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Sample records for multikinase angiogenesis inhibitors

  1. The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib enhances glycolysis and synergizes with glycolysis blockade for cancer cell killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesori, V.; Piscaglia, A.C.; Samengo, D.; Barba, M.; Bernardini, C.; Scatena, R.; Pontoglio, A.; Castellini, L.; Spelbrink, H.; Maulucci, G.; Puglisi, M.A.; Pani, G.; Gasbarrini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the only effective drug against primary hepatocarcinoma, the multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib (SFB) usually fails to eradicate liver cancer. Since SFB targets mitochondria, cell metabolic reprogramming may underlie intrinsic tumor resistance. To characterize cancer cell metabolic response to

  2. Inositol Polyphosphate Multikinase Inhibits Angiogenesis via Inositol Pentakisphosphate-Induced HIF-1α Degradation.

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    Fu, Chenglai; Tyagi, Richa; Chin, Alfred C; Rojas, Tomas; Li, Ruo-Jing; Guha, Prasun; Bernstein, Isaac A; Rao, Feng; Xu, Risheng; Cha, Jiyoung Y; Xu, Jing; Snowman, Adele M; Semenza, Gregg L; Snyder, Solomon H

    2018-02-02

    Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) and its major product inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5) regulate a variety of cellular functions, but their role in vascular biology remains unexplored. We have investigated the role of IPMK in regulating angiogenesis. Deletion of IPMK in fibroblasts induces angiogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo models. IPMK deletion elicits a substantial increase of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), which mediates the regulation of angiogenesis by IPMK. The regulation of VEGF by IPMK requires its catalytic activity. IPMK is predominantly nuclear and regulates gene transcription. However, IPMK does not apparently serve as a transcription factor for VEGF. HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1α is a major determinant of angiogenesis and induces VEGF transcription. IPMK deletion elicits a major enrichment of HIF-1α protein and thus VEGF. HIF-1α is constitutively ubiquitinated by pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau protein) followed by proteasomal degradation under normal conditions. However, HIF-1α is not recognized and ubiquitinated by pVHL in IPMK KO (knockout) cells. IP5 reinstates the interaction of HIF-1α and pVHL. HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation, which is prerequisite for pVHL recognition, is interrupted in IPMK-deleted cells. IP5 promotes HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation and thus pVHL-dependent degradation of HIF-1α. Deletion of IPMK in mouse brain increases HIF-1α/VEGF levels and vascularization. The increased VEGF in IPMK KO disrupts blood-brain barrier and enhances brain blood vessel permeability. IPMK, via its product IP5, negatively regulates angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF expression. IP5 acts by enhancing HIF-1α hydroxylation and thus pVHL-dependent degradation of HIF-1α. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. The orally available multikinase inhibitor regorafenib (BAY 73-4506) in multiple myeloma.

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    Breitkreutz, Iris; Podar, Klaus; Figueroa-Vazquez, Vianihuini; Wilhelm, Scott; Hayden, Patrick J; Anderson, Kenneth C; Raab, Marc S

    2018-05-01

    A promising approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) involves agents that target not only the myeloma cells directly, but also the tumor microenvironment which promotes tumor cell growth, angiogenesis, and MM bone disease. Here we investigate the orally available multikinase inhibitor, regorafenib (BAY 73-4506), for its therapeutic efficacy in MM. Regorafenib is a potent inhibitor of angiogenic (VEGFR 1-3, PDGFR-b) as well as oncogenic (c-KIT, RET, FGFR, Raf) kinases. We show that regorafenib induces apoptosis in all MM cell lines at below clinically achievable concentrations. Regorafenib overcomes the growth advantage conferred by a stroma cell MM and an endothelial cell MM, co-culture systems, and abrogates growth factor-stimulated MEK, ERK, and AKT phosphorylation at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. Moreover, it inhibits endothelial cell growth and tubule formation, abrogates both VEGF secretion and VEGF-induced MM cell migration, inhibits osteoclastogenesis, and shows synergistic cytotoxicity with dexamethasone, the immunomodulatory drug pomalidomide, and the p110δ inhibitor idelalisib. Most importantly, regorafenib significantly delays tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model of human MM. These results provide the rationale for further clinical evaluation of regorafenib, alone and in combination, in the treatment of MM.

  4. Antitumor activity of the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib in patient-derived xenograft models of gastric cancer.

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    Huynh, Hung; Ong, Richard; Zopf, Dieter

    2015-10-29

    Unresectable gastric cancer is associated with poor outcomes, with few treatment options available after failure of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Clinical trials of targeted therapies have generally shown no survival benefit in gastric cancer, with the exceptions of the antibodies ramucirumab (anti-VEGFR2) and trastuzumab (anti-HER2/neu). Given the efficacy of the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib in other gastrointestinal tumors, we investigated its potential in gastric cancer. The antitumor activity of oral regorafenib was assessed in eight murine patient-derived gastric cancer xenograft models. Dose-response experiments assessed the efficacy and tolerability of oral regorafenib 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg/day in two models, with 10 mg/kg/day selected for further investigation in all eight models. Tumor weight and volume was monitored during treatment; tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and intracellular signaling were assessed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting of total tumor lysates at the end of treatment. Regorafenib showed dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth and was well tolerated, with no significant decreases in bodyweight or evident toxicity. Regorafenib 10 mg/kg/day significantly inhibited tumor growth in all eight models (72 to 96 %; all p Regorafenib reduced tumor angiogenesis 3- to 11-fold versus controls in all models (all p Regorafenib was effective in patient-derived models of gastric cancer of different histological subtypes, with inhibition of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and tumor-cell proliferation observed in almost all models. These findings are consistent with the observed activity of regorafenib in preclinical models of other gastrointestinal tumors, and support further clinical investigation in gastric cancer.

  5. The role of multikinase inhibitors target therapy in radioiodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer

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    P O Rumyantsev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available About 5-15% of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC primary or within follow-up have had distant metastases or inoperable tumor mass that are resistant to radioiodine therapy as well as dramatically deteriorate survival prognosis. Other treatment modalities (radiotherapy, chemotherapy etc. also ineffective. Certain expectances are associated with target therapy with multikinase inhibitors with are selectively blocking onco-kinase molecular pathways. This review is devoted to analysis of those multikinase inhibitors which have been implemented in patients with radioiodine DTC. Comparative analysis of two most perspective multikinase inhibitors (sorafenib and lenvatinib with evaluation of efficacy and adverse effects was conducted. Both of them successfully underwent 3 rd phase of clinical trial and were recommended as treatment of choice in progressive radioiodine-resistant DTC patients.

  6. Toxicity management of angiogenesis inhibitors: resolution of expert panel

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    Pavel O. Rumiantsev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 22 June 2017 in St. Petersburg the expert panel was held on the topic “Management of toxicity of angiogenesis inhibitors”, which discussed current issues of systemic therapy of advanced differentiated thyroid cancer resistant to radioactive iodine therapy, advanced kidney cancer and questions of efficacy and safety of new target drugs in the treatment of these diseases. The reports and discussions of experts raised the following questions: 1. Own experience of using lenvatinib in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer refractory to therapy with radioactive iodine and kidney cancer. 2. Profile of efficacy and safety of modern targeted therapy with multikinase inhibitors. 3. Prophylaxis and management of predictable toxicity.

  7. Inhibitors of Angiogenesis.

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    Büning, H; Hacker, U T

    Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in malignant, ischemic, inflammatory, infectious and immune disorders. The increasing molecular understanding of angiogenic processes fostered the development of strategies to induce or inhibit angiogenesis for therapeutic purposes. Here, we focus on anti-angiogenic therapies, which represent a standard of care in the treatment of different cancer types and in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Specifically, strategies related to the blockade of angiogenic proteins and receptors will be outlined covering both preclinical and clinical aspects. Finally, examples of gene therapy based anti-angiogenic approaches are presented.

  8. CS2164, a novel multi-target inhibitor against tumor angiogenesis, mitosis and chronic inflammation with anti-tumor potency.

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    Zhou, You; Shan, Song; Li, Zhi-Bin; Xin, Li-Jun; Pan, De-Si; Yang, Qian-Jiao; Liu, Ying-Ping; Yue, Xu-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Rong; Gao, Ji-Zhou; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Ning, Zhi-Qiang; Lu, Xian-Ping

    2017-03-01

    Although inhibitors targeting tumor angiogenic pathway have provided improvement for clinical treatment in patients with various solid tumors, the still very limited anti-cancer efficacy and acquired drug resistance demand new agents that may offer better clinical benefits. In the effort to find a small molecule potentially targeting several key pathways for tumor development, we designed, discovered and evaluated a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, CS2164. CS2164 inhibited the angiogenesis-related kinases (VEGFR2, VEGFR1, VEGFR3, PDGFRα and c-Kit), mitosis-related kinase Aurora B and chronic inflammation-related kinase CSF-1R in a high potency manner with the IC 50 at a single-digit nanomolar range. Consequently, CS2164 displayed anti-angiogenic activities through suppression of VEGFR/PDGFR phosphorylation, inhibition of ligand-dependent cell proliferation and capillary tube formation, and prevention of vasculature formation in tumor tissues. CS2164 also showed induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and suppression of cell proliferation in tumor tissues through the inhibition of Aurora B-mediated H3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, CS2164 demonstrated the inhibitory effect on CSF-1R phosphorylation that led to the suppression of ligand-stimulated monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and reduced CSF-1R + cells in tumor tissues. The in vivo animal efficacy studies revealed that CS2164 induced remarkable regression or complete inhibition of tumor growth at well-tolerated oral doses in several human tumor xenograft models. Collectively, these results indicate that CS2164 is a highly selective multi-kinase inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activities against tumor angiogenesis, mitosis and chronic inflammation, which may provide the rationale for further clinical assessment of CS2164 as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  9. In silico design and biological evaluation of a dual specificity kinase inhibitor targeting cell cycle progression and angiogenesis.

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    Antony M Latham

    Full Text Available Protein kinases play a central role in tumor progression, regulating fundamental processes such as angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. Such enzymes are an increasingly important class of drug target with small molecule kinase inhibitors being a major focus in drug development. However, balancing drug specificity and efficacy is problematic with off-target effects and toxicity issues.We have utilized a rational in silico-based approach to demonstrate the design and study of a novel compound that acts as a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1. This compound acts by simultaneously inhibiting pro-angiogenic signal transduction and cell cycle progression in primary endothelial cells. JK-31 displays potent in vitro activity against recombinant VEGFR2 and CDK1/cyclin B proteins comparable to previously characterized inhibitors. Dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A-mediated signaling response and CDK1-mediated mitotic entry elicits anti-angiogenic activity both in an endothelial-fibroblast co-culture model and a murine ex vivo model of angiogenesis.We deduce that JK-31 reduces the growth of both human endothelial cells and human breast cancer cells in vitro. This novel synthetic molecule has broad implications for development of similar multi-kinase inhibitors with anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer properties. In silico design is an attractive and innovative method to aid such drug discovery.

  10. In silico design and biological evaluation of a dual specificity kinase inhibitor targeting cell cycle progression and angiogenesis.

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    Latham, Antony M; Kankanala, Jayakanth; Fearnley, Gareth W; Gage, Matthew C; Kearney, Mark T; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Fishwick, Colin W G; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases play a central role in tumor progression, regulating fundamental processes such as angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. Such enzymes are an increasingly important class of drug target with small molecule kinase inhibitors being a major focus in drug development. However, balancing drug specificity and efficacy is problematic with off-target effects and toxicity issues. We have utilized a rational in silico-based approach to demonstrate the design and study of a novel compound that acts as a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). This compound acts by simultaneously inhibiting pro-angiogenic signal transduction and cell cycle progression in primary endothelial cells. JK-31 displays potent in vitro activity against recombinant VEGFR2 and CDK1/cyclin B proteins comparable to previously characterized inhibitors. Dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-mediated signaling response and CDK1-mediated mitotic entry elicits anti-angiogenic activity both in an endothelial-fibroblast co-culture model and a murine ex vivo model of angiogenesis. We deduce that JK-31 reduces the growth of both human endothelial cells and human breast cancer cells in vitro. This novel synthetic molecule has broad implications for development of similar multi-kinase inhibitors with anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer properties. In silico design is an attractive and innovative method to aid such drug discovery.

  11. Novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors and their therapeutic potential.

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    Rao, Nithya; Lee, Yu Fei; Ge, Ruowen

    2015-10-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature is essential for embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. It also plays critical roles in diseases such as cancer and retinopathy. A delicate balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors ensures normal physiological homeostasis. Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors are proteins or protein fragments that are formed in the body and have the ability to limit angiogenesis. Many endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors have been discovered, and the list continues to grow. Endogenous protein/peptide inhibitors are relatively less toxic, better tolerated and have a lower risk of drug resistance, which makes them attractive as drug candidates. In this review, we highlight ten novel endogenous protein angiogenesis inhibitors discovered within the last five years, including ISM1, FKBPL, CHIP, ARHGAP18, MMRN2, SOCS3, TAp73, ZNF24, GPR56 and JWA. Although some of these proteins have been well characterized for other biological functions, we focus on their new and specific roles in angiogenesis inhibition and discuss their potential for therapeutic application.

  12. Efficacy of a protocol including heparin ointment for treatment of multikinase inhibitor-induced hand-foot skin reactions.

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    Li, Jian-ri; Yang, Chi-rei; Cheng, Chen-li; Ho, Hao-chung; Chiu, Kun-yuan; Su, Chung-Kuang; Chen, Wen-Ming; Wang, Shian-Shiang; Chen, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Cheng-Kuang; Ou, Yen-chuan

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a protocol including topical heparin therapy for hand-foot skin reactions (HFSR) during multikinase (MKI) treatment. We prospectively collected 26 patients who had HFSRs during treatment with the MKIs, sunitinib, sorafenib, or axitinib. The age distribution ranged from 46 to 87 years, with a mean of 66 years. The distribution of HFSR severity was 12 patients with grade 1, 12 with grade 2, and 2 with grade 3. A heparin-containing topical ointment treatment, combined with hand-foot shock absorbers and skin moisturizers, was used at the lesion sites. Changes in the grade of HFSR, MKI dosage, and interruptions of MKI therapy were recorded. The results showed that 66.7% of grade 1 patients were cured of disease, 83.3% of grade 2 patients had improved symptoms, and both grade 3 patients (100%) had improved symptoms and were downgraded to grade 2. Four (15.4%) patients required reduction of MKI dosage, but there were no treatment interruptions or dropouts. Our protocol is beneficial in promoting resolution of HFSRs induced by MKIs. Further validation in large control studies should be investigated.

  13. The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib displays significant antiproliferative effects and induces apoptosis via caspase 3, 7 and PARP in B- and T-lymphoblastic cells

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    Schult, Catrin; Boldt, Sonja; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Neri, Luca Maria; Freund, Mathias; Junghanss, Christian; Dahlhaus, Meike; Ruck, Sabine; Sawitzky, Mandy; Amoroso, Francesca; Lange, Sandra; Etro, Daniela; Glass, Aenne; Fuellen, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Targeted therapy approaches have been successfully introduced into the treatment of several cancers. The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib has antitumor activity in solid tumors and its effects on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells are still unclear. ALL cell lines (SEM, RS4;11 and Jurkat) were treated with Sorafenib alone or in combination with cytarabine, doxorubicin or RAD001. Cell count, apoptosis and necrosis rates, cell cycle distribution, protein phosphorylation and metabolic activity were determined. Sorafenib inhibited the proliferation of ALL cells by cell cycle arrest accompanied by down-regulation of CyclinD3 and CDK4. Furthermore, Sorafenib initiated apoptosis by cleavage of caspases 3, 7 and PARP. Apoptosis and necrosis rates increased significantly with most pronounced effects after 96 h. Antiproliferative effects of Sorafenib were associated with a decreased phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 and Thr308), FoxO3A (Thr32) and 4EBP-1 (Ser65 and Thr70) as early as 0.5 h after treatment. Synergistic effects were seen when Sorafenib was combined with other cytotoxic drugs or a mTOR inhibitor emphasizing the Sorafenib effect. Sorafenib displays significant antileukemic activity in vitro by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, it influences PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in ALL cells

  14. Design and discovery of thioether and nicotinamide containing sorafenib analogues as multikinase inhibitors targeting B-Raf, B-RafV600E and VEGFR-2.

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    Sun, Shaofeng; He, Zuopeng; Huang, Mindong; Wang, Ningning; He, Zongzhong; Kong, Xiangkai; Yao, Jianwen

    2018-04-03

    New sorafenib derivatives containing thioether and nicotinamide moiety were designed and synthesized as B-Raf, B-Raf V600E and VEGFR-2 multikinase inhibitors. Their in vitro enzymatic inhibitory activities against B-Raf, B-Raf V600E and VEGFR-2 and their antiproliferative activities against HCT-116 and B16BL6 cell lines were evaluated and described. Most of the compounds showed potent activities against both cell lines and specific kinases. Compounds a1, b1 and c4, which exhibited the most potent inhibitory activities against B-Raf with IC 50 of 21 nM, 27 nM and 17 nM, B-Raf V600E with IC 50 of 29 nM, 28 nM and 16 nM, VEGFR-2 with IC 50 of 84 nM, 46 nM and 63 nM, respectively, and good antiproliferative activities, also demonstrated competitive antiangiogenic activities to sorafenib in in vitro HUVEC tube formation assay. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Levamisole and Other Angiogenesis Inhibitors on Angiogenesis and Endothelial Cell Morphology in Vitro

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    Friis, Tina; Engel, Anne-Marie; Bendiksen, Christine D.; Larsen, Line S.; Houen, Gunnar, E-mail: gh@ssi.dk [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Immunology and Genetics, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-06-24

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels is required for many physiological processes and for growth of solid tumors. Initiated by hypoxia, angiogenesis involves binding of angiogenic factors to endothelial cell (EC) receptors and activation of cellular signaling, differentiation, migration, proliferation, interconnection and canalization of ECs, remodeling of the extracellular matrix and stabilization of newly formed vessels. Experimentally, these processes can be studied by several in vitro and in vivo assays focusing on different steps in the process. In vitro, ECs form networks of capillary-like tubes when propagated for three days in coculture with fibroblasts. The tube formation is dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and omission of VEGF from the culture medium results in the formation of clusters of undifferentiated ECs. Addition of angiogenesis inhibitors to the coculture system disrupts endothelial network formation and influences EC morphology in two distinct ways. Treatment with antibodies to VEGF, soluble VEGF receptor, the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5614, protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor (PTPI) IV or levamisole results in the formation of EC clusters of variable size. This cluster morphology is a result of inhibited EC differentiation and levamisole can be inferred to influence and block VEGF signaling. Treatment with platelet factor 4, thrombospondin, rapamycin, suramin, TNP-470, salubrinal, PTPI I, PTPI II, clodronate, NSC87877 or non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) results in the formation of short cords of ECs, which suggests that these inhibitors have an influence on later steps in the angiogenic process, such as EC proliferation and migration. A humanized antibody to VEGF is one of a few angiogenesis inhibitors used clinically for treatment of cancer. Levamisole is approved for clinical treatment of cancer and is interesting with respect to anti-angiogenic activity

  16. Dose study of the multikinase inhibitor, LY2457546, in patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics

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    Wacheck V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Volker Wacheck1, Michael Lahn2, Gemma Dickinson3, Wolfgang Füreder4, Renata Meyer4, Susanne Herndlhofer4, Thorsten Füreder1, Georg Dorfner5, Sada Pillay2, Valérie André6, Timothy P Burkholder7, Jacqueline K Akunda8, Leann Flye-Blakemore9, Dirk Van Bockstaele9, Richard F Schlenk10, Wolfgang R Sperr4, Peter Valent4,111Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel, Vienna, Austria; 2Early Oncology Clinical Investigation, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Department of Pharmacokinetics, Eli Lilly and Company, Erl Wood Research Centre, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Hematology and Hemostaseology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel, Vienna, Austria; 5Eli Lilly GesmbH, Medical Department, Vienna, Austria; 6Department of Statistics, Eli Lilly and Company, Erl Wood Research Centre, Surrey, UK; 7Discovery Chemistry Research and Technology, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 8Nonclinical Toxicology, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 9Flow Cytometry and Cell Analysis, Esoterix Clinical Trials Services, Mechelen, Belgium; 10Universitätsklinikum Ulm, Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Ulm, Germany; 11Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster Oncology, Vienna, AustriaBackground: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a life-threatening malignancy with limited treatment options in chemotherapy-refractory patients. A first-in-human dose study was designed to investigate a safe and biologically effective dose range for LY2457546, a novel multikinase inhibitor, in patients with relapsed AML.Methods: In this nonrandomized, open-label, dose escalation Phase I study, LY2457546 was administered orally once a day. Safety, pharmacokinetics, changes in phosphorylation of target kinases in AML blasts, and risk of drug–drug interactions (DDI were assessed.Results: Five patients were treated at the starting and predicted minimal biologically effective dose of 50 mg

  17. Dose study of the multikinase inhibitor, LY2457546, in patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics

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    Wacheck, Volker; Lahn, Michael; Dickinson, Gemma; Füreder, Wolfgang; Meyer, Renata; Herndlhofer, Susanne; Füreder, Thorsten; Dorfner, Georg; Pillay, Sada; André, Valérie; Burkholder, Timothy P; Akunda, Jacqueline K; Flye-Blakemore, Leann; Van Bockstaele, Dirk; Schlenk, Richard F; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a life-threatening malignancy with limited treatment options in chemotherapy-refractory patients. A first-in-human dose study was designed to investigate a safe and biologically effective dose range for LY2457546, a novel multikinase inhibitor, in patients with relapsed AML. In this nonrandomized, open-label, dose escalation Phase I study, LY2457546 was administered orally once a day. Safety, pharmacokinetics, changes in phosphorylation of target kinases in AML blasts, and risk of drug–drug interactions (DDI) were assessed. Five patients were treated at the starting and predicted minimal biologically effective dose of 50 mg/day. The most commonly observed adverse events were febrile neutropenia, epistaxis, petechiae, and headache. The majority of adverse events (81%) were Grade 1 or 2. One patient had generalized muscle weakness (Grade 3), which was deemed to be a dose-limiting toxicity. Notably, the pharmacokinetic profile of LY2457546 showed virtually no elimination of LY2457546 within 24 hours, and thus prevented further dose escalation. No significant DDI were observed. Ex vivo flow cytometry studies showed downregulation of the phosphoproteins, pcKIT, pFLT3, and pS6, in AML blasts after LY2457546 administration. No medically relevant responses were observed in the five treated patients. No biologically effective dose could be established for LY2457546 in chemotherapy-resistant AML patients. Lack of drug clearance prevented safe dose escalation, and the study was terminated early. Future efforts should be made to develop derivatives with a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile

  18. Lack of Contribution of Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein and Organic Anion-transporting Polypeptide to Pharmacokinetics of Regorafenib, a Novel Multi-Kinase Inhibitor, in Rats.

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    Hotta, Kazuo; Ueyama, Jun; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Tsukiyama, Ikuto; Sugiura, Yuka; Saito, Hiroko; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Hasegawa, Takaaki

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2) is involved in the hepatobiliary excretion of regorafenib, a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR) lacking the efflux transporter ABCC2. The involvement of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1 (OATP1; OATP in humans) and OATP2 in the hepatic uptake of regorafenib and their protein levels in the liver were also investigated in the two rat groups. When regorafenib (5 mg/kg) was administered intravenously, the plasma concentrations of regorafenib were higher in EHBR than those in SD rats. However, the slope of the plasma concentration-time curves was the same for the two groups. Although the apparent biliary clearance of regorafenib in EHBR was lower than that of SD rats, no significant difference in the biliary excretion rate was observed between them, suggesting that regorafenib is not a substrate for ABCC2 and is not excreted into bile by ABCC2. It was also found that the contribution of biliary excretion to the systemic elimination of regorafenib is small. The protein-binding profiles of regorafenib were found to be linear in both rat groups. The binding potency, which was very high in both rat groups (>99.5%), was significantly higher in EHBR than that in SD rats. No significant differences in the plasma concentrations of unbound regorafenib were observed between the two rat groups, suggesting that the differences observed in the pharmacokinetic behaviors of regorafenib between the two rat groups were due to differences in protein-binding. When the protein levels of hepatic OATP1 and OATP2 were measured by immunoblot analysis, the expression of both transporters in EHBR was less than 40% of that in SD rats. The present results suggest that regorafenib is not a substrate for OATP1 and OATP2. These findings suggest the possibility that ABCC2-mediated hepatobiliary excretion and OATP1/OATP2-mediated hepatic uptake do

  19. ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

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    Massimiliano Berretta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angiogenesis inhibitors have become an important therapeutic approach in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients. The achievement of Sorafenib in prolonging overall survival of patients with HCC makes therapeutic inhibition of angiogenesis a fundamental element of the treatment of HCC. Considering the heterogeneous aspects of HCC and to enhance therapeutic efficacy, overcome drug resistance and reduce toxicity, the combination of antiangiogenic drugs with antiblastic chemotherapy (AC, radiotherapy or other targeted drugs have been evaluated. The issue is further complicated by the combination of antiangiogenesis with other AC or biologic drugs. To date, there is no planned approach to determine which patients are more responsive to a given type of antiangiogenic treatment. Conclusion: Large investments in the clinical research are essential to improve treatment response and minimize toxicities for patients with HCC. Future investigations will need to focus on utilizing patterns of genetic information to classify HCC into groups that display similar prognosis and treatment sensitivity, and combining targeted therapies with AC producing enhanced anti-tumor effect. In this review the current panel of available antiangiogenic therapies for the treatment of HCC have been analyzed. In addition current clinical trials are also reported herein.

  20. Melatonin as an angiogenesis inhibitor to combat cancer: Mechanistic evidence.

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    Goradel, Nasser Hashemi; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Moloudizargari, Milad; Negahdari, Babak; Haghi-Aminjan, Hamed; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-11-15

    Melatonin, a pineal indolamine, participates in different body functions and is shown to possess diverse biological activities such as anti-tumor action. Angiogenesis inhibition is one of the mechanisms by which melatonin exerts its oncostatic effects. Increased angiogenesis is a major feature of tumor progression, thus angiogenesis inhibition is a critical step in cancer therapy. Melatonin employs a variety of mechanisms to target nutrients and oxygen supply to cancer cells. At the transcriptional level, hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the genes under its control, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are the main targets of melatonin for inhibition of angiogenesis. Melatonin prevents translocation of HIF-1α into the nucleus thereby hindering VEGF expression and also prevents the formation of HIF-1α, phospho-STAT3 and CBP/p300 complex which is involved in the expression of angiogenesis-related genes. Angiostatic properties of melatonin could be also due to its ability to inhibit VEGFR2's activation and expression. Other angiostatic mechanisms of melatonin include the inhibition of endothelial cell migration, invasion, and tube formation. In the present study, we have reviewed the molecular anti-angiogenesis pathways mediated by melatonin and the responsible mechanisms in various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor and matrix hyaluronan promote angiogenesis in fibrotic lung injury.

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    Garantziotis, Stavros; Zudaire, Enrique; Trempus, Carol S; Hollingsworth, John W; Jiang, Dianhua; Lancaster, Lisa H; Richardson, Elizabeth; Zhuo, Lisheng; Cuttitta, Frank; Brown, Kevin K; Noble, Paul W; Kimata, Koji; Schwartz, David A

    2008-11-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of angiogenesis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is poorly understood. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (IaI) is a serum protein that can bind to hyaluronan (HA) and may contribute to the angiogenic response to tissue injury. To determine whether IaI promotes HA-mediated angiogenesis in tissue injury. An examination was undertaken of angiogenesis in IaI-sufficient and -deficient mice in the bleomycin model of pulmonary fibrosis and in angiogenesis assays in vivo and in vitro. IaI and HA in patients with IPF were examined. IaI significantly enhances the angiogenic response to short-fragment HA in vivo and in vitro. lal deficiency Ieads to decreased angiogenesis in the matrigel model, and decreases lung angiogenesis after bleomycin exposure in mice. IaI is found in fibroblastic foci in IPF, where it colocalizes with HA. The colocalization is particularly strong in vascular areas around fibroblastic foci. Serum levels of IaI and HA are significantly elevated in patients with IPF compared with control subjects. High serum IaI and HA levels are associated with decreased lung diffusing capacity, but not FVC. Our findings indicate that serum IaI interacts with HA, and promotes angiogenesis in lung injury. IaI appears to contribute to the vascular response to lung injury and may lead to aberrant angiogenesis. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00016627).

  2. Serum Inter–α-Trypsin Inhibitor and Matrix Hyaluronan Promote Angiogenesis in Fibrotic Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garantziotis, Stavros; Zudaire, Enrique; Trempus, Carol S.; Hollingsworth, John W.; Jiang, Dianhua; Lancaster, Lisa H.; Richardson, Elizabeth; Zhuo, Lisheng; Cuttitta, Frank; Brown, Kevin K.; Noble, Paul W.; Kimata, Koji; Schwartz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: The etiology and pathogenesis of angiogenesis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is poorly understood. Inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (IaI) is a serum protein that can bind to hyaluronan (HA) and may contribute to the angiogenic response to tissue injury. Objectives: To determine whether IaI promotes HA-mediated angiogenesis in tissue injury. Methods: An examination was undertaken of angiogenesis in IaI-sufficient and -deficient mice in the bleomycin model of pulmonary fibrosis and in angiogenesis assays in vivo and in vitro. IaI and HA in patients with IPF were examined. Measurements and Main Results: IaI significantly enhances the angiogenic response to short-fragment HA in vivo and in vitro. lal deficiency Ieads to decreased angiogenesis in the matrigel model, and decreases lung angiogenesis after bleomycin exposure in mice. IaI is found in fibroblastic foci in IPF, where it colocalizes with HA. The colocalization is particularly strong in vascular areas around fibroblastic foci. Serum levels of IaI and HA are significantly elevated in patients with IPF compared with control subjects. High serum IaI and HA levels are associated with decreased lung diffusing capacity, but not FVC. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that serum IaI interacts with HA, and promotes angiogenesis in lung injury. IaI appears to contribute to the vascular response to lung injury and may lead to aberrant angiogenesis. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00016627). PMID:18703791

  3. Isthmin is a novel secreted angiogenesis inhibitor that inhibits tumour growth in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wei; Ke, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yong; Ho-Yuet Cheng, Grace; Irwan, Ishak Darryl; Sulochana, K N; Potturi, Padma; Wang, Zhengyuan; Yang, He; Wang, Jingyu; Zhuo, Lang; Kini, R Manjunatha; Ge, Ruowen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anti-angiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various malignancies. Isthmin (ISM) is a gene highly expressed in the isthmus of the midbrain–hindbrain organizer in Xenopus with no known functions. It encodes a secreted 60 kD protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain in the central region and an adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP) domain at the C-terminal. In this work, we demonstrate that ISM is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Recombinant mouse ISM inhibited endothelial cell (EC) capillary network formation on Matrigel through its C-terminal AMOP domain. It also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced in vivo angiogenesis in mouse. It mitigated VEGF-stimulated EC proliferation without affecting EC migration. Furthermore, ISM induced EC apoptosis in the presence of VEGF through a caspase-dependent pathway. ISM binds to αvβ5 integrin on EC surface and supports EC adhesion. Overexpression of ISM significantly suppressed mouse B16 melanoma tumour growth through inhibition of tumour angiogenesis without affecting tumour cell proliferation. Knockdown of isthmin in zebrafish embryos using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides led to disorganized intersegmen-tal vessels in the trunk. Our results demonstrate that ISM is a novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with functions likely in physiological as well as pathological angiogenesis. PMID:19874420

  4. Isthmin is a novel secreted angiogenesis inhibitor that inhibits tumour growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wei; Ke, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yong; Cheng, Grace Ho-Yuet; Irwan, Ishak Darryl; Sulochana, K N; Potturi, Padma; Wang, Zhengyuan; Yang, He; Wang, Jingyu; Zhuo, Lang; Kini, R Manjunatha; Ge, Ruowen

    2011-02-01

    Anti-angiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various malignancies. Isthmin (ISM) is a gene highly expressed in the isthmus of the midbrain-hindbrain organizer in Xenopus with no known functions. It encodes a secreted 60 kD protein containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain in the central region and an adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP) domain at the C-terminal. In this work, we demonstrate that ISM is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Recombinant mouse ISM inhibited endothelial cell (EC) capillary network formation on Matrigel through its C-terminal AMOP domain. It also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced in vivo angiogenesis in mouse. It mitigated VEGF-stimulated EC proliferation without affecting EC migration. Furthermore, ISM induced EC apoptosis in the presence of VEGF through a caspase-dependent pathway. ISM binds to αvβ(5) integrin on EC surface and supports EC adhesion. Overexpression of ISM significantly suppressed mouse B16 melanoma tumour growth through inhibition of tumour angiogenesis without affecting tumour cell proliferation. Knockdown of isthmin in zebrafish embryos using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides led to disorganized intersegmental vessels in the trunk. Our results demonstrate that ISM is a novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with functions likely in physiological as well as pathological angiogenesis. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Therapeutic effect of angiogenesis inhibitor combined with radiotherapy on liver metastasis model of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Liugen; Zhou Shifu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of angiogenesis inhibitor combined with radiotherapy on liver metastasis model of colon cancer. Methods: Nude mice liver metastasis model of colon cancer was established with human colon cancer cells line (LS174T) inoculated into mice' spleen and followed by splenectomy. Angiogenesis inhibitor 2-ME and radiotherapy were administered after-wads. The growth inhibition effect on metastases and neovessel was examined. Results: The incidences of liver metastasis were 100% in this intrasplenic injection model. The mean weight and microvessel density 4 weeks after inoculation were 53.6 ± 4.7 mg, 8.4 ± 1.7 in treatment group as compared to 173.9 ± 11.6 mg, 41.2 ± 6.3 in control group respectively. Conclusion: 2-ME combined with radiotherapy has significant inhibition on the growth of liver metastases. Angiogenesis inhibition is one of the mechanisms of its efficiency. (authors)

  6. Efficacy and safety of angiogenesis inhibitors in advanced gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs directed against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or its receptors have been investigated in several studies for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (GC. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of angiogenesis inhibitors in advanced GC. We searched published randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing angiogenesis inhibitors with non-angiogenesis inhibitors for the treatment of GC. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. The extracted data on progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were measured in terms of hazard ratios (HR and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs. In addition, risk ratios (RR and corresponding 95 % CIs were pooled for objective response rate (ORR, disease control rate (DCR, and risk of adverse events (AEs. Ten RCTs involving 2786 patients were included. Compared with non-angiogenesis inhibitor-containing regimens, angiogenesis inhibitor-containing regimens resulted in a significant improvement in OS (HR 0.80, 95 % CI 0.69–0.93, P = 0.004, prolonged PFS (HR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.51–0.86, P = 0.002, and superior ORR (RR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.09–1.65, P = 0.005 and DCR (RR 1.37, 95 % CI 1.17–1.61, P = 0.0001. Angiogenesis inhibitors were associated with a greater number of AEs, but most of these were predictable and manageable. However, hand-foot syndrome, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal (GI perforation were significantly increased in patients treated with angiogenesis inhibitors. In summary, angiogenesis inhibitor-containing regimens were superior to non-angiogenesis inhibitor-containing regimens in terms of OS, PFS, RR, and DCR in patients with advanced GC.

  7. Targeted Approaches Applied to Uncommon Diseases: A Case of Salivary Duct Carcinoma Metastatic to the Brain Treated with the Multikinase Inhibitor Neratinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl R. Sorenson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare malignancy associated with hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 overexpression. Local surgical control is the cornerstone of therapy, but a subset of patients develops metastatic disease portending a poor prognosis and limited management options. Intracranial metastases are an uncommon manifestation and present a therapeutic challenge. We report the case of a 31-year-old male who presented with facial pain and swelling subsequently diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma. Our patient underwent extensive locoregional resection and analysis of the tumor tissue demonstrated evidence of androgen receptor expression and HER2 overexpression. His course was complicated by metastatic extra- and intracranial recurrence despite combined modality treatment with radiation and chemotherapy followed by anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy and androgen deprivation therapy. After exhausting standard treatment options, he received experimental therapy with a new small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, neratinib, with evidence of a transient clinical response and no significant adverse effects. This case exemplifies the potential and limitations of targeted therapy, particularly when applied to patients with rare diseases and presentations.

  8. Targeted Approaches Applied to Uncommon Diseases: A Case of Salivary Duct Carcinoma Metastatic to the Brain Treated with the Multikinase Inhibitor Neratinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Karl R; Piovezani Ramos, Guilherme; Villasboas Bisneto, Jose Caetano; Price, Katharine

    2017-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare malignancy associated with hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. Local surgical control is the cornerstone of therapy, but a subset of patients develops metastatic disease portending a poor prognosis and limited management options. Intracranial metastases are an uncommon manifestation and present a therapeutic challenge. We report the case of a 31-year-old male who presented with facial pain and swelling subsequently diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma. Our patient underwent extensive locoregional resection and analysis of the tumor tissue demonstrated evidence of androgen receptor expression and HER2 overexpression. His course was complicated by metastatic extra- and intracranial recurrence despite combined modality treatment with radiation and chemotherapy followed by anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy and androgen deprivation therapy. After exhausting standard treatment options, he received experimental therapy with a new small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, neratinib, with evidence of a transient clinical response and no significant adverse effects. This case exemplifies the potential and limitations of targeted therapy, particularly when applied to patients with rare diseases and presentations.

  9. Intrinsic fluorescence of the clinically approved multikinase inhibitor nintedanib reveals lysosomal sequestration as resistance mechanism in FGFR-driven lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englinger, Bernhard; Kallus, Sebastian; Senkiv, Julia; Heilos, Daniela; Gabler, Lisa; van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Terenzi, Alessio; Moser, Patrick; Pirker, Christine; Timelthaler, Gerald; Jäger, Walter; Kowol, Christian R; Heffeter, Petra; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter

    2017-09-07

    Studying the intracellular distribution of pharmacological agents, including anticancer compounds, is of central importance in biomedical research. It constitutes a prerequisite for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drug action and resistance development. Hyperactivated fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) constitute a promising therapy target in several types of malignancies including lung cancer. The clinically approved small-molecule FGFR inhibitor nintedanib exerts strong cytotoxicity in FGFR-driven lung cancer cells. However, subcellular pharmacokinetics of this compound and its impact on therapeutic efficacy remain obscure. 3-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy was conducted to asses cell-free nintedanib fluorescence properties. MTT assay was used to determine the impact of the lysosome-targeting agents bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine combined with nintedanib on lung cancer cell viability. Flow cytometry and live cell as well as confocal microscopy were performed to analyze uptake kinetics as well as subcellular distribution of nintedanib. Western blot was conducted to investigate protein expression. Cryosections of subcutaneous tumor allografts were generated to detect intratumoral nintedanib in mice after oral drug administration. Here, we report for the first time drug-intrinsic fluorescence properties of nintedanib in living and fixed cancer cells as well as in cryosections derived from allograft tumors of orally treated mice. Using this feature in conjunction with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy allowed to determine cellular drug accumulation levels, impact of the ABCB1 efflux pump and to uncover nintedanib trapping into lysosomes. Lysosomal sequestration - resulting in an organelle-specific and pH-dependent nintedanib fluorescence - was identified as an intrinsic resistance mechanism in FGFR-driven lung cancer cells. Accordingly, combination of nintedanib with agents compromising lysosomal acidification

  10. Reduction of Adipose Tissue Mass by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Young Park

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. This study was undertaken to determine whether ALS-L1023 (ALS prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from Melissa leaves, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity, can regulate adipose tissue growth. The effects of ALS on angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling were measured using in vitro assays. The effects of ALS on adipose tissue growth were investigated in high fat diet-induced obese mice. ALS inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity in vitro. Compared to obese control mice, administration of ALS to obese mice reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size without affecting appetite. ALS treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. ALS reduced the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2 and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas ALS increased the mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in adipose tissues. The protein levels of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also decreased by ALS in adipose tissue. Metabolic changes in plasma lipids, liver triglycerides, and hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation genes occurred during ALS-induced weight loss. These results suggest that ALS, which has antiangiogenic and MMP inhibitory activities, reduces adipose tissue mass in nutritionally obese mice, demonstrating that adipose tissue growth can be regulated by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  11. Angiogenesis Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) , bind to receptors on the surface of normal endothelial cells. When ...

  12. Depolymerized products of lambda-carrageenan as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun; Lin, Jing; Wang, Feng; Xu, Weifeng

    2007-08-22

    Since angiogenesis is involved in initiating and promoting several diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular events, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-angiogenesis of low-molecular-weight (LMW), highly sulfated lambda-carrageenan oligosaccharides (lambda-CO) obtained by carrageenan depolymerization, by CAM (chick chorioallantoic membrane) model and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Significant inhibition of vessel growth was observed at 200 microg/pellet. A histochemistry assay also revealed a decrease of capillary plexus and connective tissue in lambda-CO treated samples. lambda-CO inhibited the viability of cells at the high concentration of 1 mg/mL, whereas it affected the cell survival slightly (>95%) at a low concentration (lambda-CO among three kinds of cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory action of lambda-CO was also observed in the endothelial cell invasion and migration at relatively low concentration (150-300 microg/mL), through down-regulation of intracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2) expression on endothelial cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that lambda-CO is a potential angiogenesis inhibitor with combined effects of inhibiting invasion, migration, and proliferation.

  13. Treatment of medulloblastoma with oncolytic measles viruses expressing the angiogenesis inhibitors endostatin and angiostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzen, Brian; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Houghton, Peter J; Pierson, Christopher R; Powell, Kimerly; Bratasz, Anna; Raffel, Corey; Studebaker, Adam W

    2014-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common type of pediatric brain tumor. Although numerous factors influence patient survival rates, more than 30% of all cases will ultimately be refractory to conventional therapies. Current standards of care are also associated with significant morbidities, giving impetus for the development of new treatments. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virotherapy is effective against medulloblastoma, leading to significant prolongation of survival and even cures in mouse xenograft models of localized and metastatic disease. Because medulloblastomas are known to be highly vascularized tumors, we reasoned that the addition of angiogenesis inhibitors could further enhance the efficacy of oncolytic measles virotherapy. Toward this end, we have engineered an oncolytic measles virus that express a fusion protein of endostatin and angiostatin, two endogenous and potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Oncolytic measles viruses encoding human and mouse variants of a secretable endostatin/angiostatin fusion protein were designed and rescued according to established protocols. These viruses, known as MV-hE:A and MV-mE:A respectively, were then evaluated for their anti-angiogenic potential and efficacy against medulloblastoma cell lines and orthotopic mouse models of localized disease. Medulloblastoma cells infected by MV-E:A readily secrete endostatin and angiostatin prior to lysis. The inclusion of the endostatin/angiostatin gene did not negatively impact the measles virus’ cytotoxicity against medulloblastoma cells or alter its growth kinetics. Conditioned media obtained from these infected cells was capable of inhibiting multiple angiogenic factors in vitro, significantly reducing endothelial cell tube formation, viability and migration compared to conditioned media derived from cells infected by a control measles virus. Mice that were given a single intratumoral injection of MV-E:A likewise showed reduced numbers of tumor-associated blood

  14. Lack of association between level of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and estimates of tumor angiogenesis in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Riisbro, Rikke; Knoop, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) is involved in tumor invasion and progression. High levels of PAI-1 are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, and PAI-1 has been shown to play a role in angiogenic processes. Since estimates of tumor angiogenesis may predict poor prognosis...... we studied the relationship between PAI-1 and estimates of angiogenesis in breast cancer. Tumor tissue specimens from 438 breast cancer patients were included. Median follow-up was 10.3 years. Protein levels of PAI-1 were measured using an ELISA. Angiogenesis scores were performed using a Chalkley.......009) were independent markers of death from breast cancer. This study confirms high PAI-1 or high Chalkley counts as markers of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients, and suggests that the prognostic impact of PAI-1 is independent of its supposed involvement in tumor angiogenesis. Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  15. Micronutrients attenuate progression of prostate cancer by elevating the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, Platelet Factor-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleshner Neil E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longstanding evidence implicates an inadequate diet as a key factor in the onset and progression of prostate cancer. The purpose herein was to discover, validate and characterize functional biomarkers of dietary supplementation capable of suppressing the course of prostate cancer in vivo. Methods The Lady transgenic mouse model that spontaneously develops prostate cancer received a diet supplemented with a micronutrient cocktail of vitamin E, selenium and lycopene ad libitum. A proteomic analysis was conducted to screen for serum biomarkers of this dietary supplementation. Candidate peptides were validated and identified by sequencing and analyzed for their presence within the prostates of all mice by immunohistochemistry. Results Dietary supplementation with the combined micronutrients significantly induced the expression of the megakaryocyte-specific inhibitor of angiogenesis, platelet factor-4 (P = 0.0025. This observation was made predominantly in mice lacking tumors and any manifestations associated with progressive disease beyond 37 weeks of life, at which time no survivors remained in the control group (P Conclusion We present unprecedented data whereby these combined micronutrients effectively promotes tumor dormancy in early prostate cancer, following initiation mutations that may drive the angiogenesis-dependent response of the tumor, by inducing platelet factor-4 expression and concentrating it at the tumor endothelium through enhanced platelet binding.

  16. Identification of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 as an interaction partner of glutaminase interacting protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zencir, Sevil; Ovee, Mohiuddin; Dobson, Melanie J.; Banerjee, Monimoy; Topcu, Zeki; Mohanty, Smita

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2) is a new partner protein for GIP. → BAI2 interaction with GIP was revealed by yeast two-hybrid assay. → Binding of BAI2 to GIP was characterized by NMR, CD and fluorescence. → BAI2 and GIP binding was mediated through the C-terminus of BAI2. -- Abstract: The vast majority of physiological processes in living cells are mediated by protein-protein interactions often specified by particular protein sequence motifs. PDZ domains, composed of 80-100 amino acid residues, are an important class of interaction motif. Among the PDZ-containing proteins, glutaminase interacting protein (GIP), also known as Tax Interacting Protein TIP-1, is unique in being composed almost exclusively of a single PDZ domain. GIP has important roles in cellular signaling, protein scaffolding and modulation of tumor growth and interacts with a number of physiological partner proteins, including Glutaminase L, β-Catenin, FAS, HTLV-1 Tax, HPV16 E6, Rhotekin and Kir 2.3. To identify the network of proteins that interact with GIP, a human fetal brain cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid assay with GIP as bait. We identified brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2), a member of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a new partner of GIP. BAI2 is expressed primarily in neurons, further expanding GIP cellular functions. The interaction between GIP and the carboxy-terminus of BAI2 was characterized using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assays. These biophysical analyses support the interaction identified in the yeast two-hybrid assay. This is the first study reporting BAI2 as an interaction partner of GIP.

  17. Micronutrients attenuate progression of prostate cancer by elevating the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, Platelet Factor-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervi, David; Pak, Brian; Venier, Natalie A; Sugar, Linda M; Nam, Robert K; Fleshner, Neil E; Klotz, Laurence H; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2010-01-01

    Longstanding evidence implicates an inadequate diet as a key factor in the onset and progression of prostate cancer. The purpose herein was to discover, validate and characterize functional biomarkers of dietary supplementation capable of suppressing the course of prostate cancer in vivo. The Lady transgenic mouse model that spontaneously develops prostate cancer received a diet supplemented with a micronutrient cocktail of vitamin E, selenium and lycopene ad libitum. A proteomic analysis was conducted to screen for serum biomarkers of this dietary supplementation. Candidate peptides were validated and identified by sequencing and analyzed for their presence within the prostates of all mice by immunohistochemistry. Dietary supplementation with the combined micronutrients significantly induced the expression of the megakaryocyte-specific inhibitor of angiogenesis, platelet factor-4 (P = 0.0025). This observation was made predominantly in mice lacking tumors and any manifestations associated with progressive disease beyond 37 weeks of life, at which time no survivors remained in the control group (P < 0.0001). While prostates of mice receiving standard chow were enlarged and burdened with poorly differentiated carcinoma, those of mice on the supplemented diet appeared normal. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed marked amplifications of both platelet binding and platelet factor-4 within the blood vessels of prostates from mice receiving micronutrients only. We present unprecedented data whereby these combined micronutrients effectively promotes tumor dormancy in early prostate cancer, following initiation mutations that may drive the angiogenesis-dependent response of the tumor, by inducing platelet factor-4 expression and concentrating it at the tumor endothelium through enhanced platelet binding

  18. The selective Cox-2 inhibitor Celecoxib suppresses angiogenesis and growth of secondary bone tumors: An intravital microscopy study in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klenke, Frank Michael; Gebhard, Martha-Maria; Ewerbeck, Volker; Abdollahi, Amir; Huber, Peter E; Sckell, Axel

    2006-01-01

    The inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant primary and secondary tumors in addition to established therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. There is strong experimental evidence in primary tumors that Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) inhibition is a potent mechanism to reduce angiogenesis. For bone metastases which occur in up to 85% of the most frequent malignant primary tumors, the effects of Cox-2 inhibition on angiogenesis and tumor growth remain still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Celecoxib, a selective Cox-2 inhibitor, on angiogenesis, microcirculation and growth of secondary bone tumors. In 10 male severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, pieces of A549 lung carcinomas were implanted into a newly developed cranial window preparation where the calvaria serves as the site for orthotopic implantation of the tumors. From day 8 after tumor implantation, five animals (Celecoxib) were treated daily with Celecoxib (30 mg/kg body weight, s.c.), and five animals (Control) with the equivalent amount of the CMC-based vehicle. Angiogenesis, microcirculation, and growth of A549 tumors were analyzed by means of intravital microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified using the TUNEL assay. Treatment with Celecoxib reduced both microvessel density and tumor growth. TUNEL reaction showed an increase in apoptotic cell death of tumor cells after treatment with Celecoxib as compared to Controls. Celecoxib is a potent inhibitor of tumor growth of secondary bone tumors in vivo which can be explained by its anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects. The results indicate that a combination of established therapy regimes with Cox-2 inhibition represents a possible application for the treatment of bone metastases

  19. Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States). Department of Dermatology

    2006-06-15

    Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

  20. Correlation of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors with hypoxia and angiogenesis in premenopausal patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinothini, Govindarajah; Aravindraja, Chairmandurai; Chitrathara, K; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2011-08-01

    The present study was designed to correlate the expression of proteins regulating invasion and angiogenesis in patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. Seventy-five premenopausal breast cancer patients histologically categorized as grades I, II and III were chosen for the study. We analyzed the expression of MMP-2, and -9 and their inhibitors TIMP-2 and RECK together with HIF-1α and VEGF in tumor, adjacent tissues and serum samples by immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. The breast tumors analyzed in the present study were characterized by increased expression of MMP-2, -9, HIF-1α and VEGF with differential expression patterns of TIMP-2 and downregulation of RECK. The simultaneous analysis of the expression of these molecular markers is important to understand the intricate network between key molecules involved in invasion and angiogenesis that eventually determines the clinical course of the disease. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effectiveness of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and evaluation of angiogenesis in the model of experimental colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Hilal; Ilhan, Nevin; Eroksuz, Hatice

    2018-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment of CRCs are of importance for improving the survival. In the present study, we studied the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced chemopreventive effects on tumor development incidence and angiogenesis in experimental CRC rats. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) was used as cancer-inducing agent and two NSAIDs (celecoxib and diclofenac) were given orally as chemopreventive agents. Histopathological and immuno histochemical evaluations were performed in colorectal tissue samples, whereas angiogenesis parameters were studied in blood samples. Histopathological examination showed that adenocarcinoma (62.5%), dysplastic changes (31.25%) and inflammattory changes (6.25%) were detected in DMH group, whereas no pathological change was observed in control rats. In treatment groups, there was marked decrease in adenocarcinoma rate (30% and 10%, respectively). A significant increase was detected in MMP-2, MMP-9 levels and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio in DMH group as compared with controls and treatment groups. In immunohistochemical evaluations, there was an increase in intensity and extent of staining of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in DMH group as compared to controls and treatment groups. The decrease in celecoxib group was more prominent. Overall, it was concluded that NSAIDs, particularly cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, might have a protective effect on CRC development and slow down progression of tumor in a DMH-induced experimental cancer model. One of the possible mechanisms in the chemoprevention of colon cancer seems to be inhibition of angiogenesis by diclofenac and celecoxib. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression of inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID)-1 protein related to angiogenesis in tumor advancement of ovarian cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maw, Min Khine; Fujimoto, Jiro; Tamaya, Teruhiko

    2009-01-01

    The inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) has been involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. This prompted us to study ID functions in tumor advancement of ovarian cancers. Sixty patients underwent surgery for ovarian cancers. In ovarian cancers, the levels of ID-1, ID-2 and ID-3 mRNAs were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The histoscore with the localization of ID-1 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Patient prognosis was analyzed with a 36-month survival rate. Microvessel counts were determined by immunohistochemistry for CD34 and factor VIII-related antigen. ID-1 histoscores and mRNA levels both significantly (p < 0.001) increased in ovarian cancers according to clinical stage, regardless of histopathological type. Furthermore, 30 patients with high ID-1 expression had a lower survival rate (53%) compared to patients with low ID-1 expression (80%). ID-1 histoscores and mRNA levels significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with microvessel counts in ovarian cancers. ID-1 increased in ovarian cancer cells during tumor progression. Moreover, ID-1 expression levels correlated with microvessel counts. Therefore, ID-1 might work on tumor advancement via angiogenesis and is considered to be a candidate for a prognostic indicator in ovarian cancers

  3. ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING THERAPY OF ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES WITH ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITORS: SERIOUS IMPEDIMENT OR CONTROLLED REACTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. D. Kobalava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway (VSP inhibitors are drugs for which arterial hypertension (AH is a class effect, occurring with a frequency of up to 73 % of treated patients. Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor or its receptor is accompanied by inhibition of the synthesis of nitric oxide, which is considered a major pathogenic mechanism for the development of AH. VSP-inhibitors therapy will be as safe as possible, if the patient prior to treatment will take a minimum assessment, allowing to identify the category of patients with high/very high cardiovascular risk. Risk evaluation is necessary not to abandon an effective therapy of VSP-inhibitors, and to provide a systematic approach to reduce the likelihood of potential cardiovascular toxicity. Blood pressure during VSP-inhibitors therapy is characterized by a rapid rise after the first dose of target therapy, as a rule, in the first cycle of treatment, ranging from no increase to double the systolic blood pressure. Usually iatrogenic AH spontaneously resolves after stopping chemotherapy. Timely prescribed antihypertensive therapy help to avoids dose reduction or interruption of the course of VSP-inhibitors, which significantly improves the survival of patients.

  4. Angiogenesis in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis: predominance of the inhibitor endostatin is related to a greater extent and risk of recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Montaner, Joan; Rosell, Anna; Molina, Carlos A; Rovira, Alex; Ribó, Marc; Sánchez, Esther; Quintana, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Angiogenesis may be beneficial in chronic myocardial and limb ischemia, but its role in intracranial atherosclerosis remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the anti-angiogenic endostatin, and the extent and risk of recurrence of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis. Of a total of 94 consecutive patients with symptomatic intracranial stenoses, 40 fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Intracranial stenoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted sequences was conducted. Plasmatic VEGF and endostatin were determined from blood samples obtained 3 months after stroke onset, and patients were followed-up thereafter. A total of 144 intracranial stenoses were confirmed (median number per patient=3). Endostatin/VEGF ratio gradually augmented with the increasing number of intracranial stenoses (r=0.35, P=0.02). Diabetes mellitus (OR, 6.04; CI, 1.1 to 32.2; P=0.03) and a higher endostatin/VEGF ratio (OR, 15.7; CI, 2.2 to 112.3; P=0.006) were independently associated with a greater extent of intracranial atherosclerosis. During a median follow-up of 13 months, 8 patients (20%) experienced a new cerebral ischemic event. A higher baseline endostatin concentration was an independent predictor of new events (hazard ratio, 7.24; CI, 1.6 to 33.8; P=0.011) in a Cox regression model after adjustment for age, sex, number of stenotic vessels, and risk factors. Patients with a higher endostatin level had a lower survival free of new events (P=0.01, log-rank test). A predominance of the inhibitor endostatin within the endogenous angiogenic response is associated with a greater extent and risk of recurrence of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis, suggesting that angiogenesis may be beneficial in this condition.

  5. Design and synthesis of imidazopyridine analogues as inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Okseon; Jeong, Yujeong; Lee, Hyunseung; Hong, Sun-Sun; Hong, Sungwoo

    2011-04-14

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase α (PI3Kα) is an important regulator of intracellular signaling pathways, controlling remarkably diverse arrays of physiological processes. Because the PI3K pathway is frequently up-regulated in human cancers, the inhibition of PI3Kα can be a promising approach to cancer therapy. In this study, we have designed and synthesized a new series of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives as PI3Kα inhibitors through the fragment-growing strategy. By varying groups at the 3- and 6-positions of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, we studied the structure-activity relationships (SAR) profiles and identified a series of potent PI3Kα inhibitors. Representative derivatives showed good activity in cellular proliferation and apoptosis assays. Moreover, these inhibitors exhibited noteworthy antiangiogenic activity.

  6. Novel Midkine Inhibitor iMDK Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, Masanori; Okui, Tatsuo; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Kurio, Naito; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Naomoto, Yoshio; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor highly expressed in various human malignant tumors. However, its role in the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma is not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the antitumor effect of a novel midkine inhibitor (iMDK) against oral squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of iMDK induced a robust antitumor response and suppressed cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cells and SAS cells xenograft models. iMDK inhibited the proliferation of these cells dose-dependently, as well as the expression of midkine and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase in HSC-2 and SAS cells. Moreover, iMDK significantly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor and induced tube growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that midkine is critically involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma and iMDK can be effectively used for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Biochemical study on some tumour angiogenesis factors and inhibitors in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.M.E

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study was undertaken to investigate the significance of some tumour angiogenic factors (e.g. MMP, ADAM-12 and VEGF) and tumour angiogenic inhibitors (endostatin and TIMP-1) in the aetiology of breast cancer and their responsiveness to cancer treatment as well . We also sought to assess the significance of these angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in the prognosis and diagnosis of breast cancer. The cases were allocated into five groups: Normal control group (Gr.l), fibroadenoma (Gr.l l), breast cancer (invasive duct carcinoma type grade l l) (Gr.lll) , breast cancer + chemo hormonal therapy (Gr.IV), and breast cancer + chemo hormonal and radiotherapy (Gr.V).Results obtained from this study reported absence of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)activity in the urine and serum of normal subjects and fibroadenoma patients and its significant depression in the urine and serum of breast cancer patients treated with chemo hormonal therapy alone or followed by radiotherapy, compared to breast cancer group as reference. A significantly mild elevation in urinary MMP-2 activity and a non significant change in its activity in the serum of fibroadenoma patients, compared to the dramatic rise in the urine and serum of breast cancer patients were observed

  8. Pharmacokinetics of gene recombined angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5 in vivo using 131I specific markers and SPECT/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Yan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The previous pharmacokinetic methods can be only limited to drug analysis in vitro, which provide less information on the distribution and metabolismof drugs, and limit the interpretation and assessment of pharmacokinetics, the determination of metabolic principles, and evaluation of treatment effect. The objective of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of gene recombination angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5 in vivo. The SPECT/CT and specific 131I-Kringle 5 marked by Iodogen method were both applied to explore the pharmacokinetic characteristics of 131I-Kringle 5 in vivo, and to investigate the dynamic distributions of 131I-Kringle 5 in target organs. Labeling recombinant angiogenesis inhibitor Kringle 5 using 131I with longer half-life and imaging in vivo using SPECT instead of PET, could overcome the limitations of previous methods. When the doses of 131I-Kringle 5 were 10.0, 7.5 and 5.0 g/kg, respectively, the two-compartment open models can be determined within all the metabolic process in vivo. There were no significant differences in t1/2α, t1/2β, apparent volume of distribution and CL between those three levels. The ratio of AUC(0~∞ among three different groups of 10.0, 7.5 and 5.0 g/kg was 2.56:1.44:1.0, which was close to the ratio (2:1.5:1.0. It could be clear that in the range of 5.0–10.0 g/kg, Kringle 5 was characterized by the first-order pharmacokinetics. Approximately 30 min after 131I-Kringle 5 was injected, 131I-Kringle 5 could be observed to concentrate in the heart, kidneys, liver and other organs by means of planar imaging and tomography. After 1 h of being injected, more radionuclide retained in the bladder, but not in intestinal. It could be concluded that 131I-Kringle 5 is mainly excreted through the kidneys. About 2 h after the injection of 131I-Kringle 5, the radionuclide in the heart, kidneys, liver and other organs was gradually reduced, while more radionuclide was concentrated

  9. [Angiogenesis and endometriose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C M; Bartley, J; Mechsner, S; Ebert, A D

    2004-08-01

    Endometriosis is considered a chronic disease of women during their reproductive phase, which resembles many signs of malignancy. So far, therapeutic options for endometriosis-associated pain and infertility are unsatisfactory and often lead to recurrence of disease after termination of treatment. Angiogenesis seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The use of angiogenesis inhibitors may add an important new tool to well-established treatment schedules. Therefore, it is very important to thoroughly investigate the role of angiogenesis in endometriosis with respect to the female reproductive system.

  10. A novel peptide derived from human apolipoprotein E is an inhibitor of tumor growth and ocular angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha S Bhattacharjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a hallmark of tumor development and metastasis and now a validated target for cancer treatment. We previously reported that a novel dimer peptide (apoEdp derived from the receptor binding region of human apolipoprotein E (apoE inhibits virus-induced angiogenesis. However, its role in tumor anti-angiogenesis is unknown. This study demonstrates that apoEdp has anti-angiogenic property in vivo through reduction of tumor growth in a mouse model and ocular angiogenesis in a rabbit eye model. Our in vitro studies show that apoEdp inhibits human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion and capillary tube formation. We document that apoEdp inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced Flk-1 activation as well as downstream signaling pathways that involve c-Src, Akt, eNOS, FAK, and ERK1/2. These in vitro data suggest potential sites of the apoE dipeptide inhibition that could occur in vivo.This is the first evidence that a synthetic dimer peptide mimicking human apoE has anti-angiogenesis functions and could be an anti-tumor drug candidate.

  11. Anti-tumor angiogenesis effect of aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin against B16-BL6 melanoma cells orthotopically implanted into syngeneic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aozuka, Yasushi; Koizumi, Keiichi; Saitoh, Yurika; Ueda, Yasuji; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo

    2004-12-08

    We investigated the effect of bestatin, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase N (APN)/CD13 and aminopeptidase B, on the angiogenesis induced by B16-BL6 melanoma cells. Oral administration of bestatin (100-200 mg/kg/day) was found to significantly inhibit the melanoma cell-induced angiogenesis in a mouse dorsal air sac assay. Additionally, anti-APN/CD13 mAb (WM15), which neutralizes the aminopeptidase activity in tumor cells, as well as bestatin inhibited the tube-like formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Furthermore, the intraperitoneal administration of bestatin (50-100 mg/kg/day) after the orthotopic implantation of B16-BL6 melanoma cells into mice reduced the number of vessels oriented towards the established primary tumor mass on the dorsal side of mice. These findings suggest that bestatin is an active anti-angiogenic agent that may inhibit tumor angiogenesis in vivo and tube-like formation of endothelial cells in vitro through its inhibition of APN/CD13 activity.

  12. PNU-145156E, a novel angiogenesis inhibitor, in patients with solid tumors : A phase I and pharmacokinetic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, HJM; de Vries, EGE; Wynendaele, W; van der Graaf, WTA; Lechuga, EFMJ; Poggesi, [No Value; Dirix, LY; van Oosterom, AT

    2001-01-01

    Our aim was to establish, in patients with solid tumors, the dose-limiting toxicity, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and pharmacology of PNU-145156E, a new sulfonated distamycin A derivative that blocked circulating angiogenesis-promoting growth factors in animal studies and exhibited an antitumor

  13. IMD-4690, a novel specific inhibitor for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, reduces allergic airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic asthma via regulating angiogenesis and remodeling-related mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Tezuka

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 is the principal inhibitor of plasminogen activators, and is responsible for the degradation of fibrin and extracellular matrix. IMD-4690 is a newly synthesized inhibitor for PAI-1, whereas the effect on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling is still unclear. We examined the in vivo effects by using a chronic allergen exposure model of bronchial asthma in mice. The model was generated by an immune challenge for 8 weeks with house dust mite antigen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp. IMD-4690 was intraperitoneally administered during the challenge. Lung histopathology, hyperresponsiveness and the concentrations of mediators in lung homogenates were analyzed. The amount of active PAI-1 in the lungs was increased in mice treated with Dp. Administration with IMD-4690 reduced an active/total PAI-1 ratio. IMD-4690 also reduced the number of bronchial eosinophils in accordance with the decreased expressions of Th2 cytokines in the lung homogenates. Airway remodeling was inhibited by reducing subepithelial collagen deposition, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. The effects of IMD-4690 were partly mediated by the regulation of TGF-β, HGF and matrix metalloproteinase. These results suggest that PAI-1 plays crucial roles in airway inflammation and remodeling, and IMD-4690, a specific PAI-1 inhibitor, may have therapeutic potential for patients with refractory asthma due to airway remodeling.

  14. IMD-4690, a novel specific inhibitor for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, reduces allergic airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic asthma via regulating angiogenesis and remodeling-related mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Toshifumi; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Azuma, Masahiko; Goto, Hisatsugu; Uehara, Hisanori; Aono, Yoshinori; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yoichi; Fujikawa, Tomoyuki; Itai, Akiko; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is the principal inhibitor of plasminogen activators, and is responsible for the degradation of fibrin and extracellular matrix. IMD-4690 is a newly synthesized inhibitor for PAI-1, whereas the effect on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling is still unclear. We examined the in vivo effects by using a chronic allergen exposure model of bronchial asthma in mice. The model was generated by an immune challenge for 8 weeks with house dust mite antigen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). IMD-4690 was intraperitoneally administered during the challenge. Lung histopathology, hyperresponsiveness and the concentrations of mediators in lung homogenates were analyzed. The amount of active PAI-1 in the lungs was increased in mice treated with Dp. Administration with IMD-4690 reduced an active/total PAI-1 ratio. IMD-4690 also reduced the number of bronchial eosinophils in accordance with the decreased expressions of Th2 cytokines in the lung homogenates. Airway remodeling was inhibited by reducing subepithelial collagen deposition, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. The effects of IMD-4690 were partly mediated by the regulation of TGF-β, HGF and matrix metalloproteinase. These results suggest that PAI-1 plays crucial roles in airway inflammation and remodeling, and IMD-4690, a specific PAI-1 inhibitor, may have therapeutic potential for patients with refractory asthma due to airway remodeling.

  15. CM363, a novel naphthoquinone derivative which acts as multikinase modulator and overcomes imatinib resistance in chronic myelogenous leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; McNaughton-Smith, Grant; Jiménez-Alonso, Sandra; Hueso-Falcón, Idaira; Montero, Juan Carlos; Blanco, Raquel; León, Javier; Rodríguez-González, Germán; Estévez-Braun, Ana; Pandiella, Atanasio; Díaz-Chico, Bonifacio Nicolás; Fernández-Pérez, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    Human Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) is a hematological stem cell disorder which is associated with activation of Bcr-Abl-Stat5 oncogenic pathway. Direct Bcr-Abl inhibitors are initially successful for the treatment of CML but over time many patients develop drug resistance. In the present study, the effects of CM363, a novel naphthoquinone (NPQ) derivative, were evaluated on human CML-derived K562 cells. CM363 revealed an effective cell growth inhibition (IC50 = 0.7 ± 0.5 μM) by inducing cancer cells to undergo cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. CM363 caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction of cells in G0/G1 and G2/M phases. This cell cycle arrest was associated with increased levels of cyclin E, pChk1 and pChk2 whereas CM363 downregulated cyclin B, cyclin D3, p27, pRB, Wee1, and BUBR1. CM363 increased the double-strand DNA break marker γH2AX. CM363 caused a time-dependent increase of annexin V-positive cells, DNA fragmentation and increased number of apoptotic nuclei. CM363 triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway as reflected by a release of cytochrome C from mitochondria and induction of the cleavage of caspase-3 and -9, and PARP. CM363 showed multikinase modulatory effects through an early increased JNK phosphorylation followed by inhibition of pY-Bcrl-Abl and pY-Stat5. CM363 worked synergistically with imatinib to inhibit cell viability and maintained its activity in imatinib-resistant cells. Finally, CM363 (10 mg/Kg) suppressed the growth of K562 xenograft tumors in athymic mice. In summary, CM363 is a novel multikinase modulator that offers advantages to circumvent imanitib resistance and might be therapeutically effective in Bcrl-Abl-Stat5 related malignancies. PMID:27557509

  16. History of research on angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the number of Medline publications dealing with angiogenesis has increased in a nonlinear fashion, reflecting the interest among basic scientists and clinicians in this field. Under physiological conditions, angiogenesis is regulated by the local balance between endogenous stimulators and inhibitors of this process. In tumor growth, there is an imbalance between endogenous stimulator and inhibitor levels, leading to an 'angiogenic switch'. Starting with the hypothesis formulated by Judah Folkman that tumor growth is angiogenesis-dependent, this area of research has a solid scientific foundation and inhibition of angiogenesis is a major area of therapeutic development for the treatment of cancer. This paper offers an account of the most relevant discoveries in this field of biomedical research. Copyright © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF1120 ameliorates inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis in CCl4-induced liver fibrogenesis mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öztürk Akcora, Büsra; Storm, Gerrit; Prakash, Jai; Bansal, Ruchi

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis, a progressive chronic disease mainly caused by hepatitis viral infections, alcohol abuse or metabolic syndrome leading to liver dysfunction and is the growing cause of mortality worldwide. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF1120 (Nintedanib) has been evaluated in clinical trials for

  18. Cancer gene therapy targeting angiogenesis: An updated Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Chiu; Shen, Zan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Lin, Marie CM

    2006-01-01

    Since the relationship between angiogenesis and tumor growth was established by Folkman in 1971, scientists have made efforts exploring the possibilities in treating cancer by targeting angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis growth factors and administration of angiogenesis inhibitors are the basics of anti-angiogenesis therapy. Transfer of anti-angiogenesis genes has received attention recently not only because of the advancement of recombinant vectors, but also because of the localized and sustained expression of therapeutic gene product inside the tumor after gene transfer. This review provides the up-to-date information about the strategies and the vectors studied in the field of anti-angiogenesis cancer gene therapy. PMID:17109514

  19. A novel small molecular STAT3 inhibitor, LY5, inhibits cell viability, cell migration, and angiogenesis in medulloblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Jou, David; Wu, Xiaojuan; Yu, Wenying; Li, Chenglong; Houghton, Peter J; Lin, Jiayuh

    2015-02-06

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is persistently activated and could contribute to tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma. Numerous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the persistent STAT3 signaling pathway results in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in human cancer cells, indicating that STAT3 is a viable molecular target for cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated a novel non-peptide, cell-permeable small molecule, named LY5, to target STAT3 in medulloblastoma cells. LY5 inhibited persistent STAT3 phosphorylation and induced apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cell lines expressing constitutive STAT3 phosphorylation. The inhibition of STAT3 signaling by LY5 was confirmed by down-regulating the expression of the downstream targets of STAT3, including cyclin D1, bcl-XL, survivin, and micro-RNA-21. LY5 also inhibited the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, and leukemia inhibitory factor in medulloblastoma cells, but did not inhibit STAT1 and STAT5 phosphorylation stimulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and EGF, respectively. In addition, LY5 blocked the STAT3 nuclear localization induced by IL-6, but did not block STAT1 and STAT5 nuclear translocation mediated by IFN-γ and EGF, respectively. A combination of LY5 with cisplatin or x-ray radiation also showed more potent effects than single treatment alone in the inhibition of cell viability in human medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, LY5 demonstrated a potent inhibitory activity on cell migration and angiogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate LY5 inhibits persistent and inducible STAT3 phosphorylation and suggest that LY5 is a promising therapeutic drug candidate for medulloblastoma by inhibiting persistent STAT3 signaling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Role of anti-angiogenesis therapy in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma: The jury is still out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; Sun; Man-Sheng; Zhu; Wen-Rui; Wu; Xiang-De; Shi; Lei-Bo; Xu

    2014-01-01

    As the leading cause of disease-related deaths,cancer is a major public health threat worldwide.Surgical resection is still the first-line therapy for patients with early-stage cancers.However,postoperative relapse and metastasis remain the cause of 90%of deaths of patients with solid organ malignancies,including hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).With the rapid development of molecular biology techniques in recent years,molecularly targeted therapies using monoclonal antibodies,small molecules,and vaccines have become a milestone in cancer therapeutic by significantly improv-ing the survival of cancer patients,and have opened a window of hope for patients with advanced cancer.Hypervascularization is a major characteristic of HCC.It has been reported that anti-angiogenic treatments,which inhibit blood vessel formation,are highly effective for treating HCC.However,the efficacy and safety of anti-angiogenesis therapies remain controversial.Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor with antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic effects and is the first molecular target drug approved for the treatment of advanced HCC.While sorafenib has shown promising therapeutic effects,substantial evidence of primary and acquired resistance to sorafenib has been reported.Numerous clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate a large number of molecularly targeted drugs for treating HCC,but most drugs exhibited less efficacy and/or higher toxicity compared to sorafenib.Therefore,understanding the mechanism(s)underlying sorafenib resistance of cancer cells is highlighted for efficiently treating HCC.This concise review aims to provide an overview of anti-angiogenesis therapy in the management of HCC and to discuss the common mechanisms of resistance to anti-angiogenesis therapies.

  1. Defibrotide Stimulates Angiogenesis and Protects Endothelial Cells from Calcineurin Inhibitor-Induced Apoptosis via Upregulation of AKT/Bcl-xL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangmin; Pan, Bin; Hashimoto, Yuko; Ohkawara, Hiroshi; Xu, Kailin; Zeng, Lingyu; Ikezoe, Takayuki

    2018-01-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is a life-threatening complication that can occur after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Defibrotide (DF) has been approved for the treatment of individuals with severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the European Union and the United States. However, the precise mechanisms by which DF protects endothelial cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we found that DF stimulated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo as assessed by vascular tube formation, scratch-wound repair and Matrigel plug assays. These effects were associated with an activation of pro-survival signalling pathways, including AKT (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and p38. More importantly, DF alleviated calcineurin inhibitor-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in parallel with upregulation of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xL), which was mediated by AKT (protein kinase B). Notably, these effects were abrogated when Bcl-xL was depleted by small interfering RNA (ribonucleic acid). In addition, DF counteracted calcineurin inhibitor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling and production of cytokines in vascular endothelial cell-derived EA.hy926 cells. Taken together, DF has pro-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells. DF is a potentially useful agent to prevent the development of, and treat individuals with, endothelial cell injury-related complications after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  2. Imaging angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Natalie; Donaldson, Stephanie; Price, Pat

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for direct imaging of effects on tumor vasculature in assessment of response to antiangiogenic drugs and vascular disrupting agents. Imaging tumor vasculature depends on differences in permeability of vasculature of tumor and normal tissue, which cause changes in penetration of contrast agents. Angiogenesis imaging may be defined in terms of measurement of tumor perfusion and direct imaging of the molecules involved in angiogenesis. In addition, assessment of tumor hypoxia will give an indication of tumor vasculature. The range of imaging techniques available for these processes includes positron emission tomography (PET), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), perfusion computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US).

  3. Study on Biopharmaceutics Classification and Oral Bioavailability of a Novel Multikinase Inhibitor NCE for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific biopharmaceutics classification investigation and study on phamacokinetic profile of a novel drug candidate (2-methylcarbamoyl-4-{4-[3- (trifluoromethyl benzamido] phenoxy} pyridinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate monohydrate, NCE were carried out. Equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR of NCE were estimated in different phosphate buffers. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff of NCE was determined using single-pass intestinal perfusion technique in rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum at three concentrations. Theophylline (high permeability and ranitidine (low permeability were also applied to access the permeability of NCE as reference compounds. The bioavailability after intragastrical and intravenous administration was measured in beagle dogs. The solubility of NCE in tested phosphate buffers was quite low with the maximum solubility of 81.73 μg/mL at pH 1.0. The intrinsic dissolution ratio of NCE was 1 × 10−4 mg·min−1·cm−2. The Peff value of NCE in all intestinal segments was more proximate to the high-permeability reference theophylline. Therefore, NCE was classified as class II drug according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System due to its low solubility and high intestinal permeability. In addition, concentration-dependent permeability was not observed in all the segments, indicating that there might be passive transportation for NCE. The absolute oral bioavailability of NCE in beagle dogs was 26.75%. Therefore, dissolution promotion will be crucial for oral formulation development and intravenous administration route will also be suggested for further NCE formulation development. All the data would provide a reference for biopharmaceutics classification research of other novel drug candidates.

  4. Study on biopharmaceutics classification and oral bioavailability of a novel multikinase inhibitor NCE for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fan, Chun-Mei; He, Xuan; Ren, Ke; Zhang, Jin-Kun; He, Ying-Ju; Yu, Luo-Ting; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Gong, Chang-Yang; Zheng, Yu; Song, Xiang-Rong; Zeng, Jun

    2014-04-25

    Specific biopharmaceutics classification investigation and study on phamacokinetic profile of a novel drug candidate (2-methylcarbamoyl-4-{4-[3- (trifluoromethyl) benzamido] phenoxy} pyridinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate monohydrate, NCE) were carried out. Equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of NCE were estimated in different phosphate buffers. Effective intestinal permeability (P(eff)) of NCE was determined using single-pass intestinal perfusion technique in rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum at three concentrations. Theophylline (high permeability) and ranitidine (low permeability) were also applied to access the permeability of NCE as reference compounds. The bioavailability after intragastrical and intravenous administration was measured in beagle dogs. The solubility of NCE in tested phosphate buffers was quite low with the maximum solubility of 81.73 μg/mL at pH 1.0. The intrinsic dissolution ratio of NCE was 1 × 10⁻⁴ mg·min⁻¹·cm⁻². The P(eff) value of NCE in all intestinal segments was more proximate to the high-permeability reference theophylline. Therefore, NCE was classified as class II drug according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System due to its low solubility and high intestinal permeability. In addition, concentration-dependent permeability was not observed in all the segments, indicating that there might be passive transportation for NCE. The absolute oral bioavailability of NCE in beagle dogs was 26.75%. Therefore, dissolution promotion will be crucial for oral formulation development and intravenous administration route will also be suggested for further NCE formulation development. All the data would provide a reference for biopharmaceutics classification research of other novel drug candidates.

  5. Angiogenesis and Tissue Engineering Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Model with the Angiogenesis Inhibitor Sunitinib. American Pediatric Surgical Association – 40th Annual Meeting, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, May 2009...Res 149(1):115-9. 14 5. Ray NF, Denton WG, Thamer M, Henderson SC, Perry S (1998) Abdominal adhesiolysis: inpatient care and expenditures in the...nude mice (n¼ 9). Mice were injected with near- infrared agents and imaged using intravital fluorescence microscope at 0, 7, and 35 days to validate in

  6. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane recruiter the alter ego of CFTR as a multi-kinase anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anil

    2007-11-01

    This review focuses on a newly discovered interaction between protein kinases involved in cellular energetics, a process that may be disturbed in cystic fibrosis for unknown reasons. I propose a new model where kinase-mediated cellular transmission of energy provides mechanistic insight to a latent role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). I suggest that CFTR acts as a multi-kinase recruiter to the apical epithelial membrane. My group finds that, in the cytosol, two protein kinases involved in cell energy homeostasis, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), bind one another. Preliminary data suggest that both can also bind CFTR (function unclear). The disrupted role of this CFTR-kinase complex as 'membrane transmitter to the cell' is proposed as an alternative paradigm to the conventional ion transport mediated and CFTR/chloride-centric view of cystic fibrosis pathogenesis. Chloride remains important, but instead, chloride-induced control of the phosphohistidine content of one kinase component (NDPK, via a multi-kinase complex that also includes a third kinase, CK2; formerly casein kinase 2). I suggest that this complex provides the necessary near-equilibrium conditions needed for efficient transmission of phosphate energy to proteins controlling cellular energetics. Crucially, a new role for CFTR as a kinase controller is proposed with ionic concentration acting as a signal. The model posits a regulatory control relay for energy sensing involving a cascade of protein kinases bound to CFTR.

  7. Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JM, and the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study Investigators. Validation of Nijmegen-Bethesda assay modifications to allow inhibitor ... webinars on blood disorders Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  8. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  9. Comparison of three rapamycin dosing schedules in A/J Tsc2+/- mice and improved survival with angiogenesis inhibitor or asparaginase treatment in mice with subcutaneous tuberous sclerosis related tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabora Sandra L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant tumor disorder characterized by the growth of hamartomas in various organs including the kidney, brain, skin, lungs, and heart. Rapamycin has been shown to reduce the size of kidney angiomyolipomas associated with TSC; however, tumor regression is incomplete and kidney angiomyolipomas regrow after cessation of treatment. Mouse models of TSC2 related tumors are useful for evaluating new approaches to drug therapy for TSC. Methods In cohorts of Tsc2+/- mice, we compared kidney cystadenoma severity in A/J and C57BL/6 mouse strains at both 9 and 12 months of age. We also investigated age related kidney tumor progression and compared three different rapamycin treatment schedules in cohorts of A/J Tsc2+/- mice. In addition, we used nude mice bearing Tsc2-/- subcutaneous tumors to evaluate the therapeutic utility of sunitinib, bevacizumab, vincristine, and asparaginase. Results TSC related kidney disease severity is 5-10 fold higher in A/J Tsc2+/- mice compared with C57BL/6 Tsc2+/- mice. Similar to kidney angiomyolipomas associated with TSC, the severity of kidney cystadenomas increases with age in A/J Tsc2+/- mice. When rapamycin dosing schedules were compared in A/J Tsc2+/- cohorts, we observed a 66% reduction in kidney tumor burden in mice treated daily for 4 weeks, an 82% reduction in mice treated daily for 4 weeks followed by weekly for 8 weeks, and an 81% reduction in mice treated weekly for 12 weeks. In the Tsc2-/- subcutaneous tumor mouse model, vincristine is not effective, but angiogenesis inhibitors (sunitinib and bevacizumab and asparaginase are effective as single agents. However, these drugs are not as effective as rapamycin in that they increased median survival only by 24-27%, while rapamycin increased median survival by 173%. Conclusions Our results indicate that the A/J Tsc2+/- mouse model is an improved, higher through-put mouse model for future TSC

  10. Angiogenesis in liver fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adlia, Amirah

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis emerges in parallel with liver fibrosis, but it is still unclear whether angiogenesis is a defense mechanism of the body in response to fibrosis, or whether it aggravates the fibrotic condition. In this thesis, Amirah Adlia applied different approaches to elucidate the role of

  11. Angiogenesis is inhibitory for mammalian digit regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Yan, Mingquan; Simkin, Jennifer; Ketcham, Paulina D.; Leininger, Eric; Han, Manjong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The regenerating mouse digit tip is a unique model for investigating blastema formation and epimorphic regeneration in mammals. The blastema is characteristically avascular and we previously reported that blastema expression of a known anti‐angiogenic factor gene, Pedf, correlated with a successful regenerative response (Yu, L., Han, M., Yan, M., Lee, E. C., Lee, J. & Muneoka, K. (2010). BMP signaling induces digit regeneration in neonatal mice. Development, 137, 551–559). Here we show that during regeneration Vegfa transcripts are not detected in the blastema but are expressed at the onset of differentiation. Treating the amputation wound with vascular endothelial growth factor enhances angiogenesis but inhibits regeneration. We next tested bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), another known mediator of angiogenesis, and found that BMP9 is also a potent inhibitor of digit tip regeneration. BMP9 induces Vegfa expression in the digit stump suggesting that regenerative failure is mediated by enhanced angiogenesis. Finally, we show that BMP9 inhibition of regeneration is completely rescued by treatment with pigment epithelium‐derived factor. These studies show that precocious angiogenesis is inhibitory for regeneration, and provide compelling evidence that the regulation of angiogenesis is a critical factor in designing therapies aimed at stimulating mammalian regeneration. PMID:27499862

  12. Mediators of ocular angiogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Keywords. ocular angiogenesis; corneal neovascularization; retinal neovascularization; diabetic retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; retinopathy of prematurity; VEGF; PEDF; Flt-1; Flk-1; endostatin; angiopoietin; erythropoietin; Tie2; inflammation; complement; gene therapy; TLR-3; Robo4.

  13. Angiogenesis in vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Werther, Kim; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potent mediators of tumor angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that vestibular schwannoma VEGF expression correlates with tumor growth pattern, whereas knowledge on the expression of MMPs is lacking. This study...

  14. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  15. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  16. Sorafenib enhances proteasome inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity via inhibition of unfolded protein response and keratin phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to conventional systemic therapies and prognosis for advanced HCC patients remains poor. Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor initiation and progression have identified several potential molecular targets in HCC. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor shown to have survival benefits in advanced HCC. It acts by inhibiting the serine/threonine kinases and the receptor type tyrosine kinases. In preclinical experiments sorafenib had anti-proliferative activity in hepatoma cells and it reduced tumor angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib include its inhibitory effects on protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response (UPR) and keratin phosphorylation in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, we show that combined treatment with sorafenib and proteasome inhibitors (PIs) synergistically induced a marked increase in cell death in hepatoma- and hepatocyte-derived cells. These observations may open the way to potentially interesting treatment combinations that may augment the effect of sorafenib, possibly including drugs that promote ER stress. Because sorafenib blocked the cellular defense mechanisms against hepatotoxic injury not only in hepatoma cells but also in hepatocyte-derived cells, we must be careful to avoid severe liver injury. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •We examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib in hepatoma cells. •Sorafenib induces cell death via apoptotic and necrotic fashion. •Sorafenib inhibits protein ubiquitination and unfolded protein response. •Autophagy induced by sorafenib may affect its cytotoxicity. •Sorafenib inhibits keratin phosphorylation and cytoplasmic inclusion formation

  17. Tip Cells in Angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dallinga (Marchien); S.E.M. Boas (Sonja); I. Klaassen (Ingeborg); R.M.H. Merks (Roeland); C.J.F. van Noorden; R.O. Schlingemann (Reinier)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIn angiogenesis, the process in which blood vessel sprouts grow out from a pre-existing vascular network, the so-called endothelial tip cells play an essential role. Tip cells are the leading cells of the sprouts; they guide following endothelial cells and sense their environment for

  18. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase is a coactivator for serum response factor-dependent induction of immediate early genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Tyagi, Richa; Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Jina; Kim, Young-ran; Beon, Jiyoon; Chen, Po Yu; Cha, Jiyoung Y.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Kim, Seyun

    2013-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) is a notably pleiotropic protein. It displays both inositol phosphate kinase and phosphatidylinositol kinase catalytic activities. Noncatalytically, IPMK stabilizes the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and acts as a transcriptional coactivator for CREB-binding protein/E1A binding protein p300 and tumor suppressor protein p53. Serum response factor (SRF) is a major transcription factor for a wide range of immediate early genes. We report that IPMK, in a noncatalytic role, is a transcriptional coactivator for SRF mediating the transcription of immediate early genes. Stimulation by serum of many immediate early genes is greatly reduced by IPMK deletion. IPMK stimulates expression of these genes, an influence also displayed by catalytically inactive IPMK. IPMK acts by binding directly to SRF and thereby enhancing interactions of SRF with the serum response element of diverse genes. PMID:24248338

  19. Angiogenesis Research to Improve Therapies for Vascular Leak Syndromes, Intra-Abdominal Adhesions, and Arterial Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folkman, Judah; Puder, Mark; Bischoff, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    ...) to develop angiogenesis inhibitors which would inhibit post-operative abdominal adhesions; and (iii) to isolate endothelial progenitor cells from blood capable of being expanded in vitro and applied to vascular grafts...

  20. Angiogenesis Research to Improve Therapies for Vascular Leak Syndromes, Intra-Abdominal Adhesions, and Arterial Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folkman, Judah; Puder, Mark; Bischoff, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    ...) to develop angiogenesis inhibitors which would inhibit post-operative abdominal adhesions; and, (iii) to isolate endothelial progenitor cells from blood, capable of being expanded in vitro and applied to vascular grafts...

  1. Angiogenesis Research to Improve Therapies for Vascular Leak Syndromes, Intra-abdominal Adhesions, and Arterial Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folkman, Judah

    2008-01-01

    ...) to develop angiogenesis inhibitors which would inhibit post-operative abdominal adhesions; and, (iii) to isolate endothelial progenitor cells from blood, capable of being expanded in vitro and applied to vascular grafts...

  2. Sorafenib blocks tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastatic potential in preclinical models of osteosarcoma through a mechanism potentially involving the inhibition of ERK1/2, MCL-1 and ezrin pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary bone tumour in children and young adults. Despite improved prognosis, metastatic or relapsed OS remains largely incurable and no significant improvement has been observed in the last 20 years. Therefore, the search for alternative agents in OS is mandatory. Results We investigated phospho-ERK 1/2, MCL-1, and phospho-Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (P-ERM as potential therapeutic targets in OS. Activation of these pathways was shown by immunohistochemistry in about 70% of cases and in all OS cell lines analyzed. Mutational analysis revealed no activating mutations in KRAS whereas BRAF gene was found to be mutated in 4/30 OS samples from patients. Based on these results we tested the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (BAY 43-9006 in preclinical models of OS. Sorafenib inhibited OS cell line proliferation, induced apoptosis and downregulated P-ERK1/2, MCL-1, and P-ERM in a dose-dependent manner. The dephosphorylation of ERM was not due to ERK inhibition. The downregulation of MCL-1 led to an increase in apoptosis in OS cell lines. In chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes, OS supernatants induced angiogenesis, which was blocked by sorafenib and it was also shown that sorafenib reduced VEGF and MMP2 production. In addition, sorafenib treatment dramatically reduced tumour volume of OS xenografts and lung metastasis in SCID mice. Conclusion In conclusion, ERK1/2, MCL-1 and ERM pathways are shown to be active in OS. Sorafenib is able to inhibit their signal transduction, both in vitro and in vivo, displaying anti-tumoural activity, anti-angiogenic effects, and reducing metastatic colony formation in lungs. These data support the testing of sorafenib as a potential therapeutic option in metastatic or relapsed OS patients unresponsive to standard treatments.

  3. The Harvard angiogenesis story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan W

    2014-01-01

    I shall discuss the work of researchers at Harvard Medical School who came together in the early 1990s. Scattered across various Harvard-affiliated hospitals and research centers, these individuals were unified by their interest in ocular neovascularization. Together and separately, they investigated models of ocular neovascularization, exploring tumor angiogenesis in eye development and disease. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perlecan and tumor angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of basement membranes (BMs) and connective tissues. The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with thr...... have unwanted promoting effects on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention....

  5. Mature and progenitor endothelial cells perform angiogenesis also under protease inhibition: the amoeboid angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillà, Anastasia; Margheri, Francesca; Biagioni, Alessio; Del Rosso, Mario; Fibbi, Gabriella; Laurenzana, Anna

    2018-04-03

    Controlling vascular growth is a challenging aim for the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. The amoeboid and mesenchymal types of invasiveness are two modes of migration interchangeable in cancer cells: the Rac-dependent mesenchymal migration requires the activity of proteases; the Rho-ROCK-dependent amoeboid motility is protease-independent and has never been described in endothelial cells. A cocktail of physiologic inhibitors (Ph-C) of serine-proteases, metallo-proteases and cysteine-proteases, mimicking the physiological environment that cells encounter during their migration within the angiogenesis sites was used to induce amoeboid style migration of Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) and mature endothelial cells (ECs). To evaluate the mesenchymal-ameboid transition RhoA and Rac1 activation assays were performed along with immunofluorescence analysis of proteins involved in cytoskeleton organization. Cell invasion was studied in Boyden chambers and Matrigel plug assay for the in vivo angiogenesis. In the present study we showed in both ECFCs and ECs, a decrease of activated Rac1 and an increase of activated RhoA upon shifting of cells to the amoeboid conditions. In presence of Ph-C inhibitors both cell lines acquired a round morphology and Matrigel invasion was greatly enhanced with respect to that observed in the absence of protease inhibition. We also observed that the urokinase-plasminogen-activator (uPAR) receptor silencing and uPAR-integrin uncoupling with the M25 peptide abolished both mesenchymal and amoeboid angiogenesis of ECFCs and ECs in vitro and in vivo, indicating a role of the uPAR-integrin-actin axis in the regulation of amoeboid angiogenesis. Furthermore, under amoeboid conditions endothelial cells seem to be indifferent to VEGF stimulation, which induces an amoeboid signaling pattern also in mesenchymal conditions. Here we first provide a data set disclosing that endothelial cells can move and differentiate into vascular

  6. Standardization of a method to study angiogenesis in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID FEDER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the adult organism, angiogenesis is restricted to a few physiological conditions. On the other hand, uncontrolled angiogenesis have often been associated to angiogenesis-dependent pathologies. A variety of animal models have been described to provide more quantitative analysis of in vivo angiogenesis and to characterize pro- and antiangiogenic molecules. However, it is still necessary to establish a quantitative, reproducible and specific method for studies of angiogenesis factors and inhibitors. This work aimed to standardize a method for the study of angiogenesis and to investigate the effects of thalidomide on angiogenesis. Sponges of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm were implanted in the back of mice groups, control and experimental (thalidomide 200 mg/K/day by gavage. After seven days, the sponges were removed. The dosage of hemoglobin in sponge and in circulation was performed and the ratio between the values was tested using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Results have shown that sponge-induced angiogenesis quantitated by ratio between hemoglobin content in serum and in sponge is a helpful model for in vivo studies on angiogenesis. Moreover, it was observed that sponge-induced angiogenesis can be suppressed by thalidomide, corroborating to the validity of the standardized method.

  7. Molecular Therapeutic Targets for Glioma Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Takano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent angiogenesis that occurs in malignant glioma, antiangiogenic therapy has been attempted. There have been several molecular targets that are specific to malignant gliomas, as well as more broadly in systemic cancers. In this review, I will focus on some topics related to molecular therapeutic targets for glioma angiogenesis. First, important angiogenic factors that could be considered molecular targets are VEGF, VEGF-induced proteins on endothelial cells, tissue factor, osteopontin, v3 integrin, and thymidine phosphorylase as well as endogenous inhibitors, soluble Flt1, and thrombospondin 1. Second, hypoxic areas are also decreased by metronomic CPT11 treatment as well as temozolomide. Third, glioma-derived endothelial cells that are genetically and functionally distinct from normal endothelial cells should be targeted, for example, with SDF-1 and CXCR7 chemokine. Fourth, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs likely contribute towards glioma angiogenesis in the brain and could be useful as a drug delivery tool. Finally, blockade of delta-like 4 (Dll4 results in a nonfunctioning vasculature and could be another important target distinct from VEGF.

  8. Statins and angiogenesis: Is it about connections?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaidakov, Magomed; Wang, Wenze; Khan, Junaid A.; Kang, Bum-Yong; Hermonat, Paul L.; Mehta, Jawahar L.

    2009-01-01

    Statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, have been shown to induce both angiogenic and angiostatic responses. We attempted to resolve this controversy by studying the effects of two different statins, rosuvastatin and simvastatin, in two different assay systems. In the matrigel angiogenesis assay, both statins enhanced tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, p < 0.01 vs. control). In the ex vivo mouse aortic ring sprouting assay, both statins virtually abolished new vessel formation (p < 0.01). As a basic difference between the two models of angiogenesis is dispersed state of endothelial cells vs. compact monolayer, we analyzed influence of statins on endothelial junction proteins. RT-PCR analysis and cytoimmunostaining of HUVECs treated with simvastatin revealed increased expression of VE-cadherin (p < 0.05). The blockade of VE-cadherin with a specific antibody reversed simvastatin-induced tube formation (p < 0.002). These data suggest that statins through VE-cadherin stimulation modulate cell-cell adhesion and diminish the ability of cells to proliferate and migrate. The observations of reduced angiogenesis in the intact vessel may relate to anti-atherosclerotic and anti-cancer effects of statins, and provide a feasible explanation for conflicting data under different experimental conditions.

  9. Angiogenesis, Cancer, and Vascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Moriya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have revealed that the angiogenic response to ischemic injury declines with age, which might account for the increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD among the elderly. While impairment of angiogenesis with aging leads to delayed wound healing or exacerbation of atherosclerotic ischemic diseases, it also inhibits the progression of cancer. Age-related changes of angiogenesis have been considered to at least partly result from vascular aging or endothelial cell senescence. There is considerable evidence supporting the hypothesis that vascular cell senescence contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related CVD, suggesting that vascular aging could be an important therapeutic target. Since therapeutic angiogenesis is now regarded as a promising concept for patients with ischemic CVD, it has become even more important to understand the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying impairment of angiogenesis in older patients. To improve the usefulness of therapeutic angiogenesis, approaches are needed that can compensate for impaired angiogenic capacity in the elderly while not promoting the development or progression of malignancy. In this review, we briefly outline the mechanisms of angiogenesis and vascular aging, followed by a description of how vascular aging leads to impairment of angiogenesis. We also examine potential therapeutic approaches that could enhance angiogenesis and/or vascular function in the elderly, as well as discussing the possibility of anti-senescence therapy or reversal of endothelial cell senescence.

  10. Nanobodies As Novel Agents for Targeting Angiogenesis in Solid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghaye Arezumand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid cancers are dependent on angiogenesis for sustenance. The FDA approval of Bevacizumab in 2004 inspired many scientists to develop more inhibitors of angiogenesis. Although several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are being administered to successfully combat various pathologies, the complexity and large size of mAbs seem to narrow the therapeutic applications. To improve the performance of cancer therapeutics, including those blocking tumor angiogenesis, attractive strategies such as miniaturization of the antibodies have been introduced. Nanobodies (Nbs, small single-domain antigen-binding antibody fragments, are becoming promising therapeutic and diagnostic proteins in oncology due to their favorable unique structural and functional properties. This review focuses on the potential and state of the art of Nbs to inhibit the angiogenic process for therapy and the use of labeled Nbs for non-invasive in vivo imaging of the tumors.

  11. Angiogenesis and Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza L. Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review was performed to survey the role of angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. This is a multifactorial disease in which the development and maintenance of endometriotic implants depend on their invasive capacity and angiogenic potential. The peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis is a complex suspension carrying inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, steroid hormones, proangiogenic factors, macrophages, and endometrial and red blood cells. These cells and their signaling products concur to promote the spreading of new blood vessels at the endometriotic lesions and surroundings, which contributes to the endometriotic implant survival. Experimental studies of several antiangiogenic agents demonstrated the regression of endometriotic lesions by reducing their blood supply. Further studies are necessary before these novel agents can be introduced into clinical practice, in particular the establishment of the safety of anti-angiogenic medications in women who are seeking to become pregnant.

  12. Angiogenesis in gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Czykier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain gliomas are characterized by invasive growth and neovascularisation potential. Angiogenesis plays a major role in the progression of gliomas and its determination has a great prognostic value. The aim of the study was to assess the vascularisation of chosen brain gliomas and to estimate how it is correlated with tumour histological type, malignancy grade, location and size, and with age and sex of patients. Tumour vascularisation analysis was based on the determination of microvascular proliferation (MVP and microvessel density (MVD. Microvascular proliferation was measured with immunohistochemical methods using mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect cell proliferation antigens. The following antibodies were used Ki-67 and PCNA (DAKO. Identification of vessels was performed by CD31 antibody and anti-human von Willebrand factor (DAKO. The highest microvascular proliferation and microvascular density were observed in multiform glioblastomas and the lowest in oligodendrogliomas. Significant correlation was observed between the vascularisation and malignancy grade.

  13. Angiogenic and angiostatic factors in the molecular control of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, J H W; Hirth, A; Kurowska-Stolarska, M; Gay, R E; Gay, S; Distler, O

    2003-09-01

    The vascular system that ensures an adequate blood flow is required to provide the cells with sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. Two different mechanisms of the formation of new vessels can be distinguished: vasculogenesis, the formation of the first primitive vascular plexus de novo and angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels from preexisting ones. Both processes are regulated by a delicate balance of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Physiologically, angiostatic mediators outweigh the angiogenic molecules and angiogenesis does not occur. Under certain conditions such as tumor formation or wound healing, the positive regulators of angiogenesis predominate and the endothelium becomes activated. Angiogenesis is initiated by vasodilatation and an increased permeability. After destabilization of the vessel wall, endothelial cells proliferate, migrate and form a tube, which is finally stabilized by pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Numerous soluble growth factors and inhibitors, cytokines and proteases as well as extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules strictly control this multi-step process. The properties and interactions of angiogenic molecules such as VEGFs, FGFs, angiopoietins, PDGF, angiogenin, angiotropin, HGF, CXC chemokines with ELR motif, PECAM-1, integrins and VE-cadherin as well as angiostatic key players such as angiostatin, endostatin, thrombospondin, CXC chemokines without ELR motif, PEDF are discussed in this review with respect to their molecular impact on angiogenesis.

  14. Friends Turned Foes: Angiogenic Growth Factors beyond Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkar, Pratiek N; Ariyagunarajah, Ramya; Leong-Poi, Howard; Singh, Krishna K

    2017-10-02

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones is a biological process that ensures an adequate blood flow is maintained to provide the cells with a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen within the body. Numerous soluble growth factors and inhibitors, cytokines, proteases as well as extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules stringently regulate the multi-factorial process of angiogenesis. The properties and interactions of key angiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and angiopoietins have been investigated in great detail with respect to their molecular impact on angiogenesis. Since the discovery of angiogenic growth factors, much research has been focused on their biological actions and their potential use as therapeutic targets for angiogenic or anti-angiogenic strategies in a context-dependent manner depending on the pathologies. It is generally accepted that these factors play an indispensable role in angiogenesis. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that this is not their only role and it is likely that the angiogenic factors have important functions in a wider range of biological and pathological processes. The additional roles played by these molecules in numerous pathologies and biological processes beyond angiogenesis are discussed in this review.

  15. Angiogenesis and Its Therapeutic Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays critical roles in human physiology that range from reproduction and fetal growth to wound healing and tissue repair. The sophisticated multistep process is tightly regulated in a spatial and temporal manner by “on-off switch signals” between angiogenic factors, extracellular matrix components, and endothelial cells. Uncontrolled angiogenesis may lead to several angiogenic disorders, including vascular insufficiency (myocardial or critical limb ischemia and vascular overgrowth (hemangiomas, vascularized tumors, and retinopathies. Thus, numerous therapeutic opportunities can be envisaged through the successful understanding and subsequent manipulation of angiogenesis. Here, we review the clinical implications of angiogenesis and discuss pro- and antiangiogenic agents that offer potential therapy for cancer and other angiogenic diseases.

  16. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of ...

  17. Imaging techniques used for the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a critical role in primary tumor growth and the development of metastases. Several angiogenesis inhibitors were recently developed, being a very attractive target for digestive tumor therapy. However, individualized therapy should not only be based on the pre-treatment imaging...... of reviews was to analyze and enhance current knowledge and future perspectives about the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers, used for the longitudinal monitoring of the effects of chemo-radiotherapy (including anti-angiogenic therapies), as well as for the precise targeting of drugs...

  18. Lysyl Oxidase Plays a Critical Role in Endothelial Cell Stimulation to Drive Tumor Angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Ann-Marie; Bird, Demelza; Welti, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Identification of key molecules that drive angiogenesis is critical for the development of new modalities for the prevention of solid tumor progression. Using multiple models of colorectal cancer, we show that activity of the extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) is essential...... for stimulating endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. We show that LOX activates Akt through platelet-derived growth factor receptor ß (PDGFRß) stimulation, resulting in increased VEGF expression. LOX-driven angiogenesis can be abrogated through targeting LOX directly or using inhibitors of PDGFRß...

  19. Angiogenesis in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millucci, Lia; Bernardini, Giulia; Marzocchi, Barbara; Braconi, Daniela; Geminiani, Michela; Gambassi, Silvia; Laschi, Marcella; Frediani, Bruno; Galvagni, Federico; Orlandini, Maurizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-11-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare genetic disease that affects the entire joint. Current standard of AKU treatment is palliative and little is known about its physiopathology. Neovascularization is involved in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, a family of related disorders that includes AKU. Here, we investigated the presence of neoangiogenesis in AKU synovium and healthy controls. Synovium from AKU patients, who had undergone total joint replacement or arthroscopy, or from healthy patients without any history of rheumatic diseases, who underwent surgical operation following sport trauma was subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining. Histologic grades were assigned for clinical disease activity and synovitis based on cellular content of the synovium. By immunofluorescence microscopy, using different endothelial cell markers, we observed large vascularization in AKU but not in healthy synovium. Moreover, Western blotting and quantification analyses confirmed strong expression of endothelial cell markers in AKU synovial tissues. Importantly, AKU synovium vascular endothelium expressed high levels of β-dystroglycan, a protein previously involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in osteoarthritic synovium. This is the first report providing experimental evidences that new blood vessels are formed in AKU synovial tissues, opening new perspectives for AKU therapy.

  20. Canonical hedgehog signaling augments tumor angiogenesis by induction of VEGF-A in stromal perivascular cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Tang, Tracy; Eastham-Anderson, Jeff; Dunlap, Debra; Alicke, Bruno; Nannini, Michelle; Gould, Stephen; Yauch, Robert; Modrusan, Zora; DuPree, Kelly J.; Darbonne, Walter C.; Plowman, Greg; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Callahan, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical to the patterning and development of a variety of organ systems, and both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent Hh pathway activation are known to promote tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that in tumors promoted by Hh ligands, activation occurs within the stromal microenvironment. Testing whether ligand-driven Hh signaling promotes tumor angiogenesis, we found that Hh antagonism reduced the vascular density of Hh-producing LS180 and SW480 xenografts. In addition, ectopic expression of sonic hedgehog in low-Hh–expressing DLD-1 xenografts increased tumor vascular density, augmented angiogenesis, and was associated with canonical Hh signaling within perivascular tumor stromal cells. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying Hh-mediated tumor angiogenesis, we established an Hh-sensitive angiogenesis coculture assay and found that fibroblast cell lines derived from a variety of human tissues were Hh responsive and promoted angiogenesis in vitro through a secreted paracrine signal(s). Affymetrix array analyses of cultured fibroblasts identified VEGF-A, hepatocyte growth factor, and PDGF-C as candidate secreted proangiogenic factors induced by Hh stimulation. Expression studies of xenografts and angiogenesis assays using combinations of Hh and VEGF-A inhibitors showed that it is primarily Hh-induced VEGF-A that promotes angiogenesis in vitro and augments tumor-derived VEGF to promote angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:21597001

  1. Positron emission tomography tracers for imaging angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, Roland; Beer, Ambros J.; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Position emission tomography imaging of angiogenesis may provide non-invasive insights into the corresponding molecular processes and may be applied for individualized treatment planning of antiangiogenic therapies. At the moment, most strategies are focusing on the development of radiolabelled proteins and antibody formats targeting VEGF and its receptor or the ED-B domain of a fibronectin isoform as well as radiolabelled matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors or α v β 3 integrin antagonists. Great efforts are being made to develop suitable tracers for different target structures. All of the major strategies focusing on the development of radiolabelled compounds for use with positron emission tomography are summarized in this review. However, because the most intensive work is concentrated on the development of radiolabelled RGD peptides for imaging α v β 3 expression, which has successfully made its way from bench to bedside, these developments are especially emphasized. (orig.)

  2. A pilot study of JI-101, an inhibitor of VEGFR-2, PDGFR-β, and EphB4 receptors, in combination with everolimus and as a single agent in an ovarian cancer expansion cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Theresa L; Wade, Mark L; Agarwal, Neeraj; Boucher, Kenneth; Patel, Jesal; Luebke, Aaron; Sharma, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    JI-101 is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR-2), platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β), and ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4). None of the currently approved angiogenesis inhibitors have been reported to inhibit EphB4, and therefore, JI-101 has a novel mechanism of action. We conducted a pilot trial to assess the pharmacokinetics (PK), tolerability, and efficacy of JI-101 in combination with everolimus in advanced cancers, and pharmacodynamics (PD), tolerability, and efficacy of JI-101 in ovarian cancer. This was the first clinical study assessing anti-tumor activity of JI-101 in a combinatorial regimen. In the PK cohort, four patients received single agent 10 mg everolimus on day 1, 10 mg everolimus and 200 mg JI-101 combination on day 8, and single agent 200 mg JI-101 on day 15. In the PD cohort, eleven patients received single agent JI-101 at 200 mg twice daily for 28 day treatment cycles. JI-101 was well tolerated as a single agent and in combination with everolimus. No serious adverse events were observed. Common adverse events were hypertension, nausea, and abdominal pain. JI-101 increased exposure of everolimus by approximately 22%, suggestive of drug-drug interaction. The majority of patients had stable disease at their first set of restaging scans (two months), although no patients demonstrated a response to the drug per RECIST criteria. The novel mechanism of action of JI-101 is promising in ovarian cancer treatment and further prospective studies of this agent may be pursued in a less refractory patient population or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  3. The FDA approved PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 enhances in vitro the anti-neoplastic efficacy of Axitinib against c-myc-amplified high-risk medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Michael; Craveiro, Rogerio B; Velz, Julia; Olschewski, Martin; Casati, Anna; Schönberger, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Dilloo, Dagmar

    2018-04-01

    Aberrant receptor kinase signalling and tumour neovascularization are hallmarks of medulloblastoma development and are both considered valuable therapeutic targets. In addition to VEGFR1/2, expression of PDGFR α/β in particular has been documented as characteristic of metastatic disease correlating with poor prognosis. Therefore, we have been suggested that the clinically approved multi-kinase angiogenesis inhibitor Axitinib, which specifically targets these kinases, might constitute a promising option for medulloblastoma treatment. Indeed, our results delineate anti-neoplastic activity of Axitinib in medulloblastoma cell lines modelling the most aggressive c-myc-amplified Non-WNT/Non-SHH and SHH-TP53-mutated tumours. Exposure of medulloblastoma cell lines to Axitinib results in marked inhibition of proliferation and profound induction of cell death. The differential efficacy of Axitinib is in line with target expression of medulloblastoma cells identifying VEGFR 1/2, PDGFR α/β and c-kit as potential markers for drug application. The high specificity of Axitinib and the consequential low impact on the haematopoietic and immune system render this drug ideal multi-modal treatment approaches. In this context, we demonstrate that the clinically available PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 enhances the anti-neoplastic efficacy of Axitinib against c-myc-amplified medulloblastoma. Our findings provide a rational to further evaluate Axitinib alone and in combination with other therapeutic agents for the treatment of most aggressive medulloblastoma subtypes. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Molecular Imaging of Ovarian Carcinoma Angiogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2007-01-01

    .... Ovarian cancer is angiogenesis dependent. Integrin , a key player in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, has been identified as a target for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for several highly proliferative and metastatic tumor types...

  5. Targeting vascular NADPH oxidase 1 blocks tumor angiogenesis through a PPARα mediated mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Garrido-Urbani

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species, ROS, are regulators of endothelial cell migration, proliferation and survival, events critically involved in angiogenesis. Different isoforms of ROS-generating NOX enzymes are expressed in the vasculature and provide distinct signaling cues through differential localization and activation. We show that mice deficient in NOX1, but not NOX2 or NOX4, have impaired angiogenesis. NOX1 expression and activity is increased in primary mouse and human endothelial cells upon angiogenic stimulation. NOX1 silencing decreases endothelial cell migration and tube-like structure formation, through the inhibition of PPARα, a regulator of NF-κB. Administration of a novel NOX-specific inhibitor reduced angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo in a PPARα dependent manner. In conclusion, vascular NOX1 is a critical mediator of angiogenesis and an attractive target for anti-angiogenic therapies.

  6. Imaging techniques used for the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a critical role in primary tumor growth and the development of metastases. Several angiogenesis inhibitors were recently developed, being a very attractive target for digestive tumor therapy. However, individualized therapy should not only be based on the pre-treatment imaging...... evaluation, but also on sensitive monitoring of microvascular changes during treatment. State-of-the-art imaging techniques have the potential to visualize and characterize angiogenesis, although the technology and methodologies employed are recent and need further validation. The aim of this series...... of reviews was to analyze and enhance current knowledge and future perspectives about the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers, used for the longitudinal monitoring of the effects of chemo-radiotherapy (including anti-angiogenic therapies), as well as for the precise targeting of drugs...

  7. Discovery of amido-benzisoxazoles as potent c-Kit inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Roxanne K.; Rumfelt, Shannon; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Dawei; Tasker, Andrew S.; Bürli, Roland; Hungate, Randall; Yu, Violeta; Nguyen, Yen; Whittington, Douglas A.; Meagher, Kristin L.; Plant, Matthew; Tudor, Yanyan; Schrag, Michael; Xu, Yang; Ng, Gordon Y.; Hu, Essa (Amgen)

    2010-01-12

    Deregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit is associated with an increasing number of human diseases, including certain cancers and mast cell diseases. Interference of c-Kit signaling with multi-kinase inhibitors has been shown clinically to successfully treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis. Targeted therapy of c-Kit activity may provide therapeutic advantages against off-target effects for non-oncology applications. A new structural class of c-Kit inhibitors is described, including in vitro c-Kit potency, kinase selectivity, and the observed binding mode.

  8. Preventing High Altitude Cerebral Edema in Rats with Repurposed Anti-Angiogenesis Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarshis, Samantha; Maltzahn, Joanne; Loomis, Zoe; Irwin, David C

    2016-12-01

    High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a fulminant, deadly, and yet still unpredictable brain disease. A new prophylactic treatment for HACE and its predecessor, acute mountain sickness (AMS), needs to be developed without the contraindications or adverse effect profiles of acetazolamide and dexamethasone. Since neovascularization signals are likely key contributors to HACE/AMS, our approach was to examine already existing anti-angiogenic drugs to inhibit potential initiating HACE pathway(s). This approach can also reveal crucial early steps in the frequently debated mechanism of HACE/AMS pathogenesis. We exposed four rat cohorts to hypobaric hypoxia and one to sea level (hyperbaric) conditions. The cohorts were treated with saline controls, an anti-angiogenesis drug (motesanib), a pro-angiogenesis drug (deferoxamine), or an intraperitoneal version of the established AMS prophylaxis drug, acetazolamide (benzolamide). Brain tissue was analyzed for cerebrovascular leak using the Evans Blue Dye (EVBD) protocol. We observed significantly increased EVBD in the altitude control and pro-angiogenesis (deferoxamine) cohorts, and significantly decreased EVBD in the anti-angiogenesis (motesanib), established treatment (benzolamide), and sea-level cohorts. Anti-angiogenesis-treated cohorts demonstrated less cerebrovascular extravasation than the altitude control and pro-angiogenesis treated rats, suggesting promise as an alternative prophylactic HACE/AMS treatment. The leak exacerbation with pro-angiogenesis treatment and improvement with anti-angiogenesis treatment support the hypothesis of early neovascularization signals provoking HACE. We demonstrate statistically significant evidence to guide further investigation for VEGF- and HIF-inhibitors as HACE/AMS prophylaxis, and as elucidators of still unknown HACE pathogenesis.Tarshis S, Maltzahn J, Loomis Z, Irwin DC. Preventing high altitude cerebral edema in rats with repurposed anti-angiogenesis pharmacotherapy. Aerosp Med

  9. Does plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 drive lymphangiogenesis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruyère, Françoise; Melen-Lamalle, Laurence; Blacher, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the function of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) during pathological lymphangiogenesis. PAI-1, the main physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activators is involved in pathological angiogenesis at least by controlling extracellular proteolysis and...

  10. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Multi-targeted or single-targeted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, Fleur; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J

    2011-02-10

    Since in most tumors multiple signaling pathways are involved, many of the inhibitors in clinical development are designed to affect a wide range of targeted kinases. The most important tyrosine kinase families in the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the ABL, SCR, platelet derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor families. Both multi-kinase inhibitors and single-kinase inhibitors have advantages and disadvantages, which are related to potential resistance mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, selectivity and tumor environment. In different malignancies various tyrosine kinases are mutated or overexpressed and several resistance mechanisms exist. Pharmacokinetics is influenced by interindividual differences and differs for two single targeted inhibitors or between patients treated by the same tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Different tyrosine kinase inhibitors have various mechanisms to achieve selectivity, while differences in gene expression exist between tumor and stromal cells. Considering these aspects, one type of inhibitor can generally not be preferred above the other, but will depend on the specific genetic constitution of the patient and the tumor, allowing personalized therapy. The most effective way of cancer treatment by using tyrosine kinase inhibitors is to consider each patient/tumor individually and to determine the strategy that specifically targets the consequences of altered (epi)genetics of the tumor. This strategy might result in treatment by a single multi kinase inhibitor for one patient, but in treatment by a couple of single kinase inhibitors for other patients.

  11. Angiogenesis Research to Improve Therapies for Vascular Leak Syndromes, Intra-Abdominal Adhesions, and Arterial Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    which was isolated from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus fresenius3 and is among the most potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. In animal models, TNP...Medical School) was conducted for each reaction step and mass spectrometry ( Proteomic core, Harvard Medical School) was performed on the conjugate. To

  12. Monitoring angiogenesis using magnetic resonance methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, David Alberg

    2008-01-01

    When a tumor reaches a certain size it can no longer rely on passive perfusion for nutrition. The tumor therefore emits signaling molecules which stimulating surrounding vessels to divide and grow towards the tumor, a process known as angiogenesis. Very little angiogenesis is present in healthy...... adults where it is primaily found in wound healing, pregnancy and during the menstrual cycle. This thesis focus on the negative consequences of angiogenesis in cancer. It consists of a an initial overview followed by four manuscripts. The overview gives a short introduction to the process of angiogenesis...... and the involved signaling molecules. Subsequently, a short review of contrast agents and perfusion measurements is given. Finally, methods for monitoring angiogenesis using magnetic resonance imaging are reviewed. A method for monitoring early stages of angiogenesis as well as the effect of anti...

  13. Matairesinol inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Boram; Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol suppresses mitochondrial ROS generation during hypoxia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol exhibits potent anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matairesinol could be a basis for the development of novel anti-angiogenic agents. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) are involved in cancer initiation and progression and function as signaling molecules in many aspects of hypoxia and growth factor-mediated signaling. Here we report that matairesinol, a natural small molecule identified from the cell-based screening of 200 natural plants, suppresses mROS generation resulting in anti-angiogenic activity. A non-toxic concentration of matairesinol inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The compound also suppressed in vitro angiogenesis of tube formation and chemoinvasion, as well as in vivo angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane at non-toxic doses. Furthermore, matairesinol decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in hypoxic HeLa cells. These results demonstrate that matairesinol could function as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor by suppressing mROS signaling.

  14. Hypoxia independent drivers of melanoma angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eMeierjohann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumor angiogenesis is a process which is traditionally regarded as the tumor`s response to low nutrient supply occurring under hypoxic conditions. However, hypoxia is not a prerequisite for angiogenesis. The fact that even single tumor cells or small tumor cell aggregates are capable of attracting blood vessels reveals the early metastatic capability of tumor cells. This review sheds light on the hypoxia independent mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis in melanoma.

  15. VASCULAR REMODELING IN HYPERTENSION: ANGIOGENESIS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Haisheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim — cross-sectional study of changes in various segments of the vascular bed in arterial hypertension (AH, defining the role of inducers and inhibitors of angiogenesis in these processes.Materials and methods. The study included 99 patients with arterial hypertension of I–II degree, average age of 63.2 ± 2.6 years, diseaseduration 9.2 ± 7.2 years.Results. It was found that patients with arterial hypertension have disorders in all segments of vascular bed: endothelial dysfunction (highvWF, microcirculatory disorders, and increased pulse wave velocity (PWV of elastic-type vessels. The level of angioginesis factors doesnot depend on such parameters as gender, age, body mass index. Smoking and duration of hypertension influence on vascular endothelialgrowth factor raise and endostatin levels are higher in patients with family history of cardiovascular diseases. Duration of disease is directlycorrelated with microcirculatory disorders and the PWV, correlation between microcirculatory disorders and pulse wave velocity indicatetheir common processes.

  16. [Markers of angiogenesis in tumor growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, N A; Kharlova, O A; Danilova, N V; Malkov, P G; Gaifullin, N M

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessels formation. The role of angiogenesis in growth, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumours is nowdays universally recognized. Though, investigation of mechanisms of blood vessels formation and elaboration methods for assessment of tumour angiogenesis are still up-dated. Another important concern are different aspects of usage of immunohistochemical markers of blood vessels endothelium (CD31 and CD34) for assessment of tumour aggressiveness and prognosis. The problems of malignant lymphangiogenesis are also up-to-date. The focus is on methods of immunohistochemical visualization of forming lymphatic vessels, role of podoplanin, the most reliable marker of lymphatic vessels, in their identification, and formulization of the main criteria for lymphangiogenesis estimation, its correlation with metastatic activity and prognostic potential. Studying of angiogenesis and lymph angiogenesis in malignant tumors is important and challenging direction for researching tumour progression and invention of antiangiogenic therapy.

  17. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate from Kaempferia galanga inhibits angiogenesis through tyrosine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Ekowati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Many tumors express on their receptor tyrosine kinases vascular endothelial growth factor activity associated with angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis through reduction of tyrosine kinase activity is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The present study aimed to determine the mechanism and potency of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC isolated from Kaempferia galanga as angiogenesis inhibitor. Methods A laboratory experimental study was conducted using chorio-allantoic membranes (CAMs of nine-day old chicken eggs induced by 60ng basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC potency was determined at dosages of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg and compared with celecoxib 60 mg as reference drug and one negative bFGF-induced control group. Neovascularization and endothelial cell count in CAM blood vessels were evaluated. To predict the antiangiogenic mechanism of EPMC, a docking study was performed with the Molegro Virtual Docker program on tyrosine kinase as receptor (PDB 1XKK. Results Angiogenesis stimulation by bFGF was prevented significantly (p<0.05 by EPMC at dosages of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg and this activity was dose dependent. Molecular docking showed interaction between EPMC functional groups and tyrosine kinase amino acids at Met766, Met793, Thr854, Thr790, Gln791 and Ala743. There was an association between EPMC antiangiogenic activity and docking study results. Conclusions Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate is a potential new angiogenesis inhibitor through interaction with tyrosine kinase. EPMC could be a promising therapeutic agent for treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases.

  18. HIF-2alpha-dependent PAI-1 induction contributes to angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, Theresa, E-mail: geis@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Döring, Claudia, E-mail: C.Doering@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Dr. Senckenberg Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Popp, Rüdiger, E-mail: popp@vrc.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Vascular Signalling, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Grossmann, Nina, E-mail: grossmann@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fleming, Ingrid, E-mail: fleming@vrc.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Vascular Signalling, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hansmann, Martin-Leo, E-mail: m.l.hansmann@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Dr. Senckenberg Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dehne, Nathalie, E-mail: dehne@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Brüne, Bernhard, E-mail: b.bruene@biochem.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Biochemistry I—Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    Hypoxia promotes progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), not only affecting tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but also angiogenesis and thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)-1α and -2α cause adaptation of tumors to hypoxia, still with uncertainties towards the angiogenic switch. We created a stable knockdown of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated cocultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies as an in vitro tumor model mimicking the cancer microenvironment. The naturally occuring oxygen and nutrient gradients within the cocultures allow us to question the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC angiogenesis. In cocultures with a HIF-2α knockdown, angiogenesis was attenuated, while the knockdown of HIF-1α was without effect. Microarray analysis identified plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a HIF-2α target gene in HepG2 cells. The knockdown of PAI-1 in HepG2 cells also lowered angiogenesis. Blocking plasmin, the downstream target of PAI-1, with aprotinin in HIF-2α knockdown (k/d) cells proved a cause–effect relation and restored angiogenesis, with no effect on control cocultures. Suggestively, HIF-2α increases PAI-1 to lower concentrations of active plasmin, thereby supporting angiogenesis. We conclude that the HIF-2α target gene PAI-1 favors the angiogenic switch in HCC. - Highlights: • HepG2 were cocultured with stem cells to mimic a cancer microenvironment in vitro. • A knockdown of HIF-2α reduces angiogenesis. • PAI-1 was identified as a HIF-2α target gene in HCC by microarray analysis. • HIF-2α induces the angiogenic switch via inhibition of plasmin.

  19. HIF-2alpha-dependent PAI-1 induction contributes to angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, Theresa; Döring, Claudia; Popp, Rüdiger; Grossmann, Nina; Fleming, Ingrid; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Dehne, Nathalie; Brüne, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), not only affecting tumor cell proliferation and invasion, but also angiogenesis and thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)-1α and -2α cause adaptation of tumors to hypoxia, still with uncertainties towards the angiogenic switch. We created a stable knockdown of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated cocultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies as an in vitro tumor model mimicking the cancer microenvironment. The naturally occuring oxygen and nutrient gradients within the cocultures allow us to question the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC angiogenesis. In cocultures with a HIF-2α knockdown, angiogenesis was attenuated, while the knockdown of HIF-1α was without effect. Microarray analysis identified plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a HIF-2α target gene in HepG2 cells. The knockdown of PAI-1 in HepG2 cells also lowered angiogenesis. Blocking plasmin, the downstream target of PAI-1, with aprotinin in HIF-2α knockdown (k/d) cells proved a cause–effect relation and restored angiogenesis, with no effect on control cocultures. Suggestively, HIF-2α increases PAI-1 to lower concentrations of active plasmin, thereby supporting angiogenesis. We conclude that the HIF-2α target gene PAI-1 favors the angiogenic switch in HCC. - Highlights: • HepG2 were cocultured with stem cells to mimic a cancer microenvironment in vitro. • A knockdown of HIF-2α reduces angiogenesis. • PAI-1 was identified as a HIF-2α target gene in HCC by microarray analysis. • HIF-2α induces the angiogenic switch via inhibition of plasmin

  20. Macrophage Metalloelastase (MMP-12) Deficiency Mitigates Retinal Inflammation and Pathological Angiogenesis in Ischemic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingming; Wang, Joshua J.; Peng, Qisheng; Chen, Chen; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Heinecke, Jay; Zhang, Sarah X.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis is a major cause of vision loss in ischemic and inflammatory retinal diseases. Recent evidence implicates macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12), a macrophage-derived elastinolytic protease in inflammation, tissue remodeling and angiogenesis. However, little is known about the role of MMP-12 in retinal pathophysiology. The present study aims to explore the enzyme’s contributions to retinal angiogenesis in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) using MMP-12 knockout (KO) mice. We find that MMP-12 expression was upregulated in OIR, accompanied by elevated macrophage infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. Compared to wildtype mice, MMP-12 KO mice had decreased levels of adhesion molecule and inflammatory cytokines and reduced vascular leakage in OIR. Concomitantly, these mice had markedly reduced macrophage content in the retina with impaired macrophage migratory capacity. Significantly, loss of MMP-12 attenuated retinal capillary dropout in early OIR and mitigated pathological retinal neovascularization (NV). Similar results were observed in the study using MMP408, a pharmacological inhibitor of MMP-12. Intriguingly, in contrast to reducing pathological angiogenesis, lack of MMP-12 accelerated revascularization of avascular retina in OIR. Taken together, we conclude that MMP-12 is a key regulator of macrophage infiltration and inflammation, contributing to retinal vascular dysfunction and pathological angiogenesis. PMID:23285156

  1. An allometric approach of tumor-angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Oliver; Vincze, Gyula; Szigeti, Gyula Peter; Benyo, Zoltan; Szasz, Andras

    2018-07-01

    Angiogenesis is one of the main supporting factors of tumor-progression. It is a complex set of interactions together with hypoxia and inflammation, regulating tumor growth. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of angiogenesis with an allometric approach applied to angiogenesis and the regulating factors. The results show that allometry has the potential to describe this aspect, including the sigmoid-like transport function. There are particular conditions under which the complex control maximizes the relative tumor mass. Linear growth of malignancy diameter with an allometric approach was proven. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olfert, I Mark; Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    The role of capillaries is to serve as the interface for delivery of oxygen and removal of metabolites to/from tissues. During the past decade there has been a proliferation of studies that have advanced our understanding of angiogenesis demonstrating tissue capillary supply is under strict control...... rearrangement of capillaries) that identify areas of future research with the greatest potential to expand our understanding of how angiogenesis is normally regulated, and that may also help to better understand conditions of uncontrolled (pathologic) angiogenesis....

  3. Mechanical and Chemical Signaling in Angiogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of Studies in Mechanobiology, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials describes the most recent advances in angiogenesis research at all biological length scales: molecular, cellular and tissue, in both in vivo and in vitro settings.  Angiogenesis experts from diverse fields including engineering, cell and developmental biology, and chemistry have contributed chapters which focus on the mechanical and chemical signals which affect and promote blood vessel growth. Specific emphasis is given to novel methodologies and biomaterials that have been developed and applied to angiogenesis research. 

  4. Pharmacological blockade of cholesterol trafficking by cepharanthine in endothelial cells suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Junfang; Yang, Eun Ju; Head, Sarah A; Ai, Nana; Zhang, Baoyuan; Wu, Changjie; Li, Ruo-Jing; Liu, Yifan; Yang, Chen; Dang, Yongjun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ge, Wei; Liu, Jun O; Shim, Joong Sup

    2017-11-28

    Cholesterol is an important modulator of membrane protein function and signaling in endothelial cells, thus making it an emerging target for anti-angiogenic agents. In this study, we employed a phenotypic screen that detects intracellular cholesterol distribution in endothelial cells (HUVEC) and identified 13 existing drugs as cholesterol trafficking inhibitors. Cepharanthine, an approved drug for anti-inflammatory and cancer management use, was amongst the candidates, which was selected for in-depth mechanistic studies to link cholesterol trafficking and angiogenesis. Cepharanthine inhibited the endolysosomal trafficking of free-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in HUVEC by binding to Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) protein and increasing the lysosomal pH. The blockade of cholesterol trafficking led to a cholesterol-dependent dissociation of mTOR from the lysosomes and inhibition of its downstream signaling. Cepharanthine inhibited angiogenesis in HUVEC and in zebrafish in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Furthermore, cepharanthine suppressed tumor growth in vivo by inhibiting angiogenesis and it enhanced the antitumor activity of the standard chemotherapy cisplatin in lung and breast cancer xenografts in mice. Altogether, these results strongly support the idea that cholesterol trafficking is a viable drug target for anti-angiogenesis and that the inhibitors identified among existing drugs, such as cepharanthine, could be potential anti-angiogenic and antitumor agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Galectins in angiogenesis: consequences for gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Conrad, Melanie L; Freitag, Nancy; Barrientos, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Members of the galectin family have been shown to exert several roles in the context of reproduction. They contribute to placentation, maternal immune regulation and facilitate angiogenesis encompassing decidualisation and placenta formation during pregnancy. In the context of neo-vascularisation, galectins have been shown to augment signalling pathways that lead to endothelial cell activation, cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro in addition to angiogenesis in vivo. Angiogenesis during gestation ensures not only proper foetal growth and development, but also maternal health. Consequently, restriction of placental blood flow has major consequences for both foetus and mother, leading to pregnancy diseases. In this review we summarise both the established and the emerging roles of galectin in angiogenesis and discuss the possible implications during healthy and pathological gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying nanomedicine in maladaptive inflammation and angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alaarg, Amr; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Metselaar, Josbert M.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Fayad, Zahi A.; Storm, Gert; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis drive the development and progression of multiple devastating diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Though these diseases have very different phenotypic consequences, they possess several common

  7. Apatinib Inhibits Angiogenesis Via Suppressing Akt/GSK3β/ANG Signaling Pathway in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Jin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most lethal human malignancies, and there is no efficient method to slow its process. Apatinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, has been confirmed for its efficacy and safety in the treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma patients. However, the effects of Apatinib in ATC are still unknown. Methods: In this study, we explored the effects and mechanisms of Apatinib on tumor growth and angiogenesis in vitro and in vitro in ATC cells. Angiogenesis antibodies array was utilized to detect the expression of angiogenesis-related genes after Apatinib treatment in ATC cells. In addition, we used Akt activator, Akt inhibitor and GSK3β inhibitor to further study the mechanism for how Apatinib suppressed angiogenesis. Results: Apatinib treatment could suppress the growth of ATC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner via inducing apoptosis and blocking cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Apatinib treatment decreased the expression of angiogenin (ANG and inhibited angiogenesis of ATC cells in vitro and in vitro. We further confirmed that recombinant human ANG (rhANG significantly abrogated Apatinib-mediated anti-angiogenic ability in ATC cells. Additionally, Apatinib treatment decreased the level of p-Akt and p-GSK3β. Moreover, the Apatinib-mediated decrease of ANG and anti-angiogenic ability were partly reversed when an Akt activator, SC79, was administered. Furthermore, the anti-angiogenic ability of Apatinib can be enhanced in the presence of Akt inhibitor, and the inhibition of GSK3β attenuated the anti-angiogenic ability of Apatinib. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that Apatinib treatment inhibited tumor growth, and Apatinib-induced suppression of Akt/GSK3β/ANG signaling pathway may play an important role in the inhibition of angiogenesis in ATC, supporting a potential therapeutic approach for using Apatinib in the treatment of ATC.

  8. Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas, M; Massi, P; Cantelmo, A R; Cattaneo, M G; Cammarota, R; Bartolini, D; Cinquina, V; Valenti, M; Vicentini, L M; Noonan, D M; Albini, A; Parolaro, D

    2012-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of cannabinoids on various tumours, together with their anti-angiogenic properties. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) effectively inhibits the growth of different types of tumours in vitro and in vivo and down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signals produced by glioma cells. As its anti-angiogenic properties have not been thoroughly investigated to date, and given its very favourable pharmacological and toxicological profile, here, we evaluated the ability of CBD to modulate tumour angiogenesis. Firstly, we evaluated the effect of CBD on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and viability - through [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and FACS analysis - and in vitro motility - both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound-healing assay. We next investigated CBD effects on different angiogenesis-related proteins released by HUVECs, using an angiogenesis array kit and an ELISA directed at MMP2. Then we evaluated its effects on in vitro angiogenesis in treated HUVECs invading a Matrigel layer and in HUVEC spheroids embedded into collagen gels, and further characterized its effects in vivo using a Matrigel sponge model of angiogenesis in C57/BL6 mice. CBD induced HUVEC cytostasis without inducing apoptosis, inhibited HUVEC migration, invasion and sprouting in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo in Matrigel sponges. These effects were associated with the down-modulation of several angiogenesis-related molecules. This study reveals that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells supports the hypothesis that CBD has potential as an effective agent in cancer therapy. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Thiodigalactoside inhibits murine cancers by concurrently blocking effects of galectin-1 on immune dysregulation, angiogenesis and protection against oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ito, K.; Scott, S.A.; Cutler, S.; Dong, L.-F.; Neužil, Jiří; Blanchard, H.; Ralph, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2011), s. 293-307 ISSN 0969-6970 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Galectin-1 inhibitor * oxidative stress * angiogenesis Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2011

  10. Suppression of tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis of human gastric cancer by adenovirus-mediated expression of NK4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Daniëlle A. M.; van Beusechem, Victor W.; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Craanen, Mikael E.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Derksen, Patrick W. B.; de Bruin, Michiel; Witlox, M. Adhiambo; Molenaar, Bonnie; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Gerritsen, Winald R.

    2004-01-01

    Background To improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer it is important to develop novel treatment modalities targeting the malignant behavior of tumor cells. Concerning this, NK4, which acts as HGF-antagonist and angiogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential therapeutic agent for gastric

  11. WNT Signaling Is Required for Peritoneal Membrane Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padwal, Manreet Kaur; Cheng, Genyang; Liu, Limin; Boivin, Felix J; Gangji, Azim; Brimble, Kenneth Scott; Bridgewater, Darren; Margetts, Peter J

    2018-01-24

    The WNT signaling pathway is involved in wound healing and fibrosis. We evaluated the WNT signaling pathway in peritoneal membrane injury. We assessed WNT1 protein expression in the peritoneal effluents of 54 stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and WNT-related gene expression in ex vivo mesothelial cell cultures from 21 PD patients. In a transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) mediated animal model of peritoneal fibrosis, we evaluated regulation of the WNT pathway and the effect of WNT inhibition on peritoneal fibrosis and angiogenesis. WNT1 and WNT2 gene expression were positively correlated with peritoneal membrane solute transport in PD patients. In the mouse peritoneum, TGFΒ-induced peritoneal fibrosis was associated with increased expression of WNT2 and WNT4. Peritoneal b-catenin protein was significantly upregulated after infection with AdTGFB along with elements of the WNT signaling pathway. Treatment with a b-catenin inhibitor (ICG-001) in mice with AdTGFB-induced peritoneal fibrosis resulted in attenuation of peritoneal angiogenesis and reduced vascular endothelial growth factor. Similar results were also observed with the WNT antagonist Dickkopf related protein (DKK) 1. In addition to this, DKK-1 blocked epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased levels of the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin. We provide evidence that WNT signaling is active in the setting of experimental peritoneal fibrosis and WNT1 correlates with patient peritoneal membrane solute transport in PD patients. Intervention in this pathway is a possible therapy for peritoneal membrane injury.

  12. Icariin stimulates angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways in human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kim, Chun-Ki; Kim, Jung Huan; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Geun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the molecular effect and signal pathway of icariin, a major flavonoid of Epimedium koreanum Nakai, on angiogenesis. Icariin stimulated in vitro endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis, which are typical phenomena of angiogenesis, as well as increased in vivo angiogenesis. Icariin activated the angiogenic signal modulators, ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and increased NO production, without affecting VEGF expression, indicating that icariin may directly stimulate angiogenesis. Icariin-induced ERK activation and angiogenic events were significantly inhibited by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, without affecting Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. The PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin suppressed icariin-mediated angiogenesis and Akt and eNOS activation without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, the NOS inhibitor NMA partially reduced the angiogenic activity of icariin. These results suggest that icariin stimulated angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways and may be a useful drug for angiogenic therapy

  13. Endogenous developmental endothelial locus-1 limits ischemia-related angiogenesis by blocking inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzsche - von Ameln, Anne; Cremer, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Jedrzej; Schuster, Peggy; Khedr, Sherif; Korovina, Irina; Troulinaki, Maria; Neuwirth, Ales; Sprott, David; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Economopoulou, Matina; Orlandi, Alessia; Hain, Andreas; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Deussen, Andreas; Hajishengallis, George; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Chavakis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    We have recently identified endothelial cell-secreted developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) as an endogenous inhibitor of β2-integrin–dependent leukocyte infiltration. Del-1 was previously also implicated in angiogenesis. Here, we addressed the role of endogenously produced Del-1 in ischemia-related angiogenesis. Intriguingly, Del-1–deficient mice displayed increased neovascularization in two independent ischemic models (retinopathy of prematurity and hind-limb ischemia), as compared to Del-1–proficient mice. On the contrary, angiogenic sprouting in vitro or ex vivo (aortic ring assay) and physiological developmental retina angiogenesis were not affected by Del-1 deficiency. Mechanistically, the enhanced ischemic neovascularization in Del-1-deficiency was linked to higher infiltration of the ischemic tissue by CD45+ hematopoietic and immune cells. Moreover, Del-1-deficiency promoted β2-integrin–dependent adhesion of hematopoietic cells to endothelial cells in vitro, and the homing of hematopoietic progenitor cells and of immune cell populations to ischemic muscles in vivo. Consistently, the increased hind limb ischemia-related angiogenesis in Del-1 deficiency was completely reversed in mice lacking both Del-1 and the β2-integrin LFA-1. Additionally, enhanced retinopathy-associated neovascularization in Del-deficient mice was reversed by LFA-1 blockade. Our data reveal a hitherto unrecognized function of endogenous Del-1 as a local inhibitor of ischemia-induced angiogenesis by restraining LFA-1–dependent homing of pro-angiogenic hematopoietic cells to ischemic tissues. Our findings are relevant for the optimization of therapeutic approaches in the context of ischemic diseases. PMID:28447099

  14. Notch-1 mediates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Sweeney, Catherine; Connolly, Mary; Kennedy, Aisling; Ng, Chin Teck; McCormick, Jennifer; Veale, Douglas J; Fearon, Ursula

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of hypoxia on Notch-1 signaling pathway components and angiogenesis in inflammatory arthritis. The expression and regulation of Notch-1, its ligand delta-like protein 4 (DLL-4) and downstream signaling components (hairy-related transcription factor 1 [HRT-1], HRT-2), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (1-3%) were assessed in synovial tissue specimens from patients with inflammatory arthritis and controls and in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) by immunohistology, dual immunofluorescence staining (Notch-1/factor VIII), Western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. In vivo synovial tissue oxygen levels (tissue PO2) were measured under direct visualization at arthroscopy. HDMEC activation under hypoxic conditions in the presence of Notch-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, or dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) was assessed by Matrigel tube formation assay, migration assay, invasion assay, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2)/MMP-9 zymography. Expression of Notch-1, its ligand DLL-4, and HRT-1 was demonstrated in synovial tissue, with the strongest expression localized to perivascular/vascular regions. Localization of Notch-1 to synovial endothelium was confirmed by dual immunofluorescence staining. Notch-1 intracellular domain (NICD) expression was significantly higher in synovial tissue from patients with tissue PO2 of PO2 of >20 mm Hg (>3% O2). Exposure of HDMECs to 3% hypoxia induced HIF-1α and NICD protein expression and DLL-4, HRT-1, and HRT-2 messenger RNA expression. DMOG directly induced NICD expression, while Notch-1 siRNA inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression, suggesting that Notch-1/HIF-1α signaling is bidirectional. Finally, 3% hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration, endothelial cell invasion, and proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activities were inhibited by Notch-1 siRNA and/or the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Our

  15. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Spill, F.

    2014-03-11

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. COX-2, VEGF and tumour angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, D P

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effective of regular NSAID use against developing cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2, a target of NSAIDs, is upregulated in many cancers and has been associated with increased VEGF production and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from existing vasculature and as an essential process for tumour development represents an important therapeutic target. Following an extensive review of the literature this article details the current knowledge on the role of COX-2 in tumorigenesis focusing on its relationship to angiogenesis and VEGF production by tumour cells. While COX-2 is clearly detrimental to prognosis and NSAIDs have a beneficial effect, the possibility of COX-2 independent effects being partly or wholly responsible for this benefit cannot be excluded.

  17. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Spill, F.; Guerrero, P.; Alarcon, T.; Maini, P. K.; Byrne, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis: Molecular and Cellular Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, N.; Levy, B.I.

    2003-01-01

    Summary Angiogenesis characterizes embryonic development, but also occurs in adulthood in physiological situations such as adaptation to muscle exercise, and in pathological conditions like cancer. Major advances have been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, largely due to the use of “knock-out mice”, i.e. mice in which the gene coding for the protein under investigation has been inactivated. Interestingly, the same growth factors and their receptors are equally involved in the different aspects of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during development and in adulthood. This review aims to describe in detail their respective roles and how interactions between them lead to a newly formed vessel. PMID:20591248

  19. A Role for PPAR/ in Ocular Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bishop-Bailey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The uses of highly selective PPAR/ ligands and PPAR/ knockout mice have shown a direct ability of PPAR/ to regulate angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo in animal models. PPAR/ ligands induce the proangiogenic growth factor VEGF in many cells and tissues, though its actions in the eye are not known. However, virtually, all tissue components of the eye express PPAR/. Both angiogenesis and in particular VEGF are not only critical for the development of the retina, but they are also a central component in many common pathologies of the eye, including diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, the most common causes of blindness in the Western world. This review, therefore, will discuss the recent evidence of PPAR/-mediated angiogenesis and VEGF release in the context of ocular disorders.

  20. Disruption of Angiogenesis by Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Madu; Okere, Christiana; Sylvester, O’Donnell; Yahaya, Muhammad; Precious, Omale; Dluya, Thagriki; Um, Ji-Yeon; Neksumi, Musa; Boyd, Jessica; Vincent-Tyndall, Jennifer; Choo, Dong-Won; Gutsaeva, Diana R.; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal vessel formations contribute to the progression of specific angiogenic diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Adequate vessel growth and maintenance represent the coordinated process of endothelial cell proliferation, matrix remodeling, and differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism of the proper balance between angiogenic activators and inhibitors remains elusive. In addition, quantitative analysis of vessel formation has been challenging due to complex angiogenic morphology. We hypothesized that conjugated double bond containing-natural products, including anthocyanin extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa, may control the proper angiogenesis. The current study was designed to determine whether natural molecules from African plant library modulate angiogenesis. Further, we questioned how the proper balance of anti- or pro-angiogenic signaling can be obtained in the vascular microenvironment by treating anthocyanin or fatty acids using chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis model in ovo. The angiogenic morphology was analyzed systematically by measuring twenty one angiogenic indexes using Angiogenic Analyzer software. Chick chorioallantoic model demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibited angiogenesis in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Molecular modeling analysis proposed that hibiscetin as a component in Hibiscus may bind to the active site of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) with ΔG= −8.42 kcal/mol of binding energy. Our results provided the evidence that anthocyanin is an angiogenic modulator that can be used to treat uncontrolled neovascular-related diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. PMID:28459020

  1. Contribution to Tumor Angiogenesis From Innate Immune Cells Within the Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Albini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The critical role of angiogenesis in promoting tumor growth and metastasis is strongly established. However, tumors show considerable variation in angiogenic characteristics and in their sensitivity to antiangiogenic therapy. Tumor angiogenesis involves not only cancer cells but also various tumor-associated leukocytes (TALs and stromal cells. TALs produce chemokines, cytokines, proteases, structural proteins, and microvescicles. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and inflammatory chemokines are not only major proangiogenic factors but are also immune modulators, which increase angiogenesis and lead to immune suppression. In our review, we discuss the regulation of angiogenesis by innate immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, specific features, and roles of major players: macrophages, neutrophils, myeloid-derived suppressor and dendritic cells, mast cells, γδT cells, innate lymphoid cells, and natural killer cells. Anti-VEGF or anti-inflammatory drugs could balance an immunosuppressive microenvironment to an immune permissive one. Anti-VEGF as well as anti-inflammatory drugs could therefore represent partners for combinations with immune checkpoint inhibitors, enhancing the effects of immune therapy.

  2. Ghrelin stimulates angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells: Implications beyond GH release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aihua; Cheng Guangli; Zhu Genghui; Tarnawski, Andrzej S.

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone isolated from the stomach, releases growth hormone and stimulates appetite. Ghrelin is also expressed in pancreas, kidneys, cardiovascular system and in endothelial cells. The precise role of ghrelin in endothelial cell functions remains unknown. We examined the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR1) mRNAs and proteins in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and determined whether ghrelin affects in these cells proliferation, migration and in vitro angiogenesis; and whether MAPK/ERK2 signaling is important for the latter action. We found that ghrelin and GHSR1 are constitutively expressed in HMVEC. Treatment of HMVEC with exogenous ghrelin significantly increased in these cells proliferation, migration, in vitro angiogenesis and ERK2 phosphorylation. MEK/ERK2 inhibitor, PD 98059 abolished ghrelin-induced in vitro angiogenesis. This is First demonstration that ghrelin and its receptor are expressed in human microvascular endothelial cells and that ghrelin stimulates HMVEC proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis through activation of ERK2 signaling

  3. Mechanotransduction-modulated fibrotic microniches reveal the contribution of angiogenesis in liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longwei; You, Zhifeng; Yu, Hongsheng; Zhou, Lyu; Zhao, Hui; Yan, Xiaojun; Li, Dulei; Wang, Bingjie; Zhu, Lu; Xu, Yuzhou; Xia, Tie; Shi, Yan; Huang, Chenyu; Hou, Wei; Du, Yanan

    2017-12-01

    The role of pathological angiogenesis on liver fibrogenesis is still unknown. Here, we developed fibrotic microniches (FμNs) that recapitulate the interaction of liver sinusoid endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). We investigated how the mechanical properties of their substrates affect the formation of capillary-like structures and how they relate to the progression of angiogenesis during liver fibrosis. Differences in cell response in the FμNs were synonymous of the early and late stages of liver fibrosis. The stiffness of the early-stage FμNs was significantly elevated due to condensation of collagen fibrils induced by angiogenesis, and led to activation of HSCs by LSECs. We utilized these FμNs to understand the response to anti-angiogenic drugs, and it was evident that these drugs were effective only for early-stage liver fibrosis in vitro and in an in vivo mouse model of liver fibrosis. Late-stage liver fibrosis was not reversed following treatment with anti-angiogenic drugs but rather with inhibitors of collagen condensation. Our work reveals stage-specific angiogenesis-induced liver fibrogenesis via a previously unrevealed mechanotransduction mechanism which may offer precise intervention strategies targeting stage-specific disease progression.

  4. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have

  5. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Guifang [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cai, Xiaojun [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have

  6. Angiogenesis and vascular targeting: Relevance for hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a functional blood supply from the normal tissue vasculature via the process of angiogenesis is critical for the continued growth and development of solid tumours. This importance has led to the concept of targeting the tumour vasculature as a therapeutic strategy, and two major...... types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs) have developed; those that inhibit the angiogenic process-angiogenesis inhibiting agents (AIAs)-and those that specifically damage the already established neovasculature-vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). The tumour vasculature also plays a critical role...

  7. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Seung Hyeok [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Experimental Animals, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Payumo, Alexander Y.; Chen, James K. [Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics National Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levels in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases.

  8. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Payumo, Alexander Y.; Chen, James K.; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levels in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases

  9. Angiogenesis in prostate cancer : onset, progression and imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, G.; Mischi, M.; Scheepens, W.; Rosette, de la J.J.M.C.H.; Wijkstra, H.

    2012-01-01

    Today, angiogenesis is known to play a key role in cancer growth and development. Emerging cancer treatments are based on the suppression of angiogenesis, and modern imaging techniques investigate changes in the microvasculature that are caused by angiogenesis. As for other forms of cancers,

  10. CCL5 promotes VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Ting; Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Tan, Tzu-Wei; Fong, Yi-Chin; Chen, Po-Chen; Yang, Wei-Hung; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone cancer, with potential for local invasion and distant metastasis. Chemokine CCL5 (formerly RANTES) of the CC-chemokine family plays a crucial role in metastasis. Angiogenesis is essential for the cancer metastasis. However, correlation of CCL5 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma is still unknown. CCL5-mediated VEGF expression was assessed by qPCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. CCL5-induced angiogenesis was examined by migration and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. CCL5 increased VEGF expression and also promoted chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Stimulation of chondrosarcoma with CCL5 augmented PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, while PI3K and Akt inhibitor or siRNA abolished CCL5-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. We also demonstrated CCL5 inhibiting miR-200b expression and miR-200b mimic reversing the CCL5-enhanced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Moreover, in chondrosarcoma patients showed the positive correlation between CCL5 and VEGF; negative correlation between CCL5 and miR-200b. Taken together, results demonstrate CCL5 promoting VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:25301739

  11. Fibromodulin Enhances Angiogenesis during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zheng, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Altogether, we demonstrated that in addition to reducing scar formation, FMOD also promotes angiogenesis. As blood vessels organize and regulate wound healing, its potent angiogenic properties will further expand the clinical application of FMOD for cutaneous healing of poorly vascularized wounds.

  12. Their function on angiogenesis and cellular signalling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copper, although known as a micronutrient, has a pivotal role in modulating the cellular metabolism. Many studieshave reported the role of copper in angiogenesis. Copper chaperones are intracellular proteins that mediate coppertrafficking to various cell organelles. However, the role and function of copper chaperones in ...

  13. Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity by COX-2-PGE2-pAKT Axis Promotes Angiogenesis in Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Amlan K.; DasMahapatra, Pramathes; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by the ectopic development of the endometrium which relies on angiogenesis. Although studies have identified the involvement of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in endometriosis, no study has yet investigated the role of MMP-2 in endometriosis-associated angiogenesis. The present study aims to understand the regulation of MMP-2 activity in endothelial cells and on angiogenesis during progression of ovarian endometriosis. Histological and biochemical data showed increased expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2, cycloxygenase (COX)-2, von Willebrand factor along with angiogenesis during endometriosis progression. Women with endometriosis showed decreased MMP-2 activity in eutopic endometrium as compared to women without endometriosis. However, ectopic ovarian endometrioma showed significantly elevated MMP-2 activity with disease severity. In addition, increased MT1MMP and decreased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 expressions were found in the late stages of endometriosis indicating more MMP-2 activation with disease progression. In vitro study using human endothelial cells showed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) significantly increased MMP-2 activity as well as tube formation. Inhibition of COX-2 and/or phosphorylated AKT suppressed MMP-2 activity and endothelial tube formation suggesting involvement of PGE2 in regulation of MMP-2 activity during angiogenesis. Moreover, specific inhibition of MMP-2 by chemical inhibitor significantly reduced cellular migration, invasion and tube formation. In ovo assay showed decreased angiogenic branching upon MMP-2 inhibition. Furthermore, a significant reduction of lesion numbers was observed upon inhibition of MMP-2 and COX-2 in mouse model of endometriosis. In conclusion, our study establishes the involvement of MMP-2 activity via COX-2-PGE2-pAKT axis in promoting angiogenesis during endometriosis progression. PMID:27695098

  14. Evidence that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) inhibits angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pei-Lin; Easton, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its related ligands TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) play roles in the regulation of vascular responses, but their effect on the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is unclear. Therefore, we have examined the effects of these ligands on angiogenesis modeled with primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To examine angiogenesis in the context of the central nervous system, we have also modeled cerebral angiogenesis with the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Parameters studied were bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and cell number (MTT) assay (to assess endothelial proliferation), scratch assay (migration) and networks on Matrigel (tube formation). In our hands, neither TRAIL nor FasL (1, 10, and 100 ng/ml) had an effect on parameters of angiogenesis in the HUVEC model. In hCMEC/D3 cells by contrast, TRAIL inhibited all parameters (10-100 ng/ml, 24 h). This was due to apoptosis, since its action was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVADfmk (5 x 10 -5 mol/l) and TRAIL increased caspase-3 activity 1 h after application. However FasL (100 ng/ml) increased BrdU uptake without other effects. We conclude that TRAIL has different effects on in vitro angiogenesis depending on which model is used, but that FasL is generally ineffective when applied in vitro. The data suggest that TRAIL primarily influences angiogenesis by the induction of vascular endothelial apoptosis, leading to vessel regression.

  15. Repetitive Transient Ischemia-Induced Cardiac Angiogenesis is Mediated by Camkii Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuobin Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Coronary angiogenesis is an important protective mechanism in response to myocardial ischemia in coronary artery disease. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CaMKII activation in ischemia-induced cardiac angiogenesis. Methods: Repetitive transient ischemia model was established in C57/BL6 mice by daily multiple episodes (3 times/day of short time (5 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 7 days. Coronary angiogenesis was detected by immunofluorescent staining. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of CaMKII, p-CaMKII and VEGF. Primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs were isolated to investigate the effects of KN93 on cell proliferation and migration in hypoxic condition. Results: We found that angiogenesis was induced in the ischemic myocardium and suppressed by chronic intraperitoneal injection of CaMKII inhibitor KN93. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses showed that myocardial ischemia induced an increased expression and autophosphorylation of CaMKII. VEGF expression was increased in the ischemia model but blunted by KN93. Moreover, KN93 suppressed the proliferation and migration of cardiac endothelial cells in hypoxic condition in which the protein expression of CaMKII, p-CaMKII and VEGF was increased. Conclusion: CaMKII is an important mediator for the ischemia-induced coronary angiogenesis, in which CaMKII-triggered VEGF expression plays a key role.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Endostar on Specific Angiogenesis Induced by Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of endostar on specific angiogenesis induced by human hepatocellular carcinoma, this research systematically elucidated the inhibitory effect on HepG2-induced angiogenesis by endostar from 50 ng/mL to 50000 ng/mL. We employed fluorescence quantitative Boyden chamber analysis, wound-healing assay, flow cytometry examination using a coculture system, quantitative analysis of tube formation, and in vivo Matrigel plug assay induced by HCC conditioned media (HCM and HepG2 compared with normal hepatocyte conditioned media (NCM and L02. Then, we found that endostar as a tumor angiogenesis inhibitor could potently inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC migration in response to HCM after four- to six-hour action, inhibit HCM-induced HUVEC migration to the lesion part in a dose-dependent manner between 50 ng/mL and 5000 ng/mL at 24 hours, and reduce HUVEC proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. Endostar inhibited HepG2-induced tube formation of HUVECs which peaked at 50 ng/mL. In vivo Matrigel plug formation was also significantly reduced by endostar in HepG2 inducing system rather than in L02 inducing system. It could be concluded that, at cell level, endostar inhibited the angiogenesis-related biological behaviors of HUVEC in response to HCC, including migration, adhesion proliferation, and tube formation. At animal level, endostar inhibited the angiogenesis in response to HCC in Matrigel matrix.

  17. Targeting angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms using combined polymer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Segal

    Full Text Available There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT, we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN, and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral.The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%.This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined polymer therapeutic designed to target both tumor and

  18. Osteopontin and MMP9: Associations with VEGF Expression/Secretion and Angiogenesis in PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Aditi; Zhou, Cindy Q.; Chellaiah, Meenakshi A., E-mail: mchellaiah@umaryland.edu [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2013-05-27

    Osteopontin and MMP9 are implicated in angiogenesis and cancer progression. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis, and to elucidate the role of osteopontin in this process. We report here that osteopontin/αvβ3 signaling pathway which involves ERK1/2 phosphorylation regulates the expression of VEGF. An inhibitor to MEK or curcumin significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of VEGF. MMP9 knockdown reduces the secretion but not the expression of VEGF. Moreover, MMP9 knockdown increases the release of angiostatin, a key protein that suppresses angiogenesis. Conditioned media from PC3 cells treated with curcumin or MEK inhibitor inhibited tube formation in vitro in human microvascular endothelial cells. Similar inhibitory effect on tube formation was found with conditioned media collected from PC3 cells expressing mutant-osteopontin at integrin-binding site and knockdown of osteopontin or MMP9. We conclude that MMP9 activation is associated with angiogenesis via regulation of secretion of VEGF and angiostatin in PC3 cells. Curcumin is thus a potential drug for cancer treatment because it demonstrated anti-angiogenic and anti-invasive properties.

  19. Cytokines and Angiogenesis in the Corpus Luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In adults, physiological angiogenesis is a rare event, with few exceptions as the vasculogenesis needed for tissue growth and function in female reproductive organs. Particularly in the corpus luteum (CL, regulation of angiogenic process seems to be tightly controlled by opposite actions resultant from the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. It is the extremely rapid sequence of events that determines the dramatic changes on vascular and nonvascular structures, qualifying the CL as a great model for angiogenesis studies. Using the mare CL as a model, reports on locally produced cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF, interferon gamma (IFNG, or Fas ligand (FASL, pointed out their role on angiogenic activity modulation throughout the luteal phase. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the interaction between immune, endothelial, and luteal steroidogenic cells, regarding vascular dynamics/changes during establishment and regression of the equine CL.

  20. Angiogenesis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Góralczyk, Barbara; Drela, Ewelina; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Szczypiorska, Anna; Rość, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a very important process that occurs in both physiological and pathological states. The new blood vessels formation is characteristic for cancers, ischemic diseases and inflammatory diseases. The process is controlled by factors that stimulate and inhibit neovascularization. The next stages of the neovascularization are known as well as the role of the extracellular matrix, cells and cytokines/factors growth modulating this process. The cells of the endothelium and proangiogen...

  1. Wars2 is a determinant of angiogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, M.; Sips, P.; Khin, E.; Rotival, M.; Sun, X.; Ahmed, R.; Widjaja, A. A.; Schafer, S.; Yusoff, P.; Choksi, P. K.; Ko, N. S. J.; Singh, M. K.; Epstein, D.; Guan, Y.; Houštěk, Josef; Mráček, Tomáš; Nůsková, Hana; Mikell, B.; Tan, J.; Pesce, F.; Kolář, František; Bottolo, L.; Mancini, M.; Hubner, N.; Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, E.; MacRae, C.; Cook, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, Jul (2016), s. 12061 ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Wars2 mutant gene * angiogenesis * coronary flow * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  2. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Parag P; Ivy, Kathryn S; Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K

    2016-01-26

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10-18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma.

  3. MRI monitoring of tumor response following angiogenesis inhibition in an experimental human breast cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetschek, Karl; Preda, Anda; Shames, David M.; Novikov, Viktor; Roberts, Timothy P.L.; Fu, Yanjun; Brasch, Robert C.; Floyd, Eugenia; Carter, Wayne O.; Wood, Jeanette M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhanced by macromolecular contrast agents to monitor noninvasively the therapeutic effect of an anti-angiogenesis VEGF receptor kinase inhibitor in an experimental cancer model. MDA-MB-435, a poorly differentiated human breast cancer cell line, was implanted into the mammary fat pad in 20 female homozygous athymic rats. Animals were assigned randomly to a control (n=10) or drug treatment group (n=10). Baseline dynamic MRI was performed on sequential days using albumin-(GdDTPA) 30 (6.0 nm diameter) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles (30 nm diameter). Subjects were treated either with PTK787/ZK 222584, a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or saline given orally twice daily for 1 week followed by repeat MRI examinations serially using each contrast agent. Employing a unidirectional kinetic model comprising the plasma and interstitial water compartments, tumor microvessel characteristics including fractional plasma volume and transendothelial permeability (K PS ) were estimated for each contrast medium. Tumor growth and the microvascular density, a histologic surrogate of angiogenesis, were also measured. Control tumors significantly increased (P PS ) based on MRI assays using both macromolecular contrast media. In contrast, tumor growth was significantly reduced (P PS values declined slightly. Estimated values for the fractional plasma volume did not differ significantly between treatment groups or contrast agents. Microvascular density counts correlated fairly with the tumor growth rate (r=0.64) and were statistically significant higher (P PS ), using either of two macromolecular contrast media, were able to detect effects of treatment with a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor on tumor vascular permeability. In a clinical setting such quantitative MRI measurements could be used to monitor tumor anti-angiogenesis therapy. (orig.)

  4. Tryptase-positive mast cells correlate with angiogenesis in early breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Girolamo; Ammendola, Michele; Patruno, Rosa; Celano, Giuseppe; Zito, Francesco Alfredo; Montemurro, Severino; Rella, Addolorata; Di Lecce, Valentina; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Battista De Sarro, Giovanni; Ribatti, Domenico

    2009-07-01

    Literature data indicate that mast cells (MCs) are involved in tumor angiogenesis due to the release of several pro-angiogenetic factors among which tryptase, a serine protease stored in MCs granules, is one of the most active. However, no data are available concerning the role of MCs in angiogenesis in primary human breast cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the correlations between the number of MCs positive to tryptase (MCDPT), the area occupied by MCs positive to tryptase (MCAPT) and microvascular density (MVD) and endothelial area (EA) in a series of 88 primary T1-3, N0-2 M0 female breast cancer, by means of immunohistochemistry and image analysis methods. Data demonstrated a significant (r = from 0.78 to 0.89; p-value from 0.001 to 0.002 by Pearson's analysis respectively) correlation between MCDPT, MCAPT, MVD, EA to each other. No correlation concerning MCDPT, MCAPT, MVD, EA and the main clinicopathological features was found. Our results suggest that tryptase-positive MCs play a role in breast cancer angiogenesis. In this context several tryptase inhibitors such as gabexate mesilate and nafamostat mesilate might be evaluated in clinical trials as a new anti-angiogenetic approach.

  5. Altered extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis in sponge granulomas of thrombospondin 2-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, T R; Zhu, Y H; Yang, Z; Huynh, G; Bornstein, P

    2001-10-01

    The matricellular angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin (TSP) 2, has been shown to be an important modulator of wound healing and the foreign body response. Specifically, TSP2-null mice display improved healing with minimal scarring and form well-vascularized foreign body capsules. In this study we performed subcutaneous implantation of sponges and investigated the resulting angiogenic and fibrogenic responses. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of sponges, excised at 7, 14, and 21 days after implantation, revealed significant differences between TSP2-null and wild-type mice. Most notably, TSP2-null mice exhibited increased angiogenesis and fibrotic encapsulation of the sponge. However, invasion of dense tissue was compromised, even though its overall density was increased. Furthermore, histomorphometry and biochemical assays demonstrated a significant increase in the extracellular distribution of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, but no change in the levels of active transforming growth factor-beta(1). The alterations in neovascularization, dense tissue invasion, and MMP2 in TSP2-null mice coincided with the deposition of TSP2 in the extracellular matrix of wild-type animals. These observations support the proposed role of TSP2 as a modulator of angiogenesis and matrix remodeling during tissue repair. In addition, they provide in vivo evidence for a newly proposed function of TSP2 as a modulator of extracellular MMP2 levels.

  6. Pachymic acid modified carbon nanoparticles reduced angiogenesis via inhibition of MMP-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Jun; Lu, Chun-Wei; Cai, Ding-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel generation, which is consistently and robustly correlated with tumor formation, growth, and metastasis. The disruption of angiogenesis, and the imbalanced endothelial remodeling and regression, are the main pathogenesis of malignant tumor. Recently, multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) have been proposed as a new tool for drug delivery in cancer treatment, which also displayed anti-angiogenic property. In the present study, we modified MWNTs with pachymic acid (PA) extracted from Heterosmilax chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine used for cancer treatment, and compared their effects on blood vessel development. MWNTs and PA/MWNTs were evaluated for their influences on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) vessel morphology and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) expression, a crucial proteinase associated with tumor metastasis. MWNTs functioned as an inhibitor of forming branch while PA was not able to promote this inhibition. Subsequently, MWNTs suppressed the endothelial cell maturation, accounting for the ceased elongation of CAM blood vessel, while PA/MWNTs increased the suppressive effect, indicating the potential roles of PA in preventing angiogenesis. PA/MWNTs also showed greater anti-angiogenic property as MMP-3 expression in CAM tissue was significantly decreased by PA/MWNTs compared to MWNTs. These results emphasize the anti-angiogenic activities of PA, supporting a new promising therapy for cancer from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine.

  7. Butein Inhibits Angiogenesis of Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells via the Translation Dependent Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hu Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs can contribute to postnatal neovascularization and tumor angiogenesis. EPCs have been shown to play a “catalytic” role in metastatic progression by mediating the angiogenic switch. Understanding the pharmacological functions and molecular targets of natural products is critical for drug development. Butein, a natural chalcone derivative, has been reported to exert potent anticancer activity. However, the antiangiogenic activity of butein has not been addressed. In this study, we found that butein inhibited serum- and vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF- induced cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human EPCs in a concentration dependent manner without cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, butein markedly abrogated VEGF-induced vessels sprouting from aortic rings and suppressed microvessel formation in the Matrigel implant assay in vivo. In addition, butein concentration-dependently repressed the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and the major downstream effectors, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and eIF4E in EPCs. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that butein exhibits the antiangiogenic effect both in vitro and in vivo by targeting the translational machinery. Butein is a promising angiogenesis inhibitor with the potential for treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-related diseases.

  8. Mechanisms of angiogenesis in a Curculigoside A-treated rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Haibo; He, Jie; Ye, Liang; Lin, Fei; Hou, Jian; Zhong, Yan; Jiang, Wanglin

    2015-01-01

    Curculigoside A has shown protective effects against rat cortical neuron damage in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms through which Curculigoside A affords this protection are unclear. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms of angiogenesis in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC), rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC) as well as a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury following treatment with Curculigoside A. We examined the role of Curculigoside A on RAEC and RASMC proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro and in a cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury rat model. We used the recombinant Dickkopf (DKK)-1 protein, a Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor, and the recombinant WIF-1 protein, a Wnt5a antagonist to determine mechanisms. In addition, we measured leakage of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and tested for angiogenesis associated proteins. Our data suggest that Curculigoside A induces angiogenesis in vitro by increasing proliferation, migration and tube formation in RAEC and RASMC. The increase in Curculigoside A-induced proliferation and tube formation was counteracted by DKK-1 and WIF-1. Curculigoside A increased expression of VEGF, p-VEGFR, p-CREB, Egr-3, VCAM-1, Ang1 and Tie2 while prohibiting BBB leakage in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injured rats. However, Cyclosporine A, a CREB inhibitor, reduced the expression of p-CREB, Egr-3, VCAM-1, Ang1 and Tie2. These data suggest that Curculigoside A induces cell proliferation and angiogenesis through the Wnt5a/β-catenin and VEGF/CREB/Egr-3/VCAM-1 signaling axis and promotes maturation and stability of new blood vessels via increasing Ang1 and Tie-2 expression. - Highlights: • Curculigoside A induces cell proliferation through Wnt5a/β-catenin pathway. • Curculigoside A induces angiogenesis via VEGF/CREB/Egr-3/VCAM-1 signaling axis. • Curculigoside A promotes blood vessel maturation via Ang1/Tie2 pathway.

  9. Mechanisms of angiogenesis in a Curculigoside A-treated rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haibo [School of Public Health and Management, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China); Institute of Toxicology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China); He, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Long-acting Targeting Drug Delivery Technologies (Luye Pharma Group Ltd.), Yantai 264003 (China); Ye, Liang [School of Public Health and Management, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China); Institute of Toxicology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China); Lin, Fei; Hou, Jian; Zhong, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Long-acting Targeting Drug Delivery Technologies (Luye Pharma Group Ltd.), Yantai 264003 (China); Jiang, Wanglin, E-mail: jwl518@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Materia Medica, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China)

    2015-11-01

    Curculigoside A has shown protective effects against rat cortical neuron damage in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms through which Curculigoside A affords this protection are unclear. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms of angiogenesis in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC), rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC) as well as a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury following treatment with Curculigoside A. We examined the role of Curculigoside A on RAEC and RASMC proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro and in a cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury rat model. We used the recombinant Dickkopf (DKK)-1 protein, a Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor, and the recombinant WIF-1 protein, a Wnt5a antagonist to determine mechanisms. In addition, we measured leakage of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and tested for angiogenesis associated proteins. Our data suggest that Curculigoside A induces angiogenesis in vitro by increasing proliferation, migration and tube formation in RAEC and RASMC. The increase in Curculigoside A-induced proliferation and tube formation was counteracted by DKK-1 and WIF-1. Curculigoside A increased expression of VEGF, p-VEGFR, p-CREB, Egr-3, VCAM-1, Ang1 and Tie2 while prohibiting BBB leakage in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injured rats. However, Cyclosporine A, a CREB inhibitor, reduced the expression of p-CREB, Egr-3, VCAM-1, Ang1 and Tie2. These data suggest that Curculigoside A induces cell proliferation and angiogenesis through the Wnt5a/β-catenin and VEGF/CREB/Egr-3/VCAM-1 signaling axis and promotes maturation and stability of new blood vessels via increasing Ang1 and Tie-2 expression. - Highlights: • Curculigoside A induces cell proliferation through Wnt5a/β-catenin pathway. • Curculigoside A induces angiogenesis via VEGF/CREB/Egr-3/VCAM-1 signaling axis. • Curculigoside A promotes blood vessel maturation via Ang1/Tie2 pathway.

  10. Role and mechanism of arsenic in regulating angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a wide spread carcinogen associated with several kinds of cancers including skin, lung, bladder, and liver cancers. Lung is one of the major targets of arsenic exposure. Angiogenesis is the pivotal process during carcinogenesis and chronic pulmonary diseases, but the role and mechanism of arsenic in regulating angiogenesis remain to be elucidated. In this study we show that short time exposure of arsenic induces angiogenesis in both human immortalized lung epithelial cells BEAS-2B and adenocarcinoma cells A549. To study the molecular mechanism of arsenic-inducing angiogenesis, we find that arsenic induces reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, which activates AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and increases the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Inhibition of ROS production suppresses angiogenesis by decreasing AKT and ERK activation and HIF-1 expression. Inhibition of ROS, AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways is sufficient to attenuate arsenic-inducing angiogenesis. HIF-1 and VEGF are downstream effectors of AKT and ERK1/2 that are required for arsenic-inducing angiogenesis. These results shed light on the mechanism of arsenic in regulating angiogenesis, and are helpful to develop mechanism-based intervention to prevent arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and angiogenesis in the future.

  11. Effective treatment of diverse medulloblastoma models with mebendazole and its impact on tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Rudin, Charles M; Bunz, Fred; Riggins, Gregory J

    2015-04-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Current standard treatments cure 40%-60% of patients, while the majority of survivors suffer long-term neurological sequelae. The identification of 4 molecular groups of medulloblastoma improved the clinical management with the development of targeted therapies; however, the tumor acquires resistance quickly. Mebendazole (MBZ) has a long safety record as antiparasitic in children and has been recently implicated in inhibition of various tyrosine kinases in vitro. Here, we investigated the efficacy of MBZ in various medulloblastoma subtypes and MBZ's impact on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and tumor angiogenesis. The inhibition of MBZ on VEGFR2 kinase was investigated in an autophosphorylation assay and a cell-free kinase assay. Mice bearing orthotopic PTCH1-mutant medulloblastoma allografts, a group 3 medulloblastoma xenograft, and a PTCH1-mutant medulloblastoma with acquired resistance to the smoothened inhibitor vismodegib were treated with MBZ. The survival benefit and the impact on tumor angiogenesis and VEGFR2 kinase function were analyzed. We determined that MBZ interferes with VEGFR2 kinase by competing with ATP. MBZ selectively inhibited tumor angiogenesis but not the normal brain vasculatures in orthotopic medulloblastoma models and suppressed VEGFR2 kinase in vivo. MBZ significantly extended the survival of medulloblastoma models derived from different molecular backgrounds. Our findings support testing of MBZ as a possible low-toxicity therapy for medulloblastomas of various molecular subtypes, including tumors with acquired vismodegib resistance. Its antitumor mechanism may be partially explained by inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis: Perspectives for the treatment of solid tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Collen, A.; Koolwijk, P.

    1999-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones. Many solid tumors depend on an extensive newly formed vascular network to become nourished and to expand. Tumor cells induce the formation of an extensive but aberrant vascular network by the secretion of angiogenic factors. A

  13. Signaling and molecular basis of bone marrow niche angiogenesis in leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirzad, R.; Shahrabi, S.; Ahmadzadeh, A.; Kampen, K. R.; Shahjahani, M.; Saki, N.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the process of blood vessel formation, is necessary for tissue survival in normal and pathologic conditions. Increased angiogenesis in BM niche is correlated with leukemia progression and resistance to treatment. Angiogenesis can interfere with disease progression and several

  14. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom Su [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yun [Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyo-Jin [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Jin [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun, E-mail: omslee@wku.ac.kr [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    ), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and AKT. MMP-2 activation was also significantly increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited tube formation and wound healing, while an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. MMP-2 activation and AKT phosphorylation were also attenuated and associated with the suppression of p38 and JNK phosphorylation, but not with that of ERK. These results indicate that fucoidan, in the presence of FGF-2, induces angiogenesis through AKT/MMP-2 signalling by activating p38 and JNK. These findings provide basic molecular information on the effect of fucoidan on angiogenesis in the presence of FGF-2.

  15. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-01-01

    ), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and AKT. MMP-2 activation was also significantly increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited tube formation and wound healing, while an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. MMP-2 activation and AKT phosphorylation were also attenuated and associated with the suppression of p38 and JNK phosphorylation, but not with that of ERK. These results indicate that fucoidan, in the presence of FGF-2, induces angiogenesis through AKT/MMP-2 signalling by activating p38 and JNK. These findings provide basic molecular information on the effect of fucoidan on angiogenesis in the presence of FGF-2

  16. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chan, Lai-Sheung [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Poon, Po-Ying [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun, E-mail: rnswong@hkbu.edu.hk [Dr. Gilbert Hung Ginseng Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-09-15

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}), one of the most abundant active components of ginseng, has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound in different models. There is increasing evidence implicating microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of non-coding RNAs, as important regulators of angiogenesis, but the role of microRNAs in Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenesis has not been fully explored. In this report, we found that stimulating endothelial cells with Rg{sub 1} could reduce miR-23a expression. In silico experiments predicted hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), a well-established mediator of angiogenesis, as the target of miR-23a. Transfection of the miR-23a precursor or inhibitor oligonucleotides validated the inverse relationship of miR-23a and MET expression. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-23a and the MET mRNA 3′-UTR. Intriguingly, ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was found to increase MET protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenic activities were indeed mediated through the down-regulation of miR-23a and subsequent up-regulation of MET protein expression, as confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function angiogenic experiments. In summary, our results demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a. This study has broadened our understanding of the non-genomic effects of ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1,} and provided molecular evidence that warrant further development of natural compound as novel angiogenesis-promoting therapy. - Highlights: • Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. • Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}) has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound. • We found that Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by

  17. A phase I/II trial of AT9283, a selective inhibitor of aurora kinase in children with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia: challenges to run early phase clinical trials for children with leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormoor, B; Veal, G J; Griffin, M J; Boddy, A V; Irving, J; Minto, L; Case, M; Banerji, U; Swales, K E; Tall, J R; Moore, A S; Toguchi, M; Acton, G; Dyer, K; Schwab, C; Harrison, C J; Grainger, J D; Lancaster, D; Kearns, P; Hargrave, D; Vormoor, J

    2017-06-01

    Aurora kinases regulate mitosis and are commonly overexpressed in leukemia. This phase I/IIa study of AT9283, a multikinase inhibitor, was designed to identify maximal tolerated doses, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic activity in children with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. The trial suffered from poor recruitment and terminated early, therefore failing to identify its primary endpoints. AT9283 caused tolerable toxicity, but failed to show clinical responses. Future trials should be based on robust preclinical data that provide an indication of which patients may benefit from the experimental agent, and recruitment should be improved through international collaborations and early combination with established treatment strategies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrucchio, G.; Lupia, E.; de Martino, A.; Battaglia, E.; Arese, M.; Tizzani, A.; Bussolino, F.; Camussi, G.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the role of an endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) in the in vitro migration of endothelial cells and in the in vivo angiogenic response elicited by platelet-activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF. The motogenic activity of TNF was also inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF-receptor antagonist. In contrast, chemotaxis induced by bFGF was not prevented by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. Angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME. In contrast, angiogenesis induced by bFGF was not affected by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. TNF, but not bFGF, induced PAF synthesis within Matrigel. These results suggest that NO mediates the angiogenesis induced by PAF as well as that induced by TNF, which is dependent on the production of PAF. In contrast, the angiogenic effect of bFGF appears to be both PAF and NO independent. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9250168

  19. Angiogenesis stimulated by novel nanoscale bioactive glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cong; Chen, Xiaofeng; Miao, Guohou; Lin, Cai

    2015-01-01

    The ability of biomaterials to induce rapid vascular formation is critical in tissue regeneration. Combining recombinant angiogenic growth factors with bioengineered constructs have proven to be difficult due to several issues, including the instability of recombinant proteins, the need for sustained delivery and the dosage of factors. New formulations of bioactive glass, 58S nanosized bioactive glass (58S-NBG), have been reported to enhance wound healing in animal models better than the first generation of 45S5 Bioglass. Therefore, we investigated the effects of extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG on cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell viability was assessed by MTS assay. In vitro angiogenesis was measured using an ECM gel tube formation assay, and levels of mRNAs for five angiogenic related genes were measured by qRT-PCR. Extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG stimulated the proliferation of HUVECs, accelerated cell migration, up-regulated expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, their receptors, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, resulting in enhanced tube formation in vitro. The enhanced angiogenic response correlated with increased levels of Ca and Si in the extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG. The ability of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro provides alternative approaches for stimulating neovascularization of tissue-engineered constructs. (paper)

  20. Cell-Oriented Modeling of Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Guidolin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its significant involvement in various physiological and pathological conditions, angiogenesis (the development of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature represents an important area of the actual biological research and a field in which mathematical modeling proved particularly useful in supporting the experimental work. In this paper, we focus on a specific modeling strategy, known as “cell-centered” approach. This type of mathematical models work at a “mesoscopic scale,” assuming the cell as the natural level of abstraction for computational modeling of development. They treat cells phenomenologically, considering their essential behaviors to study how tissue structure and organization emerge from the collective dynamics of multiple cells. The main contributions of the cell-oriented approach to the study of the angiogenic process will be described. From one side, they have generated “basic science understanding” about the process of capillary assembly during development, growth, and pathology. On the other side, models were also developed supporting “applied biomedical research” for the purpose of identifying new therapeutic targets and clinically relevant approaches for either inhibiting or stimulating angiogenesis.

  1. Cell-oriented modeling of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolin, Diego; Rebuffat, Piera; Albertin, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    Due to its significant involvement in various physiological and pathological conditions, angiogenesis (the development of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature) represents an important area of the actual biological research and a field in which mathematical modeling proved particularly useful in supporting the experimental work. In this paper, we focus on a specific modeling strategy, known as "cell-centered" approach. This type of mathematical models work at a "mesoscopic scale," assuming the cell as the natural level of abstraction for computational modeling of development. They treat cells phenomenologically, considering their essential behaviors to study how tissue structure and organization emerge from the collective dynamics of multiple cells. The main contributions of the cell-oriented approach to the study of the angiogenic process will be described. From one side, they have generated "basic science understanding" about the process of capillary assembly during development, growth, and pathology. On the other side, models were also developed supporting "applied biomedical research" for the purpose of identifying new therapeutic targets and clinically relevant approaches for either inhibiting or stimulating angiogenesis.

  2. Human embryo-conditioned medium stimulates in vitro endometrial angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapiteijn, K.; Koolwijk, P.; Weiden, R.M.F. van der; Nieuw Amerongen, G. van; Plaisier, M.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Helmerhorst, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Successful implantation and placentation depend on the interaction between the endometrium and the embryo. Angiogenesis is crucial at this time. In this article we investigate the direct influence of the human embryo on in vitro endometrial angiogenesis. Design: In vitro study. Setting:

  3. Halofuginone Inhibits Angiogenesis and Growth in Implanted Metastatic Rat Brain Tumor Model-an MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinat Abramovitch

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis; therefore, efforts are made to develop specific angiogenic inhibitors. Halofuginone (HF is a potent inhibitor of collagen type α1(I. In solid tumor models, HF has a potent antitumor and antiangiogenic effect in vivo, but its effect on brain tumors has not yet been evaluated. By employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we monitored the effect of HF on tumor progression and vascularization by utilizing an implanted malignant fibrous histiocytoma metastatic rat brain tumor model. Here we demonstrate that treatment with HF effectively and dose-dependently reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis. On day 13, HF-treated tumors were fivefold smaller than control (P < .001. Treatment with HF significantly prolonged survival of treated animals (142%; P = .001. In HF-treated rats, tumor vascularization was inhibited by 30% on day 13 and by 37% on day 19 (P < .05. Additionally, HF treatment inhibited vessel maturation (P = .03. Finally, in HF-treated rats, we noticed the appearance of a few clusters of satellite tumors, which were distinct from the primary tumor and usually contained vessel cores. This phenomenon was relatively moderate when compared to previous reports of other antiangiogenic agents used to treat brain tumors. We therefore conclude that HF is effective for treatment of metastatic brain tumors.

  4. D-Amino acid oxidase-induced oxidative stress, 3-bromopyruvate and citrate inhibit angiogenesis, exhibiting potent anticancer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Yorita, K; Chung, S P; Tran, D H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-10-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for cancer growth and metastasis. Steps of angiogenesis are energy consuming, while vascular endothelial cells are highly glycolytic. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor and this enhances its aggressiveness. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress upon acting on its substrates. Oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy was recently reported (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther, 19, 1-18, 2012). OSED combines DAO-induced oxidative stress with energy depletion caused by glycolytic inhibitors such as 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a hexokinase II inhibitor that depleted ATP in cancer cells and induced production of hydrogen peroxide. 3BP disturbs the Warburg effect and antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate (El Sayed et al., J Bioenerg Biomembr, 44, 61-79, 2012). Citrate is a natural organic acid capable of inhibiting glycolysis by targeting phosphofructokinase. Here, we report that DAO, 3BP and citrate significantly inhibited angiogenesis, decreased the number of vascular branching points and shortened the length of vascular tubules. OSED delayed the growth of C6/DAO glioma cells. 3BP combined with citrate delayed the growth of C6 glioma cells and decreased significantly the number and size of C6 glioma colonies in soft agar. Human GBM cells (U373MG) were resistant to chemotherapy e.g. cisplatin and cytosine arabinoside, while 3BP was effective in decreasing the viability and disturbing the morphology of U373MG cells.

  5. A mutation in the mitochondrial protein UQCRB promotes angiogenesis through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Junghwa [Chemical Genomics National Research Lab., Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hye Jin [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sun Moon University, Asansi, Chungnam 330-150 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin [National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ho Jeong, E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr [Chemical Genomics National Research Lab., Department of Biotechnology, Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • We constructed mitochondrial protein UQCRB mutant stable cell lines on the basis of a human case report. • These mutant cell lines exhibit pro-angiogenic activity with enhanced VEGF expression. • Proliferation of mutant cell lines was regulated by UQCRB inhibitors. • UQCRB may have a functional role in angiogenesis. - Abstract: Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) is one of the subunits of mitochondrial complex III and is a target protein of the natural anti-angiogenic small molecule terpestacin. Previously, the biological role of UQCRB was thought to be limited to the maintenance of complex III. However, the identification and validation of UQCRB as a target protein of terpestacin enabled the role of UQCRB in oxygen sensing and angiogenesis to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of this protein further, UQCRB mutant stable cell lines were generated on the basis of a human case report. We demonstrated that these cell lines exhibited glycolytic and pro-angiogenic activities via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS)-mediated HIF1 signal transduction. Furthermore, a morphological abnormality in mitochondria was detected in UQCRB mutant stable cell lines. In addition, the proliferative effect of the UQCRB mutants was significantly regulated by the UQCRB inhibitors terpestacin and A1938. Collectively, these results provide a molecular basis for UQCRB-related biological processes and reveal potential key roles of UQCRB in angiogenesis and mitochondria-mediated metabolic disorders.

  6. A mutation in the mitochondrial protein UQCRB promotes angiogenesis through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Junghwa; Jung, Hye Jin; Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We constructed mitochondrial protein UQCRB mutant stable cell lines on the basis of a human case report. • These mutant cell lines exhibit pro-angiogenic activity with enhanced VEGF expression. • Proliferation of mutant cell lines was regulated by UQCRB inhibitors. • UQCRB may have a functional role in angiogenesis. - Abstract: Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) is one of the subunits of mitochondrial complex III and is a target protein of the natural anti-angiogenic small molecule terpestacin. Previously, the biological role of UQCRB was thought to be limited to the maintenance of complex III. However, the identification and validation of UQCRB as a target protein of terpestacin enabled the role of UQCRB in oxygen sensing and angiogenesis to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of this protein further, UQCRB mutant stable cell lines were generated on the basis of a human case report. We demonstrated that these cell lines exhibited glycolytic and pro-angiogenic activities via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS)-mediated HIF1 signal transduction. Furthermore, a morphological abnormality in mitochondria was detected in UQCRB mutant stable cell lines. In addition, the proliferative effect of the UQCRB mutants was significantly regulated by the UQCRB inhibitors terpestacin and A1938. Collectively, these results provide a molecular basis for UQCRB-related biological processes and reveal potential key roles of UQCRB in angiogenesis and mitochondria-mediated metabolic disorders

  7. Pilot Evaluation of Angiogenesis Signaling Factor Response after Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, James; Nixon, Andrew B; Marin, Daniele; Gupta, Rajan T; Janas, Gemini; Chen, Willa; Suhocki, Paul V; Pabon-Ramos, Waleska; Sopko, David R; Starr, Mark D; Brady, John C; Hurwitz, Herbert I; Kim, Charles Y

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To identify changes in a broad panel of circulating angiogenesis factors after bland transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), a purely ischemic treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods This prospective HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants prior to entry into the study. Twenty-five patients (21 men; mean age, 61 years; range, 30-81 years) with Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 or biopsy-proven HCC and who were undergoing TAE were enrolled from October 15, 2014, through December 2, 2015. Nineteen plasma angiogenesis factors (angiopoietin 2; hepatocyte growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor AA and BB; placental growth factor; vascular endothelial growth factor A and D; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, 2, and 3; osteopontin; transforming growth factor β1 and β2; thrombospondin 2; intercellular adhesion molecule 1; interleukin 6 [IL-6]; stromal cell-derived factor 1; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1; and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1]) were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 5 weeks after TAE and were compared with baseline levels by using paired Wilcoxon tests. Tumor response was assessed according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). Angiogenesis factor levels were compared between responders and nonresponders by mRECIST criteria by using unpaired Wilcoxon tests. Results All procedures were technically successful with no complications. Fourteen angiogenesis factors showed statistically significant changes following TAE, but most changes were transient. IL-6 was upregulated only 1 day after the procedure, but showed the largest increases of any factor. Osteopontin and VCAM-1 demonstrated sustained upregulation at all time points following TAE. At 3-month follow-up imaging, 11 patients had responses to TAE

  8. Tympanomastoid cholesterol granulomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Giannicola; Di Gioia, Cira; Carletti, Raffaella; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 in patients treated for middle ear and mastoid cholesterol granulomas to evaluate the angiogenesis and vascularization of this type of lesion. A correlation between the immunohistochemical data and the radiological and intraoperative evidence of temporal bone marrow invasion and blood source connection was performed to validate this hypothesis. Retrospective study. Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and CD34 in a group of 16 patients surgically treated for cholesterol granuloma was examined. Middle ear cholesteatomas with normal middle ear mucosa and external auditory canal skin were used as the control groups. The radiological and intraoperative features of cholesterol granulomas were also examined. In endothelial cells, there was an increased expression of angiogenetic growth factor receptors in all the cholesterol granulomas in this study. The quantitative analysis of VEGF showed a mean value of 37.5, whereas the CD34 quantitative analysis gave a mean value of 6.8. Seven patients presented radiological or intraoperative evidence of bone marrow invasion, hematopoietic potentialities, or blood source connections that might support the bleeding theory. In all of these cases there was computed tomography or intraoperative evidence of bone erosion of the middle ear and/or temporal bone structures. The mean values of VEGF and CD34 were 41.1 and 7.7, respectively. High values of VEGF and CD34 are present in patients with cholesterol granulomas. Upregulation of VEGF and CD34 is indicative of a remarkable angiogenesis and a widespread vascular concentration in cholesterol granulomas. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:E283-E290, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Proinflammatory mediators stimulate neutrophil-directed angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; vascular permeability factor) is one of the most potent proangiogenic cytokines, and it plays a central role in mediating the process of angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation. Neutrophils (PMNs) recently have been shown to produce VEGF. HYPOTHESIS: The acute inflammatory response is a potent stimulus for PMN-directed angiogenesis. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and anti-human Fas monoclonal antibody. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs were then added to human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvessel endothelial cells and assessed for endothelial cell proliferation using 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling. Tubule formation was also assessed on MATRIGEL basement membrane matrix. Neutrophils were lysed to measure total VEGF release, and VEGF expression was detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide and TNF-alpha stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN VEGF (532+\\/-49 and 484+\\/-80 pg\\/mL, respectively; for all, presented as mean +\\/- SEM) compared with control experiments (32+\\/-4 pg\\/mL). Interleukin 6 and Fas had no effect. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs also resulted in significant increases (P<.005) in macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and tubule formation. Adding anti-human VEGF-neutralizing polyclonal antibody to stimulated PMN supernatant inhibited these effects. Total VEGF release following cell lysis and Western blot analysis suggests that the VEGF is released from an intracellular store. CONCLUSION: Activated human PMNs are directly angiogenic by releasing VEGF, and this has important implications for inflammation, capillary leak syndrome

  10. Pharmacological inhibition of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor promotes peritoneal angiogenesis in a peritoneal dialysis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyuan; Yan, Hao; Yuan, Jiangzi; Cao, Liou; Lin, Aiwu; Dai, Huili; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi; Fang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Molecular mechanisms of peritoneal dialysis (PD) ultrafiltration failure, peritoneal neo-angiogenesis, and fibrosis remain to be determined. We aimed to determine the role of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) inhibition on angiogenesis of peritoneal membrane in a PD rat model. 32 male Wistar rats were assigned into (1) control group; (2) uremic non-PD group: subtotal nephrectomy-induced uremic rats without PD; (3) uremic rats subjected to PD: uremic rats that were dialyzed with Dianeal ® for 4 weeks; (4) CRM 197 group: dialyzed uremic rats were supplemented with CRM197, a specific HB-EGF inhibitor. Peritoneal transport function was examined by peritoneal equilibration test. Expression of HB-EGF and EGFR in peritoneal samples were examined by real-time PCR, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Progressive angiogenesis and fibrosis were observed in uremic PD rats, and there were associated with decreased net ultrafiltration (nUF), increased permeability of peritoneal membrane, and reduced expression of HB-EGF and EGFR protein and mRNA in uremic PD rats compared to uremic non-PD or control groups (both p CRM197 significantly induced peritoneal membrane permeability, decreased nUF, increased higher vessel density, and reduced pericyte count compared to that of uremic PD rats. The levels of HB-EGF and EGFR expression negatively correlated with vessel density in peritoneal membrane (both p < 0.001). PD therapy was associated with peritoneal angiogenesis, functional deterioration, and downregulation of HB-EGF/EGFR. Pharmacological inhibition of HB-EGF promoted PD-induced peritoneal angiogenesis and fibrosis and ultrafiltration decline, suggesting that HB-EGF downregulation contributes to peritoneal functional deterioration in the uremic PD rat model.

  11. Adaptation in Response of Excitation and Inhibition Factors of Angiogenesis after 4 Weeks of Progressive Resistant Training in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. Karami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The sport activity is an important factor affecting the capillary density and angiogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF are the most important stimulative regulators in the angiogenesis. In addition, endostatin is one of the inhibitors of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptation in the responses of the angiogenesis inhibition and stimulating factors after 4-week increasing resistive exercises in the sedentary men. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 20 healthy and inactive male students, aged between 20 and 25 years, who were residents of Tehran University Dormitory, were studied in the first semester of the academic year 2015-16. The subjects, selected via available sampling method, were divided into two groups including experimental and control groups (n=10 per group. 4-week resistive exercises were done three sessions per week. Blood-sampling was done before and 48 hours after the last exercise session. VEGF, NO, and endostatin were then measured. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software using independent and dependent T tests, as well as Pearson correlation coefficient test. Findings: In experimental group, VEGF and No significantly increased at the posttest stage than the pretest (p=0.001. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in control group (p>0.05. In both experimental and control groups, endostatin level did not significantly increase at the posttest stage than the pretest (p>0.05. In addition, VEGF and NO were the only variables that were significantly correlated (p=0.016; r=0.82. Conclusion: 4-week increasing resistive exercises in the sedentary men significantly affect the angiogenes stimulating factors, i. e. VEGF and NO, while such exercises do not significantly affect the angiogenesis inhibition factor, i. e. endostatin.

  12. QUANTIFICATION OF ANGIOGENESIS IN THE CHICKEN CHORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE (CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blacher

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM provides a suitable in vivo model to study angiogenesis and evaluate several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors and compounds. In the present work, new developments in image analysis are used to quantify CAM angiogenic response from optical microscopic observations, covering all vascular components, from the large supplying and feeding vessels down to the capillary plexus. To validate our methodology angiogenesis is quantified during two phases of CAM development (day 7 and 13 and after treatment with an antiangiogenic modulator of the angiogenesis. Our morphometric analysis emphasizes that an accurate quantification of the CAM vasculature needs to be performed at various scales.

  13. Surgical revascularization induces angiogenesis in orthotopic bone allograft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Wouter F.; Kremer, Thomas; Friedrich, Patricia; Bishop, Allen T.

    2012-01-01

    Remodeling of structural bone allografts relies on adequate revascularization, which can theoretically be induced by surgical revascularization. We developed a new orthotopic animal model to determine the technical feasibility of axial arteriovenous bundle implantation and resultant angiogenesis. We

  14. Angiogenesis and Therapeutic Approaches to NF1 Tumors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muir, David F

    2007-01-01

    .... Invivo and in vitro models were used to firmly conclude that Nf1 haploinsufficiency in endothelial cells results inexaggerated proliferation and angiogenesis in response to key pro-angiogenic factors...

  15. Molecular targeting of angiogenesis for imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, Simon S.; Neri, Dario; Dinkelborg, Ludger M.

    2004-01-01

    Angiogenesis, i.e. the proliferation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is an underlying process in many human diseases, including cancer, blinding ocular disorders and rheumatoid arthritis. The ability to selectively target and interfere with neovascularisation would potentially be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases. This review presents the authors' views on some of the most relevant markers of angiogenesis described to date, as well as on specific ligands which have been characterised in pre-clinical animal models and/or clinical studies. Furthermore, we present an overview on technologies which are likely to have an impact on the way molecular targeting of angiogenesis is performed in the future. (orig.)

  16. Diet-derived polyphenols inhibit angiogenesis by modulating the interleukin-6/STAT3 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, Sylvie; Akla, Naoufal; Ouanouki, Amira; Lord-Dufour, Simon; Beliveau, Richard, E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

    2012-08-01

    Several epidemiological studies have indicated that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of developing several types of cancers. This chemopreventive effect is related to the high content of these foods in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, that interfere with several processes involved in cancer progression including tumor cell growth, survival and angiogenesis. In addition to the low intake of plant-based foods, increased body mass and physical inactivity have recently emerged as other important lifestyle factors influencing cancer risk, leading to the generation of low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions which are a key process involved in tumor progression. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the inhibitory effects of these polyphenols on angiogenesis triggered by an inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and to determine the mechanisms underlying this action. We found that, among the tested polyphenols, apigenin and luteolin were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on the inflammatory cytokine IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These effects resulted in modulation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling triggered by IL-6, as well as in a marked reduction in the proliferation, migration and morphogenic differentiation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, these polyphenols also modulated the expression of IL-6 signal transducing receptor (IL-6R{alpha}) and the secretion of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme MMP-2 as well as the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) protein. Overall, these results may provide important new information on the role of diet in cancer prevention.

  17. Diet-derived polyphenols inhibit angiogenesis by modulating the interleukin-6/STAT3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Sylvie; Akla, Naoufal; Ouanouki, Amira; Lord-Dufour, Simon; Béliveau, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Several epidemiological studies have indicated that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of developing several types of cancers. This chemopreventive effect is related to the high content of these foods in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, that interfere with several processes involved in cancer progression including tumor cell growth, survival and angiogenesis. In addition to the low intake of plant-based foods, increased body mass and physical inactivity have recently emerged as other important lifestyle factors influencing cancer risk, leading to the generation of low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions which are a key process involved in tumor progression. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the inhibitory effects of these polyphenols on angiogenesis triggered by an inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and to determine the mechanisms underlying this action. We found that, among the tested polyphenols, apigenin and luteolin were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on the inflammatory cytokine IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These effects resulted in modulation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling triggered by IL-6, as well as in a marked reduction in the proliferation, migration and morphogenic differentiation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, these polyphenols also modulated the expression of IL-6 signal transducing receptor (IL-6Rα) and the secretion of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme MMP-2 as well as the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) protein. Overall, these results may provide important new information on the role of diet in cancer prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diet-derived polyphenols inhibit angiogenesis by modulating the interleukin-6/STAT3 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, Sylvie; Akla, Naoufal; Ouanouki, Amira; Lord-Dufour, Simon; Béliveau, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have indicated that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of developing several types of cancers. This chemopreventive effect is related to the high content of these foods in phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, that interfere with several processes involved in cancer progression including tumor cell growth, survival and angiogenesis. In addition to the low intake of plant-based foods, increased body mass and physical inactivity have recently emerged as other important lifestyle factors influencing cancer risk, leading to the generation of low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions which are a key process involved in tumor progression. The objectives of the current study are to investigate the inhibitory effects of these polyphenols on angiogenesis triggered by an inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and to determine the mechanisms underlying this action. We found that, among the tested polyphenols, apigenin and luteolin were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on the inflammatory cytokine IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These effects resulted in modulation of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling triggered by IL-6, as well as in a marked reduction in the proliferation, migration and morphogenic differentiation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, these polyphenols also modulated the expression of IL-6 signal transducing receptor (IL-6Rα) and the secretion of the extracellular matrix degrading enzyme MMP-2 as well as the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) protein. Overall, these results may provide important new information on the role of diet in cancer prevention.

  19. Wogonin inhibits tumor angiogenesis via degradation of HIF-1α protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xiuming; Yao, Jing; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Mi; Zhou, Yuxin; Wang, Hu; Wei, Libin; Zhao, Li; Li, Zhiyu; Lu, Na; Guo, Qinglong

    2013-01-01

    Wogonin, a plant-derived flavone, has been shown recently to have antitumor effects. However, the mechanisms that wogonin inhibits tumor angiogenesis are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effects of wogonin on expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells. We found that wogonin decreased the expression of HIF-1α by affecting its stability and reduced the secretion of VEGF, which suppressed angiogenesis in cancer. Wogonin promoted the degradation of HIF-1α by increasing its prolyl hydroxylation, which depended on prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) and the von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL). Intriguingly, wogonin impeded the binding between heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and HIF-1α. In addition, wogonin down-regulated the Hsp90 client proteins EGFR, Cdk4 and survivin, but did not affect the level of Hsp90. Wogonin also increased ubiquitination of HIF-1α and promoted its degradation in proteasome. We also found that wogonin could inhibit nuclear translocation of HIF-1α. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that wogonin decreased the binding activity of exogenous consensus DNA oligonucleotide with HIF-1α in nuclear extracts from MCF-7 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay also revealed that HIF-1α directly binded to endogenous hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) and this binding was significantly decreased in MCF-7 cells treated with wogonin. Preliminary results indicated in vivo activity of wogonin against xenograft-induced angiogenesis in nude mice. Taken together, the results suggested that wogonin was a potent inhibitor of HIF-1α and provided a new insight into the mechanisms of wogonin against cancers. - Highlights: • Wogonin is an all around inhibitor of VEGF signaling. • We firstly demonstrate that wogonin inhibits secretion of VEGF by decreasing HIF-1α. • Wogonin enhances PDH and VHL expression and inhibits Hsp90 function.

  20. Wogonin inhibits tumor angiogenesis via degradation of HIF-1α protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiuming; Yao, Jing; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Mi; Zhou, Yuxin; Wang, Hu; Wei, Libin; Zhao, Li; Li, Zhiyu; Lu, Na, E-mail: luna555@163.com; Guo, Qinglong, E-mail: anticancer_drug@yahoo.com.cn

    2013-09-01

    Wogonin, a plant-derived flavone, has been shown recently to have antitumor effects. However, the mechanisms that wogonin inhibits tumor angiogenesis are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effects of wogonin on expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells. We found that wogonin decreased the expression of HIF-1α by affecting its stability and reduced the secretion of VEGF, which suppressed angiogenesis in cancer. Wogonin promoted the degradation of HIF-1α by increasing its prolyl hydroxylation, which depended on prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) and the von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL). Intriguingly, wogonin impeded the binding between heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and HIF-1α. In addition, wogonin down-regulated the Hsp90 client proteins EGFR, Cdk4 and survivin, but did not affect the level of Hsp90. Wogonin also increased ubiquitination of HIF-1α and promoted its degradation in proteasome. We also found that wogonin could inhibit nuclear translocation of HIF-1α. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that wogonin decreased the binding activity of exogenous consensus DNA oligonucleotide with HIF-1α in nuclear extracts from MCF-7 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay also revealed that HIF-1α directly binded to endogenous hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) and this binding was significantly decreased in MCF-7 cells treated with wogonin. Preliminary results indicated in vivo activity of wogonin against xenograft-induced angiogenesis in nude mice. Taken together, the results suggested that wogonin was a potent inhibitor of HIF-1α and provided a new insight into the mechanisms of wogonin against cancers. - Highlights: • Wogonin is an all around inhibitor of VEGF signaling. • We firstly demonstrate that wogonin inhibits secretion of VEGF by decreasing HIF-1α. • Wogonin enhances PDH and VHL expression and inhibits Hsp90 function.

  1. Leptin and its cardiovascular effects: Focus on angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an endocrine hormone synthesized by adipocytes. It plays a key role in the energy homeostasis in central and peripheral tissues and has additional roles are attributed to it, such as the regulation of reproduction, immune function, bone homeostasis, and angiogenesis. The plasma concentration of leptin significantly increases in obese individuals. In the present review, we give an introduction concerning leptin, its receptors, signaling pathways, and its effect on cardiovascular system, especially on angiogenesis.

  2. Gene therapy and angiogenesis in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Not all patients with severe coronary artery disease can be treated satisfactorily with current recommended medications and revascularization techniques. Various vascular growth factors have the potential to induce angiogenesis in ischemic tissue. Clinical trials have only evaluated the effect...... of VEGF and FGF in patients with coronary artery disease. The initial small and unblinded studies with either recombinant growth factor proteins or genes encoding growth factors were encouraging, demonstrating both clinical improvement and evidence of angiogenesis. However, subsequent larger double...

  3. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J.; Wiegand, Stanley J.; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L.; Brenner, Robert M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Nayak, Nihar R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that ...

  4. Multikinase activity of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors SU5402, PD173074, AZD1480, AZD4547 and BGJ398 compromises the use of small chemicals targeting FGFR catalytic activity for therapy of short-stature syndromes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gudernová, I.; Veselá, Iva; Balek, L.; Buchtová, Marcela; Dosedělová, Hana; Kunová, M.; Pivnička, J.; Jelínková, I.; Roubalová, L.; Kozubík, Alois; Krejčí, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2016), s. 9-23 ISSN 0964-6906 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31540S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor receptor * tyrosine kinase domain * ERK MAP kinase Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 5.340, year: 2016

  5. Cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and brain angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Le; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Insulin performs unique non-metabolic functions within the brain. Broadly speaking, two major areas of these functions are those related to brain endothelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and those related to behavioral effects, like cognition in disease states (Alzheimer's disease, AD) and in health. Recent studies showed that both these functions are associated with brain angiogenesis. These findings raise interesting questions such as how they are linked to each other and whether modifying brain angiogenesis by targeting certain insulin signaling pathways could be an effective strategy to treat dementia as in AD, or even to help secure healthy longevity. The two canonical downstream pathways involved in mediating the insulin signaling pathway, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, in the brain are supposed to be similar to those in the periphery. PI3K and MAPK pathways play important roles in angiogenesis. Both are involved in stimulating hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in angiogenesis and could be activated by the insulin signaling pathway. This suggests that PI3K and MAPK pathways might act as cross-talk between the insulin signaling pathway and the angiogenesis pathway in brain. But the cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and the detailed mechanism in the connection of insulin signaling pathway, brain angiogenesis pathway, and healthy aging or dementias are still mostly not clear and need further studies.

  6. Fascin 1 is dispensable for developmental and tumour angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Ma

    2013-09-01

    The actin bundling protein fascin 1 is not expressed in adult epithelial tissues, but during development it is transiently expressed in many different cell types, and later in adults it is expressed in a subset of immune cells, nervous tissues, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and pericytes. In contrast to the wealth of knowledge about the role of fascin 1 in cancer cell migration and invasion, little is known about the involvement of fascin 1 in angiogenesis. We speculated that as angiogenesis involves migration and invasion of tissues by endothelial cells, fascin 1 might have a role in both normal and tumour angiogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that loss of fascin 1 causes relatively minor reductions to angiogenesis during embryonic, postnatal and cancerous development by examining E12.5 hindbrains, postnatal retinas and B16F0 tumour cell allografts in fascin 1-null mice. We also find that in fascin 1 null tissues, endothelial cells display reduced filopodia formation during sprouting. We thus propose that fascin 1 expression promotes angiogenesis via filopodia formation, but is largely dispensable for both normal and tumour angiogenesis.

  7. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckschlager, Tomas; Plch, Johana; Stiborova, Marie; Hrabeta, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT). HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc. HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising anti-cancer drugs particularly in the combination with other anti-cancer drugs and/or radiotherapy. HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed. Because of the reversibility of epigenetic changes during cancer development, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. Here, we summarize the data on different classes of HDAC inhibitors, mechanisms of their actions and discuss novel results of preclinical and clinical studies, including the combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  8. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eckschlager

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC and histone acetyltransferases (HAT. HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc. HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising anti-cancer drugs particularly in the combination with other anti-cancer drugs and/or radiotherapy. HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed. Because of the reversibility of epigenetic changes during cancer development, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. Here, we summarize the data on different classes of HDAC inhibitors, mechanisms of their actions and discuss novel results of preclinical and clinical studies, including the combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  9. Tumor angiogenesis in advanced stage ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, H C; Kohn, E C; Steinberg, S M; Rothenberg, M L; Merino, M J

    1995-07-01

    Tumor angiogenesis has been found to have prognostic significance in many tumor types for predicting an increased risk of metastasis. We assessed tumor vascularity in 43 cases of advanced stage (International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians stages III and IV) ovarian cancer by using the highly specific endothelial cell marker CD34. Microvessel counts and stage were associated with disease-free survival and with overall survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The plots show that higher stage, higher average vessel count at 200x (200x avg) and 400x (400x avg) magnification and highest vessel count at 400x (400x high) magnification confer a worse prognosis for disease-free survival. Average vessel count of less than 16 (400x avg, P2 = 0.01) and less than 45 (200x avg, P2 = 0.026) suggested a better survival. Similarly, a high vessel count of less than 20 (400x high, P2 = 0.019) conferred a better survival as well. The plots suggest that higher stage, higher average vessel count at 200x and 400x, and highest vessel count at 200x and 400x show a trend to worse overall survival as well. With the Cox proportional hazards model, stage was the best predictor of overall survival, however, the average microvessel count at 400x was found to be the best predictor of disease-free survival. These results suggest that analysis of neovascularization in advanced stage ovarian cancer may be a useful prognostic factor.

  10. Mast cells and angiogenesis in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed A; Seliet, Iman A; Ehsan, Nermin A; Megahed, Mohamed A

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the role of mast cells and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a mediator of angiogenesis to promote wound healing in surgical and pathological scars. The study was carried out on 40 patients who presented with active scar lesions. They were subdivided into 4 groups. They included granulation tissue (10 cases), surgical scar (10 cases), hypertrophic scar (10 cases), and keloid scar (10 cases). Also 10 healthy volunteers of the same age and sex were selected as a control group. Skin biopsies were taken from the patients and the control group. Skin biopsies from clinically assessed studied groups were processed for routine histology and embedded in paraffin. Four sections were prepared from each paraffin block. The first section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological evaluation. The second and third sections were processed for immunostaining of mast cells that contain chymase (MCCs) and mast cells that contain tryptase (MCTs). The fourth section was processed for immunostaining of VEGF. MCCs exhibited mild expression in normal tissue, granulation tissue, and surgical, hypertrophic and keloid scars. MCTs exhibited mild expression in normal tissue, granulation tissue and keloid, whereas moderate expression was exhibited in hypertrophic and surgical scars. VEGF expression was absent in normal tissue, mild in keloid, surgical and hypertrophic scars, and moderate in keloids and granulation tissue. Mast cell expression variation among different scar types signals the pathological evolution of the lesion, and hence may guide the need for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  12. Hypoxia and Angiogenesis in Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Horrée

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α plays an essential role in the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia, triggering biologic events associated with aggressive tumor behavior. Methods: Expression of HIF-1α and proteins in the HIF-1α pathway (Glut-1, CAIX, VEGF in paraffin-embedded specimens of normal (n = 17, premalignant (n = 17 and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (n = 39 was explored by immunohistochemistry, in relation to microvessel density (MVD. Results: HIF-1α overexpression was absent in inactive endometrium but present in hyperplasia (61% and carcinoma (87%, with increasing expression in a perinecrotic fashion pointing to underlying hypoxia. No membranous expression of Glut-1 and CAIX was noticed in inactive endometrium, in contrast with expression in hyperplasia (Glut-1 0%, CAIX 61%, only focal and diffuse and carcinoma (Glut-1 94.6%, CAIX 92%, both mostly perinecrotically. Diffuse HIF-1α was accompanied by activation of downstream targets. VEGF was significantly higher expressed in hyperplasias and carcinomas compared to inactive endometrium. MVD was higher in hyperplasias and carcinomas than in normal endometrium (p < 0.001. Conclusion: HIF-1α and its downstream genes are increasingly expressed from normal through premalignant to endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, paralleled by activation of its downstream genes and increased angiogenesis. This underlines the potential importance of hypoxia and its key regulator HIF-1α in endometrial carcinogenesis.

  13. Upregulation of angiogenesis in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassiny, A; Friedlander, L T; Parachuru, V P B; Seo, B; Hussaini, H M; Rich, A M

    2018-02-01

    As angiogenesis is fundamental to the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders, this study investigated the expression of various vascular markers in oral lichen planus and non-specific oral mucosal inflammatory tissues. Archival specimens of oral lichen planus (n = 15) and inflamed tissues (n = 13) were stained using immunohistochemistry with antibodies to CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and vasohibin. Nine representative sites at the epithelial-connective tissue junction and through the fibrous connective tissue were selected, and automated analysis techniques were used to determine the extent of positivity expressed as the percentage of positive cells. Significance was denoted when P lichen planus samples compared with inflamed controls. A higher level of CD34 was observed in the deeper parts of the connective tissue of Oral lichen planus (OLP) (P = .04), whereas VEGF and VEGFR2 expressions were higher all through the tissues (respectively, P lichen planus in all sites evaluated (P oral lichen planus compared with inflamed controls, with increased expression of pro-angiogenic factors and decreased anti-angiogenic expression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Overexpression of decorin promoted angiogenesis in diabetic cardiomyopathy via IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jinsheng; Chen, Fuqiong; Chen, Jing; Ruan, Guoran; He, Mengying; Chen, Chen; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Dao Wen

    2017-03-14

    Microcirculatory dysfunction is believed to play an important role in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin is generally considered a pro-angiogenic factor. Here, we investigate whether overexpression of decorin ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy and its effects on angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Diabetes was induced through intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin combined with a high-fat diet, and decorin was overexpressed via recombinant adeno-associated virus in Wistar rats. Six months later, cardiac function was determined using an echocardiography and cardiac catheter system. The results showed that cardiac function was decreased in diabetic rats and restored by overexpression of decorin. In addition, overexpression of decorin upregulated the expression of VEGF and attenuated the reduction in the cardiac capillary density. In the in vitro study, high glucose induced apoptosis and inhibited the capabilities of tube formation, migration and proliferation, which were all ameliorated by decorin overexpression. Meanwhile, decorin overexpression increased the expression of VEGF and IGF1R, as well as the phosphorylation level of AKT and AP-1. Nonetheless, all of these effects were abolished by pretreatment with the IGF1R antibody or AKT inhibitor. In conclusion, overexpression of decorin ameliorated diabetic cardiomyopathy and promoted angiogenesis through the IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

  15. Heritability of circulating growth factors involved in the angiogenesis in healthy human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantsulaia, I; Trofimov, S; Kobyliansky, E; Livshits, G

    2004-09-21

    The present study examined the extent of genetic and environmental influences on the populational variation of circulating growth factors (VEGF, EGF) involved in angiogenesis in healthy and ethnically homogeneous Caucasian families. The plasma levels of each of the studied biochemical indices were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay in 478 healthy individuals aged 18-75 years. Quantitative genetic analysis showed that the VEGF and EGF variation was appreciably attributable to genetic effects, with heritability estimates of 79.9% and 48.4%, respectively. Yet, common environmental factors, shared by members of the same household, also played a significant role (P growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) or tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), likewise relevant for angiogenesis. Bivariate analysis revealed significant phenotypic correlations (P < 0.002) between all pairs of variables, thus indicating the possible existence of common genetic and environmental factors. The analysis suggested that the pleiotropic genetic effects were consistently the primary (or even the sole) source of correlation between all pairs of studied molecules. The results of our study affirm the existence of specific and common genetic pathways that commonly determine the greater part of the circulating variation of these molecules.

  16. Solena amplexicaulis induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis in hepatocarcinoma cells and HUVECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Xu, Yuan Yuan; Jiang, He Fei; Yang, Meng; Huang, Qian Hui; Yang, Jie; Hu, Kun; Wei, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (SA) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of dysentery, multiple abscess, gastralgia, urethritis, and eczema in the minority area of China. This study was aimed to examine the cell proliferation inhibitory activity of the SA extract (SACE) and its mechanism of action in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and evaluate its anti-angiogenesis activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC). SACE could inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. FCM analysis showed that SACE could induce G2/M phase arrest, cell apoptosis, the mitochondrial membrane potential loss (ΔΨm) and increase the production of intracellular ROS of HepG2 cells. After treatment with SACE, topical morphological changes of apoptotic body formation, obvious increase of apoptosis-related protein expressions, such as Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-3, PARP-1, and decrease of Bcl-2, procaspase-9 protein expressions were observed at the same time. Moreover, SACE caused the significant inhibition of endothelial cell migration and tube formation in HUVEC cells. The results suggested that SACE could act as an angiogenesis inhibitor and induce cell apoptosis via a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, SACE could be a potent candidate for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer.

  17. Efficient inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and growth by a synthetic peptide blocking S100A4-methionine aminopeptidase 2 interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ochiya

    Full Text Available The prometastatic calcium-binding protein, S100A4, is expressed in endothelial cells, and its downregulation markedly suppresses tumor angiogenesis in a xenograft cancer model. Given that endothelial S100A4 can be a molecular target for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, we addressed here whether synthetic peptide capable of blocking S100A4-effector protein interaction could be a novel antiangiogenic agent. To examine this hypothesis, we focused on the S100A4-binding domain of methionine aminopeptidase 2, an effector protein, which plays a role in endothelial cell growth. Overexpression of the domain in mouse endothelial MSS31 cells reduced DNA synthesis, and the corresponding synthetic peptide (named NBD indeed interacted with S100A4 and inhibited capillary formation in vitro and new blood vessel formation in vivo. Intriguingly, a single intra-tumor administration of the NBD peptide in human prostate cancer xenografts significantly reduced vascularity, resulting in tumor regression. Mechanistically, the NBD peptide enhanced assembly of nonmuscle myosin IIA filaments along with Ser1943 phosphorylation, stimulated formation of focal adhesions without phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, and provoked G1/S arrest of the cell cycle. Altogether, the NBD peptide is a potent inhibitor for tumor angiogenesis, and is the first example of an anticancer peptide drug developed on the basis of an endothelial S100A4-targeted strategy.

  18. Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces human endothelial VEGF and MMP-2 production via transcription factor ZNF580: Novel insights into angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hui-Yan; Wei, Shu-Ping; Xu, Rui-Cheng; Xu, Peng-Xiao; Zhang, Wen-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-induced migration and proliferation of endothelial cells are critical for angiogenesis. C2H2-zinc finger (ZNF) proteins usually play an essential role in altering gene expression and regulating the angiogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a novel human C2H2-zinc finger gene ZNF580 (Gene ID: 51157) is involved in the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells stimulated by S1P. Our study shows that EAhy926 endothelial cells express S1P1, S1P3 and S1P5 receptors. Furthermore, S1P upregulates both ZNF580 mRNA and protein levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. SB203580, the specific inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway, blocks the S1P-induced upregulation of ZNF580. Moreover, overexpression/downexpression of ZNF580 in EAhy926 cells leads to the enhancement/decrease of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression as well as the migration and proliferation of EAhy926 endothelial cells. These results elucidate the important role that ZNF580 plays in the process of migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, which provides a foundation for a novel approach to regulate angiogenesis.

  19. Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces human endothelial VEGF and MMP-2 production via transcription factor ZNF580: Novel insights into angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hui-Yan, E-mail: shy35309@sohu.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical College of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Tianjin 300162 (China); Wei, Shu-Ping, E-mail: weishuping_83@163.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical College of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Tianjin 300162 (China); Xu, Rui-Cheng, E-mail: xu_rc@sohu.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical College of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Tianjin 300162 (China); Xu, Peng-Xiao, E-mail: xupengxiao1228@sina.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical College of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Tianjin 300162 (China); Zhang, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wenchengzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical College of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Tianjin 300162 (China)

    2010-05-07

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-induced migration and proliferation of endothelial cells are critical for angiogenesis. C2H2-zinc finger (ZNF) proteins usually play an essential role in altering gene expression and regulating the angiogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a novel human C2H2-zinc finger gene ZNF580 (Gene ID: 51157) is involved in the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells stimulated by S1P. Our study shows that EAhy926 endothelial cells express S1P1, S1P3 and S1P5 receptors. Furthermore, S1P upregulates both ZNF580 mRNA and protein levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. SB203580, the specific inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway, blocks the S1P-induced upregulation of ZNF580. Moreover, overexpression/downexpression of ZNF580 in EAhy926 cells leads to the enhancement/decrease of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression as well as the migration and proliferation of EAhy926 endothelial cells. These results elucidate the important role that ZNF580 plays in the process of migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, which provides a foundation for a novel approach to regulate angiogenesis.

  20. Inhibition of VEGF: a novel mechanism to control angiogenesis by Withania somnifera's key metabolite Withaferin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanjib; Islam, Md Khirul; Shilpi, Jamil A; Hasan, Shihab

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, or new blood vessel formation from existing one, plays both beneficial and detrimental roles in living organisms in different aspects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a signal protein, well established as key regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. VEGF ensures oxygen supply to the tissues when blood supply is not adequate, or tissue environment is in hypoxic condition. Limited expression of VEGF is necessary, but if it is over expressed, then it can lead to serious disease like cancer. Cancers that have ability to express VEGF are more efficient to grow and metastasize because solid cancers cannot grow larger than a limited size without adequate blood and oxygen supply. Anti-VEGF drugs are already available in the market to control angiogenesis, but they are often associated with severe side-effects like fetal bleeding and proteinuria in the large number of patients. To avoid such side-effects, new insight is required to find potential compounds as anti-VEGF from natural sources. In the present investigation, molecular docking studies were carried out to find the potentiality of Withaferin A, a key metabolite of Withania somnifera, as an inhibitor of VEGF. Molecular Docking studies were performed in DockingServer and SwissDock. Bevacizumab, a commercial anti-VEGF drug, was used as reference to compare the activity of Withaferin A. X-ray crystallographic structure of VEGF, was retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB), and used as drug target protein. Structure of Withaferin A and Bevacizumab was obtained from PubChem and ZINC databases. Molecular visualization was performed using UCSF Chimera. Withaferin A showed favorable binding with VEGF with low binding energy in comparison to Bevacizumab. Molecular Docking studies also revealed potential protein-ligand interactions for both Withaferin A and Bevacizumab. Conclusively our results strongly suggest that Withaferin A is a potent anti-VEGF agent as ascertained by its potential

  1. Human trophoblast-derived hydrogen sulfide stimulates placental artery endothelial cell angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Bao; Feng, Lin; Hodges, Jennifer K; Lechuga, Thomas J; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mainly synthesized by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH), has been implicated in regulating placental angiogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study was to test a hypothesis that trophoblasts synthesize H2S to promote placental angiogenesis. Human choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells expressed both CBS and CTH proteins, while the first trimester villous trophoblast-originated HTR-8/SVneo cells expressed CTH protein only. The H2S producing ability of BeWo cells was significantly inhibited by either inhibitors of CBS (carboxymethyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride, CHH) or CTH (β-cyano-L-alanine, BCA) and that in HTR-8/SVneo cells was inhibited by CHH only. H2S donors stimulated cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in ovine placental artery endothelial cells (oFPAECs) as effectively as vascular endothelial growth factor. Co-culture with BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo cells stimulated oFPAEC migration, which was inhibited by CHH or BCA in BeWo but CHH only in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Primary human villous trophoblasts (HVT) were more potent than trophoblast cell lines in stimulating oFPAEC migration that was inhibited by CHH and CHH/BCA combination in accordance with its H2S synthesizing activity linked to CBS and CTH expression patterns. H2S donors activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), and extracellular signal-activated kinase 1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1, MAPK3/1) in oFPAECs. H2S donor-induced NOS3 activation was blocked by AKT1 but not MAPK3/1 inhibition. In keeping with our previous studies showing a crucial role of AKT1, MAPK3/1, and NOS3/NO in placental angiogenesis, these data show that trophoblast-derived endogenous H2S stimulates placental angiogenesis, involving activation of AKT1, NOS3/NO, and MAPK3/1. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study

  2. N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-mediated ING4 downregulation contributed to the angiogenesis of transformed human gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yansu; Fu, Rui; Xu, Mengdie; Huang, Yefei; Sun, Guixiang; Xu, Lichun

    2018-04-15

    Angiogenesis is associated with the progression and mortality of gastric cancer. Epidemiological evidences indicate that long-term N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) exposure predominantly contributes to the mortality of gastric cancer. Therefore, further reduced mortality of gastric cancer demands to explore the exact mechanisms of NOCs induced angiogenesis. As a tumor suppressor gene, inhibitor of growth protein 4 (ING4) plays an important role in pathological angiogenesis. In this study, we will investigate ING4 expression level in human gastric epithelial cells after the long-term low dose exposure of N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and the pathological impact of MNNG-reduced ING4 on angiogenesis of transformed cells. The soft agar colony formation assay, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and wound healing assay were used to evaluate the characteristics of transformed cells. HUVEC growth and tube formation assays were performed to test the angiogenic abilities. EMSA, luciferase reporter gene assay, real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to explore the exact mechanism. By establishing transformed human gastric epithelial cells via chronic low dose treatment, a gradually ING4 downregulation was observed in the later-stage of MNNG-induced cell transformation. Moreover, we demonstrated that MNNG exposure-reduced ING4 expression significantly resulted into aggravating angiogenesis through increasing the phosphorylation level of NF-κB p65 and subsequently DAN binding activity and regulating the expressions of NF-κB p65 downstream pro-angiogenic genes, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our findings provided a significant mechanistic insight into angiogenesis of MNNG-transformed human gastric epithelial cell and supported the concept that ING4 may be a relevant therapeutic target for gastric cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Probiotic yeast inhibits VEGFR signaling and angiogenesis in intestinal inflammation.

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    Xinhua Chen

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb can protect against intestinal injury and tumor formation, but how this probiotic yeast controls protective mucosal host responses is unclear. Angiogenesis is an integral process of inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and required for mucosal remodeling during restitution. The aim of this study was to determine whether Sb alters VEGFR (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling, a central regulator of angiogenesis.HUVEC were used to examine the effects of Sb on signaling and on capillary tube formation (using the ECMatrix™ system. The effects of Sb on VEGF-mediated angiogenesis were examined in vivo using an adenovirus expressing VEGF-A(164 in the ears of adult nude mice (NuNu. The effects of Sb on blood vessel volume branching and density in DSS-induced colitis was quantified using VESsel GENeration (VESGEN software.1 Sb treatment attenuated weight-loss (p<0.01 and histological damage (p<0.01 in DSS colitis. VESGEN analysis of angiogenesis showed significantly increased blood vessel density and volume in DSS-treated mice compared to control. Sb treatment significantly reduced the neo-vascularization associated with acute DSS colitis and accelerated mucosal recovery restoration of the lamina propria capillary network to a normal morphology. 2 Sb inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo in the mouse ear model. 3 Sb also significantly inhibited angiogenesis in vitro in the capillary tube assay in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01. 4 In HUVEC, Sb reduced basal VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in response to VEGF as well as activation of the downstream kinases PLCγ and Erk1/2.Our findings indicate that the probiotic yeast S boulardii can modulate angiogenesis to limit intestinal inflammation and promote mucosal tissue repair by regulating VEGFR signaling.

  4. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates tumor angiogenesis of human pancreatic cancer.

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    Sunamura, Makoto; Duda, Dan G; Ghattas, Maivel H; Lozonschi, Lucian; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Yamauchi, Jun-Ichiro; Matsuno, Seiki; Shibahara, Shigeki; Abraham, Nader G

    2003-01-01

    Angiogenesis is necessary for the continued growth of solid tumors, invasion and metastasis. Several studies clearly showed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in angiogenesis. In this study, we used the vital microscope system, transparent skinfold model, lung colonization model and transduced pancreatic cancer cell line (Panc-1)/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) cells, to precisely analyze, for the first time, the effect of hHO-1 gene on tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our results revealed that HO-1 stimulates angiogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma in severe combined immune deficient mice. Overexpression of human hHO-1 after its retroviral transfer into Panc-1 cells did not interfere with tumor growth in vitro. While in vivo the development of tumors was accelerated upon transfection with hHO-1. On the other hand, inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO) activity by stannous mesoporphyrin was able transiently to delay tumor growth in a dose dependent manner. Tumor angiogenesis was markedly increased in Panc-1/hHO-1 compared to mock transfected and wild type. Lectin staining and Ki-67 proliferation index confirmed these results. In addition hHO-1 stimulated in vitro tumor angiogenesis and increased endothelial cell survival. In a lung colonization model, overexpression of hHO-1 increased the occurrence of metastasis, while inhibition of HO activity by stannous mesoporphyrin completely inhibited the occurrence of metastasis. In conclusion, overexpression of HO-1 genes potentiates pancreatic cancer aggressiveness, by increasing tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis and that the inhibition of the HO system may be of useful benefit for the future treatment of the disease.

  6. Biological and Molecular Effects of Small Molecule Kinase Inhibitors on Low-Passage Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

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    Falko Lange

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-passage cancer cell lines are versatile tools to study tumor cell biology. Here, we have employed four such cell lines, established from primary tumors of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, to evaluate effects of the small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMI vemurafenib, trametinib, perifosine, and regorafenib in an in vitro setting. The mutant BRAF (V600E/V600K inhibitor vemurafenib, but also the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib efficiently inhibited DNA synthesis, signaling through ERK1/2 and expression of genes downstream of ERK1/2 in BRAF mutant cells only. In case of the AKT inhibitor perifosine, three cell lines showed a high or intermediate responsiveness to the drug while one cell line was resistant. The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib inhibited proliferation of all CRC lines with similar efficiency and independent of the presence or absence of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutations. Regorafenib action was associated with broad-range inhibitory effects at the level of gene expression but not with a general inhibition of AKT or MEK/ERK signaling. In vemurafenib-sensitive cells, the antiproliferative effect of vemurafenib was enhanced by the other SMI. Together, our results provide insights into the determinants of SMI efficiencies in CRC cells and encourage the further use of low-passage CRC cell lines as preclinical models.

  7. Hacking macrophage-associated immunosuppression for regulating glioblastoma angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Morales, Renee-Tyler Tan; Qian, Weiyi; Wang, Haoyu; Gagner, Jean-Pierre; Dolgalev, Igor; Placantonakis, Dimitris; Zagzag, David; Cimmino, Luisa; Snuderl, Matija; Lam, Raymond H W; Chen, Weiqiang

    2018-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal primary adult brain tumor and its pathology is hallmarked by distorted neovascularization, diffuse tumor-associated macrophage infiltration, and potent immunosuppression. Reconstituting organotypic tumor angiogenesis models with biomimetic cell heterogeneity and interactions, pro-/anti-inflammatory milieu and extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanics is critical for preclinical anti-angiogenic therapeutic screening. However, current in vitro systems do not accurately mirror in vivo human brain tumor microenvironment. Here, we engineered a three-dimensional (3D), microfluidic angiogenesis model with controllable and biomimetic immunosuppressive conditions, immune-vascular and cell-matrix interactions. We demonstrate in vitro, GL261 and CT-2A GBM-like tumors steer macrophage polarization towards a M2-like phenotype for fostering an immunosuppressive and proangiogenic niche, which is consistent with human brain tumors. We distinguished that GBM and M2-like immunosuppressive macrophages promote angiogenesis, while M1-like pro-inflammatory macrophages suppress angiogenesis, which we coin "inflammation-driven angiogenesis." We observed soluble immunosuppressive cytokines, predominantly TGF-β1, and surface integrin (α v β 3 ) endothelial-macrophage interactions are required in inflammation-driven angiogenesis. We demonstrated tuning cell-adhesion receptors using an integrin (α v β 3 )-specific collagen hydrogel regulated inflammation-driven angiogenesis through Src-PI3K-YAP signaling, highlighting the importance of altered cell-ECM interactions in inflammation. To validate the preclinical applications of our 3D organoid model and mechanistic findings of inflammation-driven angiogenesis, we screened a novel dual integrin (α v β 3 ) and cytokine receptor (TGFβ-R1) blockade that suppresses GBM tumor neovascularization by simultaneously targeting macrophage-associated immunosuppression, endothelial-macrophage interactions, and

  8. Angiogenesis measured by expression of CD34 antigen in lymph nodes of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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    Kazimierz Kuliczkowski

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is important in development, maintenance and progression of haematological malignancies. Some clinical observations have indicated that in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (nHL tumour microvessel density (MVD may correlate with tumour staging and outcome. The aim of the study was to examine relationship between MVD as a parameter of tumour angiogenesis measured by expression of CD34 and the grade of nHL histological malignancy as determined by REAL classification. 40 lymph node samples of patients with newly diagnosed nHL (17 women, 23 men; aged 48-70 yrs, median age 64 yrs; stage III and IV and treated at the Department of Haematology, Wrocław Medical University in 1999-2002 were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. In all the studied cases, sections were incubated with antibodies against CD34. The slides were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and evaluated histopathologically. Patients were divided into two groups according to histological malignancy: indolent nHL (19 patients and aggressive nHL (21 patients. Mean MVD measured by expression of CD34 in aggressive and indolent nHL groups amounted to 19.45 +/- 11.24 vessels/0.375 mm2 and 21.7 +/- 12.4 vessels/0.375 mm2, respectively. Statistical analysis of microvessel staining demonstrated no correlation between tumour MVD and grade of histological malignancy in lymph nodes of nHL patients. Nevertheless, angiogenesis observed in nHL provides rationale for use of angiogenesis inhibitors in lymphoma therapy.

  9. Oxidized LDL-induced angiogenesis involves sphingosine 1-phosphate: prevention by anti-S1P antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaré, Caroline; Trayssac, Magali; Garmy-Susini, Barbara; Mucher, Elodie; Sabbadini, Roger; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Neovascularization occurring in atherosclerotic lesions may promote plaque expansion, intraplaque haemorrhage and rupture. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are atherogenic, but their angiogenic effect is controversial; both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. The angiogenic mechanism of oxLDL is partly understood, but the role of the angiogenic sphingolipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), in this process is not known. Thus, we investigated whether S1P is involved in the oxLDL-induced angiogenesis and whether an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody can prevent this effect. Angiogenesis was assessed by capillary tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) cultured on Matrigel and in vivo by the Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice. Human oxLDL exhibited a biphasic angiogenic effect on HMEC-1; low concentrations were angiogenic, higher concentrations were cytotoxic. The angiogenic response to oxLDL was blocked by the sphingosine kinase (SPHK) inhibitor, dimethylsphingosine, by SPHK1-siRNA and by an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody. Moreover, inhibition of oxLDL uptake and subsequent redox signalling by anti-CD36 and anti-LOX-1 receptor antibodies and by N-acetylcysteine, respectively, blocked SPHK1 activation and tube formation. In vivo, in the Matrigel plug assay, low concentrations of human oxLDL or murine oxVLDL also triggered angiogenesis, which was prevented by i.p. injection of the anti-S1P antibody. These data highlight the role of S1P in angiogenesis induced by oxLDL both in HMEC-1 cultured on Matrigel and in vivo in the Matrigel plug model in mice, and demonstrate that the anti-S1P antibody effectively blocks the angiogenic effect of oxLDL. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Effect of paricalcitol and GcMAF on angiogenesis and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Amato, Marcello; Aterini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, vitamin D is involved in immune defence, cardiovascular function, inflammation and angiogenesis, and these pleiotropic effects are of interested in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Here we investigated the effects of paricalcitol, a nonhypercalcemic vitamin D analogue, on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and signaling, and on angiogenesis. These effects were compared with those of a known inhibitor of angiogenesis pertaining to the vitamin D axis, the vitamin D-binding protein-derived Gc-macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). Since the effects of vitamin D receptor agonists are associated with polymorphisms of the gene coding for the receptor, we measured the effects of both compounds on mononuclear cells harvested from subjects harboring different BsmI polymorphisms. Paricalcitol inhibited mononuclear cell viability with the bb genotype showing the highest effect. GcMAF, on the contrary, stimulated cell proliferation, with the bb genotype showing the highest stimulatory effect. Both compounds stimulated 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation in mononuclear cells with the highest effect on the bb genotype. Paricalcitol and GcMAF inhibited the angiogenesis induced by proinflammatory prostaglandin E1. Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene, known to be associated with the highest responses to vitamin D receptor agonists, are also associated with the highest responses to GcMAF. These results highlight the role of the vitamin D axis in chronic kidney disease, an axis which includes vitamin D, its receptor and vitamin D-binding protein-derived GcMAF.

  11. Folate Deficiency Could Restrain Decidual Angiogenesis in Pregnant Mice

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    Yanli Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of birth defects induced by folate deficiency was focused on mainly in fetal development. Little is known about the effect of folate deficiency on the maternal uterus, especially on decidual angiogenesis after implantation which establishes vessel networks to support embryo development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of folate deficiency on decidual angiogenesis. Serum folate levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence. The status of decidual angiogenesis was examined by cluster designation 34 (CD34 immunohistochemistry and the expression of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, placental growth factor (PLGF, and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2 were also tested. Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL, progesterone (P4, and estradiol (E2 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The folate-deficient mice had a lower folate level and a higher Hcy level. Folate deficiency restrained decidual angiogenesis with significant abnormalities in vascular density and the enlargement and elongation of the vascular sinus. It also showed a reduction in the expressions of VEGFA, VEGFR2, and PLGF. In addition, the serum levels of P4, E2, LH, and PRL were reduced in folate-deficient mice, and the expression of progesterone receptor (PR and estrogen receptor α (ERα were abnormal. These results indicated that folate deficiency could impaire decidual angiogenesis and it may be related to the vasculotoxic properties of Hcy and the imbalance of the reproductive hormone.

  12. Angiogenesis-Related Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Cancer

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    Aristotle Bamias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian Cancer represents the most fatal type of gynecological malignancies. A number of processes are involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, especially within the tumor microenvironment. Angiogenesis represents a hallmark phenomenon in cancer, and it is responsible for tumor spread and metastasis in ovarian cancer, among other tumor types, as it leads to new blood vessel formation. In recent years angiogenesis has been given considerable attention in order to identify targets for developing effective anti-tumor therapies. Growth factors have been identified to play key roles in driving angiogenesis and, thus, the formation of new blood vessels that assist in “feeding” cancer. Such molecules include the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, the platelet derived growth factor (PDGF, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF, and the angiopoietin/Tie2 receptor complex. These proteins are key players in complex molecular pathways within the tumor cell and they have been in the spotlight of the development of anti-angiogenic molecules that may act as stand-alone therapeutics, or in concert with standard treatment regimes such as chemotherapy. The pathways involved in angiogenesis and molecules that have been developed in order to combat angiogenesis are described in this paper.

  13. Myocardial overexpression of TIMP3 after myocardial infarction exerts beneficial effects by promoting angiogenesis and suppressing early proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takawale, Abhijit; Zhang, Pu; Azad, Abul; Wang, Wang; Wang, Xiuhua; Murray, Allan G; Kassiri, Zamaneh

    2017-08-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) results in loss of cardiomyocytes, adverse extracellular matrix (ECM) and structural remodeling, and left ventricular (LV) dilation and dysfunction. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the main regulators of ECM turnover. TIMPs also have MMP-independent functions. TIMP3 levels are reduced in the heart within 24 h of MI in mice. We investigated if overexpression of TIMP3 post-MI limits adverse remodeling and LV dilation and dysfunction. MI was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in 10- to 12-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice, and adenoviral constructs expressing human (h)TIMP3 (Ad-hTIMP3) or no TIMP (Ad-Null) were injected in the peri-infarct zone (5.4 × 10 7 plaque-forming units/heart, 5 injections/heart). Cardiac function assessed by echocardiography showed improved LV physiology and reduced LV dilation after TIMP3 overexpression compared with the Ad-Null-MI group. Post-MI adverse remodeling was attenuated in the Ad-hTIMP3-MI group, as assessed by greater cardiomyocyte density, less infarct expansion, and ECM disruption. TIMP3 overexpression blunted the early rise in proteolytic activities post-MI. A higher density of coronary arteries and a greater number of proliferating endothelial cells were detected in the infarct and peri-infarct regions in the Ad-hTIMP3-MI group compared with the Ad-Null-MI group. In vitro three-dimensional angiogenesis assay confirmed that recombinant TIMP3 promotes angiogenesis in human endothelial cells, although biphasically and in a dose-dependent manner. Intriguingly, overexpression of Ad-hTIMP3 at 10-fold higher concentration had no beneficial effects, consistent with antiangiogenic effects of TIMP3 at higher doses. In conclusion, optimal overexpression of TIMP3 can be a promising therapeutic approach to limit adverse post-MI remodeling by dually inhibiting early proteolysis and promoting angiogenesis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here, we report

  14. Angiogenesis in Schistosoma haematobium-associated urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematei, Anderson; Fernandes, Rúben; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    2017-12-01

    Schistosoma haematobium, a parasitic flatworm that infects more than 100 million people, mostly in the developing world, is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, and is associated with a high incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. During infection, eggs are deposited in the bladder causing an intense inflammatory reaction. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones and is recognized as a key event in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis and spread of malignant lesions. A growing amount of evidence points to angiogenesis playing a key role in schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Thus, identifying biomarkers of this process plays an important role in the study of cancer. Here, we review recent findings on the role of angiogenesis in bladder cancer and the growth factors that induce and assist in their development, particularly SCC of the bladder associated to urogenital schistosomiasis. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Oxalomalate reduces expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in the retinal pigment epithelium and inhibits angiogenesis: Implications for age-related macular degeneration

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    Sung Hwan Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental observations indicate a critical role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, secreted by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, in pathological angiogenesis and the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. RPE-mediated VEGF expression, leading to angiogenesis, is a major signaling mechanism underlying ocular neovascular disease. Inhibiting this signaling pathway with a therapeutic molecule is a promising anti-angiogenic strategy to treat this disease with potentially fewer side effects. Oxalomalate (OMA is a competitive inhibitor of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, which plays an important role in cellular signaling pathways regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of OMA on the expression of VEGF, and the associated underlying mechanism of action, using in vitro and in vivo RPE cell models of AMD. We found that OMA reduced the expression and secretion of VEGF in RPE cells, and consequently inhibited CNV formation. This function of OMA was linked to its capacity to activate the pVHL-mediated HIF-1α degradation in these cells, partly via a ROS-dependent ATM signaling axis, through inhibition of IDH enzymes. These findings reveal a novel role for OMA in inhibiting RPE-derived VEGF expression and angiogenesis, and suggest unique therapeutic strategies for treating pathological angiogenesis and AMD development.

  16. Syndecan-4 shedding impairs macrovascular angiogenesis in diabetes mellitus

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    Li, Ran; Xie, Jun; Wu, Han; Li, Guannan; Chen, Jianzhou; Chen, Qinhua; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao, E-mail: xubiao@medmail.com.cn

    2016-05-20

    Purpose: Syndecan-4 (synd4) is a ubiquitous heparan sulfate proteoglycan cell surface receptor that modulates cell proliferation, migration, mechanotransduction, and endocytosis. The extracellular domain of synd4 sheds heavily in acute inflammation, but the shedding of synd4 in chronic inflammation, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), is still undefined. We investigated the alterations of synd4 endothelial expression in DM and the influence of impaired synd4 signaling on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), diabetic rats, synd4 null mice, and db/db mice. Material and methods: HUVECs were incubated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Western blot analysis was used to determine synd4 protein expression and ELISA was used to detect soluble synd4 fragments. The concentration of synd4 in the aortic endothelia of diabetic rats was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Aortic ring assays were performed to study the process of angiogenesis in the diabetic rats and in synd4 null and db/db mice. Recombinant adenoviruses containing the synd4 gene or null were constructed to enhance synd4 aortic expression in db/db mice. Results: Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of the synd4 extracellular domain in HUVECs, and ELISA detected increased soluble fragments of synd4 in the media. Synd4 endothelial expression in the aortas of diabetic rats was decreased. Aortic ring assay indicated impaired angiogenesis in synd4 null and db/db mice, which was partially reversed by synd4 overexpression in db/db mice. Conclusion: Synd4 shedding from vascular endothelial cells played an important role in the diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis. -- Highlights: •Synd4 shedding from endothelial cells is accelerated under the stimulation of AGEs. •Extracellular domain of synd4 is diminished in the endothelium of DM rats. •Aortic rings of synd4 null mice showed impaired angiogenesis. •Overexpression of synd4 partly rescues macrovascular

  17. Prognostic implication of apoptosis and angiogenesis in cervical uteri cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, Mohamed S.; El Naggar, Mervat; El Deeb, Amany; Khaled, Hussein; Mokhtar, Nadia

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study was performed to investigate the relationship between spontaneous apoptosis and angiogenesis uterine cervix squamous cell carcinoma patients. The prognostic value of each (and both) of these biologic parameters was also tested. Methods and Materials: The pathologic materials of 40 cervical uteri squamous cell carcinoma patients were examined and immunohistochemically stained to determine the tumor angiogenesis (tumor microvascular score), using factor VIII-related antigen, and their tumor apoptotic index (AI), using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method. Three patients were Stage I, 18 were Stage II, 15 were Stage III, and 4 were Stage IV (FIGO classification). All patients were treated with radical radiotherapy and all had follow-up for more than 2 years. Results: The mean AI was 15.1 ± 12.8, with a median of 8.3. The mean tumor microvascular score was 3 9.7 ± 14.4, with a median of 3 8. The patients' age and tumor grade did not seem to significantly affect the prognosis. On the other hand, AI and angiogenesis (tumor microvascular score) were of high prognostic significance. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate for the patients having AI above the median was 78% (confidence interval [CI] 69-87%), compared to 32% (CI 22-42%) for those having AI below the median. The DFS was 18% (CI 9-27%) for patients having an angiogenesis score above the median, while it was 86% (CI 78-94%) for those patients having a score below the median. Conclusion: Determination of both tumor microvascular score and AI can identify patients with the best prognosis of 100% DFS (with low angiogenesis score and high AI). Women with a high score and low AI had the worst prognosis (DFS = 3%, CI 1-5%). Moreover, high AI can compensate partially for the aggressive behavior of tumors showing a high rate of angiogenesis.

  18. An interesting case of angiogenesis in cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is the most common orbital tumor in adult. There is lot of literatures for clinicopathological features of this tumor. These tumors had been studied for the model of angiogenesis in many of the experimental setups. We present a case of 34-year-old male with this tumor in the left eye with computerized tomography evidence. Postsurgical laboratory findings gave interesting evidence of tumor angiogenesis with tumor endothelial cells and sprouting of the small vessels endothelial cells. Podosome rosette could be conceptualized from the characteristic patterns seen in the tumor.

  19. Skeletal Muscle Angiogenesis and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Anna Maria Charlotte K

    mediator of angiogenesis) are reduced in insulin resistant individuals. Exercise training can improve skeletal muscle capillarization and the angiogenic potential and physical activity has also been proven to enhance muscle insulin sensitivity. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated......) or by overexpression of VEGF-A in the tibialis anterior muscle (transfection; study II) and the effect of the increased muscle capillarization on muscle insulin sensitivity was examined. In study I skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by administering an α1-adrenergic antagonist (prazosin) to healthy...

  20. Rapamycin enhances the anti-angiogenesis and anti-proliferation ability of YM155 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kong-Liang; Wang, Yu-Fan; Qin, Jia-Ruo; Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong-Tao; Zheng, Li-Wu; Li, Ming-Hua; Kong, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hong-Yu

    2017-06-01

    YM155, a small molecule inhibitor of survivin, has been studied in many tumors. It has been shown that YM155 inhibited oral squamous cell carcinoma through promoting apoptosis and autophagy and inhibiting proliferation. It was found that YM155 also inhibited the oral squamous cell carcinoma-mediated angiogenesis through the inactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, played an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. In our study, cell proliferation assay, transwell assay, tube formation assay, and western blot assay were used to investigate the synergistic effect of rapamycin on YM155 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Either in vitro or in vivo, rapamycin and YM155 exerted a synergistic effect on the inhibition of survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor through mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Overall, our results revealed that low-dose rapamycin strongly promoted the sensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to YM155.

  1. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 as Regulator of Angiogenesis in Rheumatoid Arthritis - Therapeutic Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, J.; Molema, G.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis ( RA). The site and extent of inflammation and subsequent joint destruction in the rheumatoid synovium is dependent on the development of new vasculature. Inhibition of angiogenesis,

  2. Anti-VEGF strategies - from antibodies to tyrosine kinase inhibitors: background and clinical development in human cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Korpanty, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels supporting tumour growth and metastasis) is a result of complex interactions between the tumour and the surrounding microenvironment. Targeting tumours with anti-angiogenic therapy remains an exciting area of preclinical and clinical studies. Although many significant advances have been achieved and the clinical use of anti-angiogenic drugs is now well recognized in many solid malignancies, these therapies fall short of their anticipated clinical benefits and leave many unanswered questions like exact mechanism of action, patients\\' selection and monitoring response to anti-angiogenic drugs. Tumour angiogenesis is controlled by complex signaling cascades and ongoing research into molecular mechanisms of tumour angiogenesis not only helps to understand its basic mechanisms but hopefully will identify new therapeutic targets. In 2012, both monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors remain the two major clinically useful therapeutic options that interfere with tumour angiogenesis in many solid malignancies.

  3. Protein Structure in Context: The Molecular Landscape of Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Span, Elise A.; Goodsell, David S.; Ramchandran, Ramani; Franzen, Margaret A.; Herman, Tim; Sem, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    A team of students, educators, and researchers has developed new materials to teach cell signaling within its cellular context. Two nontraditional modalities are employed: physical models, to explore the atomic details of several of the proteins in the angiogenesis signaling cascade, and illustrations of the proteins in their cellular environment,…

  4. Angiogenesis in calcium phosphate scaffolds by inorganic copper ion release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barralet, Jake E.; Gbureck, Uwe; Habibovic, Pamela; Vorndran, Elke; Gerard, Catherine; Doillon, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis in a tissue-engineered device may be induced by incorporating growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]), genetically modified cells, and/or vascular cells. It represents an important process during the formation and repair of tissue and is essential for

  5. Angiogenesis in urinary bladder carcinoma as defined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Among the patients with bladder cancer, a group is still at risk of disease recurrence, progression, and death from their cancer after curative treatment. Angiogenesis is a crucial pathogenic mechanism for this type of urothelial carcinoma and is a potential therapeutic target. Objectives: To quantify tumor ...

  6. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are downregulated in primary breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneberg, E-M; Legler, D F; Hoefer, M M; Öhlschlegel, C; Steininger, H; Füzesi, L; Beer, G M; Dupont-Lampert, V; Otto, F; Senn, H-J; Fürstenberger, G

    2009-01-01

    Background: Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are considered to play key roles in tumour growth, progression and metastasis. However, targeting tumour angiogenesis in clinical trials showed only modest efficacy. We therefore scrutinised the concept of tumour angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by analysing the expression of crucial markers involved in these processes in primary breast cancer. Methods: We analysed the expression of angiogenic, lymphangiogenic or antiangiogenic factors, their respective receptors and specific markers for endothelial and lymphendothelial cells by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in primary breast cancer and compared the expression profiles to non-cancerous, tumour-adjacent tissues and breast tissues from healthy women. Results: We found decreased mRNA amounts of major angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors in tumour compared to healthy tissues, whereas antiangiogenic factors were upregulated. Concomitantly, angiogenic and lymphangiogenic receptors were downregulated in breast tumours. This antiangiogenic, antilymphangiogenic microenvironment was even more pronounced in aggressive tumours and accompanied by reduced amounts of endothelial and lymphatic endothelial cell markers. Conclusion: Primary breast tumours are not a site of highly active angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Selection for tumour cells that survive with minimal vascular supply may account for this observation in clinical apparent tumours. PMID:19672262

  7. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only histopathologically but also ...

  8. Aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesildal, F; Aydin, F N; Deveci, S; Tekin, S; Aydin, I; Mammadov, R; Fermanli, O; Avcu, F; Acikel, C H; Ozgurtas, T

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aspartame on angiogenesis in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and wound-healing models as well as in vitro 2,3-bis-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and tube formation assays. In CAM assay, aspartame increased angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, aspartame has significantly increased vessel proliferation (p aspartame group had better healing than control group, and this was statistically significant at p aspartame on human umbilical vein endothelial cells on XTT assay in vitro, but it was not statistically significant; and there was no antiangiogenic effect of aspartame on tube formation assay in vitro. These results provide evidence that aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo; so regular use may have undesirable effect on susceptible cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Visualising and quantifying angiogenesis in metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Jakobsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumour growth and dissemination. We have recently shown that blood vessel density, determined by image analysis based on microRNA-126 (miRNA-126) in situ hybridization (ISH) in the primary tumours of metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC), is predictive...

  10. In vivo monitoring of angiogenesis within Matrigel chambers using MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, David; Ley, Carsten Dan; Søgaard, Lise Vejby

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical process in tumour development and presents an important target for the development of a range of anti-cancer agents . To assess the in vivo efficacy of these ‘angiotherapeutics', a simple and reproducible in vivo model would be of significant value. Here we show...

  11. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factors and angiogenesis in eye disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witmer, A. N.; Vrensen, G. F. J. M.; van Noorden, C. J. F.; Schlingemann, R. O.

    2003-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of growth factors controls pathological angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability in important eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this review is to develop new insights

  13. Protein Kinase B (Akt) Promotes Pathological Angiogenesis in Murine Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Tian, Xiao-Feng; Rong, Jun-Bo; Liu, Dan; Yi, Guo-Guo; Tan, Qian

    2011-01-01

    Akt, or protein kinase B, is an important signaling molecule that modulates many cellular processes such as cell growth, survival, and metabolism. However, the vivo roles and effectors of Akt in retinal angiogenesis are not explicitly clear. We therefore detected the expression of Akt using Western blotting or RT-PCR technologies in an animal model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, and investigated the effects of recombinant Akt on inhibiting vessels loss and Akt inhibitor on suppressing experimental retinal neovascularization in this model. We showed that in the hyperoxic phase of oxygen-induced retinopathy, the expression of Akt was greatly suppressed. In the hypoxic phase, the expression of Akt was increased dramatically. No significant differences were found in normoxic groups. Compared with control groups, administration of the recombinant Akt in the first phase of retinopathy markedly reduced capillary-free areas, while the administration of the Akt inhibitor in the second phase of retinopathy significantly decreased retinal neovascularization but capillary-free areas. These results indicate that Akt play a critical role in the pathological process (vessels loss and neovascularization) of mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, which may provide a valubale therapeutic tool for ischemic-induced retinal diseases

  14. Angiogenesis dysregulation in term asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Shaikh

    Full Text Available Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns.This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns.Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns.Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns.These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery.

  15. Angiogenesis Dysregulation in Term Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Henna; Boudes, Elodie; Khoja, Zehra; Shevell, Michael; Wintermark, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns. Design/Methods Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns. Results Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns. Conclusions These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery. PMID:25996847

  16. [Syk inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-07-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in the University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is known to be essential for the various physiological functions, especially in hematopoietic lineage cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Recently, novel Syk inhibitors were developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure, and function of Syk, and then describe the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. Furthermore, we will introduce our findings of the adaptor protein 3BP2 (c-Abl SH3 domain-binding protein-2), as a novel target of Syk.

  17. Syk inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Kazuyasu; Kimura, Yukihiro; Honjo, Chisato; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-01-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is most highly expressed by haemopoietic cells and known to play crucial roles in the signal transduction through various immunoreceptors of the adaptive immune response. However, recent reports demonstrate that Syk also mediates other biological functions, such as innate immune response, osteoclast maturation, platelet activation and cellular adhesion. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Because of its critical roles on the cellular functions, the development of Syk inhibitors for clinical use has been desired. Although many candidate compounds were produced, none of them had progressed to clinical trials. However, novel Syk inhibitors were finally developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure and function of Syk, and then the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. In addition, we will introduce our research focused on the functions of Syk on Dectin-1-mediated mast cell activation.

  18. Intra-laboratory validation of a human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay for testing angiogenesis modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jertta-Riina Sarkanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed standardized human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay was intra-laboratory validated to verify that the method is reliable and relevant for routine testing of modulators of angiogenesis e.g. pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. This assay is based on the earlier published method but it was improved and shown to be more sensitive and rapid than the previous assay. The performance of the assay was assessed by using 6 reference chemicals, which are widely used pharmaceuticals that inhibit angiogenesis: acetyl salicylic acid, erlotinib, 2-methoxyestradiol, levamisole, thalidomide, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. In the intra-laboratory validation, the sensitivity of the assay (upper and lower limits of detection and linearity of response in tubule formation, batch to batch variation in tubule formation between different Master cell bank batches, and precision as well as the reliability of the assay (reproducibility and repeatability were tested. The pre-set acceptance criteria for the intra-laboratory validation study were met. The relevance of the assay in man was investigated by comparing the effects of reference chemicals and their concentrations to the published human data. The comparison showed a good concordance, which indicates that this human cell based angiogenesis model predicts well the effects in man and has the potential to be used to supplement and/or replace of animal tests.

  19. The controversial origin of pericytes during angiogenesis - Implications for cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis and cell-based therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocki, Anna; Beyer, Sebastian; Jung, Friedrich; Raghunath, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Pericytes reside within the basement membrane of small vessels and are often in direct cellular contact with endothelial cells, fulfilling important functions during blood vessel formation and homeostasis. Recently, these pericytes have been also identified as mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells, and especially their specialized subpopulation of pericytes, represent promising candidates for therapeutic angiogenesis applications, and have already been widely applied in pre-clinical and clinical trials. However, cell-based therapies of ischemic diseases (especially of myocardial infarction) have not resulted in significant long-term improvement. Interestingly, pericytes from a hematopoietic origin were observed in embryonic skin and a pericyte sub-population expressing leukocyte and monocyte markers was described during adult angiogenesis in vivo. Since mesenchymal stem cells do not express hematopoietic markers, the latter cell type might represent an alternative pericyte population relevant to angiogenesis. Therefore, we sourced blood-derived angiogenic cells (BDACs) from monocytes that closely resembled hematopoietic pericytes, which had only been observed in vivo thus far. BDACs displayed many pericytic features and exhibited enhanced revascularization and functional tissue regeneration in a pre-clinical model of critical limb ischemia. Comparison between BDACs and mesenchymal pericytes indicated that BDACs (while resembling hematopoietic pericytes) enhanced early stages of angiogenesis, such as endothelial cell sprouting. In contrast, mesenchymal pericytes were responsible for blood vessel maturation and homeostasis, while reducing endothelial sprouting.Since the formation of new blood vessels is crucial during therapeutic angiogenesis or during integration of implants into the host tissue, hematopoietic pericytes (and therefore BDACs) might offer an advantageous addition or even an alternative for cell-based therapies.

  20. Identification of selective inhibitors of RET and comparison with current clinical candidates through development and validation of a robust screening cascade [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RET (REarranged during Transfection is a receptor tyrosine kinase, which plays pivotal roles in regulating cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, migration and chemotaxis. Activation of RET is a mechanism of oncogenesis in medullary thyroid carcinomas where both germline and sporadic activating somatic mutations are prevalent.   At present, there are no known specific RET inhibitors in clinical development, although many potent inhibitors of RET have been opportunistically identified through selectivity profiling of compounds initially designed to target other tyrosine kinases. Vandetanib and cabozantinib, both multi-kinase inhibitors with RET activity, are approved for use in medullary thyroid carcinoma, but additional pharmacological activities, most notably inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor - VEGFR2 (KDR, lead to dose-limiting toxicity. The recent identification of RET fusions present in ~1% of lung adenocarcinoma patients has renewed interest in the identification and development of more selective RET inhibitors lacking the toxicities associated with the current treatments.   In an earlier publication [Newton et al, 2016; 1] we reported the discovery of a series of 2-substituted phenol quinazolines as potent and selective RET kinase inhibitors. Here we describe the development of the robust screening cascade which allowed the identification and advancement of this chemical series.  Furthermore we have profiled a panel of RET-active clinical compounds both to validate the cascade and to confirm that none display a RET-selective target profile.

  1. Response of rat prostate and lung tumors to ionizing radiation combined with the angiogenesis inhibitor AMCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kal, H.B. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Medical Centre Utrecht (Netherlands); Struikmans, H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Medical Centre Utrecht (Netherlands); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Medical Centre Haaglanden, Westeinde Hospital, The Hague (Netherlands); Gebbink, M.F.B.G.; Voest, E.E. [Dept. of Medical Oncology, Univ. Medical Centre Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-12-01

    Aim: to determine whether radiation combined with Trans-4-AminoMethyl cyclohexane carboxylic acid (AMCA, or tranexamic acid, Cyklokapron registered) results in a better tumor response than radiation alone. Materials and methods: we evaluated the responses of the L44 lung tumor in BN rats and R3327-MATLyLu (MLL) prostate tumor in Copenhagen rats, to single and fractionated X-ray doses with and without AMCA (1.5 g/kg). Tumors were grown subcutaneously in the flank of the animal. AMCA was administered subcutaneously twice daily for at least 2 weeks. Response to treatment was evaluated according to excess growth delay and specific growth delay. Results: L44 and MLL tumors treated with AMCA only experienced a non-significant growth delay. L44 tumors treated with 4 daily dose fractions of 2.5 Gy had a significant excess and specific growth delay when treated with AMCA, the enhancement ratio was 1.6-1.7. The enhancement ratio based on the calculated excess biologically effective dose of the linear-quadratic concept was 1.4-1.5. MLL tumors treated with a single dose of 20 Gy and AMCA had no significant excess growth delay. Conclusion: the enhancement ratio of 1.4-1.7 for the L44 tumor, but not for the MLL tumor, due to AMCA treatment, indicates that AMCA may potentiate the anti-tumor effect of ionizing radiation in distinct tumor types. (orig.)

  2. Response of rat prostate and lung tumors to ionizing radiation combined with the angiogenesis inhibitor AMCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal, H.B.; Struikmans, H.; Gebbink, M.F.B.G.; Voest, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: to determine whether radiation combined with Trans-4-AminoMethyl cyclohexane carboxylic acid (AMCA, or tranexamic acid, Cyklokapron registered) results in a better tumor response than radiation alone. Materials and methods: we evaluated the responses of the L44 lung tumor in BN rats and R3327-MATLyLu (MLL) prostate tumor in Copenhagen rats, to single and fractionated X-ray doses with and without AMCA (1.5 g/kg). Tumors were grown subcutaneously in the flank of the animal. AMCA was administered subcutaneously twice daily for at least 2 weeks. Response to treatment was evaluated according to excess growth delay and specific growth delay. Results: L44 and MLL tumors treated with AMCA only experienced a non-significant growth delay. L44 tumors treated with 4 daily dose fractions of 2.5 Gy had a significant excess and specific growth delay when treated with AMCA, the enhancement ratio was 1.6-1.7. The enhancement ratio based on the calculated excess biologically effective dose of the linear-quadratic concept was 1.4-1.5. MLL tumors treated with a single dose of 20 Gy and AMCA had no significant excess growth delay. Conclusion: the enhancement ratio of 1.4-1.7 for the L44 tumor, but not for the MLL tumor, due to AMCA treatment, indicates that AMCA may potentiate the anti-tumor effect of ionizing radiation in distinct tumor types. (orig.)

  3. The Clinical Development of Thalidomide as an Angiogenesis Inhibitor Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dlaiani, Danai

    2002-01-01

    ...), assessed by wound healing and peri-operative bleeding; 2) Efficacy of neo-adjuvant thalidomide treatment, as measured by the rate of tumor reduction I PSA decline while on thalidomide therapy; 3...

  4. Potential role of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and transforming growth factor (TGFβ1) in the regulation of ovarian angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Wei; Ke, Ferng-Chun; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lee, Ming-Ting; Hwang, Jiuan-Jiuan

    2011-06-01

    Angiogenesis occurs during ovarian follicle development and luteinization. Pituitary secreted FSH was reported to stimulate the expression of endothelial mitogen VEGF in granulosa cells. And, intraovarian cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 is known to facilitate FSH-induced differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells. This intrigues us to investigate the potential role of FSH and TGFβ1 regulation of granulosa cell function in relation to ovarian angiogenesis. Granulosa cells were isolated from gonadotropin-primed immature rats and treated once with FSH and/or TGFβ1 for 48 h, and the angiogenic potential of conditioned media (granulosa cell culture conditioned media; GCCM) was determined using an in vitro assay with aortic ring embedded in collagen gel and immunoblotting. FSH and TGFβ1 increased the secreted angiogenic activity in granulosa cells (FSH + TGFβ1 > FSH ≈ TGFβ1 >control) that was partly attributed to the increased secretion of pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and PDGF-B. This is further supported by the evidence that pre-treatment with inhibitor of VEGF receptor-2 (Ki8751) or PDGF receptor (AG1296) throughout or only during the first 2-day aortic ring culture period suppressed microvessel growth in GCCM-treated groups, and also inhibited the FSH + TGFβ1-GCCM-stimulated release of matrix remodeling-associated gelatinase activities. Interestingly, pre-treatment of AG1296 at late stage suppressed GCCM-induced microvessel growth and stability with demise of endothelial and mural cells. Together, we provide original findings that both FSH and TGFβ1 increased the secretion of VEGF and PDGF-B, and that in turn up-regulated the angiogenic activity in rat ovarian granulosa cells. This implicates that FSH and TGFβ1 play important roles in regulation of ovarian angiogenesis during follicle development. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. PEG-b-PCL polymeric nano-micelle inhibits vascular angiogenesis by activating p53-dependent apoptosis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Dong, Qinglei; Shen, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Haide; Luo, Xianglin; Liao, Xiaoling; Wang, Guixue

    Micro/nanoparticles could cause adverse effects on cardiovascular system and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease-related events. Nanoparticles prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)- b -poly( ε -caprolactone) (PCL), namely PEG- b -PCL, a widely studied biodegradable copolymer, are promising carriers for the drug delivery systems. However, it is unknown whether polymeric PEG- b -PCL nano-micelles give rise to potential complications of the cardiovascular system. Zebrafish were used as an in vivo model to evaluate the effects of PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle on cardiovascular development. The results showed that PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle caused embryo mortality as well as embryonic and larval malformations in a dose-dependent manner. To determine PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle effects on embryonic angiogenesis, a critical process in zebrafish cardiovascular development, growth of intersegmental vessels (ISVs) and caudal vessels (CVs) in flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos using fluorescent stereomicroscopy were examined. The expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (flk1), an angiogenic factor, by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ whole-mount hybridization were also analyzed. PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle decreased growth of ISVs and CVs, as well as reduced flk1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to the inhibitory effects on angiogenesis, PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle exposure upregulated p53 pro-apoptotic pathway and induced cellular apoptosis in angiogenic regions by qPCR and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay. This study further showed that inhibiting p53 activity, either by pharmacological inhibitor or RNA interference, could abrogate the apoptosis and angiogenic defects caused by PEG- b -PCL nano-micelles, indicating that PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle inhibits angiogenesis by activating p53-mediated apoptosis. This study indicates that polymeric PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle could

  6. Angiogenesis for tumor vascular normalization of Endostar on hepatoma 22 tumor-bearing mice is involved in the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyu; Gu, Junfei; Lv, You; Yuan, Jiarui; Yang, Nan; Chen, Juan; Wang, Chunfei; Hou, Xuefeng; Jia, Xiaobin; Feng, Liang; Yin, Guowen

    2018-03-01

    Tumor vascular normalization involved in immune response is beneficial to the chemotherapy of tumors. Recombinant human endostatin (Endostar), an angiogenesis inhibitor, has been demonstrated to be effective in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). However, its vascular normalization in HCC and the role of the immune response in angiogenesis were unclear. In the present study, effects of Endostar on tumor vascular normalization were evaluated in hepatoma 22 (H22) tumor-bearing mice. Endostar was able to inhibit the proliferation and infiltration of tumor cells and improve α-fetoprotein, tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclic adenosine 5'-phosphate levels in the serum of H22-bearing mice, as well as the protein expression levels of the immune factors interferon-γ and cluster of differentiation (CD)86 in liver tissue. Endostar also exhibited more marked downregulation of the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, CD31, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and interleukin-17 during day 3-9 treatment, resulting in short-term normalization of tumor blood vessels. The period of vascular normalization was 3-9 days. The results of the present study demonstrated that Endostar was able to induce the period of vascular normalization, contributing to a more efficacious means of HCC treatment combined with other chemotherapy, and this effect was associated with the immune response. It may be concluded that Endostar inhibited immunity-associated angiogenesis behaviors of vascular endothelial cells in response to HCC. The results of the present study provided more reasonable possibility for the combination therapy of Endostar for the treatment of HCC.

  7. Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg3 combined with gemcitabine on angiogenesis and growth of lung cancer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tai-Guo; Huang, Ying; Cui, Dan-Dan; Huang, Xiao-Bing; Mao, Shu-Hua; Ji, Ling-Ling; Song, Hai-Bo; Yi, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a saponin extracted from ginseng, inhibits angiogenesis. The combination of low-dose chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic inhibitors suppresses growth of experimental tumors more effectively than conventional therapy or anti-angiogenic agent alone. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose gemcitabine combined with ginsenoside Rg3 on angiogenesis and growth of established Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. C57L/6 mice implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma were randomized into the control, ginsenoside Rg3, gemcitabine and combination group. The quality of life and survival of mice were recorded. Tumor volume, inhibitive rate and necrosis rate were estimated. Necrosis of tumor and signals of blood flow as well as dynamic parameters of arterial blood flow in tumors such as peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) were detected by color Doppler ultrasound. In addition, expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and CD31 were observed by immunohistochemstry, and microvessel density (MVD) of the tumor tissues was assessed by CD31 immunohistochemical analysis. Quality of life of mice in the ginsenoside Rg3 and combination group were better than in the control and gemcitabine group. Combined therapy with ginsenoside Rg3 and gemcitabine not only enhanced efficacy on suppression of tumor growth and prolongation of the survival, but also increased necrosis rate of tumor significantly. In addition, the combination treatment could obviously decrease VEGF expression and MVD as well as signals of blood flow and PSV in tumors. Ginsenoside Rg3 combined with gemcitabine may significantly inhibit angiogenesis and growth of lung cancer and improve survival and quality of life of tumor-bearing mice. The combination of chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic drugs may be an innovative and promising therapeutic strategy in the experimental treatment of human lung cancer

  8. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X; Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  9. THE ROLE OF AUTOPHAGY AND ANGIOGENESIS IN COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Rachkovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was a review of available data on the role of autophagy and angiogenesis in the development, progression and prognosis of colorectal cancer. Material and methods. Databases searched were Medline, Cochrane Library and Elibrary. Of 340 studies, 48 were used to write a systematic review. Results. To date, there is a variety of prognostic markers used in the study of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. The review describes the molecular mechanisms of the participation of various proteins of autophagy and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer, and the potential importance of their use in clinical practice is presented. Conclusion. Many of the existing markers can be used not only in assessing the prognosis, but also sensitivity to chemotherapy. However, the contradictory results of studies with respect to certain proteins require further study, validation, and subsequent introduction into practice. 

  10. Regulation of Angiogenesis by Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Mirando

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their canonical roles in translation the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs have developed secondary functions over the course of evolution. Many of these activities are associated with cellular survival and nutritional stress responses essential for homeostatic processes in higher eukaryotes. In particular, six ARSs and one associated factor have documented functions in angiogenesis. However, despite their connection to this process, the ARSs are mechanistically distinct and exhibit a range of positive or negative effects on aspects of endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and survival. This variability is achieved through the appearance of appended domains and interplay with inflammatory pathways not found in prokaryotic systems. Complete knowledge of the non-canonical functions of ARSs is necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying the physiological regulation of angiogenesis.

  11. Angiogenesis in the degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral disc

    OpenAIRE

    David, Gh; Ciurea, AV; Iencean, SM; Mohan, A

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the study is to show the histological and biochemical changes that indicate the angiogenesis of the intervertebral disc in lumbar intervertebral disc hernia and the existence of epidemiological correlations between these changes and the risk factors of lumbar intervertebral disc hernia, as well as the patient's quality of life (QOL). We have studied 50 patients aged between 18 and 73 years old, who have undergone lumbar intervertebral disc hernia surgery, making fibroblast growth ...

  12. Mechanisms of lumen formation during sprouting angiogenesis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gebala, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    During development, vascular networks expand following a process known as sprouting angiogenesis. New vascular branches arise from pre-existing vessels through the coordinated migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, and eventually connect to form new vascular loops. The functionality of these new vessel segments is dependent on the opening of a central lumen to allow perfusion. While mechanisms of lumen formation during the establishment of the primary vasculature by vasculogenesis ...

  13. Effect of the micronutrient iodine in thyroid carcinoma angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Kayla; Nucera, Carmelo

    2016-12-20

    Iodide is a micronutrient essential for thyroid hormone production. The uptake and metabolism of iodide by thyrocytes is crucial to proper thyroid function. Iodide ions are drawn into the thyroid follicular cell via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) in the cell membrane and become integrated into tyrosyl residues to ultimately form thyroid hormones. We sought to learn how an abnormal concentration of iodide within thyrocyte can have significant effects on the thyroid, specifically the surrounding vascular network. Insufficient levels of iodide can lead to increased expression or activity of several pathways, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF protein fuel vessel growth (angiogenesis) and therefore enhances the nutrients available to surrounding cells. Alternatively, normal/surplus iodide levels can have inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Varying levels of iodide in the thyroid can influence thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation and angiogenesis via regulation of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and VEGF-dependent pathway. We have reviewed a number of studies to investigate how the effect of iodide on angiogenic and oxidative stress regulation can affect the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells. The various studies outlined give key insights to the role of iodide in thyroid follicles function and vascular growth, generally highlighting that insufficient levels of iodide stimulate pathways resulting in vascular growth, and viceversa normal/surplus iodide levels inhibit such pathways. Intriguingly, TSH and iodine levels differentially regulate the expression levels of angiogenic factors. All cells, including carcinoma cells, increase uptake of blood nutrients, meaning the vascular profile is influential to tumor growth and progression. Importantly, variation in the iodine concentrations also influence BRAF V600E -mediated oncogenic activity and might deregulate tumor proliferation. Although the mechanisms are not well eluted, iodine

  14. Examining cerebral angiogenesis in response to physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Kiersten L; Kay, Jacob J M; Swain, Rodney A

    2014-01-01

    Capillary growth and expansion (angiogenesis) is a prerequisite for many forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. It is commonly observed in both brain and muscle of aerobically exercising animals. As such, several histological methods have been used to quantify capillary density, including perfusion with India ink, various Nissl stains, and immunohistochemistry. In this chapter, we will describe these histological procedures and describe the stereological analysis used to quantify vessel growth in response to aerobic exercise.

  15. An IP-10 (CXCL10)-Derived Peptide Inhibits Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates-Binder, Cecelia C.; Rodgers, Margaret; Jaynes, Jesse; Wells, Alan; Bodnar, Richard J.; Turner, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a critical role in processes such as organ development, wound healing, and tumor growth. It requires well-orchestrated integration of soluble and matrix factors and timely recognition of such signals to regulate this process. Previous work has shown that newly forming vessels express the chemokine receptor CXC receptor 3 (CXCR3) and, activation by its ligand IP-10 (CXCL10), both inhibits development of new vasculature and causes regression of newly formed vessels. To identify and develop new therapeutic agents to limit or reverse pathological angiogenesis, we identified a 21 amino acid fragment of IP-10, spanning the α-helical domain residues 77–98, that mimic the actions of the whole IP-10 molecule on endothelial cells. Treatment of the endothelial cells with the 22 amino acid fragment referred to as IP-10p significantly inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial motility and tube formation in vitro, properties critical for angiogenesis. Using a Matrigel plug assay in vivo, we demonstrate that IP-10p both prevented vessel formation and induced involution of nascent vessels. CXCR3 neutralizing antibody was able to block the inhibitory effects of the IP-10p, demonstrating specificity of the peptide. Inhibition of endothelial function by IP-10p was similar to that described for IP-10, secondary to CXCR3-mediated increase in cAMP production, activation of PKA inhibiting cell migration, and inhibition of VEGF-mediated m-calpain activation. IP-10p provides a novel therapeutic agent that inhibits endothelial cell function thus, allowing for the modulation of angiogenesis. PMID:22815829

  16. Photoacoustic imaging of angiogenesis in subdermal islet transplant sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Pawlick, Rena; Bruni, Antonio; Rafiei, Yasmin; Pepper, Andrew R.; Gala-Lopez, Boris; Choi, Min; Malcolm, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2016-03-01

    Exogenous insulin administration is the mainstay treatment therapy for patients with Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, for select patients, clinical islet transplantation is an alternative therapeutic treatment. In this procedure, islets are transplanted into the hepatic portal vein, and despite improved success within the last decade, obstacles are still associated with this approach. It has been discovered that the subcutaneous space may be an effective alternative site for islet transplantation, and may provide advantages of easy access and potential for simple monitoring. The ability to monitor islet viability and the transplant microenvironment may be key to future success in islet transplantation. A subcutaneous device-less technique has been developed to facilitate angiogenesis in the islet transplant site, however, a method for monitoring the potential engraftment site have yet to be explored fully. Here we demonstrate the ability to track angiogenesis in mice with 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-catheter implant on both sides of the abdomen using a FujiFilm VisualSonics Vevo-LAZR system. Quantitative analysis on vessel densities exhibited gradual vessel growth successfully induced by catheter implantation. Our study demonstrates the ability of employing photoacoustic and micro-ultrasound imaging to track angiogenesis around the catheter site prior to islet transplantation.

  17. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro [Chiba University, Department of Frontier Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Kazama, Toshiki [Chiba University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  18. Dendritic cells regulate angiogenesis associated with liver fibrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sandra M; Piccioni, Flavia; Freitag, Nancy; Tirado-González, Irene; Moschansky, Petra; Lloyd, Rodrigo; Hensel-Wiegel, Karin; Rose, Matthias; Garcia, Mariana G; Alaniz, Laura D; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    During liver fibrogenesis the immune response and angiogenesis process are fine-tuned resulting in activation of hepatic stellate cells that produce an excess of extracellular matrix proteins. Dendritic cells (DC) play a central role modulating the liver immunity and have recently been implicated to favour fibrosis regression; although their ability to influence the development of fibrogenesis is unknown. Therefore, we explored whether the depletion of DC during early stages of liver injury has an impact in the development of fibrogenesis. Using the CD11c.DTR transgenic mice, DC were depleted in two experimental models of fibrosis in vivo. The effect of anti-angiogenic therapy was tested during early stages of liver fibrogenesis. DC depletion accelerates the development of fibrosis and as a consequence, the angiogenesis process is boosted. We observed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic factors together with an enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) bioavailability, mainly evidenced by the decrease of anti-angiogenic VEGF receptor 1 (also known as sFlt-1) levels. Interestingly, fibrogenesis process enhanced the expression of Flt-1 on hepatic DC and administration of sFlt-1 was sufficient to abrogate the acceleration of fibrogenesis upon DC depletion. Thus, DC emerge as novel players during the development of liver fibrosis regulating the angiogenesis process and thereby influencing fibrogenesis.

  19. Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Haisan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS, tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P<0.002. Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments’ variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy.

  20. miR-21 Is Linked to Glioma Angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is the most consistently over-expressed microRNA (miRNA) in malignant gliomas. We have previously reported that miR-21 is upregulated in glioma vessels and subsets of glioma cells. To better understand the role of miR-21 in glioma angiogenesis and to characterize miR-21......-localized with the hypoxia- and angiogenesis-associated markers HIF-1α (p=0.0020) and VEGF (p=0.0096), whereas the putative miR-21 target, PTEN, was expressed independently of miR-21. Expression of stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2 and CD133 was not associated with miR-21. In six glioblastoma cultures, miR-21 did not correlate...... with the six markers. These findings suggest that miR-21 is linked to glioma angiogenesis, that miR-21 is unlikely to regulate PTEN, and that miR-21-positive tumor cells do not possess stem cell characteristics....

  1. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J; Wiegand, Stanley J; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L; Brenner, Robert M; Giudice, Linda C; Nayak, Nihar R

    2008-10-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2-neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.

  2. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kazama, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  3. Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and angiogenesis have emerged as two pivotal events in cancer progression. Curcumin has been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials of cancer prevention due to its favorable toxicity profile. However, the possible involvement of curcumin in the EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer remains unclear. This study found that curcumin inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-induced migration and EMT-related morphological changes in A549 and PC-9 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with curcumin blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of Akt, mTOR, and S6. These effects mimicked that of c-Met inhibitor SU11274 or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin treatment. c-Met gene overexpression analysis further demonstrated that curcumin suppressed lung cancer cell EMT by inhibiting c-Met/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, we found that curcumin also significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis and reduced migration and tube formation of HGF-treated HUVEC. Finally, in the experimental mouse model, we showed that curcumin inhibited HGF-stimulated tumor growth and induced an increase in E-cadherin expression and a decrease in vimentin, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that curcumin could inhibit HGF-promoted EMT and angiogenesis by targeting c-Met and blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways.

  4. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer via PI3K/AKT signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yunliang; Wu, Congshan; Ma, Jianxia; Yang, Yu; Man, Xiaohua; Wu, Hongyu; Li, Shude

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is closely associated with the progression of various types of cancers, but its role in pancreatic carcinogenesis is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of TLR4 in the angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The culture supernatant (conditioned medium) of PANC-1 cells after appropriate treatment was used for the treatment of HUVECs. The proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs were assessed by MTT, Transwell and Matrigel, respectively. In pancreatic cancer tissues, TLR4, VEGF and CD31 were upregulated as determined by immunohistochemistry and the expression of TLR4 and VEGF was positively correlated with microvessel density as detected by CD31 staining. Activation of TLR4 signaling by LPS in PANC-1 cells resulted in increased VEGF and phosphorylation of AKT, which were abolished by TLR4 silencing with siRNA and PI3K/AKT signaling inhibitor LY294002. The conditioned medium from PANC-1 cells treated with LY294002 or transfected with TRL4 siRNA reduced the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs. In contrast, the conditioned medium from PANC-1 cells treated with LPS stimulated the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs, which was however significantly inhibited by pretreatment of PANC-1 cells with LY294002 or transfection with TRL4 siRNA. Our findings suggest TLR4 may promote angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer by activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to induce VEGF expression.

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 Pathway Correlates with VEGF Expression in Head and Neck Cancer. Implications for Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Gallo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the role of COX-2 pathway in 35 head and neck cancers (HNCs by analyzing COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in relation to tumor angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis. COX-2 activity was also correlated to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF mRNA and protein expression. COX-2 mRNA and protein expression was higher in tumor samples than in normal mucosa. PGE2 levels were higher in the tumor front zone in comparison with tumor core and normal mucosa (P<0001. Specimens from patients with lymph node metastasis exhibited higher COX-2 protein expression (P=.0074, PGEZ levels (P=.0011 and microvessel density (P<.0001 than specimens from patients without metastasis. A significant correlation between COX-2 and tumor vascularization (rs=0.450, P=.007 as well as between COX-2 and microvessel density with VEGF expression in tumor tissues was found (rs=0.450, P=.007; rs=0.620, P=.0001, respectively. The induction of COX-2 mRNA and PGE2 synthesis by EGF and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS in A-431 and SCC-9 cell lines, resulted in an increase in VEGF mRNA and protein production. Indomethacin and celecoxib reversed the EGF- and LPS-dependent COX-2, VEGF, and PGE2 increases. This study suggests a central role of COX-2 pathway in HNC angiogenesis by modulating VEGF production and indicates that COX-2 inhibitors may be useful in HNC treatment.

  6. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer via PI3K/AKT signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yunliang; Wu, Congshan [Department of Gastroenterology, Lianyungang Ganyu People’s Hospital, Ganyu, Jiangsu (China); Ma, Jianxia, E-mail: yz_mjx@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Yu [Department of Gastroenterology, Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Man, Xiaohua; Wu, Hongyu; Li, Shude [Department of Gastroenterology, Changhai Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-10-01

    Deregulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is closely associated with the progression of various types of cancers, but its role in pancreatic carcinogenesis is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of TLR4 in the angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The culture supernatant (conditioned medium) of PANC-1 cells after appropriate treatment was used for the treatment of HUVECs. The proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs were assessed by MTT, Transwell and Matrigel, respectively. In pancreatic cancer tissues, TLR4, VEGF and CD31 were upregulated as determined by immunohistochemistry and the expression of TLR4 and VEGF was positively correlated with microvessel density as detected by CD31 staining. Activation of TLR4 signaling by LPS in PANC-1 cells resulted in increased VEGF and phosphorylation of AKT, which were abolished by TLR4 silencing with siRNA and PI3K/AKT signaling inhibitor LY294002. The conditioned medium from PANC-1 cells treated with LY294002 or transfected with TRL4 siRNA reduced the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs. In contrast, the conditioned medium from PANC-1 cells treated with LPS stimulated the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs, which was however significantly inhibited by pretreatment of PANC-1 cells with LY294002 or transfection with TRL4 siRNA. Our findings suggest TLR4 may promote angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer by activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to induce VEGF expression.

  7. PTP1B inhibitor promotes endothelial cell motility by activating the DOCK180/Rac1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Yan, Feng; Ye, Qing; Wu, Xiao; Jiang, Fan

    2016-04-07

    Promoting endothelial cell (EC) migration is important not only for therapeutic angiogenesis, but also for accelerating re-endothelialization after vessel injury. Several recent studies have shown that inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) may promote EC migration and angiogenesis by enhancing the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) signalling. In the present study, we demonstrated that PTP1B inhibitor could promote EC adhesion, spreading and migration, which were abolished by the inhibitor of Rac1 but not RhoA GTPase. PTP1B inhibitor significantly increased phosphorylation of p130Cas, and the interactions among p130Cas, Crk and DOCK180; whereas the phosphorylation levels of focal adhesion kinase, Src, paxillin, or Vav2 were unchanged. Gene silencing of DOCK180, but not Vav2, abrogated the effects of PTP1B inhibitor on EC motility. The effects of PTP1B inhibitor on EC motility and p130Cas/DOCK180 activation persisted in the presence of the VEGFR2 antagonist. In conclusion, we suggest that stimulation of the DOCK180 pathway represents an alternative mechanism of PTP1B inhibitor-stimulated EC motility, which does not require concomitant VEGFR2 activation as a prerequisite. Therefore, PTP1B inhibitor may be a useful therapeutic strategy for promoting EC migration in cardiovascular patients in which the VEGF/VEGFR functions are compromised.

  8. The vascular permeabilizing factors histamine and serotonin induce angiogenesis through TR3/Nur77 and subsequently truncate it through thrombospondin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liuliang; Zhao, Dezheng; Xu, Jianfeng; Ren, Xianghui; Terwilliger, Ernest F.; Parangi, Sareh; Lawler, Jack; Dvorak, Harold F.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in cancer and in many other human diseases. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), the best known angiogenic factor, was originally discovered as a potent vascular permeability factor (VPF), suggesting that other vascular permeabilizing agents, such as histamine and serotonin, might also have angiogenic activity. We recently demonstrated that, like VEGF-A, histamine and serotonin up-regulate the orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor TR3 (mouse homolog Nur77) and that TR3/Nur77 is essential for their vascular permeabilizing activities. We now report that histamine and serotonin are also angiogenic factors that, at low micromolar concentrations, induce endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. All of these responses are mediated through specific histamine and serotonin receptors, are independent of VEGF-A, and are directly dependent on TR3/Nur77. Initially, the angiogenic response closely resembled that induced by VEGF-A, with generation of “mother” vessels. However, after ∼10 days, mother vessels began to regress as histamine and serotonin, unlike VEGF-A, up-regulated the potent angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1, thereby triggering a negative feedback loop. Thus, histamine and serotonin induce an angiogenic response that fits the time scale of acute inflammation. PMID:23315169

  9. CS5931, a Novel Polypeptide in Ciona savignyi, Represses Angiogenesis via Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CS5931 is a novel polypeptide from Ciona savignyi with anticancer activities. Previous study in our laboratory has shown that CS5931 can induce cell death via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In the present study, we found that the polypeptide could inhibit angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. CS5931 inhibited the proliferation, migration and formation of capillary-like structures of HUVECs (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, CS5931 repressed spontaneous angiogenesis of the zebrafish vessels. Further studies showed that CS5931 also blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF production but without any effect on its mRNA expression. Moreover, CS5931 reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 both on protein and mRNA levels in HUVEC cells. We demonstrated that CS5931 possessed strong anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo, possible via VEGF and MMPs. This study indicates that CS5931 has the potential to be developed as a novel therapeutic agent as an inhibitor of angiogenesis for the treatment of cancer.

  10. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Chia-Hua; Lu, Ta-Jung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  11. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung, E-mail: chchuang@hk.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, Master Program of Biomedical Nutrition, Hungkuang University, 1018 Sec. 6 Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 43302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chia-Hua [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lu, Ta-Jung [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technology and Innovation Management, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hu, Miao-Lin, E-mail: mlhuhu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-15

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  12. Placental growth factor enhances angiogenesis in human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells via PI3K/Akt pathway: Potential implications of inflammation bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yi, E-mail: mondayzy@126.com; Tu, Chuantao, E-mail: tu.chuantao@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Zhao, Yuan, E-mail: zhao.yuan@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Liu, Hongchun, E-mail: liuhch@aliyun.com; Zhang, Shuncai, E-mail: zhang.shuncai@zs-hospital.sh.cn

    2016-02-19

    Background: Angiogenesis plays a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a specific regulator of pathological angiogenesis and is upregulated in the sera of IBD patients. Therefore, the role of PlGF in IBD angiogenesis was investigated here using HIMECs. Methods: The expression of PlGF and its receptors in human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMECs) and inflamed mucosa of IBD patients were examined using quantitative PCR and western blot analysis and the role of PlGF in IBD HIMECs was further explored using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine by PlGF in HIMECs was confirmed by ELISA. The capacity of PlGF to induce angiogenesis in HIMECs was tested through proliferation, cell-migration, matrigel tubule-formation assays and its underlying signaling pathway were explored by western blot analysis of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt phosphorylation. Results: mRNA and protein expression of PlGF and its receptor NRP-1 were significantly increased in IBD HIMECs. Inflamed mucosa of IBD patients also displayed higher expression of PIGF. The production of IL-6 and TNF-α in culture supernatant of HIMECs treated with exogenous recombinant human PlGF-1 (rhPlGF-1) were increased. Furthermore, rhPlGF-1 significantly induced HIMECs migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent manner and knockdown of endogenous PlGF in IBD HIMECs using siRNA substantially reduced these angiogenesis activities. PlGF induced PI3K/Akt phosphorylation in HIMECs and pretreatment of PlGF-stimulated HIMECs with PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) significantly inhibited the PlGF-induced cell migration and tube formation. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the pro-inflammatory and angiogenic effects of PlGF on HIMECs in IBD through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PlGF/PI3K/Akt signaling may serve as a potential therapeutic target for IBD. - Highlights: • Expression of PlGF and its receptor NRP-1

  13. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Qiangsong; Zheng Liduan; Li Bo; Wang Danming; Huang Chuanshu; Matuschak, George M.; Li Dechun

    2006-01-01

    Our previous studies have indicated that hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF) has angiogenic properties in an in vivo matrigel plug model and HIMF upregulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse lungs and cultured lung epithelial cells. However, whether HIMF exerts angiogenic effects through modulating endothelial cell function remains unknown. In this study, mouse aortic rings cultured with recombinant HIMF protein resulted in enhanced vascular sprouting and increased endothelial cell spreading as confirmed by Dil-Ac-LDL uptake, von Willebrand factor and CD31 staining. In cultured mouse endothelial cell line SVEC 4-10, HIMF dose-dependently enhanced cell proliferation, in vitro migration and tubulogenesis, which was not attenuated by SU1498, a VEGFR2/Flk-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Moreover, HIMF stimulation resulted in phosphorylation of Akt, p38 and ERK1/2 kinases in SVEC 4-10 cells. Treatment of mouse aortic rings and SVEC 4-10 cells with LY294002, but not SB203580, PD098059 or U0126, abolished HIMF-induced vascular sprouting and angiogenic responses. In addition, transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), Δp85, blocked HIMF-induced phosphorylation of Akt, endothelial activation and tubulogenesis. These results indicate that HIMF enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells via activation of the PI-3K/Akt pathways

  14. Increased Umbilical Cord PAI-1 Levels in Placental Insufficiency Are Associated with Fetal Hypoxia and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim D. Seferovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, a subset of pregnancies undergoes placental vascular dysregulation resulting in restricted blood flow and fetal hypoxemia. Altered transcription of hypoxic regulated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 has been associated with pregnancy complications and angiogenic regulation. Here we assessed circulating PAI-1 as an indicator of placental insufficiency. Venous umbilical PAI-1 of hypoxemic (VpO2 20 versus 35 mmHg, p<0.0001 placental insufficient pregnancies (resistance index 0.9 versus 0.63, p<0.05 (n=18 was compared to controls (n=12. PAI-1 was increased (~10-fold, p<0.001 and had a positive predictive ratio of 6.7. Further, PAI-1 levels correlated to blood oxygen (r=-0.68, p<0.0001. The plasma’s angiogenic potency measured in vitro was associated with umbilical cord blood PAI-1 levels (r=0.65, p<0.01. This association was attenuated by PAI-1 inhibiting antibody (p<0.001. The results demonstrate PAI-1 as a potential marker of placental insufficiency and identify its close association with pathological hypoxia and angiogenesis in a subset of growth restricted pregnancies.

  15. Diversity of radioprobes targeted to tumor angiogenesis on molecular functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xia; Zhang Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Molecular functional imaging could visualize, characterize, and measure the bio- logical processes including tumor angiogenesis at the molecular and cellular levels in humans and other living systems. The molecular probes labeled by a variety of radionuclide used in the field of the nuclear medicine play pivotal roles in molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis. However, the regulatory role of different probes in tumor angiogenesis has not been systematically illustrated. The current status of tumor angiogenesis imaging with radiolabeled probes of peptide, monoclonal antibody as well as its fragment, especially nanoparticle-based probes to gain insights into the robust tumor angiogenesis development were summarized. It was recognized that only the probes such as nanoparticle-based probes, which truly target the tumor vasculature rather than tumor cells because of poor extravasation, are really tumor angiogenesis imaging agent. The research of molecular probe targeted to angiogenesis would meet its flourish just after the outstanding improvements in the in vivo stability and biocompatibility, tumor-targeting efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of tumor angiogenesis imaging probes are made. Translation to clinical applications will also be critical for the maximize benefits of these novel agents. The future of tumor angiogenesis imaging lies in liable imaging probes and multiple imaging modalities, imaging of protein-protein interactions, and quantitative molecular imaging. (authors)

  16. Angiogenesis is induced by airway smooth muscle strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Zucker, Stanley; Lin, Richard Z; Vaday, Gayle G; Panettieri, Reynold A; Foda, Hussein D

    2007-10-01

    Angiogenesis is an important feature of airway remodeling in both chronic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airways in those conditions are exposed to excessive mechanical strain during periods of acute exacerbations. We recently reported that mechanical strain of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) led to an increase in their proliferation and migration. Sustained growth in airway smooth muscle in vivo requires an increase in the nutritional supply to these muscles, hence angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that cyclic mechanical strain of HASM produces factors promoting angiogenic events in the surrounding vascular endothelial cells. Our results show: 1) a significant increase in human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) proliferation, migration, and tube formation following incubation in conditioned media (CM) from HASM cells exposed to mechanical strain; 2) mechanical strain of HASM cells induced VEGF expression and release; 3) VEGF neutralizing antibodies inhibited the proliferation, migration, and tube formations of HMVEC-L induced by the strained airway smooth muscle CM; 4) mechanical strain of HASM induced a significant increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA and protein, a transcription factor required for VEGF gene transcription; and 5) mechanical strain of HASM induced HIF-1alpha/VEGF through dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ERK pathways. In conclusion, exposing HASM cells to mechanical strain induces signal transduction pathway through PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK pathways that lead to an increase in HIF-1alpha, a transcription factor required for VEGF expression. VEGF release by mechanical strain of HASM may contribute to the angiogenesis seen with repeated exacerbation of asthma and COPD.

  17. Angiogenesis concept in odontogenic keratocyst: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia Sadri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Recent reports have indicated that angiogenesis possibly affects the biologic behavior of the lesions. Aim: Given the different clinical behaviors of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the concept of angiogenesis in pathogenesis and clinical behavior of OKC. Setting and Design: This experimental study was carried out on 22 and 24 samples of OKCs and dentigerous cysts (DCs, respectively. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was approached using CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibodies. The expression of VEGF was first reported by determining the counts of stained cells, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, followed by the percentage of stained cells in each sample based on a 0–2 scoring system. The counts of CD34+ cells were reported in each group in the form of means ± standard deviations. In addition, the patterns of blood vessels in the samples prepared from the walls of both cysts were evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test, Chi-squared test, and t-test were used for analysis of data, and statistical significance was defined at p < 0.05. Results: The expression percentage and scores of VEGF and the mean expression rate of CD34 were significantly higher in OKCs than DCs (p = 0.045, 0.000, and < 0.001. No significant difference was detected in the vascular patterns of these lesions (p = 0.58. Finally, there was a strong correlation between the expressions of the two markers in the samples (Correlation coefficient = 0.766. Conclusion: The present results indicate the angiogenesis may play an important role in the pathogenesis and the unique clinical behavior of OKC.

  18. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis: The potential for engineering bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Kanczler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The repair of large bone defects remains a major clinical orthopaedic challenge. Bone is a highly vascularised tissue reliant on the close spatial and temporal connection between blood vessels and bone cells to maintain skeletal integrity. Angiogenesis thus plays a pivotal role in skeletal development and bone fracture repair. Current procedures to repair bone defects and to provide structural and mechanical support include the use of grafts (autologous, allogeneic or implants (polymeric or metallic. These approaches face significant limitations due to insufficient supply, potential disease transmission, rejection, cost and the inability to integrate with the surrounding host tissue.The engineering of bone tissue offers new therapeutic strategies to aid musculoskeletal healing. Various scaffold constructs have been employed in the development of tissue-engineered bone; however, an active blood vessel network is an essential pre-requisite for these to survive and integrate with existing host tissue. Combination therapies of stem cells and polymeric growth factor release scaffolds tailored to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis are under evaluation and development actively to stimulate bone regeneration. An understanding of the cellular and molecular interactions of blood vessels and bone cells will enhance and aid the successful development of future vascularised bone scaffold constructs, enabling survival and integration of bioengineered bone with the host tissue. The role of angiogenic and osteogenic factors in the adaptive response and interaction of osteoblasts and endothelial cells during the multi step process of bone development and repair will be highlighted in this review, with consideration of how some of these key mechanisms can be combined with new developments in tissue engineering to enable repair and growth of skeletal fractures. Elucidation of the processes of angiogenesis, osteogenesis and tissue engineering strategies offer

  19. Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts promotes angiogenesis in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Wallace

    Full Text Available Tumor fibroblasts are active partners in tumor progression, but the genes and pathways that mediate this collaboration are ill-defined. Previous work demonstrates that Ets2 function in stromal cells significantly contributes to breast tumor progression. Conditional mouse models were used to study the function of Ets2 in both mammary stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Conditional inactivation of Ets2 in stromal fibroblasts in PyMT and ErbB2 driven tumors significantly reduced tumor growth, however deletion of Ets2 in epithelial cells in the PyMT model had no significant effect. Analysis of gene expression in fibroblasts revealed a tumor- and Ets2-dependent gene signature that was enriched in genes important for ECM remodeling, cell migration, and angiogenesis in both PyMT and ErbB2 driven-tumors. Consistent with these results, PyMT and ErbB2 tumors lacking Ets2 in fibroblasts had fewer functional blood vessels, and Ets2 in fibroblasts elicited changes in gene expression in tumor endothelial cells consistent with this phenotype. An in vivo angiogenesis assay revealed the ability of Ets2 in fibroblasts to promote blood vessel formation in the absence of tumor cells. Importantly, the Ets2-dependent gene expression signatures from both mouse models were able to distinguish human breast tumor stroma from normal stroma, and correlated with patient outcomes in two whole tumor breast cancer data sets. The data reveals a key function for Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts in signaling to endothelial cells to promote tumor angiogenesis. The results highlight the collaborative networks that orchestrate communication between stromal cells and tumor cells, and suggest that targeting tumor fibroblasts may be an effective strategy for developing novel anti-angiogenic therapies.

  20. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  1. Brassinosteroids inhibit in vitro angiogenesis in human endothelial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rárová, L.; Zahler, S.; Liebl, J.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Sedlák, David; Bartůněk, Petr; Kohout, Ladislav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 13 (2012), s. 1502-1509 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Angiogenesis * Human umbilical vein endothelial cells * Migration Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.803, year: 2012

  2. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.; Byrne, H. M.; Chen, T.; Estrella, V.; Alarcó n, T.; Lapin, A.; Gatenby, R. A.; Gillies, R. J.; Lloyd, M. C.; Maini, P. K.; Reuss, M.; Owen, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  3. Bone marrow-derived cells are differentially involved in pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, He [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Otani, Atsushi, E-mail: otan@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Oishi, Akio; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2010-01-08

    Purpose: Bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to play roles in angiogenesis. Although these cells have been shown to promote angiogenesis, it is not yet clear whether these cells affect all types of angiogenesis. This study investigated the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in pathological and physiological angiogenesis in the murine retina. Materials and methods: The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used as a retinal angiogenesis model in newborn mice. To block the influence of bone marrow-derived cells, the mice were irradiated with a 4-Gy dose of radiation from a {sup 137}Cs source. Irradiation was performed in four different conditions with radio dense 2-cm thick lead disks; (1) H group, the head were covered with these discs to protect the eyes from radiation; (2) A group, all of the body was covered with these discs; (3) N group, mice were completely unshielded; (4) C group, mice were put in the irradiator but were not irradiated. On P17, the retinal areas showing pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis were measured and compared to the retinas of nonirradiated mice. Results: Although irradiation induced leukocyte depletion, it did not affect the number of other cell types or body weight. Retinal nonperfusion areas were significantly larger in irradiated mice than in control mice (P < 0.05), indicating that physiological angiogenesis was impaired. However, the formation of tuft-like angiogenesis processes was more prominent in the irradiated mice (P < 0.05), indicating that pathological angiogenesis was intact. Conclusions: Bone marrow-derived cells seem to be differentially involved in the formation of physiological and pathological retinal vessels. Pathological angiogenesis in the murine retina does not require functional bone marrow-derived cells, but these cells are important for the formation of physiological vessels. Our results add a new insight into the pathology of retinal angiogenesis and bolster the hypothesis that

  4. Bone marrow-derived cells are differentially involved in pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, He; Otani, Atsushi; Oishi, Akio; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to play roles in angiogenesis. Although these cells have been shown to promote angiogenesis, it is not yet clear whether these cells affect all types of angiogenesis. This study investigated the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in pathological and physiological angiogenesis in the murine retina. Materials and methods: The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used as a retinal angiogenesis model in newborn mice. To block the influence of bone marrow-derived cells, the mice were irradiated with a 4-Gy dose of radiation from a 137 Cs source. Irradiation was performed in four different conditions with radio dense 2-cm thick lead disks; (1) H group, the head were covered with these discs to protect the eyes from radiation; (2) A group, all of the body was covered with these discs; (3) N group, mice were completely unshielded; (4) C group, mice were put in the irradiator but were not irradiated. On P17, the retinal areas showing pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis were measured and compared to the retinas of nonirradiated mice. Results: Although irradiation induced leukocyte depletion, it did not affect the number of other cell types or body weight. Retinal nonperfusion areas were significantly larger in irradiated mice than in control mice (P < 0.05), indicating that physiological angiogenesis was impaired. However, the formation of tuft-like angiogenesis processes was more prominent in the irradiated mice (P < 0.05), indicating that pathological angiogenesis was intact. Conclusions: Bone marrow-derived cells seem to be differentially involved in the formation of physiological and pathological retinal vessels. Pathological angiogenesis in the murine retina does not require functional bone marrow-derived cells, but these cells are important for the formation of physiological vessels. Our results add a new insight into the pathology of retinal angiogenesis and bolster the hypothesis that bone

  5. Anti-angiogenesis effect of the novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiping; Arita, Makoto; Zhang, Qiang; Saban, Daniel R; Chauhan, Sunil K; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N; Dana, Reza

    2009-10-01

    Resolvins and lipoxins are lipid mediators generated from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids that are the first dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving signals identified in the resolution phase of inflammation. Here the authors investigated the potential of aspirin-triggered lipoxin (LX) A4 analog (ATLa), resolving (Rv) D1, and RvE1, in regulating angiogenesis in a murine model. ATLa and RvE1 receptor expression was tested in different corneal cell populations by RT-PCR. Corneal neovascularization (CNV) was induced by suture or micropellet (IL-1 beta, VEGF-A) placement. Mice were then treated with ATLa, RvD1, RvE1, or vehicle, subconjunctivally at 48-hour intervals. Infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages was quantified after immunofluorescence staining. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, VEGFs, and VEGFRs were analyzed by real-time PCR. CNV was evaluated intravitally and morphometrically. The receptors for LXA4, ALX/Fpr-rs-2 and for RvE1, ChemR23 were each expressed by epithelium, stromal keratocytes, and infiltrated CD11b(+) cells in corneas. Compared to the vehicle-treated eye, ATLa-, RvD1-, and RvE1-treated eyes had reduced numbers of infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages and reduced mRNA expression levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGFR2. Animals treated with these mediators had significantly suppressed suture-induced or IL-1 beta-induced hemangiogenesis (HA) but not lymphangiogenesis. Interestingly, only the application of ATLa significantly suppressed VEGF-A-induced HA. ATLa, RvE1, and RvD1 all reduce inflammatory corneal HA by early regulation of resolution mechanisms in innate immune responses. In addition, ATLa directly inhibits VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis and is the most potent inhibitor of NV among this new genus of dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators.

  6. Mechanical strain stimulates vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance molecules of embryonic stem cells through elevation of intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifpanah, Fatemeh; Behr, Sascha; Wartenberg, Maria; Sauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells may be regulated by mechanical strain. Herein, signaling molecules underlying mechanical stimulation of vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance cues were investigated in ES cell-derived embryoid bodies. Treatment of embryoid bodies with 10% static mechanical strain using a Flexercell strain system significantly increased CD31-positive vascular structures and the angiogenesis guidance molecules plexinB1, ephrin B2, neuropilin1 (NRP1), semaphorin 4D (sem4D) and robo4 as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) as evaluated by Western blot and real time RT-PCR. In contrast ephrin type 4 receptor B (EphB4) expression was down-regulated upon mechanical strain, indicating an arterial-type differentiation. Robo1 protein expression was modestly increased with no change in mRNA expression. Mechanical strain increased intracellular calcium as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Mechanical strain-induced vasculogenesis was abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor VAS2870, upon chelation of intracellular calcium by BAPTA as well as upon siRNA inactivation of ephrin B2, NRP1 and robo4. BAPTA blunted the strain-induced expression of angiogenic growth factors, the increase in NO and ROS as well as the expression of NRP1, sem4D and plexinB1, whereas ephrin B2, EphB4 as well as robo1 and robo4 expression were not impaired. Mechanical strain stimulates vasculogenesis of ES cells by the intracellular messengers ROS, NO and calcium as well as by upregulation of angiogenesis guidance molecules and the angiogenic growth factors VEGF, FGF-2 and PDGF-BB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Angiogenesis in calcium phosphate scaffolds by inorganic copper ion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barralet, Jake; Gbureck, Uwe; Habibovic, Pamela; Vorndran, Elke; Gerard, Catherine; Doillon, Charles J

    2009-07-01

    Angiogenesis in a tissue-engineered device may be induced by incorporating growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]), genetically modified cells, and=or vascular cells. It represents an important process during the formation and repair of tissue and is essential for nourishment and supply of reparative and immunological cells. Inorganic angiogenic factors, such as copper ions, are therefore of interest in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their low cost, higher stability, and potentially greater safety compared with recombinant proteins or genetic engineering approaches. The purpose of this study was to compare tissue responses to 3D printed macroporous bioceramic scaffolds implanted in mice that had been loaded with either VEGF or copper sulfate. These factors were spatially localized at the end of a single macropore some 7 mm from the surface of the scaffold. Controls without angiogenic factors exhibited only poor tissue growth within the blocks; in contrast, low doses of copper sulfate led to the formation of microvessels oriented along the macropore axis. Further, wound tissue ingrowth was particularly sensitive to the quantity of copper sulfate and was enhanced at specific concentrations or in combination with VEGF. The potential to accelerate and guide angiogenesis and wound healing by copper ion release without the expense of inductive protein(s) is highly attractive in the area of tissue-engineered bone and offers significant future potential in the field of regenerative biomaterials.

  8. MicroRNA-9 Couples Brain Neurogenesis and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Madelaine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the developing brain, neurons expressing VEGF-A and blood vessels grow in close apposition, but many of the molecular pathways regulating neuronal VEGF-A and neurovascular system development remain to be deciphered. Here, we show that miR-9 links neurogenesis and angiogenesis through the formation of neurons expressing VEGF-A. We found that miR-9 directly targets the transcription factors TLX and ONECUTs to regulate VEGF-A expression. miR-9 inhibition leads to increased TLX and ONECUT expression, resulting in VEGF-A overexpression. This untimely increase of neuronal VEGF-A signal leads to the thickening of blood vessels at the expense of the normal formation of the neurovascular network in the brain and retina. Thus, this conserved transcriptional cascade is critical for proper brain development in vertebrates. Because of this dual role on neural stem cell proliferation and angiogenesis, miR-9 and its downstream targets are promising factors for cellular regenerative therapy following stroke and for brain tumor treatment.

  9. Abnormalities in the Regulators of Angiogenesis in Patients with Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUMMERS, LAURA K.; HALL, AMY; WIGLEY, FREDRICK M.; SIMONS, MICHAEL

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine plasma levels of regulators of angiogenesis in patients with scleroderma and to correlate those levels with manifestations of scleroderma-related vascular disease. Methods Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), endostatin, pro-MMP-1, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), and FGF-4 were examined by ELISA in a cross-sectional study of 113 patients with scleroderma and 27 healthy controls. Simple and multivariate regression models were used to look for associations between factor levels and clinical disease characteristics. Results There were marked differences in the levels of pro-angiogenic growth factors between patients with scleroderma and controls, with significant elevations of VEGF, PDGF, FGF-2, and PlGF among patients with scleroderma (p scleroderma patients compared to controls (MMP-9 and pro-MMP-1) (p scleroderma, but had a positive correlation with right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) as measured by echocardiogram (p scleroderma (p scleroderma. The levels of some factors correlate with measures of vascular disease among patients with scleroderma. Dysregulated angiogenesis may play a role in the development of scleroderma vascular disease. PMID:19228661

  10. Uncaria rhynchophylla induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Do-Young; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jae-Dong; Cho, Eun-Mi; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Yang, Ha-Ru; Cho, Yoon-Je; Kim, Kang-Il; Kim, Deog-Yoon; Park, Dong-Suk

    2005-12-01

    Angiogenesis consists of the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells, and angiogenic factors and matrix protein interactions modulate this process. The aim of this study was to determine the angiogenic properties of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Uncaria rhynchophylla significantly enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Neutralization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by monoclonal antibody suppressed the Uncaria rhynchophylla stimulatory effect on proliferation. In addition, Uncaria rhynchophylla significantly increased chemotactic-migration on gelatin and tubular structures on Matrigel of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, Uncaria rhynchophylla dose-dependently increased VEGF, and bFGF gene expression and protein secretion of HUVEC. The angiogenic activity of Uncaria rhynchophylla was confirmed using an in vivo Matrigel angiogenesis model, showing promotion of blood vessel formation. These results suggest that Uncaria rhynchophylla could potentially used to accelerate vascular wound healing or to promote the growth of collateral blood vessel in ischemic tissues.

  11. BAG3 controls angiogenesis through regulation of ERK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, A; Festa, M; Basile, A; Rosati, A; Pascale, M; Florenzano, F; Nori, S L; Nicolin, V; Di Benedetto, M; Vecchione, M L; Arra, C; Barbieri, A; De Laurenzi, V; Turco, M C

    2012-12-13

    BAG3 is a co-chaperone of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, is expressed in many cell types upon cell stress, however, its expression is constitutive in many tumours. We and others have previously shown that in neoplastic cells BAG3 exerts an anti-apoptotic function thus favoring tumour progression. As a consequence we have proposed BAG3 as a target of antineoplastic therapies. Here we identify a novel role for BAG3 in regulation of neo-angiogenesis and show that its downregulation results in reduced angiogenesis therefore expanding the role of BAG3 as a therapeutical target. In brief we show that BAG3 is expressed in endothelial cells and is essential for the interaction between ERK and its phosphatase DUSP6, as a consequence its removal results in reduced binding of DUSP6 to ERK and sustained ERK phosphorylation that in turn determines increased levels of p21 and p15 and cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase.

  12. Angiogenesis in Balb/c mice under beta-carotene supplementation in diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razny, U.; Polus, P.; Kiec-wilk, B.; Wator, L.; Hartwich, J.; Keijer, J.

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing ones. The most important steps in angiogenesis include detachment, proliferation, migration, homing and differentiation of vascular wall cells, which are mainly endothelial cells and their progenitors. The study focused on the

  13. Human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovich, Sasha; Kim, Younghee; Mizutani, Takeshi; Yasuma, Reo; Tudisco, Laura; Cicatiello, Valeria; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Kerur, Nagaraj; Hirano, Yoshio; Baffi, Judit Z; Tarallo, Valeria; Li, Shengjian; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Arpitha, Parthasarathy; Fowler, Benjamin J; Wright, Charles B; Apicella, Ivana; Greco, Adelaide; Brunetti, Arturo; Ruvo, Menotti; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Nozaki, Miho; Ijima, Ryo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Ambati, Balamurali K; Leusen, Jeanette HW; Langdon, Wallace Y; Clark, Michael R; Armour, Kathryn L; Bruhns, Pierre; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gelfand, Bradley D; De Falco, Sandro; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis is implicated in diseases affecting nearly 10% of the world's population. The most widely used anti-angiogenic drug is bevacizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets human VEGFA. Although bevacizumab does not recognize mouse Vegfa, it inhibits angiogenesis in

  14. Effects of amelogenins on angiogenesis-associated processes of endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almqvist, S; Kleinman, H K; Werthén, M

    2011-01-01

    To study the effects of an amelogenin mixture on integrin-dependent adhesion, DNA synthesis and apoptosis of cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and angiogenesis in an organotypic assay.......To study the effects of an amelogenin mixture on integrin-dependent adhesion, DNA synthesis and apoptosis of cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and angiogenesis in an organotypic assay....

  15. Endothelial-Rac1 is not required for tumor angiogenesis unless alphavbeta3-integrin is absent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela D'Amico

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell migration is an essential aspect of tumor angiogenesis. Rac1 activity is needed for cell migration in vitro implying a requirement for this molecule in angiogenesis in vivo. However, a precise role for Rac1 in tumor angiogenesis has never been addressed. Here we show that depletion of endothelial Rac1 expression in adult mice, unexpectedly, has no effect on tumor growth or tumor angiogenesis. In addition, repression of Rac1 expression does not inhibit VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in vivo or ex vivo, nor does it affect chemotactic migratory responses to VEGF in 3-dimensions. In contrast, the requirement for Rac1 in tumor growth and angiogenesis becomes important when endothelial beta3-integrin levels are reduced or absent: the enhanced tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis and VEGF-mediated responses in beta3-null mice are all Rac1-dependent. These data indicate that in the presence of alphavbeta3-integrin Rac1 is not required for tumor angiogenesis.

  16. Angiogenesis is not impaired in connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) knock-out mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Esther J.; Roestenberg, Peggy; Ehlken, Christoph; Lambert, Vincent; van Treslong-de Groot, Henny Bloys; Lyons, Karen M.; Agostini, Hans-Jürgen T.; Rakic, Jean-Marie; Klaassen, Ingeborg; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2007-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family of growth factors. CTGF is important in scarring, wound healing, and fibrosis. It has also been implicated to play a role in angiogenesis, in addition to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the eye, angiogenesis and

  17. Evaluation of Functionalized Porous Titanium Implants for Enhancing Angiogenesis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Roland

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Implant constructs supporting angiogenesis are favorable for treating critically-sized bone defects, as ingrowth of capillaries towards the center of large defects is often insufficient. Consequently, the insufficient nutritional supply of these regions leads to impaired bone healing. Implants with specially designed angiogenic supporting geometry and functionalized with proangiogenic cytokines can enhance angiogenesis. In this study, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF and High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1 were used for incorporation into poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL-coated porous titanium implants. Bioactivity of released factors and influence on angiogenesis of functionalized implants were evaluated using a migration assay and angiogenesis assays. Both implants released angiogenic factors, inducing migration of endothelial cells. Also, VEGF-functionalized PCL-coated titanium implants enhanced angiogenesis in vitro. Both factors were rapidly released in high doses from the implant coating during the first 72 h.

  18. ASDAS, BASDAI and different treatment responses and their relation to biomarkers of inflammation, cartilage and bone turnover in patients with axial spondyloarthritis treated with TNFα inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Garnero, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relation between ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS), Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) and treatment response and biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), YKL-40), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial...... spondyloarthritis initiating tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) inhibitor therapy....

  19. ASDAS, BASDAI and different treatment responses and their relation to biomarkers of inflammation, cartilage and bone turnover in patients with axial spondyloarthritis treated with TNF{alpha} inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Garnero, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relation between ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS), Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) and treatment response and biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), YKL-40), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial...... spondyloarthritis initiating tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor therapy....

  20. Pre-clinical evaluation of small molecule LOXL2 inhibitors in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Joan; Lucas, Morghan C; Leonte, Lidia Elena

    2017-01-01

    inhibitor in the MDA-MB-231 human model of breast cancer. We confirmed a functional role for LOXL2 activity in the progression of primary breast cancer. Inhibition of LOXL2 activity inhibited the growth of primary tumors and reduced primary tumor angiogenesis. Dual inhibition of LOXL2 and LOX showed...... a greater effect and also led to a lower overall metastatic burden in the lung and liver. Our data provides the first evidence to support a role for LOXL2 specific small molecule inhibitors as a potential therapy in breast cancer....

  1.  The role of metalloproteinases in modification of extracellular matrix in invasive tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Fink

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of endopeptydases which recquire a zinc ion at their active site, for proteolityc activity. There are six members of the MMP family: matrilysins, collagenases, stromelysins, gelatinases, membrane MMPs and other MMPs. Activity of MMPs is regulated at the level of gene transcription, mRNA stability, zymogene proteolitic activation, inhibition of an active enzyme and MMP degradation. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs are main intracellular inhibitors of MMPs. Host cells can be stimulated by tumor cells to produce MMPs by secreted interleukins, interferons, growth factors and an extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN. MMPs are produced by tumor cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, polimorphonuclear neutrophiles (PMNs and endothelial cells (ECs. MMPs affect many stages of tumor development, facilitating its growth through promoting tumor cells proliferation, invasion and migration, new blood vessels formation and blocking tumor cells apoptosis. MMPs can promote tumor development in several ways. ECM degradation results in release of peptide growth factors. Growth factors linked with cell surface or binding proteins can also be liberated by MMPs. MMPs can indirectly regulate integrin signalling or cleave E-cadherins, facilitating cell migration. MMPs support metastasis inducing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. MMP also support transendothelial migration. MMPs support angiogenesis by releasing pro-angiogenic factors and degrading ECM to support ECs migration. Cell surface growth factor receptors are also cleaved by MMPs, which results in inhibition of tumor development, so is release of anti-angiogenic factors from ECM. 

  2. VEGF selectively induces Down syndrome critical region 1 gene expression in endothelial cells: a mechanism for feedback regulation of angiogenesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.-G; Duh, Elia J.

    2004-01-01

    The Down syndrome critical region 1 (DSCR1) gene (also known as MCIP1, Adapt78) encodes a regulatory protein that binds to calcineurin catalytic A subunit and acts as a regulator of the calcineurin-mediated signaling pathway. We show in this study that DSCR1 is greatly induced in endothelial cells in response to VEGF, TNF-α, and A23187 treatment, and that this up-regulation is inhibited by inhibitors of the calcineurin-NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) signaling pathway as well as by PKC inhibition and a Ca 2+ chelator. We hypothesized that the up-regulation of DSCR1 gene expression in endothelial cells could act as an endogenous feedback inhibitor for angiogenesis by regulating the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. Our transient transfection analyses confirm that the overexpression of DSCR1 abrogates the up-regulation of reporter gene expression driven by both the cyclooxygenase 2 and DSCR1 promoters in response to stimulators. Our results indicate that DSCR1 up-regulation may represent a potential molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of angiogenic genes activated by the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway in endothelial cells

  3. Transcriptional changes associated with resistance to inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed using metaanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, Sidra; Javed, Qamar; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    EGFR is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in healthy cells, but in tumors it activates downstream signaling pathways, causing proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Consequently, EGFR is targeted in cancers using reversible, irreversible or antibody inhibitors. Unfortunately, tumors develop inhibitor resistance by mutations or overexpressing EGFR, or its ligand, or activating secondary, EGFR-independent pathways. Here we present a global metaanalysis comparing transcriptional profiles from matched pairs of EGFR inhibitor-sensitive vs. -resistant cell lines, using 15 datasets comprising 274 microarrays. We also analyzed separately pairs of cell lines derived using reversible, irreversible or antibody inhibitors. The metaanalysis identifies commonalities in cell lines resistant to EGFR inhibitors: in sensitive cell lines, the ontological categories involving the ErbB receptors pathways, cell adhesion and lipid metabolism are overexpressed; however, resistance to EGFR inhibitors is associated with overexpression of genes for ErbB receptors-independent oncogenic pathways, regulation of cell motility, energy metabolism, immunity especially inflammatory cytokines biosynthesis, cell cycle and responses to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. Specifically in Gefitinib-resistant cell lines, the immunity-associated genes are overexpressed, whereas in Erlotinib-resistant ones so are the mitochondrial genes and processes. Unexpectedly, lines selected using EGFR-targeting antibodies overexpress different gene ontologies from ones selected using kinase inhibitors. Specifically, they have reduced expression of genes for proliferation, chemotaxis, immunity and angiogenesis. This metaanalysis suggests that ‘combination therapies’ can improve cancer treatment outcomes. Potentially, use of mitochondrial blockers with Erlotinib, immunity blockers with Gefitinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitors with antibody inhibitors, may have better chance of avoiding

  4. Curcumin and turmeric attenuate arsenic-induced angiogenesis in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Panayotis; Varman, Aarthi; Simpson-Durand, Cindy; Thorpe, Jessica; Ramalingam, Satish; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Houchen, Courtney; Ihnat, Michael; Anant, Shrikant; Ramanujam, Rama P

    2010-01-01

    Trivalent arsenic [As(III)] is currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of chronic and acute leukemias. However, As(III) has also demonstrated damaging effects on human health, including development of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Further, As(III) is a potent angiogenic agent. In this context, curcumin, an active ingredient in the dietary agent turmeric, has demonstrated potent antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties. In this report, we have shown that both curcumin and turmeric inhibit expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells exposed to As(III). Further, in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay model, treatment with low As(III) concentrations results in extensive increase in blood vessel density, which, however, is reduced in the presence of curcumin or turmeric. Collectively, the findings reported here strongly suggest that turmeric and curcumin can dramatically attenuate the process of angiogenesis induced by low As(III) concentrations.

  5. Coupling growth-factor engineering with nanotechnology for therapeutic angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Roy, Rituparna; Soni, Shivani; Harfouche, Rania; Vasudevan, Pooja R; Holmes, Oliver; de Jonge, Hugo; Rowe, Arthur; Paraskar, Abhimanyu; Hentschel, Dirk M; Chirgadze, Dimitri; Blundell, Tom L; Gherardi, Ermanno; Mashelkar, Raghunath A; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2010-08-03

    Therapeutic angiogenesis is an emerging paradigm for the management of ischemic pathologies. Proangiogenic Therapy is limited, however, by the current inability to deliver angiogenic factors in a sustained manner at the site of pathology. In this study, we investigated a unique nonglycosylated active fragment of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, 1K1, which acts as a potent angiogenic agent in vitro and in a zebrafish embryo and a murine matrigel implant model. Furthermore, we demonstrate that nanoformulating 1K1 for sustained release temporally alters downstream signaling through the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, and amplifies the angiogenic outcome. Merging protein engineering and nanotechnology offers exciting possibilities for the treatment of ischemic disease, and furthermore allows the selective targeting of downstream signaling pathways, which translates into discrete phenotypes.

  6. Metastatic papillary craniopharyngioma: case study and study of tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaci, Lhan; Kurtkaya-Yapicier, Ozlem; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Sav, Aydin; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Vidal, Sergio; Kovacs, Kalman; Scheithauer, Bernd W.

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of suprasellar papillary craniopharyngioma metastatic to the temporoparietal region 2 years after its initial resection. The literature documents examples of craniopharyngioma recurrences along the surgical tract, as well as remote ipsi- and contralateral metastases via cerebrospinal fluid seeding. Ours is the second report of a craniopharyngioma of papillary type to exhibit metastatic behavior. The tumor spread opposite the side of craniotomy. Although a rare occurrence, it confirms the limited capacity of histologically benign craniopharyngiomas to undergo meningeal seeding, likely the result of surgical manipulation. Immunohistochemical demonstration of increased microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, as well as a high vascular endothelial growth receptor (VEGFR2) signal by in situ hybridization, suggests that tumor vascularity facilitated angiogenesis and may have been involved in the establishment and growth of the metastatic deposit. PMID:11916504

  7. Aloe Gel Enhances Angiogenesis in Healing of Diabetic Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djanggan Sargowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic micro and macroangiophathy lead to the incident of diabetic foot ulcers characterized by an increased number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs and decreased function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. This fact is correlated with ischemia and diabetic wound healing failure. Aloe vera gel is known to be able to stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and activity by enhancing nitric oxide (NO production as a result of nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzyme activity. Aloe vera is a potential target to enhancing angiogenesis in wound healing. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the major role of Aloe vera gel in wound healing of diabetic ulcers by increasing the level of EPCs, VEGF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, as well as by reducing the level of CECs involved in angiogenesis process of diabetic ulcers healing. METHODS: The experimental groups was divided into five subgroups consisting of non diabetic wistar rats, diabetic rats without oral administration of aloe gel, and treatment subgroup (diabetic rats with 30, 60 and 120 mg/day of aloe gel doses for 14 days. All subgroups were wounded and daily observation was done on the wounds areas. Measurement of the number of EPCs (CD34, and CECs (CD45 and CD146 was done by flow cytometry, followed by measurement of VEGF and eNOS expression on dermal tissue by immunohistochemical method on day 0 and day 14 after treatment. The quantitative data were analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and Linear Regression, with a confidence interval 5% and significance level (p<0.05 using SPSS 16 software to compare the difference and correlation between wound diameters, number of EPCs and CECs as well as the levels of VEGF and eNOS. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that aloe gel oral treatment in diabetic wistar rats was able to accelerate the wound healing process. It was shown by significant reduction of wound diameter (0.27±0.02; the

  8. Gene therapy and angiogenesis in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    -blind placebo-controlled trials could not confirm the initial high efficacy of either the growth factor protein or the gene therapy approaches observed in earlier small trials. The clinical studies so far have all been without any gene-related serious adverse events. Future trials will focus on whether...... an improvement in clinical results can be obtained with a cocktail of growth factors or by a combination of gene and stem cell therapy in patients with severe coronary artery disease, which cannot be treated effectively with current treatment strategies....... of VEGF and FGF in patients with coronary artery disease. The initial small and unblinded studies with either recombinant growth factor proteins or genes encoding growth factors were encouraging, demonstrating both clinical improvement and evidence of angiogenesis. However, subsequent larger double...

  9. VEGF promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Naoki; Soeda, Akio; Inagaki, Akihito; Onodera, Masafumi; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Hara, Akira; Kunisada, Takahiro; Mori, Hideki; Iwama, Toru

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in malignant brain tumors, and these CSCs may play a pivotal role in tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and the neurogenesis of neural stem cells. Using CSCs derived from human glioblastomas and a retrovirus expressing VEGF, we examined the effects of VEGF on the properties of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. Although VEGF did not affect the property of CSCs in vitro, the injection of mouse brains with VEGF-expressing CSCs led to the massive expansion of vascular-rich GBM, tumor-associated hemorrhage, and high morbidity, suggesting that VEGF promoted tumorigenesis via angiogenesis. These results revealed that VEGF induced the proliferation of VEC in the vascular-rich tumor environment, the so-called stem cell niche

  10. Essential Role of Endothelial Notch1 in Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbourg, Florian P.; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Radtke, Freddy; Bronson, Roderick T.; Chin, Michael T.; Liao, James K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Notch signaling influences binary cell fate decisions in a variety of tissues. The Notch1 receptor is widely expressed during embryogenesis and is essential for embryonic development. Loss of global Notch1 function results in early embryonic lethality, but the cell type responsible for this defect is not known. Here, we identify the endothelium as the primary target tissue affected by Notch1 signaling. Methods and Results We generated an endothelium-specific deletion of Notch1 using Tie2Cre and conditional Notch1flox/flox mice. Mutant embryos lacking endothelial Notch1 died at approximately embryonic day 10.5 with profound vascular defects in placenta, yolk sac, and embryo proper, whereas heterozygous deletion had no effect. In yolk sacs of mutant embryos, endothelial cells formed a primary vascular plexus indicative of intact vasculogenesis but failed to induce the secondary vascular remodeling required to form a mature network of well-organized large and small blood vessels, which demonstrates a defect in angiogenesis. These vascular defects were also evident in the placenta, where blood vessels failed to invade the placental labyrinth, and in the embryo proper, where defective blood vessel maturation led to pericardial and intersomitic hemorrhage. Enhanced activation of caspase-3 was detected in endothelial and neural cells of mutant mice, which resulted in enhanced apoptotic degeneration of somites and the neural tube. Conclusions These findings recapitulate the vascular phenotype of global Notch1-/- mutants and indicate an essential cell-autonomous role of Notch1 signaling in the endothelium during vascular development. These results may have important clinical implications with regard to Notch1 signaling in adult angiogenesis. PMID:15809373

  11. Molecular profiling of angiogenesis in hypericin mediated photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seyed M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT involves the administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizing drug, which is activated by light of specific wavelength in the presence of molecular oxygen thus generating reactive oxygen species that is toxic to the tumor cells. PDT selectively destroys photosensitized tissue leading to various cellular and molecular responses. The present study was designed to examine the angiogenic responses at short (0.5 h and long (6 h drug light interval (DLI hypericin-PDT (HY-PDT treatment at 24 h and 30 days post treatment in a human bladder carcinoma xenograft model. As short DLI targets tumor vasculature and longer DLI induces greater cellular damage, we hypothesized a differential effect of these treatments on the expression of angiogenic factors. Results Immunohistochemistry (IHC results showed minimal CD31 stained endothelium at 24 h post short DLI PDT indicating extensive vascular damage. Angiogenic proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, tumor necrosis growth factor-α (TNF-α, interferon-α (IFN-α and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF were expressed to a greater extent in cellular targeting long DLI PDT compared to vascular mediated short DLI PDT. Gene expression profiling for angiogenesis pathway demonstrated downregulation of adhesion molecules – cadherin 5, collagen alpha 1 and 3 at 24 h post treatment. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and Ephrin-A3 (EFNA3 were upregulated in all treatment groups suggesting a possible activation of c-Met and Ephrin-Eph signaling pathways. Conclusion In conclusion, long DLI HY-PDT induces upregulation of angiogenic proteins. Differential expression of genes involved in the angiogenesis pathway was observed in the various groups treated with HY-PDT.

  12. Sympathetic nerves: How do they affect angiogenesis, particularly during wound healing of soft tissues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liangli; Tang, Jianbing; Liu, Hongwei; Cheng, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for wound healing, and angiogenesis impairment can result in chronic ulcers. Studies have shown that the sympathetic nervous system has an important role in angiogenesis. In recent years, researchers have focused on the roles of sympathetic nerves in tumor angiogenesis. In fact, sympathetic nerves can affect angiogenesis in the wound healing of soft tissues, and may have a similar mechanism of action as that seen in tumorigenesis. Sympathetic nerves act primarily through interactions between the neurotransmitters released from nerve endings and receptors present in target organs. Among this, activation or inhibition of adrenergic receptors (mainly β-adrenergic receptors) influence formation of new blood vessels considerably. As sympathetic nerves locate near pericytes in microvessel, go along the capillaries and there are adrenergic receptors present in endothelial cells and pericytes, sympathetic nerves may participate in angiogenesis by influencing the endothelial cells and pericytes of new capillaries. Studying the roles of sympathetic nerves on the angiogenesis of wound healing can contribute to understanding the mechanisms of tissue repair, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis, thereby providing new therapeutic perspectives.

  13. Celecoxib ameliorates portal hypertension of the cirrhotic rats through the dual inhibitory effects on the intrahepatic fibrosis and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jin-Hang; Wen, Shi-Lei; Yang, Wen-Juan; Lu, Yao-Yao; Tong, Huan; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Liu, Zhang-Xu; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Increased intra-hepatic resistance to portal blood flow is the primary factor leading to portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Up-regulated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the cirrhotic liver might be a potential target to ameliorate portal hypertension. To verify the effect of celecoxib, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, on portal hypertension and the mechanisms behind it. Cirrhotic liver model of rat was established by peritoneal injection of thiacetamide (TAA). 36 rats were randomly assigned to control, TAA and TAA+celecoxib groups. Portal pressures were measured by introduction of catheters into portal vein. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed by the visible hepatic fibrotic areas and mRNAs for collagen III and α-SMA. The neovasculature was determined by hepatic vascular areas, vascular casts and CD31 expression. Expressions of COX-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and related signal molecules were quantitated. Compared with TAA group, the portal pressure in TAA+celecoxib group was significantly decreased by 17.8%, pportal venules. The data of fibrotic areas, CD31expression, mRNA levels of α-SMA and collagen III in TAA+celecoxib group were much lower than those in TAA group, pprotein levels of VEGF, VEGFR-2 and COX-2 induced by TAA was significantly inhibited after celecoxib treatment. The expressions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and c-fos were also down-regulated after celecoxib treatment. Long term administration of celecoxib can efficiently ameliorate portal hypertension in TAA rat model by its dual inhibitory effects on the intrahepatic fibrosis and angiogenesis. The anti-angiogenesis effect afforded by celecoxib may attribute to its modulation on VEGF/VEGFR-2 through the down-regulation of integrated signal pathways involving PGE2- HIF-1α- VEGF and p-ERK- c-fos- VEGFR-2.

  14. Cobalt (III) complexes as novel matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiyoun [Sungshin Women' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    We have synthesized a series of novel MMP-9 inhibitors containing cobalt(III) complexes. The synthesized cobalt(III) complexes are effective as enzyme inhibitors and the attachment of a biphenyl group enhanced the efficiency of enzyme inhibition up to 6-fold. When compared to the reported non-hydroxamate MMP inhibitors, the synthesized complexes showed comparable in vitro potency. The enzyme assay showed that the cobalt(III) complex can disrupt the zinc binding active site of MMP-9 and is proposed to work via a ligand exchange mechanism. Since histidine residues are essential for the catalytic activity of a large percentage of enzymes and zinc finger proteins, these cobalt(III) complexes can serve as a prototype inhibitor towards various zinc containing enzymes and proteins. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc binding endopeptidases that play crucial roles in various physiological processes and diseases such as embryogenic growth, angiogenesis, arthritis, skin ulceration, liver fibrosis and tumor metastasis. Because of their implications in a wide range of diseases, MMPs are considered as intriguing drug targets. The majority of MMP inhibitors are organic small molecules containing a hydroxamate functionality for the zinc binding group. This hydroxamate group binds to a zinc(II) center in a bidentate fashion and creates a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry.

  15. Cobalt (III) complexes as novel matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jiyoun

    2012-01-01

    We have synthesized a series of novel MMP-9 inhibitors containing cobalt(III) complexes. The synthesized cobalt(III) complexes are effective as enzyme inhibitors and the attachment of a biphenyl group enhanced the efficiency of enzyme inhibition up to 6-fold. When compared to the reported non-hydroxamate MMP inhibitors, the synthesized complexes showed comparable in vitro potency. The enzyme assay showed that the cobalt(III) complex can disrupt the zinc binding active site of MMP-9 and is proposed to work via a ligand exchange mechanism. Since histidine residues are essential for the catalytic activity of a large percentage of enzymes and zinc finger proteins, these cobalt(III) complexes can serve as a prototype inhibitor towards various zinc containing enzymes and proteins. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc binding endopeptidases that play crucial roles in various physiological processes and diseases such as embryogenic growth, angiogenesis, arthritis, skin ulceration, liver fibrosis and tumor metastasis. Because of their implications in a wide range of diseases, MMPs are considered as intriguing drug targets. The majority of MMP inhibitors are organic small molecules containing a hydroxamate functionality for the zinc binding group. This hydroxamate group binds to a zinc(II) center in a bidentate fashion and creates a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry

  16. HDAC inhibitors: modulating leukocyte differentiation, survival, proliferation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Matthew J; Shakespear, Melanie R; Kamal, Nabilah A; Fairlie, David P

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in cancer models were first linked to their ability to cause growth arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells. It is now clear that these agents also have pleiotropic effects on angiogenesis and the immune system, and some of these properties are likely to contribute to their anti-cancer activities. It is also emerging that inhibitors of specific HDACs affect the differentiation, survival and/or proliferation of distinct immune cell populations. This is true for innate immune cells such as macrophages, as well as cells of the acquired immune system, for example, T-regulatory cells. These effects may contribute to therapeutic profiles in some autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disease models. Here, we review our current understanding of how classical HDACs (HDACs 1-11) and their inhibitors impact on differentiation, survival and proliferation of distinct leukocyte populations, as well as the likely relevance of these effects to autoimmune and inflammatory disease processes. The ability of HDAC inhibitors to modulate leukocyte survival may have implications for the rationale of developing selective inhibitors as anti-inflammatory drugs.

  17. The Proton-Sensing G-Protein Coupled Receptor GPR4 Promotes Angiogenesis in Head and Neck Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Jing

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN is an aggressive disease with poor survival and is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common event in SCCHN patients. GPR4 is a proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptor, which can be activated by acidosis. The objective of this study was to explore the role of GPR4 in acid exposure and tumor angiogenesis in SCCHN. In this study, we confirmed that overexpressing GPR4 in SCCHN cells could increase the expression and secretion of IL6, IL8 and VEGFA at pH 5.9. This effect could be inhibited by SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor. Western blot analysis indicated that phosphorylation of p38 increased in GPR4 infected cells at pH 5.9, which could be inhibited by SB203580. In tube formation assay, HMEC-1 cells were incubated with conditioned medium (CM, pH 5.9, 6.5, 7.4 derived from control and GPR4 infected SCCHN cells. Tube length was significantly increased in HMEC-1 cells incubated with CM from GPR4 infected cells compared with control cells at pH5.9, which indicated the pro-angiogenic effect of GPR4 in acidic pH. The neutralizing antibodies of IL6, IL8 and VEGFA could inhibit tube formation of HMEC-1 cells. In vivo, the effect of GPR4 on angiogenesis was investigated with the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM model. Control and GPR4 infected SCCHN cells were seeded onto the upper CAM surface (n = 5 in each group and 5 μL DMEM/F12 (pH 5.9, 6.5, 7.4 was added to the surface of the cell every 24 h. Four days later, the upper CAM were harvested and the ratio of the vascular area to the CAM area was quantified using Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. GPR4 infected cells could recruit more vascular than control cells at pH5.9. In conclusion, we suggested that GPR4 induces angiogenesis via GPR4-induced p38-mediated IL6, IL8 and VEGFA secretion at acidic extracellular pH in SCCHN.

  18. Investigation of an angiogenesis-promoting topical treatment for diabetic wounds using multimodal microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Joanne; Bower, Andrew J.; Arp, Zane A.; Olson, Eric; Holland, Claire; Chaney, Eric J.; Marjanovic, Marina; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Impaired skin wound healing is a significant co-morbid condition of diabetes that is caused by poor microcirculation among other factors. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that mediate the effects of decreased levels of oxygen in biological environments. Inducing mild hypoxia in the tissue could promote angiogenesis, a critical step in the wound healing process in diabetic wounds. To investigate the relationship between hypoxia and diabetic wound healing, a topical treatment consisting of a HIF-activating prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor was administered to the wounded skin of diabetic (db/db) mice. Studies were conducted in accordance with the GSK Policy on the Care, Welfare and Treatment of Laboratory Animals and were reviewed at GSK or by the ethical review process at the institution where the work was performed. The wounded area was tracked in vivo for 28 days utilizing a custom-built multimodal microscopy system. An increase in vascular density around the wounds of treated animals was observed using phase-variance optical coherence tomography (PV-OCT), in comparison to normal controls. In addition, second harmonic generation (SHG) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) were utilized to examine the collagen regeneration and cellular metabolic activity, respectively, in the wounded skin. The utilization of these light based methods can follow metabolic and morphologic changes in the wound healing process in ways not possible with current evaluation processes. Insights demonstrated in these studies could lead to new endpoints for evaluation of the efficacy of drugs and lead to more direct ways of detecting patient response to treatment.

  19. Tumor cell-macrophage interactions increase angiogenesis through secretion of EMMPRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bat-Chen eAmit-Cohen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumor macrophages are generally considered to be alternatively/M2 activated to induce secretion of pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and MMPs. EMMPRIN (CD147, basigin is overexpressed in many tumor types, and has been shown to induce fibroblasts and endothelial cell expression of MMPs and VEGF. We first show that tumor cell interactions with macrophages resulted in increased expression of EMMPRIN and induction of MMP-9 and VEGF. Human A498 renal carcinoma or MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell lines were co-cultured with the U937 monocytic-like cell line in the presence of TNFalpha (1 ng/ml. Membranal EMMPRIN expression was increased in the co-cultures (by 3-4 folds, p<0.01, as was the secretion of MMP-9 and VEGF (by 2-5 folds for both MMP-9 and VEGF, p<0.01, relative to the single cultures with TNFalpha. Investigating the regulatory mechanisms, we show that EMMPRIN was post-translationally regulated by miR-146a, as no change was observed in the tumoral expression of EMMPRIN mRNA during co-culture, expression of miR-146a was increased and its neutralization by its antagomir inhibited EMMPRIN expression. The secretion of EMMPRIN was also enhanced (by 2-3 folds, p<0.05, only in the A498 co-culture via shedding off of the membranal protein by a serine protease that is yet to be identified, as demonstrated by the use of wide range protease inhibitors. Finally, soluble EMMPRIN enhanced monocytic secretion of MMP-9 and VEGF, as inhibition of its expression levels by neutralizing anti-EMMPRIN or siRNA in the tumor cells lead to subsequent decreased induction of these two pro-angiogenic proteins. These results reveal a mechanism whereby tumor cell-macrophage interactions promote angiogenesis via an EMMPRIN-mediated pathway.

  20. Effect of bevacizumab on angiogenesis and growth of canine osteosarcoma cells xenografted in athymic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Valery F; Farese, James P; Coomer, Alastair R; Milner, Rowan J; Taylor, David P; Salute, Marc E; Chang, Myron N; Neal, Dan; Siemann, Dietmar W

    2013-05-01

    Objective-To investigate the effects of bevacizumab, a human monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, on the angiogenesis and growth of canine osteosarcoma cells xenografted in mice. Animals-27 athymic nude mice. Procedures-To each mouse, highly metastasizing parent osteosarcoma cells of canine origin were injected into the left gastrocnemius muscle. Each mouse was then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatment groups: high-dose bevacizumab (4 mg/kg, IP), low-dose bevacizumab (2 mg/kg, IP), or control (no treatment). Tumor growth (the number of days required for the tumor to grow from 8 to 13 mm), vasculature, histomorphology, necrosis, and pulmonary metastasis were evaluated. Results-Mice in the high-dose bevacizumab group had significantly delayed tumor growth (mean ± SD, 13.4 ± 3.8 days; range, 9 to 21 days), compared with that for mice in the low-dose bevacizumab group (mean ± SD, 9.4 ± 1.5 days; range, 7 to 11 days) or control group (mean ± SD, 7. 2 ± 1.5 days; range, 4 to 9 days). Mice in the low-dose bevacizumab group also had significantly delayed tumor growth, compared with that for mice in the control group. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that bevacizumab inhibited growth of canine osteosarcoma cells xenografted in mice, which suggested that vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors may be clinically useful for the treatment of osteosarcoma in dogs. Impact for Human Medicine-Canine osteosarcoma is used as a research model for human osteosarcoma; therefore, bevacizumab may be clinically beneficial for the treatment of osteosarcoma in humans.

  1. Quercetin suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 expression and angiogenesis through inactivation of P300 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Xiao

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a polyphenolic bioflavonoid, possesses multiple pharmacological actions including anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. However, the precise action mechanisms of quercetin remain unclear. Here, we reported the regulatory actions of quercetin on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, an important mediator in inflammation and tumor promotion, and revealed the underlying mechanisms. Quercetin significantly suppressed COX-2 mRNA and protein expression and prostaglandin (PG E(2 production, as well as COX-2 promoter activation in breast cancer cells. Quercetin also significantly inhibited COX-2-mediated angiogenesis in human endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro streptavidin-agarose pulldown assay and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that quercetin considerably inhibited the binding of the transactivators CREB2, C-Jun, C/EBPβ and NF-κB and blocked the recruitment of the coactivator p300 to COX-2 promoter. Moreover, quercetin effectively inhibited p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity, thereby attenuating the p300-mediated acetylation of NF-κB. Treatment of cells with p300 HAT inhibitor roscovitine was as effective as quercetin at inhibiting p300 HAT activity. Addition of quercetin to roscovitine-treated cells did not change the roscovitine-induced inhibition of p300 HAT activity. Conversely, gene delivery of constitutively active p300 significantly reversed the quercetin-mediated inhibition of endogenous HAT activity. These results indicate that quercetin suppresses COX-2 expression by inhibiting the p300 signaling and blocking the binding of multiple transactivators to COX-2 promoter. Our findings therefore reveal a novel mechanism of action of quercetin and suggest a potential use for quercetin in the treatment of COX-2-mediated diseases such as breast cancers.

  2. Endogenous Sonic Hedgehog limits inflammation and angiogenesis in the ischaemic skeletal muscle of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradu, Caroline; Guy, Alexandre; James, Chloé; Reynaud, Annabel; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre; Renault, Marie-Ange

    2018-04-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signalling has been shown to be re-activated in ischaemic tissues and participate in ischaemia-induced angiogenesis. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is upregulated by more than 80-fold in the ischaemic skeletal muscle, however its specific role in ischaemia-induced angiogenesis has not yet been fully investigated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of endogenous Shh in ischaemia-induced angiogenesis. To this aim, we used inducible Shh knock-out (KO) mice and unexpectedly found that capillary density was significantly increased in re-generating muscle of Shh deficient mice 5 days after hind limb ischaemia was induced, demonstrating that endogenous Shh does not promote angiogenesis but more likely limits it. Myosin and MyoD expression were equivalent in Shh deficient mice and control mice, indicating that endogenous Shh is not required for ischaemia-induced myogenesis. Additionally, we observed a significant increase in macrophage infiltration in the ischaemic muscle of Shh deficient mice. Our data indicate that this was due to an increase in chemokine expression by myoblasts in the setting of impaired Hh signalling, using tissue specific Smoothened conditional KO mice. The increased macrophage infiltration in mice deficient for Hh signalling in myocytes was associated with increased VEGFA expression and a transiently increased angiogenesis, demonstrating that Shh limits inflammation and angiogenesis indirectly by signalling to myocytes. Although ectopic administration of Shh has previously been shown to promote ischaemia-induced angiogenesis, the present study reveals that endogenous Shh does not promote ischaemia-induced angiogenesis. On the contrary, the absence of Shh leads to aberrant ischaemic tissue inflammation and a transiently increased angiogenesis.

  3. Endothelial progenitor cells physiology and metabolic plasticity in brain angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Malinovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a considerable interest to the assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB development as a part of cerebral angiogenesis developmental program. Embryonic and adult angiogenesis in the brain is governed by the coordinated activity of endothelial progenitor cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells, and non-endothelial cells contributing to the establishment of the BBB (pericytes, astrocytes, neurons. Metabolic and functional plasticity of endothelial progenitor cells controls their timely recruitment, precise homing to the brain microvessels, and efficient support of brain angiogenesis. Deciphering endothelial progenitor cells physiology would provide novel engineering approaches to establish adequate microfluidically-supported BBB models and brain microphysiological systems for translational studies.

  4. Upregulation of Syndecan-1 in the bone marrow microenvironment in multiple myeloma is associated with angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels F; Kristensen, Ida B; Preiss, Birgitte S

    2014-01-01

    : In this study, we examined the association between bone marrow angiogenesis estimated as micro-vessel density (MVD) and gene expression of SDC1, HGF, VEGF and IL6 in whole bone marrow biopsies from healthy volunteers (n = 10), patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 35...... plasma cell percentage and SDC1 gene expression was detected in patients with MM (P angiogenesis and gene...... expression of HGF, VEGF and IL6 was seen. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that SDC1 expressed by the bone marrow microenvironment is involved in angiogenesis in MM....

  5. Inhibition of Metastatic Potential in Breast Carcinoma In Vivo and In Vitro through Targeting VEGFRs and FGFRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Chien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are considered to play key roles in tumor metastasis. Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases essentially involved in the angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis would theoretically prevent cancer metastasis. However, the optimal multikinase inhibitor for metastasis suppression has yet to be developed. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NSTPBP 0100194-A (194-A, a multikinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs/fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs, on lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in a mammary fat pad xenograft model of the highly invasive breast cancer cell line 4T1-Luc+. We investigated the biologic effect of 194-A on various invasive breast cancer cell lines as well as endothelial and lymphatic endothelial cells. Intriguingly, we found that 194-A drastically reduced the formation of lung, liver, and lymph node metastasis of 4T1-Luc+ and decreased primary tumor growth. This was associated with significant reductions in intratumoral lymphatic vessel length (LVL and microvessel density (MVD. 194-A blocked VEGFRs mediated signaling on both endothelial and lymphatic endothelial cells. Moreover, 194-A significantly inhibited the invasive capacity induced by VEGF-C or FGF-2 in vitro in both 4T1 and MDA-MB231 cells. In conclusion, these experimental results demonstrate that simultaneous inhibition of VEGFRs/FGFRs kinases may be a promising strategy to prevent breast cancer metastasis.

  6. Inhibitory effects of vitamin K3 on DNA polymerase and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kiminori; Kayashima, Tomoko; Mori, Masaharu; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2008-09-01

    Vitamins play essential roles in cellular reactions and maintain human health. Recent studies have revealed that some vitamins including D3, B6 and K2 and their derivatives have an anti-cancer effect. As a mechanism, their inhibitory effect on cancer-related angiogenesis has been demonstrated. Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) has an anti-cancer effect in particular for hepatic cancer and inhibits angiogenesis. In the current study, we demonstrated that sole vitamin K3 (menadione) selectively inhibits the in vitro activity of eukaryotic DNA polymerase gamma, which is a mitochondrial DNA polymerase, and suppresses angiogenesis in a rat aortic ring model. The anti-angiogenic effect of vitamin K3 has been shown in angiogenesis models using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with regard to HUVEC growth, tube formation on reconstituted basement membrane and chemotaxis. These results suggest that vitamin K3 may be a potential anti-cancer agent like vitamin K2.

  7. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Linhardt, Robert J; Kumar, Ashavani; Ajayan, Pulickel; Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Mousa, Shaker A

    2009-01-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (P<0.01) as compared to glucose conjugation. These results suggest that DAPHP-reduced silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles have potential in pathological angiogenesis accelerated disorders such as cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  8. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Linhardt, Robert J [Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Kumar, Ashavani; Ajayan, Pulickel [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Mousa, Shaker A, E-mail: Shaker.mousa@acphs.ed [Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY 12208 (United States)

    2009-11-11

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (P<0.01) as compared to glucose conjugation. These results suggest that DAPHP-reduced silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles have potential in pathological angiogenesis accelerated disorders such as cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  9. A pyruvate-buffered dialysis fluid induces less peritoneal angiogenesis and fibrosis than a conventional solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westrhenen, Roos; Zweers, Machteld M.; Kunne, Cindy; de Waart, Dirk R.; van der Wal, Allard C.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conventional lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids containing glucose and glucose degradation products are believed to contribute to the development of fibrosis and angiogenesis in the dialyzed peritoneum. To reduce potential negative effects of lactate, pyruvate was

  10. Local injection of high-molecular hyaluronan promotes wound healing in old rats by increasing angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luying; Wang, Yi; Liu, Hua; Huang, Jianhua

    2018-02-02

    Impaired angiogenesis contributes to delayed wound healing in aging. Hyaluronan (HA) has a close relationship with angiogenesis and wound healing. However, HA content decreases with age. In this study, we used high molecular weight HA (HMW-HA) (1650 kDa), and investigated its effects on wound healing in old rats by local injection. We found that HMW-HA significantly increases proliferation, migration and tube formation in endothelial cells, and protects endothelial cells against apoptosis. Local injection of HMW-HA promotes wound healing by increasing angiogenesis in old rats. HMW-HA increases the phosphorylation of Src, ERK and AKT, leading to increased angiogenesis, suggesting that local injection of HMW-HA promotes wound healing in elderly patients.

  11. Adjuvant Anti-Angiogenesis Drugs Are No Benefit in Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from a recent clinical trial show that post-surgical therapy with two anti-angiogenesis drugs does not improve progression-free survival for patients with kidney cancer and may cause serious side effects.

  12. Angiogenesis gene expression in murine endothelial cells during post-pneumonectomy lung growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konerding Moritz A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although blood vessel growth occurs readily in the systemic bronchial circulation, angiogenesis in the pulmonary circulation is rare. Compensatory lung growth after pneumonectomy is an experimental model with presumed alveolar capillary angiogenesis. To investigate the genes participating in murine neoalveolarization, we studied the expression of angiogenesis genes in lung endothelial cells. After left pneumonectomy, the remaining right lung was examined on days 3, 6, 14 and 21days after surgery and compared to both no surgery and sham thoracotomy controls. The lungs were enzymatically digested and CD31+ endothelial cells were isolated using flow cytometry cell sorting. The transcriptional profile of the CD31+ endothelial cells was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR arrays. Focusing on 84 angiogenesis-associated genes, we identified 22 genes with greater than 4-fold regulation and significantly enhanced transcription (p

  13. Angiogenesis in vestibular schwannomas: expression of extracellular matrix factors MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Werther, Kim; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potent mediators of tumor angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that vestibular schwannoma VEGF expression correlates with tumor growth pattern, whereas knowledge on the expression of MMPs is lacking. This study...

  14. Tumour angiogenesis pathways: related clinical issues and implications for nuclear medicine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiele, Christophe van de; De Winter, Olivier; Dierckx, Rudi Andre; Oltenfreiter, Ruth; Slegers, Guido; Signore, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis is essential for growth, invasion and metastasis. Retrospective studies suggest that it is an independent prognostic factor that merits prospective validation. Furthermore, as tumour blood vessels show many differences from normal vessels and are not genetically unstable, they form a key area for therapy development. However, as anti-angiogenic therapy is primarily cytostatic and not cytotoxic, novel tailor-made specific end-points for treatment monitoring are required. In this regard, suitable molecular parameters for imaging tumour angiogenesis by means of nuclear medicine are being explored. Here we review current knowledge on the multiple pathways controlling tumour angiogenesis and try to assess which are the most clinically relevant for nuclear medicine imaging. Parameters that may influence the imaging potential of radiopharmaceuticals for angiogenesis imaging such as molecular weight and structure, their targeted location within the tumour and their usefulness in terms of specificity and constancy of the targeted molecular pathway are discussed. (orig.)

  15. JS-K has Potent Anti-Angiogenic Activity in vitro and Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis in a Multiple Myeloma Model in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Jia, Lee; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.; Shami, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione S-Transferases (GST) play an important role in multidrug resistance and are upregulated in multiple cancers. We have designed a prodrug class that releases NO on metabolism by GST. O2-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K, a member of this class) has potent anti-neoplastic activity. We studied the effect of JS-K on angiogenesis. JS-K inhibited the proliferation of HUVEC’s with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.432, 0.466, and 0.505 µM at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. In the cord formation assay, JS-K led to a decrease in the number of cord junctions and cord length with an IC50 of 0.637 and 0.696 µM, respectively. JS-K inhibited cell migration at 5 hours using VEGF as a chemoattractant. Migration inhibition occurred with an IC50 of 0.493 µM. In the chick aortic ring assay using VEGF or FGF-b for vessel growth stimulation, 0.5 µM JS-K completely inhibited vessel growth. JS-K inhibited tumor angiogenesis in vivo in NIH III mice implanted subcutaneously with OPM1 multiple myeloma cells. JS-K is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vitro and tumor vessel growth in vivo. As such, it establishes a new class of anti-neoplastic agents that target the malignant cells directly as well as their microenvironment. PMID:20723011

  16. JS-K has potent anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and inhibits tumour angiogenesis in a multiple myeloma model in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Anderson, Kenneth C; Kutok, Jeffery L; Jia, Lee; Boucher, Kenneth M; Saavedra, Joseph E; Keefer, Larry K; Shami, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in multidrug resistance and are upregulated in multiple cancers. We have designed a prodrug class that releases nitric oxide on metabolism by GST. O(2)-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K, a member of this class) has potent antineoplastic activity. We studied the effect of JS-K on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), OPM1 multiple myeloma cells, chick aortic rings and in mice. JS-K inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.432, 0.466 and 0.505 microm at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. In the cord formation assay, JS-K led to a decrease in the number of cord junctions and cord length with an IC50 of 0.637 and 0.696 microm, respectively. JS-K inhibited cell migration at 5 h using VEGF as a chemoattractant. Migration inhibition occurred with an IC50 of 0.493 microm. In the chick aortic ring assay using VEGF or FGF-2 for vessel growth stimulation, 0.5 microm JS-K completely inhibited vessel growth. JS-K inhibited tumour angiogenesis in vivo in NIH III mice implanted subcutaneously with OPM1 multiple myeloma cells. JS-K is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vitro and tumour vessel growth in vivo. As such, it establishes a new class of antineoplastic agent that targets the malignant cells directly as well as their microenvironment.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 induces angiogenesis through IGF-I- and SphK1-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, R; Trovato, L; Lupia, E; Sala, G; Settanni, F; Camussi, G; Ghidoni, R; Ghigo, E

    2007-04-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for development and repair, and is a prominent feature of many pathological conditions. Based on evidence that insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 enhances cell motility and activates sphingosine kinase (SphK) in human endothelial cells, we have investigated whether IGFBP-3 plays a role in promoting angiogenesis. IGFBP-3 potently induced network formation by human endothelial cells on Matrigel. Moreover, it up-regulated proangiogenic genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9. IGFBP-3 even induced membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), which regulates MMP-2 activation. Decreasing SphK1 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA), blocked IGFBP-3-induced network formation and inhibited VEGF, MT1-MMP but not IGF-I up-regulation. IGF-I activated SphK, leading to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) formation. The IGF-I effect on SphK activity was blocked by specific inhibitors of IGF-IR, PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The disruption of IGF-I signaling prevented the IGFBP-3 effect on tube formation, SphK activity and VEGF release. Blocking ERK1/2 signaling caused the loss of SphK activation and VEGF and IGF-I up-regulation. Finally, IGFBP-3 dose-dependently stimulated neovessel formation into subcutaneous implants of Matrigel in vivo. Thus, IGFBP-3 positively regulates angiogenesis through involvement of IGF-IR signaling and subsequent SphK/S1P activation.

  18. Essential contribution of tumor-derived perlecan to epidermal tumor growth and angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Multhaupt, Hinke; Chan, En

    2004-01-01

    As a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (PG) in basement membranes, perlecan has been linked to tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Here we produced epidermal tumors in immunocompromised rats by injection of mouse RT101 tumor cells. Tumor sections stained with species-specific perlecan...... factor. In vivo, antisense perlecan-transfected cells generated no tumors, whereas untransfected and vector-transfected cells formed tumors with obvious neovascularization, suggesting that tumor perlecan rather than host perlecan controls tumor growth and angiogenesis....

  19. Physiologic ischaemic training induces endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and myocardial angiogenesis via endothelial nitric oxide synthase related pathway in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingyue; Lu, Xiao; Li, Jianan; Li, Ling; Li, Yongxue

    2014-04-01

    Ischaemia-induced angiogenesis promises to improve neovascularization by delivery of angiogenic factors or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to cardiac ischaemic areas. In order to avoid the risk of excessive myocardial ischaemia, therefore, we hypothesized that physiological ischaemic training (PIT) of normal skeletal muscle might contribute to myocardial angiogenesis via nitric oxide mediated mobilization of EPCs from the bone marrow in the established rabbit model of controllable myocardial ischaemia. The rabbits were grouped by sham-operation, myocardial ischaemia without PIT, PIT and PIT with pretreatment with the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Controlled myocardial ischaemia was modelled by a water balloon constrictor implanted on the left ventricular branch in a rabbit. The PIT procedure included three cycles of 3 min of cuff inflation followed by 5 min of deflation on hind limbs of the rabbits for 4 weeks. At the endpoints, circulating EPCs (CD34/Flk-1) were measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorter; capillary density, by immunohistochemistry; blood flow, by a microsphere technique; endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and protein, by real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and Western blotting. The mRNA levels of eNOS were significantly higher in the PIT and L-NAME groups than in the sham-operation group (P < 0.05). Phospho-eNOS protein expression was higher in the PIT group than in the sham-operation and myocardial ischaemia without PIT groups (P < 0.05), and the effect was inhibited by L-NAME pretreatment (P < 0.05). Compared with sham-operation and myocardial ischaemia without PIT groups, the PIT group had the highest EPC count (P < 0.001), and the increase of capillary density (P < 0.01) and collateral blood flow (P < 0.05) in the ischaemic myocardium was consistent with the finding of EPC count. These effects were also inhibited by pretreatment with

  20. A bioavailable cathepsin S nitrile inhibitor abrogates tumor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Richard D A; Young, Andrew; Burden, Roberta E; Williams, Rich; Scott, Christopher J

    2016-04-21

    Cathepsin S has been implicated in a variety of malignancies with genetic ablation studies demonstrating a key role in tumor invasion and neo-angiogenesis. Thus, the application of cathepsin S inhibitors may have clinical utility in the treatment of cancer. In this investigation, we applied a cell-permeable dipeptidyl nitrile inhibitor of cathepsin S, originally developed to target cathepsin S in inflammatory diseases, in both in vitro and in vivo tumor models. Validation of cathepsin S selectivity was carried out by assaying fluorogenic substrate turnover using recombinant cathepsin protease. Complete kinetic analysis was carried out and true K i values calculated. Abrogation of tumour invasion using murine MC38 and human MCF7 cell lines were carried out in vitro using a transwell migration assay. Effect on endothelial tube formation was evaluated using primary HUVEC cells. The effect of inhibitor in vivo on MC38 and MCF7 tumor progression was evaluated using cells propagated in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice respectively. Subsequent immunohistochemical staining of proliferation (Ki67) and apoptosis (TUNEL) was carried out on MCF7 tumors. We confirmed that this inhibitor was able to selectively target cathepsin S over family members K, V, L and B. The inhibitor also significantly reduced MC38 and MCF7 cell invasion and furthermore, significantly reduced HUVEC endothelial tubule formation in vitro. In vivo analysis revealed that the compound could significantly reduce tumor volume in murine MC38 syngeneic and MCF7 xenograft models. Immunohistochemical analysis of MCF7 tumors revealed cathepsin S inhibitor treatment significantly reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. In summary, these results highlight the characterisation of this nitrile cathepsin S inhibitor using in vitro and in vivo tumor models, presenting a compound which may be used to further dissect the role of cathepsin S in cancer progression and may hold therapeutic potential.

  1. Celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorate portal hypertension via inhibition of angiogenesis in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jin-Hang; Wen, Shi-Lei; Feng, Shi; Yang, Wen-Juan; Lu, Yao-Yao; Tong, Huan; Liu, Rui; Tang, Shi-Hang; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Ying-Mei; Yang, Jin-Hui; Xie, Hui-Qi; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis is critical for portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Except for etiological treatment, no efficient medication or regime has been explored to treat the early stage of cirrhosis when angiogenesis is initiated or overwhelming. In this study, we explored an anti-angiogenesis effort through non-cytotoxic drugs octreotide and celecoxib to treat early stage of cirrhotic portal hypertension in an animal model. Peritoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) was employed to induce liver cirrhosis in rats. A combination treatment of celecoxib and octreotide was found to relieve liver fibrosis, portal venous pressure, micro-hepatic arterioportal fistulas, intrahepatic and splanchnic angiogenesis. Celecoxib and octreotide exerted their anti-angiogenesis effect via an axis of cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2/EP-2/somatostatin receptor-2, which consequently down-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) integrated signaling pathways. In conclusions, combination of celecoxib and octreotide synergistically ameliorated liver fibrosis and portal hypertension of the cirrhotic rats induced by TAA via the inhibition of intrahepatic and extrahepatic angiogenesis. The potential mechanisms behind the regimen may due to the inactivation of p-ERK-HIF-1α-VEGF signaling pathway.

  2. A computational model of in vitro angiogenesis based on extracellular matrix fibre orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Lowell T; Sibole, Scott C; Underwood, Clayton J; Guilkey, James E; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in the process of vascularisation within the biomedical community has motivated numerous new research efforts focusing on the process of angiogenesis. Although the role of chemical factors during angiogenesis has been well documented, the role of mechanical factors, such as the interaction between angiogenic vessels and the extracellular matrix, remains poorly understood. In vitro methods for studying angiogenesis exist; however, measurements available using such techniques often suffer from limited spatial and temporal resolutions. For this reason, computational models have been extensively employed to investigate various aspects of angiogenesis. This paper outlines the formulation and validation of a simple and robust computational model developed to accurately simulate angiogenesis based on length, branching and orientation morphometrics collected from vascularised tissue constructs. Microvessels were represented as a series of connected line segments. The morphology of the vessels was determined by a linear combination of the collagen fibre orientation, the vessel density gradient and a random walk component. Excellent agreement was observed between computational and experimental morphometric data over time. Computational predictions of microvessel orientation within an anisotropic matrix correlated well with experimental data. The accuracy of this modelling approach makes it a valuable platform for investigating the role of mechanical interactions during angiogenesis.

  3. Oridonin inhibits tumor growth and metastasis through anti-angiogenesis by blocking the Notch signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin Dong

    Full Text Available While significant progress has been made in understanding the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of the natural diterpenoid component Oridonin on tumor cells, little is known about its effect on tumor angiogenesis or metastasis and on the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, Oridonin significantly suppressed human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs proliferation, migration, and apillary-like structure formation in vitro. Using aortic ring assay and mouse corneal angiogenesis model, we found that Oridonin inhibited angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo. In our animal experiments, Oridonin impeded tumor growth and metastasis. Immunohistochemistry analysis further revealed that the expression of CD31 and vWF protein in xenografts was remarkably decreased by the Oridonin. Furthermore, Oridonin reinforced endothelial cell-cell junction and impaired breast cancer cell transendothelial migration. Mechanistically, Oridonin not only down-regulated Jagged2 expression and Notch1 activity but also decreased the expression of their target genes. In conclusion, our results demonstrated an original role of Oridonin in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and propose a mechanism. This study also provides new evidence supporting the central role of Notch in tumor angiogenesis and suggests that Oridonin could be a potential drug candidate for angiogenesis related diseases.

  4. Nanoparticles of carbon allotropes inhibit glioblastoma multiforme angiogenesis in ovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodzik M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marta Grodzik1, Ewa Sawosz1, Mateusz Wierzbicki1, Piotr Orlowski1, Anna Hotowy2, Tomasz Niemiec1, Maciej Szmidt3, Katarzyna Mitura4, André Chwalibog21Division of Biotechnology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Division of Histology and Embryology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, PolandAbstract: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of carbon nanoparticles produced by different methods on the growth of brain tumor and the development of blood vessels. Glioblastoma multiforme cells were cultured on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken embryo and after 7 days of incubation, were treated with carbon nanoparticles administered in ovo to the tumor. Both types of nanoparticles significantly decreased tumor mass and volume, and vessel area. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed downregulated fibroblast growth factor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression at the messenger ribonucleic acid level. The present results demonstrate antiangiogenic activity of carbon nanoparticles, making them potential factors for anticancer therapy.Keywords: cancer, nanoparticle, embryo, angiogenesis, FGF-2, VEGF

  5. Tortuous Microvessels Contribute to Wound Healing via Sprouting Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Diana C; Yu, Zhixian; Brighton, Hailey E; Bear, James E; Bautch, Victoria L

    2017-10-01

    Wound healing is accompanied by neoangiogenesis, and new vessels are thought to originate primarily from the microcirculation; however, how these vessels form and resolve during wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated properties of the smallest capillaries during wound healing to determine their spatial organization and the kinetics of formation and resolution. We used intravital imaging and high-resolution microscopy to identify a new type of vessel in wounds, called tortuous microvessels. Longitudinal studies showed that tortuous microvessels increased in frequency after injury, normalized as the wound healed, and were closely associated with the wound site. Tortuous microvessels had aberrant cell shapes, increased permeability, and distinct interactions with circulating microspheres, suggesting altered flow dynamics. Moreover, tortuous microvessels disproportionately contributed to wound angiogenesis by sprouting exuberantly and significantly more frequently than nearby normal capillaries. A new type of transient wound vessel, tortuous microvessels, sprout dynamically and disproportionately contribute to wound-healing neoangiogenesis, likely as a result of altered properties downstream of flow disturbances. These new findings suggest entry points for therapeutic intervention. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Longitudinal Studies of Angiogenesis in Hormone-Dependent Shionogi Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Wade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vessel size imaging was used to assess changes in the average vessel size of Shionogi tumors throughout the tumor growth cycle. Changes in R2 and R2* relaxivities caused by the injection of a superparamagnetic contrast agent (ferumoxtran-10 were measured using a 2.35-T animal magnetic resonance imaging system, and average vessel size index (VSI was calculated for each stage of tumor progression: growth, regression, and relapse. Statistical analysis using Spearman rank correlation test showed no dependence between vessel size and tumor volume at any stage of the tumor growth cycle. Paired Student's t test was used to assess the statistical significance of the differences in average vessel size for the three stages of the tumor growth cycle. The average VSI for regressing tumors (15.1 ± 6.6 wm was significantly lower than that for growing tumors (35.2 ± 25.5 μm; P < .01. Relapsing tumors also had an average VSI (45.4 ± 41.8 μm higher than that of regressing tumors, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = .067. This study shows that VSI imaging is a viable method for the noninvasive monitoring of angiogenesis during the progression of a Shionogi tumor from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  7. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, a Major Fatty Acid from Royal Jelly, Inhibits VEGF-Induced Angiogenesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Izuta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is reported to be a potent pro-angiogenic factor that plays a pivotal role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Royal jelly (RJ is a honeybee product containing various proteins, sugars, lipids, vitamins and free amino acids. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10HDA, a major fatty acid component of RJ, is known to have various pharmacological effects; its antitumor activity being especially noteworthy. However, the mechanism underlying this effect is unclear. We examined the effect of 10HDA on VEGF-induced proliferation, migration and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Our findings showed that, 10HDA at 20 µM or more significantly inhibited such proliferation, migration and tube formation. Similarly, 10 µM GM6001, a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, prevented VEGF-induced migration and tube formation. These findings indicate that 10HDA exerts an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced angiogenesis, partly by inhibiting both cell proliferation and migration. Further experiments will be needed to clarify the detailed mechanism.

  8. The MAPK-dependent regulation of the Jagged/Notch gene expression by VEGF, bFGF or PPAR gamma mediated angiogenesis in HUVEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiec-Wilk, B; Grzybowska-Galuszka, J; Polus, A

    2010-01-01

    The Jagged-Notch signalling, plays a crucial role in cell differentiation. Angiogenesis, is regulated by VEGF, bFGF as well as by the free fatty acid metabolites , which are regulators of transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferation activating receptors (PPARs). The study analyzed...... the signalling pathways involved in the regulation of Jagged-1/Notch-4 expression in endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to VEGF, bFGF and PPAR-gamma exogenous activator - ciglitazone. HUVECs were incubated with investigated substances for 24 hours, with or without the presence of the MAP-kinases inhibitors...... were used. Jagged-1 and Notch-4 gene expression was determined using quantitative Real-Time PCR. The Jagged-1/Notch-4 protein expression was compared by flow cytometry, when the phosphorylation-dependent activation of kinases was estimated by Western-blot method. The opposite effect of VEGF, b...

  9. Peritoneal fluid reduces angiogenesis-related microRNA expression in cell cultures of endometrial and endometriotic tissues from women with endometriosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitana Braza-Boïls

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Endometriosis, defined as the presence of endometrium outside the uterus, is one of the most frequent gynecological diseases. It has been suggested that modifications of both endometrial and peritoneal factors could be implicated in this disease. Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease in which angiogenesis and proteolysis are dysregulated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the protein expression and may be the main regulators of angiogenesis. Our hypothesis is that peritoneal fluid from women with endometriosis could modify the expression of several miRNAs that regulate angiogenesis and proteolysis in the endometriosis development. The objective of this study has been to evaluate the influence of endometriotic peritoneal fluid on the expression of six miRNAs related to angiogenesis, as well as several angiogenic and proteolytic factors in endometrial and endometriotic cell cultures from women with endometriosis compared with women without endometriosis. METHODS: Endometrial and endometriotic cells were cultured and treated with endometriotic and control peritoneal fluid pools. We have studied the expression of six miRNAs (miR-16, -17-5p, -20a, -125a, -221, and -222 by RT-PCR and protein and mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, thrombospondin-1, urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by ELISA and qRT-PCR respectively. RESULTS: Control and endometriotic peritoneal fluid pools induced a significant reduction of all miRNAs levels in endometrial and endometriotic cell cultures. Moreover, both peritoneal fluids induced a significant increase in VEGF-A, uPA and PAI-1 protein levels in all cell cultures without significant increase in mRNA levels. Endometrial cell cultures from patients treated with endometriotic peritoneal fluid showed lower expression of miRNAs and higher expression of VEGF-A protein levels than cultures from controls. In conclusion , this "in vitro

  10. Acute serum amyloid A induces migration, angiogenesis, and inflammation in synovial cells in vitro and in a human rheumatoid arthritis/SCID mouse chimera model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Mary

    2010-06-01

    Serum amyloid A (A-SAA), an acute-phase protein with cytokine-like properties, is expressed at sites of inflammation. This study investigated the effects of A-SAA on chemokine-regulated migration and angiogenesis using rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cells and whole-tissue explants in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. A-SAA levels were measured by real-time PCR and ELISA. IL-8 and MCP-1 expression was examined in RA synovial fibroblasts, human microvascular endothelial cells, and RA synovial explants by ELISA. Neutrophil transendothelial cell migration, cell adhesion, invasion, and migration were examined using transwell leukocyte\\/monocyte migration assays, invasion assays, and adhesion assays with or without anti-MCP-1\\/anti-IL-8. NF-kappaB was examined using a specific inhibitor and Western blotting. An RA synovial\\/SCID mouse chimera model was used to examine the effects of A-SAA on cell migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis in vivo. High expression of A-SAA was demonstrated in RA patients (p < 0.05). A-SAA induced chemokine expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Blockade with anti-scavenger receptor class B member 1 and lipoxin A4 (A-SAA receptors) significantly reduced chemokine expression in RA synovial tissue explants (p < 0.05). A-SAA induced cell invasion, neutrophil-transendothelial cell migration, monocyte migration, and adhesion (all p < 0.05), effects that were blocked by anti-IL-8 or anti-MCP-1. A-SAA-induced chemokine expression was mediated through NF-kappaB in RA explants (p < 0.05). Finally, in the RA synovial\\/SCID mouse chimera model, we demonstrated for the first time in vivo that A-SAA directly induces monocyte migration from the murine circulation into RA synovial grafts, synovial cell proliferation, and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). A-SAA promotes cell migrational mechanisms and angiogenesis critical to RA pathogenesis.

  11. Sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor axis is involved in liver fibrosis-associated angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le; Yue, Shi; Yang, Lin; Liu, Xin; Han, Zhen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Liying

    2013-07-01

    Sphingosine kinase (SphK)/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor (S1PR) axis is involved in multiple biological processes, including liver fibrosis. Angiogenesis is an important pathophysiological process closely associated with liver fibrosis; however, the functional role of SphK/S1P/S1PR in this process remains incompletely defined. Bile duct ligation or carbon tetrachloride was used to induce liver fibrosis in mice. Human fibrotic samples were obtained from livers of patients undergoing liver transplantation. S1P levels in the liver were examined by HPLC. Expression of angiogenic markers, including angiopoietin 1, CD31, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and von Willebrand factor, was characterized by immunofluorescence, real-time RT-PCR, and Western blot in the fibrotic liver and primary mouse hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). SphK inhibitor (SKI) or S1PR antagonists were administered intraperitoneally in mice. S1P levels in the liver were closely correlated with mRNA expression of angiogenic markers. Ang1 is expressed in activated HSCs of the fibrotic liver and in primary HSCs. In HSCs, by using specific antagonists or siRNAs, we demonstrated S1P stimulation induced Ang1 expression via S1PR1 and S1PR3. In vivo, S1P reduction by SKI inhibited angiogenesis in fibrotic mice. Furthermore, S1PR1/3 antagonist significantly blocked upregulation of angiogenic markers in the injured liver, and attenuated the extent of liver fibrosis, while S1PR2 antagonist had no effect on angiogenesis, supporting the key role of S1PR1 and S1PR3 in angiogenesis underlying liver fibrosis process. SphK1/S1P/S1PR1/3 axis plays a crucial role in the angiogenic process required for fibrosis development, which may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Use of Novel PET Tracers to Image Breast Cancer Biologic Processes Such as Proliferation, DNA Damage and Repair, and Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Laura

    2016-02-01

    The balance between proliferation and cell death is pivotal to breast tumor growth. Because of a combination of environmental and genetic factors leading to activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, these processes become deregulated in cancer. PET imaging of proliferation, angiogenesis, and DNA damage and repair offers the opportunity to monitor therapeutic efficacy to detect changes in tumor biology that may precede physical size reduction and simultaneously allows the study of intratumoral and intertumoral heterogeneity.This review examines recent developments in breast cancer imaging using novel probes. The probes discussed here are not licensed for routine use and are at various stages of development ranging from preclinical development (e.g., the DNA repair marker γH2AX) to clinical validation in larger studies (such as the proliferation probe 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine [(18)F-FLT]). In breast cancer, most studies have focused on proliferation imaging mainly based on (18)F-labeled thymidine analogs. Initial studies have been promising; however, the results of larger validation studies are necessary before being incorporated into routine clinical use. Although there are distinct advantages in using process-specific probes, properties such as metabolism need careful consideration, because high background uptake in the liver due to glucuronidation in the case of (18)F-FLT may limit utility for imaging of liver metastases.Targeting angiogenesis has had some success in tumors such as renal cell carcinoma; however, angiogenesis inhibitors have not been particularly successful in the clinical treatment of breast cancer. This could be potentially attributed to patient selection due to the lack of validated predictive and responsive biomarkers; the quest for a successful noninvasive biomarker for angiogenesis could solve this challenge. Finally, we look at cell death including apoptosis and DNA damage and repair probes, the most well

  13. Approaches to improve angiogenesis in tissue-engineered skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, Parbinder S; Burn, J Lance; Brown, Nicola J; MacNeil, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    A problem with tissue-engineered skin is clinical failure due to delays in vascularization. The aim of this study was to explore a number of simple strategies to improve angiogenesis/vascularization using a tissue-engineered model of skin to which small vessel human dermal microvascular endothelial cells were added. For the majority of these studies, a modified Guirguis chamber was used, which allowed the investigation of several variables within the same experiment using the same human dermis; cell type, angiogenic growth factors, the influence of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, mechanical penetration of the human dermis, the site of endothelial cell addition, and the influence of hypoxia were all examined. A qualitative scoring system was used to assess the impact of these factors on the penetration of endothelial cells throughout the dermis. Similar results were achieved using freshly isolated small vessel human dermal microvascular endothelial cells or an endothelial cell line and a minimum cell seeding density was identified. Cell penetration was not influenced by the addition of angiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor); similarly, including epidermal keratinocytes or dermal fibroblasts did not encourage endothelial cell entry, and neither did mechanical introduction of holes throughout the dermis. Two factors were identified that significantly enhanced endothelial cell penetration into the dermis: hypoxia and the site of endothelial cell addition. Endothelial cells added from the papillary surface entered into the dermis much more effectively than when cells were added to the reticular surface of the dermis. We conclude that this model is valuable in improving our understanding of how to enhance vascularization of tissue-engineered grafts.

  14. Traction Stresses Exerted by Adherent Cells: From Angiogenesis to Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    Cells exert traction stresses against their substrate that mediate their ability to sense the mechanical properties of their microenvironment. These same forces mediate cell adhesion, migration and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts during tissue formation. In this talk, I will present our data on the traction stresses generated by endothelial cells and metastatic breast cancer cells focused on understanding the processes of angiogenesis and metastasis, respectively. In the context of capillary formation, our data indicate that the mechanics of the substrate play a critical role in establishing endothelial cell-cell contacts. On more compliant substrates, endothelial cell shape and traction stresses polarize and promote the formation of stable cell-cell contacts. On stiffer substrates, traction stresses are less polarized and cell connectivity is disrupted. These data indicate that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment may drive cell connectivity and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts through the reorientation of traction stresses. In our studies of metastatic cell migration, we have found that traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential. We investigated three lines of varying metastatic potential (MCF10A, MCF7 and MDAMB231). MDAMB231, which are the most invasive, exert the most significant forces as measured by Traction Force Microscopy. These data present the possibility that cellular traction stress generation aids in the ability of metastatic cells to migrate through the matrix-dense tumor microenvironment. Such measurements are integral to link the mechanical and chemical microenvironment with the resulting response of the cell in health and disease.

  15. Angiogenesis and blood vessel stability in inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Aisling

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess blood vessel stability in inflammatory synovial tissue (ST) and to examine neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), oxidative DNA damage, and hypoxia in vivo. METHODS: Macroscopic vascularity and ST oxygen levels were determined in vivo in patients with inflammatory arthritis who were undergoing arthroscopy. Vessel maturity\\/stability was quantified in matched ST samples by dual immunofluorescence staining for factor VIII (FVIII)\\/alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). NCAM and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2\\'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Angiogenesis was assessed in vitro, using human dermal endothelial cells (HDECs) in a Matrigel tube formation assay. RESULTS: A significant number of immature vessels (showing no pericyte recruitment) was observed in tissue from patients with inflammatory arthritis (P < 0.001), in contrast to osteoarthritic and normal tissue, which showed complete recruitment of pericytes. Low in vivo PO(2) levels in the inflamed joint (median [range] 22.8 [3.2-54.1] mm Hg) were inversely related to increased macroscopic vascularity (P < 0.04) and increased microscopic expression of FVIII and alpha-SMA (P < 0.04 and P < 0.03, respectively). A significant proportion of vessels showed focal expression of NCAM and strong nuclear 8-oxodG expression, implicating a loss of EC-pericyte contact and increased DNA damage, levels of which were inversely associated with low in vivo PO(2) (P = 0.04 for each comparison). Circulating cells were completely negative for 8-oxodG. Exposure of HDEC to 3% O(2) (reflecting mean ST in vivo measurements) significantly increased EC tube formation (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate the presence of unstable vessels in inflamed joints associated with hypoxia, incomplete EC-pericyte interactions, and increased DNA damage. These changes may further contribute to persistent hypoxia in the inflamed joint to further drive this unstable microenvironment.

  16. Promotion of adipogenesis by an EP2 receptor agonist via stimulation of angiogenesis in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryota; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Atsushi; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu

    2014-08-01

    Body weight loss is a common manifestation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly those with severe emphysema. Adipose angiogenesis is a key mediator of adipogenesis and use of pro-angiogenic agents may serve as a therapeutic option for lean COPD patients. Since angiogenesis is stimulated by PGE2, we examined whether ONO-AE1-259, a selective E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptor agonist, might promote adipose angiogenesis and adipogenesis in a murine model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema (EIE mice). Mice were intratracheally instilled with elastase or saline, followed after 4 weeks by intraperitoneal administration of ONO-AE1-259 for 4 weeks. The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) weight decreased in the EIE mice, whereas in the EIE mice treated with ONO-AE1-259, the SAT weight was largely restored, which was associated with significant increases in SAT adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and VEGF protein production. In contrast, ONO-AE1-259 administration induced no alteration in the weight of the visceral adipose tissue. These results suggest that in EIE mice, ONO-AE1-259 stimulated adipose angiogenesis possibly via VEGF production, and thence, adipogenesis. Our data pave the way for the development of therapeutic interventions for weight loss in emphysema patients, e.g., use of pro-angiogenic agents targeting the adipose tissue vascular component. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cranial vasculature in zebrafish forms by angioblast cluster-derived angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Kira; Lu, Annie; Sumanas, Saulius

    2010-12-01

    Formation of embryonic vasculature involves vasculogenesis as endothelial cells differentiate and aggregate into vascular cords and angiogenesis which includes branching from the existing vessels. In the zebrafish which has emerged as an advantageous model to study vasculogenesis, cranial vasculature is thought to originate by a combination of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, but how these processes are coordinated is not well understood. To determine how angioblasts assemble into cranial vasculature, we generated an etsrp:GFP transgenic line in which GFP reporter is expressed under the promoter control of an early regulator of vascular and myeloid development, etsrp/etv2. By utilizing time-lapse imaging we show that cranial vessels originate by angiogenesis from angioblast clusters, which themselves form by the mechanism of vasculogenesis. The two major pairs of bilateral clusters include the rostral organizing center (ROC) which gives rise to the most rostral cranial vessels and the midbrain organizing center (MOC) which gives rise to the posterior cranial vessels and to the myeloid and endocardial lineages. In Etsrp knockdown embryos initial cranial vasculogenesis proceeds normally but endothelial and myeloid progenitors fail to initiate differentiation, migration and angiogenesis. Such angioblast cluster-derived angiogenesis is likely to be involved during vasculature formation in other vertebrate systems as well. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. On the mathematical modeling of wound healing angiogenesis in skin as a reaction-transport process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegg, Jennifer A; Menon, Shakti N; Maini, Philip K; McElwain, D L Sean

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, numerous research groups have attempted to provide mathematical descriptions of the skin wound healing process. The development of theoretical models of the interlinked processes that underlie the healing mechanism has yielded considerable insight into aspects of this critical phenomenon that remain difficult to investigate empirically. In particular, the mathematical modeling of angiogenesis, i.e., capillary sprout growth, has offered new paradigms for the understanding of this highly complex and crucial step in the healing pathway. With the recent advances in imaging and cell tracking, the time is now ripe for an appraisal of the utility and importance of mathematical modeling in wound healing angiogenesis research. The purpose of this review is to pedagogically elucidate the conceptual principles that have underpinned the development of mathematical descriptions of wound healing angiogenesis, specifically those that have utilized a continuum reaction-transport framework, and highlight the contribution that such models have made toward the advancement of research in this field. We aim to draw attention to the common assumptions made when developing models of this nature, thereby bringing into focus the advantages and limitations of this approach. A deeper integration of mathematical modeling techniques into the practice of wound healing angiogenesis research promises new perspectives for advancing our knowledge in this area. To this end we detail several open problems related to the understanding of wound healing angiogenesis, and outline how these issues could be addressed through closer cross-disciplinary collaboration.

  19. The tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Yi-Yong; Lee, Dong-Keon; So, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Jeoung, Dooil; Lee, Hansoo; Choe, Jongseon; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2015-01-01

    Kringle 5, derived from plasminogen, is highly capable of inhibiting angiogenesis. Here, we have designed and synthesized 10 tetrapeptides, based on the amino acid properties of the core tetrapeptide Lys-Leu-Tyr-Asp (KLYD) originating from anti-angiogenic kringle 5 of human plasminogen. Of these, Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE) effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation, with an IC 50 of 0.06–0.08 nM, which was about ten-fold lower than that of the control peptide KLYD (0.79 nM), as well as suppressed developmental angiogenesis in a zebrafish model. Furthermore, this peptide effectively inhibited the cellular events that precede angiogenesis, such as ERK and eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide production, in endothelial cells stimulated with VEGF. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RLYE is a potent anti-angiogenic peptide that targets the VEGF signaling pathway. - Highlights: • The tetrapeptide RLYE inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro. • RLYE also suppressed neovascularization in a zebrafish model. • Its effect was correlated with inhibition of VEGF-induced ERK and eNOS activation. • RLYE may be used as a therapeutic drug for angiogenesis-related diseases

  20. The effects of CD147 on the cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haoyuan; Shao, Ying; Chen, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the effects of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) on glioma proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis. Tissue samples were obtained from 101 glioma cases while normal brain tissues were obtained from 30 brain injury cases. Immunohistochemical assay was performed to detect the expressions of CD147, CD34, and VEGF in tissue samples. QRT-PCR was performed to detect the relative expression of CD147 mRNA in human glioma cell lines. CD147 siRNA was transfected into glioma cell line U251. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis were tested by MTT, flow cytometry, Transwell assay, and vasculogenic mimicry assay, respectively. Expressions of relative proteins were analyzed with western blot. CD147 was positively expressed with the percentage of 0, 37.5, 44.8, 67.9, and 85.7 % in normal tissues and glioma tissues with WHO grades I-IV, respectively, and the scores of MVDand VEGF were associated with the expression of CD147. CD147 was significantly upregulated in the human glioma cell lines (P CD147 suppressed cell proliferation, blocked cell cycle, induced apoptosis, inhibited cell invasion and angiogenesis in glioma cells in vitro. The expression of CD147 was significantly associated with WHO tumor grade and angiogenesis; silencing of CD147 contributed to inhibition of glioma proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Our study provided firm evidence that CD 147 is a potential glioma target for anti-angiogenic therapies.

  1. Melanocyte pigmentation inversely correlates with MCP-1 production and angiogenesis-inducing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, Irit; Adini, Avner; Bazinet, Lauren; Watnick, Randolph S; Bielenberg, Diane R; D'Amato, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of certain angiogenesis-dependent diseases is higher in Caucasians than in African Americans. Angiogenesis is amplified in wound healing and cornea models in albino C57 mice compared with black C57 mice. Moreover, mouse and human melanocytes with low pigmentation stimulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration in vitro more than melanocytes with high pigmentation. This effect is due, in part, to the secretion of an angiogenic protein called fibromodulin (FMOD) from lowly pigmented melanocytes. Herein, we expand upon the mechanism contributing to increased angiogenesis in lighter skin and report that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is secreted by nonpigmented mouse melanocytes by 5- to 10-fold more than pigmented melanocytes. MCP-1 protein stimulates EC proliferation and migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. Mechanistic studies determine that FMOD is upstream of MCP-1 and promotes its secretion from both melanocytes and activated ECs via stimulation of NF-κB activity. Mice injected with FMOD-neutralizing antibodies show 2.3-fold decreased levels of circulating MCP-1. Human studies confirmed that, on average, Caucasians have 2-fold higher serum levels of MCP-1 than African Americans. Taken together, this study implicates the FMOD/MCP-1 pathway in the regulation of angiogenesis by local melanocytes and suggests that melanogenic activity may protect against aberrant angiogenic diseases. © FASEB.

  2. High-grade ovarian cancer secreting effective exosomes in tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huan; Ye, Jun; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Li-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecological cancer, related closely to tumor stage. High-grade ovarian cancer always results in a late diagnose and high recurrence, which reduce survival within five years. Until recently, curable therapy is still under research and anti-angiogenesis proves a promising way. Tumor-derived exosomes are essential in tumor migration and metastases such as angiogenesis is enhanced by exosomes. In our study, we have made comparison between high-grade and unlikely high-grade serous ovarian cancer cells on exosomal function of endothelial cells proliferation, migration and tube formation. Exosomes derived from high-grade ovarian cancer have a profound impact on angiogenesis with comparison to unlikely high-grade ovarian cancer. Proteomic profiles revealed some potential proteins involved in exosomal function of angiogenesis such as ATF2, MTA1, ROCK1/2 and so on. Therefore, exosomes plays an influential role in angiogenesis in ovarian serous cancer and also function more effectively in high-grade ovarian cancer cells.

  3. Monitoring angiogenesis using a human compatible calibration for broadband near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runze; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Ying; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of many conditions, including cancer, stroke, vascular disease, diabetes, and high-altitude exposure. We have previously shown that one can study angiogenesis in animal models by using total hemoglobin (tHb) as a marker of cerebral blood volume (CBV), measured using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (bNIRS). However, the method was not suitable for patients as global anoxia was used for the calibration. Here we determine if angiogenesis could be detected using a calibration method that could be applied to patients. CBV, as a marker of angiogenesis, is quantified in a rat cortex before and after hypoxia acclimation. Rats are acclimated at 370-mmHg pressure for three weeks, while rats in the control group are housed under the same conditions, but under normal pressure. CBV increased in each animal in the acclimation group. The mean CBV (%volume/volume) is 3.49%±0.43% (mean±SD) before acclimation for the experimental group, and 4.76%±0.29% after acclimation. The CBV for the control group is 3.28%±0.75%, and 3.09%±0.48% for the two measurements. This demonstrates that angiogenesis can be monitored noninvasively over time using a bNIRS system with a calibration method that is compatible with human use and less stressful for studies using animals.

  4. Indirubin inhibits cell proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis in tumor-derived endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Z

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhuohong Li, Chaofu Zhu, Baiping An, Yu Chen, Xiuyun He, Lin Qian, Lan Lan, Shijie Li Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, China Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most predominant malignancies with high fatality rate and its incidence is rising at an alarming rate because of its resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. Indirubin is the major active anti-tumor ingredient of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of indirubin on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of tumor-derived endothelial cells (Td-EC. Methods: Td-EC were derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC by treating HUVEC with the conditioned medium of human liver cancer cell line HepG2. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis were assessed by MTT, wound healing, in vitro cell invasion, and in vitro tube formation assay. Results: Td-EC were successfully obtained from HUVEC cultured with 50% culture supernatant from serum-starved HepG2 cells. Indirubin significantly inhibited Td-EC proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indirubin also inhibited Td-EC migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. However, indirubin’s effects were weaker on HUVEC than Td-EC. Conclusion: Indirubin significantly inhibited Td-EC proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Keywords: indirubin, Td-EC, proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis

  5. The influence of platelet- derived products on angiogenesis and tissue repair: a concise update

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    Constanza E Martínez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Platelet degranulation allows the release of a large amount of soluble mediators, is an essential step for wound healing initiation, and stimulates clotting and angiogenesis. The latter process is one of the most critical biological events observed during tissue repair,increasing the growth of blood vessels in the maturing wound. Angiogenesis requires the action of a variety of growth factors that act in an appropriate physiological ratio to assure functional blood vessel restoration. Platelets release main regulators of angiogenesis: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2, and Platelet derived growth factors (PDGFs, among others. In order to stimulate tissue repair, platelet derived fractions have been used as an autologous source of growth factors and biomolecules, namely Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP, Platelet Poor Plasma (PPP and Platelet Rich Fibrin(PRF. The continuous release of these growth factors has been proposed to promote angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Considering the existence of clinical trials currently evaluating the efficacy of autologous PRP, the present review analyses fundamental questions regarding the putative role of platelet derived fractions as regulators of angiogenesis and evaluates the possible clinical implications of these formulations.

  6. The tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis

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    Baek, Yi-Yong; Lee, Dong-Keon [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); So, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Cheol-Hee [Department of Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jeoung, Dooil [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansoo [Department of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Jongseon [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Moo-Ho [Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwon-Soo [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Guen [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Myeong, E-mail: ymkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Kringle 5, derived from plasminogen, is highly capable of inhibiting angiogenesis. Here, we have designed and synthesized 10 tetrapeptides, based on the amino acid properties of the core tetrapeptide Lys-Leu-Tyr-Asp (KLYD) originating from anti-angiogenic kringle 5 of human plasminogen. Of these, Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE) effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation, with an IC{sub 50} of 0.06–0.08 nM, which was about ten-fold lower than that of the control peptide KLYD (0.79 nM), as well as suppressed developmental angiogenesis in a zebrafish model. Furthermore, this peptide effectively inhibited the cellular events that precede angiogenesis, such as ERK and eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide production, in endothelial cells stimulated with VEGF. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RLYE is a potent anti-angiogenic peptide that targets the VEGF signaling pathway. - Highlights: • The tetrapeptide RLYE inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro. • RLYE also suppressed neovascularization in a zebrafish model. • Its effect was correlated with inhibition of VEGF-induced ERK and eNOS activation. • RLYE may be used as a therapeutic drug for angiogenesis-related diseases.

  7. [Research progress of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors on healing of chronic diabetic foot ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunyi; Liang, Yujie; Ran, Xingwu

    2018-05-01

    To review the effect of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on the wound healing and its mechanisms in chronic diabetic foot ulcers. The latest literature concerning DPP-4 inhibitors for chronic diabetic foot ulcers was extensively reviewed, as well as the potential benefit and mechanism of DPP-4 inhibitors on wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers was analyzed thoroughly. DPP-4 inhibitors can accelerated the ulcer healing. The mechanisms probably include inhibiting the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and restoring the balance of the wound MMP and the tissue inhibitors of MMP; promoting recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells and augmenting angiogenesis; optimizing extracellular matrix construction and the immune response to persistent hypoxia in chronic diabetes wounds, and so on. At present, clinical researches show that DPP-4 inhibitors may be considered as an adjuvant treatment for chronic diabetic foot ulcers. DPP-4 inhibitors show promise in the local wound healing of chronic diabetic foot ulcers. However, more strictly designed, adequately powered, long-term follow-up, and high-quality randomized control trials are needed to further verify their efficacy and safety for chronic diabetic foot ulcers.

  8. Inhibitory effects of regorafenib, a multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on corneal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Onder

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the inhibitory effects of regorafenib (BAY 73-4506, a multikinase inhibitor, on corneal neovascularization (NV.METHODS:Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g, were used. Corneal NV was induced by NaOH in the left eyes of each rat. Following the establishment of alkali burn, the animals were randomized into five groups according to topical treatment. Group 1 (n = 6 received 0.9% NaCl, Group 2 (n = 6 received dimethyl sulfoxide, Group 3 (n = 6 received regorafenib 1 mg/mL, Group 4 (n =6 received bevacizumab 5 mg/mL and Group 5 (n = 6 received 0.1% dexamethasone phosphate. On the 7d, the corneal surface covered with neovascular vessels was measured on photographs as the percentage of the cornea’s total area using computer-imaging analysis. The corneas obtained from rats were semiquantitatively evaluated for caspase-3 and vascular endothelial growth factor by immunostaining.RESULTS:A statistically significant difference in the percent area of corneal NV was found among the groups (P <0.001. Although the Group 5 had the smallest percent area of corneal NV, there was no difference among Groups 3, 4 and 5 (P >0.005. There was a statistically significant difference among the groups in apoptotic cell density (P = 0.002. The staining intensity of vascular endothelial growth factor in the epithelial and endothelial layers of cornea was significantly different among the groups (P <0.05. The staining intensity of epithelial and endothelial vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly weaker in Groups 3, 4 and 5 than in Groups 1 and 2.CONCLUSION: Topical administration of regorafenib 1 mg/mL is partly effective for preventing alkali-induced corneal NV in rats.

  9. A Miniaturized Chemical Proteomic Approach for Target Profiling of Clinical Kinase Inhibitors in Tumor Biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamrád, Ivo; Rix, Uwe; Stukalov, Alexey; Gridling, Manuela; Parapatics, Katja; Müller, André C.; Altiok, Soner; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Haura, Eric B.; Bennett, Keiryn L.

    2014-01-01

    While targeted therapy based on the idea of attenuating the activity of a preselected, therapeutically relevant protein has become one of the major trends in modern cancer therapy, no truly specific targeted drug has been developed and most clinical agents have displayed a degree of polypharmacology. Therefore, the specificity of anticancer therapeutics has emerged as a highly important but severely underestimated issue. Chemical proteomics is a powerful technique combining postgenomic drug-affinity chromatography with high-end mass spectrometry analysis and bioinformatic data processing to assemble a target profile of a desired therapeutic molecule. Due to high demands on the starting material, however, chemical proteomic studies have been mostly limited to cancer cell lines. Herein, we report a down-scaling of the technique to enable the analysis of very low abundance samples, as those obtained from needle biopsies. By a systematic investigation of several important parameters in pull-downs with the multikinase inhibitor bosutinib, the standard experimental protocol was optimized to 100 µg protein input. At this level, more than 30 well-known targets were detected per single pull-down replicate with high reproducibility. Moreover, as presented by the comprehensive target profile obtained from miniaturized pull-downs with another clinical drug, dasatinib, the optimized protocol seems to be extendable to other drugs of interest. Sixty distinct human and murine targets were finally identified for bosutinib and dasatinib in chemical proteomic experiments utilizing core needle biopsy samples from xenotransplants derived from patient tumor tissue. Altogether, the developed methodology proves robust and generic and holds many promises for the field of personalized health care. PMID:23901793

  10. Development and experimental test of support vector machines virtual screening method for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bucong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Src plays various roles in tumour progression, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and survival. It is one of the multiple targets of multi-target kinase inhibitors in clinical uses and trials for the treatment of leukemia and other cancers. These successes and appearances of drug resistance in some patients have raised significant interest and efforts in discovering new Src inhibitors. Various in-silico methods have been used in some of these efforts. It is desirable to explore additional in-silico methods, particularly those capable of searching large compound libraries at high yields and reduced false-hit rates. Results We evaluated support vector machines (SVM as virtual screening tools for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries. SVM trained and tested by 1,703 inhibitors and 63,318 putative non-inhibitors correctly identified 93.53%~ 95.01% inhibitors and 99.81%~ 99.90% non-inhibitors in 5-fold cross validation studies. SVM trained by 1,703 inhibitors reported before 2011 and 63,318 putative non-inhibitors correctly identified 70.45% of the 44 inhibitors reported since 2011, and predicted as inhibitors 44,843 (0.33% of 13.56M PubChem, 1,496 (0.89% of 168 K MDDR, and 719 (7.73% of 9,305 MDDR compounds similar to the known inhibitors. Conclusions SVM showed comparable yield and reduced false hit rates in searching large compound libraries compared to the similarity-based and other machine-learning VS methods developed from the same set of training compounds and molecular descriptors. We tested three virtual hits of the same novel scaffold from in-house chemical libraries not reported as Src inhibitor, one of which showed moderate activity. SVM may be potentially explored for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries at low false-hit rates.

  11. Development and experimental test of support vector machines virtual screening method for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bucong; Ma, Xiaohua; Zhao, Ruiying; Zhang, Jingxian; Wei, Xiaona; Liu, Xianghui; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Cunlong; Tan, Chunyan; Jiang, Yuyang; Chen, Yuzong

    2012-11-23

    Src plays various roles in tumour progression, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and survival. It is one of the multiple targets of multi-target kinase inhibitors in clinical uses and trials for the treatment of leukemia and other cancers. These successes and appearances of drug resistance in some patients have raised significant interest and efforts in discovering new Src inhibitors. Various in-silico methods have been used in some of these efforts. It is desirable to explore additional in-silico methods, particularly those capable of searching large compound libraries at high yields and reduced false-hit rates. We evaluated support vector machines (SVM) as virtual screening tools for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries. SVM trained and tested by 1,703 inhibitors and 63,318 putative non-inhibitors correctly identified 93.53%~ 95.01% inhibitors and 99.81%~ 99.90% non-inhibitors in 5-fold cross validation studies. SVM trained by 1,703 inhibitors reported before 2011 and 63,318 putative non-inhibitors correctly identified 70.45% of the 44 inhibitors reported since 2011, and predicted as inhibitors 44,843 (0.33%) of 13.56M PubChem, 1,496 (0.89%) of 168 K MDDR, and 719 (7.73%) of 9,305 MDDR compounds similar to the known inhibitors. SVM showed comparable yield and reduced false hit rates in searching large compound libraries compared to the similarity-based and other machine-learning VS methods developed from the same set of training compounds and molecular descriptors. We tested three virtual hits of the same novel scaffold from in-house chemical libraries not reported as Src inhibitor, one of which showed moderate activity. SVM may be potentially explored for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries at low false-hit rates.

  12. Wound healing effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: An emerging concept in management of diabetic foot ulcer-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboo, Apoorva; Rathnayake, Ayeshmanthe; Vangaveti, Venkat N; Malabu, Usman H

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have a well-known effect on glycaemic control in patients with diabetes but little is known on their wound healing role in this group of population. This paper reviews the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers. Published data on effects and mechanism of DDP-4 inhibitors on wound healing were derived from Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar search of English language literature from 1994 to 2014 using the key words such as "DPP-4 inhibitors", "endothelial healing" "diabetes" and "chronic ulcers". DPP-4 inhibitors show a potential benefit in processes of wound healing in diabetic chronic foot ulcers. The enzyme inhibitors promote recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells and allow the final scaffolding of wounds. Furthermore DPP-4 inhibitors augment angiogenesis and have widespread effects on optimising the immune response to persistent hypoxia in chronic diabetes wounds. DPP-4 inhibitors show promise in the local wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers in addition to its already established glycaemic control. In the light of high rate of amputations due to non-healing ulcers with profound psychological and economical liability, more investigations on the usefulness of DPP-4 inhibitors in the high risk diabetes population are needed. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Melissa M.; Kumar, Ashavani; Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Ajayan, Pulickel; Linhardt, Robert J.; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2009-11-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (Pcancer and inflammatory diseases.

  14. Decreased angiogenesis and arthritic disease in rabbits treated with an αvβ3 antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storgard, Chris M.; Stupack, Dwayne G.; Jonczyk, Alfred; Goodman, Simon L.; Fox, Robert I.; Cheresh, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease associated with intense angiogenesis and vascular expression of integrin αvβ3. Intra-articular administration of a cyclic peptide antagonist of integrin αvβ3 to rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis early in disease resulted in inhibition of synovial angiogenesis and reduced synovial cell infiltrate, pannus formation, and cartilage erosions. These effects were not associated with lymphopenia or impairment of leukocyte function. Furthermore, when administered in chronic, preexisting disease, the αvβ3 antagonist effectively diminished arthritis severity and was associated with a quantitative increase in apoptosis of the angiogenic blood vessels. Therefore, angiogenesis appears to be a central factor in the initiation and persistence of arthritic disease, and antagonists of integrin αvβ3 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for RA. PMID:9884333

  15. Protein kinase D1 signaling in angiogenic gene expression and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eRen MD, Phd, FAHA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase D 1 (PKD-1 is a signaling kinase important in fundamental cell functions including migration, proliferation and differentiation. PKD-1 is also a key regulator of gene expression and angiogenesis that is essential for cardiovascular development and tumor progression. Further understanding molecular aspects of PKD-1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis may have translational implications in obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The author will summarize and provide the insights into molecular mechanisms by which PKD-1 regulates transcriptional expression of angiogenic genes, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of CD36 by PKD-1-FoxO1 signaling axis along with the potential implications of this axis in arterial differentiation and morphogenesis. He will also discuss a new concept of dynamic balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in determining angiogenic switch, and stress how PKD-1 signaling regulates VEGF signaling-mediated angiogenesis.

  16. Halting angiogenesis by non-viral somatic gene therapy alleviates psoriasis and murine psoriasiform skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John Robert; Wallbrecht, Katrin; Schön, Margarete

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated angiogenesis is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, a common skin disorder that affects approximately 2% of the population. Studying both human psoriasis in 2 complementary xenotransplantation models and psoriasis-like skin lesions in transgenic mice......-15) by in vivo electroporation reduced cutaneous angiogenesis and vascularization in all 3 models. As demonstrated using red fluorescent protein-coupled RDD, the treatment resulted in muscular expression of the gene product and its deposition within the cutaneous hyperangiogenic connective tissue....... High-resolution ultrasound revealed reduced cutaneous blood flow in vivo after electroporation with RDD but not with control plasmids. In addition, angiogenesis- and inflammation-related molecular markers, keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal thickness, and clinical disease scores were downregulated...

  17. Regulation of angiogenesis in human skeletal muscle with specific focus on pro- angiogenic and angiostatic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte

    It is well established that acute exercise promotes an angiogenic response and that a period of exercise training results in capillary growth. Skeletal muscle angiogenesis is a complex process that requires a coordinated interplay of multiple factors and compounds to ensure proper vascular function....... The angiogenic process is initiated through changes in mechanical and/or metabolic factors during exercise and when exercise is repeated these stimuli may result in capillary growth if needed. The present PhD thesis is based on six studies in which the regulation of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle...... was studied in peripheral arterial disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important factor in exercise-induced angiogenesis and is located primarily in muscle cells but also in endothelial cells, pericytes, and in the extracellular matrix. VEGF protein secretion to the interstitium...

  18. Hypoxia-driven angiogenesis: role of tip cells and extracellular matrix scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Stéphane; Monnot, Catherine; Muller, Laurent; Eichmann, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Angiogenesis is a highly coordinated tissue remodeling process leading to blood vessel formation. Hypoxia triggers angiogenesis via induction of expression of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF instructs endothelial cells to form tip cells, which lead outgrowing capillary sprouts, whereas Notch signaling inhibits sprout formation. Basement membrane deposition and mechanical cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) induced by hypoxia may participate to coordinated vessel sprouting in conjunction with the VEGF and Notch signaling pathways. Hypoxia regulates ECM composition, deposition, posttranslational modifications and rearrangement. In particular, hypoxia-driven vascular remodeling is dynamically regulated through modulation of ECM-modifying enzyme activities that eventually affect both matricellular proteins and growth factor availability. Better understanding of the complex interplay between endothelial cells and soluble growth factors and mechanical factors from the ECM will certainly have significant implications for understanding the regulation of developmental and pathological angiogenesis driven by hypoxia.

  19. A Mouse Model of the Cornea Pocket Assay for Angiogenesis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Fan; Li, Yang; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Kumar, Anil; Lee, Chunsik; Li, Xuri

    2011-01-01

    A normal cornea is clear of vascular tissues. However, blood vessels can be induced to grow and survive in the cornea when potent angiogenic factors are administered 1. This uniqueness has made the cornea pocket assay one of the most used models for angiogenesis studies. The cornea composes multiple layers of cells. It is therefore possible to embed a pellet containing the angiogenic factor of interest in the cornea to investigate its angiogenic effect 2,3. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of how to (I) produce the angiogenic factor-containing pellet (II) embed the pellet into the cornea (III) analyze the angiogenesis induced by the angiogenic factor of interest. Since the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is known as one of the most potent angiogenic factors 4, it is used here to induce angiogenesis in the cornea. PMID:21876523

  20. Celecoxib ameliorates portal hypertension of the cirrhotic rats through the dual inhibitory effects on the intrahepatic fibrosis and angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased intra-hepatic resistance to portal blood flow is the primary factor leading to portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Up-regulated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the cirrhotic liver might be a potential target to ameliorate portal hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of celecoxib, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, on portal hypertension and the mechanisms behind it. METHODS: Cirrhotic liver model of rat was established by peritoneal injection of thiacetamide (TAA. 36 rats were randomly assigned to control, TAA and TAA+celecoxib groups. Portal pressures were measured by introduction of catheters into portal vein. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed by the visible hepatic fibrotic areas and mRNAs for collagen III and α-SMA. The neovasculature was determined by hepatic vascular areas, vascular casts and CD31 expression. Expressions of COX-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 and related signal molecules were quantitated. RESULTS: Compared with TAA group, the portal pressure in TAA+celecoxib group was significantly decreased by 17.8%, p<0.01. Celecoxib treatment greatly reduced the tortuous hepatic portal venules. The data of fibrotic areas, CD31expression, mRNA levels of α-SMA and collagen III in TAA+celecoxib group were much lower than those in TAA group, p<0.01. Furthermore, the up-regulation of hepatic mRNA and protein levels of VEGF, VEGFR-2 and COX-2 induced by TAA was significantly inhibited after celecoxib treatment. The expressions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, and c-fos were also down-regulated after celecoxib treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Long term administration of celecoxib can efficiently ameliorate portal hypertension in TAA rat model by its dual inhibitory effects on the intrahepatic fibrosis and angiogenesis. The anti-angiogenesis effect afforded by celecoxib may attribute to its

  1. In vitro study of 2,3-dehydrosilybin and its galloyl esters as potential inhibitors of angiogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivodová, V.; Zahler, S.; Karas, D.; Valentová, Kateřina; Ulrichová, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 8 (2016), s. 478-483 ISSN 0031-7144 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03037S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : NF-KAPPA-B * VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS * GROWTH-FACTOR Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.126, year: 2016

  2. Independent prognostic value of angiogenesis and the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S.; Overgaard, Jens; Rose, C.

    2003-01-01

    in breast cancer, we have evaluated the prognostic value of those factors in a total of 228 patients with primary, unilateral, invasive breast cancer, evaluated at a median follow-up time of 12 years. Microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34 and quantitated by the Chalkley...... counting technique. The levels of PAI-1 and its target proteinase uPA in tumour extracts were analysed by ELISA. The Chalkley count was not correlated with the levels of uPA or PAI-1. High values of uPA, PAI-1, and Chalkley count were all significantly correlated with a shorter recurrence-free survival.......6 (1.01–2.69) and 1.4 (1.02–1.81), respectively. For overall survival, the Chalkley count, but not PAI-1, was of significant independent prognostic value. The risk of death was 1.7 (1.30–2.15) for Chalkley counts in the upper tertile compared to the lower one. We conclude that the PAI-1 level...

  3. Gene Therapy with Endogenous Inhibitors of Angiogenesis for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Beyond Anti-VEGF Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn M. Prea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of substantial and irreversible vision loss amongst elderly populations in industrialized countries. The advanced neovascular (or “wet” form of the disease is responsible for severe and aggressive loss of central vision. Current treatments aim to seal off leaky blood vessels via laser therapy or to suppress vessel leakage and neovascular growth through intraocular injections of antibodies that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. However, the long-term success of anti-VEGF therapy can be hampered by limitations such as low or variable efficacy, high frequency of administration (usually monthly, potentially serious side effects, and, most importantly, loss of efficacy with prolonged treatment. Gene transfer of endogenous antiangiogenic proteins is an alternative approach that has the potential to provide long-term suppression of neovascularization and/or excessive vascular leakage in the eye. Preclinical studies of gene transfer in a large animal model have provided impressive preliminary results with a number of transgenes. In addition, a clinical trial in patients suffering from advanced neovascular AMD has provided proof-of-concept for successful gene transfer. In this mini review, we summarize current theories pertaining to the application of gene therapy for neovascular AMD and the potential benefits when used in conjunction with endogenous antiangiogenic proteins.

  4. Dimethyl phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) induces glioma regression by inhibiting angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yan-qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Division of Histology and Embryology, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); He, Xiao-dong [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Jun, Li [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Bioengineering Medicine, National Engineering Research Centre of Genetic Medicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chuai, Manli [Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Wang, Ju [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Bioengineering Medicine, National Engineering Research Centre of Genetic Medicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Li-jing, E-mail: wanglijing62@163.com [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Division of Histology and Embryology, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-01-15

    1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) is a synthetic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that could reduce airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that DMPP could dramatically inhibit glioma size maintained on the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We first performed MTT and BrdU incorporation experiments on U87 glioma cells in vitro to understand the mechanism involved. We established that DMPP did not significantly affect U87 cell proliferation and survival. We speculated that DMPP directly caused the tumor to regress by affecting the vasculature in and around the implanted tumor on our chick CAM model. Hence, we conducted detailed analysis of DMPP's inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Three vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo models were used in the study which included (1) early chick blood islands formation, (2) chick yolk-sac membrane (YSW) and (3) CAM models. The results revealed that DMPP directly suppressed all developmental stages involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis – possibly by acting through Ang-1 and HIF-2α signaling. In sum, our results show that DMPP could induce glioma regression grown on CAM by inhibiting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. - Highlights: ●We demonstrated that DMPP inhibited the growth of glioma cells on chick CAM. ●DMPP did not significantly affect the proliferation and survival of U87 cells. ●We revealed that DMPP suppressed vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in chick embryo. ●Angiogenesis in chick CAM was inhibited by DMPP via most probably Ang-1 and HIF-2α. ●DMPP could be potentially developed as an anti-tumor drug in the future.

  5. Scutellarin promotes in vitro angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhong-Xiu-Zi [Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Huang, Da-Yong [Department of Oncology, The Second Clinical Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Li, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Li-Na; Lv, Yan-Hong; Cui, Hai-Dong [Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Zheng, Jin-Hua, E-mail: jhzhenghrbmu@yahoo.cn [Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China)

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} It has been shown that scutellarin exhibits a variety of pharmacological actions, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, vasodilator as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemia protective effects, indicating beneficial vascular effects of scutellarin. Therefore, it is speculated that scutellarin may be able to stimulate angiogenesis, which could be beneficial in the treatment of ischemic disease, wound healing and tissue regeneration. {yields} The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the direct angiogenic actions of scutellarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. {yields} Our results showed that scutellarin to directly induce in vitro angiogenesis, which is closely correlated with upregulated MMP-2 expression, suggesting a potential for increasing angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Angiogenesis is critical to a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Scutellarin, a major flavonoid of a Chinese herbal medicine Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand. Mazz. has been shown to offer beneficial effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions. However, scutellarin's effects on angiogenesis and underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Here, we studied angiogenic effects of scutellarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Scutellarin was found by MTT assay to induce proliferation of HUVECs. In scutellarin-treated HUVECs, a dramatic increase in migration was measured by wound healing assay; Transwell chamber assay found significantly more invading cells in scutellarin-treated groups. Scutellarin also promoted capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs on Matrigel, and significantly upregulated platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Scutellarin's angiogenic mechanism was investigated in vitro by measuring expression of angiogenic factors associated with cell migration and invasion. Scutellarin strongly

  6. Scutellarin promotes in vitro angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhong-Xiu-Zi; Huang, Da-Yong; Li, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Li-Na; Lv, Yan-Hong; Cui, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Jin-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → It has been shown that scutellarin exhibits a variety of pharmacological actions, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, vasodilator as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemia protective effects, indicating beneficial vascular effects of scutellarin. Therefore, it is speculated that scutellarin may be able to stimulate angiogenesis, which could be beneficial in the treatment of ischemic disease, wound healing and tissue regeneration. → The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the direct angiogenic actions of scutellarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. → Our results showed that scutellarin to directly induce in vitro angiogenesis, which is closely correlated with upregulated MMP-2 expression, suggesting a potential for increasing angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Angiogenesis is critical to a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Scutellarin, a major flavonoid of a Chinese herbal medicine Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand. Mazz. has been shown to offer beneficial effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions. However, scutellarin's effects on angiogenesis and underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Here, we studied angiogenic effects of scutellarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Scutellarin was found by MTT assay to induce proliferation of HUVECs. In scutellarin-treated HUVECs, a dramatic increase in migration was measured by wound healing assay; Transwell chamber assay found significantly more invading cells in scutellarin-treated groups. Scutellarin also promoted capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs on Matrigel, and significantly upregulated platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Scutellarin's angiogenic mechanism was investigated in vitro by measuring expression of angiogenic factors associated with cell migration and invasion. Scutellarin strongly induced MMP-2 activation and m

  7. Gli3 Regulation of Myogenesis Is Necessary for Ischemia-Induced Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Marie-Ange; Vandierdonck, Soizic; Chapouly, Candice; Yu, Yang; Qin, Gangjian; Metras, Alexandre; Couffinhal, Thierry; Losordo, Douglas W.; Yao, Qinyu; Reynaud, Annabel; Jaspard-Vinassa, Béatrice; Belloc, Isabelle; Desgranges, Claude; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Rationale A better understanding of the mechanism underlying skeletal muscle repair is required to develop therapies that promote tissue regeneration in adults. Hedgehog signaling has been shown previously to be involved in myogenesis and angiogenesis: 2 crucial processes for muscle development and regeneration. Objective The objective of this study was to identify the role of the hedgehog transcription factor Gli3 in the crosstalk between angiogenesis and myogenesis in adults. Methods and Results Using conditional knockout mice, we found that Gli3 deficiency in endothelial cells did not affect ischemic muscle repair, whereas in myocytes, Gli3 deficiency resulted in severely delayed ischemia-induced myogenesis. Moreover, angiogenesis was also significantly impaired in HSA-CreERT2; Gli3Flox/Flox mice, demonstrating that impaired myogenesis indirectly affects ischemia-induced angiogenesis. The role of Gli3 in myocytes was then further investigated. We found that Gli3 promotes myoblast differentiation through myogenic factor 5 regulation. In addition, we found that Gli3 regulates several proangiogenic factors, including thymidine phosphorylase and angiopoietin-1 both in vitro and in vivo, which indirectly promote endothelial cell proliferation and arteriole formation. In addition, we found that Gli3 is upregulated in proliferating myoblasts by the cell cycle–associated transcription factor E2F1. Conclusions This study shows for the first time that Gli3-regulated postnatal myogenesis is necessary for muscle repair–associated angiogenesis. Most importantly, it implies that myogenesis drives angiogenesis in the setting of skeletal muscle repair and identifies Gli3 as a potential target for regenerative medicine. PMID:24044950

  8. Dimethyl phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) induces glioma regression by inhibiting angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yan-qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; He, Xiao-dong; Jun, Li; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Ju; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) is a synthetic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that could reduce airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that DMPP could dramatically inhibit glioma size maintained on the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We first performed MTT and BrdU incorporation experiments on U87 glioma cells in vitro to understand the mechanism involved. We established that DMPP did not significantly affect U87 cell proliferation and survival. We speculated that DMPP directly caused the tumor to regress by affecting the vasculature in and around the implanted tumor on our chick CAM model. Hence, we conducted detailed analysis of DMPP's inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Three vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo models were used in the study which included (1) early chick blood islands formation, (2) chick yolk-sac membrane (YSW) and (3) CAM models. The results revealed that DMPP directly suppressed all developmental stages involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis – possibly by acting through Ang-1 and HIF-2α signaling. In sum, our results show that DMPP could induce glioma regression grown on CAM by inhibiting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. - Highlights: ●We demonstrated that DMPP inhibited the growth of glioma cells on chick CAM. ●DMPP did not significantly affect the proliferation and survival of U87 cells. ●We revealed that DMPP suppressed vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in chick embryo. ●Angiogenesis in chick CAM was inhibited by DMPP via most probably Ang-1 and HIF-2α. ●DMPP could be potentially developed as an anti-tumor drug in the future

  9. Chalkley estimates of angiogenesis in early breast cancer--relevance to prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Birgitte V; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Yilmaz, Mette

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Chalkley estimates of angiogenesis add new knowledge regarding prediction of prognosis in 455 consecutive early breast carcinomas, both node-positive (52%) and node-negative (48%). Median follow-up was 101 months. Intense vascularization indicated......, high malignancy grade, negative oestrogen receptor, and increasing Chalkley counts (both tertiles and continuous) were independent markers of disease-specific death. Thus, in a univariate analysis it was found that high Chalkley estimates of angiogenesis indicated a poor prognosis, but high Chalkley...

  10. Histopathological growth pattern, proteolysis and angiogenesis in chemonaive patients resected for multiple colorectal liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eefsen, Rikke Løvendahl; Van den Eynden, Gert G; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise growth patterns, proteolysis, and angiogenesis in colorectal liver metastases from chemonaive patients with multiple liver metastases. Twenty-four patients were included in the study, resected for a median of 2.6 metastases. The growth pattern......-type plasminogen activator receptor (P = 0.0008). Angiogenesis was most pronounced in metastases with a pushing growth pattern in comparison to those with desmoplastic (P = 0.0007) and replacement growth pattern (P = 0.021). Although a minor fraction of the patients harboured metastases with different growth...

  11. Epigenetic Regulation of Angiogenesis by JARID1B-Induced Repression of HOXA5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fork, Christian; Gu, Lunda; Hitzel, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Altering endothelial biology through epigenetic modifiers is an attractive novel concept, which is, however, just in its beginnings. We therefore set out to identify chromatin modifiers important for endothelial gene expression and contributing to angiogenesis. APPROACH AND RESULTS...... of JARID1B in the vascular system, Jarid1b knockout mice were studied. As global knockout results in increased mortality and developmental defects, tamoxifen-inducible and endothelial-specific knockout mice were generated. Acute knockout of Jarid1b attenuated retinal angiogenesis and endothelial sprout...

  12. IQGAP1-dependent signaling pathway regulates endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana D Meyer

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 signaling is an obligate requirement for normal development and pathological angiogenesis such as cancer and age-related macular degeneration. Although autophosphorylation of tyrosine 1173 (Y1173 of VEGFR-2 is considered a focal point for its angiogenic signal relay, however, the mechanism of phosphorylation of Y1173, signaling proteins that are recruited to this residue and their role in angiogenesis is not fully understood.In this study we demonstrate that c-Src kinase directly through its Src homology 2 (SH2 domain and indirectly via c-Cbl binds to phospho-Y1057 of VEGFR-2. Activation of c-Src kinase by a positive feedback mechanism phosphorylates VEGFR-2 at multi-docking site, Y1173. c-Src also catalyzes tyrosine phosphorylation of IQGAP1 and acts as an adaptor to bridge IQGAP1 to VEGFR-2. In turn, IQGAP1 activates b-Raf and mediates proliferation of endothelial cells. Silencing expression of IQGAP1 and b-Raf revealed that their activity is essential for VEGF to stimulate angiogenesis in an in vivo angiogenesis model of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM.Angiogenesis contributes to the pathology of numerous human diseases ranging from cancer to age-related macular degeneration. Determining molecular mechanism of tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and identification of molecules that are relaying its angiogenic signaling may identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention against angiogenesis-associated diseases. Our study shows that recruitment and activation of c-Src by VEGFR-2 plays a pivotal role in relaying angiogenic signaling of VEGFR-2; it phosphorylates VEGFR-2 at Y1173, facilitates association and activation of IQGAP1 and other signaling proteins to VEGFR-2. IQGAP1-dependent signaling, in part, is critically required for endothelial cell proliferation, a key step in angiogenesis. Thus, Y1057 of VEGFR-2 serves to regulate VEGFR-2 function in a combinatorial manner by

  13. Hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, and macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques are correlated with intraplaque angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluimer, Judith C.; Gasc, Jean-Marie; van Wanroij, Job L.; Kisters, Natasja; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Sollewijn Gelpke, Maarten D.; Cleutjens, Jack P.; van den Akker, Luc H.; Corvol, Pierre; Wouters, Bradly G.; Daemen, Mat J.; Bijnens, Ann-Pascale J.

    2008-01-01

    We sought to examine the presence of hypoxia in human carotid atherosclerosis and its association with hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) and intraplaque angiogenesis. Atherosclerotic plaques develop intraplaque angiogenesis, which is a typical feature of hypoxic tissue and expression of

  14. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health-medications/index.shtml. Accessed May 16, 2016. Hirsch M, et al. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for ... www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 16, 2016. Hirsch M, et al. Discontinuing antidepressant medications in adults. ...

  15. Angiogenesis PET Tracer Uptake (68Ga-NODAGA-E[(cRGDyK)]₂) in Induced Myocardial Infarction in Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Follin, Bjarke; Kastrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is part of the healing process following an ischemic injury and is vital for the post-ischemic repair of the myocardium. Therefore, it is of particular interest to be able to noninvasively monitor angiogenesis. This might, not only permit risk stratification of patients following...... myocardial infarction, but could also facilitate development and improvement of new therapies directed towards stimulation of the angiogenic response. During angiogenesis endothelial cells must adhere to one another to form new microvessels. αvβ₃ integrin has been found to be highly expressed in activated...... endothelial cells and has been identified as a critical modulator of angiogenesis. (68)Ga-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK)]₂ (RGD) has recently been developed by us as an angiogenesis positron-emission-tomography (PET) ligand targeted towards αvβ₃ integrin. In the present study, we induced myocardial infarction in Göttingen...

  16. Phase II and Biomarker Study of the Dual MET/VEGFR2 Inhibitor Foretinib in Patients With Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiri, Toni K.; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; Logan, Theodore F.; Harzstark, Andrea L.; Bukowski, Ronald M.; Rini, Brian I.; Srinivas, Sandy; Stein, Mark N.; Adams, Laurel M.; Ottesen, Lone H.; Laubscher, Kevin H.; Sherman, Laurie; McDermott, David F.; Haas, Naomi B.; Flaherty, Keith T.; Ross, Robert; Eisenberg, Peter; Meltzer, Paul S.; Merino, Maria J.; Bottaro, Donald P.; Linehan, W. Marston; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Foretinib is an oral multikinase inhibitor targeting MET, VEGF, RON, AXL, and TIE-2 receptors. Activating mutations or amplifications in MET have been described in patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of foretinib in patients with PRCC. Patients and Methods Patients were enrolled onto the study in two cohorts with different dosing schedules of foretinib: cohort A, 240 mg once per day on days 1 through 5 every 14 days (intermittent arm); cohort B, 80 mg daily (daily dosing arm). Patients were stratified on the basis of MET pathway activation (germline or somatic MET mutation, MET [7q31] amplification, or gain of chromosome 7). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Results Overall, 74 patients were enrolled, with 37 in each dosing cohort. ORR by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.0 was 13.5%, median progression-free survival was 9.3 months, and median overall survival was not reached. The presence of a germline MET mutation was highly predictive of a response (five of 10 v five of 57 patients with and without germline MET mutations, respectively). The most frequent adverse events of any grade associated with foretinib were fatigue, hypertension, gastrointestinal toxicities, and nonfatal pulmonary emboli. Conclusion Foretinib demonstrated activity in patients with advanced PRCC with a manageable toxicity profile and a high response rate in patients with germline MET mutations. PMID:23213094

  17. Gamma-secretase inhibitor treatment promotes VEGF-A-driven blood vessel growth and vascular leakage but disrupts neovascular perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Kalén

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway is essential for normal development due to its role in control of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. It is also critically involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. A key enzyme in the activation of Notch signaling is the gamma-secretase protein complex and therefore, gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs--originally developed for Alzheimer's disease--are now being evaluated in clinical trials for human malignancies. It is also clear that Notch plays an important role in angiogenesis driven by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A--a process instrumental for tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of GSIs on tumor vasculature has not been conclusively determined. Here we report that Compound X (CX, a GSI previously reported to potently inhibit Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, promotes angiogenic sprouting in vitro and during developmental angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, CX treatment suppresses tumor growth in a mouse model of renal carcinoma, leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and an increased tumor vascular density. Using a rabbit model of VEGF-A-driven angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that CX treatment promotes abnormal blood vessel growth characterized by vessel occlusion, disrupted blood flow, and increased vascular leakage. Based on these findings, we propose a model for how GSIs and other Notch inhibitors disrupt tumor blood vessel perfusion, which might be useful for understanding this new class of anti-cancer agents.

  18. Rhamnazin, a novel inhibitor of VEGFR2 signaling with potent antiangiogenic activity and antitumor efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yao; Cai, Wei; Pei, Chong-gang; Shao, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has emerged as an important tool for cancer therapy. The identification of new drugs from natural products has a long and successful history. In this study, we described a novel VEGFR2 inhibitor, rhamnazin, which inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. Rhamnazin significantly inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro as well as inhibited sprouts formation of rat aorta ring. In addition, it inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling regulator in HUVECs. Moreover, rhamnazin could directly inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of rhamnazin at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day could markedly inhibited human tumor xenograft growth and decreased microvessel densities (MVD) in tumor sections. Taken together, these preclinical evaluations suggest that rhamnazin inhibits angiogenesis and may be a promising anticancer drug candidate. - Highlights: • Rhamnazin inhibits the response of HUVECs to VEGF in vitro. • Rhamnazin inhibits VEGFR2 kinase activity and its downstream signaling. • Rhamnazin prevents the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor and reduces micro-vessel density in vivo

  19. Rhamnazin, a novel inhibitor of VEGFR2 signaling with potent antiangiogenic activity and antitumor efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yao [Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Clinical Ophthalmology Institute, No.17 Yongwaizheng Street, Donghu District, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi Province (China); Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Third Hospital of Nanchang, Nanchang Key Laboratory of Diabetes, No.1 Qianjing Road, Xihu District, Nanchang 330009, Jiangxi Province (China); Cai, Wei [Department of Medical Genetics, College of Basic Medical Science of Nanchang University, No.461 Bayi Road, Donghu District, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi Province (China); Pei, Chong-gang, E-mail: profchonggangpei@163.com [Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Clinical Ophthalmology Institute, No.17 Yongwaizheng Street, Donghu District, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi Province (China); Shao, Yi, E-mail: profyishao@163.com [Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Clinical Ophthalmology Institute, No.17 Yongwaizheng Street, Donghu District, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi Province (China)

    2015-03-20

    Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has emerged as an important tool for cancer therapy. The identification of new drugs from natural products has a long and successful history. In this study, we described a novel VEGFR2 inhibitor, rhamnazin, which inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. Rhamnazin significantly inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro as well as inhibited sprouts formation of rat aorta ring. In addition, it inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling regulator in HUVECs. Moreover, rhamnazin could directly inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of rhamnazin at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day could markedly inhibited human tumor xenograft growth and decreased microvessel densities (MVD) in tumor sections. Taken together, these preclinical evaluations suggest that rhamnazin inhibits angiogenesis and may be a promising anticancer drug candidate. - Highlights: • Rhamnazin inhibits the response of HUVECs to VEGF in vitro. • Rhamnazin inhibits VEGFR2 kinase activity and its downstream signaling. • Rhamnazin prevents the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor and reduces micro-vessel density in vivo.

  20. Complications of hyperglycaemia with PI3K–AKT–mTOR inhibitors in patients with advanced solid tumours on Phase I clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, E; Roda, D; Rafii, S; Jimenez, B; Capelan, M; Rihawi, K; Montemurro, F; Yap, T A; Kaye, S B; De Bono, J S; Molife, L R; Banerji, U

    2015-01-01

    Background: PI3K–AKT–mTOR inhibitors (PAMi) are promising anticancer treatments. Hyperglycaemia is a mechanism-based toxicity of these agents and is becoming increasingly important with their use in larger numbers of patients. Methods: Retrospective case-control study comparing incidence and severity of hyperglycaemia (all grades) between a case group of 387 patients treated on 18 phase I clinical trials with PAMi (78 patients with PI3Ki, 138 with mTORi, 144 with AKTi and 27 with PI3K/mTORi) and a control group of 109 patients treated on 10 phase I clinical trials with agents not directly targeting the PAM pathway. Diabetic patients were excluded in both groups. Results: The incidence of hyperglycaemia was not significantly different between cases and controls (86.6% vs 80.7%, respectively, P=0.129). However, high grade (grade 3–4) hyperglycaemia was more frequent in the PAMi group than in controls (6.7% vs 0%, respectively, P=0.005). The incidence of grade 3–4 hyperglycaemia was greater with AKT and multikinase inhibitors compared with other PAMi (P<0.001). All patients with high-grade hyperglycaemia received antihyperglycemic treatment and none developed severe metabolic complications (diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state). High-grade hyperglycaemia was the cause of permanent PAMi discontinuation in nine patients. Conclusions: PI3K–AKT–mTOR inhibitors are associated with small (6.7%) but statistically significant increased risk of high-grade hyperglycaemia compared with non-PAM targeting agents. However, PAMi-induced hyperglycaemia was not found to be associated with severe metabolic complications in this non-diabetic population of patients with advanced cancers. PMID:26554652

  1. An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in the combination treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Komarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors have anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties and can affect the processes of angiogenesis, by reducing the effects of angiotensin II (ATII. The use of ACE inhibitors in the combination therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA can be also effective for monitoring disease activity and for reducing a cardiovascular risk.Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of an ACE inhibitor in the combination therapy of RA.Patients and methods. Eighty-four patients with RA and endothelial dysfunction were examined; the mean age was 40.12±10.2 years; the mean disease duration was 4.22±3.43 years. All the patients had a blood level of ATII of >9 pg/ml. Enzyme immunoassay was used to measure the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α (Vector-Best, Russia, intercellular adhesion molecules 1 (ICAM-1 (Diaclone, France, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and ATII (Diagnostic, Canada. Wrist ultrasonography using the Doppler ultrasound apparatus ESAOTE MyLAB40 was carried out to assess synovial vascularization. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 43 patients who were assigned to receive standard therapy for RA according to the rheumatic disease treatment protocols; Group 2 comprised 41 patients who received the standard therapy plus ACE inhibitors 2.5–5 mg/day.Results. The use of ACE inhibitors in the 12-month combination therapy of RA patients led to an improvement in the endothelial regulation of vascular tone, to a decrease in the blood concentration of ICAM-1, to a reduction in the intensity of synovial angiogenesis and in the blood level of VEGF by 39%, and a more significant drop in the levels of CRP and TNF-? and in DAS28 by 1.2 scores as compared to those in the standard therapy.

  2. Infiltrating Mast Cells Correlate with Angiogenesis in Bone Metastases from Gastric Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ammendola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While gastric cancer is a well established angiogenesis driven tumor, no data has been published regarding angiogenesis stimulated by mast cells (MCs positive for tryptase in bone metastases from gastric cancer patients (BMGCP. It is well established that MCs play a role in immune responses and more recently it was demonstrated that MCs have been involved in tumor angiogenesis. We analyzed infiltrating MCs and neovascularization in BMGCP diagnosed by histology. A series of 15 stage T3-4N2-3M1 (by AJCC for Gastric Cancer Staging 7th Edition BMGCP from bone biopsies were selected. Tumour tissue samples were evaluated by mean of immunohistochemistry and image analysis methods in terms of MCs density positive to tryptase (MCDPT, MCs area positive to tryptase (MCAPT, microvascular density (MVD and endothelial area (EA. A significant correlation between MCDPT, MCAPT, MVD and EA groups to each other was found by Pearson and t-test analysis (r ranged from 0.68 to 0.82; p-value ranged from 0.00 to 0.02. Our very preliminary data suggest that infiltrating MCs positive for tryptase may play a role in BMGCP angiogenesis, and could be further evaluated as a novel target of anti-angiogenic therapy.

  3. Angiogenesis inhibition causes hypertension and placental dysfunction in a rat model of preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Wentzel, Parri; Skøtt, Ole

    2009-01-01

    in the mesometrial triangle was smaller in the pregnant Suramin-treated rats group than in the pregnant control rats group. CONCLUSION: The inhibition of uterine angiogenesis increases maternal blood pressure and compromises fetal and placental development. Placental hypoxia and subsequent activation of the renin...

  4. Evaluation of radiotracers for the detection of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque and myocardial angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimastromatteo, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary events are mainly caused by coronary plaque rupture or erosion. However, at present, there is no noninvasive tool available for the detection of vulnerable plaques. The first part of thesis is about evaluation of new radiotracers for the detection of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques. 99m Tc-B2702p, 20 derivatives, 99m Tc-VP and 99m Tc-VINP28 were evaluated in an experimental model of atherosclerosis (ApoE-/- mice with left carotid artery ligation). 99m Tc- B2702p1 is a potentially useful radiotracer for the in vivo molecular imaging of VCAM-1 expression in atherosclerotic plaques. Myocardial angiogenesis is an important post infarction phenomenon. Angiogenic therapy improves experimentally cardiac parameters. However, clinical trials using the same therapy are more controversial. At present, clinical imaging tools don't allow us to assess angiogenesis therapy. The second part of thesis is about validation of 99m Tc-RAFT-RGD in the detection of myocardial angiogenesis. 99m Tc-RAFT-RGD allow us to perform noninvasive molecular imaging of myocardial angiogenesis in an experimental model. (author)

  5. Radiolabeling of VEGF(165) with Tc-99m to evaluate VEGFR expression in tumor angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Filippo; Artico, Marco; Taurone, Samanta; Manni, Isabella; Bianchi, Enrica; Piaggio, Giulia; Weintraub, Bruce D.; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W.; Agostinelli, Enzo; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    Angiogenesis is the main process responsible for tumor growth and metastatization. The principal effector of such mechanism is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by cancer cells and other components of tumor microenvironment. Radiolabeled VEGF analogues may provide a useful tool

  6. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunping Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis.

  7. Angiogenesis in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: clinico-pathological correlations and prognostic significance in specific subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Judit Meszaros; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bendix, K

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate angiogenesis in different subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to correlate angiogenic scores to clinical endpoints. Pre-therapeutic lymph node biopsies from 308 patients with NHL [107 follicular B-cell lymphoma (FL), 94 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (...

  8. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 in Physiological and Pathophysiological Angiogenesis: Applications and Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimna, Agnieszka; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The cardiovascular system ensures the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all cells, tissues, and organs. Under extended exposure to reduced oxygen levels, cells are able to survive through the transcriptional activation of a series of genes that participate in angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, and cell proliferation. The oxygen-sensitive transcriptional activator HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) is a key transcriptional mediator of the response to hypoxic conditions. The HIF-1 pathway was found to be a master regulator of angiogenesis. Whether the process is physiological or pathological, HIF-1 seems to participate in vasculature formation by synergistic correlations with other proangiogenic factors such as VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), PlGF (placental growth factor), or angiopoietins. Considering the important contributions of HIF-1 in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, it should be considered a promising target for treating ischaemic diseases or cancer. In this review, we discuss the roles of HIF-1 in both physiological/pathophysiological angiogenesis and potential strategies for clinical therapy. PMID:26146622

  9. Systemic effects of angiogenesis inhibition alter pharmacokinetics and intratumoral delivery of nab-paclitaxel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steins, Anne; Ebbing, Eva A.; Pistorius, Marcel C. M.; Waasdorp, Cynthia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.; Medema, Jan Paul; Wilmink, Johanna W.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is critical to the growth of tumors. Vascularization-targeting agents, with or without cytotoxic drugs, are widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors including esophagogastric adenocarcinoma. However, little is known about the systemic effects of anti-angiogenic therapies

  10. Desert hedgehog promotes ischemia-induced angiogenesis by ensuring peripheral nerve survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Marie-Ange; Chapouly, Candice; Yao, Qinyu; Larrieu-Lahargue, Frédéric; Vandierdonck, Soizic; Reynaud, Annabel; Petit, Myriam; Jaspard-Vinassa, Béatrice; Belloc, Isabelle; Traiffort, Elisabeth; Ruat, Martial; Duplàa, Cécile; Couffinhal, Thierry; Desgranges, Claude; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Blood vessel growth and patterning have been shown to be regulated by nerve-derived signals. Desert hedgehog (Dhh), one of the Hedgehog family members, is expressed by Schwann cells of peripheral nerves. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of Dhh to angiogenesis in the setting of ischemia. We induced hindlimb ischemia in wild-type and Dhh(-/-) mice. First, we found that limb perfusion is significantly impaired in the absence of Dhh. This effect is associated with a significant decrease in capillary and artery density in Dhh(-/-). By using mice in which the Hedgehog signaling pathway effector Smoothened was specifically invalidated in endothelial cells, we demonstrated that Dhh does not promote angiogenesis by a direct activation of endothelial cells. On the contrary, we found that Dhh promotes peripheral nerve survival in the ischemic muscle and, by doing so, maintains the pool of nerve-derived proangiogenic factors. Consistently, we found that denervation of the leg, immediately after the onset of ischemia, severely impairs ischemia-induced angiogenesis and decreases expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, angiopoietin 1, and neurotrophin 3 in the ischemic muscle. This study demonstrates the crucial roles of nerves and factors regulating nerve physiology in the setting of ischemia-induced angiogenesis.

  11. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis stimulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the premature brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jinqiao; Sha, Bin; Zhou, Wenhao; Yang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of angiogenesis on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the premature brain. We observed the changes in neurogenesis that followed the stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis by altering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a 3-day-old rat model. VEGF expression was overexpressed by adenovirus transfection and down-regulated by siRNA interference. Using immunofluorescence assays, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR methods, we observed angiogenesis and the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the number of vWF-positive areas peaked at day 7, and they were highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at every time point. The number of neural stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the subventricular zone gradually increased over time in the VEGF up-regulation group. Among the three groups, the number of these cells was highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at the same time point. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR confirmed these results. These data suggest that angiogenesis may stimulate the proliferation of neural stem cells and differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the premature brain.

  12. Signal transduction by VEGF receptors in regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masabumi; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2006-01-01

    The VEGF/VPF (vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor) ligands and receptors are crucial regulators of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and vascular permeability in vertebrates. VEGF-A, the prototype VEGF ligand, binds and activates two tyrosine kinase receptors: VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1). VEGFR1, which occurs in transmembrane and soluble forms, negatively regulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during early embryogenesis, but it also acts as a positive regulator of angiogenesis and inflammatory responses, playing a role in several human diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. The soluble VEGFR1 is overexpressed in placenta in preeclampsia patients. VEGFR2 has critical functions in physiological and pathological angiogenesis through distinct signal transduction pathways regulating proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. VEGFR3, a receptor for the lymphatic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D, but not for VEGF-A, regulates vascular and lymphatic endothelial cell function during embryogenesis. Loss-of-function variants of VEGFR3 have been identified in lymphedema. Formation of tumor lymphatics may be stimulated by tumor-produced VEGF-C, allowing increased spread of tumor metastases through the lymphatics. Mapping the signaling system of these important receptors may provide the knowledge necessary to suppress specific signaling pathways in major human diseases

  13. Persistent Angiogenesis in the Autism Brain: An Immunocytochemical Study of Postmortem Cortex, Brainstem and Cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmitia, E. C.; Saccomano, Z. T.; Alzoobaee, M. F.; Boldrini, M.; Whitaker-Azmitia, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, we conducted an immunocytochemical search for markers of ongoing neurogenesis (e.g. nestin) in auditory cortex from postmortem sections of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched control donors. We found nestin labeling in cells of the vascular system, indicating blood vessels plasticity. Evidence of angiogenesis was…

  14. Bee products prevent VEGF-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Satoshi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ, bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of bee products using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Methods In an in vitro tube formation assay, HUVECs and fibroblast cells were incubated for 14 days with VEGF and various concentrations of bee products [RJ, ethanol extract of bee pollen, ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis and its constituent, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE]. To clarify the mechanism of in vitro angiogenesis, HUVEC proliferation and migration were induced by VEGF with or without various concentrations of RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE. Results RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE significantly suppressed VEGF-induced in vitro tube formation in the descending order: CAPE > Chinese red propolis >> bee pollen > RJ. RJ and Chinese red propolis suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. In contrast, bee pollen and CAPE suppressed only the proliferation. Conclusion Among the bee products, Chinese red propolis and CAPE in particular showed strong suppressive effects against VEGF-induced angiogenesis. These findings indicate that Chinese red propolis and CAPE may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related human diseases.

  15. Acetylbritannilactone Modulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling and Regulates Angiogenesis in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effects of 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL, a compound extracted from Inula britannica L., on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling and angiogenesis in endothelial cells (ECs. We showed that ABL promotes VEGF-induced cell proliferation, growth, migration, and tube formation in cultured human ECs. Furthermore, the modulatory effect of ABL on VEGF-induced Akt, MAPK p42/44, and p38 phosphorylation, as well as on upstream VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, were associated with VEGF-dependent Matrigel angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, animals treated with ABL (26 mg/kg/day recovered blood flow significantly earlier than control animals, suggesting that ABL affects ischemia-mediated angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that ABL strongly reduced the levels of VEGFR-2 on the cell surface, enhanced VEGFR-2 endocytosis, which consistent with inhibited VE-cadherin, a negative regulator of VEGF signaling associated with VEGFR-2 complex formation, but did not alter VE-cadherin or VEGFR-2 expression in ECs. Our results suggest that ABL may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for various cardiovascular diseases, including chronic ischemia, by regulating VEGF signaling and modulating angiogenesis.

  16. Study of the Impact of Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) on Endometrial Microvessel Density (MVD) and Angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Guosheng; Xiang Xianhong; Guo Wenbo; Zhang Bing; Chen Wei; Yang Jianyong

    2013-01-01

    PurposeTo investigate the influence of uterine artery embolization (UAE) on endometrial microvessel density (MVD) and angiogenesis.MethodsSixty female guinea pigs were divided into two groups, the control group (n = 15) and the UAE treatment group (n = 45). In the UAE group, tris–acryl gelatin microspheres were used to generate embolization. Animals were further divided into three subgroups, A1, A2, and A3 (n = 15 for each subgroup), with uterine specimens collected at 7–15, 16–30, and 31–45 days after UAE, respectively. Immunostaining for factor VIII and CD105 was performed to identify total endometrial MVD (MVD FVIII ) and CD105-positive angiogenesis (MVD CD105 ) at the indicated time points after UAE.ResultsQuantitative analysis revealed that MVD FVIII significantly decreased in the A1 (11.40 ± 2.76, p CD105 -positive angiogenesis in the A1 group (9.33 ± 2.37, p CD105 value returned to normal in the A3 group (8.07 ± 1.97).ConclusionUAE caused a temporal decrease in endometrial MVD that reversed over time as a result of the increase of CD105-positive angiogenesis. Although the UAE-induced reduction of endometrial MVD was reversible, its long-term effect on endometrial receptivity still needs further study

  17. Type VIII collagen is elevated in diseases associated with angiogenesis and vascular remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N. U. B.; Willumsen, N.; Bülow Sand, Jannie Marie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Type VIII collagen is involved in angiogenesis and remodeling of arteries. We hypothesized that type VIII collagen was upregulated in diseases associated with vascular remodeling, e.g. pulmonary fibrosis and cancer. In this paper we present the development and validation of a competitive...

  18. Exercise induces cerebral VEGF and angiogenesis via the lactate receptor HCAR1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morland, Cecilie; Andersson, Krister A.; Haugen, Oyvind P.

    2017-01-01

    -like cells along intracerebral microvessels. Activation of HCAR1 enhances cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and cerebral angiogenesis. High-intensity interval exercise (5 days weekly for 7 weeks), as well as L-lactate subcutaneous injection that leads to an increase in blood lactate...

  19. Angiogenesis in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: clinico-pathological correlations and prognostic significance in specific subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bendix, K

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate angiogenesis in different subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to correlate angiogenic scores to clinical endpoints. Pre-therapeutic lymph node biopsies from 308 patients with NHL [107 follicular B-cell lymphoma (FL), 94 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma...

  20. The Multiple Roles of EG-VEGF/PROK1 in Normal and Pathological Placental Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Alfaidy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Placentation is associated with several steps of vascular adaptations throughout pregnancy. These vascular changes occur both on the maternal and fetal sides, consisting of maternal uterine spiral arteries remodeling and placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, respectively. Placental angiogenesis is a pivotal process for efficient fetomaternal exchanges and placental development. This process is finely controlled throughout pregnancy, and it involves ubiquitous and pregnancy-specific angiogenic factors. In the last decade, endocrine gland derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF, also called prokineticin 1 (PROK1, has emerged as specific placental angiogenic factor that controls many aspects of normal and pathological placental angiogenesis such as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL, gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD, fetal growth restriction (FGR, and preeclampsia (PE. This review recapitulates EG-VEGF mediated-angiogenesis within the placenta and at the fetomaternal interface and proposes that its deregulation might contribute to the pathogenesis of several placental diseases including FGR and PE. More importantly this paper argues for EG-VEGF clinical relevance as a potential biomarker of the onset of pregnancy pathologies and discusses its potential usefulness for future therapeutic directions.

  1. The multiple roles of EG-VEGF/PROK1 in normal and pathological placental angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaidy, Nadia; Hoffmann, Pascale; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Benharouga, Mohamed; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Brouillet, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Placentation is associated with several steps of vascular adaptations throughout pregnancy. These vascular changes occur both on the maternal and fetal sides, consisting of maternal uterine spiral arteries remodeling and placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, respectively. Placental angiogenesis is a pivotal process for efficient fetomaternal exchanges and placental development. This process is finely controlled throughout pregnancy, and it involves ubiquitous and pregnancy-specific angiogenic factors. In the last decade, endocrine gland derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF), also called prokineticin 1 (PROK1), has emerged as specific placental angiogenic factor that controls many aspects of normal and pathological placental angiogenesis such as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and preeclampsia (PE). This review recapitulates EG-VEGF mediated-angiogenesis within the placenta and at the fetomaternal interface and proposes that its deregulation might contribute to the pathogenesis of several placental diseases including FGR and PE. More importantly this paper argues for EG-VEGF clinical relevance as a potential biomarker of the onset of pregnancy pathologies and discusses its potential usefulness for future therapeutic directions.

  2. Critical role of CDK11p58 in human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Yayun; Huang, Sheng; Peng, Haojie; Liu, Mengying; Zhao, Jun; Shao, Zhiming; Wu, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    A capillary network is needed in cancer growth and metastasis. Induction of angiogenesis represents one of the major hallmarks of cancer. CDK11 p58 , a Ser/Thr kinase that belongs to the Cell Division Cycle 2-like 1 (CDC2L1) subfamily is associated with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, sister chromatid cohesion and apoptotic signaling. However, its role in breast cancer proliferation and angiogenesis remains unclear. Tumorigenicity assays and blood vessel assessment in athymic mice were used to assess the function of CDK11 p58 in tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. CCK-8 assay was used to detect breast cancer cell growth. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31 and CD34 in CDK11 positive patient breast cancer tissues. Dual-Luciferase array was used to analyze the function of CDK11 p58 in the regulation of VEGF promoter activity. Western blot was used to detect related protein expression levels. CDK11 p58 inhibited breast cancer growth and angiogenesis in breast cancer cells and in nude mice transplanted with tumors. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that CDK11 p58 was negatively associated with angiogenesis-related proteins such as VEGF, CD31 and CD34 in breast cancer patients. Real-time PCR and dual-luciferase assay showed CDK11 p58 inhibited the mRNA levels of VEGF and the promoter activity of VEGF. As CDK11 p58 is a Ser/Thr kinase, the kinase-dead mutant failed to inhibit VEGF mRNA and promoter activity. Western blot analysis showed the same pattern of related protein expression. The data suggested angiogenesis inhibition was dependent on CDK11 p58 kinase activity. This study indicates that CDK11 p58 inhibits the growth and angiogenesis of breast cancer dependent on its kinase activity. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1698-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  3. SGLT2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardi, I; Kouvatsos, T; Jabbour, S A

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health issue and an economic burden, rising in epidemic proportions over the last few decades worldwide. Although several treatment options are available, only half of the global diabetic population achieves the recommended or individualized glycemic targets. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with a novel insulin-independent action. SGLT2 is a transporter found in the proximal renal tubules, responsible for the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the urinary excretion of excess glucose. Due to their insulin-independent action, SGLT2 inhibitors can be used with any degree of beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance, related to a very low risk of hypoglycemia. In addition to improving glycemic control, SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with a reduction in weight and blood pressure when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is usually well tolerated; however, they have been associated with an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections, although these infections are usually mild and easy to treat. SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new option in the armamentarium of drugs for patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aromatase inhibitors in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, Jan M; Hero, Matti; Nunez, Susan B

    2011-10-25

    Aromatase, an enzyme located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells, catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the conversion of androgens to estrogens in many tissues. The clinical features of patients with defects in CYP19A1, the gene encoding aromatase, have revealed a major role for this enzyme in epiphyseal plate closure, which has promoted interest in the use of inhibitors of aromatase to improve adult height. The availability of the selective aromatase inhibitors letrozole and anastrozole--currently approved as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer--have stimulated off-label use of aromatase inhibitors in pediatrics for the following conditions: hyperestrogenism, such as aromatase excess syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, McCune-Albright syndrome and functional follicular ovarian cysts; hyperandrogenism, for example, testotoxicosis (also known as familial male-limited precocious puberty) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia; pubertal gynecomastia; and short stature and/or pubertal delay in boys. Current data suggest that aromatase inhibitors are probably effective in the treatment of patients with aromatase excess syndrome or testotoxicosis, partially effective in Peutz-Jeghers and McCune-Albright syndrome, but probably ineffective in gynecomastia. Insufficient data are available in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia or functional ovarian cysts. Although aromatase inhibitors appear effective in increasing adult height of boys with short stature and/or pubertal delay, safety concerns, including vertebral deformities, a decrease in serum HDL cholesterol levels and increase of erythrocytosis, are reasons for caution.

  5. Peptide-coated gold nanoparticles for modulation of angiogenesis in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma-Rodrigues C

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Catarina Roma-Rodrigues,1 Amelie Heuer-Jungemann,2 Alexandra R Fernandes,1 Antonios G Kanaras,2 Pedro V Baptista1 1UCIBIO, Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal; 2Institute for Life Sciences, Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Engineering, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK Abstract: In this work, peptides designed to selectively interact with cellular receptors involved in the regulation of angiogenesis were anchored to oligo-ethylene glycol-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and used to evaluate the modulation of vascular development using an ex ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. These nanoparticles alter the balance between naturally secreted pro- and antiangiogenic factors, under various biological conditions, without causing toxicity. Exposure of chorioallantoic membranes to AuNP–peptide activators of angiogenesis accelerated the formation of new arterioles when compared to scrambled peptide-coated nanoparticles. On the other hand, antiangiogenic AuNP–peptide conjugates were able to selectively inhibit angiogenesis in vivo. We demonstrated that AuNP vectorization is crucial for enhancing the effect of active peptides. Our data showed for the first time the effective control of activation or inhibition of blood vessel formation in chick embryo via AuNP-based formulations suitable for the selective modulation of angiogenesis, which is of paramount importance in applications where promotion of vascular growth is desirable (eg, wound healing or ought to be contravened, as in cancer development. Keywords: angiogenesis activators, antiangiogenic, CAM assay, gold nanoparticles, peptide-coated gold nanoparticles, vascular development

  6. Ghrelin did not change coronary angiogenesis in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, M; Tahergorabi, Z

    2017-02-28

    Ghrelin is a 28 amino acids peptide that initially was recognized as an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Recently, a number of studies demonstrated that ghrelin is a cardiovascular hormone with a series cardiovascular effect. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of systemic ghrelin administration on angiogenesis in the heart and its correlation with serum leptin levels in normal and diet-induced obese mice. 24 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet (ND) or control, ND+ghrelin, high-fat-diet (HFD) or obese and HFD+ghrelin (n=6/group). Obese and control groups received HFD or ND, respectively, for 14 weeks. Then, the ghrelin was injected subcutaneously 100µg/kg twice daily. After 10 days, the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were taken and the hearts were removed. The angiogenic response in the heart was assessed by immunohisochemical staining. HFD significantly increased angiogenesis in the heart expressed as the number of CD31 positive cells than standard diet. Ghrelin did not alter angiogenesis in the heart in both obese and control groups, however, it reduced serum nitric oxide (NO) and leptin levels in obese mice. There was a strong positive correlation between the number of CD31 positive cells and serum leptin concentration (r=0.74). Leptin as an angiogenic factor has a positive correlation with angiogenesis in the heart. Although systemic administration of ghrelin reduced serum leptin and NO levels in obese mice, however, it could not alter coronary angiogenesis.

  7. Carbamoylating activity associated with the activation of the antitumor agent laromustine inhibits angiogenesis by inducing ASK1-dependent endothelial cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Ji

    Full Text Available The anticancer agent 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl-1-(2-chloroethyl-2-[(methylaminocarbonyl]hydrazine (laromustine, upon decomposition in situ, yields methyl isocyanate and the chloroethylating species 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl-1-(2-chloroethylhydrazine (90CE. 90CE has been shown to kill tumor cells via a proposed mechanism that involves interstrand DNA cross-linking. However, the role of methyl isocyanate in the antineoplastic function of laromustine has not been delineated. Herein, we show that 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl-1-[(methylaminocarbonyl]hydrazine (101MDCE, an analog of laromustine that generates only methyl isocyanate, activates ASK1-JNK/p38 signaling in endothelial cells (EC. We have previously shown that ASK1 forms a complex with reduced thioredoxin (Trx1 in resting EC, and that the Cys residues in ASK1 and Trx1 are critical for their interaction. 101MDCE dissociated ASK1 from Trx1, but not from the phosphoserine-binding inhibitor 14-3-3, in whole cells and in cell lysates, consistent with the known ability of methyl isocyanate to carbamoylate free thiol groups of proteins. 101MDCE had no effect on the kinase activity of purified ASK1, JNK, or the catalytic activity of Trx1. However, 101MDCE, but not 90CE, significantly decreased the activity of Trx reductase-1 (TrxR1. We conclude that methyl isocyanate induces dissociation of ASK1 from Trx1 either directly by carbamoylating the critical Cys groups in the ASK1-Trx1 complex or indirectly by inhibiting TrxR1. Furthermore, 101MDCE (but not 90CE induced EC death through a non-apoptotic (necroptotic pathway leading to inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro. Our study has identified methyl isocyanates may contribute to the anticancer activity in part by interfering with tumor angiogenesis.

  8. In vivo angiogenesis screening and mechanism of action of novel tanshinone derivatives produced by one-pot combinatorial modification of natural tanshinone mixture from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Natural products present in low quantity in herb medicines constitute an important source of chemical diversity. However, the isolation of sufficient amounts of these low abundant constituents for structural modification has been a challenge for several decades and subsequently halts research on the utilization of this important source of chemical entities for drug discovery and development. And, pro-angiogenic therapies are being explored as options to treat cardio-cerebral vascular diseases and wound healing recently. The present study investigates the pro-angiogenic potential of tanshinone derivatives produced by one-pot synthesis using zebrafish model.In order to address the difficulty of chemical modification of low abundant constituents in herb medicines, a novel one-pot combinatorial modification was used to diversify a partially purified tanshinone mixture from Salvia miltiorrhiza. This led to the isolation of ten new imidazole-tanshinones (Compounds 1-10 and one oxazole-tanshinone (Compound 11, the structures of which were characterized by spectroscopic methods in combination with single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. The angiogenesis activities of the new tanshinone derivatives were determined in an experimental model of chemical-induced blood vessels damage in zebrafish. Of all the tested new derivatives, compound 10 exhibited the most potent vascular protective and restorative activity with an EC50 value of 0.026 µM. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the pro-angiogenesis effect of 10 probably involved the VEGF/FGF-Src-MAPK and PI3K-P38 signalling pathways by gene expression analysis and a blocking assay with pathways-specific kinase inhibitors.Taken together, our study demonstrated the more distinctive pro-angiogenic properties of 10 than other tanshinones and revealed 10 has potential for development as a pro-angiogenic agent for diseases associated with insufficient angiogenesis. Our results highlighted the great

  9. Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, Edmund; Makey, Kristina L; Gibson, John; Chen, Fang; Cole, Shelby A; Megason, Gail C; Vijayakumar, Srinivassan; Miele, Lucio; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    innovative therapeutic strategy in TNBC therapy by using sunitinib plus γ-secretase inhibitor to simultaneously target angiogenesis and CSC.

  10. Fe-MIL-101 exhibits selective cytotoxicity and inhibition of angiogenesis in ovarian cancer cells via downregulation of MMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaqiang; Chen, Daomei; Li, Bin; He, Jiao; Duan, Deliang; Shao, Dandan; Nie, Minfang

    2016-05-18

    Though metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have inspired potential applications in biomedicine, cytotoxicity studies of MOFs have been relatively rare. Here we demonstrate for the first time that an easily available MOF, Fe-MIL-101, possesses intrinsic activity against human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells and suppress the proliferation of SKOV3 cells (IC50 = 23.6 μg mL(-1)) and normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts (BABL-3T3, IC50 = 78.3 μg mL(-1)) cells. It was more effective against SKOV3 cells than typical anticancer drugs such as artesunate (ART, IC50 = 96.9 μg mL(-1)) and oxaliplatin (OXA, IC50 = 64.4 μg mL(-1)), but had less effect on normal BABL-3T3 cells compared with ART (IC50 = 36.6 μg mL(-1)) and OXA (IC50 = 13.8 μg mL(-1)). Fe-MIL-101 induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in HUVECs and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Fe-MIL-101 exhibited stronger antiangiogenic effects in HUVEC cells than antiangiogenic inhibitor (SU5416) via downregulation the expression of MMP-2/9. Our results reveal a new role of Fe-MIL-101 as a novel, non-toxic anti-angiogenic agent that restricted ovarian tumour growth. These findings could open a new avenue of using MOFs as potential therapeutics in angiogenesis-dependent diseases, including ovarian cancer.

  11. JAK inhibitors in autoinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Hal M; Broderick, Lori

    2018-06-11

    Interferonopathies are a subset of autoinflammatory disorders with a prominent type I IFN gene signature. Treatment of these patients has been challenging, given the lack of response to common autoinflammatory therapeutics including IL-1 and TNF blockade. JAK inhibitors (Jakinibs) are a family of small-molecule inhibitors that target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and have shown clinical efficacy, with FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval for arthritic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Sanchez and colleagues repurposed baricitinib to establish a significant role for JAK inhibition as a novel therapy for patients with interferonopathies, demonstrating the power of translational rare disease research with lifesaving effects.

  12. Cathepsin D inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gacko

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of cathepsin D belong to chemical compounds that estrify carboxyl groups of the Asp33 and Asp231residues of its catalytic site, penta-peptides containing statin, i.e. the amino acid similar in structure to the tetraedric indirectproduct, and polypeptides found in the spare organs of many plants and forming permanent noncovalent complexes withcathepsin. Cathepsin D activity is also inhibited by alpha2-macroglobulin and antibodies directed against this enzyme.Methods used to determine the activity and concentration of these inhibitors and their analytical, preparative and therapeuticapplications are discussed.

  13. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU6668 represses chondrosarcoma growth via antiangiogenesis in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klenke, Frank M; Abdollahi, Amir; Bertl, Elisabeth; Gebhard, Martha-Maria; Ewerbeck, Volker; Huber, Peter E; Sckell, Axel

    2007-01-01

    As chondrosarcomas are resistant to chemotherapy and ionizing radiation, therapeutic options are limited. Radical surgery often cannot be performed. Therefore, additional therapies such as antiangiogenesis represent a promising strategy for overcoming limitations in chondrosarcoma therapy. There is strong experimental evidence that SU6668, an inhibitor of the angiogenic tyrosine kinases Flk-1/KDR, PDGFRbeta and FGFR1 can induce growth inhibition of various primary tumors. However, the effectiveness of SU6668 on malignant primary bone tumors such as chondrosarcomas has been rarely investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SU6668 on chondrosarcoma growth, angiogenesis and microcirculation in vivo. In 10 male severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, pieces of SW1353 chondrosarcomas were implanted into a cranial window preparation where the calvaria serves as the site for the orthotopic implantation of bone tumors. From day 7 after tumor implantation, five animals were treated with SU6668 (250 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) at intervals of 48 hours (SU6668), and five animals with the equivalent amount of the CMC-based vehicle (Control). Angiogenesis, microcirculation, and growth of SW 1353 tumors were analyzed by means of intravital microscopy. SU6668 induced a growth arrest of chondrosarcomas within 7 days after the initiation of the treatment. Compared to Controls, SU6668 decreased functional vessel density and tumor size, respectively, by 37% and 53% on day 28 after tumor implantation. The time course of the experiments demonstrated that the impact on angiogenesis preceded the anti-tumor effect. Histological and immunohistochemical results confirmed the intravital microscopy findings. SU6668 is a potent inhibitor of chondrosarcoma tumor growth in vivo. This effect appears to be induced by the antiangiogenic effects of SU6668, which are mediated by the inhibition of the key angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases Flk-1/KDR, PDGFRbeta

  14. Transglutaminase inhibitor from milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A.H. de; Wijngaards, G.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cross-linking experiments of skimmed bovine milk with bacterial transglutaminase isolated from Streptoverticillium mobaraense showed only some degree of formation of high-molecular-weight casein polymers. Studies on the nature of this phenomenon revealed that bovine milk contains an inhibitor of

  15. Inhibitors of histone demethylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Kristensen, Jesper L; Kristensen, Line H

    2011-01-01

    Methylated lysines are important epigenetic marks. The enzymes involved in demethylation have recently been discovered and found to be involved in cancer development and progression. Despite the relative recent discovery of these enzymes a number of inhibitors have already appeared. Most of the i...

  16. Negative regulation of NOD1 mediated angiogenesis by PPARγ-regulated miR-125a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyesoo; Park, Youngsook; Lee, Aram; Seo, Hyemin; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Jihea; Jo, Ha-neul; Jeong, Ha-neul; Cho, Jin Gu; Chang, Woochul; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Jeon, Raok; Kim, Jongmin

    2017-01-01

    Infection with pathogens activates the endothelial cell and its sustained activation may result in impaired endothelial function. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the pathologic angiogenesis that is characteristic of infection-induced inflammatory pathway activation. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) is a protein receptor which recognizes bacterial molecules and stimulates an immune reaction in various cells; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms in the regulation of inflammation-triggered angiogenesis are not fully understood. Here we report that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)-mediated miR-125a serves as an important regulator of NOD1 agonist-mediated angiogenesis in endothelial cells by directly targeting NOD1. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with natural PPARγ ligand, 15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2, led to inhibition of NOD1 expression; contrarily, protein levels of NOD1 were significantly increased by PPARγ knockdown. We report that PPARγ regulation of NOD1 expression is a novel microRNA-mediated regulation in endothelial cells. MiR-125a expression was markedly decreased in human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to PPARγ knockdown while 15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 treatment increased the level of miR-125a. In addition, NOD1 is closely regulated by miR-125a, which directly targets the 3′ untranslated region of NOD1. Moreover, both overexpression of miR-125a and PPARγ activation led to inhibition of NOD1 agonist-induced tube formation in endothelial cells. Finally, NOD1 agonist increased the formation of cranial and subintestinal vessel plexus in zebrafish, and this effect was abrogated by concurrent PPARγ activation. Overall, these findings identify a PPARγ-miR-125a-NOD1 signaling axis in endothelial cells that is critical in the regulation of inflammation-mediated angiogenesis. - Highlights: • Expression of NOD1 is regulated by

  17. Her-2/neu overexpression is associated with thrombospondin-1-related angiogenesis and thrombospondin-1-unrelated lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chuan Hong

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: Our in vivo results showed that Her-2/neu affects the biological manifestations of breast cancer by increasing angiogenesis (which is TSP-1-related and lymphangiogenesis, which is TSP-1-unrelated.

  18. Sodium valproate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates the vascular endothelial growth inhibitor-mediated cell death in human osteosarcoma and vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanegi, Koji; Kawabe, Mutsuki; Futani, Hiroyuki; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yamada, Naoko; Kato-Kogoe, Nahoko; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Nakasho, Keiji

    2015-05-01

    The level of vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) has been reported to be negatively associated with neovascularization in malignant tumors. The soluble form of VEGI is a potent anti-angiogenic factor due to its effects in inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. This inhibition is mediated by death receptor 3 (DR3), which contains a death domain in its cytoplasmic tail capable of inducing apoptosis that can be subsequently blocked by decoy receptor 3 (DcR3). We investigated the effects of sodium valproate (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA), histone deacetylase inhibitors, on the expression of VEGI and its related receptors in human osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines and human microvascular endothelial (HMVE) cells. Consequently, treatment with VPA and TSA increased the VEGI and DR3 expression levels without inducing DcR3 production in the OS cell lines. In contrast, the effect on the HMVE cells was limited, with no evidence of growth inhibition or an increase in the DR3 and DcR3 expression. However, VPA-induced soluble VEGI in the OS cell culture medium markedly inhibited the vascular tube formation of HMVE cells, while VEGI overexpression resulted in enhanced OS cell death. Taken together, the HDAC inhibitor has anti-angiogenesis and antitumor activities that mediate soluble VEGI/DR3-induced apoptosis via both autocrine and paracrine pathways. This study indicates that the HDAC inhibitor may be exploited as a therapeutic strategy modulating the soluble VEGI/DR3 pathway in osteosarcoma patients.

  19. Cediranib, a pan-VEGFR inhibitor, and olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, in combination therapy for high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, S Percy; Liu, Joyce F; Lee, Jung-Min; Matulonis, Ursula A; Kohn, Elise C

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 22,000 women are diagnosed annually with ovarian cancer in the United States. Initially chemo-sensitive, recurrent disease ultimately becomes chemoresistant and may kill ~14,000 women annually. Molecularly targeted therapy with cediranib (AZD2171), a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, 2, and 3 signaling blocker, and olaparib (AZD2281), a poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, administered orally in combination has shown anti-tumor activity in the treatment of high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). This combination has the potential to change the treatment of HGSOC. Preclinical and clinical studies of single agent cediranib and olaparib or their combination are reviewed. Data are presented from peer-reviewed published manuscripts, completed and ongoing early phase clinical trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trials, and related recent abstracts. Advances in the treatment of HGSOC that improve progression-free and overall survival have proven elusive despite examination of molecularly targeted therapy. HGSOC patients with deleterious germline or somatic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCAm) are most responsive to PARP inhibitors (PARPi). PARPi combined with angiogenesis inhibition improved anti-cancer response and duration in both BRCAm and BRCA wild type HGSOC patients, compared to olaparib single agent treatment, demonstrating therapeutic chemical and contextual synthetic lethality.

  20. ADAM-17 regulates endothelial cell morphology, proliferation, and in vitro angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeoz, Pal; Goeoz, Monika; Baldys, Aleksander; Hoffman, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Modulation of angiogenesis is a promising approach for treating a wide variety of human diseases including ischemic heart disease and cancer. In this study, we show that ADAM-17 is an important regulator of several key steps during angiogenesis. Knocking down ADAM-17 expression using lentivirus-delivered siRNA in HUVECs inhibited cell proliferation and the ability of cells to form close contact in two-dimensional cultures. Similarly, ADAM-17 depletion inhibited the ability of HUVECs to form capillary-like networks on top of three-dimensional Matrigel as well as in co-culture with fibroblasts within a three-dimensional scaffold. In mechanistic studies, both baseline and VEGF-induced MMP-2 activation and Matrigel invasion were inhibited by ADAM-17 depletion. Based on our findings we propose that ADAM-17 is part of a novel pro-angiogenic pathway leading to MMP-2 activation and vessel formation.

  1. Combining 2D angiogenesis and 3D osteosarcoma microtissues to improve vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddad, Hassan; Kuchler-Bopp, Sabine; Fuhrmann, Guy; Gegout, Hervé; Ubeaud-Sequier, Geneviève; Schwinté, Pascale; Bornert, Fabien; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Idoux-Gillet, Ysia

    2017-11-15

    Angiogenesis is now well known for being involved in tumor progression, aggressiveness, emergence of metastases, and also resistance to cancer therapies. In this study, to better mimic tumor angiogenesis encountered in vivo, we used 3D culture of osteosarcoma cells (MG-63) that we deposited on 2D endothelial cells (HUVEC) grown in monolayer. We report that endothelial cells combined with tumor cells were able to form a well-organized network, and that tubule-like structures corresponding to new vessels infiltrate tumor spheroids. These vessels presented a lumen and expressed specific markers as CD31 and collagen IV. The combination of 2D endothelial cells and 3D microtissues of tumor cells also increased expression of angiogenic factors as VEGF, CXCR4 and ICAM1. The cell environment is the key point to develop tumor vascularization in vitro and to be closer to tumor encountered in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Particular features of angiogenesis in lesions in patients suffering from basal cell epithelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Khlebnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell epithelioma is one of the most frequent malignant skin neoplasms. Angiogenesis plays an important part in the development of basal cell epithelioma. The article presents a review of the angiogenesis of this tumor with the help the immunohistochemistry analysis using CD31 and CD34 markers. The authors established a reliable relationship between the number of vessels expressing CD31 and those expressing CD34 in the superficial and nodular forms of the tumor as well as superficial, multi-center, nodular and infiltrative basal cell epitheliomas. A comparison of the number of vessels expressing CD31 and CD34 markers in different histological types made revealed a trend to their growth in the infiltrative type vs. superficial, multi-center and nodular ones.

  3. [The role of endothelial cells and endothelial precursor cells in angiogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreba, Małgorzata; Usnarska-Zubkiewicz, Lidia; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz

    2006-01-01

    Endothelium plays a key role in maintenance of vascular homeostasis in human organism. According to new data endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells have a common precursor in prenatal life--a hemangioblast, which explains the fact of sharing the same determinants on the surface of both type of cells. Circulating endothelial precursors were identified in adults and this suggests that hemangioblasts may be present not only during embriogenesis. In some clinical situations the increased numbers of endothelial cells and endothelial precursors were noted, and especially in patients with neoplastic diseases, which is probably the result of increased angiogenesis. Endothelial precursors are thought to be the promice for therapeutic purposes in future--to increase local angiogenesis.

  4. Oxidative stress in tumor microenvironment——Its role in angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Armando ROJAS; Raúl SILVA; Héctor FIGUEROA; Miguel A MORALES

    2008-01-01

    The tumor angiogenesis process is believed to be dependent on an "angiogenic switch" formed by a cascade of biologic events as a consequence of the "cross-talk" between tumor cells and several components of local microenvironment including endothelial cells, macrophages, mast cells and stromal components. Oxidative stress represents an important stimulus that widely contributes to this angiogenic switch, which is particularly relevant in lungs,where oxidative stress is originated from different sources including the incomplete reduction of oxygen during respiration,exposure to hypoxia/reoxygenation, stimulated resident or chemoattracted immune ceils to lung tissues, as well as by a variety of chemicals compounds. In the present review we highlight the role of oxidative stress in tumor angiogenesis as a key signal linked to other relevant actors in this complex process.

  5. CD13-positive bone marrow-derived myeloid cells promote angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Barbu, Elena M; Hosoya, Hitomi; St John, Lisa S; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2013-12-17

    Angiogenesis is fundamental to tumorigenesis and an attractive target for therapeutic intervention against cancer. We have recently demonstrated that CD13 (aminopeptidase N) expressed by nonmalignant host cells of unspecified types regulate tumor blood vessel development. Here, we compare CD13 wild-type and null bone marrow-transplanted tumor-bearing mice to show that host CD13(+) bone marrow-derived cells promote cancer progression via their effect on angiogenesis. Furthermore, we have identified CD11b(+)CD13(+) myeloid cells as the immune subpopulation directly regulating tumor blood vessel development. Finally, we show that these cells are specifically localized within the tumor microenvironment and produce proangiogenic soluble factors. Thus, CD11b(+)CD13(+) myeloid cells constitute a population of bone marrow-derived cells that promote tumor progression and metastasis and are potential candidates for the development of targeted antiangiogenic drugs.

  6. Angiogenesis mediated by soluble forms of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alisa E.; Halloran, Margaret M.; Haskell, Catherine J.; Shah, Manisha R.; Polverini, Peter J.

    1995-08-01

    ENDOTHELIAL adhesion molecules facilitate the entry of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. This in turn promotes neovascularization, a process central to the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, tumour growth and wound repair1. Here we test the hypothesis that soluble endothelial adhesion molecules promote angiogenesis2á¤-4. Human recombinant soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 induced chemotaxis of human endothelial cells in vitro and were angiogenic in rat cornea. Soluble E-selectin acted on endothelial cells in part through a sialyl Lewis-X-dependent mechanism, while soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 acted on endothelial cells in part through a very late antigen (VLA)-4 dependent mechanism. The chemotactic activity of rheumatoid synovial fluid for endothelial cells, and also its angiogenic activity, were blocked by antibodies to either soluble E-selectin or soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. These results suggest a novel function for soluble endothelial adhesion molecules as mediators of angiogenesis.

  7. Aging impairs transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in human microvascular endothelial cells: implications for angiogenesis and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, A; Jones, M K; Szabo, S; Tarnawski, A S

    2014-04-01

    In some tissues, aging impairs angiogenesis and reduces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), a fundamental regulator of angiogenesis. We previously examined angiogenesis in aging and young gastric mucosa in vivo and in vitro and showed that an imbalance between expressions of VEGF (pro-angiogenic factor) and endostatin (anti-angiogenic protein) results in an aging-related impairment of angiogenesis in rats. However, the human relevance of these findings, and whether these mechanisms apply to endothelial cells derived from other tissues, is not clear. Since P-STAT3 and P-CREB are transcription factors that, in association with HIF-1α, can activate VEGF gene expression in some cells (e.g., liver cancer cells, vascular smooth muscle cells), we examined the expression of these two proteins in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) derived from aging and neonatal individuals. We examined and quantified in vitro angiogenesis, expression of VEGF, P-STAT3, P-CREB and importin-α in HMVECs isolated from neonates (neonatal) and a 66 year old subject (aging). We also examined the effects of treatment with exogenous VEGF and endostatin on in vitro angiogenesis in these cells. Endothelial cells isolated from aging individuals had impaired angiogenesis (vs. neonatal endothelial cells) and reduced expression of VEGF mRNA and protein. Aged HMVECs also had reduced importin-α expression, and reduced expression and nuclear translocation of P-STAT3 and P-CREB. Reduced VEGF gene expression in aged HMVECs strongly correlated with the decreased levels of P-STAT3, P-CREB and importin-α in these cells. Our study clearly demonstrates that endothelial cells from aging individuals have impaired angiogenesis and reduced expression of VEGF likely due to impaired nuclear transport of P-STAT3 and P-CREB transcription factors in these cells.

  8. Markers of angiogenesis and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in patients with pancreatic and gastroesophageal junction cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrberg, Kristoffer Staal; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer; Lassen, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and angiogenesis are well established targets in anti-cancer therapy. Several targeted anti-cancer therapies are in clinical trials in pancreatic and gastroesophageal (GEJ) cancer. However, many patients do not respond to these targeted therapies...... in pancreatic and GEJ cancer patients, and could be investigated further as predictive biomarkers in such patients treated with EGFR or angiogenesis targeted therapies....

  9. Targeted microbubbles for imaging tumor angiogenesis: assessment of whole-body biodistribution with dynamic micro-PET in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmann, Jürgen K; Cheng, Zhen; Davis, Corrine

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate in vivo whole-body biodistribution of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to tumor angiogenesis-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by using dynamic micro-positron emission tomography (PET) in living mice.......To evaluate in vivo whole-body biodistribution of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to tumor angiogenesis-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by using dynamic micro-positron emission tomography (PET) in living mice....

  10. A Selenium Containing Inhibitor for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hephzibah Rani S. Tagaram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third most deadly cancer in the world. New treatment strategies are desperately needed due to limited standard therapies. Activation of the Erk, Akt, and STAT3pathways is implicated in the prognosis of HCC. The Se,Se′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl bisisoselenourea (PBISe, is a selenium-containing MAPK and PI3 kinase inhibitor, effectively inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of experimental models. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the potential role of PBISe in the treatment of HCC. The anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic ability of PBISe is studied in vitro in four human HCC cell lines and in vivo in a spontaneous murine HCC model. Inhibition of cancer growth was performed by cell viability assay and apoptosis by caspase 3/7, PARP cleavage, annexin-V, and TUNEL assays. Role of PBISe on PI3 kinase, MAPK and STAT3 signaling is determined by Western blotting. In vivo effects of PBISe on tumor sizes were monitored using MRI in a spontaneous murine HCC. Liver tissues from the PBISe-treated mice are analyzed for angiogenesis, proliferation, and signaling pathway markers. Overall, PBISe activated caspase-3/7 and increased DNA fragmentation, which is positively correlated with the increased PARP cleavage. PBISe promoted apoptosis by inhibiting PI3K, MAPK, and STAT3 signaling with significant reduction in the tumor sizes (p < 0.007. PBISe-treated tumors reduced survival marker PCNA, and angiogenesis markers Vegf-A, Vegf-R3 and CD34. These results demonstrate the chemotherapeutic effects of PBISe, by inhibiting tumor growth and facilitating tumor apoptosis for HCC treatment.

  11. Modulation of thioacetamide-induced hepatic inflammations, angiogenesis and fibrosis by andrographolide in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzung-Yan; Chang, Hen-Hong; Wen, Chorng-Kai; Huang, Tse-Hung; Chang, Ya-Shu

    2014-12-02

    Liver fibrosis is a complex disease in which several pathological processes, such as inflammation and angiogenesis, are closely integrated. We hypothesised that treatment with the pharmacological agent, andrographolide (AP), which has multiple mechanisms of action, will provide a greater understanding of the role of AP during the multiple pathological processes that occur in advanced liver disease. Liver fibrogenesis was induced in mice using thioacetamide (TAA), which was administrated for 6 weeks. Andrographolide (5, 20 or 100mg/kg) was then given once daily following TAA injection. Liver collagen was examined using hydroxyproline and α-SMA, while the inflammatory response was quantified by Western blot and RT-PCR assays. Liver angiogenesis, neutrophil infiltration and hypoxia were assessed using CD11b+, vWF and HIF-1α immunostaining. Mice with liver injuries that were treated with andrographolide showed improved inflammatory response and diminished angiogenesis and hepatic fibrosis. Andrographolide treatment inhibited liver neutrophil infiltration, while a decreased in TNF-α and COX-2 signalling indicated macrophage activation. Andrographolide decreased overall liver hypoxia, as shown by the downregulation of hypoxia-inducible cascade genes, such as VEGF. Andrographolide treatment resulted in a significant decrease in hepatic fibrogenesis, α-SMA abundance, and TGF-βR1 expression. The present results suggest that multi-targeted therapies directed against angiogenesis, inflammation, and fibrosis should be considered for the treatment of advanced liver injury. They further suggest that andrographolide treatment may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, BING; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa...

  13. Centchroman regulates breast cancer angiogenesis via inhibition of HIF-1α/VEGFR2 signalling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Jayant; Kaushik, Shweta; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Balapure, Anil K

    2018-01-15

    Angiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of cancer which promotes cancer cell progression and metastasis. Inhibition of angiogenesis to attenuate cancer growth is becoming desirable strategy for breast cancer management. The present study is aimed to investigate the antiangiogenic efficacy of a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator Centchroman (CC) on human breast cancer cells. Effect of CC on cell viability was evaluated using Sulforhodamine B assay. Endothelial cell proliferation, wound healing, Boyden chamber cell invasion, tube formation and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays were performed to assess the effect of CC on migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase-3/7 and intracellular calcium ion level were measured through flow cytometry. Expression levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, VEGFR2, AKT and ERK were assessed by western blot analysis. CC selectively induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells without affecting non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells MCF-10A. Moreover, it inhibits migratory, invasive and mammosphere forming potential of breast cancer. Furthermore, CC also inhibited VEGF-induced migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. CC effectively inhibited neovasculature formation in chicken CAM. Western blot analysis demonstrated that CC inhibited expression of HIF-1α and its downstream target VEGF. Interestingly, CC also suppressed VEGFR2 phosphorylation and consequently attenuated AKT and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that CC downregulates VEGF-induced angiogenesis by modulating HIF-1α/VEGFR2 pathway and recommend it (CC) as a potential therapeutic drug for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MOSAIC: a multiscale model of osteogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis with lateral inhibition of endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Carlier

    Full Text Available The healing of a fracture depends largely on the development of a new blood vessel network (angiogenesis in the callus. During angiogenesis tip cells lead the developing sprout in response to extracellular signals, amongst which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is critical. In order to ensure a correct development of the vasculature, the balance between stalk and tip cell phenotypes must be tightly controlled, which is primarily achieved by the Dll4-Notch1 signaling pathway. This study presents a novel multiscale model of osteogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis, incorporating lateral inhibition of endothelial cells (further denoted MOSAIC model through Dll4-Notch1 signaling, and applies it to fracture healing. The MOSAIC model correctly predicted the bone regeneration process and recapitulated many experimentally observed aspects of tip cell selection: the salt and pepper pattern seen for cell fates, an increased tip cell density due to the loss of Dll4 and an excessive number of tip cells in high VEGF environments. When VEGF concentration was even further increased, the MOSAIC model predicted the absence of a vascular network and fracture healing, thereby leading to a non-union, which is a direct consequence of the mutual inhibition of neighboring cells through Dll4-Notch1 signaling. This result was not retrieved for a more phenomenological model that only considers extracellular signals for tip cell migration, which illustrates the importance of implementing the actual signaling pathway rather than phenomenological rules. Finally, the MOSAIC model demonstrated the importance of a proper criterion for tip cell selection and the need for experimental data to further explore this. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the MOSAIC model creates enhanced capabilities for investigating the influence of molecular mechanisms on angiogenesis and its relation to bone formation in a more mechanistic way and across different time and spatial

  15. Angiogenesis in Pituitary Adenomas: Human Studies and New Mutant Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina, Carolina; Luque, Guillermina María; Demarchi, Gianina; Lopez Vicchi, Felicitas; Zubeldia-Brenner, Lautaro; Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Perrone, Sofia; Ornstein, Ana Maria; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M.; Berner, Silvia Inés; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2014-01-01

    The role of angiogenesis in pituitary tumor development has been questioned, as pituitary tumors have been usually found to be less vascularized than the normal pituitary tissue. Nevertheless, a significantly higher degree of vasculature has been shown in invasive or macropituitary prolactinomas when compared to noninvasive and microprolactinomas. Many growth factors and their receptors are involved in pituitary tumor development. For example, VEGF, FGF-2, FGFR1, and PTTG, which give a partic...

  16. The role of angiogenesis in damage and recovery from ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Dávalos, Antoni

    2007-06-01

    Ischemic stroke is burdened with a high morbidity and mortality in our society. However, there are few effective and largely available therapies for this devastating disease. In additon to advancing acute reperfusion therapies, there is a need to develop treatments aimed to promote repair and regeneration of brain tissue damaged by ischemia (neurorecovery). Therapeutic angiogenesis and vasculogenesis represent novel approaches of regenerative medicine that may help in the cure of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Translation of our knowledge about these processes from the bench to bedside is still underway. Although angiogenesis (the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing vascular structures) is likely to contribute to neurorepair, the finality of the angiogenic response in acute ischemic stroke has not been fully elucidated. The first therapeutic approach to angiogenesis after ischemic stroke would be the modulation of the endogenous angiogenic response. In this setting, early instauration of physical activity, statins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists may enhance angiogenesis and neuroregeneration. Gene therapy with vascular growth factors has been successfully tested in patients affected by chronic myocardial and peripheral ischemia. Regarding brain ischemia, experiments in animal models have shown that the effect of these growth factors is critically affected by the dosage, route of delivery, and time of administration in relation to stroke onset. In addition, the optimal angiogenic substance is unknown. Finally, vectors for gene transfer should be further optimized. Therapeutic vasculogenesis consists of the administration of exogenous endothelial progenitor cells in order to enhance brain repair processes. Endothelial progenitor cells may be recruited in response to cerebral ischemia and participate in reparative vasculogenesis after acute ischemic stroke. Further research is needed to clarify their role and

  17. Radioiodinated VEGF to image tumor angiogenesis in a LS180 tumor xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Kinuya, Seigo; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Nishii, Ryuichi; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kawai, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth or metastasis. A method involving noninvasive detection of angiogenic activity in vivo would provide diagnostic information regarding antiangiogenic therapy targeting vascular endothelial cells as well as important insight into the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (flt-1 and KDR) system in tumor biology. We evaluated radioiodinated VEGF 121 , which displays high binding affinity for KDR, and VEGF 165 , which possesses high binding affinity for flt-1 and low affinity for KDR, as angiogenesis imaging agents using the LS180 tumor xenograft model. Methods: VEGF 121 and VEGF 165 were labeled with 125 I by the chloramine-T method. Biodistribution was observed in an LS180 human colon cancer xenograft model. Additionally, autoradiographic imaging and immunohistochemical staining of tumors were performed with 125 I-VEGF 121 . Results: 125 I-VEGF 121 and 125 I-VEGF 165 exhibited strong, continuous uptake by tumors and the uterus, an organ characterized by angiogenesis. 125 I-VEGF 121 uptake in tumors was twofold higher than that of 125 I-VEGF 165 (9.12±98 and 4.79±1.08 %ID/g at 2 h, respectively). 125 I-VEGF 121 displayed higher tumor to nontumor (T/N) ratios in most normal organs in comparison with 125 I-VEGF 165 . 125 I-VEGF 121 accumulation in tumors decreased with increasing tumor volume. Autoradiographic and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that the difference in 125 I-VEGF 121 tumor accumulation correlated with degree of tumor vascularity. Conclusion: Radioiodinated VEGF 121 is a promising tracer for noninvasive delineation of angiogenesis in vivo

  18. Canonical hedgehog signaling augments tumor angiogenesis by induction of VEGF-A in stromal perivascular cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Weiwei; Tang, Tracy; Eastham-Anderson, Jeff; Dunlap, Debra; Alicke, Bruno; Nannini, Michelle; Gould, Stephen; Yauch, Robert; Modrusan, Zora; DuPree, Kelly J.; Darbonne, Walter C.; Plowman, Greg; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Callahan, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical to the patterning and development of a variety of organ systems, and both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent Hh pathway activation are known to promote tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that in tumors promoted by Hh ligands, activation occurs within the stromal microenvironment. Testing whether ligand-driven Hh signaling promotes tumor angiogenesis, we found that Hh antagonism reduced the vascular density of Hh-producing LS180 and SW480 xenograf...

  19. Akt1/protein kinase Bα is critical for ischemic and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ackah, Eric; Yu, Jun; Zoellner, Stefan; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Skurk, Carsten; Shibata, Rei; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Easton, Rachael M.; Galasso, Gennaro; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Walsh, Kenneth; Sessa, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Akt, or protein kinase B, is a multifunctional serine-threonine protein kinase implicated in a diverse range of cellular functions including cell metabolism, survival, migration, and gene expression. However, the in vivo roles and effectors of individual Akt isoforms in signaling are not explicitly clear. Here we show that the genetic loss of Akt1, but not Akt2, in mice results in defective ischemia and VEGF-induced angiogenesis as well as severe peripheral vascular disease. Akt1 knockout (Ak...

  20. The effects of a picosecond pulsed electric field on angiogenesis in the cervical cancer xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Limei; Yao, Chenguo; Xiong, Zhengai; Zhang, Ruizhe; Wang, Zhiliang; Wu, Yutong; Qin, Qin; Hua, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    The application of picosecond pulsed electric field (psPEF) is a new biomedical engineering technique used in cancer therapy. However, its effects on cervical cancer angiogenesis are not clear. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of psPEF on angiogenesis in cervical cancer xenograft models. Xenograft tumors were created by subcutaneously inoculating nude mice (athymic BALB/c nu/nu mice) with HeLa cells, then were placed closely between tweezer-type plate electrodes and subjected to psPEF with a gradually increased electric field intensity (0kV/cm, 50kV/cm, 60kV/cm, 70kV/cm). The direct effect on tumor tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The changes of blood vessels and oxygen saturation (sO2) of tumors were monitored in vivo by photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α) were detected by immunohistochemical technique (IHC). Their protein expressions and gene transcription levels were evaluat