, A [Bayonne Medical Center, Bayonne, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetry of cranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) plans of varying techniques on linac that meets appropriate TG-142 tolerances using 1 cm leaf width multileaf collimator (MLC). Methods: Seventeen spherical targets were generated in the center of a head phantom with diameters ranging 8 mm to 40 mm. SRT plans used 100° non-coplanar arcs and 5 couch angles with 35° spacing. The field size was target plus 1 mm margin. Four plans were created for each target: symmetrical jaws blocking for 5 arcs with 0° collimator (J1C), symmetrical jaws blocking with 5 clockwise arcs with 0° collimator and 5 counter-clockwise arcs with 45° collimator (J2C), MLC blocking for 5 dynamic conformal arcs with 0° collimator (M1C), and MLC blocking for 5 clockwise dynamic conformal arcs with 0° collimators and 5 counter-clockwise dynamic conformal arcs with 45° collimator (M2C).Conformity was evaluated using a ratio of Rx to target volume (PITV). Heterogeneity was determined using a ratio of maximum dose to Rx dose. Falloff was scored using CGIg: difference of effective radii of spheres equal to half and full Rx volumes. Results: All plans met RTOG SRS criteria for conformity and heterogeneity. The mean PITV was 1.52±0.07, 1.49±0.08, 1.39±0.05, and 1.37±0.04 for J1C, J2C, M1C, and M2C plans respectively. The mean CGIg was 75.35±15.79, 74.19±16.66, 77.14±15.12, and 76.28±15.78 for J1C, J2C, M1C, and M2C plans respectively. The mean MDPD was 1.25±0.00 for all techniques. Conclusion: Clinically acceptable SRT plans for spherical targets were created on a linac with 1 cm MLC. Adding two collimator angles and MLC to arcs each improved conformity. The MLC improved the dose falloff while two collimator angles degraded it. This technique can expand the availability of SRT to patients especially to those who cannot travel to a facility with a dedicated stereotactic radiosurgery machine.

  14. SU-F-T-604: Dosimetric Evaluation of Intracranial Stereotactic Radiotherapy Plans On a LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, N; Tabibian, A; Rose, J; Alvelo, M; Perel, C; Laiken, K; Kim, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetry of cranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) plans of varying techniques on linac that meets appropriate TG-142 tolerances using 1 cm leaf width multileaf collimator (MLC). Methods: Seventeen spherical targets were generated in the center of a head phantom with diameters ranging 8 mm to 40 mm. SRT plans used 100° non-coplanar arcs and 5 couch angles with 35° spacing. The field size was target plus 1 mm margin. Four plans were created for each target: symmetrical jaws blocking for 5 arcs with 0° collimator (J1C), symmetrical jaws blocking with 5 clockwise arcs with 0° collimator and 5 counter-clockwise arcs with 45° collimator (J2C), MLC blocking for 5 dynamic conformal arcs with 0° collimator (M1C), and MLC blocking for 5 clockwise dynamic conformal arcs with 0° collimators and 5 counter-clockwise dynamic conformal arcs with 45° collimator (M2C).Conformity was evaluated using a ratio of Rx to target volume (PITV). Heterogeneity was determined using a ratio of maximum dose to Rx dose. Falloff was scored using CGIg: difference of effective radii of spheres equal to half and full Rx volumes. Results: All plans met RTOG SRS criteria for conformity and heterogeneity. The mean PITV was 1.52±0.07, 1.49±0.08, 1.39±0.05, and 1.37±0.04 for J1C, J2C, M1C, and M2C plans respectively. The mean CGIg was 75.35±15.79, 74.19±16.66, 77.14±15.12, and 76.28±15.78 for J1C, J2C, M1C, and M2C plans respectively. The mean MDPD was 1.25±0.00 for all techniques. Conclusion: Clinically acceptable SRT plans for spherical targets were created on a linac with 1 cm MLC. Adding two collimator angles and MLC to arcs each improved conformity. The MLC improved the dose falloff while two collimator angles degraded it. This technique can expand the availability of SRT to patients especially to those who cannot travel to a facility with a dedicated stereotactic radiosurgery machine.

  15. Linear accelerator quality assurance using EPIQA software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhikov, S.; Sokerov, H.; Tonev, A.; Ivanova, K.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike treatment with static fields, using a dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC), there are significant dosimetric issues which must be assessed before dynamic therapy can be implemented. The advanced techniques require some additional commissioning and quality assurance tests. The results of standard quality assurance (QA) machine tests and commissioning tests for volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using electronic portal image device (EPID) and 'EPIQA' software are presented. (authors)

  16. Addition to our technical center arco therapy volume (VMAT) in the treatment of prostate cancer; Incorporacion en nuestro centro de la tecnica de arcoterapia volumetrica (VMAT) en el tratamiento de cancer de prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, J. C.; Cabrera, P.; Luis, J.; Perucha, M.; Sanchez, G.; Herrador, M.; Ortiz, M. J.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is the description of the incorporation of the treatment technique radiotherapy Arcoterapia Volumetric (VMAT) in our hospital, patients with prostate cancer risk. The technological complexity of this type, which vary simultaneously the influence of radiation, the blades of the multileaf collimator (MLC) and the angular velocity of the accelerator head, determine a major challenge in designing the plan and verify the feasibility treatments.

  17. Addition to our technical center arco therapy volume (VMAT) in the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos, J. C.; Cabrera, P.; Luis, J.; Perucha, M.; Sanchez, G.; Herrador, M.; Ortiz, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the description of the incorporation of the treatment technique radiotherapic Arcoterapia Volumetric (VMAT) in our hospital, patients with prostate cancer risk. The technological complexity of this type, which vary simultaneously the influence of radiation, the blades of the multileaf collimator (MLC) and the angular velocity of the accelerator head, determine a major challenge in designing the plan and verify the feasibility treatments.

  18. Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2006 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a {gamma}-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation

  19. Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul

    2011-07-01

    In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a tgamma-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the gamma-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation. The delivery efficiency of

  20. Computer controlled multi-leaf conformation radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, T [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan); Inamura, K

    1981-10-01

    A conformation radiotherapy system with 5-split collimators of which openings can be controlled symmetrically by computerized techniques during rotational irradiation by a linear accelerator has been developed. Outline of the system performance and its clinical applications are described as follows. 1. Profile of the system: The hardware is composed of three parts, namely, the multi-split collimator, the electronic data processor, and the interface between those two parts. 1) The multi-leaf collimator is composed of 5 pairs (10 leaves) diaphragms. It can be mounted to the X-ray head of a linear accelerator when used, and can be dismounted after its use. 2) The electronic data processor sends control signal to the collimator according to the 5-leaf target volume data which can be stored into a minifloppy disc through the curve digitizer previously. This part is composed of a) dedicated micro processor, b) I/O expansion unit, c) color CRT display with key board, d) dual mini-floppy disc unit, e) curve digitizer and f) digital plotter for recording and verification of resulted accuracy. 2. Performance of the system: 1) Maximum field size: 15 cm x 15 cm at isocenter. 2) Maximum elongation ratio of the target volume: 3 : 1 when the longer diameter is 15 cm. 3) Control accuracy: Within +-3 mm deviation from planned beam focus at isocenter. 3. Clinical application: The method of treatment planning and clinical advantages of this irradiation method are explained by raising clinical experiences such as treating brain tumor and rectal cancer.

  1. Computer controlled multi-leaf conformation radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tadayoshi; Inamura, Kiyonari.

    1981-01-01

    A conformation radiotherapy system with 5-split collimators of which openings can be controlled symmetrically by computerized techniques during rotational irradiation by a linear accelerator has been developed. Outline of the system performance and its clinical applications are described as follows. 1. Profile of the system: The hardware is composed of three parts, namely, the multi-split collimator, the electronic data processor, and the interface between those two parts. 1) The multi-leaf collimator is composed of 5 pairs (10 leaves) diaphragms. It can be mounted to the X-ray head of a linear accelerator when used, and can be dismounted after its use. 2) The electronic data processor sends control signal to the collimator according to the 5-leaf target volume data which can be stored into a minifloppy disc through the curve digitizer previously. This part is composed of a) dedicated micro processor, b) I/O expansion unit, c) color CRT display with key board, d) dual mini-floppy disc unit, e) curve digitizer and f) digital plotter for recording and verification of resulted accuracy. 2. Performance of the system: 1) Maximum field size: 15 cm x 15 cm at isocenter. 2) Maximum elongation ratio of the target volume: 3 : 1 when the longer diameter is 15 cm. 3) Control accuracy: Within +-3 mm deviation from planned beam focus at isocenter. 3. Clinical application: The method of treatment planning and clinical advantages of this irradiation method are explained by raising clinical experiences such as treating brain tumor and rectal cancer. (author)

  2. Optimal leaf sequencing with elimination of tongue-and-groove underdosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Srijit [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-02-07

    The individual leaves of a multileaf collimator (MLC) have a tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design to minimize leakage radiation between adjacent leaves. This design element has a drawback in that it creates areas of underdosages in intensity-modulated photon beams unless a leaf trajectory is specifically designed such that for any two adjacent leaf pairs, the direct exposure under the tongue-and-groove is equal to the lower of the direct exposures of the leaf pairs. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of a leaf sequencing algorithm for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery that completely eliminates areas of underdosages due to tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design of the MLC. Simultaneous elimination of tongue-and-groove effect and leaf interdigitation is also studied. This is an extension of our previous work (Kamath et al 2003a Phys. Med. Biol. 48 307) in which we described a leaf sequencing algorithm that is optimal for monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation. Compared to our previously published algorithm (without constraints), the new algorithms increase the number of sub-fields by approximately 21% and 25%, respectively, but are optimal in MU efficiency for unidirectional schedules. (note)

  3. Optimal leaf sequencing with elimination of tongue-and-groove underdosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Srijit; Sahni, Sartaj; Palta, Jatinder; Ranka, Sanjay; Li, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The individual leaves of a multileaf collimator (MLC) have a tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design to minimize leakage radiation between adjacent leaves. This design element has a drawback in that it creates areas of underdosages in intensity-modulated photon beams unless a leaf trajectory is specifically designed such that for any two adjacent leaf pairs, the direct exposure under the tongue-and-groove is equal to the lower of the direct exposures of the leaf pairs. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of a leaf sequencing algorithm for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery that completely eliminates areas of underdosages due to tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design of the MLC. Simultaneous elimination of tongue-and-groove effect and leaf interdigitation is also studied. This is an extension of our previous work (Kamath et al 2003a Phys. Med. Biol. 48 307) in which we described a leaf sequencing algorithm that is optimal for monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation. Compared to our previously published algorithm (without constraints), the new algorithms increase the number of sub-fields by approximately 21% and 25%, respectively, but are optimal in MU efficiency for unidirectional schedules. (note)

  4. SU-G-BRA-16: Target Dose Comparison for Dynamic MLC Tracking and Mid- Ventilation Planning in Lung Radiotherapy Subject to Intrafractional Baseline Drifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menten, MJ; Fast, MF; Nill, S; Oelfke, U [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Lung tumor motion during radiotherapy can be accounted for by expanded treatment margins, for example using a mid-ventilation planning approach, or by localizing the tumor in real-time and adapting the treatment beam with multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking. This study evaluates the effect of intrafractional changes in the average tumor position (baseline drifts) on these two treatment techniques. Methods: Lung stereotactic treatment plans (9-beam IMRT, 54Gy/3 fractions, mean treatment time: 9.63min) were generated for three patients: either for delivery with MLC tracking (isotropic GTV-to-PTV margin: 2.6mm) or planned with a mid-ventilation approach and delivered without online motion compensation (GTV-to-PTV margin: 4.4-6.3mm). Delivery to a breathing patient was simulated using DynaTrack, our in-house tracking and delivery software. Baseline drifts in cranial and posterior direction were simulated at a rate of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5mm/min. For dose reconstruction, the corresponding 4DCT phase was selected for each time point of the delivery. Baseline drifts were accounted for by rigidly shifting the CT to ensure correct relative beam-to-target positioning. Afterwards, the doses delivered to each 4DCT phase were accumulated deformably on the mid-ventilation phase using research RayStation v4.6 and dose coverage of the GTV was evaluated. Results: When using the mid-ventilation planning approach, dose coverage of the tumor deteriorated substantially in the presence of baseline drifts. The reduction in D98% coverage of the GTV in a single fraction ranged from 0.4-1.2, 0.6-3.3 and 4.5-6.2Gy, respectively, for the different drift rates. With MLC tracking the GTV D98% coverage remained unchanged (+/− 0.1Gy) regardless of drift. Conclusion: Intrafractional baseline drifts reduce the tumor dose in treatments based on mid-ventilation planning. In rare, large target baseline drifts tumor dose coverage may drop below the prescription, potentially affecting clinical

  5. Comparison of the efficacy of intensity modulated radiotherapy delivered by competing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seco, Joao Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The project involved the study and comparison of the various intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques. IMRT can be delivered via (i) the NOMOS MIMiC tomotherapy device, (ii) the dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC), and (iii) the technique of multiple-static fields (MSF) using a multileaf collimator (MLC). To evaluate the relative benefits and limitations of the different methods of delivering IMRT an inverse-planning simulation code was developed. The simulation uses two distinct beam models: (a) the PEACOCK pencil-beam model based on the double Gaussian convolution for the MIMiC, and (b) the macropencil beam model (with the extended source model included to correct for the output factor) which is used for the DMLC and MSF-MLC delivery techniques. The process of delivering an IMRT treatment may involve various beam-modifying techniques such as multileaf collimators, the NOMOS MIMiC, blocks, wedges, etc. The constraints associated with the IMRT delivery technique are usually neglected in the process of obtaining the 'optimal' inverse treatment plan. Consequently, dose optimization may be significantly reduced when the 'optimal' beam profiles are converted to leaf/diaphragm positions via a leaf-sequencing interpreter. The work developed assessed the effects on the optimum treatment plan of the following leaf-sequencing algorithms: MSF-MLC, DMLC, and NOMOS MIMiC. An increase of 2.5%, 3.7% and 5.7% was observed for the PTV dose, when delivering a fluence profile with the DMLC, MSF, and NOMOS MIMiC techniques, respectively. An intensity-modulated beam optimization algorithm was developed to incorporate the delivery constraints into the optimization cycle. The optimization algorithm was based on the quasi-Newton method of iteratively solving minimization problems. The developed algorithm iteratively corrects the incident, pencil-beam-like fluence to incorporate the delivery constraints. In the case of the DMLC and MSF the optimization converged

  6. Dosimetric effects of sectional adjustments of collimator angles on volumetric modulated arc therapy for irregularly-shaped targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Seok Ahn

    Full Text Available To calculate an optimal collimator angle at each of sectional arcs in a full-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT plan and evaluate dosimetric quality of these VMAT plans comparing full-arc VMAT plans with a fixed collimator angle.Seventeen patients who had irregularly-shaped target in abdominal, head and neck, and chest cases were selected retrospectively. To calculate an optimal collimator angle at each of sectional arcs in VMAT, integrated MLC apertures which could cover all shapes of target determined by beam's-eye view (BEV within angular sections were obtained for each VMAT plan. The angular sections were 40°, 60°, 90° and 120°. When the collimator settings were rotated at intervals of 2°, we obtained the optimal collimator angle to minimize area size difference between the integrated MLC aperture and collimator settings with 5 mm-margins to the integrated MLC aperture. The VMAT plans with the optimal collimator angles (Colli-VMAT were generated in the EclipseTM. For comparison purposes, one full-arc VMAT plans with a fixed collimator angles (Std-VMAT were generated. The dose-volumetric parameters and total MUs were evaluated.The mean dose-volumetric parameters for target volume of Colli-VMAT were comparable to Std-VMAT. Colli-VMAT improved sparing of most normal organs but for brain stem, compared to Std-VMAT for all cases. There were decreasing tendencies in mean total MUs with decreasing angular section. The mean total MUs for Colli-VMAT with the angular section of 40° (434 ± 95 MU, 317 ± 81 MU, and 371 ± 43 MU for abdominal, head and neck, and chest cases, respectively were lower than those for Std-VMAT (654 ± 182 MU, 517 ± 116 MU, and 533 ± 25 MU, respectively.For an irregularly-shaped target, Colli-VMAT with the angular section of 40° reduced total MUs and improved sparing of normal organs, compared to Std-VMAT.

  7. Influence of MLC leaf width on biologically adapted IMRT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedal, Jan; Soevik, Aaste; Malinen, Eirik (Dept. of Medical Physics, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)), E-mail: jan.rodal@radiumhospitalet.no

    2010-10-15

    Introduction. High resolution beam delivery may be required for optimal biology-guided adaptive therapy. In this work, we have studied the influence of multi leaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths on the treatment outcome following adapted IMRT of a hypoxic tumour. Material and methods. Dynamic contrast enhanced MR images of a dog with a spontaneous tumour in the nasal region were used to create a tentative hypoxia map following a previously published procedure. The hypoxia map was used as a basis for generating compartmental gross tumour volumes, which were utilised as planning structures in biologically adapted IMRT. Three different MLCs were employed in inverse treatment planning, with leaf widths of 2.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm. The number of treatment beams and the degree of step-and-shoot beam modulation were varied. By optimising the tumour control probability (TCP) function, optimal compartmental doses were derived and used as target doses in the inverse planning. Resulting IMRT dose distributions and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were exported and analysed, giving estimates of TCP and compartmental equivalent uniform doses (EUDs). The impact of patient setup accuracy was simulated. Results. The MLC with the smallest leaf width (2.5 mm) consistently gave the highest TCPs and compartmental EUDs, assuming no setup error. The difference between this MLC and the 5 mm MLC was rather small, while the MLC with 10 mm leaf width gave considerably lower TCPs. When including random and systematic setup errors, errors larger than 5 mm gave only small differences between the MLC types. For setup errors larger than 7 mm no differences were found between non-uniform and uniform dose distributions. Conclusions. Biologically adapted radiotherapy may require MLCs with leaf widths smaller than 10 mm. However, for a high probability of cure it is crucial that accurate patient setup is ensured.

  8. WE-AB-209-06: Dynamic Collimator Trajectory Algorithm for Use in VMAT Treatment Deliveries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, L [Department of Medical Physics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, CA (Canada); Thomas, C; Syme, A [Department of Medical Physics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, CA (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Medical Physics, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop advanced dynamic collimator positioning algorithms for optimal beam’s-eye-view (BEV) fitting of targets in VMAT procedures, including multiple metastases stereotactic radiosurgery procedures. Methods: A trajectory algorithm was developed, which can dynamically modify the angle of the collimator as a function of VMAT control point to provide optimized collimation of target volume(s). Central to this algorithm is a concept denoted “whitespace”, defined as area within the jaw-defined BEV field, outside of the PTV, and not shielded by the MLC when fit to the PTV. Calculating whitespace at all collimator angles and every control point, a two-dimensional topographical map depicting the tightness-of-fit of the MLC was generated. A variety of novel searching algorithms identified a number of candidate trajectories of continuous collimator motion. Ranking these candidate trajectories according to their accrued whitespace value produced an optimal solution for navigation of this map. Results: All trajectories were normalized to minimum possible (i.e. calculated without consideration of collimator motion constraints) accrued whitespace. On an acoustic neuroma case, a random walk algorithm generated a trajectory with 151% whitespace; random walk including a mandatory anchor point improved this to 148%; gradient search produced a trajectory with 137%; and bi-directional gradient search generated a trajectory with 130% whitespace. For comparison, a fixed collimator angle of 30° and 330° accumulated 272% and 228% of whitespace, respectively. The algorithm was tested on a clinical case with two metastases (single isocentre) and identified collimator angles that allow for simultaneous irradiation of the PTVs while minimizing normal tissue irradiation. Conclusion: Dynamic collimator trajectories have the potential to improve VMAT deliveries through increased efficiency and reduced normal tissue dose, especially in treatment of multiple cranial metastases

  9. WE-AB-209-06: Dynamic Collimator Trajectory Algorithm for Use in VMAT Treatment Deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, L; Thomas, C; Syme, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop advanced dynamic collimator positioning algorithms for optimal beam’s-eye-view (BEV) fitting of targets in VMAT procedures, including multiple metastases stereotactic radiosurgery procedures. Methods: A trajectory algorithm was developed, which can dynamically modify the angle of the collimator as a function of VMAT control point to provide optimized collimation of target volume(s). Central to this algorithm is a concept denoted “whitespace”, defined as area within the jaw-defined BEV field, outside of the PTV, and not shielded by the MLC when fit to the PTV. Calculating whitespace at all collimator angles and every control point, a two-dimensional topographical map depicting the tightness-of-fit of the MLC was generated. A variety of novel searching algorithms identified a number of candidate trajectories of continuous collimator motion. Ranking these candidate trajectories according to their accrued whitespace value produced an optimal solution for navigation of this map. Results: All trajectories were normalized to minimum possible (i.e. calculated without consideration of collimator motion constraints) accrued whitespace. On an acoustic neuroma case, a random walk algorithm generated a trajectory with 151% whitespace; random walk including a mandatory anchor point improved this to 148%; gradient search produced a trajectory with 137%; and bi-directional gradient search generated a trajectory with 130% whitespace. For comparison, a fixed collimator angle of 30° and 330° accumulated 272% and 228% of whitespace, respectively. The algorithm was tested on a clinical case with two metastases (single isocentre) and identified collimator angles that allow for simultaneous irradiation of the PTVs while minimizing normal tissue irradiation. Conclusion: Dynamic collimator trajectories have the potential to improve VMAT deliveries through increased efficiency and reduced normal tissue dose, especially in treatment of multiple cranial metastases

  10. Electronic tissue compensation achieved with both dynamic and static multileaf collimator in eclipse treatment planning system for Clinac 6 EX and 2100 CD Varian linear accelerators: Feasibility and dosimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinhikar Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC and static multileaf collimator (SMLC, along with three-dimensional treatment planning system (3-D TPS, open the possibility of tissue compensation. A method using electronic tissue compensator (ETC has been implemented in Eclipse 3-D TPS (V 7.3, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA at our center. The ETC was tested for head and neck conformal radiotherapy planning. The purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of DMLC and SMLC in head and neck field irradiation for delivering homogeneous dose in the midplane at a pre-defined depth. In addition, emphasis was given to the dosimetric aspects in commissioning ETC in Eclipse. A Head and Neck Phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, USA was used for the dosimetric verification. Planning was carried out for both DMLC and SMLC ETC plans. The dose calculated at central axis by eclipse with DMLC and SMLC was noted. This was compared with the doses measured on machine with ion chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD. The calculated isodose curves and profiles were compared with the measured ones. The dose profiles along the two major axes from Eclipse were also compared with the profiles obtained from Amorphous Silicon (AS500 Electronic portal imaging device (EPID on Clinac 6 EX machine. In uniform dose regions, measured dose values agreed with the calculated doses within 3%. Agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in the dose gradient zone was within 3 mm. The isodose curves and the profiles were found to be in good agreement with the measured curves and profiles. The measured and the calculated dose profiles along the two major axes were flat for both DMLC and SMLC. The dosimetric verification of ETC for both the linacs demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the ETC treatment modality for achieving uniform dose distributions. Therefore, ETC can be used as a tool in head and neck treatment planning optimization for improved dose uniformity.

  11. Dosimetric impact of systematic MLC positional errors on step and shoot IMRT for prostate cancer: a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ung, N.M.; Wee, L.; Harper, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The positional accuracy of multi leaf collimators (MLC) is crucial in ensuring precise delivery of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of this planning study was to investigate the dosimetric impact of systematic MLC errors on step and shoot IMRT of prostate cancer. Twelve MLC leaf banks perturbations were introduced to six prostate IMRT treatment plans to simulate MLC systematic errors. Dose volume histograms (OYHs) were generated for the extraction of dose endpoint parameters. Plans were evaluated in terms of changes to the defined endpoint dose parameters, conformity index (CI) and healthy tissue avoidance (HTA) to planning target volume (PTY), rectum and bladder. Negative perturbations of MLC had been found to produce greater changes to endpoint dose parameters than positive perturbations of MLC (p < 0.05). Negative and positive synchronized MLC perturbations of I mm resulted in median changes of -2.32 and 1.78%, respectively to 095% of PTY whereas asynchronized MLC perturbations of the same direction and magnitude resulted in median changes of 1.18 and 0.90%, respectively. Doses to rectum were generally more sensitive to systematic MLC errors compared to bladder. Synchronized MLC perturbations of I mm resulted in median changes of endpoint dose parameters to both rectum and bladder from about I to 3%. Maximum reduction of -4.44 and -7.29% were recorded for CI and HTA, respectively, due to synchronized MLC perturbation of I mm. In summary, MLC errors resulted in measurable amount of dose changes to PTY and surrounding critical structures in prostate LMRT. (author)

  12. SU-E-T-605: Performance Evaluation of MLC Leaf-Sequencing Algorithms in Head-And-Neck IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, J; Lin, H [Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui (China); Chow, J [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the efficiency of three multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf-sequencing algorithms proposed by Galvin et al, Chen et al and Siochi et al using external beam treatment plans for head-and-neck intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: IMRT plans for head-and-neck were created using the CORVUS treatment planning system. The plans were optimized and the fluence maps for all photon beams determined. Three different MLC leaf-sequencing algorithms based on Galvin et al, Chen et al and Siochi et al were used to calculate the final photon segmental fields and their monitor units in delivery. For comparison purpose, the maximum intensity of fluence map was kept constant in different plans. The number of beam segments and total number of monitor units were calculated for the three algorithms. Results: From results of number of beam segments and total number of monitor units, we found that algorithm of Galvin et al had the largest number of monitor unit which was about 70% larger than the other two algorithms. Moreover, both algorithms of Galvin et al and Siochi et al have relatively lower number of beam segment compared to Chen et al. Although values of number of beam segment and total number of monitor unit calculated by different algorithms varied with the head-and-neck plans, it can be seen that algorithms of Galvin et al and Siochi et al performed well with a lower number of beam segment, though algorithm of Galvin et al had a larger total number of monitor units than Siochi et al. Conclusion: Although performance of the leaf-sequencing algorithm varied with different IMRT plans having different fluence maps, an evaluation is possible based on the calculated number of beam segment and monitor unit. In this study, algorithm by Siochi et al was found to be more efficient in the head-and-neck IMRT. The Project Sponsored by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (J2014HGXJ0094) and the Scientific Research Foundation for the

  13. SU-E-T-605: Performance Evaluation of MLC Leaf-Sequencing Algorithms in Head-And-Neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, J; Lin, H; Chow, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficiency of three multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf-sequencing algorithms proposed by Galvin et al, Chen et al and Siochi et al using external beam treatment plans for head-and-neck intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: IMRT plans for head-and-neck were created using the CORVUS treatment planning system. The plans were optimized and the fluence maps for all photon beams determined. Three different MLC leaf-sequencing algorithms based on Galvin et al, Chen et al and Siochi et al were used to calculate the final photon segmental fields and their monitor units in delivery. For comparison purpose, the maximum intensity of fluence map was kept constant in different plans. The number of beam segments and total number of monitor units were calculated for the three algorithms. Results: From results of number of beam segments and total number of monitor units, we found that algorithm of Galvin et al had the largest number of monitor unit which was about 70% larger than the other two algorithms. Moreover, both algorithms of Galvin et al and Siochi et al have relatively lower number of beam segment compared to Chen et al. Although values of number of beam segment and total number of monitor unit calculated by different algorithms varied with the head-and-neck plans, it can be seen that algorithms of Galvin et al and Siochi et al performed well with a lower number of beam segment, though algorithm of Galvin et al had a larger total number of monitor units than Siochi et al. Conclusion: Although performance of the leaf-sequencing algorithm varied with different IMRT plans having different fluence maps, an evaluation is possible based on the calculated number of beam segment and monitor unit. In this study, algorithm by Siochi et al was found to be more efficient in the head-and-neck IMRT. The Project Sponsored by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (J2014HGXJ0094) and the Scientific Research Foundation for the

  14. A virtual photon source model of an Elekta linear accelerator with integrated mini MLC for Monte Carlo based IMRT dose calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, M; Dohm, O; Alber, M

    2007-08-07

    A dedicated, efficient Monte Carlo (MC) accelerator head model for intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning is needed to afford a highly accurate simulation of tiny IMRT fields. A virtual source model (VSM) of a mini multi-leaf collimator (MLC) (the Elekta Beam Modulator (EBM)) is presented, allowing efficient generation of particles even for small fields. The VSM of the EBM is based on a previously published virtual photon energy fluence model (VEF) (Fippel et al 2003 Med. Phys. 30 301) commissioned with large field measurements in air and in water. The original commissioning procedure of the VEF, based on large field measurements only, leads to inaccuracies for small fields. In order to improve the VSM, it was necessary to change the VEF model by developing (1) a method to determine the primary photon source diameter, relevant for output factor calculations, (2) a model of the influence of the flattening filter on the secondary photon spectrum and (3) a more realistic primary photon spectrum. The VSM model is used to generate the source phase space data above the mini-MLC. Later the particles are transmitted through the mini-MLC by a passive filter function which significantly speeds up the time of generation of the phase space data after the mini-MLC, used for calculation of the dose distribution in the patient. The improved VSM model was commissioned for 6 and 15 MV beams. The results of MC simulation are in very good agreement with measurements. Less than 2% of local difference between the MC simulation and the diamond detector measurement of the output factors in water was achieved. The X, Y and Z profiles measured in water with an ion chamber (V = 0.125 cm(3)) and a diamond detector were used to validate the models. An overall agreement of 2%/2 mm for high dose regions and 3%/2 mm in low dose regions between measurement and MC simulation for field sizes from 0.8 x 0.8 cm(2) to 16 x 21 cm(2) was achieved. An IMRT plan film verification

  15. Rounded leaf end effect of multileaf collimator on penumbra width and radiation field offset: an analytical and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Ye, Peiqing

    2015-01-01

    Penumbra characteristics play a significant role in dose delivery accuracy for radiation therapy. For treatment planning, penumbra width and radiation field offset strongly influence target dose conformity and organ at risk sparing. In this study, we present an analytical and numerical approach for evaluation of the rounded leaf end effect on penumbra characteristics. Based on the rule of half-value layer, algorithms for leaf position calculation and radiation field offset correction were developed, which were advantageous particularly in dealing with large radius leaf end. Computer simulation was performed based on the Monte Carlo codes of EGSnrc/BEAMnrc, with groups of leaf end radii and source sizes. Data processing technique of curve fitting was employed for deriving penumbra width and radiation field offset. Results showed that penumbra width increased with source size. Penumbra width curves for large radius leaf end were U-shaped. This observation was probably related to the fact that radiation beams penetrated through the proximal and distal leaf sides. In contrast, source size had negligible impact on radiation field offset. Radiation field offsets were found to be constant both for analytical method and numerical simulation. However, the overall resulting values of radiation field offset obtained by analytical method were slightly smaller compared with Monte Carlo simulation. The method we proposed could provide insight into the investigation of rounded leaf end effects on penumbra characteristics. Penumbra width and radiation field offset calibration should be carefully performed to commission multileaf collimator for intensity modulated radiotherapy

  16. TH-AB-BRB-05: Using a Research Real-Time Control Interface to Go Beyond Dynamic MLC Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nill, S. [The Institute of Cancer Research (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Current state-of-the art digital C-arm medical linear accelerators are capable of delivering radiation treatments with high level of automation, which affords coordinated motions of gantry, couch, and multileaf collimator (MLC) with dose rate modulations. The new machine capacity has shown the potential to bring substantially improved radiation dosimetry and/or delivery efficiency to many challenging diseases. Combining an integrated beam orientation optimization algorithm with automated machine navigation, markedly improved dose conformity has been achieved using 4ρ therapy. Trajectory modulated radiation therapy (TMAT) can be used to deliver highly conformal dose to partial breast or to carve complex dose distribution for therapy involving extended volumes such as total marrow and total lymph node treatment. Dynamic electron arc radiotherapy (DEAR) not only overcomes the deficiencies of conventional electron therapy in dose conformity and homogeneity but also achieves so without patient-specific shields. The combination of MLC and couch tracking provides improved motion management of thoracic and abdominal tumors. A substantial body of work has been done in these technological advances for clinical translation. The proposed symposium will provide a timely review of these exciting opportunities. Learning Objectives: Recognize the potential of using digitally controlled linacs for clinically significant improvements in delivered dose distributions for various treatment sites. Identify existing approaches to treatment planning, optimization and delivery for treatment techniques utilizing the advanced functions of digital linacs and venues for further development and improvement. Understand methods for testing and validating delivery system performance. Identify tools available on current delivery systems for implementation and control for such treatments. Obtain the update in clinical applications, trials and regulatory approval. K. Sheng, NIH U19AI067769, NIH R43

  17. TH-AB-BRB-05: Using a Research Real-Time Control Interface to Go Beyond Dynamic MLC Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nill, S.

    2016-01-01

    Current state-of-the art digital C-arm medical linear accelerators are capable of delivering radiation treatments with high level of automation, which affords coordinated motions of gantry, couch, and multileaf collimator (MLC) with dose rate modulations. The new machine capacity has shown the potential to bring substantially improved radiation dosimetry and/or delivery efficiency to many challenging diseases. Combining an integrated beam orientation optimization algorithm with automated machine navigation, markedly improved dose conformity has been achieved using 4ρ therapy. Trajectory modulated radiation therapy (TMAT) can be used to deliver highly conformal dose to partial breast or to carve complex dose distribution for therapy involving extended volumes such as total marrow and total lymph node treatment. Dynamic electron arc radiotherapy (DEAR) not only overcomes the deficiencies of conventional electron therapy in dose conformity and homogeneity but also achieves so without patient-specific shields. The combination of MLC and couch tracking provides improved motion management of thoracic and abdominal tumors. A substantial body of work has been done in these technological advances for clinical translation. The proposed symposium will provide a timely review of these exciting opportunities. Learning Objectives: Recognize the potential of using digitally controlled linacs for clinically significant improvements in delivered dose distributions for various treatment sites. Identify existing approaches to treatment planning, optimization and delivery for treatment techniques utilizing the advanced functions of digital linacs and venues for further development and improvement. Understand methods for testing and validating delivery system performance. Identify tools available on current delivery systems for implementation and control for such treatments. Obtain the update in clinical applications, trials and regulatory approval. K. Sheng, NIH U19AI067769, NIH R43

  18. The impact of leaf width and plan complexity on DMLC tracking of prostate intensity modulated arc therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Tobias; Falk, Marianne; Poulsen, Per Rugaard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is commonly used to treat prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of leaf width and plan complexity on dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking for prostate motion management during IMAT treatments.Methods: Prostate...... IMAT plans were delivered with either a high-definition MLC (HDMLC) or a Millennium MLC (M-MLC) (0.25 and 0.50 cm central leaf width, respectively), with and without DMLC tracking, to a dosimetric phantom that reproduced four prostate motion traces. The plan complexity was varied by applying leaf....... The corresponding pass rates without tracking were 87.6% (range 76.2%-94.7%) and 91.1% (range 81.4%-97.6%), respectively. Decreased plan complexity improved the pass rate when static target measurements were used as reference, but not with the planned dose as reference. The main cause of tracking errors was leaf...

  19. Real-time tracking of tumor motions and deformations along the leaf travel direction with the aid of a synchronized dynamic MLC leaf sequencer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, Martin; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Advanced radiotherapeutical techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) are based on an accurate knowledge of the location of the radiation target. An accurate dose delivery, therefore, requires a method to account for the inter- and intrafractional target motion and the target deformation occurring during the course of treatment. A method to compensate in real time for changes in the position and shape of the target is the use of a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) technique which can be devised to automatically arrange the treatment field according to real-time image information. So far, various approaches proposed for leaf sequencers have had to rely on a priori known target motion data and have aimed to optimize the overall treatment time. Since for a real-time dose delivery the target motion is not known a priori, the velocity range of the leading leaves is restricted by a safety margin to c x v max while the following leaves can travel with an additional maximum speed to compensate for the respective target movements. Another aspect to be considered is the tongue and groove effect. A uniform radiation field can only be achieved if the leaf movements are synchronized. The method presented in this note is the first to combine a synchronizing sequencer and real-time tracking with a dynamic MLC. The newly developed algorithm is capable of online optimizing the leaf velocities by minimizing the overall treatment time while at the same time it synchronizes the leaf trajectories in order to avoid the tongue and groove effect. The simultaneous synchronization is performed with the help of an online-calculated mid-time leaf trajectory which is common for all leaf pairs and which takes into account the real-time target motion and deformation information. (note)

  20. Real-time tracking of tumor motions and deformations along the leaf travel direction with the aid of a synchronized dynamic MLC leaf sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Martin; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2007-11-21

    Advanced radiotherapeutical techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) are based on an accurate knowledge of the location of the radiation target. An accurate dose delivery, therefore, requires a method to account for the inter- and intrafractional target motion and the target deformation occurring during the course of treatment. A method to compensate in real time for changes in the position and shape of the target is the use of a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) technique which can be devised to automatically arrange the treatment field according to real-time image information. So far, various approaches proposed for leaf sequencers have had to rely on a priori known target motion data and have aimed to optimize the overall treatment time. Since for a real-time dose delivery the target motion is not known a priori, the velocity range of the leading leaves is restricted by a safety margin to c x v(max) while the following leaves can travel with an additional maximum speed to compensate for the respective target movements. Another aspect to be considered is the tongue and groove effect. A uniform radiation field can only be achieved if the leaf movements are synchronized. The method presented in this note is the first to combine a synchronizing sequencer and real-time tracking with a dynamic MLC. The newly developed algorithm is capable of online optimizing the leaf velocities by minimizing the overall treatment time while at the same time it synchronizes the leaf trajectories in order to avoid the tongue and groove effect. The simultaneous synchronization is performed with the help of an online-calculated mid-time leaf trajectory which is common for all leaf pairs and which takes into account the real-time target motion and deformation information.

  1. A treatment planning approach to spatially fractionated megavoltage grid therapy for bulky lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costlow, Heather N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Zhang, Hualin, E-mail: hzhang@nmh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the treatment planning methods of spatially fractionated megavoltage grid therapy for treating bulky lung tumors using multileaf collimator (MLC). A total of 5 patients with lung cancer who had gross tumor volumes ranging from 277 to 635 cm{sup 3} were retrospectively chosen for this study. The tumors were from 6.5 to 9.6 cm at shortest dimension. Several techniques using either electronic compensation or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were used to create a variety of grid therapy plans on the Eclipse treatment planning system. The dose prescription point was calculated to the volume, and a dose of 20 Gy with 6-MV/15-MV beams was used in each plan. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) curves were obtained to evaluate dosimetric characteristics. In addition, DVH curves from a commercially available cerrobend grid collimator were also used for comparison. The linear-quadratic radiobiological response model was used to assess therapeutic ratios (TRs) and equivalent uniform doses (EUD) for all generated plans. A total of 6 different grid therapy plans were created for each patient. Overall, 4 plans had different electronic compensation techniques: Ecomps-Tubes, Ecomps-Circles, Ecomps-Squares, and Ecomps-Weave; the other 2 plans used IMRT and IMRT-Weave techniques. The DVH curves and TRs demonstrated that these MLC-based grid therapy plans can achieve dosimetric properties very similar to those of the cerrobend grid collimator. However, the MLC-based plans have larger EUDs than those with the cerrobend grid collimator. In addition, the field shaping can be performed for targets of any shape in MLC-based plans. Thus, they can deliver a more conformal dose to the targets and spare normal structures better than the cerrobend grid collimator can. The plans generated by the MLC technique demonstrated the advantage over the standard cerrobend grid collimator on accommodating targets and sparing normal structures. Overall, 6

  2. Monitor Unit Calculation for the Multileaf Intensity Modulating Collimator (MIMiCTM) in the PeacockTM Plan System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, Aleksander A.; Bleier, Alan R.; Carol, Mark P.

    1995-01-01

    A finite-size pencil beam method has been chosen for dose modelling in conformal radiotherapy when the Multileaf Intensity Modulating Collimator (MIMiC) is used to deliver the treatment. The MIMiC has two rows of 20 tungsten leaves which retract toward or away from the accelerator gantry, producing two intensity-modulated transaxial treatment slices which are 20 cm x 1 or 2 cm at isocenter. The treatment field is thus a fan beam made up of 40 sub-beams or finite-size pencil beams, leading to the choice of the model. Rotational treatments with the MIMiC are modelled in Peacock Plan as a set of ports spaced at gantry angle increments of 5 deg. to 10 deg. . The fractional time spent by the leaf in the beam during the gantry angle increment determines the intensity. The intensities from each leaf for each port are optimized in Peacock Plan, one treatment slice at a time, and then the dose from all slices is combined. The treatment planning system uses a two-dimensional measured pencil beam profile from one leaf at a selected reference depth along with measured open field, broad beam profiles at several depths. This makes beam data collection simple and dosimetrically flexible. The nature of the measured data imposes some conditions on calculation of Monitor Units (MU). The calculation must also take into consideration that two independent slices are delivered at the same time, and that multiple slices may be used to treat targets which are longer in the inferior-superior direction than the field produced by two slices. The MU calculation method is derived and presented as an enhancement of the traditional method of MU determination for treatments based on static ports. Experimental results indicative of the validity and limitations of the model will be demonstrated

  3. Multileaf Collimator Tracking Improves Dose Delivery for Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy: Results of the First Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colvill, Emma; Booth, Jeremy T; O'Brien, Ricky T

    2015-01-01

    was tested for each dose-volume value via analysis of variance using the F test. RESULTS: Of the 513 fractions delivered, 475 (93%) were suitable for analysis. The mean difference and standard deviation between the planned and treated MLC tracking doses and the planned and without-MLC tracking doses for all...... 475 fractions were, respectively, PTV D99% -0.8% ± 1.1% versus -2.1% ± 2.7%; CTV D99% -0.6% ± 0.8% versus -0.6% ± 1.1%; rectum V65% 1.6% ± 7.9% versus -1.2% ± 18%; and bladder V65% 0.5% ± 4.4% versus -0.0% ± 9.2% (P

  4. Minimizing the number of segments in a delivery sequence for intensity-modulated radiation therapy with a multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jianrong; Zhu Yunping

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a sequencing algorithm for intensity-modulated radiation therapy with a multileaf collimator in the static mode. The algorithm aims to minimize the number of segments in a delivery sequence. For a machine with a long verification and recording overhead time (e.g., 15 s per segment), minimizing the number of segments is equivalent to minimizing the delivery time. The proposed new algorithm is based on checking numerous candidates for a segment and selecting the candidate that results in a residual intensity matrix with the least complexity. When there is more than one candidate resulting in the same complexity, the candidate with the largest size is selected. The complexity of an intensity matrix is measured in the new algorithm in terms of the number of segments in the delivery sequence obtained by using a published algorithm. The beam delivery efficiency of the proposed algorithm and the influence of different published algorithms used to calculate the complexity of an intensity matrix were tested with clinical intensity-modulated beams. The results show that no matter which published algorithm is used to calculate the complexity of an intensity matrix, the sequence generated by the algorithm proposed here is always more efficient than that generated by the published algorithm itself. The results also show that the algorithm used to calculate the complexity of an intensity matrix affects the efficiency of beam delivery. The delivery sequences are frequently most efficient when the algorithm of Bortfeld et al. is used to calculate the complexity of an intensity matrix. Because no single variation is most efficient for all beams tested, we suggest implementing multiple variations of our algorithm

  5. Reconstruction of high resolution MLC leaf positions using a low resolution detector for accurate 3D dose reconstruction in IMRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R; Godart, J; Wauben, D J L; Langendijk, J A; Van't Veld, A A; Korevaar, E W

    2016-01-01

    In pre-treatment dose verification, low resolution detector systems are unable to identify shifts of individual leafs of high resolution multi leaf collimator (MLC) systems from detected changes in the dose deposition. The goal of this study was to introduce an alternative approach (the shutter

  6. Investigating the impact of treatment delivery uncertainties on treatment effectiveness for lung SABR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blake, Samuel J.; Arumugam, Sankar; Holloway, Lois

    2017-01-01

    To quantify the impact of treatment delivery uncertainties on lung stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) plans for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (ssIMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Baseline ssIMRT and VMAT treatment plans were generated for a cohort...... of 18 lung SABR patients. Modified plans were generated for each baseline plan by systematically varying gantry and collimator angles between − 5 and + 5 degrees, as well as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position errors of magnitude between 1 and 5 mm in both directions (i.e. leaf banks shifted...... either in the same (Type 1) or opposite (Type 2) directions). Planning target volume (PTV), spinal cord and healthy lung dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics were compared between the modified and baseline plans. Collimator and gantry angle uncertainties did not significantly impact any of the PTV DVH...

  7. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 02: Feasibility of using multileaf collimation for stereotactic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young; Ruschin, Mark; Tsao, May; Schwartz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    SRS using linac and cones offers steep dose fall-off but a tradeoff exists between conformality and treatment time, which depends on the number of isocentres. Purpose of this study is to quantify planning metrics between cones- and MLC-based SRS for arteriovenous malformation(AVM). Seven AVM cases treated with cones were re-planned with MLC on Pinnacle treatment planning system. Planning target volume(PTV) was created with 1mm uniform margin to the AVM to account for MLC positional variation. Clinically-planned prescription dose(15–25Gy) was used. Four plans were generated per case:non-coplanar VMAT(ncV), single-arc VMAT(saV), non-coplanar IMRT(ncI), non-coplanar conformal(ncC). Plans were compared for conformity(CI), heterogeneity(HI) and gradient(GI) indices and brain doses. Estimated treatment times and monitor units(MU) were compared. Cone-based plans required 2–6 isocentres. Though CI-RTOG was similar for plans(median=0.98), CI-Paddick was most favourable for ncV(median=0.86) and worst for cones(0.54). HI for MLC plans(median=1.19–1.27) were lower than cone-based plans(1.43). GI was similar for all plans. For 2/7 ncC had brainstem maximum dose>16.7Gy and therefore were clinically unacceptable. Brain V12Gy,V10Gy,V2Gy were lowest in the cones plan. ncV brain V12Gy,V10Gy,V2Gy were lowest of all MLC-based plans studied. Treatment MUs were similar for MLC-based plans and up to 70% lower than clinically delivered plans. ncV showed best conformality in this study. Of the MLC-based plans, ncV also showed lowest normal tissue dose with reasonable treatment time.

  8. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 02: Feasibility of using multileaf collimation for stereotactic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young; Ruschin, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, University of Toronto (Canada); Tsao, May [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Department of Surgery (Neurosurgery), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    SRS using linac and cones offers steep dose fall-off but a tradeoff exists between conformality and treatment time, which depends on the number of isocentres. Purpose of this study is to quantify planning metrics between cones- and MLC-based SRS for arteriovenous malformation(AVM). Seven AVM cases treated with cones were re-planned with MLC on Pinnacle treatment planning system. Planning target volume(PTV) was created with 1mm uniform margin to the AVM to account for MLC positional variation. Clinically-planned prescription dose(15–25Gy) was used. Four plans were generated per case:non-coplanar VMAT(ncV), single-arc VMAT(saV), non-coplanar IMRT(ncI), non-coplanar conformal(ncC). Plans were compared for conformity(CI), heterogeneity(HI) and gradient(GI) indices and brain doses. Estimated treatment times and monitor units(MU) were compared. Cone-based plans required 2–6 isocentres. Though CI-RTOG was similar for plans(median=0.98), CI-Paddick was most favourable for ncV(median=0.86) and worst for cones(0.54). HI for MLC plans(median=1.19–1.27) were lower than cone-based plans(1.43). GI was similar for all plans. For 2/7 ncC had brainstem maximum dose>16.7Gy and therefore were clinically unacceptable. Brain V12Gy,V10Gy,V2Gy were lowest in the cones plan. ncV brain V12Gy,V10Gy,V2Gy were lowest of all MLC-based plans studied. Treatment MUs were similar for MLC-based plans and up to 70% lower than clinically delivered plans. ncV showed best conformality in this study. Of the MLC-based plans, ncV also showed lowest normal tissue dose with reasonable treatment time.

  9. Pre-clinical evaluation of an inverse planning module for segmental MLC based IMRT delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Kroupa, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    Phantom tests are performed for pre-clinical evaluation of a commercial inverse planning system (HELAX TMS, V 6.0) for segmented multileaf collimator (MLC) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery. The optimization module has available two optimization algorithms: the target primary feasibility and the weighted feasibility algorithm, only the latter allows the user to specify weights for structures. In the first series, single beam tests are performed to evaluate the outcome of inverse planning in terms of plausibility for the following situations: oblique incidence, presence of inhomogeneities, multiple targets at different depths and multiple targets with different desired doses. Additionally, for these tests a manual plan is made for comparison. In the absence of organs at risk, both the optimization algorithms are found to assign the highest priority to low dose constraints for targets. In the second series, tests resembling clinical relevant configurations (simultaneous boost and concave target with critical organ) are performed with multiple beam arrangements in order to determine the impact of the system's configuration on inverse planning. It is found that the definition of certain segment number and segment size limitations does not largely compromise treatment plans when using multiple beams. On the other hand, these limitations are important for delivery efficiency and dosimetry. For the number of iterations and voxels per volume of interest, standard values in the system's configuration are considered to be sufficient. Additionally, it is demonstrated that precautions must be taken to precisely define treatment goals when using computerized treatment optimization. Similar phantom tests could be used for a direct dosimetric verification of all steps from inverse treatment planning to IMRT delivery. (note)

  10. SU-C-BRB-04: Characteristics and Performance Evaluation of the First Commercial MLC for a Robotic Delivery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerweger, C; Prins, P; Coskan, H; Heijmen, B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess characteristics and performance of the “Incise™” MLC (41 leaf pairs, 2.5mm width, FFF linac) mounted on the robotic SRS/SBRT platform “CyberKnife M6™” in a pre-clinical 5 months (11/2014–03/2015) test period. Methods: Beam properties were measured with unshielded diodes and EBT3 film. The CyberKnife workspace for MLC was analyzed by transforming robot node coordinates (cranial / body paths) into Euler geometry. Bayouth tests for leaf / bank position accuracy were performed in standard (A/P) and clinically relevant non-standard positions, before and after exercising the MLC for 10+ minutes. Total system and delivery accuracy were assessed in End-to-End tests and dosimetric verification of exemplary plans. Stability over time was evaluated in Picket-Fence-and adapted Winston-Lutz-tests (AQA) for different collimator angles. Results: Penumbrae (80–20%, with 100%=2*dose at inflection point; SAD 80cm; 10cm depth) parallel / perpendicular to leaf motion were 2.87/2.64mm for the smallest (0×76×0.75cm 2 ) and 5.34/4.94mm for the largest (9.76×9.75cm 2 ) square field. MLC circular field penumbrae exceeded fixed cones by 10–20% (e.g. 60mm: 4.0 vs. 3.6mm; 20mm: 3.6 vs. 2.9mm). Interleaf leakage was <0.5%. Clinically accessible workspace with MLC covered (non-coplanar) gantry angles of [-113°;+112°] (cranial) and [-108°;+102°] (body), and collimator angles of [-100°;+107°] (cranial) and [-91°;+100°] (body). Average leaf position offsets were ≤0.2mm in 14 standard A/P Bayouth tests and ≤0.6mm in 8 non-standard direction tests. Pre-test MLC exercise increased jaggedness (range ±0.3mm vs. ±0.5mm) and allowed to identify one malfunctioning leaf motor. Total system accuracy with MLC was 0.39±0.06mm in 6 End-to-End tests. Picket-Fence and AQA showed no adverse trends during the test period. Conclusion: The Incise™ MLC for CyberKnife M6™ displayed high accuracy and mechanical stability over the test period. The specific Cyber

  11. SU-C-BRB-04: Characteristics and Performance Evaluation of the First Commercial MLC for a Robotic Delivery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerweger, C [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); European Cyberknife Center Munich, Munich, DE (Germany); Prins, P; Coskan, H; Heijmen, B [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess characteristics and performance of the “Incise™” MLC (41 leaf pairs, 2.5mm width, FFF linac) mounted on the robotic SRS/SBRT platform “CyberKnife M6™” in a pre-clinical 5 months (11/2014–03/2015) test period. Methods: Beam properties were measured with unshielded diodes and EBT3 film. The CyberKnife workspace for MLC was analyzed by transforming robot node coordinates (cranial / body paths) into Euler geometry. Bayouth tests for leaf / bank position accuracy were performed in standard (A/P) and clinically relevant non-standard positions, before and after exercising the MLC for 10+ minutes. Total system and delivery accuracy were assessed in End-to-End tests and dosimetric verification of exemplary plans. Stability over time was evaluated in Picket-Fence-and adapted Winston-Lutz-tests (AQA) for different collimator angles. Results: Penumbrae (80–20%, with 100%=2*dose at inflection point; SAD 80cm; 10cm depth) parallel / perpendicular to leaf motion were 2.87/2.64mm for the smallest (0×76×0.75cm{sup 2}) and 5.34/4.94mm for the largest (9.76×9.75cm{sup 2}) square field. MLC circular field penumbrae exceeded fixed cones by 10–20% (e.g. 60mm: 4.0 vs. 3.6mm; 20mm: 3.6 vs. 2.9mm). Interleaf leakage was <0.5%. Clinically accessible workspace with MLC covered (non-coplanar) gantry angles of [-113°;+112°] (cranial) and [-108°;+102°] (body), and collimator angles of [-100°;+107°] (cranial) and [-91°;+100°] (body). Average leaf position offsets were ≤0.2mm in 14 standard A/P Bayouth tests and ≤0.6mm in 8 non-standard direction tests. Pre-test MLC exercise increased jaggedness (range ±0.3mm vs. ±0.5mm) and allowed to identify one malfunctioning leaf motor. Total system accuracy with MLC was 0.39±0.06mm in 6 End-to-End tests. Picket-Fence and AQA showed no adverse trends during the test period. Conclusion: The Incise™ MLC for CyberKnife M6™ displayed high accuracy and mechanical stability over the test period. The

  12. An MLC-based linac QA procedure for the characterization of radiation isocenter and room lasers' position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Florin; Lorenz, Friedlieb; Hacker, Fred L.; Chin, Lee M.; Ramakrishna, Naren; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a new stereotactic linac QA test with stereotactic precision. The test is used to characterize gantry sag, couch wobble, cone placement, MLC offsets, and room lasers' positions relative to the radiation isocenter. Two MLC star patterns, a cone pattern, and the laser line patterns are recorded on the same imaging medium. Phosphor plates are used as imaging medium due to their sensitivity to red light. The red light of room lasers erases some of the irradiation information stored on the phosphor plates enabling accurate and direct measurements for the position of room lasers and radiation isocenter. Using film instead of the phosphor plate as imaging medium is possible, however, it is less practical. The QA method consists of irradiating four phosphor plates that record the gantry sag between the 0 deg.and 180 deg.gantry angles, the position and stability of couch rotational axis, the sag between the 90 deg.and 270 deg.gantry angles, the accuracy of cone placement on the collimator, the MLC offsets from the collimator rotational axis, and the position of laser lines relative to the radiation isocenter. The estimated accuracy of the method is ±0.2 mm. The observed reproducibility of the method is about ±0.1 mm. The total irradiation/illumination time is about 10 min per image. Data analysis, including the phosphor plate scanning, takes less than 5 min for each image. The method characterizes the radiation isocenter geometry with the high accuracy required for the stereotactic radiosurgery. In this respect, it is similar to the standard ball test for stereotactic machines. However, due to the usage of the MLC instead of the cross-hair/ball, it does not depend on the cross-hair/ball placement errors with respect to the lasers and it provides more information on the mechanical integrity of the linac/couch/laser system. Alternatively, it can be used as a highly accurate QA procedure for the nonstereotactic machines. Noteworthy is its

  13. Stereotactic IMRT using a MMLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoban, P.; Short, R.; Biggs, D.; Rose, A.; Smee, R.; Schneider, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The leaf width of the multileaf collimator (MLC) used for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT ) largely determines the resolution of the intensity maps that define the entire profile of each beam. In turn it is this resolution, and consequently the achievable degree of beam modulation, that determines the ability to conform the 3D dose distribution to complex target volumes. As such, the leaf width is of more importance than in fixed-field MLC treatments where only the beam edges are affected.A Radionics micro-multileaf collimator (MMLC) with 4 mm leaf width, attached to a Siemens Primus linear accelerator, is in use for stereotactic IMRT at PbWH. Treatment planning is performed with the XPlan system including an integrated IMRT module. Cases treated have so far been with conventional fractionation, including both malignant and benign cranial lesions. Meningiomas in particular often require a complex dose distribution because of their en-plaque nature and/or proximity to the brainstem. Stereotactic localisation and fixation is with the Gill-Thomas-Cosman head-ring or Head and Neck localiser. Cases are typically planned both for fixed-field treatment and IMRT, with IMRT being used if significant benefit is seen. IMRT treatment with the Siemens MLC is also an option. A quality assurance system has been set up, including a flowchart/checklist and phantom dosimetry using TLDs. As expected, treatment plans show IMRT with the MMLC to consistently be the best option dosimetrically. In particular, for a given target coverage there is always better sparing of nearby organs at risk (OARs) with MMLC rather than MLC-based IMRT. Adjustments such as the inclusion of a margin around the target volume or an increase in the penalty for target underdosage improve coverage for MLC plans but generally at the expense of increased OAR involvement. MMLC IMRT treatments commonly require 30-50 fields and can be delivered in approximately 10-15 minutes using an autosequence

  14. Do technological advances in linear accelerators improve dosimetric outcomes in stereotaxy? A head-on comparison of seven linear accelerators using volumetric modulated arc therapy-based stereotactic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, B; Pradhan, A; Munshi, A

    2016-01-01

    Linear accelerator (Linac) based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been used for treating small intracranial lesions. Recent development in the Linacs such as inbuilt micro multileaf collimator (MLC) and flattening filter free (FFF) beam are intended to provide a better dose conformity and faster delivery when using VMAT technique. This study was aimed to compare the dosimetric outcomes and monitor units (MUs) of the stereotactic treatment plans for different commercially available MLC models and beam profiles. Ten patients having 12 planning target volume (PTV)/gross target volume's (GTVs) who received the SRS/SRT treatment in our clinic using Axesse Linac (considered reference arm gold standard) were considered for this study. The test arms comprised of plans using Elekta Agility with FFF, Elekta Agility with the plane beam, Elekta APEX, Varian Millennium 120, Varian Millennium 120HD, and Elekta Synergy in Monaco treatment planning system. Planning constraints and calculation grid spacing were not altered in the test plans. To objectively evaluate the efficacy of MLC-beam model, the resultant dosimetric outcomes were subtracted from the reference arm parameters. V95%, V100%, V105%, D1%, maximum dose, and mean dose of PTV/GTV showed a maximum inter MLC - beam model variation of 1.5% and 2% for PTV and GTV, respectively. Average PTV conformity index and heterogeneity index shows a variation in the range 0.56-0.63 and 1.08-1.11, respectively. Mean dose difference (excluding Axesse) for all organs varied between 1.1 cGy and 74.8 cGy (mean dose = 6.1 cGy standard deviation [SD] = 26.9 cGy) and 1.7 cGy-194.5 cGy (mean dose 16.1 cGy SD = 57.2 cGy) for single and multiple fraction, respectively. The dosimetry of VMAT-based SRS/SRT treatment plan had minimal dependence on MLC and beam model variations. All tested MLC and beam model could fulfil the desired PTV coverage and organs at risk

  15. 3CML: a software application for quality control of multi leaf collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miras, H.; Perez, M. A.; Macias, J.; Moreno, J. C.; Campo, J. L.; Ortiz, M.; Arrans, R.; Ortiz, A.; Terron, J. A.; Fernandez, D.

    2011-01-01

    The treatments of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) require a deep knowledge of the accuracy, precision and reproducibility of positioning of the plates that make up the multi leaf collimator (MLC). We have developed a computer application, 3CML, to analyze an image corresponding to a pattern of separate bands irradiation to determine the deviations of the positioning of the blades on the nominal values.

  16. QALMA: A computational toolkit for the analysis of quality protocols for medical linear accelerators in radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mushfiqur; Lei, Yu; Kalantzis, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Quality Assurance (QA) for medical linear accelerator (linac) is one of the primary concerns in external beam radiation Therapy. Continued advancements in clinical accelerators and computer control technology make the QA procedures more complex and time consuming which often, adequate software accompanied with specific phantoms is required. To ameliorate that matter, we introduce QALMA (Quality Assurance for Linac with MATLAB), a MALAB toolkit which aims to simplify the quantitative analysis of QA for linac which includes Star-Shot analysis, Picket Fence test, Winston-Lutz test, Multileaf Collimator (MLC) log file analysis and verification of light & radiation field coincidence test.

  17. Megavoltage CT imaging as a by-product of multileaf collimator leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchala, K.J.; Kapatoes, J.M.; Olivera, G.H.; Schloesser, E.A.; Reckwerdt, P.J.; Mackie, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    In addition to their potential for the delivery of highly conformal radiation therapy treatments, tomotherapeutic treatments also feature increased potential for verification. For example, megavoltage CT allows one to use the megavoltage linac to generate tomographic images of the patient in the treatment position. This is typically done before or after radiation therapy treatments. However, it is also possible to collect MVCT images entirely during the treatment itself. This process utilizes the leakage radiation through the closed leaves of the Nomos MIMiC MLC, along with slight inefficiencies in treatment delivery, to generate MVCT images during treatment that require neither additional time nor dose. The image quality is limited, yet sufficient to see a patient's external boundary, density differences over 8% for 25.0 mm objects and resolutions of 3.0 mm for high-contrast objects. Such images can potentially be viewed during treatment, used to flag additional CT immediately after the treatment and provide a representation of the patient's exact position during treatment for use with dose reconstruction. (author)

  18. Performance of a multi leaf collimator system for MR-guided radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bin; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan; Rodriguez, Vivian; Curcuru, Austen; Wang, Yuhe; Wen, Jie; Kashani, Rojano; Mutic, Sasa; Green, Olga

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and characterize the performance of a Multi Leaf Collimator (MLC) designed for Cobalt-60 based MR-guided radiation therapy system in a 0.35 T magnetic field. The MLC design and unique assembly features in the ViewRay MRIdian system were first reviewed. The RF cage shielding of MLC motor and cables were evaluated using ACR phantoms with real-time imaging and quantified by signal-to-noise ratio. The dosimetric characterizations, including the leaf transmission, leaf penumbra, tongue-and-groove effect, were investigated using radiosensitive films. The output factor of MLC-defined fields was measured with ionization chambers for both symmetric fields from 2.1 × 2.1 cm 2 to 27.3 × 27.3 cm 2 and asymmetric fields from 10.5 × 10.5 cm 2 to 10.5 × 2.0 cm 2 . Multi leaf collimator (MLC) positional accuracy was assessed by delivering either a picket fence (PF) style pattern on radiochromic films with wire-jig phantom or double and triple-rectangular patterns on ArcCheck-MR (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL, USA) with gamma analysis as the pass/fail indicator. Leaf speed tests were performed to assess the capability of full range leaf travel within manufacture's specifications. Multi leaf collimator plan delivery reproducibility was tested by repeatedly delivering both open fields and fields with irregular shaped segments over 1-month period. Comparable SNRs within 4% were observed for MLC moving and stationary plans on vendor-reconstructed images, and the direct k-space reconstructed images showed that the three SNRs are within 1%. The maximum leaf transmission for all three MLCs was less than 0.35% and the average leakage was 0.153 ± 0.006%, 0.151 ± 0.008%, and 0.159 ± 0.015% for head 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Both the leaf edge and leaf end penumbra showed comparable values within 0.05 cm, and the measured values are within 0.1 cm with TPS values. The leaf edge TG effect indicated 10% underdose and the leaf end TG showed a

  19. Collimator setting optimization in intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Hoban, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of collimator angle and bixel size settings in IMRT when using the step and shoot method of delivery. Of particular interest is minimisation of the total monitor units delivered. Beam intensity maps with bixel size 10 x 10 mm were segmented into MLC leaf sequences and the collimator angle optimised to minimise the total number of MU's. The monitor units were estimated from the maximum sum of positive-gradient intensity changes along the direction of leaf motion. To investigate the use of low resolution maps at optimum collimator angles, several high resolution maps with bixel size 5 x 5 mm were generated. These were resampled into bixel sizes, 5 x 10 mm and 10 x 10 mm and the collimator angle optimised to minimise the RMS error between the original and resampled map. Finally, a clinical IMRT case was investigated with the collimator angle optimised. Both the dose distribution and dose-volume histograms were compared between the standard IMRT plan and the optimised plan. For the 10 x 10 mm bixel maps there was a variation of 5% - 40% in monitor units at the different collimator angles. The maps with a high degree of radial symmetry showed little variation. For the resampled 5 x 5 mm maps, a small RMS error was achievable with a 5 x 10 mm bixel size at particular collimator positions. This was most noticeable for maps with an elongated intensity distribution. A comparison between the 5 x 5 mm bixel plan and the 5 x 10 mm showed no significant difference in dose distribution. The monitor units required to deliver an intensity modulated field can be reduced by rotating the collimator and aligning the direction of leaf motion with the axis of the fluence map that has the least intensity. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  20. Preliminary validation of a Monte Carlo model for IMRT fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Tracy; Lye, Jessica; Mohammadi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A Monte Carlo model of an Elekta linac, validated for medium to large (10-30 cm) symmetric fields, has been investigated for small, irregular and asymmetric fields suitable for IMRT treatments. The model has been validated with field segments using radiochromic film in solid water. The modelled positions of the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves have been validated using EBT film, In the model, electrons with a narrow energy spectrum are incident on the target and all components of the linac head are included. The MLC is modelled using the EGSnrc MLCE component module. For the validation, a number of single complex IMRT segments with dimensions approximately 1-8 cm were delivered to film in solid water (see Fig, I), The same segments were modelled using EGSnrc by adjusting the MLC leaf positions in the model validated for 10 cm symmetric fields. Dose distributions along the centre of each MLC leaf as determined by both methods were compared. A picket fence test was also performed to confirm the MLC leaf positions. 95% of the points in the modelled dose distribution along the leaf axis agree with the film measurement to within 1%/1 mm for dose difference and distance to agreement. Areas of most deviation occur in the penumbra region. A system has been developed to calculate the MLC leaf positions in the model for any planned field size.

  1. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: dynamic MLC (DMLC) therapy, multisegment therapy and tomotherapy. An example of QA in DMLC therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.

    1998-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy will make a quantum leap in tumor control. It is the new radiation therapy for the new millennium. The major methods to achieve IMRT are: 1. Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) therapy, 2. multisegment therapy, and 3. tomotherapy. The principles of these 3 techniques are briefly reviewed. Each technique presents unique QA issues which are outlined. As an example this paper will present the results of a recent new study of an important QA concern in DMLC therapy. (orig.) [de

  2. Theoretical analysis of radiation field penumbra from a multi leaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shidong; Boyer, Arthur; Findley, David; Mok, Ed

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Analysis and measurement of the difference between the light field and the radiation field of the multi leaf collimator (MLC) leaves that are constructed with curved ends. Material and Methods: A Varian MLC with curved leaf ends was installed on a Clinac 2300 C/D. The leaves were 6.13 cm deep (dimension in beam direction) and were located 53.9 cm from the x-ray target. The leaf ends had an 8 cm radius of curvature. A relation was derived using three dimensional geometry predicting the location of the light field edge relative to the geometric projection of the tip of the curved leaf end. This is a nonlinear relationship because the shadow of the leaf is generated by different points along the leaf end surface as the leaf moves across the field. The theoretical edge of the radiation fluence for a point source was taken to be located along the projection of a chord whose length was 1 Half-Value Thickness (HVT). The chords having projection points across the light field edge were computed using an analytical solution. The radiation transmission through the leaf end was then estimated. The HVT used for tungsten alloy, the leaf material, was 0.87 cm and 0.94 cm for the 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. The location of the projection of the 1 HVT chord at a distance of 100 cm from x-ray target was also a nonlinear function of the projection of the leaf tip. Results: The displacement of the light field edge relative to the projection of the leaf tip varies from 0 mm when the leaf tip projects to the central axis, to approximately 3.2 mm for a 20 cm half-field width. The light field edge was always displaced into the unblocked area. The displacement of the projection of the 1 HVT chord relative to the projection of the leaf tip varies from 0.3 mm on the central axis to 3.0 mm for a 20 cm half-field width. The projection of 1 HVT chord was deviated from the light field edge by only 0.3 mm which would be slightly increased to 0.4 mm on decreasing

  3. Development of an iterative reconstruction method to overcome 2D detector low resolution limitations in MLC leaf position error detection for 3D dose verification in IMRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Ruurd; J., Godart; Wauben, D.J.L.; Langendijk, J.; van 't Veld, A.A.; Korevaar, E.W.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce a new iterative method to reconstruct multi leaf collimator (MLC) positions based on low resolution ionization detector array measurements and to evaluate its error detection performance. The iterative reconstruction method consists of a fluence model, a

  4. Two new DOSXYZnrc sources for 4D Monte Carlo simulations of continuously variable beam configurations, with applications to RapidArc, VMAT, TomoTherapy and CyberKnife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Julio; Popescu, I Antoniu

    2010-01-01

    We present two new Monte Carlo sources for the DOSXYZnrc code, which can be used to compute dose distributions due to continuously variable beam configurations. These sources support a continuously rotating gantry and collimator, dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion, variable monitor unit (MU) rate, couch rotation and translation in any direction, arbitrary isocentre motion with respect to the patient and variable source-to-axis distance (SAD). These features make them applicable to Monte Carlo simulations for RapidArc(TM), Elekta VMAT, TomoTherapy(TM) and CyberKnife(TM). Unique to these sources is the synchronization between the motion in the DOSXYZnrc geometry and the motion within the linac head, represented by a shared library (either a BEAMnrc accelerator with dynamic component modules, or an external library). The simulations are achieved in single runs, with no intermediate phase space files.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of the Tomotherapy treatment unit in the static mode using MC HAMMER, a Monte Carlo tool dedicated to Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E; Tomsej, M; Cravens, B; Salvat, F; Ruchala, K; Olivera, G H; Vynckier, S

    2007-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy (HT) is designed to deliver highly modulated IMRT treatments. The concept of HT provides new challenges in MC simulation, because simultaneous movement of the gantry, the couch and the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) must be simulated accurately. However, before accounting for gantry, couch movement and multileaf collimator configurations, high accuracy must be achieved while simulating open static fields (1 x 40, 2.5 x 40 and 5 x 40 cm 2 ). This is performed using MC HAMMER, which is a graphical user interface allowing MC simulation using PENELOPE for various configurations of HT. Since the geometry of the different elements and materials involved in the beam generation are precisely known and defined, the only parameters that need to be tuned on are therefore electron source spot size and electron energy. Beyond the build up region, good agreement (2%/1mm) is achieved for all the field sizes between measurements (ion chamber) and simulations with an electron source energy set to 5.5 MeV. The electron source spot size is modelled as a gaussian distribution with full width half maximum equal to 1.4 mm. This value was chosen to match measured and calculated penumbras in the longitudinal direction

  6. A computer-controlled high resolution micro-multi-leaf collimator for stereotactic conformal radio-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, Wolfgang; Pastyr, Otto; Kubesch, Rudolf; Diemer, Torsten; Kuester, Gunnilla; Rhein, Bernhard; Hoever, Karl-Heinz

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective In stereotactic conformal radiotherapy of irregularly shaped lesions, either multi-isocentric convergent beam treatment techniques with circular collimators or irregular shaped beams are being used. While the treatment technique with multiple isocenters has the disadvantage of producing inhomogeneous dose distributions, the use of irregular shaped fields is not yet satisfying from a technical point of view: Cerrobend blocking or the use of static micro MLCs need a long preparation time and only allow static treatment techniques, MLC collimators which are commercially available in connection with modern LINACs have leaf-thickness of at least 1 cm which is too coarse for stereotactic radiotherapy of lesions in the brain and head and neck area. For this reason, we developed a computer controlled micro-MLC with technical specifications matched to the needs of stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery. Materials and Methods The mechanical specifications of the computer controlled micro-MLC were derived from our experience with stereotactic treatment techniques, from the requirement that the MLC has to be attachable as an external device to the accessory holders of standard LINACs, including cost considerations, dosimetric measurements as well as Monte Carlo calculations. The Micro-MLC is controlled by an electronic equipment consisting of a standard PC under Windows 95, an interface board, 14 Micro-controller boards, a verification system and 80 driving units equipped with DC motors and potentiometers. The control program has calibrating, operating, visualizing and test options. Irregular field data are transferred from the treatment planning computer to the control PC and distributed to the micro-controllers, which in parallel are driving three leaves each. Beside the special control unit, we are currently investigating whether the electronics of commercially available integrated large field MLCs can also be used for operating the Micro-MLC. Results

  7. Using an EPID for patient-specific VMAT quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, M.; Kumaraswamy, L.; Bailey, D. W.; Boer, S. de; Malhotra, H. K.; Podgorsak, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A patient-specific quality assurance (QA) method was developed to verify gantry-specific individual multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures (control points) in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Methods: VMAT treatment plans were generated in an Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). DICOM images from a Varian EPID (aS1000) acquired in continuous acquisition mode were used for pretreatment QA. Each cine image file contains the grayscale image of the MLC aperture related to its specific control point and the corresponding gantry angle information. The TPS MLC file of this RapidArc plan contains the leaf positions for all 177 control points (gantry angles). In-house software was developed that interpolates the measured images based on the gantry angle and overlays them with the MLC pattern for all control points. The 38% isointensity line was used to define the edge of the MLC leaves on the portal images. The software generates graphs and tables that provide analysis for the number of mismatched leaf positions for a chosen distance to agreement at each control point and the frequency in which each particular leaf mismatches for the entire arc. Results: Seven patients plans were analyzed using this method. The leaves with the highest mismatched rate were found to be treatment plan dependent. Conclusions: This in-house software can be used to automatically verify the MLC leaf positions for all control points of VMAT plans using cine images acquired by an EPID.

  8. IMRT delivery to a moving target by dynamic MLC tracking: delivery for targets moving in two dimensions in the beam's eye view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuaid, D; Webb, S

    2006-01-01

    A new modification of the dynamic multileaf collimator (dMLC) delivery technique for intensity-modulated therapy (IMRT) is outlined. This technique enables the tracking of a target moving through rigid-body translations in a 2D trajectory in the beam's eye view. The accuracy of the delivery versus that of deliveries with no tracking and of 1D tracking techniques is quantified with clinically derived intensity-modulated beams (IMBs). Leaf trajectories calculated in the target-reference frame were iteratively synchronized assuming regular target motion. This allowed the leaves defined in the lab-reference frame to simultaneously follow the target motion and to deliver the required IMB without violation of the leaf maximum-velocity constraint. The leaves are synchronized until the gradient of the leaf position at every instant is less than a calculated maximum. The delivered fluence in the target-reference frame was calculated with a simple primary-fluence model. The new 2D tracking technique was compared with the delivered fluence produced by no-tracking deliveries and by 1D tracking deliveries for 33 clinical IMBs. For the clinical IMBs normalized to a maximum fluence of 200 MUs, the rms difference between the desired and the delivered IMB was 15.6 ± 3.3 MU for the case of a no-tracking delivery, 7.9 ± 1.6 MU for the case where only the primary component of motion was corrected and 5.1 ± 1.1 MU for the 2D tracking delivery. The residual error is due to interpolation and sampling effects. The 2D tracking delivery technique requires an increase in the delivery time evaluated as between 0 and 50% of the unsynchronized delivery time for each beam with a mean increase of 13% for the IMBs tested. The 2D tracking dMLC delivery technique allows an optimized IMB to be delivered to moving targets with increased accuracy and with acceptable increases in delivery time. When combined with real-time knowledge of the target motion at delivery time, this technique facilitates

  9. Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) Design of a Small Animal Radiotherapy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, S.; Mackie, T. R.; Jeraj, R.

    2014-03-01

    Open-Source Medical Devices (OSMD) was initiated with the goal of facilitating medical research by developing medical technologies including both hardware and software on an open-source platform. Our first project was to develop an integrated imaging and radiotherapy device for small animals that includes computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and radiation therapy (RT) modalities for which technical specifications were defined in the first OSMD conference held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA in December 2011. This paper specifically focuses on the development of a small animal RT (micro-RT) system by designing a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) and a small animal treatment planning system (SATPS) to enable intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Both hardware and software projects are currently under development and their current progresses are described. After the development, both bmMLC and TPS will be validated and commissioned for a micro-RT system. Both hardware design and software development will be open-sourced after completion.

  10. Validation of quality control tests of a multi leaf collimator using electronic portal image devices and commercial software; Validacion de unas pruebas de control de calidad del colimador multilamina utilizando dispositivos electronicos de imagen portal y una aplicacion comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latorre-Musoll, A.; Jornet Sala, N.; Carrasco de Fez, P.; Edualdo Puell, T.; Ruiz Martinez, A.; Ribas Morales, M.

    2013-07-01

    We describe a daily quality control procedure of the multi leaf collimator (MLC) based on electronic portal image devices and commercial software. We designed tests that compare portal images of a set of static and dynamic MLC configurations to a set of reference images using commercial portal dosimetry software. Reference images were acquired using the same set of MLC configurations after the calibration of the MLC. To assess the sensitivity to detect MLC under performances, we modified the MLC configurations by inserting a range of leaf position and speed errors. Distance measurements on portal images correlated with leaf position errors down to 0.1 mm in static MLC configurations. Dose differences between portal images correlated both with speed errors down to 0.5% of the nominal leaf velocities and with leaf position errors down to 0.1 mm in dynamic MLC configurations. The proposed quality control procedure can assess static and dynamic MLC configurations with high sensitivity and reliability. (Author)

  11. A quality assurance program for ancillary high technology devices on a dual-energy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Eric E.; Low, Daniel A.; Maag, Derek; Purdy, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Our facility has added high-technology ancillary devices to our dual-energy linear accelerator. After commissioning and acceptance testing of dual asymmetric jaws, dynamic wedge, portal imaging, and multileaf collimation (MLC), quality assurance programs were instituted. The programs were designed to be both periodic and patient specific when required. In addition, when dosimetric aspects were affected by these technologies, additional quality assurance checks were added. Positional accuracy checks (light and radiation) are done for both asymmetric jaws and MLC. Each patient MLC field is checked against the original simulation or digitally reconstructed radiographs. Off-axis factors and output checks are performed for asymmetric fields. Dynamic wedge transmission factors and profiles are checked periodically, and a patient diode check is performed for every new dynamic wedge portal. On-line imaging checks encompass safety checks along with periodic measurement of contrast and spatial resolution. The most important quality assurance activity is the annual review of proper operation and procedures for each device. Our programs have been successful in avoiding patient-related errors or device malfunctions. The programs are a team effort involving physicists, maintenance engineers, and therapists

  12. Evaluation of Kodak EDR2 film for dose verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered by a static multileaf collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X R; Jursinic, P A; Grimm, D F; Lopez, F; Rownd, J J; Gillin, M T

    2002-08-01

    A new type of radiographic film, Kodak EDR2 film, was evaluated for dose verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered by a static multileaf collimator (SMLC). A sensitometric curve of EDR2 film irradiated by a 6 MV x-ray beam was compared with that of Kodak X-OMAT V (XV) film. The effects of field size, depth and dose rate on the sensitometric curve were also studied. It is found that EDR2 film is much less sensitive than XV film. In high-energy x-ray beams, the double hit process is the dominant mechanism that renders the grains on EDR2 films developable. As a result, in the dose range that is commonly used for film dosimetry for IMRT and conventional external beam therapy, the sensitometric curves of EDR2 films cannot be approximated as a linear function, OD = c * D. Within experimental uncertainty, the film sensitivity does not depend on the dose rate (50 vs 300 MU/min) or dose per pulse (from 1.0 x 10(-4) to 4.21 x 10(-4) Gy/pulse). Field sizes and depths (up to field size of 10 x 10 cm2 and depth = 10 cm) have little effect on the sensitometric curves. Percent depth doses (PDDs) for both 6 and 23 MV x rays were measured with both EDR2 and XV films and compared with ion chamber data. Film data are within 2.5% of the ion chamber results. Dose profiles measured with EDR2 film are consistent with those measured with an ion chamber. Examples of measured IMRT isodose distributions versus calculated isodoses are presented. We have used EDR2 films for verification of all IMRT patients treated by SMLC in our clinic. In most cases, with EDR2 film, actual clinical daily fraction doses can be used for verification of composite isodose distributions of SMLC-based IMRT.

  13. Refinement of MLC modeling improves commercial QA dosimetry system for SRS and SBRT patient-specific QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Yair; Kim, Josh; Chetty, Indrin; Wen, Ning

    2018-04-01

    Mobius 3D (M3D) provides a volumetric dose verification of the treatment planning system's calculated dose using an independent beam model and a collapsed cone convolution superposition algorithm. However, there is a lack of investigation into M3D's accuracy and effectiveness for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) quality assurance (QA). Here, we collaborated with the vendor to develop a revised M3D beam model for SRS/SBRT cases treated with a 6X flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and high-definition multiple leaf collimator (HDMLC) on an Edge linear accelerator. Eighty SRS/SBRT cases, planned with AAA dose algorithm and validated with Gafchromic film, were compared to M3D dose calculations using 3D gamma analysis with 2%/2 mm gamma criteria and a 10% threshold. A revised beam model was developed by refining the HD-MLC model in M3D to improve small field dose calculation accuracy and beam profile agreement. All cases were reanalyzed using the revised beam model. The impact of heterogeneity corrections for lung cases was investigated by applying lung density overrides to five cases. For the standard and revised beam models, respectively, the mean gamma passing rates were 94.6% [standard deviation (SD): 6.1%] and 98.0% [SD: 1.7%] (for the overall patient), 88.2% [SD: 17.3%] and 93.8% [SD: 6.8%] (for the brain PTV), 71.4% [SD: 18.4%] and 81.5% [SD: 14.3%] (for the lung PTV), 83.3% [SD: 16.7%] and 67.9% [SD: 23.0%] (for the spine PTV), and 78.6% [SD: 14.0%] and 86.8% [SD: 12.5%] (for the PTV of all other sites). The lung PTV mean gamma passing rates improved from 74.1% [SD: 7.5%] to 89.3% [SD: 7.2%] with the lung density overridden. The revised beam model achieved an output factor within 3% of plastic scintillator measurements for 2 × 2 cm 2 MLC field size, but larger discrepancies are still seen for smaller field sizes which necessitate further improvement of the beam model. Special attention needs to be paid to small field

  14. SU-G-TeP4-07: Automatic EPID-Based 2D Measurement of MLC Leaf Offset as a Quality Control Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, T; Moran, J [The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schultz, B [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kim, G [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Barnes, M [Calvary Mater Hospital Newcastle, Warratah, NSW (Australia); Perez, M [North Sydney Cancer Center, Sydney (Australia); Farrey, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Popple, R [University Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Greer, P [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The MLC dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) and transmission are measured parameters which impact the dosimetric accuracy of IMRT and VMAT plans. This investigation aims to develop an efficient and accurate routine constancy check of the physical DLG in two dimensions. Methods: The manufacturer’s recommended DLG measurement method was modified by using 5 fields instead of 11 and by utilizing the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID). Validations were accomplished using an ion chamber (IC) in solid water and a 2D IC array. EPID data was collected for 6 months on multiple TrueBeam linacs using both Millennium and HD MLCs at 5 different clinics in an international consortium. Matlab code was written to automatically analyze the images and calculate the 2D results. Sensitivity was investigated by introducing deliberate leaf position errors. MLC calibration and initialization history was recorded to allow quantification of their impact. Results were analyzed using statistical process control (SPC). Results: The EPID method took approximately 5 minutes. Due to detector response, the EPID measured DLG and transmission differed from the IC values but were reproducible and consistent with changes measured using the ICs. For the Millennium MLC, the EPID measured DLG and transmission were both consistently lower than IC results. The EPID method was implemented as leaf offset and transmission constancy tests (LOC and TC). Based on 6 months of measurements, the initial leaf-specific action thresholds for changes from baseline were set to 0.1 mm. Upper and lower control limits for variation were developed for each machine. Conclusion: Leaf offset and transmission constancy tests were implemented on Varian HD and Millennium MLCs using an EPID and found to be efficient and accurate. The test is effective for monitoring MLC performance using dynamic delivery and performing process control on the DLG in 2D, thus enhancing dosimetric accuracy. This work was supported by a grant

  15. A Monte Carlo dosimetric quality assurance system for dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takegawa, Hideki; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Miyabe, Yuki; Teshima, Teruki; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Yano, Shinsuke; Mizowaki, Takashi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation system, which can resolve dosimetric issues derived from multileaf collimator (MLC) design for routine dosimetric quality assurance (QA) of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The treatment head of the medical linear accelerator equipped with MLC was modeled using the EGS4 MC code. A graphical user interface (GUI) application was developed to implement MC dose computation in the CT-based patient model and compare the MC calculated results with those of a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) system, Varian Eclipse. To reduce computation time, the EGS4 MC code has been parallelized on massive parallel processing (MPP) system using the message passing interface (MPI). The MC treatment head model and MLC model were validated by the measurement data sets of percentage depth dose (PDD) and off-center ratio (OCR) in the water phantom and the film measurements for the static and dynamic test patterns, respectively. In the treatment head model, the MC calculated results agreed with those of measurements for both of PDD and OCR. The MC could reproduce all of the MLC dosimetric effects. A quantitative comparison between the results of MC and Eclipse was successfully performed with the GUI application. Parallel speed-up became almost linear. An MC dosimetric QA system for dynamic IMRT has been developed, however there were large dose discrepancies between the MC and the measurement in the MLC model simulation, which are now being investigated. (author)

  16. MSPT: Motion Simulator for Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In proton therapy, the delivery method named spot scanning, can provide a particularly efficient treatment in terms of tumor coverage and healthy tissues protection. The dosimetric benefits of proton therapy may be greatly degraded due to intra-fraction motions. Hence, the study of mitigation or adaptive methods is necessary. For this purpose, we developed an open-source 4D dose computation and evaluation software, MSPT (Motion Simulator for Proton Therapy), for the spot-scanning delivery technique. It aims at highlighting the impact of intra-fraction motions during a treatment delivery by computing the dose distribution in the moving patient. In addition, the use of MSPT allowed us to develop and propose a new motion mitigation strategy based on the adjustment of the beam's weight when the proton beam is scanning across the tumor. In photon therapy, a main concern for deliveries using a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) relies on finding a series of MLC configurations to deliver properly the treatment. The efficiency of such series is measured by the total beam-on time and the total setup time. In our work, we study the minimization of these efficiency criteria from an algorithmic point of view, for new variants of MLCs: the rotating MLC and the dual-layer MLC. In addition, we propose an approximation algorithm to find a series of configurations that minimizes the total beam-on time for the rotating MLC. (author) [fr

  17. SU-F-T-508: A Collimator-Based 3-Dimensional Grid Therapy Technique in a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, J; Kong, V; Zhang, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Three dimensional (3D) Grid Therapy using MLC-based inverse-planning has been proposed to achieve the features of both conformal radiotherapy and spatially fractionated radiotherapy, which may deliver very high dose in a single fraction to portions of a large tumor with relatively low normal tissue dose. However, the technique requires relatively long delivery time. This study aims to develop a collimator-based 3D grid therapy technique. Here we report the development of the technique in a small animal radiation research platform. Methods: Similar as in the MLC-based technique, 9 non-coplanar beams in special channeling directions were used for the 3D grid therapy technique. Two specially designed grid collimators were fabricated, and one of them was selectively used to match the corresponding gantry/couch angles so that the grid opening of all 9 beams are met in the 3D space in the target. A stack of EBT3 films were used as 3D dosimetry to demonstrate the 3D grid-like dose distribution in the target. Three 1-mm beams were delivered to the stack of films in the area outside the target for alignment when all the films were scanned to reconstruct the 3D dosimtric image. Results: 3D film dosimetry showed a lattice-like dose distribution in the 3D target as well as in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. The dose outside the target also showed a grid like dose distribution, and the average dose gradually decreased with the distance to the target. The peak to valley ratio was approximately 5:1. The delivery time was 7 minutes for 18 Gy peak dose, comparing to 6 minutes to deliver a 18-Gy 3D conformal plan. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the feasibility of the collimator-based 3D grid therapy technique which can significantly reduce delivery time comparing to MLC-based inverse planning technique.

  18. SU-F-T-508: A Collimator-Based 3-Dimensional Grid Therapy Technique in a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, J; Kong, V; Zhang, H [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Three dimensional (3D) Grid Therapy using MLC-based inverse-planning has been proposed to achieve the features of both conformal radiotherapy and spatially fractionated radiotherapy, which may deliver very high dose in a single fraction to portions of a large tumor with relatively low normal tissue dose. However, the technique requires relatively long delivery time. This study aims to develop a collimator-based 3D grid therapy technique. Here we report the development of the technique in a small animal radiation research platform. Methods: Similar as in the MLC-based technique, 9 non-coplanar beams in special channeling directions were used for the 3D grid therapy technique. Two specially designed grid collimators were fabricated, and one of them was selectively used to match the corresponding gantry/couch angles so that the grid opening of all 9 beams are met in the 3D space in the target. A stack of EBT3 films were used as 3D dosimetry to demonstrate the 3D grid-like dose distribution in the target. Three 1-mm beams were delivered to the stack of films in the area outside the target for alignment when all the films were scanned to reconstruct the 3D dosimtric image. Results: 3D film dosimetry showed a lattice-like dose distribution in the 3D target as well as in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. The dose outside the target also showed a grid like dose distribution, and the average dose gradually decreased with the distance to the target. The peak to valley ratio was approximately 5:1. The delivery time was 7 minutes for 18 Gy peak dose, comparing to 6 minutes to deliver a 18-Gy 3D conformal plan. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the feasibility of the collimator-based 3D grid therapy technique which can significantly reduce delivery time comparing to MLC-based inverse planning technique.

  19. Synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Hadley, Scott W.; Tyagi, Neelam; Balter, James M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2007-01-01

    Variations in target volume position between and during treatment fractions can lead to measurable differences in the dose distribution delivered to each patient. Current methods to estimate the ongoing cumulative delivered dose distribution make idealized assumptions about individual patient motion based on average motions observed in a population of patients. In the delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multi-leaf collimator (MLC), errors are introduced in both the implementation and delivery processes. In addition, target motion and MLC motion can lead to dosimetric errors from interplay effects. All of these effects may be of clinical importance. Here we present a method to compute delivered dose distributions for each treatment beam and fraction, which explicitly incorporates synchronized real-time patient motion data and real-time fluence and machine configuration data. This synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction method properly accounts for the two primary classes of errors that arise from delivering IMRT with an MLC: (a) Interplay errors between target volume motion and MLC motion, and (b) Implementation errors, such as dropped segments, dose over/under shoot, faulty leaf motors, tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, and communications delays. These reconstructed dose fractions can then be combined to produce high-quality determinations of the dose distribution actually received to date, from which individualized adaptive treatment strategies can be determined

  20. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry with Period04: The mCP Stars HD 5797, HD 36792, HD 27309, HD 47913, HD 74521, HD 120198, HD 171263, and HD 215441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Robert J., Jr.; Adelman, Saul J.

    2018-04-01

    We present differential Strömgren uvby Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) observations of eight magnetic chemically peculiar stars: HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 27309, HD 49713, HD 74521, HD 120198, HD 171263, and HD 215441. Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the other four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data sets. The FCAPT has observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region telescopes. We determine very accurate periods and u, v, b, and y amplitudes, as well as if there are any long-term periods. Further, we compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements, when they exist, to help interpret the light curves. For each star, we used the Period04 computer program to analyze the uvby light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities. Our derived periods of 68.0457 ± 0.0200 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 ± 0.00015 days for HD 26792, 1.5688908 ± 0.0000046 days for HD 27309, 2.135361 ± 0.000031 days for HD 49713, 7.05053 ± 0.00024 for days HD 74521, 1.3857690 ± 0.0000058 days for HD 120198, 3.99744 ± 0.00015 days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 ± 0.000049 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the last determinations in the literature. We also found a low-frequency term for HD 49713 in all four filters.

  1. SU-F-T-538: CyberKnife with MLC for Treatment of Large Volume Tumors: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichay, T; Mayville, A [Mercy Health, Saint Mary’s, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: CyberKnife is a well-documented modality for SRS and SBRT treatments. Typical tumors are small and 1–5 fractions are usually used. We determined the feasibility of using CyberKnife, with an InCise multileaf collimator option, for larger tumors undergoing standard dose and fractionation. The intent was to understand the limitation of using this modality for other external beam radiation treatments. Methods: Five tumors from different anatomical sites with volumes from 127.8 cc to 1,320.5 cc were contoured and planned on a Multiplan V5.1 workstation. The target average diameter ranged from 7 cm to 13 cm. The dose fractionation was 1.8–2.0 Gy/fraction and 25–45 fractions for total doses of 45–81 Gy. The sites planned were: pancreas, head and neck, prostate, anal, and esophagus. The plans were optimized to meet conventional dose constraints based on various RTOG protocols for conventional fractionation. Results: The Multiplan treatment planning system successfully generated clinically acceptable plans for all sites studied. The resulting dose distributions achieved reasonable target coverage, all greater than 95%, and satisfactory normal tissue sparing. Treatment times ranged from 9 minutes to 38 minutes, the longest being a head and neck plan with dual targets receiving different doses and with multiple adjacent critical structures. Conclusion: CyberKnife, with the InCise multileaf collimation option, can achieve acceptable dose distributions in large volume tumors treated with conventional dose and fractionation. Although treatment times are greater than conventional accelerator time; target coverage and dose to critical structures can be kept within a clinically acceptable range. While time limitations exist, when necessary CyberKnife can provide an alternative to traditional treatment modalities for large volume tumors.

  2. Choreographing Couch and Collimator in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yingli; Zhang Pengpeng; Happersett, Laura; Xiong Jianping; Yang Jie; Chan, Maria; Beal, Kathryn; Mageras, Gig; Hunt, Margie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To design and optimize trajectory-based, noncoplanar subarcs for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) deliverable on both Varian TrueBEAM system and traditional accelerators; and to investigate their potential advantages for treating central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: To guide the computerized selection of beam trajectories consisting of simultaneous couch, gantry, and collimator motion, a score function was implemented to estimate the geometric overlap between targets and organs at risk for each couch/gantry angle combination. An initial set of beam orientations is obtained as a function of couch and gantry angle, according to a minimum search of the score function excluding zones of collision. This set is grouped into multiple continuous and extended subarcs subject to mechanical limitations using a hierarchical clustering algorithm. After determination of couch/gantry trajectories, a principal component analysis finds the collimator angle at each beam orientation that minimizes residual target-organ at risk overlaps. An in-house VMAT optimization algorithm determines the optimal multileaf collimator position and monitor units for control points within each subarc. A retrospective study of 10 CNS patients compares the proposed method of VMAT trajectory with dynamic gantry, leaves, couch, and collimator motion (Tra-VMAT); a standard noncoplanar VMAT with no couch/collimator motion within subarcs (Std-VMAT); and noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans that were clinically used. Results: Tra-VMAT provided improved target dose conformality and lowered maximum dose to brainstem, optic nerves, and chiasm by 7.7%, 1.1%, 2.3%, and 1.7%, respectively, compared with Std-VMAT. Tra-VMAT provided higher planning target volume minimum dose and reduced maximum dose to chiasm, optic nerves, and cochlea by 6.2%, 1.3%, 6.3%, and 8.4%, respectively, and reduced cochlea mean dose by 8.7%, compared with IMRT. Tra-VMAT averaged

  3. Radiotherapy equipment for conformal radiotherapy and IMRT in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, I.; Irena Pavlikova, I.; Novotny, J. ml.

    2005-01-01

    The development of the equipment of radiotherapy departments in the Czech Republic is presented here. The data from the special questionnaire from 14 workplaces with linear accelerators with multi-leaf collimators (MLC) and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) are included. They show not only the equipment specification but also the application methods, the quality control, plans for future etc. In the Czech Republic, a great extension of modem irradiation techniques and accessories occurs at present. Together with it, it is necessary to develop quality assurance of the whole process of dose delivery to the patient. It is also necessary to assure further education and training of hospital staff. Modern radiotherapy techniques demand sufficient amount of all sources including personal sources. (authors)

  4. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: not a dry eye in the house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Anthony; Arnold, Belinda; Capp, Anne; Fox, Chris; Metcalfe, Peter; Chapman, Alison; Tangboonduangjit, Puangpeng

    2004-01-01

    Inverse planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been applied to patients in a conformal fashion in order to avoid the lacrimal gland. In the present study, we report a patient in which a potential planned dose of 63 Gy to the lacrimal gland for a conventional plan was reduced to 12 Gy to the lacrimal gland for the IMRT plan. Dose objective inverse planning was provided using a Pinnacle treatment planning computer and treatment was delivered using a Varian dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) on a Varian linear accelerator. Because multiple MLC segments are used to deliver the modulated treatment, conventional dose checks by manual calculation are not practical. To aid in an alternative dosimetric verification process, the Pinnacle planning computer has two unique dose tools, which provide axial and beams eye view doses on user-specified check phantoms. The combined field axial dose tool matched our ion chamber dose checks within ± 2.4% at the isocentre. The individual beams eye view dose tool matched film dose maps within ± 3% in the umbra Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  5. Fetal dose reduction in head and neck radiotherapy of a pregnant woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeckli, R.; Pache, G.; Valley, J.F.; Ozsahin, M.; Mirimanoff, R.O.; Azria, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: a pregnant woman was referred for post-operative radiotherapy of a malignant schwannoma in the head and neck region. A best-treatment plan was devised in order to minimize the fetal dose. Material and methods: the fetal dose resulting from radiological examinations was determined according to international protocols, that resulting from radiotherapy was calculated according to recommendation 36 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group. Pre-treatment dosimetry was performed with an anthropomorphic phantom. Several alternative treatment plans were evaluated. The use of a multileaf collimator (MLC) and a virtual wedge (VW) was compared to cerrobend blocks (CB) and physical wedge (PW). In-vivo dosimetry was performed using a vaginal probe containing thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Results: the total fetal dose resulting from diagnostic and radiotherapy procedures was estimated to be 36 mGy. The technique based on MLC and VW was elected for patient treatment. Measurements for this configuration resulted in a fetal dose reduction of 82%. The shielding of the patient's abdomen further reduced the fetal dose by 42%. Conclusion: the use of VW and MLC for the treatment of a pregnant woman is highly recommended. Each case should be individually studied with pre-treatment and in-vivo dosimetry. (orig.)

  6. Optimizing Collimator Margins for Isotoxically Dose-Escalated Conformal Radiation Therapy of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Samantha, E-mail: Samantha.warren@oncology.ox.ac.uk [Department of Oncology, Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford Cancer Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford (United Kingdom); Panettieri, Vanessa [William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Alfred Hospital, Commercial Road, Melbourne (Australia); Panakis, Niki; Bates, Nicholas [Oxford Cancer Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford (United Kingdom); Lester, Jason F. [Velindre Cancer Centre, Velindre Road, Whitchurch, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Jain, Pooja [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Clatterbridge Road, Wirral (United Kingdom); Landau, David B. [Department of Radiotherapy, Guy' s and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Nahum, Alan E.; Mayles, W. Philip M. [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Clatterbridge Road, Wirral (United Kingdom); Fenwick, John D. [Department of Oncology, Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford Cancer Centre, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Isotoxic dose escalation schedules such as IDEAL-CRT [isotoxic dose escalation and acceleration in lung cancer chemoradiation therapy] (ISRCTN12155469) individualize doses prescribed to lung tumors, generating a fixed modeled risk of radiation pneumonitis. Because the beam penumbra is broadened in lung, the choice of collimator margin is an important element of the optimization of isotoxic conformal radiation therapy for lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were replanned retrospectively using a range of collimator margins. For each plan, the prescribed dose was calculated according to the IDEAL-CRT isotoxic prescription method, and the absolute dose (D{sub 99}) delivered to 99% of the planning target volume (PTV) was determined. Results: Reducing the multileaf collimator margin from the widely used 7 mm to a value of 2 mm produced gains of 2.1 to 15.6 Gy in absolute PTV D{sub 99}, with a mean gain ± 1 standard error of the mean of 6.2 ± 1.1 Gy (2-sided P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with conformal radiation therapy and an isotoxic dose prescription, absolute doses in the PTV may be increased by using smaller collimator margins, reductions in relative coverage being offset by increases in prescribed dose.

  7. SU-F-T-506: Development and Commissioning of the Effective and Efficient Grid Therapy Using High Dose Rate Flattening Filter Free Beam and Multileaf Collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M; Wen, N; Beyer, C; Siddiqui, F; Chetty, I; Zhao, B [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Treating bulky tumors with grid therapy (GT) has demonstrated high response rates. Long delivery time (∼15min), with consequent increased risk of intrafraction motion, is a major disadvantage of conventional MLC-based GT (MLC-GT). The goal of this study was to develop and commission a MLC-GT technique with similar dosimetric characteristics, but more efficient delivery. Methods: Grid plan was designed with 10X-FFF (2400MU/min) beam and MLC in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Grid size was 1cm by 1cm and grid-to-grid distance was 2cm. Field-in-field technique was used to flatten the dose profile at depth of 10cm. Prescription was 15Gy at 1.5cm depth. Doses were verified at depths of 1.5cm, 5cm and 10cm. Point dose was measured with a plastic scintillator detector (PSD) while the planar dose was measured with calibrated Gafchromic EBT3 films in a 20cm think, 30cmx30cm solid water phantom. The measured doses were compared to the doses calculated in the treatment planning system. Percent depth dose (PDD) within the grid was also measured using EBT3 film. Five clinical cases were planned to compare beam-on time. Results: The valley-to-peak dose ratio at the 3 depths was approximately 10–15%, which is very similar to published result. The average point dose difference between the PSD measurements and TPS calculation is 2.1±0.6%. Film dosimetry revealed good agreement between the delivered and calculated dose. The average gamma passing rates at the 3 depths were 95% (3%, 1mm). The average percent difference between the measured PDD and calculated PDD was 2.1% within the depth of 20cm. The phantom plan delivery time was 3.6 min. Average beam-on time was reduced by 66.1±5.6% for the 5 clinical cases. Conclusion: An effective and efficient GT technique was developed and commissioned for the treatment of bulky tumors using FFF beam combined with MLC and automation. The Department of Radiation Oncology at Henry Ford Health System receives research

  8. Dosimetry of the stereotactic radiosurgery with linear accelerators equipped with micro multi-blades collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Andre Mozart de Miranda

    2008-01-01

    In this work, absorbed dose to water produced by the radiation beam of a clinical linear accelerator - CLINAC 600C TM (Varian), with a photon beam of 6 MV, were evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. This determination includes square and circular field configurations, the last one obtained with a micro multi leaf collimator - mMLC m3 TM (Brain Lab). Theoretical evaluation was performed throughout Monte Carlo method. Experimental measurements of Percentage Depth Dose - PDD and derived Tissue Maximum Ratio - TMR curves from CLINAC 600C were validated by comparison with reference values as well as with measurements using different detectors. The results indicate local differences smaller than 5% and average differences smaller than 1,5% for each evaluated field, if they are compared to the previous commissioning values (made in 1999) and to the values of literature. Comparisons of ionization chamber and diode result in an average local difference of -0,6% for PDD measurements, and within 1% for lateral dose profiles, at depth, in the flat region. Diode provides measurements with better spatial resolution. Current output factors of open fields agree with reference values within 1,03% of discrepancy level. Current absorbed dose distributions in water are, now, considered reference values and allow characterization of this CLINAC for patient dose calculation. The photon spectra resulting from simulations with PENELOPE and MCNP codes agree approximately in 80% of the sampled points, in what average energies of (1,6 ± 0,3)MeV, with MCNP, and of (1,72 ± 0,08)MeV, with PENELOPE, are coincident. The created simple source model of the CLINAC 600C, using the PENELOPE code, allows one to calculate dose distributions in water, for open fields, with discrepancies of the order of ± 1,0% in dose and of ± 0,1 cm in position, if they are compared to experimental measurements. These values met the initial proposed criteria to validate the simulation model and guarantee

  9. MANUAL LOGIC CONTROLLER (MLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Ziad Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    The “Manual Logic Controller” also called MLC, is an electronic circuit invented and designed by the author in 2008, in order to replace the well known PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in many applications for its advantages and its low cost of fabrication. The function of the MLC is somewhat similar to the well known PLC, but instead of doing it by inserting a written program into the PLC using a computer or specific software inside the PLC, it will be manually programmed in a manner to h...

  10. A feasibility study of using conventional jaws to deliver complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, G; Xia, P

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that simple intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans can be produced with a series of rectangular segments formed by conventional jaws. This study investigates whether complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer can be delivered with the conventional jaws efficiently. Six nasopharyngeal cancer patients, previously treated with multi-leaf collimator (MLC)-IMRT plans, were re-planned using conventional jaw delivery options. All IMRT plans were subject to the plan acceptance criteria of the RTOG-0225 protocol. For a selected patient, the maximum number of segments varied from five to nine per beam, and was tested for both jaws-only IMRT (JO-IMRT) plans and MLC-IMRT plans. Subsequently, JO-IMRT plans and MLC-IMRT on the same treatment planning system were attempted for all patients with identical beams. The dose distribution, dose volume histograms (DVH), the conformal index (COIN), the uniformity index and delivery efficiency were compared between the MLC-IMRT and JO-IMRT plans. All JO-IMRT plans met the RTOG-0225 criteria for tumor coverage and sensitive structures sparing. The corresponding MLC-IMRT and JO-IMRT plans show comparable conformality and uniformity, with average COINs of the planning gross tumor volume(pGTV) 37.7% ± 18.7% versus 37.9% ± 18.1%, and the average uniformity index 82.8% ± 2.5% versus 83.6% ± 3.1%, respectively. The average monitor unit for JO-IMRT plans was about twice that of MLC-IMRT plans. In conclusion, conventional jaws can be used solely to deliver complex IMRT plans for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer yet still within a practical delivery time.

  11. The influence of plan modulation on the interplay effect in VMAT liver SBRT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley, Emily; Pierce, Greg

    2017-08-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) uses multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves, gantry speed, and dose rate to modulate beam fluence, producing the highly conformal doses required for liver radiotherapy. When targets that move with respiration are treated with a dynamic fluence, there exists the possibility for interplay between the target and leaf motions. This study employs a novel motion simulation technique to determine if VMAT liver SBRT plans with an increase in MLC leaf modulation are more susceptible to dosimetric differences in the GTV due to interplay effects. For ten liver SBRT patients, two VMAT plans with different amounts of MLC leaf modulation were created. Motion was simulated using a random starting point in the respiratory cycle for each fraction. To isolate the interplay effect, motion was also simulated using four specific starting points in the respiratory cycle. The dosimetric differences caused by different starting points were examined by subtracting resultant dose distributions from each other. When motion was simulated using random starting points for each fraction, or with specific starting points, there were significantly more dose differences in the GTV (maximum 100cGy) for more highly modulated plans, but the overall plan quality was not adversely affected. Plans with more MLC leaf modulation are more susceptible to interplay effects, but dose differences in the GTV are clinically negligible in magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A method for estimation of accuracy of dose delivery with dynamic slit windows in medical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, R.; Binukumar, J.P.; Sivakumar, S.S.; Krishnamurthy, K.; Davis, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) clinical dose delivery is based on computer-controlled multileaf movements at different velocities. To test the accuracy of modulation of the beam periodically, quality assurance (QA) methods are necessary. Using a cylindrical phantom, dose delivery was checked at a constant geometry for sweeping fields. Repeated measurements with an in-house designed methodology over a period of 1 year indicate that the method is very sensitive to check the proper functioning of such dose delivery in medical linacs. A cylindrical perspex phantom with facility to accurately position a 0.6- cc (FC 65) ion chamber at constant depth at isocenter, (SA 24 constancy check tool phantom for MU check, Scanditronix Wellhofer) was used. Dosimeter readings were integrated for 4-mm, 10-mm, 20-mm sweeping fields and for 3 angular positions of the gantry periodically. Consistency of standard sweeping field output (10-mm slit width) and the ratios of outputs against other slit widths over a long period were reported. A 10-mm sweeping field output was found reproducible within an accuracy of 0.03% (n = 25) over 1 year. Four-millimeter, 20-mm outputs expressed as ratio with respect to 10- mm sweep output remained within a mean deviation of 0.2% and 0.03% respectively. Outputs at 3 gantry angles remained within 0.5%, showing that the effect of dynamic movements of multileaf collimator (MLC) on the output is minimal for angular positions of gantry. This method of QA is very simple and is recommended in addition to individual patient QA measurements, which reflect the accuracy of dose planning system. In addition to standard output and energy checks of linacs, the above measurements can be complemented so as to check proper functioning of multileaf collimator for dynamic field dose delivery. (author)

  13. SU-F-T-465: Two Years of Radiotherapy Treatments Analyzed Through MLC Log Files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defoor, D [University of Texas HSC SA, New Braunfles, TX (United States); Kabat, C; Papanikolaou, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States); Stathakis, S [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To present treatment statistics of a Varian Novalis Tx using more than 90,000 Varian Dynalog files collected over the past 2 years. Methods: Varian Dynalog files are recorded for every patient treated on our Varian Novalis Tx. The files are collected and analyzed daily to check interfraction agreement of treatment deliveries. This is accomplished by creating fluence maps from the data contained in the Dynalog files. From the Dynalog files we have also compiled statistics for treatment delivery times, MLC errors, gantry errors and collimator errors. Results: The mean treatment time for VMAT patients was 153 ± 86 seconds while the mean treatment time for step & shoot was 256 ± 149 seconds. Patient’s treatment times showed a variation of 0.4% over there treatment course for VMAT and 0.5% for step & shoot. The average field sizes were 40 cm2 and 26 cm2 for VMAT and step & shoot respectively. VMAT beams contained and average overall leaf travel of 34.17 meters and step & shoot beams averaged less than half of that at 15.93 meters. When comparing planned and delivered fluence maps generated using the Dynalog files VMAT plans showed an average gamma passing percentage of 99.85 ± 0.47. Step & shoot plans showed an average gamma passing percentage of 97.04 ± 0.04. 5.3% of beams contained an MLC error greater than 1 mm and 2.4% had an error greater than 2mm. The mean gantry speed for VMAT plans was 1.01 degrees/s with a maximum of 6.5 degrees/s. Conclusion: Varian Dynalog files are useful for monitoring machine performance treatment parameters. The Dynalog files have shown that the performance of the Novalis Tx is consistent over the course of a patients treatment with only slight variations in patient treatment times and a low rate of MLC errors.

  14. Reducing the Cost of Proton Radiation Therapy: The Feasibility of a Streamlined Treatment Technique for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Zhang, Rui; Jones, Timothy G.; Giebeler, Annelise; Taddei, Phillip J.; Stewart, Robert D.; Lee, Andrew; Vassiliev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiation therapy is an effective modality for cancer treatments, but the cost of proton therapy is much higher compared to conventional radiotherapy and this presents a formidable barrier to most clinical practices that wish to offer proton therapy. Little attention in literature has been paid to the costs associated with collimators, range compensators and hypofractionation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cost-saving modifications to the present standard of care for proton treatments for prostate cancer. In particular, we quantified the dosimetric impact of a treatment technique in which custom fabricated collimators were replaced with a multileaf collimator (MLC) and the custom range compensators (RC) were eliminated. The dosimetric impacts of these modifications were assessed for 10 patients with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and confirmed with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. We assessed the impact on lifetime risks of radiogenic second cancers using detailed dose reconstructions and predictive dose-risk models based on epidemiologic data. We also performed illustrative calculations, using an isoeffect model, to examine the potential for hypofractionation. Specifically, we bracketed plausible intervals of proton fraction size and total treatment dose that were equivalent to a conventional photon treatment of 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions. Our results revealed that eliminating the RC and using an MLC had negligible effect on predicted dose distributions and second cancer risks. Even modest hypofractionation strategies can yield substantial cost savings. Together, our results suggest that it is feasible to modify the standard of care to increase treatment efficiency, reduce treatment costs to patients and insurers, while preserving high treatment quality

  15. Reducing the Cost of Proton Radiation Therapy: The Feasibility of a Streamlined Treatment Technique for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhauser, Wayne D., E-mail: newhauser@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Zhang, Rui [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jones, Timothy G. [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Physics, Abilene Christian University, ACU Box 27963, Abilene, TX 79699 (United States); Giebeler, Annelise; Taddei, Phillip J. [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Stewart, Robert D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 356043, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lee, Andrew [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Vassiliev, Oleg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States)

    2015-04-24

    Proton radiation therapy is an effective modality for cancer treatments, but the cost of proton therapy is much higher compared to conventional radiotherapy and this presents a formidable barrier to most clinical practices that wish to offer proton therapy. Little attention in literature has been paid to the costs associated with collimators, range compensators and hypofractionation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cost-saving modifications to the present standard of care for proton treatments for prostate cancer. In particular, we quantified the dosimetric impact of a treatment technique in which custom fabricated collimators were replaced with a multileaf collimator (MLC) and the custom range compensators (RC) were eliminated. The dosimetric impacts of these modifications were assessed for 10 patients with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and confirmed with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. We assessed the impact on lifetime risks of radiogenic second cancers using detailed dose reconstructions and predictive dose-risk models based on epidemiologic data. We also performed illustrative calculations, using an isoeffect model, to examine the potential for hypofractionation. Specifically, we bracketed plausible intervals of proton fraction size and total treatment dose that were equivalent to a conventional photon treatment of 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions. Our results revealed that eliminating the RC and using an MLC had negligible effect on predicted dose distributions and second cancer risks. Even modest hypofractionation strategies can yield substantial cost savings. Together, our results suggest that it is feasible to modify the standard of care to increase treatment efficiency, reduce treatment costs to patients and insurers, while preserving high treatment quality.

  16. Predicting positional error of MLC using volumetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareram, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    IMRT normally using multiple beamlets (small width of the beam) for a particular field to deliver so that it is imperative to maintain the positional accuracy of the MLC in order to deliver integrated computed dose accurately. Different manufacturers have reported high precession on MLC devices with leaf positional accuracy nearing 0.1 mm but measuring and rectifying the error in this accuracy is very difficult. Various methods are used to check MLC position and among this volumetric analysis is one of the technique. Volumetric approach was adapted in our method using primus machine and 0.6cc chamber at 5 cm depth In perspex. MLC of 1 mm error introduces an error of 20%, more sensitive to other methods

  17. Treatment planning for MLC based robotic radiosurgery for brain metastases: plan comparison with circular fields and suggestions for planning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the possible range of application of the new InCise2 MLC for the CyberKnife M6 system in brain radiosurgery, a plan comparison was made for 10 brain metastases sized between 1.5 and 9cm3 in 10 patients treated in a single fraction each. The target volumes consist of a PTV derived by expanding the GTV by 1mm and were chosen to have diversity in the cohort regarding regularity of shape, location and the structures needed to be blocked for beam transmission in the vicinity. For each case, two treatment plans were optimized: one using the MLC and one using the IRIS-collimator providing variable circular fields. Plan re-quirements were: dose prescription to the 70% isodose line (18 or 20Gy, 100% GTV coverage, ≥98% PTV coverage, undisturbed central high dose region (95% of maximum dose and a conformity index as low as possible. Plan com-parison parameters were: conformity index (CI, high-dose gradient index (GIH, low-dose gradient index (GIL, total number of monitor units (MU and expected treatment time (TT. For all cases, clinically acceptable plans could be gen-erated with the following results (mean±SD for CI, GIH, GIL, MU and TT, respectively for the MLC plans: 1.09±0.03, 2.77±0.26, 2.61±0.08, 4514±830MU and 27±5min and for the IRIS plans: 1.05±0.01, 3.00±0.35, 2.46±0.08, 8557±1335MU and 42±7min. In summary, the MLC plans were on average less conformal and had a shallower dose gradient in the low dose region, but a steeper dose gradient in the high dose region. This is accompanied by a smaller vol-ume receiving 10Gy. A plan by plan comparison shows that usage of the MLC can spare about one half of the MUs and one third of treatment time. From these experiences and results suggestions for MLC planning strategy can be de-duced.

  18. 3CML: a software application for quality control of multi leaf collimators; 3CML: una aplicacion informatica para el control de calidad de colimadores multilaminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miras, H.; Perez, M. A.; Macias, J.; Moreno, J. C.; Campo, J. L.; Ortiz, M.; Arrans, R.; Ortiz, A.; Terron, J. A.; Fernandez, D.

    2011-07-01

    The treatments of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) require a deep knowledge of the accuracy, precision and reproducibility of positioning of the plates that make up the multi leaf collimator (MLC). We have developed a computer application, 3CML, to analyze an image corresponding to a pattern of separate bands irradiation to determine the deviations of the positioning of the blades on the nominal values.

  19. A dosimetric comparison of real-time adaptive and non-adaptive radiotherapy: A multi-institutional study encompassing robotic, gimbaled, multileaf collimator and couch tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colvill, Emma; Booth, Jeremy; Nill, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    AND MATERIALS: Ten institutions with robotic(2), gimbaled(2), MLC(4) or couch tracking(2) used common materials including CT and structure sets, motion traces and planning protocols to create a lung and a prostate plan. For each motion trace, the plan was delivered twice to a moving dosimeter; with and without...

  20. The beta1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump interacts with megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein 1 (MLC1) in brain astrocytes: new insights into MLC pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignone, Maria S; Lanciotti, Angela; Macioce, Pompeo; Macchia, Gianfranco; Gaetani, Matteo; Aloisi, Francesca; Petrucci, Tamara C; Ambrosini, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare congenital leucodystrophy caused by mutations in MLC1, a membrane protein of unknown function. MLC1 expression in astrocyte end-feet contacting blood vessels and meninges, along with brain swelling, fluid cysts and myelin vacuolation observed in MLC patients, suggests a possible role for MLC1 in the regulation of fluid and ion homeostasis and cellular volume changes. To identify MLC1 direct interactors and dissect the molecular pathways in which MLC1 is involved, we used NH2-MLC1 domain as a bait to screen a human brain library in a yeast two-hybrid assay. We identified the β1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase pump as one of the interacting clones and confirmed it by pull-downs, co-fractionation assays and immunofluorescence stainings in human and rat astrocytes in vitro and in brain tissue. By performing ouabain-affinity chromatography on astrocyte and brain extracts, we isolated MLC1 and the whole Na,K-ATPase enzyme in a multiprotein complex that included Kir4.1, syntrophin and dystrobrevin. Because Na,K-ATPase is involved in intracellular osmotic control and volume regulation, we investigated the effect of hypo-osmotic stress on MLC1/Na,K-ATPase relationship in astrocytes. We found that hypo-osmotic conditions increased MLC1 membrane expression and favoured MLC1/Na,K-ATPase-β1 association. Moreover, hypo-osmosis induced astrocyte swelling and the reversible formation of endosome-derived vacuoles, where the two proteins co-localized. These data suggest that through its interaction with Na,K-ATPase, MLC1 is involved in the control of intracellular osmotic conditions and volume regulation in astrocytes, opening new perspectives for understanding the pathological mechanisms of MLC disease.

  1. Software tool for portal dosimetry research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, P; Hunt, P; Greer, P B; Oliver, L; Baldock, C

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a software tool developed for research into the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to verify dose for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. A portal dose image prediction (PDIP) model that predicts the EPID response to IMRT beams has been implemented into a commercially available treatment planning system (TPS). The software tool described in this work was developed to modify the TPS PDIP model by incorporating correction factors into the predicted EPID image to account for the difference in EPID response to open beam radiation and multileaf collimator (MLC) transmitted radiation. The processes performed by the software tool include; i) read the MLC file and the PDIP from the TPS, ii) calculate the fraction of beam-on time that each point in the IMRT beam is shielded by MLC leaves, iii) interpolate correction factors from look-up tables, iv) create a corrected PDIP image from the product of the original PDIP and the correction factors and write the corrected image to file, v) display, analyse, and export various image datasets. The software tool was developed using the Microsoft Visual Studio.NET framework with the C# compiler. The operation of the software tool was validated. This software provided useful tools for EPID dosimetry research, and it is being utilised and further developed in ongoing EPID dosimetry and IMRT dosimetry projects.

  2. Whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases: The technique of irradiation influences the dose to parotid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, G.; Paulon, R.; Verrelle, P.; Lapeyre, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of brain metastases, whole brain radiotherapy can be carried out according two distinct methods: one using multi-leaf collimator for field shaping and protection of organs at risk, and a second one is to make a rotation of the field to avoid the eyes. The aim of the study was to compare for 10 patients the dose distributions at organs at risk for each method. Patients received 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Except for parotid glands, the dose received by organs at risk and the planning target volume was the same with each method. For whole brain radiotherapy, excluding the cisterna cerebellomedullaris, the mean parotid dose was 9.63 Gy using the multi-leaf collimator versus 12.32 Gy using the field rotation (P = 0.04). For whole brain radiotherapy including the cisterna cerebellomedullaris, the mean parotid dose was 11.12 Gy using the multi-leaf collimator versus 20.06 Gy using field rotation (P < 0.001). Using the multi-leaf collimator seems recommended for whole brain radiotherapy, to reduce the dose to the parotids. (authors)

  3. TU-FG-201-04: Computer Vision in Autonomous Quality Assurance of Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H; Jenkins, C; Yu, S; Yang, Y; Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Routine quality assurance (QA) of linear accelerators represents a critical and costly element of a radiation oncology center. Recently, a system was developed to autonomously perform routine quality assurance on linear accelerators. The purpose of this work is to extend this system and contribute computer vision techniques for obtaining quantitative measurements for a monthly multi-leaf collimator (MLC) QA test specified by TG-142, namely leaf position accuracy, and demonstrate extensibility for additional routines. Methods: Grayscale images of a picket fence delivery on a radioluminescent phosphor coated phantom are captured using a CMOS camera. Collected images are processed to correct for camera distortions, rotation and alignment, reduce noise, and enhance contrast. The location of each MLC leaf is determined through logistic fitting and a priori modeling based on knowledge of the delivered beams. Using the data collected and the criteria from TG-142, a decision is made on whether or not the leaf position accuracy of the MLC passes or fails. Results: The locations of all MLC leaf edges are found for three different picket fence images in a picket fence routine to 0.1mm/1pixel precision. The program to correct for image alignment and determination of leaf positions requires a runtime of 21– 25 seconds for a single picket, and 44 – 46 seconds for a group of three pickets on a standard workstation CPU, 2.2 GHz Intel Core i7. Conclusion: MLC leaf edges were successfully found using techniques in computer vision. With the addition of computer vision techniques to the previously described autonomous QA system, the system is able to quickly perform complete QA routines with minimal human contribution.

  4. An EPID-based method for comprehensive verification of gantry, EPID and the MLC carriage positional accuracy in Varian linacs during arc treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; McGarry, Conor K; Barnes, Michael P; Sabet, Mahsheed; Ebert, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    In modern radiotherapy, it is crucial to monitor the performance of all linac components including gantry, collimation system and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) during arc deliveries. In this study, a simple EPID-based measurement method has been introduced in conjunction with an algorithm to investigate the stability of these systems during arc treatments with the aim of ensuring the accuracy of linac mechanical performance. The Varian EPID sag, gantry sag, changes in source-to-detector distance (SDD), EPID and collimator skewness, EPID tilt, and the sag in MLC carriages as a result of linac rotation were separately investigated by acquisition of EPID images of a simple phantom comprised of 5 ball-bearings during arc delivery. A fast and robust software package was developed for automated analysis of image data. Twelve Varian linacs of different models were investigated. The average EPID sag was within 1 mm for all tested linacs. All machines showed less than 1 mm gantry sag. Changes in SDD values were within 1.7 mm except for three linacs of one centre which were within 9 mm. Values of EPID skewness and tilt were negligible in all tested linacs. The maximum sag in MLC leaf bank assemblies was around 1 mm. The EPID sag showed a considerable improvement in TrueBeam linacs. The methodology and software developed in this study provide a simple tool for effective investigation of the behaviour of linac components with gantry rotation. It is reproducible and accurate and can be easily performed as a routine test in clinics

  5. Collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A collimator, to be used in conjunction with a scintiscanner containing a detector and an optical or electronic means of producing and analyzing signals is discussed in this patent. The author gives a tomograph as an example. The collimator consists of parallel lamellae which can shield the gamma radiation which intersect with each other each along a single straight perpendicular line as opposed to the normal multi-hole collimator. The benefits of this new collimator are better signal to noise ratio, a shorter exposure time is needed, smaller radiation doses may be used and by placing the lamellae closer to each other, the separation ability of the collimator is increased

  6. Characterization and linear array LA48 Commissioner for measuring the position of the multi leaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conles Picos, I.; Cenizo de Castro, E.; Aparicio martin, A. R.; Barrio Lazo, F.; Cesteros Morante, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The protocol of Quality Control of electron accelerators for medical use of SEFM proposed for multi leaf collimation system (MLC) to verify the positioning of the blades connect. To do this you must find a system with sufficient accuracy and precision and, if possible, easy to assemble and offers real-time results. One of these teams is the Linear Array of PTW-Freiburg (LA48), which consists of a row of 47 ionization chambers, of 0008 cc and 8 mm apart from each other. In this paper, we describe our process of characterization and LA48 commissioner. (Author)

  7. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: overlapping co-axial modulated fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, P; Tangboonduangjit, P; White, P

    2004-01-01

    The Varian multi-leaf collimator has a 14.5 cm leaf extension limit from each carriage. This means the target volumes in the head and neck region are sometimes too wide for standard width-modulated fields to provide adequate dose coverage. A solution is to set up asymmetric co-axial overlapping fields. This protects the MLC carriage while in return the MLC provides modulated dose blending in the field overlap region. Planar dose maps for coincident fields from the Pinnacle radiotherapy treatment planning system are compared with planar dose maps reconstructed from radiographic film and electronic portal images. The film and portal images show small leaf-jaw matchlines at each field overlap border. Linear profiles taken across each image show that the observed leaf-jaw matchlines from the accelerator images are not accounted for by the treatment planning system. Dose difference between film reconstructed electronic portal images and planning system are about 2.5 cGy in a modulated field at d max . While the magnitude of the dose differences are small improved round end leaf modelling combined with a finer dose calculation grid may minimize the discrepancy between calculated and delivered dose

  8. Comprehensive fluence model for absolute portal dose image prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytyk, K.; McCurdy, B. M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) continue to be investigated as treatment verification tools, with a particular focus on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). This verification could be accomplished through a comparison of measured portal images to predicted portal dose images. A general fluence determination tailored to portal dose image prediction would be a great asset in order to model the complex modulation of IMRT. A proposed physics-based parameter fluence model was commissioned by matching predicted EPID images to corresponding measured EPID images of multileaf collimator (MLC) defined fields. The two-source fluence model was composed of a focal Gaussian and an extrafocal Gaussian-like source. Specific aspects of the MLC and secondary collimators were also modeled (e.g., jaw and MLC transmission factors, MLC rounded leaf tips, tongue and groove effect, interleaf leakage, and leaf offsets). Several unique aspects of the model were developed based on the results of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the linear accelerator including (1) use of a non-Gaussian extrafocal fluence source function, (2) separate energy spectra used for focal and extrafocal fluence, and (3) different off-axis energy spectra softening used for focal and extrafocal fluences. The predicted energy fluence was then convolved with Monte Carlo generated, EPID-specific dose kernels to convert incident fluence to dose delivered to the EPID. Measured EPID data were obtained with an a-Si EPID for various MLC-defined fields (from 1x1 to 20x20 cm 2 ) over a range of source-to-detector distances. These measured profiles were used to determine the fluence model parameters in a process analogous to the commissioning of a treatment planning system. The resulting model was tested on 20 clinical IMRT plans, including ten prostate and ten oropharyngeal cases. The model predicted the open-field profiles within 2%, 2 mm, while a mean of 96.6% of pixels over all

  9. Quality assurance of geometric accuracy based on an electronic portal imaging device and log data analysis for Dynamic WaveArc irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Hideaki; Miyabe, Yuki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2018-04-06

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple verification method for the routine quality assurance (QA) of Dynamic WaveArc (DWA) irradiation using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images and log data analysis. First, an automatic calibration method utilizing the outermost multileaf collimator (MLC) slits was developed to correct the misalignment between the center of the EPID and the beam axis. Moreover, to verify the detection accuracy of the MLC position according to the EPID images, various positions of the MLC with intentional errors in the range 0.1-1 mm were assessed. Second, to validate the geometric accuracy during D