WorldWideScience

Sample records for multicomponent strongly attractive

  1. Quantum criticality of one-dimensional multicomponent Fermi gas with strongly attractive interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Peng; Jiang, Yuzhu; Guan, Xiwen; He, Jinyu

    2015-01-01

    Quantum criticality of strongly attractive Fermi gas with SU(3) symmetry in one dimension is studied via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations. The phase transitions driven by the chemical potential μ, effective magnetic field H 1 , H 2 (chemical potential biases) are analyzed at the quantum criticality. The phase diagram and critical fields are analytically determined by the TBA equations in the zero temperature limit. High accurate equations of state, scaling functions are also obtained analytically for the strong interacting gases. The dynamic exponent z=2 and correlation length exponent ν=1/2 read off the universal scaling form. It turns out that the quantum criticality of the three-component gases involves a sudden change of density of states of one cluster state, two or three cluster states. In general, this method can be adapted to deal with the quantum criticality of multicomponent Fermi gases with SU(N) symmetry. (paper)

  2. Unexpected strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, A.; Frederico, T.

    1992-06-01

    The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle non-local potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unexpected large attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of φ as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states. (author)

  3. Statics and thermodynamics of strongly coupled multicomponent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A description of strongly coupled plasmas, in which the direct correlation functions, c/sub i/j(r), are obtained by simple scaling from a universal function, is derived and found to be in full agreement with available computer simulation data, which it thus extends for arbitrary mixtures. It is thermodynamically consistent with the ''ion-sphere'' charge-averaging prediction for the enhancement factors for nuclear reaction rates, the results for which confirm the universality of the bridge functions for mixtures

  4. Hydrodynamics in a Degenerate, Strongly Attractive Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E.; Kinast, Joseph; Hemmer, Staci; Turlapov, Andrey; O'Hara, Ken; Gehm, Mike; Granade, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    In summary, we use all-optical methods with evaporative cooling near a Feshbach resonance to produce a strongly interacting degenerate Fermi gas. We observe hydrodynamic behavior in the expansion dynamics. At low temperatures, collisions may not explain the expansion dynamics. We observe hydrodynamics in the trapped gas. Our observations include collisionally-damped excitation spectra at high temperature which were not discussed above. In addition, we observe weakly damped breathing modes at low temperature. The observed temperature dependence of the damping time and hydrodynamic frequency are not consistent with collisional dynamics nor with collisionless mean field interactions. These observations constitute the first evidence for superfluid hydrodynamics in a Fermi gas.

  5. Self-Assembling Multi-Component Nanofibers for Strong Bioinspired Underwater Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chao; Gurry, Thomas; Cheng, Allen A; Downey, Jordan; Deng, Zhengtao; Stultz, Collin M.; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-01-01

    Many natural underwater adhesives harness hierarchically assembled amyloid nanostructures to achieve strong and robust interfacial adhesion under dynamic and turbulent environments. Despite recent advances, our understanding of the molecular design, self-assembly, and structure-function relationship of those natural amyloid fibers remains limited. Thus, designing biomimetic amyloid-based adhesives remains challenging. Here, we report strong and multi-functional underwater adhesives obtained from fusing mussel foot proteins (Mfps) of Mytilus galloprovincialis with CsgA proteins, the major subunit of Escherichia coli amyloid curli fibers. These hybrid molecular materials hierarchically self-assemble into higher-order structures, in which, according to molecular dynamics simulations, disordered adhesive Mfp domains are exposed on the exterior of amyloid cores formed by CsgA. Our fibers have an underwater adhesion energy approaching 20.9 mJ/m2, which is 1.5 times greater than the maximum of bio-inspired and bio-derived protein-based underwater adhesives reported thus far. Moreover, they outperform Mfps or curli fibers taken on their own at all pHs and exhibit better tolerance to auto-oxidation than Mfps at pH ≥7.0. This work establishes a platform for engineering multi-component self-assembling materials inspired by nature. PMID:25240674

  6. Bose condensation in an attractive fermion gas: From weak to strong coupling superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozieres, P.; Schmitt-Rink, S.

    1985-01-01

    We consider a gas of fermions interacting via an attractive potential. We study the ground state of that system and calculate the critical temperature for the onset of superconductivity as a function of the coupling strength. We compare the behavior of continuum and lattice models and show that the evolution from weak to strong coupling superconductivity is smooth

  7. Position-Dependent Dynamics Explain Pore-Averaged Diffusion in Strongly Attractive Adsorptive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekelberg, William P; Siderius, Daniel W; Shen, Vincent K; Truskett, Thomas M; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-12

    Using molecular simulations, we investigate the relationship between the pore-averaged and position-dependent self-diffusivity of a fluid adsorbed in a strongly attractive pore as a function of loading. Previous work (Krekelberg, W. P.; Siderius, D. W.; Shen, V. K.; Truskett, T. M.; Errington, J. R. Connection between thermodynamics and dynamics of simple fluids in highly attractive pores. Langmuir 2013, 29, 14527-14535, doi: 10.1021/la4037327) established that pore-averaged self-diffusivity in the multilayer adsorption regime, where the fluid exhibits a dense film at the pore surface and a lower density interior pore region, is nearly constant as a function of loading. Here we show that this puzzling behavior can be understood in terms of how loading affects the fraction of particles that reside in the film and interior pore regions as well as their distinct dynamics. Specifically, the insensitivity of pore-averaged diffusivity to loading arises from the approximate cancellation of two factors: an increase in the fraction of particles in the higher diffusivity interior pore region with loading and a corresponding decrease in the particle diffusivity in that region. We also find that the position-dependent self-diffusivities scale with the position-dependent density. We present a model for predicting the pore-average self-diffusivity based on the position-dependent self-diffusivity, which captures the unusual characteristics of pore-averaged self-diffusivity in strongly attractive pores over several orders of magnitude.

  8. Analytical thermodynamics of a strongly attractive three-component Fermi gas in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Peng; Yin Xiangguo; Wang Yupeng; Guan Xiwen; Batchelor, Murray T.

    2010-01-01

    Ultracold three-component atomic Fermi gases in one dimension are expected to exhibit rich physics due to the presence of trions and different pairing states. Quantum phase transitions from the trion state into a paired phase and a normal Fermi liquid occur at zero temperature. We derive the analytical thermodynamics of strongly attractive three-component one-dimensional fermions with SU(3) symmetry via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz method in unequal Zeeman splitting fields H 1 and H 2 . We find explicitly that for low temperature the system acts like either a two-component or a three-component Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid dependent on the system parameters. The phase diagrams for the chemical potential and specific heat are presented for illustrative values of the Zeeman splitting. We also demonstrate that crossover between different Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid phases exhibit singular behavior in specific heat and entropy as the temperature tends to zero. Beyond Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid physics, we obtain the equation of state which provides a precise description of universal thermodynamics and quantum criticality in three-component, strongly attractive Fermi gases.

  9. Self-gravito-acoustic shock structures in a self-gravitating, strongly coupled, multi-component, degenerate quantum plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The existence of self-gravito-acoustic (SGA) shock structures (SSs) associated with negative self-gravitational potential in a self-gravitating, strongly coupled, multi-component, degenerate quantum plasma (SGSCMCDQP) system is predicted for the first time. The modified Burgers (MB) equation, which is valid for both planar and non-planar (spherical) geometries, is derived analytically, and solved numerically. It is shown that the longitudinal viscous force acting on inertial plasma species of the plasma system is the source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of these SGA SSs in the plasma system. The time evolution of these SGA SSs is also shown for different values (viz., 0.5, 1, and 2) of Γ, where Γ is the ratio of the nonlinear coefficient to the dissipative coefficient in the MB equation. The SGSCMCDQP model and the numerical analysis of the MB equation presented here are so general that they can be applied in any type of SGSCMCDQP systems like astrophysical compact objects having planar or non-planar (spherical) shape.

  10. Pairing and superconductivity from weak to strong coupling in the attractive Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschi, A; Barone, P; Capone, M; Castellani, C

    2005-01-01

    The finite-temperature phase diagram of the attractive Hubbard model is studied by means of the dynamical mean-field theory. We first consider the normal phase of the model by explicitly frustrating the superconducting ordering. In this case, we obtain a first-order pairing transition between a metallic phase and a paired phase formed by strongly coupled incoherent pairs. The transition line ends in a finite temperature critical point, but a crossover between two qualitatively different solutions still occurs at higher temperature. Comparing the superconducting- and the normal-phase solutions, we find that the superconducting instability always occurs before the pairing transition in the normal phase, i.e. T c > T pairing . Nevertheless, the high-temperature phase diagram at T > T c is still characterized by a crossover from a metallic phase to a preformed pair phase. We characterize this crossover by computing different observables that can be used to identify the pseudogap region, like the spin susceptibility, the specific heat and the single-particle spectral function

  11. Fluid–fluid coexistence in colloidal systems with short-ranged strongly directional attraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, N.; Frenkel, D.

    2003-01-01

    We present a systematic numerical study of the phase behavior of square-well fluids with a "patchy" short-ranged attraction. In particular, we study the effect of the size and number of attractive patches on the fluid–fluid coexistence. The model that we use is a generalization of the hard sphere

  12. Mathematical Model for Multicomponent Adsorption Equilibria Using Only Pure Component Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model for nonideal adsorption equilibria in multicomponent mixtures is developed. It is applied with good results for pure substances and for prediction of strongly nonideal multicomponent equilibria using only pure component data. The model accounts for adsorbent...

  13. Multicomponent Syntheses of Macrocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Géraldine; Neuville, Luc; Bughin, Carine; Fayol, Aude; Zhu, Jieping

    How to access efficiently the macrocyclic structure remained to be a challenging synthetic topic. Although many elegant approaches/reactions have been developed, construction of diverse collection of macrocycles is still elusive. This chapter summarized the recently emerged research area dealing with multicomponent synthesis of macrocycles, with particular emphasis on the approach named "multiple multicomponent reaction using two bifunctional building blocks".

  14. From the depletion attraction to the bridging attraction: the effect of solvent molecules on the effective colloidal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Kline, Steven R; Liu, Yun

    2015-02-28

    Depletion attraction induced by non-adsorbing polymers or small particles in colloidal solutions has been widely used as a model colloidal interaction to understand aggregation behavior and phase diagrams, such as glass transitions and gelation. However, much less attention has been paid to study the effective colloidal interaction when small particles/molecules can be reversibly attracted to large colloidal particles. At the strong attraction limit, small particles can introduce bridging attraction as it can simultaneously attach to neighbouring large colloidal particles. We use Baxter's multi-component method for sticky hard sphere systems with the Percus-Yevick approximation to study the bridging attraction and its consequence to phase diagrams, which are controlled by the concentration of small particles and their interaction with large particles. When the concentration of small particles is very low, the bridging attraction strength increases very fast with the increase of small particle concentration. The attraction strength eventually reaches a maximum bridging attraction (MBA). Adding more small particles after the MBA concentration keeps decreasing the attraction strength until reaching a concentration above which the net effect of small particles only introduces an effective repulsion between large colloidal particles. These behaviors are qualitatively different from the concentration dependence of the depletion attraction on small particles and make phase diagrams very rich for bridging attraction systems. We calculate the spinodal and binodal regions, the percolation lines, the MBA lines, and the equivalent hard sphere interaction line for bridging attraction systems and have proposed a simple analytic solution to calculate the effective attraction strength using the concentrations of large and small particles. Our theoretical results are found to be consistent with experimental results reported recently.

  15. Semiclassical multicomponent wave function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostovoy, M.V.

    A consistent method for obtaining the semiclassical multicomponent wave function for any value of adiabatic parameter is discussed and illustrated by examining the motion of a neutral particle in a nonuniform magnetic field. The method generalizes the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule to

  16. Altruists Attract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Farrelly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Explaining human cooperation continues to present a challenge because it goes beyond what is predicted by established theories of kinship and reciprocal altruism. Little attention has been paid to the sexual selection hypothesis that proposes that cooperation can act as a display that attracts mates. The costs of cooperating are then offset not by kinship or reciprocation but by increased mating success. Here we present results from a series of experiments which show that, as predicted by the sexual selection hypothesis, people preferentially direct cooperative behavior towards more attractive members of the opposite sex. Furthermore, cooperative behavior increases the perceived attractiveness of the cooperator. Economically costly behaviors can therefore bring benefits through mate choice and sexual selection should be regarded as an evolutionary mechanism capable of promoting cooperation.

  17. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  18. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  19. Fatal attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, it presents an argument for usage-based inheritance models over complete inheritance models in construction grammar. It is argued that, with the principle of inductive language learning as their foundation, usage-based inheritance models allow...... for redundancies and incongruities in construction networks which enables linguists to take into account details of language use, which would otherwise not be facilitated in complete inheritance models. Secondly, making use of the method of collostructional analysis, the article offers a corpus-based description...... of the use of the Danish ihjel-construction which accounts for patterns of attraction of construction-verb attraction, patterns of productivity, and various types of subconstructions, including item- and item-class-based ones and metaphorical extensions. The description of the ihjel-construction should also...

  20. Micro-/nanostructured multicomponent molecular materials: design, assembly, and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongpeng

    2015-03-23

    Molecule-based micro-/nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention because their properties can vary greatly from the corresponding macro-sized bulk systems. Recently, the construction of multicomponent molecular solids based on crystal engineering principles has emerged as a promising alternative way to develop micro-/nanomaterials. Unlike single-component materials, the resulting multicomponent systems offer the advantages of tunable composition, and adjustable molecular arrangement, and intermolecular interactions within their solid states. The study of these materials also supplies insight into how the crystal structure, molecular components, and micro-/nanoscale effects can influence the performance of molecular materials. In this review, we describe recent advances and current directions in the assembly and applications of crystalline multicomponent micro-/nanostructures. Firstly, the design strategies for multicomponent systems based on molecular recognition and crystal engineering principles are introduced. Attention is then focused on the methods of fabrication of low-dimensional multicomponent micro-/nanostructures. Their new applications are also outlined. Finally, we briefly discuss perspectives for the further development of these molecular crystalline micro-/nanomaterials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Thermodiffusion in multicomponent n-alkane mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliero, Guillaume; Bataller, Henri; Bazile, Jean-Patrick; Diaz, Joseph; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Hoang, Hai; Vermorel, Romain; Artola, Pierre-Arnaud; Rousseau, Bernard; Vesovic, Velisa; Bou-Ali, M Mounir; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Xu, Shenghua; Zhang, Ke; Montel, François; Verga, Antonio; Minster, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Compositional grading within a mixture has a strong impact on the evaluation of the pre-exploitation distribution of hydrocarbons in underground layers and sediments. Thermodiffusion, which leads to a partial diffusive separation of species in a mixture due to the geothermal gradient, is thought to play an important role in determining the distribution of species in a reservoir. However, despite recent progress, thermodiffusion is still difficult to measure and model in multicomponent mixtures. In this work, we report on experimental investigations of the thermodiffusion of multicomponent n -alkane mixtures at pressure above 30 MPa. The experiments have been conducted in space onboard the Shi Jian 10 spacecraft so as to isolate the studied phenomena from convection. For the two exploitable cells, containing a ternary liquid mixture and a condensate gas, measurements have shown that the lightest and heaviest species had a tendency to migrate, relatively to the rest of the species, to the hot and cold region, respectively. These trends have been confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. The measured condensate gas data have been used to quantify the influence of thermodiffusion on the initial fluid distribution of an idealised one dimension reservoir. The results obtained indicate that thermodiffusion tends to noticeably counteract the influence of gravitational segregation on the vertical distribution of species, which could result in an unstable fluid column. This confirms that, in oil and gas reservoirs, the availability of thermodiffusion data for multicomponent mixtures is crucial for a correct evaluation of the initial state fluid distribution.

  2. Multicomponent polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Sabu; Saha, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    The book offers an in-depth review of the materials design and manufacturing processes employed in the development of multi-component or multiphase polymer material systems. This field has seen rapid growth in both academic and industrial research, as multiphase materials are increasingly replacing traditional single-component materials in commercial applications. Many obstacles can be overcome by processing and using multiphase materials in automobile, construction, aerospace, food processing, and other chemical industry applications. The comprehensive description of the processing, characterization, and application of multiphase materials presented in this book offers a world of new ideas and potential technological advantages for academics, researchers, students, and industrial manufacturers from diverse fields including rubber engineering, polymer chemistry, materials processing and chemical science. From the commercial point of view it will be of great value to those involved in processing, optimizing an...

  3. Solidification in Multicomponent Multiphase Systems (SIMMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, S.; Hecht, U.

    2005-06-01

    The multiphase microstructures that evolve during the solidification of multicomponent alloys are attracting widespread interest for industrial applications and fundamental research.Thermodynamic databases are now well-established for many alloy systems. Thermodynamic calculations provide all the required information about phase equilibria, forming an integral part of both dedicated and comprehensive microstructure models. Among the latter, phase-field modelling has emerged as the method of choice. Solidification experiments are intended to trigger model development or to serve as benchmarks for model validation. For benchmarking, microgravity conditions offer a unique opportunity for avoiding buoyancy-induced convection and buoyancy forces in bulk samples. However, diffusion and the free-energy of interfaces and its anisotropy need to be determined.The measurement of chemical diffusivities in the liquid state can equally benefit from microgravity experiments.

  4. Multiphase, multicomponent phase behavior prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadmohammadi, Younas

    Accurate prediction of phase behavior of fluid mixtures in the chemical industry is essential for designing and operating a multitude of processes. Reliable generalized predictions of phase equilibrium properties, such as pressure, temperature, and phase compositions offer an attractive alternative to costly and time consuming experimental measurements. The main purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of recently generalized activity coefficient models based on binary experimental data to (a) predict binary and ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium systems, and (b) characterize liquid-liquid equilibrium systems. These studies were completed using a diverse binary VLE database consisting of 916 binary and 86 ternary systems involving 140 compounds belonging to 31 chemical classes. Specifically the following tasks were undertaken: First, a comprehensive assessment of the two common approaches (gamma-phi (gamma-ϕ) and phi-phi (ϕ-ϕ)) used for determining the phase behavior of vapor-liquid equilibrium systems is presented. Both the representation and predictive capabilities of these two approaches were examined, as delineated form internal and external consistency tests of 916 binary systems. For the purpose, the universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) model and the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) were used in this assessment. Second, the efficacy of recently developed generalized UNIQUAC and the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) for predicting multicomponent VLE systems were investigated. Third, the abilities of recently modified NRTL model (mNRTL2 and mNRTL1) to characterize liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) phase conditions and attributes, including phase stability, miscibility, and consolute point coordinates, were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the ϕ-ϕ approach represents the binary VLE systems considered within three times the error of the gamma-ϕ approach. A similar trend was observed for the for the generalized model predictions using

  5. Thermodynamically consistent modeling and simulation of multi-component two-phase flow with partial miscibility

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    A general diffuse interface model with a realistic equation of state (e.g. Peng-Robinson equation of state) is proposed to describe the multi-component two-phase fluid flow based on the principles of the NVT-based framework which is an attractive

  6. Potential Theory of Multicomponent Adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We developed a theory of multicomponent adsorption on the basis of the potential concept originally suggested by Polanyi. The mixture is considered as a heterogeneous substance segregated in the external field emitted by the adsorbent. The same standard equation of state, with no additional fitting...... parameters, is used for the segregated and for the bulk phases. With this approach, few parameters are needed to correlate pure component adsorption isotherms. These parameters may be used to predict adsorption equilibria of multicomponent mixtures without additional adjustment. A connection between...... the potential theory and the spreading pressure concept is established, and problems of the theory consistency are studied. Numerical algorithms are suggested for evaluation of the segregated state of the mixture in the potential field of adsorption forces. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement...

  7. Attractive evolutionary equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    Roorda, Berend; Joosten, Reinoud

    2011-01-01

    We present attractiveness, a refinement criterion for evolutionary equilibria. Equilibria surviving this criterion are robust to small perturbations of the underlying payoff system or the dynamics at hand. Furthermore, certain attractive equilibria are equivalent to others for certain evolutionary dynamics. For instance, each attractive evolutionarily stable strategy is an attractive evolutionarily stable equilibrium for certain barycentric ray-projection dynamics, and vice versa.

  8. Rheology of attractive emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sujit S; Gerrard, Dustin D; Rhodes, Travers S; Mason, Thomas G; Weitz, David A

    2011-10-01

    We show how attractive interactions dramatically influence emulsion rheology. Unlike the repulsive case, attractive emulsions below random close packing, φ(RCP), can form soft gel-like elastic solids. However, above φ(RCP), attractive and repulsive emulsions have similar elasticities. Such compressed attractive emulsions undergo an additional shear-driven relaxation process during yielding. Our results suggest that attractive emulsions begin to yield at weak points through the breakage of bonds, and, above φ(RCP), also undergo droplet configurational rearrangements.

  9. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  10. Rules of Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image composite shows two of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's magnets, the 'capture' magnet (upper portion of left panel) and the 'filter' magnet (lower portion of left panel). Scientists use these tools to study the origins of martian dust in the atmosphere. The left panel was taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The four panels to the right, taken by the microscopic imager, show close-up views of the two magnets. The bull's-eye appearance of the capture magnet is a result of alternating magnetic fields, which are used to increase overall magnetic force. The filter magnet lacks these alternating fields and consequently produces a weaker magnetic force. This weaker force selectively attracts only strong magnetic particles. Scientists were surprised by the large dark particles on the magnets because airborne particles are smaller in size. They theorize that these spots might be aggregates of small particles that clump together in a magnetic field.

  11. Potential Theory of Multicomponent Adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We developed a theory of multicomponent adsorption on the basis of the potential concept originally suggested by Polanyi. The mixture is considered as a heterogeneous substance segregated in the external field emitted by the adsorbent. The same standard equation of state, with no additional fitting...... and high degree of predictability of the theory developed....... the potential theory and the spreading pressure concept is established, and problems of the theory consistency are studied. Numerical algorithms are suggested for evaluation of the segregated state of the mixture in the potential field of adsorption forces. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement...

  12. Multicomponent diffusivities from the free volume theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.A; Bollen, A.M

    In this paper the free volume theory of diffusion is extended to multicomponent mixtures. The free volume is taken to be accessible for any component according to its surface. fraction. The resulting equations predict multicomponent (Maxwell-Stefan) diffusivities in simple liquid mixtures from pure

  13. Microwave-Assisted Multicomponent Synthesis of Heterocycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, A.; Ruijter, E.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Multicomponent reactions are valuable tools for the generation of diverse heterocycles. As in many fields or organic chemistry, microwave irradiation is rapidly replacing conventional heating methods in multicomponent chemistry. In this review, we present an overview of recent applications of the

  14. BUFFER CAPACITY IN HETEROGENEOUS MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Spinu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative basis of the theory of buffer properties for two-phase acid-base buffer systems and for multicomponent heterogeneous systems has been derived. The analytical equations with respect to all components for diverse multicomponent systems were deduced. It has been established, that the buffer capacities of components are mutually proportional.

  15. Attractive evolutionary equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.; Roorda, Berend

    2011-01-01

    We present attractiveness, a refinement criterion for evolutionary equilibria. Equilibria surviving this criterion are robust to small perturbations of the underlying payoff system or the dynamics at hand. Furthermore, certain attractive equilibria are equivalent to others for certain evolutionary

  16. Attraction and cooperative behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz

    2012-01-01

    Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...

  17. From supramolecular polymers to multi-component biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Olga J G M; Hendrikse, Simone I S; Dankers, Patricia Y W; Meijer, E W

    2017-10-30

    The most striking and general property of the biological fibrous architectures in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the strong and directional interaction between biologically active protein subunits. These fibers display rich dynamic behavior without losing their architectural integrity. The complexity of the ECM taking care of many essential properties has inspired synthetic chemists to mimic these properties in artificial one-dimensional fibrous structures with the aim to arrive at multi-component biomaterials. Due to the dynamic character required for interaction with natural tissue, supramolecular biomaterials are promising candidates for regenerative medicine. Depending on the application area, and thereby the design criteria of these multi-component fibrous biomaterials, they are used as elastomeric materials or hydrogel systems. Elastomeric materials are designed to have load bearing properties whereas hydrogels are proposed to support in vitro cell culture. Although the chemical structures and systems designed and studied today are rather simple compared to the complexity of the ECM, the first examples of these functional supramolecular biomaterials reaching the clinic have been reported. The basic concept of many of these supramolecular biomaterials is based on their ability to adapt to cell behavior as a result of dynamic non-covalent interactions. In this review, we show the translation of one-dimensional supramolecular polymers into multi-component functional biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications.

  18. Growth kinetics in multicomponent fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Lookman, T.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrodynamic effects on the late-stage kinetics in spinodal decomposition of multicomponent fluids are examined using a lattice Boltzmann scheme with stochastic fluctuations in the fluid and at the interface. In two dimensions, the three- and four-component immiscible fluid mixture (with a 1024 2 lattice) behaves like an off-critical binary fluid with an estimated domain growth of t 0.4 +/= 0.03 rather than t 1/3 as previously estimated, showing the significant influence of hydrodynamics. In three dimensions (with a 256 3 lattice), we estimate the growth as t 0.96 +/= 0.05 for both critical and off-critical quenches, in agreement with phenomenological theory

  19. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Arunava [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Prevelige, Peter E [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The primary goal of the project was to develop protein-templated approaches for the synthesis and directed assembly of semiconductor nanomaterials that are efficient for visible light absorption and hydrogen production. In general, visible-light-driven photocatalysis reactions exhibit low quantum efficiency for solar energy conversion primarily because of materials-related issues and limitations, such as the control of the band gap, band structure, photochemical stability, and available reactive surface area of the photocatalyst. Synthesis of multicomponent hierarchical nano-architectures, consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with desired optical properties fabricated to maximize spatial proximity for optimum electron and energy transfer represents an attractive route for addressing the problem. Virus capsids are highly symmetrical, self-assembling protein cage nanoparticles that exist in a range of sizes and symmetries. Selective deposition of inorganic, by design, at specific locations on virus capsids affords precise control over the size, spacing, and assembly of nanomaterials, resulting in uniform and reproducible nano-architectures. We utilized the self-assembling capabilities of the 420 subunit, 60 nm icosahedral, P22 virus capsid to direct the nucleation, growth, and proximity of a range of component materials. Controlled fabrication on the exterior of the temperature stable shell was achieved by genetically encoding specific binding peptides into an externally exposed loop which is displayed on each of the 420 coat protein subunits. Localization of complimentary materials to the interior of the particle was achieved through the use “scaffolding-fusion proteins. The scaffolding domain drives coat protein polymerization resulting in a coat protein shell surrounding a core of approximately 300 scaffolding/fusion molecules. The fusion domain comprises a peptide which specifically binds the semiconductor material of interest.

  20. Face inversion increases attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A

    2017-07-01

    Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mandela Fernández-Grandon

    Full Text Available Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124 for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354 for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development.

  2. Complex precipitation pathways in multicomponent alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouet, Emmanuel; Nastar, Maylise [Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lae, Ludovic; Deschamps, Alexis [LTPCM/ENSEEG, UMR CNRS 5614, Domaine Universitaire, BP 75, 38402 St Martin d' Heres (France); Epicier, Thierry [Groupe d' Etudes de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5510, INSA, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Lefebvre, Williams [Groupe de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Universite de Rouen, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2006-07-01

    One usual way to strengthen a metal is to add alloying elements and to control the size and the density of the precipitates obtained. However, precipitation in multicomponent alloys can take complex pathways depending on the relative diffusivity of solute atoms and on the relative driving forces involved. In Al - Zr - Sc alloys, atomic simulations based on first-principle calculations combined with various complementary experimental approaches working at different scales reveal a strongly inhomogeneous structure of the precipitates: owing to the much faster diffusivity of Sc compared with Zr in the solid solution, and to the absence of Zr and Sc diffusion inside the precipitates, the precipitate core is mostly Sc-rich, whereas the external shell is Zr-rich. This explains previous observations of an enhanced nucleation rate in Al - Zr - Sc alloys compared with binary Al - Sc alloys, along with much higher resistance to Ostwald ripening, two features of the utmost importance in the field of light high-strength materials. (authors)

  3. The multi-component WKI hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yuqin; Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    Firstly a new loop algebra G∼ M with 3M dimensions is constructed, which is devoted to establishing a new isospectral problem. Then the multi-component WKI hierarchy of soliton equations is obtained

  4. Novel energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... Abstract. In this paper, we discuss the fascinating energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons in certain incoherently coupled and coherently coupled nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations arising in the context of nonlinear optics.

  5. High Pressure Multicomponent Adsorption in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  6. A multi-component matrix loop algebra and a unified expression of the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and the multi-component BPT hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    A set of multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed, which is devote to obtaining a new loop algebra A-bar M-1 . It follows that an isospectral problem is established. By making use of Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multi-component hierarchy of soliton equations is generated, which possesses the bi-Hamiltonian structures. As its reduction cases, the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and the formalism of the multi-component BPT hierarchy are given, respectively

  7. Diclofenac Sodium Loaded Multicomponent Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, Lila; Viitanen, Petrus; Ashammakhi, Nureddin

    2008-02-01

    Earlier we have reported on developing DS releasing bioabsorbable rods for inhibition of osteolysis [l]. Due to their unsatisfactory drug release profiles we assessed the use of sintering technique of enhancement of drug release in the current study. Melt extruded PLGA 80/20 rods were compounded 8 wt-% DS. Some rods were self reinforced (SR) and some of them were sterilized to get three different components with different drug release profiles. Different rods were sintered together with heat and pressure. Three different specimen groups with different construction were studied. Thermal properties were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Changes of IV were performed with capillary analysis and drug release measurements with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Mechanical strength were measured two weeks, when disintegration occurred. Release rate consisted of 1) sharp jump start peak, 2) second smoother peak, and 3) third smooth peak. Released DS concentrations reached local therapeutic levels and maintained at that stage for 24-36 days. All DS was released during 50-70 days. The drug release from multicomponent implant was more stable and commenced earlier than from initial rods. Such properties were favored ones. Initial shear strength was 82 MPa and it decreased to 15 MPa. The mechanical bonding was sufficient although the components disintegrated relatively fast. By sintering different PLGA/DS components with different release rates it is possible to construct a truly controlled release implant for bone fixation with anti-inflammatory properties.

  8. Inverse design of multicomponent assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, William D.; Lindquist, Beth A.; Jadrich, Ryan B.; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2018-03-01

    Inverse design can be a useful strategy for discovering interactions that drive particles to spontaneously self-assemble into a desired structure. Here, we extend an inverse design methodology—relative entropy optimization—to determine isotropic interactions that promote assembly of targeted multicomponent phases, and we apply this extension to design interactions for a variety of binary crystals ranging from compact triangular and square architectures to highly open structures with dodecagonal and octadecagonal motifs. We compare the resulting optimized (self- and cross) interactions for the binary assemblies to those obtained from optimization of analogous single-component systems. This comparison reveals that self-interactions act as a "primer" to position particles at approximately correct coordination shell distances, while cross interactions act as the "binder" that refines and locks the system into the desired configuration. For simpler binary targets, it is possible to successfully design self-assembling systems while restricting one of these interaction types to be a hard-core-like potential. However, optimization of both self- and cross interaction types appears necessary to design for assembly of more complex or open structures.

  9. Theory of multicomponent disordered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, I.A.; Margolych, I.F.

    1988-01-01

    The method of functional integration is used to investigate a topologically disordered multicomponent system of magnetic atoms with Heisenberg exchange interaction. The partition function for a fixed random configuration of the atoms is represented as a functional integral over fluctuations of the magnetization. The first few coefficient functions are calculated in the functional series that represents the free energy functional. The magnetic part of the free energy for the liquid and amorphous states is obtained in the random phase approximation. The structure factor of the liquid magnet is calculated. For a two-component system, the nature of its variation is investigated, and so too is the shift of the point of thermodynamic instability of the liquid under the influence of a magnetic field. The Curie temperature of an amorphous two-species ferromagnet is found with allowance for the magnetic fluctuations and the topological disorder. For a model system with disorder of liquid type modeled by the structure factor of hard spheres an explicit analytic expression is calculated for the concentration dependence of the temperature of ferromagnetic ordering

  10. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  11. Assertiveness and Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, David M.; And Others

    Earlier research investigating the relationship between physical attractiveness and assertiveness found that physically attractive females were more assertive than other females. To investigate this relationship further and to broaden the scope of the study, 69 students were videotaped in groups of five to ten while responding to open-ended…

  12. Multicomponent liquid ion exchange with chabazite zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Byers, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In spite of the increasing commercial use of zeolites for binary and multicomponent sorption, the understanding of the basic mass-transfer processes associated with multicomponent zeolite ion-exchange systems is quite limited. This study was undertaken to evaluate Na-Ca-Mg-Cs-Sr ion exchange from an aqueous solution using a chabazite zeolite. Mass-transfer coefficients and equilibrium equations were determined from experimental batch-reactor data for single and multicomponent systems. The Langmuir isotherm was used to represent the equilibrium relationship for binary systems, and a modified Dubinin-Polyani model was used for the multicomponent systems. The experimental data indicate that diffusion through the microporous zeolite crystals is the primary diffusional resistance. Macropore diffusion also significantly contributes to the mass-transfer resistance. Various mass-transfer models were compared to the experimental data to determine mass-transfer coefficients. Effective diffusivities were obtained which accurately predicted experimental data using a variety of models. Only the model which accounts for micropore and macropore diffusion occurring in series accurately predicted multicomponent data using single-component diffusivities. Liquid and surface diffusion both contribute to macropore diffusion. Surface and micropore diffusivities were determined to be concentration dependent

  13. Transport processes in multicomponent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zissis, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This book treats in detail, as indicated in the title, the transport phenomena in multicomponent plasmas. Here, the term 'transport' applies to the study of mass and energy transfer in plasmas due to the interactions between pairs of particles only. Radiation is legitimately omitted; anyway, radiative transfer is another field of study. As the author himself mentions in the introduction, 'the term multicomponent plasma implies a partially or fully ionized mixture of arbitrary number of species of neutral and charged particles satisfying the condition of quasi-neutrality'. In fact, this book treats a large variety of plasmas applying to different systems ranging from low-pressure systems which may be far from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions, to thermal plasmas in LTE or near-LTE states with special attention to two-temperature systems; partially ionized plasmas with low ionization degree for which electron-neutral interactions are predominant, to systems with higher ionization degrees in which charged particle interactions are no more negligible. In addition, for all the above stated situations, the author treats both plasmas which are subjected to an external electromagnetic field and those which are not (homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases). Furthermore, in the last chapters a special discussion concerning molecular plasmas is presented. Taking into account the evolution of plasma modelling in the last few years, the subject is of current interest and the reader will find in the book a large amount of information necessary for a good understanding of transport phenomena in plasmas: for a plasma simulation specialist, this book may be regarded as reference text, which includes all necessary mathematical relations for his work. However, it should not be considered a simple formulary; the reader will also find here an excellent description of the theoretical basis necessary for the derivation of all given expressions. To this point of view

  14. Physical Attractiveness and Courtship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Irwin

    1971-01-01

    This study shows a high and disquieting degree of similarity in physical attractiveness between dating partners, and suggests also that more similar partners tend to form stronger romantic attachments. (Author)

  15. Numerical modeling of a vaporizing multicomponent droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Sirignano, W. A.

    The fundamental processes governing the energy, mass, and momentum exchange between the liquid and gas phases of vaporizing, multicomponent liquid droplets have been investigated. The axisymmetric configuration under consideration consists of an isolated multicomponent droplet vaporizing in a convective environment. The model considers different volatilities of the liquid components, variable liquid properties due to variation of the species concentrations, and non-Fickian multicomponent gaseous diffusion. The bicomponent droplet model was employed to examine the commonly used assumptions of unity Lewis number in the liquid phase and Fickian gaseous diffusion. It is found that the droplet drag coefficients, the vaporization rates, and the related transfer numbers are not influenced by the above assumptions in a significant way.

  16. Benchmarks for multicomponent diffusion and electrochemical migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasouli, Pejman; Steefel, Carl I.; Mayer, K. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In multicomponent electrolyte solutions, the tendency of ions to diffuse at different rates results in a charge imbalance that is counteracted by the electrostatic coupling between charged species leading to a process called “electrochemical migration” or “electromigration.” Although not commonly...... not been published to date. This contribution provides a set of three benchmark problems that demonstrate the effect of electric coupling during multicomponent diffusion and electrochemical migration and at the same time facilitate the intercomparison of solutions from existing reactive transport codes...

  17. Rogue waves in the multicomponent Mel'nikov system and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By virtue of the bilinear method and the KP hierarchy reduction technique, exact explicit rational solutions of the multicomponent Mel'nikov equation and the multicomponent Schrödinger–Boussinesq equation are constructed, which contain multicomponent short waves and single-component long wave. For the ...

  18. Hydrodynamic attraction of swimming microorganisms by surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Berke, Allison P.; Turner, Linda; Berg, Howard C.; Lauga, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Cells swimming in confined environments are attracted by surfaces. We measure the steady-state distribution of smooth-swimming bacteria (Escherichia coli) between two glass plates. In agreement with earlier studies, we find a strong increase of the cell concentration at the boundaries. We demonstrate theoretically that hydrodynamic interactions of the swimming cells with solid surfaces lead to their re-orientation in the direction parallel to the surfaces, as well as their attraction by the c...

  19. Attracting International Hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe

    2015-01-01

    With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations....

  20. Attracting girls to physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  1. 4-Ferrocenylpyridine- and 4-Ferrocenyl-3-ferrocenylmethyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles: Multi-Component Synthesis, Structures and Electrochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ortiz-Frade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of 2-cyano-3-ferrocenylacrylonitrile (<strong>1strong> with malononitrile (<strong>2strong> in a MeOH/H2O or 2-PrOH/H2O medium in the presence of Na2CO3 afforded 6-alkoxy-2-amino-4-ferrocenylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles <strong>3astrong>,b> (multi-component condensation and 6-alkoxy-2-amino-4-ferrocenyl-3-ferrocenylmethyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles <strong>4astrong>,b> (multi-component cyclodimerization. Analogous reactions of <strong>1strong> with <strong>2strong> in an MeOH/H2O medium in the presence of NaOH, piperidine, or morpholine gave compounds <strong>3astrong>, <strong>4astrong> and 2-amino-4-ferrocenyl-6-hydroxy-, 6-piperidino- and 6-morpholinopyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles <strong>3cstrong>–e>, respectively. The structures of the compounds <strong>3bstrong>, <strong>4astrong> and <strong>4bstrong> were established by the spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrochemical behaviour of compounds <strong>3bstrong>, <strong>3dstrong> and <strong>4bstrong> was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry.

  2. Clusters in attractive colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coniglio, A [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Arcangelis, L de [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione and CNISM II Universita di Napoli, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Candia, A de [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Gado, E Del [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Fierro, A [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Sator, N [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR (CNRS) 7600 Case 121, 4 Place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2006-09-13

    We discuss how the anomalous increase of the viscosity in colloidal systems with short-range attraction can be related to the formation of long-living clusters. Based on molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo numerical simulations of different models, we propose a similar picture for colloidal gelation at low and intermediate volume fractions. On this basis, we analyze the distinct role played by the formation of long-living bonds and the crowding of the particles in the slow dynamics of attractive colloidal systems.

  3. Strategies for Innovation in Multicomponent Reaction Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ganem, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    By generating structural complexity in a single step from three or more reactants, multicomponent reactions (MCRs) make it possible to synthesize target compounds with greater efficiency and atom economy. The history of such reactions can be traced to the mid-nineteenth century when Strecker first produced α-aminonitriles from the condensation of aldehydes with ammonia and hydrogen cyanide.

  4. Novel energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    optical communication and in artificial metamaterials. ... multicomponent generalization of Manakov system have been obtained by Kanna et al .... The main objective of the present paper is to give a clear picture of various energy ... occur as a consequence of energy exchange between the two colliding solitons as well as.

  5. Multicomponent density functional theory embedding formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culpitt, Tanner; Brorsen, Kurt R.; Pak, Michael V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon, E-mail: shs3@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Ave, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Multicomponent density functional theory (DFT) methods have been developed to treat two types of particles, such as electrons and nuclei, quantum mechanically at the same level. In the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) approach, all electrons and select nuclei, typically key protons, are treated quantum mechanically. For multicomponent DFT methods developed within the NEO framework, electron-proton correlation functionals based on explicitly correlated wavefunctions have been designed and used in conjunction with well-established electronic exchange-correlation functionals. Herein a general theory for multicomponent embedded DFT is developed to enable the accurate treatment of larger systems. In the general theory, the total electronic density is separated into two subsystem densities, denoted as regular and special, and different electron-proton correlation functionals are used for these two electronic densities. In the specific implementation, the special electron density is defined in terms of spatially localized Kohn-Sham electronic orbitals, and electron-proton correlation is included only for the special electron density. The electron-proton correlation functional depends on only the special electron density and the proton density, whereas the electronic exchange-correlation functional depends on the total electronic density. This scheme includes the essential electron-proton correlation, which is a relatively local effect, as well as the electronic exchange-correlation for the entire system. This multicomponent DFT-in-DFT embedding theory is applied to the HCN and FHF{sup −} molecules in conjunction with two different electron-proton correlation functionals and three different electronic exchange-correlation functionals. The results illustrate that this approach provides qualitatively accurate nuclear densities in a computationally tractable manner. The general theory is also easily extended to other types of partitioning schemes for multicomponent systems.

  6. A procedure to compute equilibrium concentrations in multicomponent systems by Gibbs energy minimization on spreadsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima da Silva, Aline; Heck, Nestor Cesar

    2003-01-01

    , dissolving O, Cr, C and Ni, is modeled with the Unified Interaction Parameter Formalism considering the existence of associates Cr * O and Cr 2 * O, in order to take into account the strong attractive interaction between Cr and O. The thermodynamic conditions found in the production of low carbon stainless steel are analyzed. The thermodynamic equilibrium between dissolved Cr and O were analyzed at 1873 and 1923 K. The value of the critical chromium in liquid iron is calculated for the temperature of 1873 K. The effects of vacuum level and Ni content on decarburization are shown with the proposed method. In this work, the change of variables to overcome the deficiency of the Solver in applying the generalized reduced gradient method (GRG) is also presented. Spreadsheet results are compared with experimental results from the literature and with results determined with the help of FactSage - a commercial software package for solving chemical thermodynamic problems. From the comparison, it can be seen that spreadsheet results are in satisfactory agreement with all others. In addition, it has been shown simultaneously how spreadsheets can be easily used for metallurgical thermodynamics educational purposes (au)

  7. INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Davydenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the approaches to defining the essence of the concept of “investment attractiveness of enterprises” were analyzed. On the example of "Agrofirm Brusilov" depth analysis of the agricultural enterprises to evaluate of profitability, liquidity, solvency, financial stability, the timing of the return of invested funds and minimizing investment risks was conducted. To study methods of rating and system analysis were used. To justify the conditions of  increasing investment attractiveness farms method of scoring was used. It was established as a result of the use of integrated evaluation of the financial position one can see problem aspects of financial position of the company and develop measures to enhance liquidity, solvency, identify potential for raising the efficiency of company and prevention of financial crisis. The analysis of financial position showed that the management of the enterprise doesn’t  think  about  financial stability and solvency, does not understand the benefit of borrowed capital. Using research results in practice of agricultural enterprises allows us to give a real evaluation of investment attractiveness and justify ways to improve it. Key words: investments, investment attractiveness, potential business, financial position.

  8. A system of tourism attractions

    OpenAIRE

    Kušen, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Although tourism attractions are a basic resource for long term tourism developments, they are not given the proper attention, both, theoretical and practical. Therefore, rare studies of tourism attractions, especially those with the ambition of creating a functional system of tourism attractions, attract special attention. The aim of this paper is to present a new system of tourism attractions. This new system is based on the review of published research on tourism attractions, particularly ...

  9. Thermodynamically consistent modeling and simulation of multi-component two-phase flow with partial miscibility

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2017-12-09

    A general diffuse interface model with a realistic equation of state (e.g. Peng-Robinson equation of state) is proposed to describe the multi-component two-phase fluid flow based on the principles of the NVT-based framework which is an attractive alternative recently over the NPT-based framework to model the realistic fluids. The proposed model uses the Helmholtz free energy rather than Gibbs free energy in the NPT-based framework. Different from the classical routines, we combine the first law of thermodynamics and related thermodynamical relations to derive the entropy balance equation, and then we derive a transport equation of the Helmholtz free energy density. Furthermore, by using the second law of thermodynamics, we derive a set of unified equations for both interfaces and bulk phases that can describe the partial miscibility of multiple fluids. A relation between the pressure gradient and chemical potential gradients is established, and this relation leads to a new formulation of the momentum balance equation, which demonstrates that chemical potential gradients become the primary driving force of fluid motion. Moreover, we prove that the proposed model satisfies the total (free) energy dissipation with time. For numerical simulation of the proposed model, the key difficulties result from the strong nonlinearity of Helmholtz free energy density and tight coupling relations between molar densities and velocity. To resolve these problems, we propose a novel convex-concave splitting of Helmholtz free energy density and deal well with the coupling relations between molar densities and velocity through very careful physical observations with a mathematical rigor. We prove that the proposed numerical scheme can preserve the discrete (free) energy dissipation. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Timetable Attractiveness Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Timetable attractiveness is influenced by a set of key parameters that are described in this article. Regarding the superior structure of the timetable, the trend in Europe goes towards periodic regular interval timetables. Regular departures and focus on optimal transfer possibilities make...... these timetables attractive. The travel time in the timetable depends on the characteristics of the infrastructure and rolling stock, the heterogeneity of the planned train traffic and the necessary number of transfers on the passenger’s journey. Planned interdependencies between trains, such as transfers...... and heterogeneous traffic, add complexity to the timetable. The risk of spreading initial delays to other trains and parts of the network increases with the level of timetable complexity....

  11. Sharing Rare Attitudes Attracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Hans

    2018-04-01

    People like others who share their attitudes. Online dating platforms as well as other social media platforms regularly rely on the social bonding power of their users' shared attitudes. However, little is known about moderating variables. In the present work, I argue that sharing rare compared with sharing common attitudes should evoke stronger interpersonal attraction among people. In five studies, I tested this prediction for the case of shared interests from different domains. I found converging evidence that people's rare compared with their common interests are especially potent to elicit interpersonal attraction. I discuss the current framework's theoretical implications for impression formation and impression management as well as its practical implications for improving online dating services.

  12. Antipsychotics and physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2011-10-01

    Antipsychotics are effective in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia, but they may induce adverse effects, some of which-those that impact negatively on physical appearance-have not been sufficiently discussed in the psychiatric literature. Through a narrative review, to catalog antipsychotic side effects that interfere with physical attractiveness and to suggest ways of addressing them. PubMed databases were searched for information on the association between "antipsychotic side effects" and "attractiveness" using those two search phrases plus the following terms: "weight," "teeth," "skin," "hair," "eyes," "gait," "voice," "odor." Data from relevant qualitative and quantitative articles were considered, contextualized, and summarized. Antipsychotics, as a group, increase weight and may lead to dry mouth and bad breath, cataracts, hirsutism, acne, and voice changes; they may disturb symmetry of gait and heighten the risk for tics and spasms and incontinence, potentially undermining a person's attractiveness. Clinicians need to be aware of the impact of therapeutic drugs on appearance and how important this issue is to patients. Early in treatment, they need to plan preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  13. Attracting and repelling in homogeneous signal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downarowicz, T; Grzegorek, P; Lacroix, Y

    2010-01-01

    Attracting and repelling are discussed on two levels: in abstract signal processes and in signal processes arising as returns to a fixed set in an ergodic dynamical system. In the first approach, among other things, we give three examples in which the sum of two Poisson (hence neutral—neither attracting nor repelling) processes comes out either neutral or attracting, or repelling, depending on how the two processes depend on each other. The main new result of the second type concerns so-called 'composite events' in the form of a union of all cylinders over blocks belonging to the δ-ball in the Hamming distance around a fixed block. We prove that in a typical ergodic nonperiodic process the majority of such 'composite events' reveal strong attracting. We discuss the practical interpretation of this result

  14. Shukla-Eliasson attractive force: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.; Akbari-Moghanjoughi

    2013-04-01

    By investigating the dielectric response of the Fermi-Dirac plasma in the linear limit and evaluating the electrostatic potential around the positive stationary test charge, we find that the Shukla-Eliasson attractive force is present for the plasma density range expected in the interiors of large planets for a wide range of plasma atomic number. This research, which is based on the generalized electron Fermi-momentum, further confirms the existence of the newly discovered Lennard-Jones-like attractive potential and its inevitable role in plasma crystallization in the cores of planets. Moreover, it is observed that the characteristics of the attractive potential are strongly sensitive to the variation of plasma density and composition. Current research can also have applications in the study of strong laser-matter interactions and inertially confined plasmas.

  15. Form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambui Mutoru, J.; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Irreversible thermodynamics establishes form of multicomponent diffusion coefficients. → Phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors affect sign of diffusion coefficients. → Negative diagonal elements of diffusion coefficients matrix can occur in non-ideal mixtures. → Eigenvalues of the matrix of Fickian diffusion coefficients may not be all real. - Abstract: The form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix in thermodynamically stable mixtures is established based on the form of phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors. While phenomenological coefficients form a symmetric positive definite matrix, the determinant of thermodynamic factors matrix is positive. As a result, the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix has a positive determinant, but its elements - including diagonal elements - can be negative. Comprehensive survey of reported diffusion coefficients data for ternary and quaternary mixtures, confirms that invariably the determinant of the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix is positive.

  16. Multicomponent isotopic separation and recirculation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.; Maroni, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    A digital computer program for design of multicomponent distillation columns has been developed based on an exact method of solution of the governing equations. Although this computer program was developed for enrichment of the spent fuels from presently conceived tokamak-type fusion power reactors by cryogenic distillation, the program can be used for the design of any multicomponent distillation column, provided, of course, the necessary thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data are available. To prove the versatility of the computer program, parametric investigations to study the effect of design and operating variables on the composition of the product streams was carried out for the case of separating hydrogen isotopes. The computer program is very efficient; hence, a number of parametric investigations can be carried out with limited resources. The program does, however, require a fairly large computer storage space

  17. Novel Reagents for Multi-Component Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanguang; Basso, Andrea; Nenajdenko, Valentine G.; Gulevich, Anton V.; Krasavin, Mikhail; Bushkova, Ekaterina; Parchinsky, Vladislav; Banfi, Luca; Basso, Andrea; Cerulli, Valentina; Guanti, Giuseppe; Riva, Renata; Rozentsveig, Igor B.; Rozentsveig, Gulnur N.; Popov, Aleksandr V.; Serykh, Valeriy J.; Levkovskaya, Galina G.; Cao, Song; Shen, Li; Liu, Nianjin; Wu, Jingjing; Li, Lina; Qian, Xuhong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Jinwu; Wang, Yanguang; Lu, Ping; Heravi, Majid M.; Sadjadi, Samaheh; Kazemizadeh, Ali Reza; Ramazani, Ali; Kudyakova, Yulia S.; Goryaeva, Marina V.; Burgart, Yanina V.; Saloutin, Victor I.; Mossetti, Riccardo; Pirali, Tracey; Tron, Gian Cesare; Rozhkova, Yulia S.; Mayorova, Olga A.; Shklyaev, Yuriy V.; Zhdanko, Alexander G.; Nenajdenko, Valentine G.; Stryapunina, Olga G.; Plekhanova, Irina V.; Glushkov, Vladimir A.; Shklyaev, Yurii V.

    Ketenimines are a class of versatile and highly reactive intermediates that can participate in a variety of organic reactions, such as nucleophilic additions, radical additions, [2 + 2] and [2 + 4] cycloadditions, and sigmatropic rearrangements. In this presentation, we report on a series of multi-component reactions that involve a ketenimine intermediate. These reactions could furnish diverse heterocyclic compounds, including functionalized iminocoumarin, iminodihydroqunolines, iminothiochromens, pyrrolines, isoquinolines, pyridines, β-lactams, imino-1,2-dihydrocoumarins, and benzimidazoles.

  18. "Self-Shaping" of Multicomponent Drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholakova, Diana; Valkova, Zhulieta; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Smoukov, Stoyan K

    2017-06-13

    In our recent study we showed that single-component emulsion drops, stabilized by proper surfactants, can spontaneously break symmetry and transform into various polygonal shapes during cooling [ Denkov Nature 2015 , 528 , 392 - 395 ]. This process involves the formation of a plastic rotator phase of self-assembled oil molecules beneath the drop surface. The plastic phase spontaneously forms a frame of plastic rods at the oil drop perimeter which supports the polygonal shapes. However, most of the common substances used in industry appear as mixtures of molecules rather than pure substances. Here we present a systematic study of the ability of multicomponent emulsion drops to deform upon cooling. The observed trends can be summarized as follows: (1) The general drop-shape evolution for multicomponent drops during cooling is the same as with single-component drops; however, some additional shapes are observed. (2) Preservation of the particle shape upon freezing is possible for alkane mixtures with chain length difference Δn ≤ 4; for greater Δn, phase separation within the droplet is observed. (3) Multicomponent particles prepared from alkanes with Δn ≤ 4 plastify upon cooling due to the formation of a bulk rotator phase within the particles. (4) If a compound, which cannot induce self-shaping when pure, is mixed with a certain amount of a compound which induces self-shaping, then drops prepared from this mixture can also self-shape upon cooling. (5) Self-emulsification phenomena are also observed for multicomponent drops. In addition to the three recently reported mechanisms of self-emulsification [ Tcholakova Nat. Commun. 2017 , ( 8 ), 15012 ], a new (fourth) mechanism is observed upon freezing for alkane mixtures with Δn > 4. It involves disintegration of the particles due to a phase separation of alkanes upon freezing.

  19. Multi-component optical solitary waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, B.; Chang, I.T.H.; Knight, P.; Vincent, A.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Multicomponent alloys containing several components in equal atomic proportions have been manufactured by casting and melt spinning, and their microstructures and properties have been investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffractrometry and microhardness measurements. Alloys containing 16 and 20 components in equal proportions are multiphase, crystalline and brittle both as-cast and after melt spinning. A five component Fe 20 Cr 20 Mn 20 Ni 20 Co 20 alloy forms a single fcc solid solution which solidifies dendritically. A wide range of other six to nine component late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys exhibit the same majority fcc primary dendritic phase, which can dissolve substantial amounts of other transition metals such as Nb, Ti and V. More electronegative elements such as Cu and Ge are less stable in the fcc dendrites and are rejected into the interdendritic regions. The total number of phases is always well below the maximum equilibrium number allowed by the Gibbs phase rule, and even further below the maximum number allowed under non-equilibrium solidification conditions. Glassy structures are not formed by casting or melt spinning of late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys, indicating that the confusion principle does not apply, and other factors are more important in promoting glass formation

  1. Multicomponent droplet vaporization in a convecting environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaridis, C.M.; Sirignano, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a parametric study of the fundamental exchange processes for energy, mass and momentum between the liquid and gas phases of multicomponent liquid vaporizing droplets is presented. The model, which examines an isolated, vaporizing, multicomponent droplet in an axisymmetric, convecting environment, considers the different volatilities of the liquid components, the alteration of the liquid-phase properties due to the spatial/temporal variations of the species concentrations and also the effects of multicomponent diffusion. In addition, the model accounts for variable thermophysical properties, surface blowing and droplet surface regression due to vaporization, transient droplet heating with internal liquid circulation, and finally droplet deceleration with respect to the free flow due to drag. The numerical calculation employs finite-difference techniques and an iterative solution procedure that provides time-varying spatially-resolved data for both phases. The effects of initial droplet composition, ambient temperature, initial Reynolds number (based on droplet diameter), and volatility differential between the two liquid components are investigated for a liquid droplet consisting of two components with very different volatilities. It is found that mixtures with higher concentration of the less volatile substance actually vaporize faster on account of intrinsically higher liquid heating rates

  2. Multicomponent diffusion in two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    A recent hydrodynamic theory of multicomponent diffusion in multitemperature gas mixtures [J. D. Ramshaw, J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 18, 121 (1993)] is generalized to include the velocity-dependent Lorentz force on charged species in a magnetic field B. This generalization is used to extend a previous treatment of ambipolar diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas [J. D. Ramshaw and C. H. Chang, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 13, 489 (1993)] to situations in which B and the electrical current density are nonzero. General expressions are thereby derived for the species diffusion fluxes, including thermal diffusion, in both single- and two-temperature multicomponent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is shown that the usual zero-field form of the Stefan-Maxwell equations can be preserved in the presence of B by introducing generalized binary diffusion tensors dependent on B. A self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation is presented that provides explicit approximate expressions for the diffusion fluxes. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are exploited to obtain an ideal MHD description in which the electron diffusion coefficients drop out, resistive effects vanish, and the electric field reduces to a particularly simple form. This description should be well suited for numerical calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Are Brazil nuts attractive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Duncan A; Swift, Michael R; Bowley, R M; King, P J

    2004-11-12

    We present event-driven simulation results for single and multiple intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed. Under our vibratory conditions, the mean vertical position of a single intruder is governed primarily by a buoyancylike effect. Multiple intruders also exhibit buoyancy governed behavior; however, multiple neutrally buoyant intruders cluster spontaneously and undergo horizontal segregation. These effects can be understood by considering the dynamics of two neutrally buoyant intruders. We have measured an attractive force between such intruders which has a range of five intruder diameters, and we provide a mechanistic explanation for the origins of this force.

  4. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  5. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  6. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  7. Multicomponent Reactions in Ligation and Bioconjugation Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Leslie; Méndez, Yanira; Humpierre, Ana R; Valdés, Oscar; Rivera, Daniel G

    2018-05-25

    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) encompass an exciting class of chemical transformations that have proven success in almost all fields of synthetic organic chemistry. These convergent procedures incorporate three or more reactants into a final product in one pot, thus combining high levels of complexity and diversity generation with low synthetic cost. Striking applications of these processes are found in heterocycle, peptidomimetic, and natural product syntheses. However, their potential in the preparation of large macro- and biomolecular constructs has been realized just recently. This Account describes the most relevant results of our group in the utilization of MCRs for ligation/conjugation of biomolecules along with significant contributions from other laboratories that validate the utility of this special class of bioconjugation process. Thus, MCRs have proven to be efficient in the ligation of lipids to peptides and oligosaccharides as well as the ligation of steroids, carbohydrates, and fluorescent and affinity tags to peptides and proteins. In the field of glycolipids, we highlight the power of isocyanide-based MCRs with the one-pot double lipidation of glycan fragments functionalized as either the carboxylic acid or amine. In peptide chemistry, the versatility of the multicomponent ligation strategy is demonstrated in both solution-phase lipidation protocols and solid-phase procedures enabling the simultaneous lipidation and biotinylation of peptides. In addition, we show that MCRs are powerful methods for synchronized lipidation/labeling and macrocyclization of peptides, thus accomplishing in one step what usually requires long sequences. In the realm of protein bioconjugation, MCRs have also proven to be effective in labeling, site-selective modification, immobilization, and glycoconjugation processes. For example, we illustrate a successful application of multicomponent polysaccharide-protein conjugation with the preparation of multivalent

  8. Two New Multi-component BKP Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongxia; Liu Xiaojun; Zeng Yunbo

    2009-01-01

    We firstly propose two kinds of new multi-component BKP (mcBKP) hierarchy based on the eigenfunction symmetry reduction and nonstandard reduction, respectively. The first one contains two types of BKP equation with self-consistent sources whose Lax representations are presented. The two mcBKP hierarchies both admit reductions to the k-constrained BKP hierarchy and to integrable (1+1)-dimensional hierarchy with self-consistent sources, which include two types of SK equation with self-consistent sources and of bi-directional SK equations with self-consistent sources.

  9. Phonon excitations in multicomponent amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, I.A.; Migal', V.M.; Tkachuk, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The method of two-time temperature-dependent Green's functions is used to investigate phonon excitations in multicomponent amorphous solids. The equation obtained for the energy spectrum of the phonon excitations takes into account the damping associated with scattering of phonons by structure fluctuations. The quasicrystal approximation is considered, and as an example explicit expressions are obtained for the case of a two-component amorphous solid for the frequencies of the acoustical and optical modes and for the longitudinal and transverse velocities of sound. The damping is investigated

  10. Thermochemical modelling of multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundman, B.; Gueneau, C.

    2015-01-01

    Computational thermodynamic, also known as the Calphad method, is a standard tool in industry for the development of materials and improving processes and there is an intense scientific development of new models and databases. The calculations are based on thermodynamic models of the Gibbs energy for each phase as a function of temperature, pressure and constitution. Model parameters are stored in databases that are developed in an international scientific collaboration. In this way, consistent and reliable data for many properties like heat capacity, chemical potentials, solubilities etc. can be obtained for multi-component systems. A brief introduction to this technique is given here and references to more extensive documentation are provided. (authors)

  11. Producing of multicomponent and composite surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchon, T.; Bielinski, P.; Michalski, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a new method of producing multicomponent and composite layers on steel substrate. The combination of nickel plating with glow-discharge bordering or impulse-plasma deposition method gives an opportunity to obtain good properties of surface layers. The results of examinations of carbon 45 (0.45%C) steel, nickel plated and then borided under glow discharge conditions or covered with TiN layers are presented. The corrosion and friction wear resistance of such layers are markedly higher than for layer produced on non nickel plated substrates. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs

  12. Coulombic interactions and multicomponent ionic dispersion during transport of charged species in heterogeneous porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo

    Electrochemical cross-coupling plays a significant role for transport of charged species in porous media [1, 2]. In this study we performed flow-through experiments in a quasi two-dimensional setup using dilute solutions of strong electrolytes to study the influence of charge interactions on mass...... occurred. To quantitatively interpret the outcomes of our laboratory experiments in the spatially variable flow fields we developed a two dimensional numerical model based on a multicomponent formulation, on charge conservation and on the accurate description of transverse dispersion. The results...... of the multicomponent transport simulations were compared with the high-resolution (5 mm spacing) concentration measurements of the ionic species at the outlet of the flow-through domain. The excellent agreement between the measured concentrations and the results of purely forward numerical simulations demonstrates...

  13. Contact angle determination in multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmieschek, S.M.P.; Harting, J.D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Droplets on hydrophobic surfaces are ubiquitous in microfluidic applications and there exists a number of commonly used multicomponent and multiphase lattice Boltzmann schemes to study such systems. In this paper we focus on a popular implementation of a multicomponent model as introduced by Shan

  14. Temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.M.; Koval'chuk, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Method for calculating temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts is suggested. Application areas of existing methods were determined and advantages of the new method for calculating nitrogen solubility in multicomponent-doped iron melts (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo, Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn, Fe-Mo-V) at 1773-2073 K are shown

  15. Capabilities and limitations of predictive engineering theories for multicomponent adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Sofie; Bjørner, Martin Gamel; Solbraa, Even

    2013-01-01

    for the prediction of multicomponent adsorption with parameters obtained solely from correlating single gas/solid data. We have tested them over an extensive database with emphasis on polar systems (both gases and solids). The three theories are the multicomponent Langmuir, the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST...

  16. Attenuation of spin resonance signals in media with the multi-component system of collectivized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtenko, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Universal relaxation theory of spectral line form at electron scattering light with spin flip at scattering of neutrons and at electron paramagnetic resonance, is plotted. Signals of spin resonances are shown to be subjected to strong attenuation caused by mutual transformations of various current carriers in multicomponent spin systems contained in intermetallic actinides with heavy fermions, in HTSC-crystals, in indirect highly alloyed semiconductors, solid solutions and superlattices. Physical reasons of observation of light strong scattering with spin flip in intermetallic actinides with semi-width independent of the wave vector are discussed. 19 refs

  17. Diffusion, Coulombic interactions and multicomponent ionic transport of charged species in saturated porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolle, Massimo; Muniruzzaman, Muhammad

    water are cross-coupled due to the effects of Coulombic interactions. Such effects are illustrated in flow-through experiments in saturated porous media. Simple strong electrolytes (i.e., salts and strong acid solutions) were selected as tracers and their transport was studied under different advection......-dominated conditions in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media [2-3]. The model-based interpretation of the experimental results is challenging since it requires a multicomponent ionic formulation with an accurate description of local hydrodynamic dispersion and explicitly accounting for the cross-coupling...

  18. Theory and Simulation of Multicomponent Osmotic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaweera, Sadish; Gee, Moon Bae; Weerasinghe, Samantha; Smith, Paul E

    2012-05-28

    Most cellular processes occur in systems containing a variety of components many of which are open to material exchange. However, computer simulations of biological systems are almost exclusively performed in systems closed to material exchange. In principle, the behavior of biomolecules in open and closed systems will be different. Here, we provide a rigorous framework for the analysis of experimental and simulation data concerning open and closed multicomponent systems using the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions. The results are illustrated using computer simulations for various concentrations of the solutes Gly, Gly(2) and Gly(3) in both open and closed systems, and in the absence or presence of NaCl as a cosolvent. In addition, KB theory is used to help rationalize the aggregation properties of the solutes. Here one observes that the picture of solute association described by the KB integrals, which are directly related to the solution thermodynamics, and that provided by more physical clustering approaches are different. It is argued that the combination of KB theory and simulation data provides a simple and powerful tool for the analysis of complex multicomponent open and closed systems.

  19. Phase formation in multicomponent monotectic aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Alloys with a miscibility gap in the liquid state are potential materials for advanced bearings in automotive and other applications. While binary alloys, such as Al-Pb or Al-Bi, are well known, the information available for ternary monotectic Al-alloys is scarce. However, the phase formation in multicomponent alloys is not only more challenging from a scientific aspect, it is also a prerequisite for a focused development of advanced alloys. This motivated our detailed study of monotectic Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys including both experimental and computational thermodynamic methods. Based on the initially established systematic classification of monotectic ternary Al-alloys, the first promising monotectic reaction was observed in the ternary Al-Bi-Zn system. Further ternary systems Al-Cu-Sn, Al-Bi-Sn, Al-Bi-Cu and Bi-Cu-Sn were investigated as basis for quaternary Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys. Experimental investigations of phase equilibria, enthalpies and solidification microstructures were combined with thermodynamic modeling. The results demonstrate that the developed precise thermodynamic description is vital to reveal the distinct multicomponent monotectic features of pertinent phase diagrams. The solidification paths of ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, were also studied using thermodynamic calculations, revealing specific details of phase formation during solidification of selected alloys.

  20. Limiting Conditions of the "Physical Attractiveness Stereotype": Attributions about Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Subjects, reading a profile of a couple filing for divorce, made attributions about responsibility, financial settlement, future behavior, and personality traits. Reasons for divorce, physical attractiveness of husband and wife, and sex of subject were varied. Attractiveness strongly influenced personality ratings. Reason for divorce was related…

  1. Making vasectomy attractive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, N

    1992-08-01

    In 1989, Pro-Pater, a private, nonprofit family planning organization in Brazil, used attractive ads with the message Vasectomy, An Act of Love to promote vasectomy. The number of vasectomies performed/day at Pro-Pater clinics increased from 11 to 20 during the publicity campaign and fell after the ads stopped but continued at higher levels. Word of mouth communication among friends, neighbors, and relatives who had vasectomies maintained these high levels. This type of communication reduced the fear that often involves vasectomies because men hear from men they know and trust that vasectomies are harmless and do not deprive them of potency. In Sao Paulo, the percentage of men familiar with vasectomies and how they are performed increased after the campaign, but in Salvador, knowledge did not increase even though the number of vasectomies in Pro-Pater clinics increased. Organizations in Colombia and Guatemala have also been effective in educating men about vasectomies. These successes were especially relevant in Latin American where machismo has been an obstacle of family planning programs. The no-scalpel technique 1st introduced in China in 1974 reduces the fear of vasectomy and has fewer complications than the conventional technique. Further trained physicians can perform the no-scalpel technique in about 10 minutes compared with 15 minutes for the conventional technique. In 1987 during a 1-day festival in Thailand, physicians averaged 57 no-scalpel vasectomies/day compared with only 33 for conventional vasectomies. This technique has not spread to Guatemala, Brazil, Colombia, the US, and some countries in Asia and Africa. Extensive research does not indicate that vasectomy has an increased risk of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, and myocardial infarction. Physicians are working on ways to improve vasectomy.

  2. Beyond initial attraction: physical attractiveness in newlywed marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K; Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2008-02-01

    Physical appearance plays a crucial role in shaping new relationships, but does it continue to affect established relationships, such as marriage? In the current study, the authors examined how observer ratings of each spouse's facial attractiveness and the difference between those ratings were associated with (a) observations of social support behavior and (b) reports of marital satisfaction. In contrast to the robust and almost universally positive effects of levels of attractiveness on new relationships, the only association between levels of attractiveness and the outcomes of these marriages was that attractive husbands were less satisfied. Further, in contrast to the importance of matched attractiveness to new relationships, similarity in attractiveness was unrelated to spouses' satisfaction and behavior. Instead, the relative difference between partners' levels of attractiveness appeared to be most important in predicting marital behavior, such that both spouses behaved more positively in relationships in which wives were more attractive than their husbands, but they behaved more negatively in relationships in which husbands were more attractive than their wives. These results highlight the importance of dyadic examinations of the effects of spouses' qualities on their marriages.

  3. Judging attractiveness: Biases due to raters’ own attractiveness and intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Yen-Lin Sim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tennis and Dabbs (1975 reported that physically attractive males showed a positivity bias when rating the attractiveness of others. The opposite pattern was observed for females. We attempted to replicate and extend these findings by: (1 using self-assessed attractiveness rather than the experimentally derived attractiveness measure used in previous research, (2 using face-to-face interactions with targets as opposed to using photographs, and (3 examining the effect of another ego-involving attribute: intelligence. Consistent with previous research, attractiveness judgments made by men, but not women, correlated positively with their own self-perceived level of attractiveness (r = .51, p < .001. Attractiveness judgments made by women, but not men, correlated negatively with their intelligence (r = −.32, p = .001. Judgments of attractiveness are thus biased by a rater’s own attributes (e.g. attractiveness and intelligence, but these effects are not generalizable across men and women raters, and may be driven by different mechanisms.

  4. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  5. Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    Since 2003 Ernst and Young team has been releasing quarterly data that ranks national renewable energy markets, and their suitability for individual technologies. The Country Attractiveness Indices now track the relative attractiveness of 30 countries' renewable energy markets across a selection of technologies each quarter. The Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices publication scores and comments on various technologies, including: on-shore wind, off-shore wind, solar PV, solar CSP, biomass, and geothermal.

  6. Optical properties of multicomponent antimony-silver nanoclusters formed in silica by sequential ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhr, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of nanometer dimension metal colloids embedded in a dielectric depend explicitly on the electronic structure of the metal nanoclusters. The ability to control the electronic structure of the nanoclusters may make it possible to tailor the optical properties for enhanced performance. By sequential implantation of different metal ion species multi-component nanoclusters can be formed with significantly different optical properties than single element metal nanoclusters. The authors report the formation of multi-component Sb/Ag nanoclusters in silica by sequential implantation of Sb and Ag. Samples were implanted with relative ratios of Sb to Ag of 1:1 and 3:1. A second set of samples was made by single element implantations of Ag and Sb at the same energies and doses used to make the sequentially implanted samples. All samples were characterized using RBS and both linear and nonlinear optical measurements. The presence of both ions significantly modifies the optical properties of the composites compared to the single element nanocluster glass composites. In the sequentially implanted samples the optical density is lower, and the strong surface plasmon resonance absorption observed in the Ag implanted samples is not present. At the same time the nonlinear response of the these samples is larger than for the samples implanted with Sb alone, suggesting that the addition of Ag can increase the nonlinear response of the Sb particles formed. The results are consistent with the formation of multi-component Sb/Ag colloids

  7. Reaction path simulations in multicomponent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method is used in combination with selected experimental investigations to derive reaction paths in multicomponent systems. The method is illustrated by applying computerized thermodynamic databases and suitable software to explain quantitatively the thermal degradation of precursor-derived Si-C-N ceramics and the nitridation of titanium carbide. Reaction sequences in the Si 3 N 4 -SiC-TiC x N l-x -C-N system are illustrated by graphical representation of compatibility regions and indicated reaction paths. From these results the experimentally known microstructure development of TiC reinforced Si 3 N 4 ceramics is explained and quantitative information is provided to optimize the microstructure of such materials. The concept of reaction paths for the understanding of rapid solidification processes is shown by the example of AZ type Mg casting alloys. (orig.)

  8. Thermal Conductivity of the Multicomponent Neutral Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Approximate expressions for the thermal conductivity coefficient of the multicomponent neutral atmosphere consisting of N2, O2, O, He, and H are analyzed and evaluated for the atmospheric conditions by comparing them with that given by the rigorous hydrodynamic theory. The new approximations of the thermal conductivity coefficients of simple gases N2, O2, O, He, and H are derived and used. It is proved that the modified Mason and Saxena approximation of the atmospheric thermal conductivity coefficient is more accurate in reproducing the atmospheric values of the rigorous hydrodynamic thermal conductivity coefficient in comparison with those that are generally accepted in atmospheric studies. This approximation of the thermal conductivity coefficient is recommended to use in calculations of the neutral temperature of the atmosphere.

  9. Interatomic spacing distribution in multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda-Caraballo, I.; Wróbel, J.S.; Dudarev, S.L.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology to compute the distribution of interatomic distances in highly concentrated multicomponent alloys is proposed. By using the unit cell parameter and bulk modulus of the elements involved, the method accurately describes the distortion in the lattice produced by the interaction of the different atomic species. To prove this, density functional theory calculations have been used to provide the description of the lattice in a monophasic BCC MoNbTaVW high entropy alloy and its five sub-quaternary systems at different temperatures. Short-range order is also well described by the new methodology, where the mean error in the predicted atomic coordinates in comparison with the atomistic simulations is in the order of 1–2 pm over all the compositions and temperatures considered. The new method can be applied to tailor solid solution hardening, highly dependent on the distribution of interatomic distances, and guide the design of new high entropy alloys with enhanced properties

  10. Solidification paths of multicomponent monotectic aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2008-10-15

    Solidification paths of three ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, are studied using thermodynamic calculations, both for the pertinent phase diagrams and also for specific details concerning the solidification of selected alloy compositions. The coupled composition variation in two different liquids is quantitatively given. Various ternary monotectic four-phase reactions are encountered during solidification, as opposed to the simple binary monotectic, L' {yields} L'' + solid. These intricacies are reflected in the solidification microstructures, as demonstrated for these three aluminum alloy systems, selected in view of their distinctive features. This examination of solidification paths and microstructure formation may be relevant for advanced solidification processing of multicomponent monotectic alloys.

  11. Multicomponent seismic applications in coalbed methane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.; Trend, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2004-07-01

    Seismic applications for coalbed methane (CBM) development are used to address the following challenges: lateral continuity of coal zones; vertical continuity of coal seams; permeability of cleats and fractures; coal quality and gas content; wet versus dry coal zones; and, monitoring storage of greenhouse gases. This paper presented a brief description of existing seismic programs, including 2-D and 3-D surface seismic surveys; multicomponent seismic surveys; vertical seismic profiles; cross-well seismic surveys; and, time-lapse seismic surveys. A comparative evaluation of their use in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and the Ardley Formation was presented. The study showed that variations in reservoir properties resulting from gas production and dewatering can be effectively imaged using seismic surveys. Seismic surveys are useful in reservoir management, monitoring sweep efficiency during enhanced natural gas from coal (NGC) production, monitoring disposal of produced water and verifying storage of carbon dioxide for carbon credits. tabs., figs.

  12. Dynamic Multi-Component Hemiaminal Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lei; Long, S. Reid; Lynch, Vincent M.

    2012-01-01

    A simple approach to generating in situ metal templated tris-(2-picolyl)amine-like multi-component assemblies with potential applications in molecular recognition and sensing is reported. The assembly is based on the reversible covalent association between di-(2-picolyl)amine and aldehydes. Zinc ion is the best for inducing assembly among the metal salts investigated, while 2-picolinaldehyde is the best among the heterocyclic aldehydes studied. Although an equilibrium constant of 6.6 * 103 M-1 was measured for the assembly formed by 2-picolinaldehdye, di-(2-picolyl)amine, and zinc triflate, the equilibrium constants for other systems are in the 102 M-1 range. X-ray structural analysis revealed that zinc adopts a trigonal bipyramidal geometry within the assembled ligand. The diversity and equilibrium of the assemblies are readily altered by simply changing concentrations, varying components, or adding counter anions. PMID:21919095

  13. The multi-component model of working memory: explorations in experimental cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovs, G; Baddeley, A

    2006-04-28

    There are a number of ways one can hope to describe and explain cognitive abilities, each of them contributing a unique and valuable perspective. Cognitive psychology tries to develop and test functional accounts of cognitive systems that explain the capacities and properties of cognitive abilities as revealed by empirical data gathered by a range of behavioral experimental paradigms. Much of the research in the cognitive psychology of working memory has been strongly influenced by the multi-component model of working memory [Baddeley AD, Hitch GJ (1974) Working memory. In: Recent advances in learning and motivation, Vol. 8 (Bower GA, ed), pp 47-90. New York: Academic Press; Baddeley AD (1986) Working memory. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press; Baddeley A. Working memory: Thought and action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in press]. By expanding the notion of a passive short-term memory to an active system that provides the basis for complex cognitive abilities, the model has opened up numerous questions and new lines of research. In this paper we present the current revision of the multi-component model that encompasses a central executive, two unimodal storage systems: a phonological loop and a visuospatial sketchpad, and a further component, a multimodal store capable of integrating information into unitary episodic representations, termed episodic buffer. We review recent empirical data within experimental cognitive psychology that has shaped the development of the multicomponent model and the understanding of the capacities and properties of working memory. Research based largely on dual-task experimental designs and on neuropsychological evidence has yielded valuable information about the fractionation of working memory into independent stores and processes, the nature of representations in individual stores, the mechanisms of their maintenance and manipulation, the way the components of working memory relate to each other, and the role they play in other

  14. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  15. Physical Attractiveness and Interpersonal Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Karen K.; Stein, Steven

    1978-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that attractive individuals should be more successful with opposite-sex peers but less successful with same-sex peers than unattractive individuals. Also investigates the influence strategies employed by persons differing in attractiveness since nothing is currently known about the actual behavior exhibited by attractive…

  16. Physical attractiveness stereotype and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments examined explicit and implicit memory for information that is congruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-positive and unattractive-negative) and information that is incongruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-negative and unattractive-positive). Measures of explicit recognition sensitivity and implicit discriminability revealed a memorial advantage for congruent compared to incongruent information, as evident from hit and false alarm rates and reaction times, respectively. Measures of explicit memory showed a recognition bias toward congruent compared to incongruent information, where participants tended to call congruent information old, independently of whether the information had been shown previously or not. This recognition bias was unrelated to reports of subjective confidence in retrieval. The present findings shed light on the cognitive mechanisms that might mediate discriminatory behavior towards physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. Professional assessment of facial profile attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Jen; Chew, Ming Tak; Wong, Hwee Bee

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the assessments of Chinese facial profile attractiveness by orthodontists and oral surgeons. The sample comprised 31 dental professionals (20 orthodontists, 11 oral surgeons) in an Asian community. Facial profile photographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 2 Chinese adults (1 man, 1 woman) with normal profiles, Class I incisor relationships, and Class I skeletal patterns were digitized. The digital images were modified by altering cephalometric skeletal and dental hard tissue Chinese normative values in increments of 2 standard deviations in the anteroposterior plane to obtain 7 facial profiles for each sex. The images were bimaxillary protrusion, protrusive mandible, retrusive mandible, normal profile (Class I incisor with Class I skeletal pattern), retrusive maxilla, protrusive maxilla, and bimaxillary retrusion. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine professional differences in assessment. Multiple regression analysis was performed with age, professional status, sex, and number of years in practice as independent variables. A strong correlation was found in the profile assessment between orthodontists and oral surgeons. Normal and bimaxillary retrusive Chinese male and female profiles were judged to be highly attractive by orthodontists and oral surgeons. Chinese male and female profiles with protrusive mandibles were judged the least attractive. There was a difference in professional opinion about the most attractive male profile (P profile and oral surgeons preferring a fuller normal Chinese profile. Sex of dental professionals and number of years in clinical practice were found to affect profile rankings.

  18. Modelling of micro- and macrosegregation for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, K; M'Hamdi, M; Mortensen, D

    2015-01-01

    Realistic predictions of macrosegregation formation during casting of aluminium alloys requires an accurate modeling of solute microsegregation accounting for multicomponent phase diagrams and secondary phase formation. In the present work, the stand alone Alstruc model, a microsegregation model for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys, is coupled with the continuum model ALSIM which calculates the macroscopic transport of mass, enthalpy, momentum, and solutes as well as stresses and deformation during solidification of aluminium. Alstruc deals with multicomponent alloys accounting for temperature dependent partition coefficients, liquidus slopes and the precipitation of secondary phases. The challenge associated with computation of microsegregation for multicomponent alloys is solved in Alstruc by approximating the phase diagram data by simple, analytical expressions which allows for a CPU-time efficient coupling with the macroscopic transport model. In the present work, the coupled model has been applied in a study of macrosegregation including thermal and solutal convection, solidification shrinkage and surface exudation on an industrial DC-cast billet. (paper)

  19. Synthesis of conformationally constrained peptidomimetics using multicomponent reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffelaar, R.; Klein Nijenhuis, R.A.; Paravidino, M.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Ehlers, A.W.; de Kanter, F.J.J.; Groen, M.B.; Orru, R.V.A.; Ruijter, E.

    2009-01-01

    A novel modular synthetic approach toward constrained peptidomimetics is reported. The approach involves a highly efficient three-step sequence including two multicomponent reactions, thus allowing unprecedented diversification of both the peptide moieties and the turn-inducing scaffold. The

  20. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology

  1. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology.

  2. Effects of student physical attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Implicit personality theories suggest that people draw conclusions about other persons by using a relatively small number of visible features. The formation of "the first impression" is influenced by the factors, such as sex, age, appearances, race or nationality. Frequently, conclusions based on those factors lead to developing social stereotypes. Attractiveness is a good example of "the first impression" effect, because physical attractiveness entails the creation of impression about another person along a relatively great number of dimensions. Experimental paradigm, introduced in the sphere of interpersonal perception around the mid-20th century, led to a relatively great number of studies on stereotype based on physical attractiveness. One of the most often quoted conclusions of studies on physical attractiveness is summarized by the idiom "what is beautiful is good". For example, socially desirable personality traits (responsibility kindness, energy quality, modesty, more successful private and professional life, are all attributed to physically attractive persons. In addition physical attractiveness is coupled with positive expectations, peer acceptance, academic achievement etc. On the basis of studies on the "what is beautiful is good" stereotype, we have situated our analysis within the domain of roles regulating social interaction between teachers and students i.e. effects of physical attractiveness on teacher expectations, peer acceptance and academic achievement.

  3. Analysis of Multicomponent Adsorption Close to a Dew Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We develop the potential theory of multicomponent adsorption close to a dew point. The approach is based on an asymptotic adsorption equation (AAE) which is valid in a vicinity of the dew point. By this equation the thickness of the liquid film is expressed through thermodynamic characteristics...... and the direct calculations, even if the mixture is not close to a dew point.Key Words: adsorption; potential theory; multicomponent; dew point....

  4. Multicomponent reactions: A simple and efficient route to heterocyclic phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are one of the most important processes for the preparation of highly functionalized organic compounds in modern synthetic chemistry. As shown in this review, they play an important role in organophosphorus chemistry where phosphorus reagents are used as substrates for the synthesis of a wide range of phosphorylated heterocycles. In this article, an overview about multicomponent reactions used for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds bearing a phosphonate group on the ring is given. PMID:27559377

  5. Multi-component nuclear energy system to meet requirement of self-consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaki; Artisyuk, Vladimir; Shmelev, Anotolii; Korovin, Yorii

    2000-01-01

    Environmental harmonization of nuclear energy technology is considered as an absolutely necessary condition in its future successful development for peaceful use. Establishment of Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System, that simultaneously meets four requirements - energy production, fuel production, burning of radionuclides and safety, strongly relies on the neutron excess generation. Implementation of external non-fission based neutron sources into fission energy system would open the possibility of approaching Multicomponent Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System with unlimited fuel resources, zero radioactivity release and high protection against uncontrolled proliferation of nuclear materials. (author)

  6. Multicomponent synthesis of unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene precursors and their related transition-metal complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Queval, Pierre

    2013-12-04

    A low-cost, modular, and easily scalable multicomponent procedure affording access in good yields and excellent selectivity (up to 93 %) to a wide range of (a)chiral unsymmetrical 1-aryl-3-cycloalkyl-imidazolium salts is disclosed. Electronic and steric properties of the corresponding unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligands were evaluated and evidenced strong electron donor ability, high steric discrimination, and modular steric demand. A low-cost, modular, and easily scalable multicomponent procedure, affording access to a wide range of (a)chiral unsymmetrical 1-aryl-3-cycloalkyl- imidazolium salts in good yields and excellent selectivities, is disclosed. Electronic and steric properties of the corresponding unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligands were evaluated and evidenced strong electron-donor ability, high steric discrimination, and modular steric demand. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  8. Effects of Switching Behavior for the Attraction on Pedestrian Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Kwak

    Full Text Available Walking is a fundamental activity of our daily life not only for moving to other places but also for interacting with surrounding environment. While walking on the streets, pedestrians can be aware of attractions like shopping windows. They can be influenced by the attractions and some of them might shift their attention towards the attractions, namely switching behavior. As a first step to incorporate the switching behavior, this study investigates collective effects of switching behavior for an attraction by developing a behavioral model. Numerical simulations exhibit different patterns of pedestrian behavior depending on the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay. When the social influence is strong along with a long length of stay, a saturated phase can be defined at which all the pedestrians have visited the attraction. If the social influence is not strong enough, an unsaturated phase appears where one can observe that some pedestrians head for the attraction while others walk in their desired direction. These collective patterns of pedestrian behavior are summarized in a phase diagram by comparing the number of pedestrians who visited the attraction to the number of passersby near the attraction. Measuring the marginal benefits with respect to the strength of the social influence and the average length of stay enables us to identify under what conditions enhancing these variables would be more effective. The findings from this study can be understood in the context of the pedestrian facility management, for instance, for retail stores.

  9. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  10. Attractiveness bias: A cognitive explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Stevie S; Trujillo, Logan T; Langlois, Judith H

    2017-01-01

    According to cognitive averaging theory, preferences for attractive faces result from their similarity to facial prototypes, the categorical central tendencies of a population of faces. Prototypical faces are processed more fluently, resulting in increased positive affect in the viewer.

  11. Creating kampong as tourist attractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, N.; Utama, R.; Hidayat, A. R. T.; Zamrony, A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Tourism attractions become one of the main components and they drive the tourism activity in a region. The quality of tourism attractions would affect tourists’ visits. Tourism power can basically be built on any conditions which can attract people to visit. Towns is full of activities which include their economic, social, cultural and physical features, if they are presented properly, they can be a tourist attraction. Kampung City, as a form of urban settlement, has the potential to be developed as a tourism attraction. Kampung is not only a physical area of housing but it has also productive activities. Even the city’s economic activities are also influenced by the productive activities of its Kampung. The shape of Kampung which varies in physical, social, economic and cultural raises special characteristics of each Kampung. When it is linked with the city’s tourism activities, these special characteristics of course could be one of the attractions to attract tourists. This paper studies about one of Kampung in the Malang City. Administratively located in the Penanggungan Village Lowokwaru District, but the potential will just be focused on RW 4. Main productive activities of this village are pottery. In contrast to ceramics, pottery is made from clay and its uniqueness in color and shape. Based on the history of pottery in the Malang, it is concentrated in Penanggungan Village. But along with its development, pottery is decreasingly in demand and number of craftsmen is dwindling. Based on these circumstances, a concept is prepared to raise the image of the region as the Kampung of pottery and to repack it as a tourism attraction of the city.

  12. Effects of student physical attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2005-01-01

    Implicit personality theories suggest that people draw conclusions about other persons by using a relatively small number of visible features. The formation of "the first impression" is influenced by the factors, such as sex, age, appearances, race or nationality. Frequently, conclusions based on those factors lead to developing social stereotypes. Attractiveness is a good example of "the first impression" effect, because physical attractiveness entails the creation of impression about anothe...

  13. Attracting electromagnet for control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Sasaki, Kotaro.

    1989-01-01

    Non-magnetic material plates with inherent resistivity of greater than 20 μΩ-cm and thickness of less than 3 mm are used for the end plates of attracting electromagnets for closed type control rods. By using such control rod attracting electromagnets, the scram releasing time can be shortened than usual. Since the armature attracting side of the electromagnet has to be sealed by a non-magnetic plate, a bronze plate of about 5 mm thickness has been used so far. Accordingly, non-magnetic plate is inserted to the electromagnet attracting face to increase air source length for improving to shorten the scram releasing time. This method, however, worsens the attracting property on one hand to require a great magnetomotive force. For overcoming these drawbacks, in the present invention, the material for tightly closing end plates in an electromagnet is changed from bronze plate to non-magnetic stainless steel SUS 303 or non-magnetic Monel metal and, in addition, the plate thickness is reduced to less than 5 mm thereby maintaining the attracting property and shortening the scram releasing time. (K.M.)

  14. Quantum turbulence in cold multicomponent matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnyuk, Ivan A.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum vortices are pivotal for understanding of phenomena in quantum hydrodynamics. Vortices were observed in different physical systems like trapped dilute Bose-Einstein condensates, liquid helium, exciton-polariton condensates and other types of systems. Foreign particles attached to the vortices often serve for a visualization of the vortex shape and kinematics in superfluid experiments. Fascinating discoveries were made in the field of cold quantum mixtures, where vortices created in one component may interact with the other component. This works raise the fundamental question of the interaction between quantum vortices and matter. The generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation based formalism is applied here to model three different processes involving the interaction of quantum vortices with foreign particles: propagation of a fast classical particle in a superfluid under the influence of sound waves, scattering of a single fermion by a quantized vortex line and dynamics of vortex pairs doped with heavy bosonic matter. The obtained results allow to to clarify the details of recent experiments and acquire a better understanding of the multicomponent quantum turbulence.

  15. Multi-level and Multi-component Bitmap Encoding for Efficient Search Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu BHAN, Department of Computer Applications

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in data warehousing for decision makers is becoming more and more crucial to make faster and efficient decisions. On-line decision needs short response times. Many indexing techniques have been created to achieve this goal in read only environments. Indexing technique that has attracted attention in multidimensional databases is Bitmap Indexing. The paper discusses the various existing bitmap indexing techniques along with their performance characteristics. The paper proposes two new bitmap indexing techniques in the class of multi-level and multi-component encoding schemes and prove that the two techniques have better space–time performance than some of the existing techniques used for range queries. We provide an analytical model for comparing the performance of our proposed encoding schemes with that of the existing ones.

  16. Training program attracts work and health researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakon, Janne

    2007-01-01

    Each year in Canada, the costs of disability arising from work-related causes – including workers’ compensation and health-care costs – exceed $6.7 billion. Despite the significant financial and social impacts of worker injury and illness, only a small fraction of Canadian researchers are dedicated...... to examining work disability prevention issues. An innovative program that attracts international students, the Work Disability Prevention Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Strategic Training Program, aims to build research capacity in young researchers and to create a strong network that examines...

  17. Fluids with highly directional attractive forces. III. Multiple attraction sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertheim, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors derive a reformulation of statistical thermodynamics for fluids of molecules which interact by highly directional attraction. The molecular model consists of a repulsive core and several sites of very short-ranged attraction. The authors explore the relationship between graph cancellation in the fugacity expansion and three types of steric incompatibility between repulsive and attractive interactions involving several molecules. The steric effects are used to best advantage in a limited regrouping of bonds. This controls the density parameters which appear when articulation points are eliminated in the graphical representation. Each density parameter is a singlet density for a species consisting of molecules with a specified set of sites bonded. The densities satisfy subsidiary conditions of internal consistency. These conditions are equivalent to a minimization of the Helmholtz free energy A. Graphical expressions for A and for the pressure are derived. Analogs of the s-particle direct correlation functions and of the Ornstein-Zernike equation are found

  18. Collective attraction of equal-sign charged grains in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Morfill, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that, in the presence of many grains embedded in a plasma, any two grains with the same charge sign can attract each other. The attraction is caused by collective effects. Both the strength of attraction and the distance at which the attraction is located depend on the average dust density. In the limit of strong collective interaction, the potential energy of interaction is found to be equal to the Coulomb interaction with an amplitude periodically changing its sign at a sequence of interdust distances. The condition for collective effects to dominate lead to a threshold condition that is fulfilled in existing experiments. The effect of collective attraction is applied for the physical interpretation of the observed phenomenon of the formation of dust crystals in laboratory experiments

  19. Mutual attraction of magnetic knots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    It is observed that the magnetic knots associated with active regions on the Sun have an attraction for each other during the formative period of the active regions, when new magnetic flux is coming to the surface. The attraction disappears when new flux ceases to rise through the surface. Then the magnetic spots and knots tend to come apart, leading to disintegration of the sunspots previously formed. The dissolution of the fields is to be expected, as a consequence of the magnetic repulsion of knots of like polarity and as a consequence of the hydromagnetic exchange instability.The purpose of this paper is to show that the mutual attraction of knots during the formative stages of a sunspot region may be understood as the mutual hydrodynamic attraction of the rising flux tubes. Two rising tubes attract each other, as a consequence of the wake of the leading tube when one is moving behind the other, and as a consequence of the Bernoulli effect when rising side by side

  20. Attractive ellipsoids in robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...

  1. Multicomponent ensemble models to forecast induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király-Proag, E.; Gischig, V.; Zechar, J. D.; Wiemer, S.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, human-induced seismicity has become a more and more relevant topic due to its economic and social implications. Several models and approaches have been developed to explain underlying physical processes or forecast induced seismicity. They range from simple statistical models to coupled numerical models incorporating complex physics. We advocate the need for forecast testing as currently the best method for ascertaining if models are capable to reasonably accounting for key physical governing processes—or not. Moreover, operational forecast models are of great interest to help on-site decision-making in projects entailing induced earthquakes. We previously introduced a standardized framework following the guidelines of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, the Induced Seismicity Test Bench, to test, validate, and rank induced seismicity models. In this study, we describe how to construct multicomponent ensemble models based on Bayesian weightings that deliver more accurate forecasts than individual models in the case of Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 enhanced geothermal stimulation projects. For this, we examine five calibrated variants of two significantly different model groups: (1) Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity based on the seismogenic index, simple modified Omori-law-type seismicity decay, and temporally weighted smoothed seismicity; (2) Hydraulics and Seismicity based on numerically modelled pore pressure evolution that triggers seismicity using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. We also demonstrate how the individual and ensemble models would perform as part of an operational Adaptive Traffic Light System. Investigating seismicity forecasts based on a range of potential injection scenarios, we use forecast periods of different durations to compute the occurrence probabilities of seismic events M ≥ 3. We show that in the case of the Basel 2006 geothermal stimulation the models forecast hazardous levels

  2. Exergy Rate Profile of Multicomponent Distillation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adewale Adesina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exergy rate profiles, exergetic efficiency and irreversibility were used to examine the driving forces in multicomponent distillation system with the view to identifying feasible and efficient operating parameters. The mixture used comprised of 5% propane, 15% iso-butane, 25% nbutane, 20% iso-pentane and 35% n-pentane. Operating variables were feed temperature (-30 oC and -80 oC, pressure (800 kPa and 1200 kPa, and reflux-ratio (2 and 6. Stage-by-stage system exergy analysis was estimated. Column profiles of base case -30 oC, -80 oC, -30 oC-reflus ratio 6, -80 oC reflux ratio 6 and base case reflux ratio 6 did not crossed thus are thermodynamically feasible. Base case -30 oC-reflux ratio 2, -80 oC-reflux ratio 2, and base case-reflux ratio 2 were crossed and constricted and are infeasible. Base case results gave efficiency of 81.7% at depropanizer and 65.2% at debutanizer. Base cases sensitivity results with -30 oC, -80 oC and reflux ratio 6, efficiency range 57.40 – 70% and 65.20% - 54.90% for depropanizer and debutanizer respectively. Spitted cases gave 81.7% and 62.20% with more scatter profiles. Splitted feed base case -30 oC design gave the lowest overall system exergy loss rate of 1.12E+6 and efficiency of 95.70%. Design feasible parameters, system efficiency and irreversibility which form basis

  3. Parametric analysis of the thermodynamic properties for a medium with strong interaction between particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovitskii, V.A.; Pavlov, G.A.; Krasnikov, Yu.G.

    1996-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of media with strong interparticle (Coulomb) interaction is presented. A method for constructing isotherms is proposed for a medium described by a closed multicomponent thermodynamic model. The method is based on choosing an appropriate nondegenerate frame of reference in the extended space of thermodynamic variables and provides efficient thermodynamic calculations in a wide range of parameters, for an investigation of phase transitions of the first kind, and for determining both the number of phases and coexistence curves. A number of approximate thermodynamic models of hydrogen plasma are discussed. The approximation corresponding to the n5/2 law, in which the effects of particle attraction and repulsion are taken into account qualitatively, is studied. This approximation allows studies of thermodynamic properties of a substance for a wide range of parameters. In this approximation, for hydrogen at a constant temperature, various properties of the degree of ionization are revealed. In addition, the parameters of the second critical point are found under conditions corresponding to the Jovian interior

  4. Versatile Multicomponent Reaction Macrocycle Synthesis Using α-Isocyano-ω-carboxylic Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, George P; Abdelraheem, Eman M M; Neochoritis, Constantinos G; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; McGowan, David C; Dömling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The direct macrocycle synthesis of α-isocyano-ω-carboxylic acids via an Ugi multicomponent reaction is introduced. This multicomponent reaction (MCR) protocol differs by being especially short, convergent, and versatile, giving access to 12-22 membered rings.

  5. Physical Attractiveness, Employment, and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Pfeifer

    2011-01-01

    Survey data is used to estimate the impact of physical attractiveness rated by the interviewer as well as by the respondent on employment probability and labor income of men and women. In addition to mean linear and non-linear effects on earnings, simultaneous quantile regressions are applied to analyze heterogeneity across the wage distribution.

  6. The Ambiguous Attractiveness of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ’ can help us understand the attractiveness of constantly being ‘on the move’. Qualitative data from three exemplars of this elite group of workers is used to illustrate how the ideal of being mobile is perceived as an often problematic imperative, but also as one which is nevertheless rewarding...

  7. Rogue waves in the multicomponent Mel'nikov system and multicomponent Schrödinger-Boussinesq system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baonan; Lian, Zhan

    2018-02-01

    By virtue of the bilinear method and the KP hierarchy reduction technique, exact explicit rational solutions of the multicomponent Mel'nikov equation and the multicomponent Schrödinger-Boussinesq equation are constructed, which contain multicomponent short waves and single-component long wave. For the multicomponent Mel'nikov equation, the fundamental rational solutions possess two different behaviours: lump and rogue wave. It is shown that the fundamental (simplest) rogue waves are line localised waves which arise from the constant background with a line profile and then disappear into the constant background again. The fundamental line rogue waves can be classified into three: bright, intermediate and dark line rogue waves. Two subclasses of non-fundamental rogue waves, i.e., multirogue waves and higher-order rogue waves are discussed. The multirogue waves describe interaction of several fundamental line rogue waves, in which interesting wave patterns appear in the intermediate time. Higher-order rogue waves exhibit dynamic behaviours that the wave structures start from lump and then retreat back to it. Moreover, by taking the parameter constraints further, general higher-order rogue wave solutions for the multicomponent Schrödinger-Boussinesq system are generated.

  8. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the immiscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the open-quotes alkaliclose quotes corner of the NBS submixture

  9. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-04-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the US Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the miscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the ''alkali'' corner of the NBS submixture

  10. Calculation and experimental investigation of multi-component ceramic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, M.

    1994-12-01

    This work shows a way to combine thermodynamic calculations and experiments in order to get useful information on the constitution of metal/non-metal systems. Many data from literature are critically evaluated and used as a basis for experiments and calculations. The following multi-component systems are treated: 1. Multi-component systems of 'ceramic' materials with partially metallic bonding (carbides, nitrides, oxides, borides, carbonitrides, borocarbides, oxinitrides of the 4-8th transition group metals) 2. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant covalent bonding (SiC, Si 3 N 4 , SiB 6 , BN, Al 4 C 3 , Be 2 C) 3. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant heteropolar bonding (Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , BeO, SiO 2 , ZrO 2 ). The interactions between 1. and 2., 2. and 3., 1. and 3. are also considered. The latest commercially available programmes for the calculation of thermodynamical equilibria and phase diagrams are evaluated and compared considering their facilities and limits. New phase diagrams are presented for many presently unknown multi-component systems; partly known systems are completed on the basis of selected thermodynamic data. The calculations are verified by experimental investigations (metallurgical and powder technology methods). Altogether 690 systems are evaluated, 126 are calculated for the first time and 52 systems are experimentally verified. New data for 60 ternary phases are elaborated by estimating the data limits for the Gibbs energy values. A synthesis of critical evaluation of literature, calculations and experiments leads to new important information about equilibria and reaction behaviour in multi-component systems. This information is necessary to develop new stable and metastable materials. (orig./MM) [de

  11. Simplified simulation of multicomponent isotope separation by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhixiong; Ying Chuntong

    1995-01-01

    The expressions of diffusion equation for multicomponent isotope separation by gas centrifuge are derived by utilizing the simplified diffusion transport vector. A method of radial averaging which was restricted to a binary mixture is extended to multicomponent isotope mixtures by using an iterative scheme. A numerical analysis of tetradic UF 6 or SF 6 gas isotope separation by centrifuge is discussed when a special model of velocity distribution is given. The dependence of mutual separation factor for the components on their molecular weights' difference is obtained. Some aspects of the given model of gas fluid are also discussed

  12. A Multi-component Matrix Loop Algebra and Its Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Huanhe; Zhang Ning

    2005-01-01

    A set of multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed. It follows that a type of new loop algebra A M-1 is presented. An isospectral problem is established. Integrable multi-component hierarchy is obtained by Tu pattern, which possesses tri-Hamiltonian structures. Furthermore, it can be reduced to the well-known AKNS hierarchy and BPT hierarchy. Therefore, the major result of this paper can be regarded as a unified expression integrable model of the AKNS hierarchy and the BPT hierarchy.

  13. Modeling of Multicomponent Mixture Separation Processes Using Hollow fiber Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Kuk; Lee, Young Moo; Yeo, Yeong-Koo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    So far, most of research activities on modeling of membrane separation processes have been focused on binary feed mixture. But, in actual separation operations, binary feed is hard to find and most separation processes involve multicomponent feed mixture. In this work models for membrane separation processes treating multicomponent feed mixture are developed. Various model types are investigated and validity of proposed models are analysed based on experimental data obtained using hollowfiber membranes. The proposed separation models show quick convergence and exhibit good tracking performance.

  14. Calculation of thermodynamic properties of multicomponent ionic reciprocal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboungi, M.

    1980-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of multicomponent ionic reciprocal systems are derived using the conformal ionic solution theory. The equations obtained are more general than previous equations and depend solely on the properties of the components and on those of the binary subsystems. The behavior of dilute solutions is carefully studied leading to a priori predictions of solubility products in multicomponent systems. The solubility products and the specific bond free energy for making an ion pair, e.g., the pair (A--X) in the binary solvent BY--CY, are shown to depend upon specific ionic interactions in the binary subsystems. The equations presented are compared with equations derived from prior theories

  15. Strategies for innovation in multicomponent reaction design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganem, Bruce

    2009-03-17

    By generating structural complexity in a single step from three or more reactants, multicomponent reactions (MCRs) make it possible to synthesize target compounds with greater efficiency and atom economy. The history of such reactions can be traced to the mid-19th century when Strecker first produced alpha-aminonitriles from the condensation of aldehydes with ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. Recently, academic chemists have renewed their interest in MCRs. In part, the pharmaceutical industry has fueled this resurgence because of the growing need to assemble libraries of structurally complex substances for evaluation as lead compounds in drug discovery and development programs. The application of MCRs to that increasingly important objective remains limited by the relatively small number of such reactions that can be broadly applied to prepare biologically relevant or natural-product-like molecular frameworks. We were interested in applying logic-based approaches, such as our single reactant replacement (SRR) approach, as a way both to improve known MCRs and to design new multiple-component routes to bioactive structures. This Account provides several examples that illustrate the use of SRR with known MCRs as starting points for synthetic innovation in this area. As part of our working hypothesis, we initially explored strategies for engineering improvements into known MCRs, either by increasing the dimensionality--that is, changing an n-component to an (n + 1)-component reaction--or broadening the scope of useful input structures, or both. By exhaustively applying retrosynthetic analysis to the cognate MCR to identify and exploit alternative entry points into the overall reaction manifold, we have devised several such re-engineered MCRs. Serendipitous findings have also augmented the yield of useful developments from our logic-inspired approach. In some cases, we have identified surprising links between different compound families that provide useful new entry points

  16. Attractive Flicker--Guiding Attention in Dynamic Narrative Visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Manuela; Le Muzic, Mathieu; Bernhard, Matthias; Purgathofer, Werner; Viola, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Focus+context techniques provide visual guidance in visualizations by giving strong visual prominence to elements of interest while the context is suppressed. However, finding a visual feature to enhance for the focus to pop out from its context in a large dynamic scene, while leading to minimal visual deformation and subjective disturbance, is challenging. This paper proposes Attractive Flicker, a novel technique for visual guidance in dynamic narrative visualizations. We first show that flicker is a strong visual attractor in the entire visual field, without distorting, suppressing, or adding any scene elements. The novel aspect of our Attractive Flicker technique is that it consists of two signal stages: The first "orientation stage" is a short but intensive flicker stimulus to attract the attention to elements of interest. Subsequently, the intensive flicker is reduced to a minimally disturbing luminance oscillation ("engagement stage") as visual support to keep track of the focus elements. To find a good trade-off between attraction effectiveness and subjective annoyance caused by flicker, we conducted two perceptual studies to find suitable signal parameters. We showcase Attractive Flicker with the parameters obtained from the perceptual statistics in a study of molecular interactions. With Attractive Flicker, users were able to easily follow the narrative of the visualization on a large display, while the flickering of focus elements was not disturbing when observing the context.

  17. Attract Visitors to Your Site

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    To be a success, a website has to attract-and keep--visitors. This Mini Missing Manual shows you how to attract new and return visitors and use the power of keywords and Web search engines to rise up in the rankings of search results. You'll also learn how to use a powerful-and free--service that tracks visitor activity on your site so you know which of your Web pages they love, and-just as important--which pages don't work for them. Using this information, you can fine-tune your site to keep the visitors coming. This Mini Missing Manual is excerpted from Creating a Web Site: The Missing Man

  18. Attracting finance for hydroelectric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besant-Jones, John

    1996-01-01

    Hydroelectricity will continue to be important for meeting power requirements in developing countries. Much of the funding required for hydroelectric projects must come from non-government source; hydroelectric projects will therefore need to be attractive to private investors. This note explores the risks investors face, how this can be mitigated, and how the World Bank group can offer advice (as well as finance) to member countries to facilitate investment in hydro electric projects. 3 refs., 1 fig

  19. Physical attractiveness, issue agreement, and assimilation effects in candidate appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, James N; Curran, Margaret Ann; Strungaru, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the cognitive and affective factors of candidate appraisal by manipulating candidate attractiveness and levels of issue agreement with voters. Drawing upon research in evolutionary psychology and cognitive neuroscience, this analysis proposes that automatic processing of physical appearance predisposes affective disposition toward more attractive candidates, thereby influencing cognitive processing of issue information. An experimental design presented attractive and unattractive candidates who were either liberal or conservative in a mock primary election. The data show strong partial effects for appearance on vote intention, an interaction between appearance and issue agreement, and a tendency for voters to assimilate the dissimilar views of attractive candidates. We argue that physical appearance is important in primary elections when the differences in issue positions and ideology between candidates is small.

  20. Is There an Own-Race Preference in Attractiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Burke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even in multicultural nations interracial relationships and marriages are quite rare, one reflection of assortative mating. A relatively unexplored factor that could explain part of this effect is that people may find members of their own racial group more attractive than members of other groups. We tested whether there is an own-race preference in attractiveness judgments, and also examined the effect of familiarity by comparing the attractiveness ratings given by participants of different ancestral and geographic origins to faces of European, East Asian and African origin. We did not find a strong own-race bias in attractiveness judgments, but neither were the data consistent with familiarity, suggesting an important role for other factors determining the patterns of assortative mating observed.

  1. Branner-Hubbard Motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  2. Optimal maintenance of multi-component systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Nicolai (Robin); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we give an overview of the literature on multi-component maintenance optimization. We focus on work appearing since the 1991 survey "A survey of maintenance models for multi-unit systems" by Cho and Parlar. This paper builds forth on the review article by Dekker et al.

  3. Propagation of waves in a multicomponent plasma having charged ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Propagation of waves in a multicomponent plasma having charged dust particles has been investigated by various authors in recent times as the presence of charged dust grains give rise to a new kind of modes called dust modes and it has wide applications in magneto- sphere and space plasma [1–3]. In fact, Rao et al [4] ...

  4. Isocyanide-mediated multicomponent synthesis of C-oximinoamidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercalli, Valentina; Meneghetti, Fiorella; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2013-11-15

    By capitalizing on the different reactivity of nitrile N-oxides with isocyanides and amine, α-oximinoamidines, a so far elusive class of compounds, have been synthesized in a straightforward way by reacting isocyanides, syn-chlorooximes, and amines in a multicomponent fashion.

  5. The Landau-Placzek ratio for multicomponent fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Laidlaw, W.G.

    1972-01-01

    Under the assumption that the coupling between the sound modes and modes associated with heat and mass diffusion can be neglected, an expression for the Landau-Placzek ratio for multicomponent fluids is derived using thermodynamic fluctuation theory. Applications of the general formula to ternary

  6. Multi-component bi-Hamiltonian Dirac integrable equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wenxiu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5700 (United States)], E-mail: mawx@math.usf.edu

    2009-01-15

    A specific matrix iso-spectral problem of arbitrary order is introduced and an associated hierarchy of multi-component Dirac integrable equations is constructed within the framework of zero curvature equations. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of the obtained Dirac hierarchy is presented be means of the variational trace identity. Two examples in the cases of lower order are computed.

  7. Diffusion of elements and vacancies in multi-component systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, MAR (2014), s. 338-367 ISSN 0079-6425 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : multi-component diffusion * vacancy activity * manning theory * stress-driven diffusion Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 27.417, year: 2014

  8. Spinodal decomposition in multicomponent fluid mixtures: A molecular dynamics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laradji, Mohamed; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Toxvaerd, Søren

    1996-01-01

    parameter, leading to large growth-exponent values, the dynamics in multicomponent fluids (p = 3, 4) is found to follow a t(1/3) growth law, where t is time, which we relate to a long-wavelength evaporation-condensation process. These findings, which are proposed to be consequences of the compact domain...

  9. Zener solutions for particle growth in multi-component alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the Zener theory on precipitate growth in supersaturated alloys for planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries is extended to multi-component alloys. The obtained solutions can be used to check the results from numerical simulations under simplified conditions. Further, the

  10. Diastereoselective multicomponent synthesis of dihydropyridones with an isocyanide functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paravidino, M.; Bon, R.S.; Scheffelaar, R.; Vugts, D.J.; Znabet, A.; Schmitz, R.F.; de Kanter, F.J.J.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L; Groen, M.B.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2006-01-01

    In a search for new multicomponent strategies leading to valuable small heterocycles, a new highly diastereoselective four-component reaction (4CR) was found in which a phosphonate, nitriles, aldehydes, and isocyanoacetates combine to afford functionalized 3-isocyano-3,4-dihydro-2-pyridones. In this

  11. Drying of liquid food droplets : enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerdink, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the drying of liquid food droplets is studied from three different points of view: drying kinetics, enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion. Mathematical models are developed and validated experimentally.

    Drying experiments are performed with suspended

  12. Early reading intervention by means of a multicomponent reading game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.A.M. van de; Leeuw, L.C. de; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a

  13. Kelvin Equation for a Non-Ideal Multicomponent Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    The Kelvin equation is generalized by application to a case of a multicomponent non-ideal mixture. Such a generalization is necessary in order to describe the two-phase equilibrium in a capillary medium with respect to both normal and retrograde condensation. The equation obtained is applied...... to the equilibrium state of a hydrocarbon mixture ina gas-condensate reservoir....

  14. On new electromagnetic waves in a multicomponent insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubovik, V. M.

    The dispersion equation for additional transverse electromagnetic waves in a multicomponent amorphous insulator is analyzed in the vicinity of a narrow absorption line. Such waves can be excited due to spatial dispersion associated with fluctuation of the polarizability of insulator molecules. The

  15. A characterization of Markovian homogeneous multicomponent Gaussian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhaguere, G.O.S.

    1980-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a certain class of homogeneous multicomponent Gaussian generalized stochastic fields to possess a Markov property equivalent to Nelson's. The class of Markov fields so characterized has a as a cubclass the class of Markov fields which lead by Nelson's Reconstruction Theorem to some covariant (free) quantum fields. (orig.)

  16. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  17. Multicomponent activation detector measurements of reactor neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, J.; Aarnio, P. A.; Routti, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    Information on the neutron flux is required in many applications of research reactors, such as activation analysis or radiation damage measurements. Flux spectrum measurements are commonly carried out with activation foils. The reaction types used are threshold reactions in the fast energy region, resonance reactions in the intermediate region and neutron capture reactions with l/v-cross section in the thermal region. It has been shown that it is possible to combine several detector elements into homogeneous multicomponent detectors. The activities of all detector reaction products can be determined with a single gamma spectrum measurement. The multicomponent principle sets some restrictions on the choice of detector reactions, for example, each product nuclide may be produced in one reaction only. Separate multicomponent threshold and resonance detectors were designed for the fast and intermediate regions, respectively. The detectors were fabricated in polyethylene irradiation capsules or quartz glass ampoules, and they were irradiated in a cadmium cover. The detectors were succesfully used in the irradiation ring and in the core of a Triga reactor. The intermediate and fast neutron spectrum was unfolded with the least-squares unfolding program LOUHI. According to the preliminary results multicomponent activation detectors might constitute a convenient means for carrying out routine neutron spectrum measurements in research reactors. (orig.)

  18. Individual differences in valuing mates' physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W; Bielser, Abby; Cassell, Ticcarra; Summers, Sarah; Witowski, Aggie

    2006-10-01

    To investigate correlates of valuing physical attractiveness in a mate, it was hypothesized that valuing physical attractiveness in a mate would correlate with sex and valuing promiscuous sex, status, personal physical attractiveness, beauty, and order. Men and women college students completed measures of the extent to which they valued physical attractiveness in a mate and other variables. Valuing physical attractiveness in a mate was correlated with sex (men valued physical attractiveness in a mate more than did women) and valuing promiscuous sex and status, and, for women, valuing personal physical attractiveness. The results were explained in terms of evolutionary theory.

  19. Timing of pathogen adaptation to a multicomponent treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Bourget

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of multicomponent treatments such as combination therapies, combination vaccines/chemicals, and plants carrying multigenic resistance requires an understanding of how their population-wide deployment affects the speed of the pathogen adaptation. Here, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of a mutant pathogen and its dynamics in a heterogeneous host population split into various types by the management strategy. Based on a multi-type Markov birth and death process, the model can be used to provide a basic understanding of how the life-cycle parameters of the pathogen population, and the controllable parameters of a management strategy affect the speed at which a pathogen adapts to a multicomponent treatment. Our results reveal the importance of coupling stochastic mutation and migration processes, and illustrate how their stochasticity can alter our view of the principles of managing pathogen adaptive dynamics at the population level. In particular, we identify the growth and migration rates that allow pathogens to adapt to a multicomponent treatment even if it is deployed on only small proportions of the host. In contrast to the accepted view, our model suggests that treatment durability should not systematically be identified with mutation cost. We show also that associating a multicomponent treatment with defeated monocomponent treatments can be more durable than associating it with intermediate treatments including only some of the components. We conclude that the explicit modelling of stochastic processes underlying evolutionary dynamics could help to elucidate the principles of the sustainable use of multicomponent treatments in population-wide management strategies intended to impede the evolution of harmful populations.

  20. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by

  1. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-06-21

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg(2+) ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg(2+) or Na(+), benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg(2+) bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.

  2. The attractiveness of Serbian market in attracting international companies in tourism sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornjanski Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The entry of international companies in the field of tourism in the domestic market creates a huge potential for its growth, greater involvement in the international tourism, flow of people and information as well as transfer of new technologies. Furthermore, international companies in the field of tourism develop tourism in the country they enter and it is therefore necessary to prepare the domestic market for their entry. Controlled and uncontrolled factors both have impact on the attractiveness of a country as a potential market and consequently affect its business operations. Various barriers to entry may be administrative and real (actual, thus affecting the development of market for entry and business operations of companies interested in internationalization in the field of tourism. The subject of this paper is to analyze the market entry barriers of Serbia faced by international companies in the field of tourism. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate if the Serbian market is attractive for entry of international companies in the field of tourism by analysis of its market entry barriers. The results show that the Serbian market still has to work to reduce market entry barriers, in order to become more attractive for entry of international companies in tourism. Manifold advantages of the global companies' entry in the market are that they are perceived as strong incentives for countries such as Serbia to develop their market and make it more accessible to enter.

  3. Laws of attraction: from perceptual forces to conceptual similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemkiewicz, Caroline; Kosara, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Many of the pressing questions in information visualization deal with how exactly a user reads a collection of visual marks as information about relationships between entities. Previous research has suggested that people see parts of a visualization as objects, and may metaphorically interpret apparent physical relationships between these objects as suggestive of data relationships. We explored this hypothesis in detail in a series of user experiments. Inspired by the concept of implied dynamics in psychology, we first studied whether perceived gravity acting on a mark in a scatterplot can lead to errors in a participant's recall of the mark's position. The results of this study suggested that such position errors exist, but may be more strongly influenced by attraction between marks. We hypothesized that such apparent attraction may be influenced by elements used to suggest relationship between objects, such as connecting lines, grouping elements, and visual similarity. We further studied what visual elements are most likely to cause this attraction effect, and whether the elements that best predicted attraction errors were also those which suggested conceptual relationships most strongly. Our findings show a correlation between attraction errors and intuitions about relatedness, pointing towards a possible mechanism by which the perception of visual marks becomes an interpretation of data relationships.

  4. Jamming transitions induced by an attraction in pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2017-08-01

    We numerically study jamming transitions in pedestrian flow interacting with an attraction, mostly based on the social force model for pedestrians who can join the attraction. We formulate the joining probability as a function of social influence from others, reflecting that individual choice behavior is likely influenced by others. By controlling pedestrian influx and the social influence parameter, we identify various pedestrian flow patterns. For the bidirectional flow scenario, we observe a transition from the free flow phase to the freezing phase, in which oppositely walking pedestrians reach a complete stop and block each other. On the other hand, a different transition behavior appears in the unidirectional flow scenario, i.e., from the free flow phase to the localized jam phase and then to the extended jam phase. It is also observed that the extended jam phase can end up in freezing phenomena with a certain probability when pedestrian flux is high with strong social influence. This study highlights that attractive interactions between pedestrians and an attraction can trigger jamming transitions by increasing the number of conflicts among pedestrians near the attraction. In order to avoid excessive pedestrian jams, we suggest suppressing the number of conflicts under a certain level by moderating pedestrian influx especially when the social influence is strong.

  5. Jamming transitions induced by an attraction in pedestrian flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2017-08-01

    We numerically study jamming transitions in pedestrian flow interacting with an attraction, mostly based on the social force model for pedestrians who can join the attraction. We formulate the joining probability as a function of social influence from others, reflecting that individual choice behavior is likely influenced by others. By controlling pedestrian influx and the social influence parameter, we identify various pedestrian flow patterns. For the bidirectional flow scenario, we observe a transition from the free flow phase to the freezing phase, in which oppositely walking pedestrians reach a complete stop and block each other. On the other hand, a different transition behavior appears in the unidirectional flow scenario, i.e., from the free flow phase to the localized jam phase and then to the extended jam phase. It is also observed that the extended jam phase can end up in freezing phenomena with a certain probability when pedestrian flux is high with strong social influence. This study highlights that attractive interactions between pedestrians and an attraction can trigger jamming transitions by increasing the number of conflicts among pedestrians near the attraction. In order to avoid excessive pedestrian jams, we suggest suppressing the number of conflicts under a certain level by moderating pedestrian influx especially when the social influence is strong.

  6. Composition of human skin microbiota affects attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels O Verhulst

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  7. Observation of ion acoustic multi-Peregrine solitons in multicomponent plasma with negative ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pallabi; Sharma, Sumita K.; Nakamura, Y.; Bailung, H.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of the multi-Peregrine soliton is investigated in a multicomponent plasma and found to be critically dependent on the initial bound state. Formation and splitting of Peregrine soliton, broadening of the frequency spectra provide clear evidence of nonlinear-dispersive focusing due to modulational instability, a generic mechanism for rogue wave formation in which amplitude and phase modulation grow as a result of interplay between nonlinearity and anomalous dispersion. We have shown that initial perturbation parameters (amplitude & temporal length) critically determine the number of solitons evolution. It is also found that a sufficiently long wavelength perturbation of high amplitude invoke strong nonlinearity to generate a supercontinuum state. Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of the experimental time series data clearly indicate the spatio-temporal localization and spectral broadening. We consider a model based on the frame work of Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) to explain the experimental observations.

  8. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members : The group attractiveness effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Y.M.J.; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H. J.; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of

  9. Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

    2010-02-01

    Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research.

  10. Emerging Market Attractiveness Index for hydro IPPs

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Tyson John

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses two primary commercial themes that affect the future development of the industry. 1. What are the most attractive future emerging markets for hydropower? 2. What parameters are utilized by international hydro IPPs to determine market attractiveness?

  11. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff). Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti. Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were.

  12. Evaluating self and partner physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Georgiades, Chrissa; Pang, Lily

    2007-03-01

    This study used a novel questionnaire to examine ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. Seventy-two men and 83 women estimated their own and their opposite-sex partner's overall physical attractiveness and the attractiveness of various body parts and measures. They also answered six simple questions concerning physical attractiveness. Results showed significant gender differences in self-estimates of overall facial attractiveness and upper body features. In general, and regardless of gender, participants rated their opposite-sex partners as being significantly more attractive than themselves. In addition, the results showed that body weight and facial attractiveness were the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of social biases are considered.

  13. Quantitative Methods to Evaluate Timetable Attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The article describes how the attractiveness of timetables can be evaluated quantitatively to ensure a consistent evaluation of timetables. Since the different key stakeholders (infrastructure manager, train operating company, customers, and society) have different opinions on what an attractive...

  14. Yang-Yang method for the thermodynamics of one-dimensional multi-component interacting fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J Y; Guan, X W; Batchelor, M T

    2011-01-01

    Using Yang and Yang's particle-hole description, we present a thorough derivation of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations for a general SU(κ) fermionic system in one dimension for both the repulsive and attractive regimes under the presence of an external magnetic field. These equations are derived from Sutherland's Bethe ansatz equations by using the spin-string hypothesis. The Bethe ansatz root patterns for the attractive case are discussed in detail. The relationship between the various phases of the magnetic phase diagrams and the external magnetic fields is given for the attractive case. We also give a quantitative description of the ground-state energies for both strongly repulsive and attractive regimes.

  15. Transferrable monolithic multicomponent system for near-ultraviolet optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan; Gao, Xumin; Yuan, Jialei; Shi, Zheng; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Yuhuai; Wang, Yongjin; Amano, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    A monolithic near-ultraviolet multicomponent system is implemented on a 0.8-mm-diameter suspended membrane by integrating a transmitter, waveguide, and receiver into a single chip. Two identical InGaN/Al0.10Ga0.90N multiple-quantum well (MQW) diodes are fabricated using the same process flow, which separately function as a transmitter and receiver. There is a spectral overlap between the emission and detection spectra of the MQW diodes. Therefore, the receiver can respond to changes in the emission of the transmitter. The multicomponent system is mechanically transferred from silicon, and the wire-bonded transmitter on glass experimentally demonstrates spatial light transmission at 200 Mbps using non-return-to-zero on–off keying modulation.

  16. Precipitation behavior of uranium in multicomponent solution by oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.J.; Kim, I.S.; Lee, W.K.; Shin, H.S.; Ro, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    A study on the precipitation of uranium by oxalic acid was carried out in a multicomponent solution. The precipitation method is usually applied to the treatment of radioactive waste and the recovery of uranium from a uranium-scrap contaminated with impurities. In these cases, the problem is how to increase the precipitation yield of target element and to prevent impurities from coprecipitation. The multicomponent solution in the present experiment was prepared by dissolving U, Nd, Cs and Sr in nitric acid. The effects of concentrations of oxalic acid and ascorbic acid on the precipitation yield and purity of uranium were observed. As results of the study, the maximum precipitation yield of uranium is revealed to be about 96.5% and the relative precipitation ratio of Nd, Cs and Sr versus uranium are discussed at the condition of the maximum precipitation yield of uranium, respectively. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. On the modulispace of attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde

    An Attracting Dynamics is a triple (f,W,a), where W is an open subset of the R(iemann) S(phere), f is a holomorphic map from W into the RS and a is an attracting periodic point for f. Denote by B(a) the attracted basin of the orbit of a for f. Two attracting dynamics (f,W,a) and (f',W',a') are i...

  18. On Being "Attractive" With Resistant Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark J.; Wells, Don

    1990-01-01

    Calls client resistance a frequent occurrence within the helping profession. Defines client resistance, provides a brief review of related literature, and offers counselor attractiveness as one way of addressing the issue. Identifies attractive counselor behaviors and attitudes and presents case study illustrating specific attractive counselor…

  19. Tourism Attraction Systems. Exploring cultural behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, G.W.

    2002-01-01

    Attractions are vital sub-elements in all whole tourism systems, and yet their study suffers from lack of theoretical depth and empirical foundation. This paper presents an empirical exploration of the attraction system model, based on a survey of over 6,000 tourists to cultural attractions. The

  20. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members: the group attractiveness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, Yvette; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H J; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-04-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of physical attractiveness are more positive than the average ratings of the group members. A meta-analysis on 33 comparisons reveals that the effect is medium to large (Cohen's d = 0.60) and moderated by group size. We explored two explanations for the GA-effect: (a) selective attention to attractive group members, and (b) the Gestalt principle of similarity. The results of our studies are in favor of the selective attention account: People selectively attend to the most attractive members of a group and their attractiveness has a greater influence on the evaluation of the group. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  1. Potential dependence of the effective attraction in doped C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, W.E.; Phillips, P.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to explain superconductivity in the alkali-doped C 60 , Chakravarty and Kivelson have proposed that there is a net effective electron attraction due to intramolecular Coulomb forces. The calculation makes use of a Hubbard model in which long-range interactions are absent. The authors show that this result strongly depends on the form of the electron-electron interaction and that for potentials with long-range interactions, e.g. an Ohno potential that interpolates between an on site energy and 1/r at large distances, they do not find an effective attraction. Reasonable screening does not significantly modify this result. This indicates that the electronic mechanism in the proposed form cannot be the primary source of an attractive interaction

  2. The Impact of Female Attractiveness in Spy

    OpenAIRE

    Pangjaya, Veronika Juliani; Handojo, Priska Febrinia

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses the impact of female attractiveness on the female character which is related to the way Spy sees attractive women and what the impacts to them are. There are criteria for female attractiveness that are displayed by the film such as physical attributes and traits. In order to show the criteria of attractive women and the responses that they get, I use stereotyping theory. Women who are physically attractive get better treatment, but in order to get that, they have to dres...

  3. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations.

  4. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  5. Optimization of Cycle and Expander Design of an Organic Rankine Cycle Unit using Multi-Component Working Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems represent at-tractive solutions for power conversion from low temperatureheat sources, and the use of these power systems is gaining increasing attention in the marine industry. This paper proposesthe combined optimal design of cycle and expander...... for an organic Rankine cycle unit utilizing waste heat from low temperature heat sources. The study addresses a case where the minimum temperature of the heat source is constrained and a case where no constraint is imposed. The former case is the wasteheat recovery from jacket cooling water of a marine diesel...... engine onboard a large ship, and the latter is representative of a low-temperature geothermal, solar or waste heat recovery application. Multi-component working fluids are investigated, as they allow improving the match between the temperature pro-files in the heat exchangers and, consequently, reducing...

  6. Aerolization During Boron Nanoparticle Multi-Component Fuel Group Burning Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-03

    overall energy density of the multi-component fuel mixture. Boron nanoparticle- doped multi-component hydrocarbon fuels represent a potential high...addressed, Boron nanoparticle- doped multi-component hydrocarbon fuels represent a potential high-efficiency, tactical fuel that could increase thrust...and micron-sized aluminum particles. Combustion and Flame 158(2): 354-368. Gan, Y., Y. S. Lim, and L. Qiao. 2012. Combustion of nanofluid fuels

  7. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms, respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2) was impaired when a first target (T1) was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA); identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention. PMID:24994994

  8. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo eNakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2 was impaired when a first target (T1 was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms SOA; identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention.

  9. Effects of Instructor Attractiveness on Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Richard; Millar, Murray; Walsh, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Although a considerable body of research has examined the impact of student attractiveness on instructors, little attention has been given to the influence of instructor attractiveness on students. This study tested the hypothesis that persons would perform significantly better on a learning task when they perceived their instructor to be high in physical attractiveness. To test the hypothesis, participants listened to an audio lecture while viewing a photograph of instructor. The photograph depicted either a physically attractive instructor or a less attractive instructor. Following the lecture, participants completed a forced choice recognition task covering material from the lecture. Consistent with the predictions; attractive instructors were associated with more learning. Finally, we replicated previous findings demonstrating the role attractiveness plays in person perception.

  10. Romantic attraction and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bodily Attractiveness and Egalitarianism are Negatively Related in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Price

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancestrally, relatively attractive individuals and relatively formidable males may have had reduced incentives to be egalitarian (i.e., to act in accordance with norms promoting social equality. If selection calibrated one's egalitarianism to one's attractiveness/formidability, then such people may exhibit reduced egalitarianism (“observed egalitarianism” and be perceived by others as less egalitarian (“perceived egalitarianism” in modern environments. To investigate, we created 3D body models of 125 participants to use both as a source of anthropometric measurements and as stimuli to obtain ratings of bodily attractiveness and perceived egalitarianism. We also measured observed egalitarianism (via an economic “dictator” game and indices of political egalitarianism (preference for socialism over capitalism and “equity sensitivity.” Results indicated higher egalitarianism levels in women than in men, and moderate-to-strong negative relationships between (a attractiveness and observed egalitarianism among men, (b attractiveness and perceived egalitarianism among both sexes, and (c formidability and perceived egalitarianism among men. We did not find support for two previously-reported findings: that observed egalitarianism and formidability are negatively related in men, and that wealth and formidability interact to explain variance in male egalitarianism. However, this lack of support may have been due to differences in variable measurement between our study and previous studies.

  12. Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2010-12-01

    Low mean fundamental frequency (F(0)) in men's voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fertile and non-fertile menstrual cycle phases for desirability in short-term and long-term relationships. Five vocal parameters were analyzed: mean F(0) (an acoustic correlate of vocal fold size), F(0) variation, intensity (loudness), utterance duration, and formant dispersion (D(f), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length). Parallel but separate ratings of speech transcripts served as controls for content. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the independent contributions of each of the predictors. Physical dominance was predicted by low F(0) variation and physically dominant word content. Social dominance was predicted only by socially dominant word content. Ratings of attractiveness by women were predicted by low mean F(0), low D(f), high intensity, and attractive word content across cycle phase and mating context. Low D(f) was perceived as attractive by fertile-phase women only. We hypothesize that competitors and potential mates may attend more strongly to different components of men's voices because of the different types of information these vocal parameters provide.

  13. Equivalence of two models in single-phase multicomponent flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing

    2016-02-28

    In this work, two models to simulate the single-phase multicomponent flow in reservoirs are introduced: single-phase multicomponent flow model and two-phase compositional flow model. Because the single-phase multicomponent flow is a special case of the two-phase compositional flow, the two-phase compositional flow model can also simulate the case. We compare and analyze the two models when simulating the single-phase multicomponent flow, and then demonstrate the equivalence of the two models mathematically. An experiment is also carried out to verify the equivalence of the two models.

  14. Equivalence of two models in single-phase multicomponent flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing; Sun, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two models to simulate the single-phase multicomponent flow in reservoirs are introduced: single-phase multicomponent flow model and two-phase compositional flow model. Because the single-phase multicomponent flow is a special case of the two-phase compositional flow, the two-phase compositional flow model can also simulate the case. We compare and analyze the two models when simulating the single-phase multicomponent flow, and then demonstrate the equivalence of the two models mathematically. An experiment is also carried out to verify the equivalence of the two models.

  15. Attractive Interactions between Heteroallenes and the Cucurbituril Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reany, Ofer; Li, Amanda; Yefet, Maayan; Gilson, Michael K; Keinan, Ehud

    2017-06-21

    In this paper, we report on the noteworthy attractive interaction between organic azides and the portal carbonyls of cucurbiturils. Five homologous bis-α,ω-azidoethylammonium alkanes were prepared, where the number of methylene groups between the ammonium groups ranges from 4 to 8. Their interactions with cucurbit[6]uril were studied by NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and computational methods. Remarkably, while the distance between the portal plane and most atoms at the guest end groups increases progressively with the molecular size, the β-nitrogen atoms maintain a constant distance from the portal plane in all homologues, pointing at a strong attractive interaction between the azide group and the portal. Both crystallography and NMR support a specific electrostatic interaction between the carbonyl and the azide β-nitrogen, which stabilizes the canonical resonance form with positive charge on the β-nitrogen and negative charge on the γ-nitrogen. Quantum computational analyses strongly support electrostatics, in the form of orthogonal dipole-dipole interaction, as the main driver for this attraction. The alternative mechanism of n → π* orbital delocalization does not seem to play a significant role in this interaction. The computational studies also indicate that the interaction is not limited to azides, but generalizes to other isoelectronic heteroallene functions, such as isocyanate and isothiocyanate. This essentially unexploited attractive interaction could be more broadly utilized as a tool not only in relation to cucurbituril chemistry, but also for the design of novel supramolecular architectures.

  16. Public Service Motivation as a Predictor of Attraction to the Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jacqueline; Doverspike, Dennis; Miguel, Rosanna F.

    2012-01-01

    According to public service motivation theory, individuals with a strong public service orientation are attracted to government jobs. This proposition was investigated in three studies by measuring public sector motivation at a pre-entry level as an individual difference variable affecting perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Results…

  17. Modal Identification in an Automotive Multi-Component System Using HS 3D-DIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Jesús Molina-Viedma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The modal characterization of automotive lighting systems becomes difficult using sensors due to the light weight of the elements which compose the component as well as the intricate access to allocate them. In experimental modal analysis, high speed 3D digital image correlation (HS 3D-DIC is attracting the attention since it provides full-field contactless measurements of 3D displacements as main advantage over other techniques. Different methodologies have been published that perform modal identification, i.e., natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes using the full-field information. In this work, experimental modal analysis has been performed in a multi-component automotive lighting system using HS 3D-DIC. Base motion excitation was applied to simulate operating conditions. A recently validated methodology has been employed for modal identification using transmissibility functions, i.e., the transfer functions from base motion tests. Results make it possible to identify local and global behavior of the different elements of injected polymeric and metallic materials.

  18. Modal Identification in an Automotive Multi-Component System Using HS 3D-DIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alba, Elías; Felipe-Sesé, Luis; Díaz, Francisco A.

    2018-01-01

    The modal characterization of automotive lighting systems becomes difficult using sensors due to the light weight of the elements which compose the component as well as the intricate access to allocate them. In experimental modal analysis, high speed 3D digital image correlation (HS 3D-DIC) is attracting the attention since it provides full-field contactless measurements of 3D displacements as main advantage over other techniques. Different methodologies have been published that perform modal identification, i.e., natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes using the full-field information. In this work, experimental modal analysis has been performed in a multi-component automotive lighting system using HS 3D-DIC. Base motion excitation was applied to simulate operating conditions. A recently validated methodology has been employed for modal identification using transmissibility functions, i.e., the transfer functions from base motion tests. Results make it possible to identify local and global behavior of the different elements of injected polymeric and metallic materials. PMID:29401725

  19. Modal Identification in an Automotive Multi-Component System Using HS 3D-DIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Viedma, Ángel Jesús; López-Alba, Elías; Felipe-Sesé, Luis; Díaz, Francisco A

    2018-02-05

    The modal characterization of automotive lighting systems becomes difficult using sensors due to the light weight of the elements which compose the component as well as the intricate access to allocate them. In experimental modal analysis, high speed 3D digital image correlation (HS 3D-DIC) is attracting the attention since it provides full-field contactless measurements of 3D displacements as main advantage over other techniques. Different methodologies have been published that perform modal identification, i.e., natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes using the full-field information. In this work, experimental modal analysis has been performed in a multi-component automotive lighting system using HS 3D-DIC. Base motion excitation was applied to simulate operating conditions. A recently validated methodology has been employed for modal identification using transmissibility functions, i.e., the transfer functions from base motion tests. Results make it possible to identify local and global behavior of the different elements of injected polymeric and metallic materials.

  20. The attractive lip: A photomorphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, V; Fricke, A; Iblher, N; Eisenhardt, S U; Stark, G B

    2015-07-01

    Throughout literature, there are different parameters defining the ideal shape of the lip and lower third of the face. This study was conducted to clarify what it is that makes lips attractive - and whether there are gender-related differences of an attractive lip and lower third of the face. Pictures of the lip and chin region of 176 patients were photographed in a standardised way and evaluated by 250 voluntary judges through an internet presentation by means of an analogue Likert scaling system. We found a significant higher ratio of upper vermillion height/mouth-nose distance in frontal-view images of attractive compared to unattractive female (p attractive than in unattractive female (p attractive compared to unattractive female perioral regions (p attractive female lip and chin regions showed a wider mentolabial angle compared to unattractive female lip and chin regions (p attractive female perioral regions showed a higher ratio of lower vermillion height/chin-mouth distance (p attractive male perioral regions (p attractivity of female and male individuals and prove that there are gender-related differences in form and shape of an attractive lower third of the face. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Boiling of multicomponent working fluids used in refrigeration and cryogenic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogorychny, V. I.; Dolzhikov, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    Working fluids based on mixtures are widely used in cryogenic and refrigeration engineering. One of the main elements of low-temperature units is a recuperative heat exchanger where the return flow cools the direct (cold regeneration is carrying out) resulting in continuous boiling and condensation of the multicomponent working fluid in the channels. The temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger can be more than 100K, which leads to a strong change in thermophysical properties along its length. In addition, the fraction of the liquid and vapor phases in the flow varies very much, which affects the observed flow regimes in the heat exchanger channels. At the moment there are not so many experimental data and analytical correlations that would allow to estimate the heat transfer coefficient during the flow of a two-phase mixture flow at low temperatures. The work is devoted to the study of the boiling process of multicomponent working fluids used in refrigeration and cryogenic engineering. The description of the method of determination of heat transfer coefficient during boiling of mixtures in horizontal heated channel is given as well as the design of the experimental stand allowing to make such measurements. This stand is designed on the basis of a refrigeration unit operating on the Joule-Thomson throttle cycle and makes it possible to measure the heat transfer coefficient with a good accuracy. Also, the calculated values of the heat transfer coefficient, obtained with the use of various correlations, are compared with the existing experimental data. Knowing of the heat transfer coefficient will be very useful in the design of heat exchangers for low-temperature units operating on a mixture refrigerant.

  2. Low Frequency Turbulence as the Source of High Frequency Waves in Multi-Component Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Krivorutsky, Emmanuel N.; Uritsky, Vadim M.

    2011-01-01

    Space plasmas support a wide variety of waves, and wave-particle interactions as well as wavewave interactions are of crucial importance to magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma behavior. High frequency wave turbulence generation by the low frequency (LF) turbulence is restricted by two interconnected requirements: the turbulence should be strong enough and/or the coherent wave trains should have the appropriate length. These requirements are strongly relaxed in the multi-component plasmas, due to the heavy ions large drift velocity in the field of LF wave. The excitation of lower hybrid waves (LHWs), in particular, is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. It is demonstrated that large-amplitude Alfven waves, in particular those associated with LF turbulence, may generate LHW s in the auroral zone and ring current region and in some cases (particularly in the inner magnetosphere) this serves as the Alfven wave saturation mechanism. We also argue that the described scenario can playa vital role in various parts of the outer magnetosphere featuring strong LF turbulence accompanied by LHW activity. Using the data from THEMIS spacecraft, we validate the conditions for such cross-scale coupling in the near-Earth "flow-braking" magnetotail region during the passage of sharp injection/dipolarization fronts, as well as in the turbulent outflow region of the midtail reconnection site.

  3. Multicomponent Diffusion in Experimentally Cooled Melt Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, L.; Stolper, E.

    2017-12-01

    Glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions are compositionally zoned, characterized by a boundary layer depleted in olivine-compatible components that extends into the melt inclusion from its wall. The boundary layer forms in response to crystallization of olivine and relaxes with time due to diffusive exchange with the interior of the inclusion. At magmatic temperatures, the time scale for homogenization of inclusions is minutes to hours. Preservation of compositional gradients in natural inclusions results from rapid cooling upon eruption. A model of MgO concentration profiles that couples crystal growth and diffusive relaxation of a boundary layer can be used to solve for eruptive cooling rates [1]. Controlled cooling-rate experiments were conducted to test the accuracy of the model. Mauna Loa olivine containing >80 µm melt inclusions were equilibrated at 1225°C in a 1-atm furnace for 24 hours, followed by linear cooling at rates of 102 - 105 °C/hr. High-resolution concentration profiles of 40 inclusions were obtained using an electron microprobe. The model of [1] fits the experimental data with low residuals and the best-fit cooling rates are within 30% of experimental values. The initial temperature of 1225 °C is underestimated by 65°C. The model was modified using (i) MELTS to calculate the interface melt composition as a function of temperature, and (ii) a concentration-dependent MgO diffusion coefficient using the functional form of [2]. With this calibration the best-fit starting temperatures are within 5°C of the experimental values and the best-fit cooling rates are within 20% of experimental rates. The evolution of the CaO profile during cooling is evidence for strong diffusive coupling between melt components. Because CaO is incompatible in olivine, CaO concentrations are expected to be elevated in the boundary layer adjacent to the growing olivine. Although this is observed at short time scales, as the profile evolves the CaO concentration near the

  4. On attracting investment to Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleinik Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of economic systems development have necessitated more precise directions of investment process for the economic growth to accelerate. The precipitous fall of oil prices that occurred in the second half of 2014 weighed heavily on foreign direct investment flows to oilexporting countries. The problem of attracting investment is one of the key problems of economic development. The aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the shifts in the structure of investments, the study of the structure of investments to the Russian economy. Structural changes result from differences in the growth rate of the elements forming an economic system. An integral coefficient has been used for evaluation of structural changes. Multiple regression was used to analyze the impact of various factors on the change in structure of investment. The regression coefficients in the model give quantitative assessment of the pace of change in the structure as it depends on a specific factor. The model estimation shows that the variables “share of investments in manufacturing” (positive influence and “share of investments in the health, physical culture, education” (negative influence have the largest t-values. Hence, these two factors influence the structural changes in investments most strongly The evaluation and analysis of the structural shifts may lead to conclusions regarding the efficiency of the structure investment and adjustment of the economic policy.

  5. Ailing voters advance attractive congressional candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Franklin, Robert G; Palumbo, Rocco

    2015-01-06

    Among many benefits of facial attractiveness, there is evidence that more attractive politicians are more likely to be elected. Recent research found this effect to be most pronounced in congressional districts with high disease threat-a result attributed to an adaptive disease avoidance mechanism, whereby the association of low attractiveness with poor health is particularly worrisome to voters who feel vulnerable to disease. We provided a more direct test of this explanation by examining the effects of individuals' own health and age. Supporting a disease avoidance mechanism, less healthy participants showed a stronger preference for more attractive contenders in U.S. Senate races than their healthier peers, and this effect was stronger for older participants, who were generally less healthy than younger participants. Stronger effects of health for older participants partly reflected the absence of positive bias toward attractive candidates among the healthiest, suggesting that healthy older adults may be unconcerned about disease threat or sufficiently wise to ignore attractiveness.

  6. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.

  7. Effects of physical attractiveness on political beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rolfe Daus; Palmer, Carl L

    2017-01-01

    Physical attractiveness is an important social factor in our daily interactions. Scholars in social psychology provide evidence that attractiveness stereotypes and the "halo effect" are prominent in affecting the traits we attribute to others. However, the interest in attractiveness has not directly filtered down to questions of political behavior beyond candidates and elites. Utilizing measures of attractiveness across multiple surveys, we examine the relationship between attractiveness and political beliefs. Controlling for socioeconomic status, we find that more attractive individuals are more likely to report higher levels of political efficacy, identify as conservative, and identify as Republican. These findings suggest an additional mechanism for political socialization that has further implications for understanding how the body intertwines with the social nature of politics.

  8. Attractiveness and Cooperation in Social Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that physically more attractive men are less likely to cooperate in social exchange than less attractive men, while physical attractiveness has no effect on women's tendency toward cooperation, with four different experimental games (Prisoner's Dilemma with 99 players, Allocator Choice with 77 players, Faith with 16 players, and Trust with 21 players. Pictures of the game players were taken after they participated in one of the four games, and those pictures were presented to another set of participants (85 raters in Study 1 and 2, 36 raters in Study 3 for attractiveness ratings. Both male and female raters who were unaware of the photographed game players' actual behavior in the game judged the faces of male defectors (who defected in one of the four games to be more attractive than those of male cooperators, but they did not give differential attractiveness ratings to female defectors and female cooperators.

  9. Investment Attractiveness of Food Industries in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    L. О.

    2017-01-01

    Effective investment is a factor for long-term company development. As enhancement of investment attractiveness is a required condition for economic growth and improvement of living standards, it needs to be on the agenda at government and company level. The article’s objective is to study investment attractiveness of food industries in Ukraine over 2012–2015. Investment attractiveness of food industries can be measured by indicators of liquidity, financial sustainability, and profit rate...

  10. Phase transitions and pairing signature in strongly attractive Fermi atomic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, X. W.; Bortz, M.; Batchelor, M. T.; Lee, C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate pairing and quantum phase transitions in the one-dimensional two-component Fermi atomic gas in an external field. The phase diagram, critical fields, magnetization, and local pairing correlation are obtained analytically via the exact thermodynamic Bethe ansatz solution. At zero temperature, bound pairs of fermions with opposite spin states form a singlet ground state when the external field H c1 . A completely ferromagnetic phase without pairing occurs when the external field H>H c2 . In the region H c1 c2 , we observe a mixed phase of matter in which paired and unpaired atoms coexist. The phase diagram is reminiscent of that of type II superconductors. For temperatures below the degenerate temperature and in the absence of an external field, the bound pairs of fermions form hard-core bosons obeying generalized exclusion statistics

  11. Viscosity and diffusivity in melts: from unary to multicomponent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong; Huang, Baiyun

    2014-05-01

    Viscosity and diffusivity, two important transport coefficients, are systematically investigated from unary melt to binary to multicomponent melts in the present work. By coupling with Kaptay's viscosity equation of pure liquid metals and effective radii of diffusion species, the Sutherland equation is modified by taking the size effect into account, and further derived into an Arrhenius formula for the convenient usage. Its reliability for predicting self-diffusivity and impurity diffusivity in unary liquids is then validated by comparing the calculated self-diffusivities and impurity diffusivities in liquid Al- and Fe-based alloys with the experimental and the assessed data. Moreover, the Kozlov model was chosen among various viscosity models as the most reliable one to reproduce the experimental viscosities in binary and multicomponent melts. Based on the reliable viscosities calculated from the Kozlov model, the modified Sutherland equation is utilized to predict the tracer diffusivities in binary and multicomponent melts, and validated in Al-Cu, Al-Ni and Al-Ce-Ni melts. Comprehensive comparisons between the calculated results and the literature data indicate that the experimental tracer diffusivities and the theoretical ones can be well reproduced by the present calculations. In addition, the vacancy-wind factor in binary liquid Al-Ni alloys with the increasing temperature is also discussed. What's more, the calculated inter-diffusivities in liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni and Al-Ag-Cu alloys are also in excellent agreement with the measured and theoretical data. Comparisons between the simulated concentration profiles and the measured ones in Al-Cu, Al-Ce-Ni and Al-Ag-Cu melts are further used to validate the present calculation method.

  12. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H

    2008-03-01

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a mean relationship length of about 14 years, provided ratings of both their own and their partner's physical attractiveness. Results support the theory that individuals hold positive illusions about their partner's physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of relationship-enhancing biases are discussed.

  13. Use of piezoelectric multicomponent force measuring devices in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Stefan, K.

    1979-01-01

    The characterisitics of piezoelectric multicomponent transducers are discussed, giving attention to the advantages of quartz over other materials. The main advantage of piezoelectric devices in aerodynamic studies is their ability to indicate rapid changes in the values of physical parameters. Problems in the accuracy of measurments by piezoelectric devices can be overcome by suitable design approaches. A practical example is given of how such can be utilized to measure rapid fluctuations of fluid forces exerted on a circular cylinder mounted in a water channel.

  14. Experimental study of multi-component separation by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M.S.; Liang, X.W.; Chen, W.N.; Yin, Y.T.

    2006-01-01

    Stable isotopes are applied in many areas and most stable isotopes are multi-component, This paper presents experimental results of several stable isotopes separation conducted in Tsinghua University by using ultra-speed gas centrifuges. Xe, WF 6 , TeF 6 , SiHCl 3 , SiF 4 were chosen as the process gases. By adjusting some of the centrifuge's parameters, the suitable centrifuge parameters for different process gas separations were found and the overall unit separation factors γ 0 were obtained by means of single gas centrifuge separation. The experimental results show that with appropriate process gases, stable isotope separation by gas centrifuge was effective. (authors)

  15. Biosorption of Metals from Multi-Component Bacterial Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tsertsvadze, L A; Petriashvili, Sh G; Chutkerashvili, D G; Kirkesali, E I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-01-01

    The method of extraction of metals from industrial solutions by means of economical and easy to apply biosorbents in subtropics such as products of tea manufacturing, moss, microorganisms is described. The multi-component solutions obtained in the process of leaching of ores, rocks and industrial wastes by peat suspension were used in the experiments. The element composition of sorbent biomass and solutions was investigated by epithermal neutron activation analysis and by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained evidence that the used biosorbents are applicable for extraction of the whole set of heavy metals and actinides (U, Th, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Li, Rb, Sr, Cd, As, Co and others) from industrial solutions.

  16. The multicomponent 2D Toda hierarchy: dispersionless limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mañas, Manuel; Alonso, Luis Martínez

    2009-01-01

    The factorization problem of the multi-component 2D Toda hierarchy is used to analyze the dispersionless limit of this hierarchy. A dispersive version of the Whitham hierarchy defined in terms of scalar Lax and Orlov–Schulman operators is introduced and the corresponding additional symmetries and string equations are discussed. Then, it is shown how KP and Toda pictures of the dispersionless Whitham hierarchy emerge in the dispersionless limit. Moreover, the additional symmetries and string equations for the dispersive Whitham hierarchy are studied in this limit

  17. Fluid description of multi-component solar partially ionized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.; Vitas, N.; Díaz, A.

    2014-01-01

    We derive self-consistent formalism for the description of multi-component partially ionized solar plasma, by means of the coupled equations for the charged and neutral components for an arbitrary number of chemical species, and the radiation field. All approximations and assumptions are carefully considered. Generalized Ohm's law is derived for the single-fluid and two-fluid formalism. Our approach is analytical with some order-of-magnitude support calculations. After general equations are developed, we particularize to some frequently considered cases as for the interaction of matter and radiation

  18. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  19. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  20. Reducing the maladaptive attractiveness of solar panels to polarotactic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Kriska, György; Seres, István; Robertson, Bruce

    2010-12-01

    Human-made objects (e.g., buildings with glass surfaces) can reflect horizontally polarized light so strongly that they appear to aquatic insects to be bodies of water. Insects that lay eggs in water are especially attracted to such structures because these insects use horizontal polarization of light off bodies of water to find egg-laying sites. Thus, these sources of polarized light can become ecological traps associated with reproductive failure and mortality in organisms that are attracted to them and by extension with rapid population declines or collapse. Solar panels are a new source of polarized light pollution. Using imaging polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarization characteristics of different solar panels and in multiple-choice experiments in the field we tested their attractiveness to mayflies, caddis flies, dolichopodids, and tabanids. At the Brewster angle, solar panels polarized reflected light almost completely (degree of polarization d ≈ 100%) and substantially exceeded typical polarization values for water (d ≈ 30-70%). Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Trichoptera), dolichopodid dipterans, and tabanid flies (Tabanidae) were the most attracted to solar panels and exhibited oviposition behavior above solar panels more often than above surfaces with lower degrees of polarization (including water), but in general they avoided solar cells with nonpolarizing white borders and white grates. The highly and horizontally polarizing surfaces that had nonpolarizing, white cell borders were 10- to 26-fold less attractive to insects than the same panels without white partitions. Although solar panels can act as ecological traps, fragmenting their solar-active area does lessen their attractiveness to polarotactic insects. The design of solar panels and collectors and their placement relative to aquatic habitats will likely affect populations of aquatic insects that use polarized light as a behavioral cue. © 2010 Society for Conservation

  1. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  2. The multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glachette–Johnson (GJ) equation hierarchy and its super-integrable coupling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fajun; Zhang Hongqing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a set of multicomponent matrix Lie algebra, which is used to construct a new loop algebra à M . By using the Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multicomponent equation hierarchy is generated, which possesses the Hamiltonian structure. As its reduction cases, the multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glachette–Johnson (GJ) hierarchy is given. Finally, the super-integrable coupling system of multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional GJ hierarchy is established through enlarging the spectral problem

  3. Investment Attractiveness of Food Industries in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. О.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective investment is a factor for long-term company development. As enhancement of investment attractiveness is a required condition for economic growth and improvement of living standards, it needs to be on the agenda at government and company level. The article’s objective is to study investment attractiveness of food industries in Ukraine over 2012–2015. Investment attractiveness of food industries can be measured by indicators of liquidity, financial sustainability, and profit rate. Basically, food industries in Ukraine are attractive for investment, which is demonstrated by assessment of the financial indicators. The investment attractiveness worsened slightly in 2015 compared with 2014. The essential problems faced by food industries are shortage of internal funds and negative profit rate of all the activities, assets and own capital. Official statistical data and software package SPSS are used to build the dendrogram, allowing for dividing food industries by level of investment attractiveness into three groups: industries with high, medium and low level of investment attractiveness. It is found that meat industry is the one with the highest level of investment attractiveness. Also, investors should look positively at food-canning industry, oil and animal fat industry, flour-milling industry, starch and starch products industry, and other foods industry.

  4. Sexual Attraction and Harassment: Management's New Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Jeanne Bosson

    1981-01-01

    Both sexual attraction and harassment must be dealt with if men and women are to develop truly productive working relationships. Key issues include policies on sexual attraction and harassment, availability of professional resources on the subjects, training, and the role of personnel specialists. (CT)

  5. Interpersonal Attraction in the Counseling Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, Dale; Diaz, Sandra

    Murstein's Stimulus-Value-Role theory of dyadic relationships, in which attraction depends on the exchange value of the assets and liabilities each person brings to the situation, is employed as a foundation for this review of the literature on interpersonal attraction in the counseling relationship. A three-stage model, accounting for both…

  6. The influence of facial attractiveness on imitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M.L. van; Veling, H.P.; Baaren, R.B. van; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    People judge, evaluate, and treat attractive people better than moderately attractive or unattractive people [Langlois, J. H., Kalakanis, L., Rubenstein, A. J., Larson, A., Hallam, M., & Smoot, M. (2000). Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 126,

  7. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a

  8. Observation of attraction between dark solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreischuh, A.; Neshev, D.N.; Petersen, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a dramatic change in the interaction forces between dark solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media. We present what we believe is the first experimental evidence of attraction of dark solitons. Our results indicate that attraction should be observable in other nonlocal systems...

  9. Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Steven W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the relationship between body image, global self-concept, and depression. Men and women (N=224) completed questionnaires and were videotaped and objectively rated on attractiveness. Results indicated that depressed subjects were less satisfied with their bodies and saw themselves as less physically attractive than was reported by…

  10. Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamo, A; Benyamini, A; Shapir, I; Khivrich, I; Waissman, J; Kaasbjerg, K; Oreg, Y; von Oppen, F; Ilani, S

    2016-07-21

    One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed 'excitonic', promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the 'glue' that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.

  11. Branner-Hubbard motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  12. Communication: A new paradigm for structure prediction in multicomponent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schebarchov, D.; Wales, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the combinatorial aspect of global optimisation for multicomponent systems, which involves searching for the optimal chemical ordering by permuting particles corresponding to different species. The overall composition is presumed fixed, and the geometry is relaxed after each permutation in order to relieve local strain. From ideas used to solve graph partitioning problems we devise a deterministic search scheme that outperforms (by orders of magnitude) conventional and self-guided basin-hopping global optimisation. The search is guided by the energy gain from either swapping particles i and j (ΔE ij ) or changing the identity of particles i (ΔE i ). These quantities are derived from the underlying (arbitrary) energy function, hence not constituting external bias, and for site-separable force fields each ΔE i can be approximated simply and efficiently. In our self-guided variant of basin-hopping, particles are weighted by an approximate ΔE i when randomly selected for an exchange, yielding a significant improvement for segregated multicomponent systems with modest particle size mismatch

  13. A multiple multicomponent approach to chimeric peptide-peptoid podands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Daniel G; León, Fredy; Concepción, Odette; Morales, Fidel E; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2013-05-10

    The success of multi-armed, peptide-based receptors in supramolecular chemistry traditionally is not only based on the sequence but equally on an appropriate positioning of various peptidic chains to create a multivalent array of binding elements. As a faster, more versatile and alternative access toward (pseudo)peptidic receptors, a new approach based on multiple Ugi four-component reactions (Ugi-4CR) is proposed as a means of simultaneously incorporating several binding and catalytic elements into organizing scaffolds. By employing α-amino acids either as the amino or acid components of the Ugi-4CRs, this multiple multicomponent process allows for the one-pot assembly of podands bearing chimeric peptide-peptoid chains as appended arms. Tripodal, bowl-shaped, and concave polyfunctional skeletons are employed as topologically varied platforms for positioning the multiple peptidic chains formed by Ugi-4CRs. In a similar approach, steroidal building blocks with several axially-oriented isocyano groups are synthesized and utilized to align the chimeric chains with conformational constrains, thus providing an alternative to the classical peptido-steroidal receptors. The branched and hybrid peptide-peptoid appendages allow new possibilities for both rational design and combinatorial production of synthetic receptors. The concept is also expandable to other multicomponent reactions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Volatilization of multicomponent mixtures in soil vapor extraction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    In soil vapor extraction (SVE) applications involving multicomponent mixtures, prediction of mass removal by volatilization as a function remediation extent is required to estimate remediation time and to size offgas treatment equipment. SVE is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination adsorbed to vadose zone soils. SVE is often applied at sites contaminated with petroleum products, which are usually mixtures of many different compounds with vapor pressures spanning several orders of magnitude. The most volatile components are removed first, so the vapor pressure of the remaining contaminant continually decreases over the course of the remediation. A method for assessing how vapor pressure, and hence the rate of volatilization, of a multicomponent mixture changes over the course of a vapor extraction remedy has been developed. Each component is listed, alone, with its mass fraction in the mixture, in decreasing order of pure component vapor pressure (where component analyses are unavailable, model compounds can be used), For most petroleum distillates, the vapor pressure for each component plotted against the cumulative mass fraction of the component in the mixture on semilog coordinates will produce a straight line with a high correlation coefficient. This regression can be integrated to produce an expression for vapor pressure of the overall mixture as a function of extent or remediation

  15. A multicomponent exercise program for institutionalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Maria; Hamid, Tengku Aizan

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on depression and quality of life in institutionalized older adults. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were recruited from a publicly funded shelter home in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan Malaysia. The experimental group consisted of 23 volunteers 60 or older who performed 60 minutes of supervised exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The control group consisted of 20 volunteers who continued with a sedentary lifestyle. At 12 weeks, the exercise group demonstrated an improvement in quality of life by 10.74% (p > 0.05) but not depression (-1.6%, p > 0.05). The control group demonstrated a decrease in both quality of life by 11.26% (p > 0.05) and level of depression by 17.7% (p > 0.05). This study suggests a multicomponent exercise program is a feasible intervention to improve quality of life in institutionalized older adults. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Performance of an organic Rankine cycle with multicomponent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitanya Prasad, G.S.; Suresh Kumar, C.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2015-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in ORC (organic Rankine cycle) systems for power generation using solar thermal energy. Many authors have studied the performance of ORC with different pure fluids as well as binary zeotropic mixtures in order to improve the thermal efficiency. It has not been well appreciated that zeotropic mixtures can also be used to reduce the size and cost of an ORC system. The main objective of this paper is to present mixtures that help reduce the cost while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The proposed method also allows us to design an optimum mixture for a given expander. This new approach is particularly beneficial for designing mixtures for small ORC systems operating with solar thermal energy. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate this concept. - Highlights: • The performance of an ORC operating with different zeotropic multicomponent mixtures is presented. • A thermodynamic method is proposed for the design of multicomponent mixtures for ORC power plants. • High exergy efficiency as well as high volumetric expander work can be achieved with appropriate mixtures. • The method allows design of mixtures that can be used with off-the-shelf positive displacement expanders

  17. Field experiment on multicomponent ion exchange in a sandy aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerg, P.L.; Christensen, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment is performed in a sandy aquifer in order to study ion exchange processes and multicomponent solute transport modeling. An injection of groundwater spiked with sodium and potassium chloride was performed over a continuous period of 37 days. The plume is monitored by sampling 350 filters in a spatial grid. The sampling aims at establishing compound (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride) breakthrough curves at various filters 15 to 100 m from the point of injection and areal distribution maps at various cross sections from 0 to 200 m from the point of injection. A three-dimensional multicomponent solute transport model will be used to model the field experiments. The chemical model includes cation exchange, precipitation, dissolution, complexation, ionic strength and the carbonate system. Preliminary results from plume monitoring show that the plume migration is relatively well controlled considering the scale and conditions of the experiment. The transverse dispersion is small causing less dilution than expected. The ion exchange processes have an important influence on the plume composition. Retardation of the injected ions is substantial, especially for potassium. Calcium exhibits a substantial peak following chloride due to release from the ion exchange sites on the sediment. (Author) (8 refs., 5 figs., tab.)

  18. Clustering and phase behaviour of attractive active particles with hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ricard Matas; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2015-10-14

    We simulate clustering, phase separation and hexatic ordering in a monolayered suspension of active squirming disks subject to an attractive Lennard-Jones-like pairwise interaction potential, taking hydrodynamic interactions between the particles fully into account. By comparing the hydrodynamic case with counterpart simulations for passive and active Brownian particles, we elucidate the relative roles of self-propulsion, interparticle attraction, and hydrodynamic interactions in determining clustering and phase behaviour. Even in the presence of an attractive potential, we find that hydrodynamic interactions strongly suppress the motility induced phase separation that might a priori have been expected in a highly active suspension. Instead, we find only a weak tendency for the particles to form stringlike clusters in this regime. At lower activities we demonstrate phase behaviour that is broadly equivalent to that of the counterpart passive system at low temperatures, characterized by regimes of gas-liquid, gas-solid and liquid-solid phase coexistence. In this way, we suggest that a dimensionless quantity representing the level of activity relative to the strength of attraction plays the role of something like an effective non-equilibrium temperature, counterpart to the (dimensionless) true thermodynamic temperature in the passive system. However there are also some important differences from the equilibrium case, most notably with regards the degree of hexatic ordering, which we discuss carefully.

  19. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  20. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  1. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  2. The dynamical crossover in attractive colloidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallamace, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Corsaro, Carmelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Stanley, H. Eugene [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Mallamace, Domenico [Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Università di Messina, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Chen, Sow-Hsin [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    We study the dynamical arrest in an adhesive hard-sphere colloidal system. We examine a micellar suspension of the Pluronic-L64 surfactant in the temperature (T) and volume fraction (ϕ) phase diagram. According to mode-coupling theory (MCT), this system is characterized by a cusp-like singularity and two glassy phases: an attractive glass (AG) phase and a repulsive glass (RG) phase. The T − ϕ phase diagram of this system as confirmed by a previous series of scattering data also exhibits a Percolation Threshold (PT) line, a reentrant behavior (AG-liquid-RG), and a glass-to-glass transition. The AG phase can be generated out of the liquid phase by using T and ϕ as control parameters. We utilize viscosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. NMR data confirm all the characteristic properties of the colloidal system phase diagram and give evidence of the onset of a fractal-like percolating structure at a precise threshold. The MCT scaling laws used to study the shear viscosity as a function of ϕ and T show in both cases a fragile-to-strong liquid glass-forming dynamic crossover (FSC) located near the percolation threshold where the clustering process is fully developed. These results suggest a larger thermodynamic generality for this phenomenon, which is usually studied only as a function of the temperature. We also find that the critical values of the control parameters, coincident with the PT line, define the locus of the FSC. In the region between the FSC and the glass transition lines the system dynamics are dominated by clustering effects. We thus demonstrate that it is possible, using the conceptual framework provided by extended mode-coupling theory, to describe the way a system approaches dynamic arrest, taking into account both cage and hopping effects.

  3. Attractive Hubbard model: Homogeneous Ginzburg–Landau expansion and disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskii, E. Z.; Kuleeva, N. A.; Sadovskii, M. V.

    2016-01-01

    We derive a Ginzburg–Landau (GL) expansion in the disordered attractive Hubbard model within the combined Nozieres–Schmitt-Rink and DMFT+Σ approximation. Restricting ourselves to the homogeneous expansion, we analyze the disorder dependence of GL expansion coefficients for a wide range of attractive potentials U, from the weak BCS coupling region to the strong-coupling limit, where superconductivity is described by Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) of preformed Cooper pairs. We show that for the a semielliptic “bare” density of states of the conduction band, the disorder influence on the GL coefficients A and B before quadratic and quartic terms of the order parameter, as well as on the specific heat discontinuity at the superconducting transition, is of a universal nature at any strength of the attractive interaction and is related only to the general widening of the conduction band by disorder. In general, disorder growth increases the values of the coefficients A and B, leading either to a suppression of the specific heat discontinuity (in the weak-coupling limit), or to its significant growth (in the strong-coupling region). However, this behavior actually confirms the validity of the generalized Anderson theorem, because the disorder dependence of the superconducting transition temperature T c , is also controlled only by disorder widening of the conduction band (density of states).

  4. USING BRANDING TO ATTRACT, RECRUIT, AND RETAIN TALENTED STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Valentina FLOREA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this environment in continuous changing it is hard for organizations toattract and maintain the best candidates. The organizations use manymethods to recruit and hire, but now it is time to use the organization’s brandto attract talents the organization would like. This article will define theemployer brand as the organization’s image, as an exceptional place to workin the minds of the current employees as well as potential candidates, clients,customers, and stakeholders. The case study is made in six largeorganizations from Dambovita County, Romania, and describes how to usethe organization’s brand to attract, retain, and engage the people it needs. Imade a survey and the data collected I putted them in a model of analyzeand can be applied to any organization which wants to find out if it is usingcorrectly its strong powers to attract and retain the best candidates. Theemployer brand is the value proposition that organization conveys itsemployees and the external labor market. Great organizations create such astrong brand that it draws the talent to them rather than having to spendsignificant time and money on selling the organization to the talent market.Many benefits in the recruiting world are provided by a strong employmentbrand.

  5. The Relationship of Interpersonal Attraction and Attraction to Group in a Growth Group Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relationship of interpersonal attraction and attraction to groups. Students (N=56) participating in growth groups completed the Group Attitude Scale and individual rating scales early, midway, and late in the group. Data indicated an increasing relationship between interpersonal and group attraction throughout the life of the…

  6. The Putative Son's Attractiveness Alters the Perceived Attractiveness of the Putative Father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol

    2015-08-01

    A body of literature has investigated female mate choice in the pre-mating context (pre-mating sexual selection). Humans, however, are long-living mammals forming pair-bonds which sequentially produce offspring. Post-mating evaluations of a partner's attractiveness may thus significantly influence the reproductive success of men and women. I tested herein the theory that the attractiveness of putative sons provides extra information about the genetic quality of fathers, thereby influencing fathers' attractiveness across three studies. As predicted, facially attractive boys were more frequently attributed to attractive putative fathers and vice versa (Study 1). Furthermore, priming with an attractive putative son increased the attractiveness of the putative father with the reverse being true for unattractive putative sons. When putative fathers were presented as stepfathers, the effect of the boy's attractiveness on the stepfather's attractiveness was lower and less consistent (Study 2). This suggests that the presence of an attractive boy has the strongest effect on the perceived attractiveness of putative fathers rather than on non-fathers. The generalized effect of priming with beautiful non-human objects also exists, but its effect is much weaker compared with the effects of putative biological sons (Study 3). Overall, this study highlighted the importance of post-mating sexual selection in humans and suggests that the heritable attractive traits of men are also evaluated by females after mating and/or may be used by females in mate poaching.

  7. Differences between Caucasian and Asian attractive faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, S C

    2018-02-01

    There are discrepancies between the public's current beauty desires and conventional theories and historical rules regarding facial beauty. This photogrammetric study aims to describe in detail mathematical differences in facial configuration between attractive Caucasian and attractive Asian faces. To analyse the structural differences between attractive Caucasian and attractive Asian faces, frontal face and lateral face views for each race were morphed; facial landmarks were defined, and the relative photographic pixel distances and angles were measured. Absolute values were acquired by arithmetic conversion for comparison. The data indicate that some conventional beliefs of facial attractiveness can be applied but others are no longer valid in explaining perspectives of beauty between Caucasians and Asians. Racial differences in the perceptions of attractive faces were evident. Common features as a phenomenon of global fusion in the perspectives on facial beauty were revealed. Beauty standards differ with race and ethnicity, and some conventional rules for ideal facial attractiveness were found to be inappropriate. We must reexamine old principles of facial beauty and continue to fundamentally question it according to its racial, cultural, and neuropsychological aspects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Multicomponent domino processes based on the organocatalytic generation of conjugated acetylides: efficient synthetic manifolds for diversity-oriented molecular construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, David; González-Cruz, David; Santos-Expósito, Alicia; Marrero-Tellado, Jose Juan; de Armas, Pedro; García-Tellado, Fernando

    2005-06-06

    The organocatalytic generation of a strong base by the action of a good nucleophile is the base for the in situ catalytic generation of conjugated acetylides in the presence of aldehydes or activated ketones. The method is affordable in a multicomponent, domino format able to generate a chemically diverse set of multifunctionalized adducts that are very well suited for diversity-oriented molecular construction. The domino process involves a nucleophile as catalyst and a terminal conjugated alkyne (H-C[triple chemical bond]C-Z) and an aldehyde or activated ketone as building blocks. The chemical outcome of this process changes dramatically as a function of the nucleophile (tertiary amine or phosphine), temperature, stoichiometry, and solvent. These multicomponent domino processes achieve molecular construction with good atom economy and, very importantly, with an exquisite chemo-differentiating incorporation of identical starting units into the products (nondegenerated chemical output). These properties convert the H-C[triple chemical bond]C-Z unit into a specific building block for diversity-oriented molecular construction. Applications to the modular and diversity-oriented synthesis of relevant heterocycles are discussed. A protocol involving two coupled domino processes linked in a one-pot manner will be discussed as an efficient synthetic manifold for the modular and diversity-oriented construction of multisubstituted nitrogen-containing heterocycles.

  9. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham

    2015-01-01

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g m change, threshold voltage V T change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature

  10. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Ting, E-mail: ctlee@ee.ncku.edu.tw; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy (RCETS), National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-28

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g{sub m} change, threshold voltage V{sub T} change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature.

  11. Common views of potentially attractive fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Several innovative fusion concepts have recently been proposed with the intent of improving radically the attractiveness of fusion energy. Before their assessment is complete, however, the question of what constitutes an especially attractive fusion product should be examined from multiple viewpoints. The primary purpose of this paper is to examine views of potentially attractive fusion concepts from three perspectives, trying to determine commonalities. These viewpoints are (a) economics, (b) maintenance and reliability, and (c) safety and environment. The secondary purpose of the paper is to review some innovative concepts from these viewpoints

  12. Liquid drops attract or repel by the inverted Cheerios effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpitschka, Stefan; Pandey, Anupam; Lubbers, Luuk A; Weijs, Joost H; Botto, Lorenzo; Das, Siddhartha; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H

    2016-07-05

    Solid particles floating at a liquid interface exhibit a long-ranged attraction mediated by surface tension. In the absence of bulk elasticity, this is the dominant lateral interaction of mechanical origin. Here, we show that an analogous long-range interaction occurs between adjacent droplets on solid substrates, which crucially relies on a combination of capillarity and bulk elasticity. We experimentally observe the interaction between droplets on soft gels and provide a theoretical framework that quantitatively predicts the interaction force between the droplets. Remarkably, we find that, although on thick substrates the interaction is purely attractive and leads to drop-drop coalescence, for relatively thin substrates a short-range repulsion occurs, which prevents the two drops from coming into direct contact. This versatile interaction is the liquid-on-solid analog of the "Cheerios effect." The effect will strongly influence the condensation and coarsening of drops on soft polymer films, and has potential implications for colloidal assembly and mechanobiology.

  13. Does being attractive always help? Positive and negative effects of attractiveness on social decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agthe, Maria; Spörrle, Matthias; Maner, Jon K

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies of organizational decision making demonstrate an abundance of positive biases directed toward highly attractive individuals. The current research, in contrast, suggests that when the person being evaluated is of the same sex as the evaluator, attractiveness hurts, rather than helps. Three experiments assessing evaluations of potential job candidates (Studies 1 and 3) and university applicants (Study 2) demonstrated positive biases toward highly attractive other-sex targets but negative biases toward highly attractive same-sex targets. This pattern was mediated by variability in participants' desire to interact with versus avoid the target individual (Studies 1 and 2) and was moderated by participants' level of self-esteem (Study 3); the derogation of attractive same-sex targets was not observed among people with high self-esteem. Findings demonstrate an important exception to the positive effects of attractiveness in organizational settings and suggest that negative responses to attractive same-sex targets stem from perceptions of self-threat.

  14. The subtle attractions of dry vault storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealing, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Utilities in the United States of America, Scotland and Hungary have all adopted dry vault technology in their plans for spent fuel storage. This article looks at what makes dry storage an attractive option. (author)

  15. Integrating body movement into attractiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Weege, Bettina; Neave, Nick; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-01-01

    People judge attractiveness and make trait inferences from the physical appearance of others, and research reveals high agreement among observers making such judgments. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that interest in physical appearance and beauty reflects adaptations that motivate the search for desirable qualities in a potential partner. Although men more than women value the physical appearance of a partner, appearance universally affects social perception in both sexes. Most studies of attractiveness perceptions have focused on third party assessments of static representations of the face and body. Corroborating evidence suggests that body movement, such as dance, also conveys information about mate quality. Here we review evidence that dynamic cues (e.g., gait, dance) also influence perceptions of mate quality, including personality traits, strength, and overall attractiveness. We recommend that attractiveness research considers the informational value of body movement in addition to static cues, to present an integrated perspective on human social perception.

  16. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr; Croft, Darren P.; Thompson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    influencing the decision-making of males to their advantage. We tested this hypothesis in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species with high levels of male sexual harassment. First, we confirmed that non-receptive females were harassed less when they were paired with a more sexually attractive...... with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others......Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus...

  17. Electrostatic attraction between overall neutral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Ram M; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2016-08-01

    Two overall neutral surfaces with positively and negatively charged domains ("patches") have been shown in recent experiments to exhibit long-range attraction when immersed in an ionic solution. Motivated by the experiments, we calculate analytically the osmotic pressure between such surfaces within the Poisson-Boltzmann framework, using a variational principle for the surface-averaged free energy. The electrostatic potential, calculated beyond the linear Debye-Hückel theory, yields an overall attraction at large intersurface separations, over a wide range of the system's controlled length scales. In particular, the attraction is stronger and occurs at smaller separations for surface patches of larger size and charge density. In this large patch limit, we find that the attraction-repulsion crossover separation is inversely proportional to the square of the patch-charge density and to the Debye screening length.

  18. Interpersonal attraction in buyer–supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The concept of attraction is not reserved for the study of interpersonal relationships between husband and wife, family members, or lifelong friends. On the contrary, it contains much potential as a variable describing interpersonal business exchange relationships. This potential has been noted...... by well-known industrial marketing scholars in the past, and recent theoretical advances have incorporated attraction to describe buyer– supplier exchange, although primarily at the interorganizational level of analysis. The in-depth understanding of interpersonal attraction between boundary spanners...... representing buying and supply companies has yet to be developed. By drawing on social psychology and social exchange literature, this paper attempts to fill some of this gap. It contributes by uncovering the elements and process of interpersonal attraction. Furthermore, propositions are formulated to guide...

  19. MUSEUMS AS CULTURAL TOURISM ATTRACTIONS IN UBUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Kade Subhiksu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a shift in the attributes of several museums in Ubud in order to attract more tourists to visit museums as cultural tourism attractions. Some museums have expanded their collections and add other attributes to complement their main collections, which as the potential to alter the idealism, functions, and roles of museums. Another challenge faced by museum operators is the development of other tourist attractions, such as the addition of tourism destination attributes in Ubud, which was initially known as tourism destinations that offered art and culture such as dance performances and museums, and now have expanded into yoga destination, adventure destination, and so on. Based on these factors, the problem statements in this research are formulated as follows: (1 How are museums as tourist attractions in Ubud area, from the perspective of operators? (2 How are museums as tourist attractions in Ubud area, from the perspective of visitors? (3 How is the relationship between museums and other tourism components when examined from the role of museums as cultural tourism attractions in Ubud area?. This research on museums was conducted in the Ubud area because Ubud has made museums as the cultural tourism attractions in the area, which include the Blanco Museum, Museum Puri Lukisan, Agung Rai Museum of Art (ARMA, the Rudana Museum, and Neka Art Museum. This research is based on the theories of museum management, marketing, and theories on cultural tourism attraction. The research involved the participation of 82 foreign visitors and 79 domestic visitors as respondents, in addition to five museum owners and two museum professionals as informants. The conclusion of this research are as follows: (1 From the perspective of museum operators, museums function as cultural tourism attractions, as sources of historical information, as the media for cultural preservation, and the actualization of the noble objective of the museum

  20. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  1. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  2. Attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, David B.; Fontana, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems can be used in a wide variety of applications. The decision of whether to use an attractive or repulsive suspension system for a particular application is a fundamental one which must be made during the design process. As an aid to the designer, we compare and contrast attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems and indicate whether and under what conditions one or the other system is preferred.

  3. Phase behavior of multicomponent membranes: Experimental and computational techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis; Kumar, P.B. Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in biology seems to indicate that the Fluid Mosaic model of membrane proposed by Singer and Nicolson, with lipid bilayer functioning only as medium to support protein machinery, may be too simple to be realistic. Many protein functions are now known to depend on the compositio....... This review includes basic foundations on membrane model systems and experimental approaches applied in the membrane research area, stressing on recent advances in the experimental and computational techniques....... membranes. Current increase in interest in the domain formation in multicomponent membranes also stems from the experiments demonstrating liquid ordered-liquid disordered coexistence in mixtures of lipids and cholesterol and the success of several computational models in predicting their behavior...

  4. Multicomponent patterned ultrathin carbon nanomembranes by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Natalie; Scherr, Julian; Beyer, André; Terfort, Andreas; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Hampp, Norbert; Rhinow, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) are a class of two-dimensional materials, which are obtained by electron beam-induced crosslinking of aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on solid substrates. CNMs made from a single type of precursor molecule are uniform with homogeneous chemical and physical properties. We have developed a method for the fabrication of internally patterned CNMs resembling a key feature of biological membranes. Direct laser patterning is used to obtain multicomponent patterned SAMs on gold, which are subsequently crosslinked by electron irradiation. We demonstrate that the structure of internally patterned CNMs is preserved upon transfer to different substrates. The method enables rapid fabrication of patterned 2D materials with local variations in chemical and physical properties on the micrometer to centimeter scale.

  5. Continuous electrophoretic purification of individual analytes from multicomponent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, David G; Chen, David D Y

    2004-04-15

    Individual analytes can be isolated from multicomponent mixtures and collected in the outlet vial by carrying out electrophoretic purification through a capillary column. Desired analytes are allowed to migrate continuously through the column under the electric field while undesired analytes are confined to the inlet vial by application of a hydrodynamic counter pressure. Using pressure ramping and buffer replenishment techniques, 18% of the total amount present in a bulk sample can be purified when the resolution to the adjacent peak is approximately 3. With a higher resolution, the yield could be further improved. Additionally, by periodically introducing fresh buffer into the sample, changes in pH and conductivity can be mediated, allowing higher purity (>or=99.5%) to be preserved in the collected fractions. With an additional reversed cycle of flow counterbalanced capillary electrophoresis, any individual component in a sample mixture can be purified providing it can be separated in an electrophoresis system.

  6. Water activity changes of multicomponent food mixture during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Štencl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Water activity of multicomponent food mixture was analysed and measured. Samples of dry fermented sausages with two different starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus + Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus carnosus + Staphylococcus xylosus + Lactobacillus farciminis were tested during ripening (21 days and storing (91 days. The basic raw materials were the same for all samples: lean beef meat, lean pork and pork fat in equal parts, nitrite salt mixture (2.5 %, and sugars (1.0 %. The method used for water activity tests was indirect manometric in a static environment. Moisture content of samples was measured using halogen dryer. The course of water activity and moisture content of sausages was variable during ripening and steady during storage. Diagrams showed gradual decrease of both parameters. Mathematical models of water activity and moisture content for storage of dry fermented sausages were developed and statistically verified. The influence of starter cultures was not significant.

  7. Multicomponent reactions provide key molecules for secret communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukis, Andreas C; Reiter, Kevin; Frölich, Maximiliane; Hofheinz, Dennis; Meier, Michael A R

    2018-04-12

    A convenient and inherently more secure communication channel for encoding messages via specifically designed molecular keys is introduced by combining advanced encryption standard cryptography with molecular steganography. The necessary molecular keys require large structural diversity, thus suggesting the application of multicomponent reactions. Herein, the Ugi four-component reaction of perfluorinated acids is utilized to establish an exemplary database consisting of 130 commercially available components. Considering all permutations, this combinatorial approach can unambiguously provide 500,000 molecular keys in only one synthetic procedure per key. The molecular keys are transferred nondigitally and concealed by either adsorption onto paper, coffee, tea or sugar as well as by dissolution in a perfume or in blood. Re-isolation and purification from these disguises is simplified by the perfluorinated sidechains of the molecular keys. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry can unequivocally determine the molecular structure and thus the identity of the key for a subsequent decryption of an encoded message.

  8. Absorption from multicomponent gas mixtures comparing with Elemir gasoline plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miscevic, D

    1970-10-01

    A short description and explanation are outlined of all factors which have influence on hydrocarbon absorption from multicomponent gas mixtures. A short review of these different methods for absorption efficiency calculation is given. On the basis of the explained methods, the absorption from one natural gas at the Elemir plant is calculated and the results are given in tabular data. The number of the theoretical plate and L/V ratio for a given recovery of the key component is fixed by the calculation and by a graphical solution. Special attention is given for absorption oil depending on gas flow, pressure, and temperature. A series of diagrams is presented showing required absorption oil at the Elemir plant for given propane recovery, depending on the variables which are mentioned.

  9. A multi-component evaporation model for beam melting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Alexander; Forster, Vera E.; Körner, Carolin

    2017-02-01

    In additive manufacturing using laser or electron beam melting technologies, evaporation losses and changes in chemical composition are known issues when processing alloys with volatile elements. In this paper, a recently described numerical model based on a two-dimensional free surface lattice Boltzmann method is further developed to incorporate the effects of multi-component evaporation. The model takes into account the local melt pool composition during heating and fusion of metal powder. For validation, the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is melted by selective electron beam melting and analysed using mass loss measurements and high-resolution microprobe imaging. Numerically determined evaporation losses and spatial distributions of aluminium compare well with experimental data. Predictions of the melt pool formation in bulk samples provide insight into the competition between the loss of volatile alloying elements from the irradiated surface and their advective redistribution within the molten region.

  10. Irradiation-induced segregation in multi-component alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, I.W.

    1983-01-01

    A unified analysis of irradiation-induced segregation in multi-component alloys is developed using the formulation of irreversible thermodynamics. Three distinct mechanisms for segregation, namely the inverse Kirkendall effect, the vacancy-wind effect, and the solute drag of interstitials, are identified. In particular, the inverse Kirkendall effect due to interstitials arises only if a solute-interstitial interaction or a mutual conversion among interstitials via lattice atom intermediaries operates simultaneously. In the limit of fast conversion a para-equilibrium state may be reached between interstitials and lattice atoms, and the interstitial mechanism becomes formally analogous to the vacancy mechanism. Although the past treatment of rate phenomena in this field was apparently limited to the latter case, the importance of the consideration of separate chemical potentials for interstitials of different species, in segregation and other irradiation effects, is emphasized. (orig.)

  11. Multi-component intermetallic electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M; Trahey, Lynn; Vaughey, John T

    2015-03-10

    Multi-component intermetallic negative electrodes prepared by electrochemical deposition for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries are disclosed. More specifically, the invention relates to composite intermetallic electrodes comprising two or more compounds containing metallic or metaloid elements, at least one element of which can react with lithium to form binary, ternary, quaternary or higher order compounds, these compounds being in combination with one or more other metals that are essentially inactive toward lithium and act predominantly, but not necessarily exclusively, to the electronic conductivity of, and as current collection agent for, the electrode. The invention relates more specifically to negative electrode materials that provide an operating potential between 0.05 and 2.0 V vs. metallic lithium.

  12. Energetic Variational Approach to Multi-Component Fluid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshtein, Arkadz; Liu, Chun; Brannick, James

    2017-11-01

    In this talk I will introduce the systematic energetic variational approach for dissipative systems applied to multi-component fluid flows. These variational approaches are motivated by the seminal works of Rayleigh and Onsager. The advantage of this approach is that we have to postulate only energy law and some kinematic relations based on fundamental physical principles. The method gives a clear, quick and consistent way to derive the PDE system. I will compare different approaches to three-component flows using diffusive interface method and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The diffusive interface method is an approach for modeling interactions among complex substances. The main idea behind this method is to introduce phase field labeling functions in order to model the contact line by smooth change from one type of material to another. The work of Arkadz Kirshtein and Chun Liu is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-141200 and DMS-1216938.

  13. A green multicomponent synthesis of tocopherol analogues with antiproliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingold, Mariana; Dapueto, Rosina; Victoria, Sabina; Galliusi, Germán; Batthyàny, Carlos; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Tejedor, David; García-Tellado, Fernando; Padrón, José M; Porcal, Williams; López, Gloria V

    2018-01-01

    A one-pot efficient, practical and eco-friendly synthesis of tocopherol analogues has been developed using water or solvent free conditions via Passerini and Ugi multicomponent reactions. These reactions can be optimized using microwave irradiation or ultrasound as the energy source. Accordingly, a small library of 30 compounds was prepared for biological tests. The evaluation of the antiproliferative activity in the human solid tumor cell lines A549 (lung), HBL-100 (breast), HeLa (cervix), SW1573 (lung), T-47D (breast), and WiDr (colon) provided lead compounds with GI 50 values between 1 and 5 μM. A structure-activity relationship is also discussed. One of the studied compounds comes up as a future candidate for the development of potent tocopherol-mimetic therapeutic agents for cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a biologically active functionalized electrospun matrix to permit immobilization and long-term delivery of biologically active agents. In particular the invention relates to a functionalized polymer matrix comprising a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin. Examples of active molecules that may be used with the multicomponent polymer of the invention include, for example, a drug, a biopolymer, for example a growth factor, a protein, a peptide, a nucleotide, a polysaccharide, a biological macromolecule or the like. The invention is further directed to the formation of functionalized crosslinked matrices, such as hydrogels, that include at least one functionalized compatibilizing polymer capable of assembly.

  15. Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin George

    Full Text Available Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors.

  16. Divine proportions in attractive and nonattractive faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancherz, Hans; Knapp, Verena; Erbe, Christina; Heiss, Anja Melina

    2010-01-01

    To test Ricketts' 1982 hypothesis that facial beauty is measurable by comparing attractive and nonattractive faces of females and males with respect to the presence of the divine proportions. The analysis of frontal view facial photos of 90 cover models (50 females, 40 males) from famous fashion magazines and of 34 attractive (29 females, five males) and 34 nonattractive (13 females, 21 males) persons selected from a group of former orthodontic patients was carried out in this study. Based on Ricketts' method, five transverse and seven vertical facial reference distances were measured and compared with the corresponding calculated divine distances expressed in phi-relationships (f=1.618). Furthermore, transverse and vertical facial disproportion indices were created. For both the models and patients, all the reference distances varied largely from respective divine values. The average deviations ranged from 0.3% to 7.8% in the female groups of models and attractive patients with no difference between them. In the male groups of models and attractive patients, the average deviations ranged from 0.2% to 11.2%. When comparing attractive and nonattractive female, as well as male, patients, deviations from the divine values for all variables were larger in the nonattractive sample. Attractive individuals have facial proportions closer to the divine values than nonattractive ones. In accordance with the hypothesis of Ricketts, facial beauty is measurable to some degree. COPYRIGHT © 2009 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  17. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  18. Persepsi Wisatawan Terhadap Night Life Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hary Hermawan

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Cabaret is a term performances of music, comedy, dance, drama, and other special mix of art perfomed by men who dressed in women (ladyboy on stage. Cabaret performances in Oyot Godhong Restaurant intended as new tourist attraction that is expected to increase the interest of tourists to visit Malioboro in Yogyakarta, especially to Oyot Godhong Restaurants. Based descriptive study shows that the characteristics travelers who viewed Kabaret show is very diverse, each of which has perceptions and motivations are different. Cabaret performances have qualified to become the cultural attractions are staged at night (night atraction in the city of Yogyakarta. Based on traveler perception indicates that the cabaret performances have beauty or aesthetics, uniqueness, and values that match the criteria criteria of the standard as a tourist attraction. Performances Cabaret in Oyot Godhong Restaurants able to increase the sale value. Oyot Godhong Restaurants previously only form of tourism facilities (amenities, but is now a restaurant that has a tourist attraction (atraction.   Keywords: Cabaret show, night life attractions, tourism attraction, tourists perception, tourism marketing

  19. The Effect of Attractiveness on Recognition Memory when Women Look at Female Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Kuraguchi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, the relationship between facial attractiveness and memory has been inconsistent. We investigated the effect of facial attractiveness on recognition memory in terms of gender and judgment contents. Both female and male facial images were judged for their attractiveness and personal character, and incidental memory was tested later. Recognition performance was shown as d' and analyzed with 2 (participant's gender x 2 (condition of attractiveness ANOVA. The interaction was significant for female faces but not for male faces. It is, therefore, suggested that the difference of gender affects the recognition memory concerning facial attractiveness. In particular, attractiveness of female faces had different effects for female participants when compared to other combinations. As a control, the interaction for female faces was not significant when the task was to judge the physical features such as the size of eyes and the angle of mouth. In sum, unattractive faces were better recognized than attractive faces in general except for the case when women judged attractiveness of female faces. These results suggest that there may be an effect of attention to attractiveness on recognition memory that is particularly strong when women look at female faces.

  20. The time-course of feature interference in agreement comprehension: Multiple mechanisms and asymmetrical attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Darren; Nicol, Janet; Brehm, Laurel

    2014-10-01

    Attraction interference in language comprehension and production may be as a result of common or different processes. In the present paper, we investigate attraction interference during language comprehension, focusing on the contexts in which interference arises and the time-course of these effects. Using evidence from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and sentence judgment times, we show that agreement attraction in comprehension is best explained as morphosyntactic interference during memory retrieval. This stands in contrast to attraction as a message-level process involving the representation of the subject NP's number features, which is a strong contributor to attraction in production. We thus argue that the cognitive antecedents of agreement attraction in comprehension are non-identical with those of attraction in production, and moreover, that attraction in comprehension is primarily a consequence of similarity-based interference in cue-based memory retrieval processes. We suggest that mechanisms responsible for attraction during language comprehension are a subset of those involved in language production.

  1. Damage buildup and edge dislocation mobility in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granberg, F., E-mail: fredric.granberg@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Djurabekova, F. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Levo, E.; Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We studied the damage buildup in equiatomic multicomponent alloys by MD simulations. • Edge dislocation mobility was lower in the studied alloys compared to elemental Ni. • Damage buildup in alloys saturated at lower levels than in elemental Ni. • Initial damage buildup is faster in alloys compared to elemental Ni. - Abstract: A new class of single phase metal alloys of equal atomic concentrations has shown very promising mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. Moreover, a significant reduction in damage accumulation during prolonged irradiation has also been observed in these equiatomic multicomponent alloys. A comparison of elemental Ni with the two component NiFe- and the three component NiCoCr-alloy showed a substantial reduction in damage in both alloys, and an even larger difference was seen if only larger clusters were considered. One of the factors limiting the damage build-up in the alloys compared to the elemental material was seen to be dislocation mobility (Granberg et al., 2016). In this Article, we focus on a more thorough investigation of the mobility of edge dislocations in different cases of the Ni-, NiFe- and NiCoCr-samples. We find that even though the saturated amount of defects in the alloys is lower than in elemental Ni, the defect buildup in the early stages is faster in the alloys. We also find that the dislocation mobility in NiFe is lower than in Ni, at low stresses, and that the onset stress in NiFe is higher than in Ni. The same phenomenon was seen in comparison between NiFe and NiCoCr, since the three component alloy had lower dislocation mobility and higher onset stress. The dislocation velocity in elemental Ni plateaued out just under the forbidden velocity, whereas the alloys showed a more complex behaviour.

  2. On fault propagation in deterioration of multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhenglin; Parlikad, Ajith Kumar; Srinivasan, Rengarajan; Rasmekomen, Nipat

    2017-01-01

    In extant literature, deterioration dependence among components can be modelled as inherent dependence and induced dependence. We find that the two types of dependence may co-exist and interact with each other in one multi-component system. We refer to this phenomenon as fault propagation. In practice, a fault induced by the malfunction of a non-critical component may further propagate through the dependence amongst critical components. Such fault propagation scenario happens in industrial assets or systems (bridge deck, and heat exchanging system). In this paper, a multi-layered vector-valued continuous-time Markov chain is developed to capture the characteristics of fault propagation. To obtain the mathematical tractability, we derive a partitioning rule to aggregate states with the same characteristics while keeping the overall aging behaviour of the multi-component system. Although the detailed information of components is masked by aggregated states, lumpability is attainable with the partitioning rule. It means that the aggregated process is stochastically equivalent to the original one and retains the Markov property. We apply this model on a heat exchanging system in oil refinery company. The results show that fault propagation has a more significant impact on the system's lifetime comparing with inherent dependence and induced dependence. - Highlights: • We develop a vector value continuous-time Markov chain to model the meta-dependent characteristic of fault propagation. • A partitioning rule is derived to reduce the state space and attain lumpability. • The model is applied on analysing the impact of fault propagation in a heat exchanging system.

  3. Unconscious processing of facial attractiveness: invisible attractive faces orient visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shao-Min; Nieh, Chih-Hsuan; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2016-11-16

    Past research has proven human's extraordinary ability to extract information from a face in the blink of an eye, including its emotion, gaze direction, and attractiveness. However, it remains elusive whether facial attractiveness can be processed and influences our behaviors in the complete absence of conscious awareness. Here we demonstrate unconscious processing of facial attractiveness with three distinct approaches. In Experiment 1, the time taken for faces to break interocular suppression was measured. The results showed that attractive faces enjoyed the privilege of breaking suppression and reaching consciousness earlier. In Experiment 2, we further showed that attractive faces had lower visibility thresholds, again suggesting that facial attractiveness could be processed more easily to reach consciousness. Crucially, in Experiment 3, a significant decrease of accuracy on an orientation discrimination task subsequent to an invisible attractive face showed that attractive faces, albeit suppressed and invisible, still exerted an effect by orienting attention. Taken together, for the first time, we show that facial attractiveness can be processed in the complete absence of consciousness, and an unconscious attractive face is still capable of directing our attention.

  4. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  5. Narratives boost entrepreneurial attitudes: Making an entrepreneurial career attractive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellnhofer, Katharina

    2018-06-01

    This article analyses the impact of narratives on entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions. To this end, a quasi-experiment was conducted to evaluate web-based entrepreneurial narratives. The paired-sample tests and regression analysis use a sample of 466 people from Austria, Finland, and Greece and indicate that individuals' perceptions of the desirability of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intention are significantly different before and after exposure to entrepreneurial narratives. Furthermore, the findings indicate that perceptions of the feasibility of entrepreneurship are more strongly affected by videos than by cases. From a policy perspective, this study raises awareness that entrepreneurship is an attractive career path.

  6. Attracting and Retaining Talent in the Global Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recruiting 'non-nuclear' candidates: → Analysis of supply and demand; → Identify differentiators (longevity of project, interesting nature of work etc); → Online and offline recruitment (local and international) managed by recruiters; → Efficient and timely interview process; → Time and cost advantages through volume. Recruiting 'nuclear experts': → Detailed job descriptions written by nuclear experts; → People with strong nuclear knowledge involved throughout recruitment process (internal and external) - 'Excellence attracts exellence'; → 'Best Athlete' recruitment approach - passive and active candidates; → International search; → Higher investment in each case

  7. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  8. Pore scale study of multiphase multicomponent reactive transport during CO2 dissolution trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Wang, Mengyi; Kang, Qinjun; Tao, Wenquan

    2018-06-01

    Solubility trapping is crucial for permanent CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. For the first time, a pore-scale numerical method is developed to investigate coupled scCO2-water two-phase flow, multicomponent (CO2(aq), H+, HCO3-, CO32- and OH-) mass transport, heterogeneous interfacial dissolution reaction, and homogeneous dissociation reactions. Pore-scale details of evolutions of multiphase distributions and concentration fields are presented and discussed. Time evolutions of several variables including averaged CO2(aq) concentration, scCO2 saturation, and pH value are analyzed. Specific interfacial length, an important variable which cannot be determined but is required by continuum models, is investigated in detail. Mass transport coefficient or efficient dissolution rate is also evaluated. The pore-scale results show strong non-equilibrium characteristics during solubility trapping due to non-uniform distributions of multiphase as well as slow mass transport process. Complicated coupling mechanisms between multiphase flow, mass transport and chemical reactions are also revealed. Finally, effects of wettability are also studied. The pore-scale studies provide deep understanding of non-linear non-equilibrium multiple physicochemical processes during CO2 solubility trapping processes, and also allow to quantitatively predict some important empirical relationships, such as saturation-interfacial surface area, for continuum models.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of cerebral white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis using multicomponent T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovicova, Eva; Mlynarik, Vladimir; Kantorova, Ema; Hnilicova, Petra; Dobrota, Dusan

    2016-05-01

    A standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation of white matter (WM) areas with visible or expected pathology does not explain satisfactorily the relation between pathology and clinical outcome. Therefore, we focused on multicomponent T2 mapping of WM with the intention to characterize the WM, including normal-appearing white matter that has normal and prolonged T2 and lesions, including degenerated tissue. Twenty-nine patients with clinically diagnosed MS and 27 healthy controls underwent MRI examination. T2 mapping of the WM across the two whole MRI slices was carried out. The relative abundance of biologically relevant T2 regions was correlated with age and the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). The relative abundance of the T2 values of water trapped in myelin increased with age in both healthy subjects (p T2 assigned to intra- and extracellular water decreased with age in both groups (p T2 above 110 ms were not related to age, but strongly increased with EDSS (p T2 mapping of the WM can be a useful parameter for monitoring the progression of MS in patients.

  10. Bi-continuous Multi-component Nanocrystal Superlattices for Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie [University of Pennsylvania; Murray, Christopher [University of Pennsylvania; Kikkawa, James [University of Pennsylvania; Engheta, Nader [University of Pennsylvania

    2017-06-14

    Our SISGR program studied an emerging class of nanomaterials wherein different combinations of semiconductor or semiconductor and plasmonic nanocrystals (NCs) are self-assembled into three-dimensional multi-component superlattices. The NC assemblies were designed to form bicontinuous semiconductor NC sublattices with type-II energy offsets to drive charge separation onto electron and hole transporting sublattices for collection and introduce plasmonic NCs to increase solar absorption and charge separation. Our group is expert in synthesizing and assembling an extraordinary variety of artificial systems by tailoring the NC building blocks and the superlattice unit cell geometry. Under this DOE BES Materials Chemistry program, we introduced chemical methods to control inter-particle distance and to dope NC assemblies, which enabled our demonstration of strong electronic communication between NCs and the use of NC thin films as electronic materials. We synthesized, assembled and structurally, spectroscopically, and electrically probed NC superlattices to understand and manipulate the flow of energy and charge toward discovering the design rules and optimizing these complex architectures to create materials that efficiently convert solar radiation into electricity.

  11. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  12. The Effect of Expected Value on Attraction Effect Preference Reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, George D; Warren, Paul A; El-Deredy, Wael; Howes, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    The attraction effect shows that adding a third alternative to a choice set can alter preference between the original two options. For over 30 years, this simple demonstration of context dependence has been taken as strong evidence against a class of parsimonious value-maximising models that evaluate alternatives independently from one another. Significantly, however, in previous demonstrations of the attraction effect alternatives are approximately equally valuable, so there was little consequence to the decision maker irrespective of which alternative was selected. Here we vary the difference in expected value between alternatives and provide the first demonstration that, although extinguished with large differences, this theoretically important effect persists when choice between alternatives has a consequence. We use this result to clarify the implications of the attraction effect, arguing that although it robustly violates the assumptions of value-maximising models, it does not eliminate the possibility that human decision making is optimal. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Behavioral Decision Making Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated

  14. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah A; Simpson, Deborah M; Armstrong, Stuart D; Davidson, Amanda J; Robertson, Duncan H; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2010-06-03

    Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals.See associated Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/71.

  15. Assessment of perceived orthodontic appliance attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziuchkovski, James P; Fields, Henry W; Johnston, William M; Lindsey, Delwin T

    2008-04-01

    To date, no studies have been published in the literature evaluating the esthetics of orthodontic appliances. The purpose of this study was to assess appliance variables, including appliance type, brand, wire, and ligature tie, for their relative attractiveness. Demographic factors were also evaluated. Appliances were placed in an adult, and digital images were captured, standardized, and incorporated into a computer-based survey. Subjects (n = 200) rated each image for attractiveness on a visual analog scale. The attractiveness ratings were analyzed by using factorial analysis of variance with repeated measures. Post-hoc testing was done with the Tukey-Kramer test (overall a appliances), ceramic, and all self-ligating/stainless steel appliances. No differences between brands in each appliance type were found. Ratings of some ceramic appliances were significantly affected by archwire and ligature tie, depending on several demographic interactions. Orthodontic appliance attractiveness varies by the following hierarchy of appliance types: alternative > ceramic > all stainless steel/self-ligating. Wire and tie selection can affect the appearance of ceramic appliances but have no impact on stainless steel or self-ligating appliances. Certain demographic factors have variable effects on attractiveness ratings.

  16. Insulin signaling mediates sexual attractiveness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Kuo

    Full Text Available Sexually attractive characteristics are often thought to reflect an individual's condition or reproductive potential, but the underlying molecular mechanisms through which they do so are generally unknown. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS is known to modulate aging, reproduction, and stress resistance in several species and to contribute to variability of these traits in natural populations. Here we show that IIS determines sexual attractiveness in Drosophila through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the production of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC, many of which function as pheromones. Using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS together with newly introduced laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-MS we establish that CHC profiles are significantly affected by genetic manipulations that target IIS. Manipulations that reduce IIS also reduce attractiveness, while females with increased IIS are significantly more attractive than wild-type animals. IIS effects on attractiveness are mediated by changes in CHC profiles. Insulin signaling influences CHC through pathways that are likely independent of dFOXO and that may involve the nutrient-sensing Target of Rapamycin (TOR pathway. These results suggest that the activity of conserved molecular regulators of longevity and reproductive output may manifest in different species as external characteristics that are perceived as honest indicators of fitness potential.

  17. Nonequilibrium Contribution to the Rate of Reaction. III. Isothermal Multicomponent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, B.; Karplus, M.

    1970-10-01

    The nonequilibrium contribution to the reaction rate of an isothermal multicomponent system is obtained by solution of the appropriate Chapman-Enskog equation; the system is composed of reactive species in contact with a heat bath of inert atoms M.

  18. Simultaneous multi-component seismic denoising and reconstruction via K-SVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Sian; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiangyang; Zhao, Qiang; Dai, Hengchang

    2018-06-01

    Data denoising and reconstruction play an increasingly significant role in seismic prospecting for their value in enhancing effective signals, dealing with surface obstacles and reducing acquisition costs. In this paper, we propose a novel method to denoise and reconstruct multicomponent seismic data simultaneously. This method lies within the framework of machine learning and the key points are defining a suitable weight function and a modified inner product operator. The purpose of these two processes are to perform missing data machine learning when the random noise deviation is unknown, and building a mathematical relationship for each component to incorporate all the information of multi-component data. Two examples, using synthetic and real multicomponent data, demonstrate that the new method is a feasible alternative for multi-component seismic data processing.

  19. Linearly decoupled energy-stable numerical methods for multi-component two-phase compressible flow

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu; Wang, Xiuhua

    2017-01-01

    involved in the discrete momentum equation to ensure a consistency relationship with the mass balance equations. Moreover, we propose a component-wise SAV approach for a multi-component fluid, which requires solving a sequence of linear, separate mass

  20. Time-dependent density functional theory for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiecheng Li; Peiqing Tong

    1985-10-01

    The Runge-Gross version of Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham's density functional theory is generalized to multi-component systems, both for arbitrary time-dependent pure states and for arbitrary time-dependent ensembles. (author)

  1. Integrable couplings of the multi-component Dirac hierarchy and its Hamiltonian structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhu; Dong Huanhe

    2008-01-01

    Integrable couplings of the multi-component Dirac hierarchy is obtained by use of the vector loop algebra G ∼ M , then the Hamiltonian structure of the above system is given by the quadratic-form identity

  2. Mixed-mode chromatography with zwitterionic phosphopeptidomimetic selectors from Ugi multicomponent reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargano, Andrea F G; Leek, Tomas; Lindner, Wolfgang; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the present contribution a novel Ugi multicomponent reaction (MCR) was used to generate zwitterionic chromatographic selectors with capability for application in mixed-mode chromatography featuring complementary selectivities in reversed-phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction liquid

  3. High Performance Multi-GPU SpMV for Multi-component PDE-Based Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelfattah, Ahmad; Ltaief, Hatem; Keyes, David E.

    2015-01-01

    -block structure. While these optimizations are important for high performance dense kernel executions, they are even more critical when dealing with sparse linear algebra operations. The most time-consuming phase of many multicomponent applications, such as models

  4. Attractive component in the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, E.M.; Riska, D.O.

    1986-01-01

    The spin- and isospin-independent part of the nulceon-nucleon interaction in the Skyrme model is shown to contain a weak attractive intermediate-range term in addition to the well-known short-range repulsion. The attraction is a consequence of the rotational degree of freedom of a skyrmion in the presence of the field of another one, and can be thought of as an enhancement of the moment of inertia of each skyrmion. While the attractive term is dominant at large distances it is not sufficiently strong for nuclear binding. (orig.)

  5. The Venus flytrap attracts insects by the release of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Scheerer, Ursel; Kruse, Jörg; Burzlaff, Tim; Honsel, Anne; Alfarraj, Saleh; Georgiev, Plamen; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Ghirardo, Andrea; Kreuzer, Ines; Hedrich, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-02-01

    Does Dionaea muscipula, the Venus flytrap, use a particular mechanism to attract animal prey? This question was raised by Charles Darwin 140 years ago, but it remains unanswered. This study tested the hypothesis that Dionaea releases volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to allure prey insects. For this purpose, olfactory choice bioassays were performed to elucidate if Dionaea attracts Drosophila melanogaster. The VOCs emitted by the plant were further analysed by GC-MS and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The bioassays documented that Drosophila was strongly attracted by the carnivorous plant. Over 60 VOCs, including terpenes, benzenoids, and aliphatics, were emitted by Dionaea, predominantly in the light. This work further tested whether attraction of animal prey is affected by the nutritional status of the plant. For this purpose, Dionaea plants were fed with insect biomass to improve plant N status. However, although such feeding altered the VOC emission pattern by reducing terpene release, the attraction of Drosophila was not affected. From these results it is concluded that Dionaea attracts insects on the basis of food smell mimicry because the scent released has strong similarity to the bouquet of fruits and plant flowers. Such a volatile blend is emitted to attract insects searching for food to visit the deadly capture organ of the Venus flytrap.

  6. An Eye Tracking Examination of Men’s Attractiveness by Conceptive Risk Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Garza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that women prefer men who exhibit an android physical appearance where fat distribution is deposited on the upper body (i.e., shoulders and arms and abdomen. This ideal physical shape has been associated with perceived dominance, health, and immunocompetence. Although research has investigated attractability of men with these ideal characteristics, research on how women visually perceive these characteristics is limited. The current study investigated visual perception and attraction toward men in Hispanic women of Mexican American descent. Women exposed to a front-posed image, where the waist-to-chest ratio (WCR and hair distribution were manipulated, rated men’s body image associated with upper body strength (low WCR 0.7 as more attractive. Additionally, conceptive risk did not play a strong role in attractiveness and visual attention. Hair distribution did not contribute to increased ratings of attraction but did contribute to visual attraction when measuring total time where men with both facial and body hair were viewed longer. These findings suggest that physical characteristics in men exhibiting upper body strength and dominance are strong predictors of visual attraction.

  7. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  8. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  9. Strong coupling transmutation of Yukawa theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, C.C.; Chiu, C.B.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1981-01-01

    In the strong coupling limit, it is shown that the Yukawa-type theory can be made to undergo a transmutation into an attractive separable potential theory, provided a single state is removed from the spectrum in the lowest nontrivial sector and the states at infinity which include a continuum in the next sector. If these states are not removed, the two theories are distinct. It is suggested that the full equivalence and the renormalization of four-fermion theories need further examination. (orig.)

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Nonstationary Separation Processes in Gas Centrifuge Cascade for Separation of Multicomponent Isotope Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of development of the mathematical model of nonstationary separation processes occurring in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures. This model was used for the calculation parameters of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of germanium isotopes. Comparison of obtained values with results of other authors revealed that developed mathematical model is adequate to describe nonstationary separation processes in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures.

  11. A new multi-component hierarchy and its integrable expanding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Huanhe; Liang Xiangqian

    2008-01-01

    A set of multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed, it follows that a type of new loop algebra is presented and multi-component integrable hierarchy is obtained. Furthermore, the loop algebra is expanded into a larger one and a type of integrable coupling system is worked out. As reduction of the hierarchy, some well-known hierarchy such as DNLS, KN, CLL hierarchy are established

  12. Hierarchies of multi-component mKP equations and theirs integrable couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jie; Yao Yuqin; Zhu Fubo; Chen Dengyuan

    2008-01-01

    First, a new multi-component modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvill (mKP) spectral problem is constructed by k-constraint imposed on a general pseudo-differential operator. Then, two hierarchies of multi-component mKP equations are derived, including positive non-isospectral mKP hierarchy and negative non-isospectral mKP hierarchy. Moreover, new integrable couplings of the resulting mKP soliton hierarchies are constructed by enlarging the associated matrix spectral problem

  13. The elimination of singularities in pair correlation functions of a multicomponent liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'jev, O.M.; Chalij, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method that allows to find nonsingular expressions for pair correlation functions of a multicomponent liquid system. The nature of the method deals with using integral and differential Ornstein-Zernike equations for finding asymptotic expressions for pair correlation functions and their subsequent precision. The obtained results are analyzed taking into account their possible applicability for studying the correlative behaviour of multicomponent liquid systems

  14. Recognition bias and the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have found a recognition bias for information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (PAS), in which participants believe that they remember that attractive individuals have positive qualities and that unattractive individuals have negative qualities, regardless of what information actually occurred. The purpose of this research was to examine whether recognition bias for PAS congruent information is replicable and invariant across a variety of conditions (i.e. generalizable). The effects of nine different moderator variables were examined in two experiments. With a few exceptions, the effect of PAS congruence on recognition bias was independent of the moderator variables. The results suggest that the tendency to believe that one remembers information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype is a robust phenomenon. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  15. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  16. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  17. Freely cooling granular gases with short-ranged attractive potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Eric; Subramaniam, Shankar, E-mail: shankar@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Multiphase Flow Research, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We treat the case of an undriven gas of inelastic hard-spheres with short-ranged attractive potentials via an extension of the pseudo-Liouville operator formalism. New evolution equations for the granular temperature and coordination number are obtained. The granular temperature exhibits deviation from both Haff’s law and the case of long-ranged potentials. We verify this departure using soft-sphere discrete element method simulations. Excellent agreement is found for the duration of the simulation even beyond where exclusively binary collisions are expected. Simulations show the emergence of strong spatial-velocity correlations on the length scale of the last peak in the pair-correlation function but do not show strong correlations beyond this length scale. We argue that molecular chaos may remain an adequate approximation if the system is modelled as a Smoluchowski type equation with aggregation and break-up processes.

  18. Electronic circuit for control rod attracting electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention provides a discharging circuit for control rod attracting electromagnet used for a reactor which is highly reliable and has high performance. The resistor of the circuit comprises a non-linear resistor element and a blocking rectification element connected in series. The discharging circuit can be prevented from short-circuit by selecting a resistor having a resistance value about ten times as great as the coil resistance, even in a case where the blocking rectification element and the non-linear resistor element are failed. Accordingly, reduction of attracting force and the increase of scream releasing time can be minimized. (I.S.)

  19. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  20. Multicomponent diffusion in basaltic melts at 1350 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chenghuan; Zhang, Youxue

    2018-05-01

    Nine successful diffusion couple experiments were conducted in an 8-component SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O system at ∼1350 °C and at 1 GPa, to study multicomponent diffusion in basaltic melts. At least 3 traverses were measured to obtain diffusion profiles for each experiment. Multicomponent diffusion matrix at 1350 °C was obtained by simultaneously fitting diffusion profiles of diffusion couple experiments. Furthermore, in order to better constrain the diffusion matrix and reconcile mineral dissolution data, mineral dissolution experiments in the literature and diffusion couple experiments from this study, were fit together. All features of diffusion profiles in both diffusion couple and mineral dissolution experiments were well reproduced by the diffusion matrix. Diffusion mechanism is inferred from eigenvectors of the diffusion matrix, and it shows that the diffusive exchange between network-formers SiO2 and Al2O3 is the slowest, the exchange of SiO2 with other oxide components is the second slowest with an eigenvalue that is only ∼10% larger, then the exchange between divalent oxide components and all the other oxide components is the third slowest with an eigenvalue that is twice the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of FeO + K2O with all the other oxide components is the fourth slowest with an eigenvalue that is 5 times the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of MgO with FeO + CaO is the third fastest with an eigenvalue that is 6.3 times the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of CaO + K2O with all the other oxide components is the second fastest with an eigenvalue that is 7.5 times the smallest eigenvalue, and the exchange of Na2O with all other oxide components is the fastest with an eigenvalue that is 31 times the smallest eigenvalue. The slowest and fastest eigenvectors are consistent with those for simpler systems in most literature. The obtained diffusion matrix was successfully applied to predict diffusion profiles during

  1. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  2. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  3. Physical Attractiveness, Attitude Similarity, and Length of Acquaintance as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavior, Norman; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Tenth and twelfth grade males and females who knew each other judged, within grade levels, their classmates on physical attractiveness (PA), perceived attitude similarity (PAS), and interpersonal attraction (IA). Regression analyses supported the hypotheses that PA and PAS are positively correlated. (Author)

  4. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Anxiety on Heterosexual Attraction Over a Series of Five Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.

    1975-01-01

    The "information availability model" of heterosexual attraction was tested by having subjects go on a series of five encounters. It was found that both physical attractiveness and the personality variable, anxiety, had early and continuous effects on liking. It was concluded the model is an inadequate explanation of heterosexual…

  5. Fatal attraction phenomenon in humans: cat odour attractiveness increased for toxoplasma-infected men while decreased for infected women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Flegr

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Latent toxoplasmosis, a lifelong infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, has cumulative effects on the behaviour of hosts, including humans. The most impressive effect of toxoplasmosis is the "fatal attraction phenomenon," the conversion of innate fear of cat odour into attraction to cat odour in infected rodents. While most behavioural effects of toxoplasmosis were confirmed also in humans, neither the fatal attraction phenomenon nor any toxoplasmosis-associated changes in olfactory functions have been searched for in them.Thirty-four Toxoplasma-infected and 134 noninfected students rated the odour of urine samples from cat, horse, tiger, brown hyena and dog for intensity and pleasantness. The raters were blind to their infection status and identity of the samples. No signs of changed sensitivity of olfaction were observed. However, we found a strong, gender dependent effect of toxoplasmosis on the pleasantness attributed to cat urine odour (p = 0.0025. Infected men rated this odour as more pleasant than did the noninfected men, while infected women rated the same odour as less pleasant than did noninfected women. Toxoplasmosis did not affect how subjects rated the pleasantness of any other animal species' urine odour; however, a non-significant trend in the same directions was observed for hyena urine.The absence of the effects of toxoplasmosis on the odour pleasantness score attributed to large cats would suggest that the amino acid felinine could be responsible for the fatal attraction phenomenon. Our results also raise the possibility that the odour-specific threshold deficits observed in schizophrenia patients could be caused by increased prevalence of Toxoplasma-infected subjects in this population rather than by schizophrenia itself. The trend observed with the hyena urine sample suggests that this carnivore, and other representatives of the Feliformia suborder, should be studied for their possible role as definitive hosts in

  6. Understanding talent attraction: The influence of financial rewards elements on perceived job attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Schlechter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In order to attract knowledge workers and maintain a competitive advantage,it is necessary for organisations to understand how knowledge workers are attracted todifferent types and levels of financial rewards. Research purpose: This research investigated a set of financial reward elements (remuneration, employee benefits and variable pay to determine whether knowledgeworkers perceived them as attractive inducements when considering a job or position. Motivation for the study: In South Africa there is a shortage of talent, largely due to highrates of emigration of scarce skills (human capital. Financial rewards or inducementsare necessary to attract talent and it is essential to assess which of these rewards are mostsuccessful in this regard. Method: A 23 full-factorial experimental design (field experiment was used. The threefinancial reward elements (remuneration, employee benefits and variable pay weremanipulated in a fictitious job advertisement (each at two levels. Eight (2 × 2 × 2 = 8 differentversions of a job advertisement were used as a stimulus to determine the effect of financialreward elements on perceived job attractiveness. A questionnaire was used to measure howparticipants perceived the attractiveness of the job. A convenience sampling approach wasused. Different organisations throughout South Africa, as well as corporate members of the South African Reward Association, were asked to participate in the study. Respondents (n = 169 were randomly assigned to the various experimental conditions (i.e. one of the eightadvertisements. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. A full-factorial analysis ofvariance was used to investigate if significant main effects could be found. Main findings: Participants considered high levels of remuneration, the inclusion ofbenefits and variable pay to be significant job attraction factors within a reward package. Remuneration was found to have the largest main effect on job

  7. Attraction of nonlocal dark optical solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, Dragomir; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2004-01-01

    We study the formation and interaction of spatial dark optical solitons in materials with a nonlocal nonlinear response. We show that unlike in local materials, where dark solitons typically repel, the nonlocal nonlinearity leads to a long-range attraction and formation of stable bound states...

  8. Placemaking: Attracting and Retaining Today's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that the appearance of a college campus--both inside and out--is a significant criterion in college selection. As community colleges are finding it increasingly important to attract and retain students, placemaking is becoming an effective and efficient platform to support recruitment and retention. Placemaking is imagining and…

  9. Attractive planar panelization using dynamic relaxation principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauss, Florian; Teuffel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In the presented paper a new method is proposed to approximate a given NURBS surface with a PQ (Planar Quad) mesh. The desired mesh layout will be generated in then attracted to the target surface. The process iteratively pulls the mesh vertices towards the target surface and then planarizes the

  10. Stereotyping Physical Attractiveness: A Sociocultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Karen K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the tendency to stereotype physical attractiveness and identification in a collectivist culture using a group of 53 Chinese Canadian college students. Finds that introverts tended to be more prone to stereotyping than extroverts. Subjects with the highest cultural involvement were least prone to stereotyping with regard to social…

  11. Basins of Attraction for Chimera States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Panaggio, Mark; Abrams, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Chimera states---curious symmetry-broken states in systems of identical coupled oscillators---typically occur only for certain initial conditions. Here we analyze their basins of attraction in a simple system comprised of two populations. Using perturbative analysis and numerical simulation we...

  12. Male and Female Perception of Physical Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Garza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR and breast size are morphological traits that are associated with female attractiveness. Previous studies using line drawings of women have shown that men across cultures rate low WHRs (0.6 and 0.7 as most attractive. In this study, we used additional viewing measurements (i.e., first fixation duration and visual regressions to measure visual attention and record how long participants first focused on the female body and whether they regressed back to an area of interest. Additionally, we manipulated skin tone to determine whether they preferred light- or dark-skinned women. In two eye tracking experiments, participants rated the attractiveness of female nude images varying in WHR (0.5–0.9, breast size, and skin tone. We measured first fixation duration, gaze duration, and total time. The overall results of both studies revealed that visual attention fell mostly on the face, the breasts, and the midriff of the female body, supporting the evolutionary view that reproductively relevant regions of the female body are important to female attractiveness. Because the stimuli varied in skin tone and the participants were mainly Hispanic of Mexican American descent, the findings from these studies also support a preference for low WHRs and reproductively relevant regions of the female body.

  13. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  14. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, Niels O.; Beijleveld, Hans; Knols, Bart Gj; Takken, Willem; Schraa, Gosse; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Smallegange, Renate C.

    2009-01-01

    Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours.

  15. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  16. Domain of attraction computation for tumor dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doban, A.I.; Lazar, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose the use of rational Lyapunov functions to estimate the domain of attraction of the tumor dormancy equilibrium of immune cells-malignant cells interaction dynamics. A procedure for computing rational Lyapunov functions is worked out, with focus on obtaining a meaningful

  17. Agreement Attraction in Comprehension: Representations and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagers, Matthew W.; Lau, Ellen F.; Phillips, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Much work has demonstrated so-called attraction errors in the production of subject-verb agreement (e.g., "The key to the cabinets are on the table", [Bock, J. K., & Miller, C. A. (1991). "Broken agreement." "Cognitive Psychology, 23", 45-93]), in which a verb erroneously agrees with an intervening noun. Six self-paced reading experiments examined…

  18. Radial Motion of Two Mutually Attracting Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    A pair of masses or opposite-sign charges released from rest will move directly toward each other under the action of the inverse-distance-squared force of attraction between them. An exact expression for the separation distance as a function of time can only be found by numerically inverting the solution of a differential equation. A simpler,…

  19. Synthesis: Part II, Land Use Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Rob

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on the Synthesis Unit, Land Use Attractiveness. An audiotape is used with the materials. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but can be adapted to other localities. The unit is designed to build on skills and…

  20. Ordinal Position, Approval Motivation, and Interpersonal Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Results of the study suggest that birth-order effects might be included within the wider framework of approval-dependency theory. Females tend to account for a significant share of birth-order effects. More particularly, firstborn females accounted for much of the differences in expressed attraction as well as need for social approval. (Author)

  1. Attracting Preservice Teachers to Remote Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kenneth D.; Grainger, Peter; James, Dennis

    2018-01-01

    Teaching in rural/remote regions poses many challenges to teachers and is identified as a priority research area by the state government. Despite initiatives by the Queensland state government and university providers to solve the issue through various incentives designed to attract teachers, the problem remains significant. This research…

  2. Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

  3. Nitrate analogs as attractants for soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Akito; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ito, Shinsaku

    2017-08-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a plant parasite, is one of the most serious pests of soybean. In this paper, we report that SCN is attracted to nitrate and its analogs. We performed attraction assays to screen for novel attractants for SCN and found that nitrates were attractants for SCN and SCN recognized nitrate gradients. However, attraction of SCN to nitrates was not observed on agar containing nitrate. To further elucidate the attraction mechanism in SCN, we performed attraction assays using nitrate analogs ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). SCN was attracted to all nitrate analogs; however, attraction of SCN to nitrate analogs was not observed on agar containing nitrate. In contrast, SCN was attracted to azuki root, irrespective of presence or absence of nitrate in agar media. Our results suggest that the attraction mechanisms differ between plant-derived attractant and nitrate.

  4. Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N.; Zheng, G.; Kalhor, N.; Brousse, D.; Sammak, A.; Mendes, U. C.; Blais, A.; Scappucci, G.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2018-03-01

    Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot–based spin qubit registers.

  5. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Methods Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a χ2-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. Results More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. Conclusions The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the

  6. Digital holographic microscopy of phase separation in multicomponent lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam Rad, Vahideh; Moradi, Ali-Reza; Darudi, Ahmad; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-12-01

    Lateral in-homogeneities in lipid compositions cause microdomains formation and change in the physical properties of biological membranes. With the presence of cholesterol and mixed species of lipids, phospholipid membranes segregate into lateral domains of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases. Coupling of two-dimensional intralayer phase separations and interlayer liquid-crystalline ordering in multicomponent membranes has been previously demonstrated. By the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHMicroscopy), we quantitatively analyzed the volumetric dynamical behavior of such membranes. The specimens are lipid mixtures composed of sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and unsaturated phospholipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. DHMicroscopy in a transmission mode is an effective tool for quantitative visualization of phase objects. By deriving the associated phase changes, three-dimensional information on the morphology variation of lipid stacks at arbitrary time scales is obtained. Moreover, the thickness distribution of the object at demanded axial planes can be obtained by numerical focusing. Our results show that the volume evolution of lipid domains follows approximately the same universal growth law of previously reported area evolution. However, the thickness of the domains does not alter significantly by time; therefore, the volume evolution is mostly attributed to the changes in area dynamics. These results might be useful in the field of membrane-based functional materials.

  7. Multi-component controllers in reactor physics optimality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldemir, T.

    1978-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for the optimality analysis of thermal reactor assemblies with multi-component control vectors. The neutronics of the system under consideration is assumed to be described by the two-group diffusion equations and constraints are imposed upon the state and control variables. It is shown that if the problem is such that the differential and algebraic equations describing the system can be cast into a linear form via a change of variables, the optimal control components are piecewise constant functions and the global optimal controller can be determined by investigating the properties of the influence functions. Two specific problems are solved utilizing this approach. A thermal reactor consisting of fuel, burnable poison and moderator is found to yield maximal power when the assembly consists of two poison zones and the power density is constant throughout the assembly. It is shown that certain variational relations have to be considered to maintain the activeness of the system equations as differential constraints. The problem of determining the maximum initial breeding ratio for a thermal reactor is solved by treating the fertile and fissile material absorption densities as controllers. The optimal core configurations are found to consist of three fuel zones for a bare assembly and two fuel zones for a reflected assembly. The optimum fissile material density is determined to be inversely proportional to the thermal flux

  8. Multi-component solid solution alloys having high mixing entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Hongbin

    2015-10-06

    A multi-component high-entropy alloy includes a composition selected from the following group: VNbTaTiMoWRe, VNbTaTiMoW, VNbTaTiMoRe, VNbTaTiWRe, VNbTaMoWRe, VNbTiMoWRe, VTaTiMoWRe, NbTaTiMoWRe, VNbTaTiMo, VNbTaTiW, VNbTaMoW, VNbTiMoW, VTaTiMoW, NbTaTiMoW, VNbTaTiRe, VNbTaMoRe, VNbTiMoRe, VTaTiMoRe, NbTaTiMoRe, VNbTaWRe, VNbTiWRe, VTaTiWRe, NbTaTiWRe, VNbMoWRe, VTaMoWRe, NbTaMoWRe, VTiMoWRe, NbTiMoWRe, TaTiMoWRe, wherein relative amounts of each element vary by no more than .+-.15 atomic %.

  9. Prednisolone multicomponent nanoparticle preparation by aerosol solvent extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Fukino, Mika; Tozuka, Yuichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2009-10-01

    Prednisolone nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer and a surfactant by the aerosol solvent extraction system (ASES). A ternary mixture of prednisolone, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dissolved in methanol was sprayed through a nozzle into the reaction vessel filled with supercritical carbon dioxide. After the ASES process was repeated, precipitates of the ternary components were obtained by depressurizing the reaction vessel. When a methanolic solution of prednisolone/PEG 4000/SDS at a weight ratio of 1:6:2 was sprayed under the optimized ASES conditions, the mean particle size of prednisolone obtained after dispersing the precipitates in water was observed to be ca. 230 nm. Prednisolone nanoparticles were not obtained by the binary ASES process for prednisolone, in the presence of either PEG or SDS. Furthermore, ternary cryogenic cogrinding, as well as solvent evaporation, was not effective for the preparation of prednisolone nanoparticles. As the ASES process can be conducted under moderate temperature conditions, the ASES process that was applied to the ternary system appeared to be one of the most promising methods for the preparation of drug nanoparticles using the multicomponent system.

  10. Efficient transfer of sensitivity information in multi-component models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Rabiti, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    In support of adjoint-based sensitivity analysis, this manuscript presents a new method to efficiently transfer adjoint information between components in a multi-component model, whereas the output of one component is passed as input to the next component. Often, one is interested in evaluating the sensitivities of the responses calculated by the last component to the inputs of the first component in the overall model. The presented method has two advantages over existing methods which may be classified into two broad categories: brute force-type methods and amalgamated-type methods. First, the presented method determines the minimum number of adjoint evaluations for each component as opposed to the brute force-type methods which require full evaluation of all sensitivities for all responses calculated by each component in the overall model, which proves computationally prohibitive for realistic problems. Second, the new method treats each component as a black-box as opposed to amalgamated-type methods which requires explicit knowledge of the system of equations associated with each component in order to reach the minimum number of adjoint evaluations. (author)

  11. Multicomponent T2 relaxation studies of the avian egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Mulkern, Robert V; Maier, Stephan E

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the tissue-like multiexponential T2 signal decays in avian eggs. Transverse relaxation studies of raw, soft-boiled and hard-boiled eggs were performed at 3 Tesla using a three-dimensional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill imaging sequence. Signal decays over a TE range of 11 to 354 ms were fitted assuming single- and multicomponent signal decays with up to three separately decaying components. Fat saturation was used to facilitate spectral assignment of observed decay components. Egg white, yolk and the centrally located latebra all demonstrate nonmonoexponential T2 decays. Specifically, egg white exhibits two-component decays with intermediate and long T2 times. Meanwhile, yolk and latebra are generally best characterized with triexponential decays, with short, intermediate and very long T2 decay times. Fat saturation revealed that the intermediate component of yolk could be attributed to lipids. Cooking of the egg profoundly altered the decay curves. Avian egg T2 decay curves cover a wide range of decay times. Observed T2 components in yolk and latebra as short as 10 ms, may prove valuable for testing clinical sequences designed to measure short T2 components, such as myelin-associated water in the brain. Thus we propose that the egg can be a versatile and widely available MR transverse relaxation phantom. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ion Bernstein wave heating in a multi-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.

    1980-10-01

    Conditions for the coupling and absorption of Gross-Bernstein ion-cyclotron waves in a multi-component plasma are examined. Two cases are distinguished depending upon whether, the antenna initially launches, (i) the quasi-torsional slow electromagnetic wave with azimuthal magnetic field (TM) polarization, or (ii) the quasi-compressional fast wave with the electric field oriented azimuthally (TE). Analytic expressions for the plasma surface impedance are derived taking into account the pertinent warm plasma modifications near the vacuum-plasma interface. Antenna configurations capable of efficient coupling of the radio frequency energy to these modes are studied. A method for simulating waveguide like launching using transmission lines is pointed out. It is found that impurity concentrations exceeding a few parts in a thousand are capable of competing with the bulk ions in the energy absorption processes; this could lead to energy deposition near the plasma edge. Measures for avoiding edge heating problems by a careful choice of parameters e.g. restricting the heating frequency to the fundamental ion gyrofrequency are outlined. Equal care is to be exercised in limiting the nsub(z) spectrum to low discrete values in order to avoid the potentially dangerous problem of runaway electron heating. (orig.)

  13. Predictors of retention in a multicomponent treatment for smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moreno-Coutiño

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is a lack of knowledge about factors that promote or hinder retention of smokers in treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was the identification of variables that predict retention of smokers who received a multicomponent treatment against smoking. Method: Participants (n = 79 simultaneously received pharmacological and psychological treatment, including an intervention phase prior to the date of smoking cessation. They were evaluated periodically in their abstinence, depressive and anxious symptoms, and were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions (nicotine patch, bupropion or nicotine patch + bupropion. Eighteen variables were grouped into four categories (demographic, consumption pattern, mood and treatment. Data were analyzed using student's t test and X2, for inclusion into a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: Results indicate that age of onset of regular tobacco consumption, secondary education and bupropion pharmacological treatment are significant in relation to the retention of smokers to smoking treatment. Discussion: The reported “age of onset” correlates with treatment retention (OR = 1.545, 95 % CI = 1.175-2.032. This variable has not previously been reported in the literature, and taking it into account in the design of prevention and treatment for smoking could increase their success.

  14. Ion channeling study of defects in multicomponent semiconductor compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turos, A.; Nowicki, L.; Stonert, A.

    2002-01-01

    Compound semiconductor crystals are of great technological importance as basic materials for production of modern opto- and microelectronic devices. Ion implantation is one of the principal techniques for heterostructures processing. This paper reports the results of the study of defect formation and transformation in binary and ternary semiconductor compounds subjected to ion implantation with ions of different mass and energy. The principal analytical technique was He-ion channeling. The following materials were studied: GaN and InGaN epitaxial layers. First the semi empirical method of channeling spectra analysis for ion implanted multicomponent single crystal was developed. This method was later complemented by the more sophisticated method based on the Monte Carlo simulation of channeling spectra. Next, the damage buildup in different crystals and epitaxial layers as a function of the implantation dose was studied for N, Mg, Te, and Kr ions. The influence of the substrate temperature on the defect transformations was studied for GaN epitaxial layers implanted with Mg ions. Special attention was devoted to the study of growth conditions of InGaN/GaN/sapphire heterostructures, which are important component of the future blue laser diodes. In-atom segregation and tetragonal distortion of the epitaxial layer were observed and characterized. Next problem studied was the incorporation of hydrogen atoms in GaAs and GaN. Elastic recoil detection (ERDA) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) were applied for the purpose. (author)

  15. Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations.

  16. Local stress calculation in simulations of multicomponent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branicio, Paulo S.; Srolovitz, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The virial and Hardy methods provide accurate local stresses for single component materials such as monatomic metals. In contrast to the elemental material case, both methods provide poor estimates of the local stress for multicomponent materials. Using binary materials such as CaO, SiC and AlN and homogeneous strain, we demonstrate that there are several sources for the slow convergence of the virial and Hardy local stresses to the bulk values. Different approaches such as enforced stoichiometry, atomic localization functions and the atomic voronoi volume are used to improve the convergence and increase the spatial resolution of the local stress. The virial method with enforced stoichiometry and atomic voronoi volumes is the most accurate, giving exact stress values by the first atomic shell. In the general case, not assuming stoichiometry, the virial method with localization functions converge to 93% of the bulk value by the third atomic shell. This work may be particularly useful for the real-time description of stresses in simulations of shock waves and deformation dynamics.

  17. Analysis of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2013-02-01

    This paper analysed the performance of a membrane system over key design/operation parameters. A computation methodology is developed to solve the model of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas feeds. The model represented by a nonlinear differential algebraic equation system is solved via a combination of backward differentiation and Gauss-Seidel methods. Natural gas sweetening problem is investigated as a case study. Model parametric analyses of variables, namely feed gas quality, pressure, area, selectivity and permeance, resulted in better understanding of operating and design optima. Particularly, high selectivities and/or permeabilities are shown not to be necessary targets for optimal operation. Rather, a medium selectivity (<60 in the given example) combined with medium permeance (∼300-500×10-10mol/sm2Pa in the given case study) is more advantageous. This model-based membrane systems engineering approach is proposed for the synthesis of efficient and cost-effective multi-stage membrane networks. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  19. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  20. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  1. Role of geometrical shape in like-charge attraction of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuron, Michael; Arnold, Axel

    2015-03-01

    While the phenomenon of like-charge attraction of DNA is clearly observed experimentally and in simulations, mean-field theories fail to predict it. Kornyshev et al. argued that like-charge attraction is due to DNA's helical geometry and hydration forces. Strong-coupling (SC) theory shows that attraction of like-charged rods is possible through ion correlations alone at large coupling parameters, usually by multivalent counterions. However for SC theory to be applicable, counterion-counterion correlations perpendicular to the DNA strands need to be sufficiently small, which is not a priori the case for DNA even with trivalent counterions. We study a system containing infinitely long DNA strands and trivalent counterions by computer simulations employing varying degrees of coarse-graining. Our results show that there is always attraction between the strands, but its magnitude is indeed highly dependent on the specific shape of the strand. While discreteness of the charge distribution has little influence on the attractive forces, the role of the helical charge distribution is considerable: charged rods maintain a finite distance in equilibrium, while helices collapse to close contact with a phase shift of π, in full agreement with SC predictions. The SC limit is applicable because counterions strongly bind to the charged sites of the helices, so that helix-counterion interactions dominate over counterion-counterion interactions. Thus DNA's helical geometry is not crucial for like-charge DNA attraction, but strongly enhances it, and electrostatic interactions in the strong-coupling limit are sufficient to explain this attraction.

  2. Physical attractiveness, romantic love, and equity restoration in dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, J W; Waid, L R

    1980-12-01

    Measures of physical attractiveness, romantic love, and dominance were given to a sample of 123 dating couples. Contrary to expectation, attractive subjects were not loved more than those judged as less attractive. As suggested by equity theory, however, subjects who believed that their partners were the more attractive member of the dyad loved their partners more (p relationships (p attractive member. The results suggest that as the dating relationship progresses, the relative difference in attractiveness between partners may become a more important determinant of attraction than overall level of attractiveness.

  3. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain. PMID:26441569

  4. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behavior. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behavior and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioral effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI) for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens' faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.

  5. Physical attractiveness and sex as modulatory factors of empathic brain responses to pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Jankowiak Siuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is a process that comprises affective sharing, imagining, and understanding the emotions and mental states of others. The brain structures involved in empathy for physical pain include the anterior insula (AI, and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. High empathy may lead people to undertake pro-social behaviour. It is important to understand how this process can be changed, and what factors these empathic responses depend on. Physical attractiveness is a major social and evolutional cue, playing a role in the formation of interpersonal evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine how attractiveness affects the level of empathy both in relation to self-rated behaviour and in terms of activation of specific empathy-related brain regions. Twenty-seven subjects (14 female and 13 male were studied using fMRI method while they were watching short video scenes involving physically more and less attractive men and women who exhibited pain responses. In the absence of behavioural effects in compassion ratings, we observed stronger activation in empathic brain structures (ACC; AI for less attractive men and for attractive women than for attractive men. Evolutionary psychology studies suggest that beauty is valued more highly in females than males, which might lead observers to empathize more strongly with the attractive woman than the men. Attractive mens’ faces are typically associated with enhanced masculine facial characteristics and are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits compared with feminized faces. This could explain why more empathy was shown to less attractive men. In conclusion, the study showed that the attractiveness and sex of a model are important modulators of empathy for pain.

  6. A meta-analytic investigation of the relation between interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew; Kershaw, Christine; Prosser, Julie L

    2018-05-07

    We present a meta-analysis that investigated the relation between self-reported interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior. Our synthesis focused on (a) identifying the behaviors related to attraction; (b) evaluating the efficacy of models of the relation between attraction and behavior; (c) testing the impact of several moderators, including evaluative threat salience, cognitive appraisal salience, and the sex composition of the social interaction; and (d) investigating the degree of agreement between the meta-analytic findings and an ethnographic analysis. Using a multilevel modeling approach, an analysis of 309 effect sizes (N = 5,422) revealed a significant association (z = .20) between self-reported attraction and enacted behavior. Key findings include: (a) that the specific behaviors associated with attraction (e.g., eye contact, smiling, laughter, mimicry) are those behaviors research has linked to the development of trust/rapport; (b) direct behaviors (e.g., physical proximity, talking to), compared with indirect behaviors (e.g., eye contact, smiling, mimicry), were more strongly related to self-reported attraction; and (c) evaluative threat salience (e.g., fear of rejection) reduced the magnitude of the relation between direct behavior and affective attraction. Moreover, an ethnographic analysis revealed consistency between the behaviors identified by the meta-analysis and those behaviors identified by ethnographers as predictive of attraction. We discuss the implications of our findings for models of the relation between attraction and behavior, for the behavioral expressions of emotions, and for how attraction is measured and conceptualized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Attractive Hubbard model with disorder and the generalized Anderson theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskii, E. Z.; Kuleeva, N. A.; Sadovskii, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Using the generalized DMFT+Σ approach, we study the influence of disorder on single-particle properties of the normal phase and the superconducting transition temperature in the attractive Hubbard model. A wide range of attractive potentials U is studied, from the weak coupling region, where both the instability of the normal phase and superconductivity are well described by the BCS model, to the strong-coupling region, where the superconducting transition is due to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of compact Cooper pairs, formed at temperatures much higher than the superconducting transition temperature. We study two typical models of the conduction band with semi-elliptic and flat densities of states, respectively appropriate for three-dimensional and two-dimensional systems. For the semi-elliptic density of states, the disorder influence on all single-particle properties (e.g., density of states) is universal for an arbitrary strength of electronic correlations and disorder and is due to only the general disorder widening of the conduction band. In the case of a flat density of states, universality is absent in the general case, but still the disorder influence is mainly due to band widening, and the universal behavior is restored for large enough disorder. Using the combination of DMFT+Σ and Nozieres-Schmitt-Rink approximations, we study the disorder influence on the superconducting transition temperature T c for a range of characteristic values of U and disorder, including the BCS-BEC crossover region and the limit of strong-coupling. Disorder can either suppress T c (in the weak-coupling region) or significantly increase T c (in the strong-coupling region). However, in all cases, the generalized Anderson theorem is valid and all changes of the superconducting critical temperature are essentially due to only the general disorder widening of the conduction band

  8. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  9. Service Packages – Attractiveness Has Many Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Bondos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to identify the impact of the customer age (especially the Baby boomers generation and the X and the Y generation on the assessment of incentives to buy service package. Belonging to different age generations seems to be important for the effectiveness of service packages sales – the entrance by the consumers in subsequent phases of the life cycle is related to their perception of the market offer. The starting point for the empirical part of the article was to analyze the different average scores attractiveness of the ten packages service features (incentives to purchase. Then, using multidimensional scaling authors determined the similarity or dissimilarity data on a set of applied incentives to use service packages. Visible differences indicate a different perception of the attractiveness of packages representatives of the Baby boomer generation and Y generation. Managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. A near-infrared census of the multicomponent stellar structure of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Lisker, T.; Hansson, K. S. A.; Meyer, H. T.; Paudel, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Den Brok, M.; Niemi, S.-M.; Toloba, E.; Hensler, G.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A.; Boselli, A.

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of star-forming to quiescent dwarf galaxies varies from almost infinity in the field to zero in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. What is causing this pronounced morphology-density relation? What do quiescent dwarf galaxies look like when studied in detail, and what conclusions can be drawn about their formation mechanism? Here we study a nearly magnitude-complete sample (–19 < M r < –16 mag) of 121 Virgo cluster early types with deep near-infrared images from the SMAKCED project. We fit two-dimensional models with optional inner and outer components, as well as bar and lens components (in ∼15% of the galaxies), to the galaxy images. While a single Sérsic function may approximate the overall galaxy structure, it does not entirely capture the light distribution of two-thirds of our galaxies, for which multicomponent models provide a better fit. This fraction of complex galaxies shows a strong dependence on luminosity, being larger for brighter objects. We analyze the global and component-specific photometric scaling relations of early-type dwarf galaxies and discuss similarities with bright early and late types. The dwarfs' global galaxy parameters show scaling relations that are similar to those of bright disk galaxies. The inner components are mostly fitted with Sérsic n values close to 1. At a given magnitude, they are systematically larger than the bulges of spirals, suggesting that they are not ordinary bulges. We argue that the multicomponent structures in early-type dwarfs are mostly a phenomenon inherent to the disks and may indeed stem from environmental processing.

  11. The tourism attractiveness of Polish libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Miedzińska, Magdalena; Tanaś, Sławoj

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to draw the reader's attention to the tourism attractiveness of renowned Polish libraries. These have attained a tourism function due to tourism exploration and penetration, but remain in the shadow of other Polish cultural assets. The article outlines the historical geography of Polish libraries, an analysis of tourism assets and an attempt to classify and catalogue libraries in Poland.

  12. Closing-in behavior: Compensation or attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambron, Elisabetta; Beschin, Nicoletta; Cerrone, Chiara; Della Sala, Sergio

    2018-03-01

    Closing-in behavior (CIB) defines the abnormal misplacement of the copy performance, positioned very closed to or on the top of the model. This symptom is observed in graphic copying by patients suffering from different neurological diseases, most commonly dementia. The cognitive origins of this behavior are still a matter of investigation, and research of the last 10 years has been focused on exploring 2 main accounts of CIB, the compensation and the attraction hypotheses, providing evidence in both directions. While the first account defines CIB as a compensatory strategy to overcome visuospatial and/or working memory deficits during copying tasks, the attraction hypothesis looks at CIB as primitive default behavior in which attention and action are closely coupled and movements are performed toward the focus of attention. We explored these 2 hypotheses in a sample of patients with and without CIB, and controls in 5 experiments: Experiments 1 and 2 tested the attraction hypothesis and, respectively, the prediction that CIB can be elicited in a noncopying dual task condition loading upon attentional resources or by irrelevant attentional grabbing stimuli. The other experiments investigated the compensation hypothesis manipulating the distance between model and copying space (Experiment 3), the task demand (single or dual task loading on verbal working memory; Experiment 4), the task requirements (copying and tracing) and visual demand (visual copy and memory; Experiment 5). The results support the attraction hypothesis of CIB. CIB reflects an impairment of the attention and action system, rather than a compensatory strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Attracting pedestrians’ attention using interaction technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mellquist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technology and marketing channels to display and broadcast advertisements are ever changing; this has led to the change of many forms of advertisements. Public advertisements have not changed as drastically as many others and can therefore be seen as out-dated. In this paper a prototype of an interactive advertisement with a dynamic user flow is presented where focus has been on attracting attention. Different interaction technologies have been discussed and compared. A Kinect sensor has ...

  14. Attractiveness Is Multimodal: Beauty Is Also in the Nose and Ear of the Beholder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Groyecka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attractiveness plays a central role in human non-verbal communication and has been broadly examined in diverse subfields of contemporary psychology. Researchers have garnered compelling evidence in support of the evolutionary functions of physical attractiveness and its role in our daily lives, while at the same time, having largely ignored the significant contribution of non-visual modalities and the relationships among them. Acoustic and olfactory cues can, separately or in combination, strongly influence the perceived attractiveness of an individual and therefore attitudes and actions toward that person. Here, we discuss the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory traits in judgments of attractiveness, and review neural and behavioral studies that support the highly complex and multimodal nature of person perception. Further, we discuss three alternative evolutionary hypotheses aimed at explaining the function of multiple indices of attractiveness. In this review, we provide several lines of evidence supporting the importance of the voice, body odor, and facial and body appearance in the perception of attractiveness and mate preferences, and therefore the critical need to incorporate cross-modal perception and multisensory integration into future research on human physical attractiveness.

  15. Women's meta-perceptions of attractiveness and their relations to body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined meta-perceptions of attractiveness among women. More specifically, ratings were collected about how women thought their partner, family and friends, and strangers would view their physical attractiveness. In an online survey, 1287 Dutch women (aged 19-80 years) answered questions concerning meta-perceptions of attractiveness, demographic data, body mass index (BMI), body image (Body Areas Satisfaction Scale, self-rated general physical attractiveness, and actual-ideal weight discrepancy), and self-esteem. Results showed that women's meta-perceptions of attractiveness reflected the level of closeness of the relationship with the other person, with the most positive meta-perceptions reported for the partner, followed by those for family and friends, and the least positive meta-perceptions for strangers. Meta-perceptions were strongly related to body image, self-esteem and BMI. Self-ratings of attractiveness appeared to be lower than all meta-perceptions of attractiveness, suggesting that women are aware of their own negative self-bias and/or other people's positive bias. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross-Cultural Agreement in Facial Attractiveness Preferences: The Role of Ethnicity and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Vinet; Greeff, Jaco M.; Stephen, Ian D.; Perrett, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work showed high agreement in facial attractiveness preferences within and across cultures. The aims of the current study were twofold. First, we tested cross-cultural agreement in the attractiveness judgements of White Scottish and Black South African students for own- and other-ethnicity faces. Results showed significant agreement between White Scottish and Black South African observers' attractiveness judgements, providing further evidence of strong cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness preferences. Second, we tested whether cross-cultural agreement is influenced by the ethnicity and/or the gender of the target group. White Scottish and Black South African observers showed significantly higher agreement for Scottish than for African faces, presumably because both groups are familiar with White European facial features, but the Scottish group are less familiar with Black African facial features. Further work investigating this discordance in cross-cultural attractiveness preferences for African faces show that Black South African observers rely more heavily on colour cues when judging African female faces for attractiveness, while White Scottish observers rely more heavily on shape cues. Results also show higher cross-cultural agreement for female, compared to male faces, albeit not significantly higher. The findings shed new light on the factors that influence cross-cultural agreement in attractiveness preferences. PMID:24988325

  17. Attractiveness Is Multimodal: Beauty Is Also in the Nose and Ear of the Beholder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groyecka, Agata; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Havlíček, Jan; Karwowski, Maciej; Puts, David; Roberts, S Craig; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Attractiveness plays a central role in human non-verbal communication and has been broadly examined in diverse subfields of contemporary psychology. Researchers have garnered compelling evidence in support of the evolutionary functions of physical attractiveness and its role in our daily lives, while at the same time, having largely ignored the significant contribution of non-visual modalities and the relationships among them. Acoustic and olfactory cues can, separately or in combination, strongly influence the perceived attractiveness of an individual and therefore attitudes and actions toward that person. Here, we discuss the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory traits in judgments of attractiveness, and review neural and behavioral studies that support the highly complex and multimodal nature of person perception. Further, we discuss three alternative evolutionary hypotheses aimed at explaining the function of multiple indices of attractiveness. In this review, we provide several lines of evidence supporting the importance of the voice, body odor, and facial and body appearance in the perception of attractiveness and mate preferences, and therefore the critical need to incorporate cross-modal perception and multisensory integration into future research on human physical attractiveness.

  18. Vibrational properties of quasi-two-dimensional colloidal glasses with varying interparticle attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratale, Matthew D; Ma, Xiaoguang; Davidson, Zoey S; Still, Tim; Habdas, Piotr; Yodh, A G

    2016-10-01

    We measure the vibrational modes and particle dynamics of quasi-two-dimensional colloidal glasses as a function of interparticle interaction strength. The interparticle attractions are controlled via a temperature-tunable depletion interaction. Specifically, the interparticle attraction energy is increased gradually from a very small value (nearly hard-sphere) to moderate strength (∼4k_{B}T), and the variation of colloidal particle dynamics and vibrations are concurrently probed. The particle dynamics slow monotonically with increasing attraction strength, and the particle motions saturate for strengths greater than ∼2k_{B}T, i.e., as the system evolves from a nearly repulsive glass to an attractive glass. The shape of the phonon density of states is revealed to change with increasing attraction strength, and the number of low-frequency modes exhibits a crossover for glasses with weak compared to strong interparticle attraction at a threshold of ∼2k_{B}T. This variation in the properties of the low-frequency vibrational modes suggests a new means for distinguishing between repulsive and attractive glass states.

  19. Cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness preferences: the role of ethnicity and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Coetzee

    Full Text Available Previous work showed high agreement in facial attractiveness preferences within and across cultures. The aims of the current study were twofold. First, we tested cross-cultural agreement in the attractiveness judgements of White Scottish and Black South African students for own- and other-ethnicity faces. Results showed significant agreement between White Scottish and Black South African observers' attractiveness judgements, providing further evidence of strong cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness preferences. Second, we tested whether cross-cultural agreement is influenced by the ethnicity and/or the gender of the target group. White Scottish and Black South African observers showed significantly higher agreement for Scottish than for African faces, presumably because both groups are familiar with White European facial features, but the Scottish group are less familiar with Black African facial features. Further work investigating this discordance in cross-cultural attractiveness preferences for African faces show that Black South African observers rely more heavily on colour cues when judging African female faces for attractiveness, while White Scottish observers rely more heavily on shape cues. Results also show higher cross-cultural agreement for female, compared to male faces, albeit not significantly higher. The findings shed new light on the factors that influence cross-cultural agreement in attractiveness preferences.

  20. "Beauty lies in the eye of the beholder"? Aspects of beauty and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Claudia; Berneburg, Mirjam

    2010-05-01

    Discussing aesthetic issues and their management with patients is a growing area of dermatologic practice. Sometimes treatment options within one's own discipline are rapidly discussed, without a clear idea of the various aspects of the face which all combine to produce beauty and attractiveness. We review various features leading to the impression of beauty and attractiveness. Familiarity with these concepts should facilitate a broader discussion with the patient on the aspects of beauty and attractiveness beyond the borders of one's own discipline and also lead to multidisciplinary treatment options. We also examine the question how much the personality of the beholder himself is involved in the perception of attractiveness and beauty (of the person sitting opposite to him). The "ideal" face has an average profile with slightly protrusive and full lips. Attractiveness increases with average features and symmetry. Moreover, particular features such as the scheme of childlike characteristics combined with aspects of maturity and expression make a female face appear especially beautiful. Which attributes contribute to attractiveness of a man's face are controversial. Clear male signals such as a strong chin are likely not to increase attractiveness.

  1. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William

    2017-07-01

    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  2. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  3. Direction-specific van der Waals attraction between rutile TiO 2 nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin; He, Yang; Sushko, Maria L.; Liu, Jia; Luo, Langli; De Yoreo, James J.; Mao, Scott X.; Wang, Chongmin; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2017-04-27

    Mutual lattice orientations dictate the types and magnitudes of forces between crystalline particles. When lattice polarizability is anisotropic, the van der Waals dispersion attraction can, in principle, contribute to this direction dependence. Here we report direct measurement of this attraction between rutile nanocrystals, as a function of their mutual orientation and surface hydration extent. At tens of nanometers of separation the attraction is weak and shows no dependence on azimuthal alignment nor surface hydration. At separations of approximately one hydration layer the attraction is strongly dependent on azimuthal alignment, and systematically decreases as intervening water density increases. Measured forces are in close agreement with predictions from Lifshitz theory, and show that dispersion forces are capable of generating a torque between particles interacting in solution and between grains in materials.

  4. Two Impurities in a Bose-Einstein Condensate: From Yukawa to Efimov Attracted Polarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidon, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    The well-known Yukawa and Efimov potentials are two different mediated interaction potentials. The first one arises in quantum field theory from the exchange of virtual particles. The second one is mediated by a real particle resonantly interacting with two other particles. This Letter shows how two impurities immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate can exhibit both phenomena. For a weak attraction with the condensate, the two impurities form two polarons that interact through a weak Yukawa attraction mediated by virtual excitations. For a resonant attraction with the condensate, the exchanged excitation becomes a real boson and the mediated interaction changes to a strong Efimov attraction that can bind the two polarons. The resulting bipolarons turn into in-medium Efimov trimers made of the two impurities and one boson. Evidence of this physics could be seen in ultracold mixtures of atoms.

  5. Internal structure of multicomponent static spherical gravitating fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, E.; Bailyn, M.

    1975-01-01

    The Maxwell--Einstein equations for a fluid comprised of more than one type of particle are not a determinate system even if an equation of state is added. The problem of what the charge distribution is in such fluids is therefore also not determinate. To complete the definition of the problem, more equations are needed. We obtain these for the simple case of a static spherically symmetric multicomponent system (imbedded in a Minkowskian background) by minimizing the energy of the fluid with respect to variations in the number densities of the constituents, with the side conditions that the total number of each constituent is constant during the variations. This procedure results in a determinate set of hydrostatic equilibrium equations, the sum of which is the familiar Tolman--Oppenheimer--Volkoff equation. Some general conclusions can be drawn. For example, the necessary and sufficient condition for charge neutrality is that the mass-energy density be some (arbitrary) function of some (arbitrary) linear combination of the number densities. Thus, since it is well known that the electrons in a white dwarf star at absolute zero form a degenerate gas, there must be a charge imbalance throughout such a star. This imbalance can then be computed self-consistently. An over-all physical interpretation of the new equations is that in equilibrium at any point in the fluid the sum of the non-gravitational forces per unit energy is the same for constituent 1 as for constituent 2 and so on. This is the analog of the corresponding (Galilean) statement for gravitational forces that is valid even without equilibrium

  6. Optical spectroscopy of the Ce-doped multicomponent garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canimoglu, A.; Karabulut, Y.; Ayvacikli, M.; Muresan, L.E.; Perhaita, I.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.; Garcia Guinea, J.; Karali, T.; Can, N.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report our results referring to the preparation of Ce doped Y 2.22 MgGa 2 Al 2 SiO 12 , Y 1.93 MgAl 4 SiO 12 and Y 2.22 Gd 0.75 Ga 2 Al 3 O 12 using solid state reaction at high temperature. Several complementary methods (i.e. powder x-ray diffraction (XRPD), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)) were studied to examine the effects of the synthesis procedure on the morphology and structure. XRD analyses revealed that all compounds include yttrium aluminate phase with garnet structure. Cathodoluminescence (CL), radioluminescence (RL) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out for clarification of relationship between host lattice defects and the spectral luminescence emissions. Luminescence emission of phosphors is peaked at 530 nm assigned to 5d-4f transitions of the dopant Ce 3+ ions with a broad emission band in 400–700 nm range. Under electron irradiation, the emission spectrum of Ce doped (YGd) 3 Ga 2 Al 3 O 12 is well defined and has a characteristic fairly narrow and sharp emission band peaking at 312 nm and 624 nm corresponding to transition of 6 P 7/2 → 8 S 7/2 and 6 G J → 6 P J (Gd 3+ ), respectively. We suggest some of phosphors might be excellent phototherapy phosphor materials under electron excitation. - Highlights: • Ce-doped Multicomponent Garnets were prepared solid state reaction method. • The shape and size of phosphor particles were examined. • The narrow band UV B emission due to Gd 3+ ions were observed.

  7. Damage buildup and edge dislocation mobility in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, F.; Djurabekova, F.; Levo, E.; Nordlund, K.

    2017-02-01

    A new class of single phase metal alloys of equal atomic concentrations has shown very promising mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. Moreover, a significant reduction in damage accumulation during prolonged irradiation has also been observed in these equiatomic multicomponent alloys. A comparison of elemental Ni with the two component NiFe- and the three component NiCoCr-alloy showed a substantial reduction in damage in both alloys, and an even larger difference was seen if only larger clusters were considered. One of the factors limiting the damage build-up in the alloys compared to the elemental material was seen to be dislocation mobility (Granberg et al., 2016). In this Article, we focus on a more thorough investigation of the mobility of edge dislocations in different cases of the Ni-, NiFe- and NiCoCr-samples. We find that even though the saturated amount of defects in the alloys is lower than in elemental Ni, the defect buildup in the early stages is faster in the alloys. We also find that the dislocation mobility in NiFe is lower than in Ni, at low stresses, and that the onset stress in NiFe is higher than in Ni. The same phenomenon was seen in comparison between NiFe and NiCoCr, since the three component alloy had lower dislocation mobility and higher onset stress. The dislocation velocity in elemental Ni plateaued out just under the forbidden velocity, whereas the alloys showed a more complex behaviour.

  8. DSMC multicomponent aerosol dynamics: Sampling algorithms and aerosol processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya

    The post-accident nuclear reactor primary and containment environments can be characterized by high temperatures and pressures, and fission products and nuclear aerosols. These aerosols evolve via natural transport processes as well as under the influence of engineered safety features. These aerosols can be hazardous and may pose risk to the public if released into the environment. Computations of their evolution, movement and distribution involve the study of various processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, etc., and are influenced by factors such as particle shape, charge, radioactivity and spatial inhomogeneity. These many factors make the numerical study of nuclear aerosol evolution computationally very complicated. The focus of this research is on the use of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to elucidate the role of various phenomena that influence the nuclear aerosol evolution. In this research, several aerosol processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, and source reinforcement are explored for a multi-component, aerosol dynamics problem in a spatially homogeneous medium. Among the various sampling algorithms explored the Metropolis sampling algorithm was found to be effective and fast. Several test problems and test cases are simulated using the DSMC technique. The DSMC results obtained are verified against the analytical and sectional results for appropriate test problems. Results show that the assumption of a single mean density is not appropriate due to the complicated effect of component densities on the aerosol processes. The methods developed and the insights gained will also be helpful in future research on the challenges associated with the description of fission product and aerosol releases.

  9. Nonideal mixing in multicomponent lipid/detergent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamaloukas, Alekos; Szadkowska, Halina; Heerklotz, Heiko

    2006-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the mixing properties of membranes to which detergents are added is mandatory for improving the application and interpretation of detergent based protein or lipid extraction assays. For Triton X-100 (TX-100), a nonionic detergent frequently used in the process of solubilizing and purifying membrane proteins and lipids, we present here a detailed study of the mixing properties of binary and ternary lipid mixtures by means of high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). To this end the partitioning thermodynamics of TX-100 molecules from the aqueous phase to lipid bilayers composed of various mixtures of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), egg-sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol (cho) are characterized. Composition-dependent partition coefficients K are analysed within the frame of a thermodynamic model developed to describe nonideal mixing in multicomponent lipid/detergent systems. The results imply that POPC, fluid SM, and TX-100 mix almost ideally (nonideality parameters ρ α/β SM/cho ≤-6RT) and unfavourable PC/cho interactions (ρ PC/cho = 2RT) may under certain conditions cause POPC/TX-100-enriched domains to segregate from SM/cho-enriched ones. TX-100/cho contacts are unfavourable (ρ cho/TX = 4RT), so the system tends to avoid them. That means, addition of TX-100 promotes the separation of SM/cho-rich from PC/TX-100-rich domains. It appears that cho/detergent interactions are crucial governing the abundance and composition of detergent-resistant membrane patches

  10. Polymer Percolation Threshold in Multi-Component HPMC Matrices Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The percolation theory studies the critical points or percolation thresholds of the system, where onecomponent of the system undergoes a geometrical phase transition, starting to connect the whole system. The application of this theory to study the release rate of hydrophilic matrices allows toexplain the changes in release kinetics of swellable matrix type system and results in a clear improvement of the design of controlled release dosage forms. Methods: In this study, the percolation theory has been applied to multi-component hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC hydrophilic matrices. Matrix tablets have been prepared using phenobarbital as drug,magnesium stearate as a lubricant employing different amount of lactose and HPMC K4M as a fillerandmatrix forming material, respectively. Ethylcelullose (EC as a polymeric excipient was also examined. Dissolution studies were carried out using the paddle method. In order to estimate the percolation threshold, the behaviour of the kinetic parameters with respect to the volumetric fraction of HPMC at time zero, was studied. Results: In both HPMC/lactose and HPMC/EC/lactose matrices, from the point of view of the percolation theory, the optimum concentration for HPMC, to obtain a hydrophilic matrix system for the controlled release of phenobarbital is higher than 18.1% (v/v HPMC. Above 18.1% (v/v HPMC, an infinite cluster of HPMC would be formed maintaining integrity of the system and controlling the drug release from the matrices. According to results, EC had no significant influence on the HPMC percolation threshold. Conclusion: This may be related to broad functionality of the swelling hydrophilic matrices.

  11. Pair correlations in an expanding universe for a multicomponent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrup, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Fall and Saslaw have derived an equation for the growth of pair correlations in an expanding universe of identical self-gravitating point masses which is correlation-free at some initial time. Their equation is rigorously true for the earliest stages of growth, assuming only that the system is spatially homogeneous and isotropic, and that it is characterized in the ''comoving frame'' by a Maxwellian distribution of velocities. This paper generalizes their analysis to the case of a multicomponent system of particles with different masses, each species of which is characterized by a Maxwellian distribution at the same temperature. Here there are two types of pair correlations to consider, namely among members of the same species and among members of different species. The general behavior may be understood most readily by considering the covariance functions, which assume very simple forms. Thus one finds that the ''strength'' of the covariance scales, for sufficiently small radial separations, as the product of the masses, whereas the ''range'' of the covariance varies inversely as the square root of the reduced mass of the two constituents. This implies that, for two very different masses, the ''range'' will be set by the lighter constituent. Knowledge of the covariances also permits the calculation of such objects as the correlational energy densities of the various interactions. Consider, for example, a two-component system. Here one finds that even a very small contamination of heavy masses, which would have a negligible effect upon the total mass or kinetic energy densities, can increase the total correlational energy density, and hence decrease the time scale for the evolution of interesting structure, by orders of magnitude

  12. Multi-level predictive maintenance for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Kim-Anh; Do, Phuc; Grall, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel predictive maintenance policy with multi-level decision-making is proposed for multi-component system with complex structure. The main idea is to propose a decision-making process considered on two levels: system level and component one. The goal of the decision rules at the system level is to address if preventive maintenance actions are needed regarding the predictive reliability of the system. At component level the decision rules aim at identifying optimally a group of several components to be preventively maintained when preventive maintenance is trigged due to the system level decision. Selecting optimal components is based on a cost-based group improvement factor taking into account the predictive reliability of the components, the economic dependencies as well as the location of the components in the system. Moreover, a cost model is developed to find the optimal maintenance decision variables. A 14-component system is finally introduced to illustrate the use and the performance of the proposed predictive maintenance policy. Different sensitivity analysis are also investigated and discussed. Indeed, the proposed policy provides more flexibility in maintenance decision-making for complex structure systems, hence leading to significant profits in terms of maintenance cost when compared with existing policies. - Highlights: • A predictive maintenance policy for complex structure systems is proposed. • Multi-level decision process based on prognostic results is proposed. • A cost-based group importance measure is introduced for decision-making. • Both positive and negative dependencies between components are investigated. • A cost model and Monte Carlo simulation are developed for optimization process.

  13. Crystallisation mechanism of a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurth, R.; Pascual, M.J.; Mather, G.C.; Pablos-Martín, A.; Muñoz, F.; Durán, A.; Cuello, G.J.; Rüssel, C.

    2012-01-01

    A base glass of composition 3.5 Li 2 O∙0.15 Na 2 O∙0.2 K 2 O∙1.15 MgO∙0.8 BaO∙1.5 ZnO∙20 Al 2 O 3 ∙67.2 SiO 2 ∙2.6 TiO 2 ∙1.7 ZrO 2 ∙1.2 As 2 O 3 (in wt.%), melted and provided by SCHOTT AG (Mainz), was used to study the crystallisation mechanism of lithium alumino-silicate glass employing X-ray diffraction combined with neutron diffraction and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A high-quartz solid solution of LiAlSi 2 O 6 with nanoscaled crystals forms at 750 °C. Quantitative Rietveld refinement of samples annealed at 750 °C for 8 h determined a crystallised fraction of around 59 wt.%. The room temperature crystallised phase adopts an ordered, β-eucryptite-like structure (2 × 2 × 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. The Avrami parameter (n ∼ 4), calculated from DSC data using different theoretical approaches, indicates that bulk crystallisation occurs and that the number of nuclei increases during annealing. The activation energy of the crystallisation is 531 ± 20 kJ mol −1 . - Highlights: ► Nanoscaled high-quartz crystals from a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass. ► Combined X-ray and neutron diffraction structural refinement. ► β-Eucryptite-like structure (2 × 2×2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. ► 3-Dimensional bulk crystallisation mechanism with an increasing number of nuclei. ► Usage and validation of an alternative approach to calculate the Avrami parameter.

  14. Racial stereotypes and interracial attraction: phenotypic prototypicality and perceived attractiveness of Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Clara L; Chan, Joy F; Kaiser, Cheryl R

    2011-10-01

    What does it take to find a member of a different race attractive? In this research, we suggest that for Whites, attraction to Asians may be based, in part, on stereotypes and variations in Asians' racial appearance. Study 1 reveals that Asians are stereotyped as being more feminine and less masculine than other racial groups-characteristics considered appealing for women but not for men to possess. Study 2 examines how variation in racial appearance, phenotypic prototypicality (PP), shapes the degree to which Asians are gender stereotyped and how PP relates to perceptions of attractiveness. Higher PP Asian men are perceived as being less masculine and less physically attractive than lower PP Asian men. These findings inform theory on how within-group variation in racial appearance affects stereotyping and other social outcomes.

  15. Generalized modeling of multi-component vaporization/condensation phenomena for multi-phase-flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K.; Fukuda, K.; Tobita, Y.; Kondo, Sa.; Suzuki, T.; Maschek, W.

    2003-01-01

    A new multi-component vaporization/condensation (V/C) model was developed to provide a generalized model for safety analysis codes of liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs). These codes simulate thermal-hydraulic phenomena of multi-phase, multi-component flows, which is essential to investigate core disruptive accidents of LMRs such as fast breeder reactors and accelerator driven systems. The developed model characterizes the V/C processes associated with phase transition by employing heat transfer and mass-diffusion limited models for analyses of relatively short-time-scale multi-phase, multi-component hydraulic problems, among which vaporization and condensation, or simultaneous heat and mass transfer, play an important role. The heat transfer limited model describes the non-equilibrium phase transition processes occurring at interfaces, while the mass-diffusion limited model is employed to represent effects of non-condensable gases and multi-component mixture on V/C processes. Verification of the model and method employed in the multi-component V/C model of a multi-phase flow code was performed successfully by analyzing a series of multi-bubble condensation experiments. The applicability of the model to the accident analysis of LMRs is also discussed by comparison between steam and metallic vapor systems. (orig.)

  16. Impressions of Counselors as a Function of Counselor Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean A.

    1978-01-01

    Research assessed the effects of counselor physical attractiveness and inter-actions between attractiveness and counselor subject sex. It is suggested that sex of counselor and client may play a more important role independently and in conjunction with attractiveness than does attractiveness alone in influencing impressions and expectations.…

  17. 40 CFR 503.33 - Vector attraction reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vector attraction reduction. 503.33... STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction § 503.33 Vector attraction reduction. (a)(1) One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in § 503.33 (b)(1) through...

  18. Catching the PEG-induced attractive interaction between proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivarès, D; Belloni, L; Tardieu, A; Bonneté, F

    2002-09-01

    We present the experimental and theoretical background of a method to characterize the protein-protein attractive potential induced by one of the mostly used crystallizing agents in the protein-field, the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). This attractive interaction is commonly called, in colloid physics, the depletion interaction. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering experiments and numerical treatments based on liquid-state theories were performed on urate oxidase-PEG mixtures with two different PEGs (3350 Da and 8000 Da). A "two-component" approach was used in which the polymer-polymer, the protein-polymer and the protein-protein pair potentials were determined. The resulting effective protein-protein potential was characterized. This potential is the sum of the free-polymer protein-protein potential and of the PEG-induced depletion potential. The depletion potential was found to be hardly dependent upon the protein concentration but strongly function of the polymer size and concentration. Our results were also compared with two models, which give an analytic expression for the depletion potential.

  19. Sex-Specificity in the Reward Value of Facial Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2016-05-01

    Studies of the sex-specificity of sexual arousal in adults (i.e., the tendency to respond more strongly to preferred-sex individuals than non-preferred sex individuals) have suggested that heterosexual men, homosexual men, and homosexual women show stronger sex-specific responses than do heterosexual women. Evidence for a similar pattern of results in studies investigating the reward value of faces is equivocal. Consequently, we investigated the effects of (1) sexual orientation (homosexual vs. heterosexual), (2) sex (male vs. female), (3) image sex (preferred-sex vs. non-preferred-sex), and (4) the physical attractiveness of the individual shown in the image on the reward value of faces. Participants were 130 heterosexual men, 130 homosexual men, 130 heterosexual women, and 130 homosexual women. The reward value of faces was assessed using a standard key-press task. Multilevel modeling of responses indicated that images of preferred-sex individuals were more rewarding than images of non-preferred-sex individuals and that this preferred-sex bias was particularly pronounced when more physically attractive faces were presented. These effects were not qualified by interactions involving either the sexual orientation or the sex of our participants, however, suggesting that the preferred-sex bias in the reward value of faces is similar in heterosexual men, homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women.

  20. Resources, attractiveness, family commitment; reproductive decisions in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczkei, T; Voros, S; Gal, A; Bernath, L

    1997-08-01

    This study of reproductive decisions in human mate selection used data from "lonely hearts" advertisements to examine a series of predictions based on the mate preferences of male and females relating to age; physical appearance; financial condition and socioeconomic status; family commitment and personal traits; short- and long-term mating; and marital status and preexisting children. The sample consisted of 1000 personal advertisements (500 male) placed in two daily, national papers between February and October 1994 in Hungary. The research procedure included a pilot study of 150 advertisers (75 male) to refine the categories examined. Analysis was performed using 1) a matrix with one axis referring to offers and the other to demands of males and females separately; 2) a matrix of offers only to derive correlated traits of claims by males and females; and 3) a matrix with columns describing sex, offers, demands, advertiser's age, and required age and a row for each of the 1000 samples. It was found that men preferred younger mates, while women preferred older ones. Men were more likely to seek physical attractiveness, while women were more likely to seek financial resources (ranked 7th) and high status (ranked 6th). Women strongly preferred male domestic virtue and family commitment, and twice as many women as men demanded long-term relationships. Women more frequently declared preexisting children, and men exhibited a reluctance to accept these children. Both males and females employed "trade-off" strategies, making greater demands if they felt they had attractive offers.

  1. Power and Attraction to the Counternormative Aspects of Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Joris; Maner, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that powerful people are more likely than those lacking power to engage in infidelity. One possible explanation holds (a) that power psychologically releases people from the inhibiting effects of social norms and thus increases their appetite for counternormative forms of sexuality. Two alternative explanations are (b) that power increases appetite for any form of sexuality, normative or counternormative, and (c) that power makes men (but not women) seem more attractive to others and thus increases their access to potential mating opportunities. The current research tested these explanations using correlational data from 610 Dutch men and women. Supporting the first explanation, power's relationship with infidelity was statistically mediated by increased attraction to the secrecy associated with infidelity. Inconsistent with the second explanation, power was linked with infidelity but not with casual sex among singles (a more normative form of sexuality). Inconsistent with the third explanation, the link between power and infidelity was observed just as strongly in women as in men. Findings suggest that power may be associated with infidelity because power draws people to the counternormative aspects of infidelity. Implications for theories of power, sexuality, and gender are discussed.

  2. Pup retrieval and maternal attraction to canine amniotic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, I; Ranson, E; Buehler, M

    1981-10-01

    Three purebred female beagles were observed with both their first and second litters. Dams were given three separate simultaneous-choice retrieval tests: In addition, the maternal response to amniotic fluids was observed when one pup in the litter was treated with amniotic fluids and all other pups were treated with water. There was no evidence to suggest that pups were retrieved preferentially on the basis of their sex. One female retrieved her own but not alien pups, whereas another female made no such discrimination and readily retrieved alien pups in addition to her own. Retrieval behavior developed at the time of each whelping and normally lasted until the pups were about 5 days old, although a bitch would retrieve younger (alien) pups up to 14 days post partum. Maternal bitches were strongly attracted towards amniotic fluids: they investigated pups daubed with amniotic fluids to a significantly greater extent than control pups treated with water. The attraction of maternal females towards amniotic fluids developed at the time of each whelping and persisted for up to 30 days, well beyond the time that a whelping bitch would normally be exposed to her own fetal fluids. A possible role for amniotic fluids in the development of maternal behaviour and the establishment of the maternal/puppy bond is discussed. Copyright © 1981. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Auditory Attraction: Activation of Visual Cortex by Music and Sound in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Kim, Chai-Youn; Eapen, Mariam; Gore, John C.; Blake, Randolph; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder with a distinctive phenotype, including cognitive-linguistic features, nonsocial anxiety, and a strong attraction to music. We performed functional MRI studies examining brain responses to musical and other types of auditory stimuli in young adults with Williams syndrome and typically…

  4. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sérandour

    Full Text Available Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, <0.5 nM uracil, 0.6 nM thymine, 2.8 nM uridine, 86 nM thymidine, much lower than those found for each compound tested individually. These results provide strong evidence that a mixture of polyols (glycerol, pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and nucleosides (uridine, thymidine functions as an efficient attractive signal in nature for Coquillettidia larvae. We therefore show for the first time, that such commonly found compounds may play an important role in plant-insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  5. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim; Amad, Maan H.; Al-Talla, Zeyad

    2012-01-01

    with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  6. Current state in adsorption from multicomponent solutions of nonelectrolytes on solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowko, M.; Jaroniec, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper surveys the research carried out on the adsorption from multicomponent liquid mixtures of nonelectrolytes on solids with emphasis on the work performed by the authors. The consistent theoretical treatment of adsorption from concentrated and dilute multicomponent solutions and its application to the liquid adsorption chromatography with the mixed mobile phase are presented. This treatment involved nonideality of the bulk and surface phases, energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface and it may be extended to multilayer adsorption from solutions. The multicomponent liquid/solid adsorption systems, studied experimentally, are reviewed. Many of them have been examined by means of the equations derived for liquid adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces. These studies are summarized in this paper. Moreover, the model studies illustrating the influence of solution nonideality and adsorbent heterogeneity on the excess adsorption isotherms and the distribution coefficient are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Medfly female attractant trapping studies in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeronimo, F.; Rendon, P.; Villatoro, C.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted from 1994 - 1998 to test the attractiveness of combinations of food-based chemicals for C. capitata (medfly) in Guatemala. Most studies were done in coffee. The 1995 studies, using the FA-2 attractants (ammonium acetate and putrescine) showed that this combination was attractive for females and had potential for use in conjunction with a SIT program. The 1996 studies at three elevations demonstrated that, in general, these attractants, when used in either the Open Bottom Dry Trap (OBDT), Closed Bottom Dry Trap (CBDT), or International Pheromone's McPhail Trap (IPMT) performed better than the Jumbo McPhail trap (JMT) baited with NuLure and borax (NU+B) for capture of feral females. At the high elevation (1400 m), the IPMT with FA-2 and OBDT with FA-2 were best; at the middle elevation (1100 m), the ORDT, IPMT, and CBDT with FA-2 were best; and at low elevations (659 m), the IPMT with FA-2, JMT with NU+B and ORDT with FA-2 were equal in performance. At the middle elevation, using sterile flies, the OBDT with FA-2 worked best. When experiments were carried out in pear, the traps using the FA-2 attractants captured more female flies than the JMT, NU+B, but not significantly more. During the 1997 trials, a third component, trimethylamine was added to the two component lure (FA-3). This attractant was tested in a number of locally produced traps using 2 I soft drink bottles with different color bottoms. The dry versions of the traps contained a yellow sticky insert. All study sites were at low elevation 600 - 650 m, in coffee, testing both sterile and feral flies. With the feral flies during the first phase of the study at finca San Carlos, there were no significant differences between treatments, at finca San Luis, the clear local trap with sticky insert and the green local trap with sticky insert were best, and at finca Valapraiso, the green local trap with yellow sticky insert and yellow local trap with sticky insert captured more flies

  8. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008).

  9. Sweet attraction: sugarcane pollen-associated volatiles attract gravid Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondwosen, Betelehem; Birgersson, Göran; Tekie, Habte; Torto, Baldwyn; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon R

    2018-02-21

    Anopheles arabiensis is a key vector for the transmission of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the past 10,000 years, humans have successfully cultivated grasses and altered the landscape, creating An. arabiensis favourable environments that contain excellent habitats for both larvae and adults. Sugarcane is the most expanding agricultural system in sub-Saharan Africa, and is linked to the increased threat of malaria in rural communities. The prolific production and wind dispersal of sugarcane pollen, together with standing pools of water, often provide, as a result of irrigation, a nutrient-rich environment for the offspring of gravid malaria mosquitoes. In the present study, sugarcane pollen-associated volatiles from two cultivars are shown to attract gravid An. arabiensis in a still air two-port olfactometer and stimulate egg laying in an oviposition bioassay. Through combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection, as well as combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analyses, we identified the bioactive volatiles and generated a synthetic blend that reproduced the full behavioural repertoire of gravid mosquitoes in the Y-tube assay. Two subtractive odour blends, when compared with the full blend, were significantly more attractive. These three and four-component subtractive blends share the compounds (1R)-(+)-α-pinene, nonanal and benzaldehyde, of which, (1R)-(+)-α-pinene and nonanal are found in the attractive odour blends from rice plants and maize pollen. In pairwise comparisons, the rice synthetic odour blend was more attractive to gravid mosquitoes than either of the pollen blends, whereas the pollen blends did not differ in attraction. The attraction of gravid females to sugarcane pollen volatiles demonstrated in this study, together with the previously found grass-associated volatiles, raise the potential of developing a bioactive chimeric blend to attract gravid malaria mosquitoes. This is discussed in relation to

  10. Enantiomer-specific analysis of multi-component mixtures by correlated electron imaging-ion mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafiee Fanood, M.M.; Ram, N.B.; Lehmann, C.S.; Powis, I.; Janssen, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous, enantiomer-specific identification of chiral molecules in multi-component mixtures is extremely challenging. Many established techniques for single-component analysis fail to provide selectivity in multi-component mixtures and lack sensitivity for dilute samples. Here we show how

  11. 40 CFR 59.506 - How do I demonstrate compliance if I manufacture multi-component kits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I demonstrate compliance if I manufacture multi-component kits? 59.506 Section 59.506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 59.506 How do I demonstrate compliance if I manufacture multi-component kits? (a) If you manufacture...

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the multi-component molecular orbital method: Application to H5O2+,D5O2+,andT5O2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Koyama, Michihisa

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Molecular dynamics method based on multi-component molecular orbital method was applied to basic hydrogen bonding systems, H 5 O 2 + , and its isotopomers (D 5 O 2 + andT 5 O 2 + ). Highlights: ► Molecular dynamics method with nuclear quantum effect was developed. ► Multi-component molecular orbital method was used as ab initio MO calculation. ► Developed method applied to basic hydrogen bonding system, H 5 O 2 + , and isotopomers. ► O ⋯ O vibrational stretching reflected to the distribution of protonic wavefunctions. ► H/D/T isotope effect was also analyzed. - Abstract: We propose a molecular dynamics (MD) method based on the multi-component molecular orbital (MC M O) method, which takes into account the quantum effect of proton directly, for the detailed analyses of proton transfer in hydrogen bonding system. The MC M O based MD (MC M O-MD) method is applied to the basic structures, H 5 O 2 + (called “Zundel ion”), and its isotopomers (D 5 O 2 + andT 5 O 2 + ). We clearly demonstrate the geometrical difference of hydrogen bonded O ⋯ O distance induced by H/D/T isotope effect because the O ⋯ O in H-compound was longer than that in D- or T-compound. We also find the strong relation between stretching vibration of O ⋯ O and the distribution of hydrogen bonded protonic wavefunction because the protonic wavefunction tends to delocalize when the O ⋯ O distance becomes short during the dynamics. Our proposed MC M O-MD simulation is expected as a powerful tool to analyze the proton dynamics in hydrogen bonding systems.

  13. Dramatization and attraction: new identification tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Panteleeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the analysis of identification mechanisms and its presentation patterns in the contemporary megapolis, the reasons for identification challenges emerging in the contemporary multicultural world where the contemporary urban community offers the opportunity for identity transformation, so that the citizens of metropolis are faced with the challenge of finding new identification tools. The notions of «dramatization» and «social attraction» offered in the article for the identity problem analysis in the context of diverse style and taste options of the contemporary urban community serve to form an estimate of the behaviour of an individual who keeps deciding on his own behavioral pattern.

  14. Quantum Szilard Engine with Attractively Interacting Bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, J.; Tengstrand, M. Nilsson; Wacker, A.; Samuelsson, P.; Ueda, M.; Linke, H.; Reimann, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    We show that a quantum Szilard engine containing many bosons with attractive interactions enhances the conversion between information and work. Using an ab initio approach to the full quantum-mechanical many-body problem, we find that the average work output increases significantly for a larger number of bosons. The highest overshoot occurs at a finite temperature, demonstrating how thermal and quantum effects conspire to enhance the conversion between information and work. The predicted effects occur over a broad range of interaction strengths and temperatures.

  15. How calcium makes endocytic receptors attractive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian B F; Moestrup, Søren K

    2014-01-01

    of the receptor. Endosomal acidification and calcium efflux lead to the essential ligand-receptor affinity switch and separation. Recent data, including crystal structures of receptor-ligand complexes, now reveal how calcium, in different types of domain scaffolds, functions in a common way as a removable...... 'lynchpin' that stabilizes favorable positioning of ligand-attractive receptor residues. In addition to explaining how calcium depletion can cause ligand-receptor dissociation, the new data add further insight into how acidification contributes to dissociation through structural changes that affect...... the receptor calcium sites....

  16. Common views of potentially attractive fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion is viewed through three windows to help determine what constitutes a very attractive fusion concept. These windows are economics, maintenance and reliability, and safety and environment. Achievement of many desired features cannot yet be quantified. Although these differing perspectives can lead to some conflicting desires, five common desired features are apparent - (a) minimum failure rates, (b) minimum failure effects, (c) minimum complexity, (d) minimum short-term radioactivity, and (e) maximum mass power density. Some innovative fusion concepts are briefly examined in the light of these commonalities

  17. Artificial reefs: “Attraction versus Production”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Barros Fagundes Netto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of fish is the most common reason for the construction and installation of an artificial reef. More recently, environmental concerns and conservation of biological resources have been instrumental to the formulation of new goals of the research. One of the issues to be resolved is the biological function of “attraction vs. production” as a result of the use of artificial reefs. The uncertainty as to the answer to the question whether the artificial reefs will or not benefit the development of fish stocks could be solved if the artificial reefs would be managed as marine protected areas.

  18. Recent advances in the chemistry of Rh carbenoids: multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, J J; Nikolaev, V A

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent reactions of diazo compounds catalyzed by Rh II complexes become a powerful tool for organic synthesis. They enable three- or four-step processes to be carried out as one-pot procedures (actually as one step) with high stereoselectivity to give complex organic molecules, including biologically active compounds. This review addresses recent results in the chemistry of Rh-catalyzed multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds with the intermediate formation of N-, O- and C=O–ylides. The diastereo- and enantioselectivity of these reactions and the possibility of using various co-catalysts to increase the efficiency of the processes under consideration are discussed. The bibliography includes 120 references

  19. Performance test of multicomponent quantum mechanical calculation with polarizable continuum model for proton chemical shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Yusuke; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2015-05-21

    Multicomponent quantum mechanical (MC_QM) calculations with polarizable continuum model (PCM) have been tested against liquid (1)H NMR chemical shifts for a test set of 80 molecules. Improvement from conventional quantum mechanical calculations was achieved for MC_QM calculations. The advantage of the multicomponent scheme could be attributed to the geometrical change from the equilibrium geometry by the incorporation of the hydrogen nuclear quantum effect, while that of PCM can be attributed to the change of the electronic structure according to the polarization by solvent effects.

  20. Fluctuation theory for transport properties in multicomponent mixtures: thermodiffusion and heat conductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The theory of transport properties in multicomponent gas and liquid mixtures, which was previously developed for diffusion coefficients, is extended onto thermodiffusion coefficients and heat conductivities. The derivation of the expressions for transport properties is based on the general statis...... of the heat conductivity coefficient for ideal gas. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......The theory of transport properties in multicomponent gas and liquid mixtures, which was previously developed for diffusion coefficients, is extended onto thermodiffusion coefficients and heat conductivities. The derivation of the expressions for transport properties is based on the general...

  1. Numerical simulations of multicomponent evaporation and gas-phase transport using M{sup 2}NOTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.K. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal simulator M{sup 2}NOTS was tested against several one-dimensional experiments. The experiments represented a through-flow limiting condition of soil venting in which air flows through the contaminated region. Predictions using M{sup 2}NOTS of changing in situ compositions and effluent concentrations for toluene and o-xylene mixtures were compared to the observed results. Results showed that M{sup 2}NOTS was able to capture the salient trends and features of multicomponent through-flow venting processes.

  2. Thermodiffusion in Multicomponent Mixtures Thermodynamic, Algebraic, and Neuro-Computing Models

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, Seshasai

    2013-01-01

    Thermodiffusion in Multicomponent Mixtures presents the computational approaches that are employed in the study of thermodiffusion in various types of mixtures, namely, hydrocarbons, polymers, water-alcohol, molten metals, and so forth. We present a detailed formalism of these methods that are based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics or algebraic correlations or principles of the artificial neural network. The book will serve as single complete reference to understand the theoretical derivations of thermodiffusion models and its application to different types of multi-component mixtures. An exhaustive discussion of these is used to give a complete perspective of the principles and the key factors that govern the thermodiffusion process.

  3. A self-consistent model for thermodynamics of multicomponent solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.

    2016-01-01

    The self-consistent concept recently published in this journal (108, 27–30, 2015) is extended from a binary to a multicomponent system. This is possible by exploiting the trapping concept as basis for including the interaction of atoms in terms of pairs (e.g. A–A, B–B, C–C…) and couples (e.g. A–B, B–C, …) in a multicomponent system with A as solvent and B, C, … as dilute solutes. The model results in a formulation of Gibbs-energy, which can be minimized. Examples show that the couple and pair formation may influence the equilibrium Gibbs energy markedly.

  4. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.

  5. Multicomponent transport in membranes for redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) incorporate separator membranes, which ideally prevent mixing of electrochemically active species while permitting crossover of inactive supporting ions. Understanding crossover and membrane selectivity may require multicomponent transport models that account for solute/solute interactions within the membrane, as well as solute/membrane interactions. Application of the Onsager-Stefan-Maxwell formalism allows one to account for all the dissipative phenomena that may accompany component fluxes through RFB membranes. The magnitudes of dissipative interactions (diffusional drag forces) are quantified by matching experimentally established concentration transients with theory. Such transients can be measured non-invasively using DC conductometry, but the accuracy of this method requires precise characterization of the bulk RFB electrolytes. Aqueous solutions containing both vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) are relevant to RFB technology. One of the first precise characterizations of aqueous vanadyl sulfate has been implemented and will be reported. To assess the viability of a separator for vanadium RFB applications with cell-level simulations, it is critical to understand the tendencies of various classes of membranes to absorb (uptake) active species, and to know the relative rates of active-species and supporting-electrolyte diffusion. It is also of practical interest to investigate the simultaneous diffusion of active species and supports, because interactions between solutes may ultimately affect the charge efficiency and power efficiency of the RFB system as a whole. A novel implementation of Barnes's classical model of dialysis-cell diffusion [Physics 5:1 (1934) 4-8] is developed to measure the binary diffusion coefficients and sorption equilibria for single solutes (VOSO4 or H2SO4) in porous membranes and cation-exchange membranes. With the binary diffusion and uptake measurement in hand, a computer simulation that

  6. EFFICACY OF MODIFIED MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEM “1C: ENTERPRISE” IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Modestov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automated accounting and controlling system “1C: Enterprise” is widely used in Russia for optimizing the system of controlling materials and technical resources. Medical organizations modify them in line with their primary activity objectives. For many years, the Scientific Center of Children’s Health has been successfully using a 1C-based medical information system including electronic patient records. An innovative product — an additional block for accounting equipment and supplies (E&S — was developed in 2014.Objective: Our aim was to conduct a sociological analysis of results of the first stage of modified multicomponent system “1C: Enterprise” implementation.Methods: The cross-sectional full-design study was conducted from October 2014 to June 2015. We used the analytical method, the opinion poll method and the expert method. We developed a special questionnaire for the purposes of the poll. We assessed opinions of clinic employees, departments and services indirectly or directly working with the system.Results: The study results demonstrate that multifunctional and adapted towards peculiarities of activities of the Scientific Center of Children’s Health system “1C: Enterprise” provides more efficient control over the use of drugs, expendables and other E&S in patient terms. It also allows simplifying and automatizing operation of the E&S accounting system by the employees and generating financial statements for a given period in terms of patient/department/clinic. At the same time, the poll revealed problematic technical, informational and motivational aspects. This is confirmed by the degree of involvement/personal interest of employees in the end result, as well as by the priorities of motivation for quality work.Conclusion: Analysis of attitude of accountable persons to the modification of accounting policy of the Scientific Center of Children’s Health served as the basis for developing measures of

  7. Crystallisation mechanism of a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurth, R. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Pascual, M.J., E-mail: mpascual@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Mather, G.C.; Pablos-Martin, A.; Munoz, F.; Duran, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Boite Postale 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ruessel, C. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A base glass of composition 3.5 Li{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.15 Na{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.2 K{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 1.15 MgO Bullet-Operator 0.8 BaO Bullet-Operator 1.5 ZnO Bullet-Operator 20 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Bullet-Operator 67.2 SiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 2.6 TiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.7 ZrO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.2 As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in wt.%), melted and provided by SCHOTT AG (Mainz), was used to study the crystallisation mechanism of lithium alumino-silicate glass employing X-ray diffraction combined with neutron diffraction and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A high-quartz solid solution of LiAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} with nanoscaled crystals forms at 750 Degree-Sign C. Quantitative Rietveld refinement of samples annealed at 750 Degree-Sign C for 8 h determined a crystallised fraction of around 59 wt.%. The room temperature crystallised phase adopts an ordered, {beta}-eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. The Avrami parameter (n {approx} 4), calculated from DSC data using different theoretical approaches, indicates that bulk crystallisation occurs and that the number of nuclei increases during annealing. The activation energy of the crystallisation is 531 {+-} 20 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscaled high-quartz crystals from a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined X-ray and neutron diffraction structural refinement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Dimensional bulk crystallisation mechanism with an increasing number of nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Usage and validation of an alternative approach to calculate the Avrami parameter.

  8. Physical attraction to reliable, low variability nervous systems: Reaction time variability predicts attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily E; Saville, Christopher W N; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The human face cues a range of important fitness information, which guides mate selection towards desirable others. Given humans' high investment in the central nervous system (CNS), cues to CNS function should be especially important in social selection. We tested if facial attractiveness preferences are sensitive to the reliability of human nervous system function. Several decades of research suggest an operational measure for CNS reliability is reaction time variability, which is measured by standard deviation of reaction times across trials. Across two experiments, we show that low reaction time variability is associated with facial attractiveness. Moreover, variability in performance made a unique contribution to attractiveness judgements above and beyond both physical health and sex-typicality judgements, which have previously been associated with perceptions of attractiveness. In a third experiment, we empirically estimated the distribution of attractiveness preferences expected by chance and show that the size and direction of our results in Experiments 1 and 2 are statistically unlikely without reference to reaction time variability. We conclude that an operating characteristic of the human nervous system, reliability of information processing, is signalled to others through facial appearance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonperturbative approach to the attractive Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2001-01-01

    A nonperturbative approach to the single-band attractive Hubbard model is presented in the general context of functional-derivative approaches to many-body theories. As in previous work on the repulsive model, the first step is based on a local-field-type ansatz, on enforcement of the Pauli principle and a number of crucial sumrules. The Mermin-Wagner theorem in two dimensions is automatically satisfied. At this level, two-particle self-consistency has been achieved. In the second step of the approximation, an improved expression for the self-energy is obtained by using the results of the first step in an exact expression for the self-energy, where the high- and low-frequency behaviors appear separately. The result is a cooperon-like formula. The required vertex corrections are included in this self-energy expression, as required by the absence of a Migdal theorem for this problem. Other approaches to the attractive Hubbard model are critically compared. Physical consequences of the present approach and agreement with Monte Carlo simulations are demonstrated in the accompanying paper (following this one)

  10. Attracting Interest: Dynamic Displays of Proceptivity Increase the Attractiveness of Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Clark

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Proceptive signals may influence judgments of opposite-sex attractiveness because these signals indicate high mate quality and/or non-threatening behavior but they may also signal high probable rate of return for mating effort. If so, individuals observing these signals may be sensitive to where the signals are directed to; signals directed toward other individuals may not predict what signals would be directed toward the observer. To explore these possibilities I made use of video stimuli composed of mock interviews with actors. Each actor did one proceptive and one unreceptive interview. Each interview was presented as being directed toward participants or toward an opposite sex interviewer. Proceptivity enhanced the attractiveness of opposite-sex actors and an interaction between proceptive state and signal direction was found, with this pattern varying substantially between actors. The possibility that this variation is mediated by the physical attractiveness and sex of the actors will be discussed.

  11. The Effect of Target Sex, Sexual Dimorphism, and Facial Attractiveness on Perceptions of Target Attractiveness and Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyan Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial sexual dimorphism has widely demonstrated as having an influence on the facial attractiveness and social interactions. However, earlier studies show inconsistent results on the effect of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness judgments. Previous studies suggest that the level of attractiveness might work as a moderating variable among the relationship between sexual dimorphism and facial preference and have often focused on the effect of sexual dimorphism on general attractiveness ratings, rather than concentrating on trustworthiness perception. Male and female participants viewed target male and female faces that varied on attractiveness (more attractive or less attractive and sexual dimorphism (masculine or feminine. Participants rated the attractiveness of the faces and reported how much money they would give to the target person as a measure of trust. For the facial attractiveness ratings, (a both men and women participants preferred masculine male faces to feminine male ones under the more attractive condition, whereas preferred feminine male faces to masculine male ones under the less attractive condition; (b all participants preferred feminine female faces to masculine female ones under the less attractive condition, while there were no differences between feminine female faces and masculine female faces under the more attractive condition. For the target trustworthiness perception, (a participants showed no preference between masculine male faces and feminine male faces, neither under the more attractive condition nor the less attractiveness condition; (b however, all the participants preferred masculine female faces over feminine female faces under the more attractive condition, exhibiting no preference between feminine female faces and masculine female faces under the less attractive condition. These findings suggest that the attractiveness of facial stimulus may be a reason to interpret the inconsistent results from the

  12. Hospital-physician relations: the relative importance of economic, relational and professional attributes to organizational attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Methods Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. Results The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. Conclusions This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians’ positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians. PMID:24884491

  13. Hospital-physician relations: the relative importance of economic, relational and professional attributes to organizational attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; Annemans, Lieven

    2014-05-21

    Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians' positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians.

  14. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie S Torrance

    Full Text Available Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions. For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  15. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Jaimie S; Wincenciak, Joanna; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions) or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions). For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  16. Factors relating to the attraction of talented early career academics in South African higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorcas L. Lesenyeho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South African higher education institutions (HEIs are facing significant challenges in attracting talents to academic positions. Research purpose: The main objective of this research was to determine factors that will attract early career academics to South African HEIs. Motivation for the study: Currently there exists limited research on factors that attract early career academics to HEIs as preferred employers. Research approach, design and method: A qualitative approach was adopted for this study; semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain data. The study participants comprised of 23 academic staff members from various merged South African HEIs. Main findings: The findings show that nine themes are related to the attraction of early career academics to HEIs: career development and advancement, opportunities to make a contribution, employer branding and prestige, job security, flexible working hours (work–life balance, intellectual stimulation, innovation, opportunity to apply skills and autonomy. Practical/managerial implications: The results also challenge HEIs to develop a superior employer brand with a strong employee value proposition (EVP that would attract, develop and reward early career academics for their work efforts. Contribution/value-add: The study provides important practical guidelines that could assist HEIs to attract talented early career academics and become an employer of choice.

  17. Understanding attractiveness in business relationships - A complete literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of attraction has received surprisingly little attention within business relationship research. Yet, recently, more and more authors have argued that attraction may contribute to the motivation and willingness of a buyer and supplier to engage in and develop a business relationship...... or resolve a particular construct: 1) attraction in the development of buyer-supplier relationships, 2) customer attractiveness to suppliers, and 3) attractiveness in portfolio and key account management. This literature review contributes to the understanding of how knowledge of the power of attraction...

  18. From supramolecular polymers to multi-component biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, O.J.G.M.; Hendrikse, S.I.S.; Dankers, P.Y.W.; Meijer, E.W.

    2017-01-01

    The most striking and general property of the biological fibrous architectures in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the strong and directional interaction between biologically active protein subunits. These fibers display rich dynamic behavior without losing their architectural integrity. The

  19. Visual attractiveness is leaky: The asymmetrical relationship between face and hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro eSaegusa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Predicting personality is crucial when communicating with people. It has been revealed that the perceived attractiveness or beauty of the face is a cue. As shown in the well-known what is beautiful is good stereotype, perceived attractiveness is often associated with desirable personality. Although such research on attractiveness used mainly the face isolated from other body parts, the face is not always seen in isolation in the real world. Rather, it is surrounded by one’s hairstyle, and is perceived as a part of total presence. In human vision, perceptual organization/integration occurs mostly in a bottom up, task-irrelevant fashion. This raises an intriguing possibility that task-irrelevant stimulus that is perceptually integrated with a target may influence our affective evaluation. In such a case, there should be a mutual influence between attractiveness perception of the face and surrounding hair, since they are assumed to share strong and unique perceptual organization. In the current study, we examined the influence of a task-irrelevant stimulus on our attractiveness evaluation, using face and hair as stimuli. The results revealed asymmetrical influences in the evaluation of one while ignoring the other. When hair was task-irrelevant, it still affected attractiveness of the face, but only if the hair itself had never been evaluated by the same evaluator. On the other hand, the face affected the hair regardless of whether the face itself was evaluated before. This has intriguing implications on the asymmetry between face and hair, and perceptual integration between them in general. Together with data from a post-hoc questionnaire, it is suggested that both implicit non-selective and explicit selective processes contribute to attractiveness evaluation. The findings provide an understanding of attractiveness perception in real-life situations, as well as a new paradigm to reveal unknown implicit aspects of information integration for

  20. Basins of Attraction for Generative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglash, Ron; Garvey, Colin

    It has long been known that dynamic systems typically tend towards some state - an "attractor" - into which they finally settle. The introduction of chaos theory has modified our understanding of these attractors: we no longer think of the final "resting state" as necessarily being at rest. In this essay we consider the attractors of social ecologies: the networks of people, technologies and natural resources that makeup our built environments. Following the work of "communitarians" we posit that basins of attraction could be created for social ecologies that foster both environmental sustainability and social justice. We refer to this confluence as "generative justice"; a phrase which references both the "bottom-up", self-generating source of its adaptive meta stability, as well as its grounding in the ethics of egalitarian political theory.

  1. Renewable energy - an attractive marketing proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    The Global Utilities arm of international business consultants PriceWaterhouseCoopers (PWC) has provided a unique insight into the investment plans of Australian utilities regarding renewable energy. PWC has released the findings of a survey of electricity generators and retailers that neatly illustrates the risks and opportunities facing corporations liable under the mandatory renewable energy targets (MRET). Probably the most revealing finding of the PWC report- 'The Future of Australian Renewable Energy' was that the majority of respondents have not yet formulated a comprehensive renewable energy strategy aimed at meeting their obligations under MRET, or maximising the benefit of renewable energy certificates (RECs) produced. Notably, the majority of those surveyed believed that the strongest incentives for investing in new renewable energy generation was the company's 'green image'. In contrast investment characteristics such as low risk returns, the achievement of cost efficiencies or attractive revenue streams were not critical reasons for investing in renewable generation

  2. PROMOTING AND ATTRACTING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CHIRILA DONCIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available FDI is an important element of the economic development of any country and its functioning on market principles. They have a great importance for strengthening the economy of countries in transition and their integration into the world’s economy. The modernization of national economies occurs with FDI help, by implementing advanced technologies, know-how sites, the most powerful equipment and the new quality standards by switching to a higher type of growth. The purpose of this research is to identify of the policies to attract and promote FDI, adopted by host countries for foreign investors and are highlighted beneficial aspects of foreign investments flows on recipient economies. The research results show that policies aimed at ensuring access to foreign markets, those that are considering providing commercial facilities and last, but not least, policies focused on tax incentives are very important for foreign investors.

  3. Are flying wildlife attracted to (or do they avoid) wind turbines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, Ronald [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Board of Trustees

    2010-03-31

    A DOE-sponsored research project found strong evidence that flying wildlife avoid or are attracted to commercial-scale wind turbines from a distance. Some nocturnally migrating birds avoid flying near turbines and few or none change flight paths to approach them. High-flying bats less often avoid flying near turbines and some are attracted to them from a distance, although bats’ flight paths were often complex and convoluted. The findings are being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed scientific journal (Larkin, in prep 2013).

  4. Radiation degradation of waste waters. Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography and multicomponent UV-VIS analysis of gamma-irradiated aqueous solutions of nitrobenzene Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.; Sahoo, M.K.; Locaj, J.; Hutta, M.

    1994-01-01

    Saturated aqueous solutions of nitrobenzene (in water, 0.1M nitric acid and 0.1M potassium hydroxide) were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays in deaerated condition. Radiolytic products were analyzed using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and multicomponent UV-VIS spectrometry. With the aid of RP-HPLC retention times of the radiolytic products were found to be identical with those of isomeric nitrophenols, aminophenols and dinitrophenols. According to the primary information obtained from RP-HPLC and literature, we have chosen ten standards and eleven wavelengths for multicomponent UV-VIS analysis (linear multiparametric regression analysis) and the concentrations of nitrobenzene, nitrophenols, aminophenols and dinitrophenols in water, HNO 3 and KOH solutions were calculated. G-values (molecules/100 eV) of the radiolytic products and decomposition of nitrobenzene in aqueous solutions G(-nitrobenzene) were calculated from the dependence of their concentrations with dose. Ph has relatively little influence on the decrease of concentration of nitrobenzene, but has strong influence on the product composition. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  5. A review of multi-component maintenance models with economic dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); R.E. Wildeman (Ralph); F.A. van der Duyn Schouten (Frank)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we review the literature on multi-component maintenance models with economic dependence. The emphasis is on papers that appeared after 1991, but there is an overlap with Section 2 of the most recent review paper by Cho and Parlar (1991). We distinguish between stationary

  6. [Exploration of one-step preparation of Ganoderma lucidum multicomponent microemulsion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun-Jie; Chen, Yan; Du, Meng; Cao, Wei; Yuan, Ling; Zheng, Li-Yan

    2013-03-01

    To explore one-step method for the preparation of Ganoderma lucidum multicomponent microemulsion, according to the dissolution characteristics of triterpenes and polysaccharides in Ganoderma lucidum, formulation of the microemulsion was optimized. The optimal blank microemulsion was used as a solvent to sonicate the Ganoderma lucidum powder to prepare the multicomponent microemulsion, besides, its physicochemical properties were compared with the microemulsion made by conventional method. The results showed that the multicomponent microemulsion was characterized as (43.32 +/- 6.82) nm in size, 0.173 +/- 0.025 in polydispersity index (PDI) and -(3.98 +/- 0.82) mV in zeta potential. The contents of Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes and polysaccharides were (5.95 +/- 0.32) and (7.58 +/- 0.44) mg x mL(-1), respectively. Sonicating Ganoderma lucidum powder by blank microemulsion could prepare the multicomponent microemulsion. Compared with the conventional method, this method is simple and low cost, which is suitable for industrial production.

  7. Nernst-Planck modeling of multicomponent ion transport in a Nafion membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshtari Khah, S.; Oppers, N.A.W.; de Groot, M.T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Schouten, J.C.; van der Schaaf, J.

    A mathematical model of multicomponent ion transport through a cation-exchange membrane is developed based on the Nernst–Planck equation. A correlation for the non-linear potential gradient is derived from current density relation with fluxes. The boundary conditions are determined with the Donnan

  8. Composition tailoring in the Ce-doped multicomponent garnet epitaxial film scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, Petr; Kučera, M.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Onderišinová, Z.; Hanuš, M.; Babin, Vladimir; Beitlerová, Alena; Nikl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2015), s. 3715-3723 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillation * liquid phase epitaxy * photoelectron yield * Ce 3+ * multicomponent garnet Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.425, year: 2015

  9. A method for the study of surface segregation in multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargano, Pablo; Mosca, Hugo; Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    A simple algorithm for the determination of segregation profiles in multicomponent systems based on a mean field formalism and a quantum approximate method for the energetics is introduced. The method is described and applied to two ternary systems, concentrating on the changes in segregation patterns relative to the corresponding binary cases.

  10. Physical principles of the multicomponent media' separation at thermoheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuferov, V.B.; Katrechko, V.V.; Sharyj, S.V.; Svichkar, A.S.; Tkacheva, T.I.; Mufel', E.V.; Il'icheva, V.O.; Khizhnyak, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent composition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in view of the physicochemical properties of the elements and their oxides is considered. The possibility of fission product removing from SNF at the stage of thermal heating is analyzed. The values of the diffusion coefficients and activation energies of some elements for SNF diffusion parameters estimation are presented

  11. The constitutive distributed parameter model of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the literature of distributed parameter modelling of real processes is not considered the class of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The aim of paper is constitutive distributed parameter physicochemical model, constructed on kinetics and phenomenal analysis of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The mass, energy and momentum aspects of these multicomponent chemical reactions and adequate phenomena are utilized in balance operations, by conditions of: constitutive invariance for continuous media with space and time memories, reciprocity principle for isotropic and anisotropic nonhomogeneous media with space and time memories, application of definitions of following derivative and equation of continuity, to the construction of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations, in the following derivative forms for gas, fluid and solid phase. Couched in this way all physicochemical conditions of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase are new form of constitutive distributed parameter model for automatics and its systems of equations are new form of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations in sense of phenomenal distributed parameter control

  12. Development of responder criteria for multicomponent non-pharmacological treatment in fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, V.M.; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is a need to identify individual treatment success in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) who received non-pharmacological treatment. The present study described responder criteria for multicomponent non-pharmacological treatment in FM, and estimated and compared their sensitivity and

  13. On Studying Common Factor Dominance and Approximate Unidimensionality in Multicomponent Measuring Instruments with Discrete Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2018-01-01

    This article outlines a procedure for examining the degree to which a common factor may be dominating additional factors in a multicomponent measuring instrument consisting of binary items. The procedure rests on an application of the latent variable modeling methodology and accounts for the discrete nature of the manifest indicators. The method…

  14. Effects of mobile vacancies on the dynamics of ordering and phase separation in nonconserved multicomponent systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of mobile vacancies on the dynamics of ordering processes and phase separation in multicomponent systems are studied via Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional seven-state ferromagnetic Potts model with varying degrees of site dilution. The model displays phase equilibria...

  15. An Integrative Review of Multicomponent Weight Management Interventions for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alison J.; Jones, Stephanie P.; Chauhan, Umesh; Gibson, Josephine M. E.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is more prevalent in people with intellectual disabilities and increases the risk of developing serious medical conditions. UK guidance recommends multicomponent weight management interventions (MCIs), tailored for different population groups. Methods: An integrative review utilizing systematic review methodology was conducted…

  16. OPERATING OF MOBILE MACHINE UNITS SYSTEM USING THE MODEL OF MULTICOMPONENT COMPLEX MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lebedev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  17. Operating of mobile machine units system using the model of multicomponent complex movement

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lebedev; R. Kaidalov; N. Artiomov; M. Shulyak; M. Podrigalo; D. Abramov; D. Klets

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite) movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  18. Two hierarchies of multi-component Kaup-Newell equations and theirs integrable couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fubo; Ji Jie; Zhang Jianbin

    2008-01-01

    Two hierarchies of multi-component Kaup-Newell equations are derived from an arbitrary order matrix spectral problem, including positive non-isospectral Kaup-Newell hierarchy and negative non-isospectral Kaup-Newell hierarchy. Moreover, new integrable couplings of the resulting Kaup-Newell soliton hierarchies are constructed by enlarging the associated matrix spectral problem

  19. A Novel Model for Multicomponent Supercritical Fluid Extraction and its Application to Ruta graveolens.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Stateva, R.P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, Part 1 (2017), s. 102-112 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06049 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * multicomponent equilibrium * kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  20. Effective Monte Carlo scheme for multicomponent gas adsorption and enantioselectivity in nanoporous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, T.S.; Dubbeldam, D.; Caremans, T.P.; Calero, S.; Martens, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    We devise an efficient Monte Carlo scheme to study the adsorption of a multicomponent gas in a nanoporous material. The configurational bias move is extended by a novel replica exchange procedure where the configurations of the different simulations describing one particular gas content are being

  1. Evaluation of a Multicomponent Intervention for Diurnal Bruxism in a Young Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Emily L.; Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.; Nollet, Megan D.

    2009-01-01

    Bruxism, forceful grinding of one's teeth together, can produce destructive outcomes such as wear on the teeth and damaged gums and bone structures. The current study implemented a multicomponent intervention that consisted of vocal and physical cues to decrease rates of bruxism. A partial component analysis suggested that the vocal cue was only…

  2. Using Data to Individualize a Multicomponent, Technology-Based Self-Monitoring Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Vogelgesang, Kari; Fernando, Josephine; Lugo, Wilbeth

    2016-01-01

    Technology in schools is abundant as is the call for evidence-based interventions for students who need additional support to be successful. One promising use of technology is for self-monitoring interventions aimed at improving classroom behavior. In this study, two middle school students with disabilities used a multicomponent, self-monitoring…

  3. Effects of a multicomponent exercise on dual-task performance and executive function among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Yau Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Previous studies showed that multicomponent exercise enhanced physical and cognitive functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a multicomponent exercise on dual-task performance and executive function and to demonstrate the relationship between improvement in dual-task performance and enhancement in executive function among the elderly. Methods: A total of 27 people completed the intervention, with 16 in the experimental group and 11 in the control group. The 12-week multicomponent exercise lasted 1 h per day and 3 days per week. Participants' gait performance was assessed in dual-task conditions and executive function was examined at both pre- and post-intervention. Results: Results showed significant interaction effects of time x group on all selected gait parameters in both dual-task conditions and the Executive Interview. Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed greater improvements in most measures following intervention. Improved dual-task performance was correlated with enhanced executive function (r = 0.46–0.75. Conclusion: Our results suggested that a multicomponent exercise positively affects dual-task performance and executive function in the elderly. Keywords: Dual-task, Executive function, Exercise, Gait, Older adults

  4. Composition Dependence of Water Permeation Across Multicomponent Gel-Phase Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, R.M.; Moore, Timothy C.; Iacovella, Christopher R.; Thompson, Michael A.; Bulsara, Pallav A.; Moore, David J.; McCabe, Clare

    2018-01-01

    The permeability of multicomponent phospholipid bilayers in the gel phase is investigated via molecular dynamics simulation. The physical role of the different molecules is probed by comparing multiple mixed-component bilayers containing distearylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) with varying amounts of

  5. Multicomponent Program to Reduce Functional Decline in Frail Elderly People : A Cluster Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruikes, Franca G. H.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Akkermans, Reinier P.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; Schers, Henk J.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increasing number of community-dwelling frail elderly people poses a challenge to general practice. We evaluated the effectiveness of a general practitioner-led extensive, multicomponent program integrating cure, care, and welfare for the prevention of functional decline. Methods: We

  6. Multicomponent Program to Reduce Functional Decline in Frail Elderly People: A Cluster Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruikes, F.G.; Zuidema, S.U.; Akkermans, R.P.; Assendelft, W.J.; Schers, H.J.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing number of community-dwelling frail elderly people poses a challenge to general practice. We evaluated the effectiveness of a general practitioner-led extensive, multicomponent program integrating cure, care, and welfare for the prevention of functional decline. METHODS: We

  7. A dynamic predictive maintenance policy for complex multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Horenbeek, Adriaan; Pintelon, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    The use of prognostic methods in maintenance in order to predict remaining useful life is receiving more attention over the past years. The use of these techniques in maintenance decision making and optimization in multi-component systems is however a still underexplored area. The objective of this paper is to optimally plan maintenance for a multi-component system based on prognostic/predictive information while considering different component dependencies (i.e. economic, structural and stochastic dependence). Consequently, this paper presents a dynamic predictive maintenance policy for multi-component systems that minimizes the long-term mean maintenance cost per unit time. The proposed maintenance policy is a dynamic method as the maintenance schedule is updated when new information on the degradation and remaining useful life of components becomes available. The performance, regarding the objective of minimal long-term mean cost per unit time, of the developed dynamic predictive maintenance policy is compared to five other conventional maintenance policies, these are: block-based maintenance, age-based maintenance, age-based maintenance with grouping, inspection condition-based maintenance and continuous condition-based maintenance. The ability of the predictive maintenance policy to react to changing component deterioration and dependencies within a multi-component system is quantified and the results show significant cost savings

  8. A new and efficient multicomponent solid-phase synthesis of 2-acylaminomethylthiazoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkel, Bernd; Sax, Michael; Dömling, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    A new multicomponent reaction (MCR) for the preparation of 2-substituted thiazole libraries using Rink amide resin is described. Thiazoles are assembled in a one-pot MCR of a thiocarboxylic acid, aldehyde, 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)-2-isocyanoacrylate with a resin-bound primary amine. Aliphatic and

  9. P-Link: A method for generating multicomponent cytochrome P450 fusions with variable linker length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsare, Ketaki D.; Ruff, Anna Joelle; Martinez, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Fusion protein construction is a widely employed biochemical technique, especially when it comes to multi-component enzymes such as cytochrome P450s. Here we describe a novel method for generating fusion proteins with variable linker lengths, protein fusion with variable linker insertion (P...

  10. Triaxial Compression Testing of Multicomponent Geomaterials from Quartz-Poor (Syenitic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krmíček Lukáš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on mafic microgranular enclaves enclosed in quartz-poor igneous rocks and their effect on strength properties of the rock massif. The study examines host rock–enclave multicomponent geomaterials from enclave-bearing syenitic rocks from the Třebíč Massif exposed in the Královec quarry near Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou in the Czech Republic. A series of laboratory tests were performed to describe strength properties of individual constituents of the multicomponent geomaterials. We mainly focused on triaxial compression tests, however, rebound hardness, uniaxial compressive strength and indirect tensile strength were determined as well. The obtained results indicate that enclaves and even the contact zones between the enclaves and host rocks do not have any negative influence on the rock strength. In contrast, enclaves represent “stress concentrators” within such multicomponent systems. Strength properties of various multicomponent geomaterials are practically an unexplored topic in the field of rocks mechanics and future studies are needed to establish a robust database describing the behaviour of such geocomposites.

  11. Compression ignition of light naphtha and its multicomponent surrogate under partially premixed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Y.; Dawood, A.; Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Somers, B.; Chang, J.; Sarathy, M.; Johansson, B.

    2017-01-01

    Light naphtha is the light distillate from crude oil and can be used in compression ignition (CI) engines; its low boiling point and octane rating (RON = 64.5) enable adequate premixing. This study investigates the combustion characteristics of light naphtha (LN) and its multicomponent surrogate

  12. Lattice Boltzmann based multicomponent reactive transport model coupled with geochemical solver for scale simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, R.A.; Perko, J.; Jaques, D.; De Schutter, G.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.

    2013-01-01

    A Lattice Boltzmann (LB) based reactive transport model intended to capture reactions and solid phase changes occurring at the pore scale is presented. The proposed approach uses LB method to compute multi component mass transport. The LB multi-component transport model is then coupled with the

  13. Supramolecular Layer-by-Layer Assembly of 3D Multicomponent Nanostructures via Multivalent Molecular Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, X.Y.; Phang, In Yee; Reinhoudt, David; Vancso, Gyula J.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    The supramolecular layer-by-layer assembly of 3D multicomponent nanostructures of nanoparticles is demonstrated. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) was used as the patterning tool for making patterned β-cyclodextrin (CD) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and for the confinement of nanoparticles on the

  14. Roles of the State Asthma Program in Implementing Multicomponent, School-Based Asthma Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Laura L.; Wilce, Maureen A.; Gill, Sarah A.; Disler, Sheri L.; Collins, Pamela; Crawford, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a leading chronic childhood disease in the United States and a major contributor to school absenteeism. Evidence suggests that multicomponent, school-based asthma interventions are a strategic way to address asthma among school-aged children. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourages the 36 health…

  15. Equivalence of Brownian dynamics and dynamic Monte Carlo simulations in multicomponent colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, Alejandro; Patti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    We propose a simple but powerful theoretical framework to quantitatively compare Brownian dynamics (BD) and dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) simulations of multicomponent colloidal suspensions. By extending our previous study focusing on monodisperse systems of rodlike colloids, here we generalize the formalism described there to multicomponent colloidal mixtures and validate it by investigating the dynamics in isotropic and liquid crystalline phases containing spherical and rodlike particles. In order to investigate the dynamics of multicomponent colloidal systems by DMC simulations, it is key to determine the elementary time step of each species and establish a unique timescale. This is crucial to consistently study the dynamics of colloidal particles with different geometry. By analyzing the mean-square displacement, the orientation autocorrelation functions, and the self part of the van Hove correlation functions, we show that DMC simulation is a very convenient and reliable technique to describe the stochastic dynamics of any multicomponent colloidal system. Our theoretical formalism can be easily extended to any colloidal system containing size and/or shape polydisperse particles.

  16. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances: A proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, W Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    2016-04-01

    The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (Lava Chairside Oral Scanner C.O.S., 3M). A digital impression was used to design 2 multicomponent orthodontic appliances. Biocompatible acrylic baseplates were produced with the aid of a 3D printer. The metal springs and clasps were produced by a bending robot. The fit of the 2 appliances was assessed by 2 experienced orthodontists. The authors assessed both orthodontic appliances with the volunteer's dentition and found the fit to be excellent. Clinicians can fully produce a multicomponent dental appliance consisting of both an acrylic baseplate and other parts, such as clasps, springs, or screws, using a digital workflow process without the need for a physical model of the patient's dentition. Plaster models can be superfluous for orthodontic treatment as digital models can be used in all phases of a full digital workflow in orthodontics. The arduous task of making a multicomponent dental appliance that involves bending wires can possibly be replaced by a computer, design software, a 3D printer, and a bending robot. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    Background. The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. Methods. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner

  18. Infants' Differential Social Responses to Attractive and Unattractive Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Two studies examined social responses to attractive and unattractive faces on the part of 123 infants of 12 months. Results suggest that visual and behavioral preferences for attractiveness are exhibited much earlier in life than was previously thought. (RH)

  19. Role of Physical Attractiveness in Peer Attribution of Psychological Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The physical attractiveness stereotype was examined as it pertains to the attribution of psychological disturbance among peers. Consistent with the stereotype, attractive interviewees were judged as less disturbed with better prognosis than unattractive interviewees. (Author)

  20. I find you more attractive … after (prefrontal cortex) stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, C.; Lega, C.; Tamietto, M.; Nadal, M.; Cattaneo, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Facial attractiveness seems to be perceived immediately. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the appraisal of facial attractiveness is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical regions, mainly encompassing the reward circuit, but also including prefrontal cortices. The prefrontal cortex is