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Sample records for multicomponent assembly pathway

  1. Inverse design of multicomponent assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, William D.; Lindquist, Beth A.; Jadrich, Ryan B.; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2018-03-01

    Inverse design can be a useful strategy for discovering interactions that drive particles to spontaneously self-assemble into a desired structure. Here, we extend an inverse design methodology—relative entropy optimization—to determine isotropic interactions that promote assembly of targeted multicomponent phases, and we apply this extension to design interactions for a variety of binary crystals ranging from compact triangular and square architectures to highly open structures with dodecagonal and octadecagonal motifs. We compare the resulting optimized (self- and cross) interactions for the binary assemblies to those obtained from optimization of analogous single-component systems. This comparison reveals that self-interactions act as a "primer" to position particles at approximately correct coordination shell distances, while cross interactions act as the "binder" that refines and locks the system into the desired configuration. For simpler binary targets, it is possible to successfully design self-assembling systems while restricting one of these interaction types to be a hard-core-like potential. However, optimization of both self- and cross interaction types appears necessary to design for assembly of more complex or open structures.

  2. Dynamic Multi-Component Hemiaminal Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lei; Long, S. Reid; Lynch, Vincent M.

    2012-01-01

    A simple approach to generating in situ metal templated tris-(2-picolyl)amine-like multi-component assemblies with potential applications in molecular recognition and sensing is reported. The assembly is based on the reversible covalent association between di-(2-picolyl)amine and aldehydes. Zinc ion is the best for inducing assembly among the metal salts investigated, while 2-picolinaldehyde is the best among the heterocyclic aldehydes studied. Although an equilibrium constant of 6.6 * 103 M-1 was measured for the assembly formed by 2-picolinaldehdye, di-(2-picolyl)amine, and zinc triflate, the equilibrium constants for other systems are in the 102 M-1 range. X-ray structural analysis revealed that zinc adopts a trigonal bipyramidal geometry within the assembled ligand. The diversity and equilibrium of the assemblies are readily altered by simply changing concentrations, varying components, or adding counter anions. PMID:21919095

  3. Complex precipitation pathways in multicomponent alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouet, Emmanuel; Nastar, Maylise [Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lae, Ludovic; Deschamps, Alexis [LTPCM/ENSEEG, UMR CNRS 5614, Domaine Universitaire, BP 75, 38402 St Martin d' Heres (France); Epicier, Thierry [Groupe d' Etudes de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5510, INSA, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Lefebvre, Williams [Groupe de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Universite de Rouen, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2006-07-01

    One usual way to strengthen a metal is to add alloying elements and to control the size and the density of the precipitates obtained. However, precipitation in multicomponent alloys can take complex pathways depending on the relative diffusivity of solute atoms and on the relative driving forces involved. In Al - Zr - Sc alloys, atomic simulations based on first-principle calculations combined with various complementary experimental approaches working at different scales reveal a strongly inhomogeneous structure of the precipitates: owing to the much faster diffusivity of Sc compared with Zr in the solid solution, and to the absence of Zr and Sc diffusion inside the precipitates, the precipitate core is mostly Sc-rich, whereas the external shell is Zr-rich. This explains previous observations of an enhanced nucleation rate in Al - Zr - Sc alloys compared with binary Al - Sc alloys, along with much higher resistance to Ostwald ripening, two features of the utmost importance in the field of light high-strength materials. (authors)

  4. Micro-/nanostructured multicomponent molecular materials: design, assembly, and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongpeng

    2015-03-23

    Molecule-based micro-/nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention because their properties can vary greatly from the corresponding macro-sized bulk systems. Recently, the construction of multicomponent molecular solids based on crystal engineering principles has emerged as a promising alternative way to develop micro-/nanomaterials. Unlike single-component materials, the resulting multicomponent systems offer the advantages of tunable composition, and adjustable molecular arrangement, and intermolecular interactions within their solid states. The study of these materials also supplies insight into how the crystal structure, molecular components, and micro-/nanoscale effects can influence the performance of molecular materials. In this review, we describe recent advances and current directions in the assembly and applications of crystalline multicomponent micro-/nanostructures. Firstly, the design strategies for multicomponent systems based on molecular recognition and crystal engineering principles are introduced. Attention is then focused on the methods of fabrication of low-dimensional multicomponent micro-/nanostructures. Their new applications are also outlined. Finally, we briefly discuss perspectives for the further development of these molecular crystalline micro-/nanomaterials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hierarchical silica particles by dynamic multicomponent assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Z. W.; Hu, Q. Y.; Pang, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Aerosol-assisted assembly of mesoporous silica particles with hierarchically controllable pore structure has been prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO, H[OCH(CH3)CH2],OH) as co-templates. Addition of the hydrophobic PPO significantly...... influences the delicate hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance in the well-studied CTAB-silicate co-assembling system, resulting in various mesostructures (such as hexagonal, lamellar, and hierarchical structure). The co-assembly of CTAB, silicate clusters, and a low-molecular-weight PPO (average M-n 425) results...... in a uniform lamellar structure, while the use of a high-molecular-weight PPO (average M-n 2000), which is more hydrophobic, leads to the formation of hierarchical pore structure that contains meso-meso or meso-macro pore structure. The role of PPO additives on the mesostructure evolution in the CTAB...

  6. Directing folding pathways for multi-component DNA origami nanostructures with complex topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marras, A E; Zhou, L; Su, H-J; Castro, C E; Kolliopoulos, V

    2016-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly has become a well-established technique to design complex nanostructures and hierarchical mesoscale assemblies. The typical approach is to design binding complementarity into nucleotide or amino acid sequences to achieve the desired final geometry. However, with an increasing interest in dynamic nanodevices, the need to design structures with motion has necessitated the development of multi-component structures. While this has been achieved through hierarchical assembly of similar structural units, here we focus on the assembly of topologically complex structures, specifically with concentric components, where post-folding assembly is not feasible. We exploit the ability to direct folding pathways to program the sequence of assembly and present a novel approach of designing the strand topology of intermediate folding states to program the topology of the final structure, in this case a DNA origami slider structure that functions much like a piston-cylinder assembly in an engine. The ability to program the sequence and control orientation and topology of multi-component DNA origami nanostructures provides a foundation for a new class of structures with internal and external moving parts and complex scaffold topology. Furthermore, this work provides critical insight to guide the design of intermediate states along a DNA origami folding pathway and to further understand the details of DNA origami self-assembly to more broadly control folding states and landscapes. (paper)

  7. Directing folding pathways for multi-component DNA origami nanostructures with complex topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, A. E.; Zhou, L.; Kolliopoulos, V.; Su, H.-J.; Castro, C. E.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular self-assembly has become a well-established technique to design complex nanostructures and hierarchical mesoscale assemblies. The typical approach is to design binding complementarity into nucleotide or amino acid sequences to achieve the desired final geometry. However, with an increasing interest in dynamic nanodevices, the need to design structures with motion has necessitated the development of multi-component structures. While this has been achieved through hierarchical assembly of similar structural units, here we focus on the assembly of topologically complex structures, specifically with concentric components, where post-folding assembly is not feasible. We exploit the ability to direct folding pathways to program the sequence of assembly and present a novel approach of designing the strand topology of intermediate folding states to program the topology of the final structure, in this case a DNA origami slider structure that functions much like a piston-cylinder assembly in an engine. The ability to program the sequence and control orientation and topology of multi-component DNA origami nanostructures provides a foundation for a new class of structures with internal and external moving parts and complex scaffold topology. Furthermore, this work provides critical insight to guide the design of intermediate states along a DNA origami folding pathway and to further understand the details of DNA origami self-assembly to more broadly control folding states and landscapes.

  8. Supramolecular Layer-by-Layer Assembly of 3D Multicomponent Nanostructures via Multivalent Molecular Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, X.Y.; Phang, In Yee; Reinhoudt, David; Vancso, Gyula J.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    The supramolecular layer-by-layer assembly of 3D multicomponent nanostructures of nanoparticles is demonstrated. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) was used as the patterning tool for making patterned β-cyclodextrin (CD) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and for the confinement of nanoparticles on the

  9. Multicomponent and Dissipative Self-Assembly Approaches : Towards functional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of self-assembly has proven to be a powerful approach to create smart and functional materials and has led to a vast variety of successful examples. However, the full potential of self-assembly has not been reached. Despite the number of successful artificial materials based on

  10. Dynamic Multi-Component Covalent Assembly for the Reversible Binding of Secondary Alcohols and Chirality Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lei; Berman, Jeffrey S.; Anslyn, Eric V.

    2011-01-01

    Reversible covalent bonding is often employed for the creation of novel supramolecular structures, multi-component assemblies, and sensing ensembles. In spite of remarkable success of dynamic covalent systems, the reversible binding of a mono-alcohol with high strength is challenging. Here we show that a strategy of carbonyl activation and hemiaminal ether stabilization can be embodied in a four-component reversible assembly that creates a tetradentate ligand and incorporates secondary alcohols with exceptionally high affinity. Evidence is presented that the intermediate leading to binding and exchange of alcohols is an iminium ion. Further, to demonstrate the use of this assembly process we explored chirality sensing and enantiomeric excess determinations. An induced twist in the ligand by a chiral mono-ol results in large Cotton effects in the circular dichroism spectra indicative of the alcohol’s handedness. The strategy revealed in this study should prove broadly applicable for the incorporation of alcohols into supramolecular architecture construction. PMID:22109274

  11. Stochastic modeling of virus capsid assembly pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Russell

    2009-03-01

    Virus capsids have become a key model system for understanding self-assembly due to their high complexity, robust and efficient assembly processes, and experimental tractability. Our ability to directly examine and manipulate capsid assembly kinetics in detail nonetheless remains limited, creating a need for computer models that can infer experimentally inaccessible features of the assembly process and explore the effects of hypothetical manipulations on assembly trajectories. We have developed novel algorithms for stochastic simulation of capsid assembly [1,2] that allow us to model capsid assembly over broad parameter spaces [3]. We apply these methods to study the nature of assembly pathway control in virus capsids as well as their sensitivity to assembly conditions and possible experimental interventions. [4pt] [1] F. Jamalyaria, R. Rohlfs, and R. Schwartz. J Comp Phys 204, 100 (2005). [0pt] [2] N. Misra and R. Schwartz. J Chem Phys 129, in press (2008). [0pt] [3] B. Sweeney, T. Zhang, and R. Schwartz. Biophys J 94, 772 (2008).

  12. Self-Assembling Multi-Component Nanofibers for Strong Bioinspired Underwater Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chao; Gurry, Thomas; Cheng, Allen A; Downey, Jordan; Deng, Zhengtao; Stultz, Collin M.; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-01-01

    Many natural underwater adhesives harness hierarchically assembled amyloid nanostructures to achieve strong and robust interfacial adhesion under dynamic and turbulent environments. Despite recent advances, our understanding of the molecular design, self-assembly, and structure-function relationship of those natural amyloid fibers remains limited. Thus, designing biomimetic amyloid-based adhesives remains challenging. Here, we report strong and multi-functional underwater adhesives obtained from fusing mussel foot proteins (Mfps) of Mytilus galloprovincialis with CsgA proteins, the major subunit of Escherichia coli amyloid curli fibers. These hybrid molecular materials hierarchically self-assemble into higher-order structures, in which, according to molecular dynamics simulations, disordered adhesive Mfp domains are exposed on the exterior of amyloid cores formed by CsgA. Our fibers have an underwater adhesion energy approaching 20.9 mJ/m2, which is 1.5 times greater than the maximum of bio-inspired and bio-derived protein-based underwater adhesives reported thus far. Moreover, they outperform Mfps or curli fibers taken on their own at all pHs and exhibit better tolerance to auto-oxidation than Mfps at pH ≥7.0. This work establishes a platform for engineering multi-component self-assembling materials inspired by nature. PMID:25240674

  13. Predicting Chiral Nanostructures, Lattices and Superlattices in Complex Multicomponent Nanoparticle Self-Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Hur, Kahyun

    2012-06-13

    "Bottom up" type nanoparticle (NP) self-assembly is expected to provide facile routes to nanostructured materials for various, for example, energy related, applications. Despite progress in simulations and theories, structure prediction of self-assembled materials beyond simple model systems remains challenging. Here we utilize a field theory approach for predicting nanostructure of complex and multicomponent hybrid systems with multiple types of short- and long-range interactions. We propose design criteria for controlling a range of NP based nanomaterial structures. In good agreement with recent experiments, the theory predicts that ABC triblock terpolymer directed assemblies with ligand-stabilized NPs can lead to chiral NP network structures. Furthermore, we predict that long-range Coulomb interactions between NPs leading to simple NP lattices, when applied to NP/block copolymer (BCP) assemblies, induce NP superlattice formation within the phase separated BCP nanostructure, a strategy not yet realized experimentally. We expect such superlattices to be of increasing interest to communities involved in research on, for example, energy generation and storage, metamaterials, as well as microelectronics and information storage. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. ATP-dependent human RISC assembly pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Mayuko; Kawamata, Tomoko; Paroo, Zain; Ye, Xuecheng; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Liu, Qinghua; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-01-01

    The assembly of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a key process in small RNA-mediated gene silencing. In humans, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are incorporated into RISCs containing the Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins Ago1-4. Previous studies have proposed that, unlike Drosophila melanogaster RISC assembly pathways, human RISC assembly is coupled with dicing and is independent of ATP. Here we show by careful reexamination that, in humans, RISC assembly and dicing are uncoupled, and ATP greatly facilitates RISC loading of small-RNA duplexes. Moreover, all four human AGO proteins show remarkably similar structural preferences for small-RNA duplexes: central mismatches promote RISC loading, and seed or 3'-mid (guide position 12-15) mismatches facilitate unwinding. All these features of human AGO proteins are highly reminiscent of fly Ago1 but not fly Ago2.

  15. Specificity Switching Pathways in Thermal and Mass Evaporation of Multicomponent Hydrocarbon Droplets: A Mesoscopic Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Rasoul; Luo, Kai H

    2017-07-10

    For well over one century, the Hertz-Knudsen equation has established the relationship between thermal - mass transfer coefficients through a liquid - vapour interface and evaporation rate. These coefficients, however, have been often separately estimated for one-component equilibrium systems and their simultaneous influences on evaporation rate of fuel droplets in multicomponent systems have yet to be investigated at the atomic level. Here we first apply atomistic simulation techniques and quantum/statistical mechanics methods to understand how thermal and mass evaporation effects are controlled kinetically/thermodynamically. We then present a new development of a hybrid method of quantum transition state theory/improved kinetic gas theory, for multicomponent hydrocarbon systems to investigate how concerted-distinct conformational changes of hydrocarbons at the interface affect the evaporation rate. The results of this work provide an important physical concept in fundamental understanding of atomistic pathways in topological interface transitions of chain molecules, resolving an open problem in kinetics of fuel droplets evaporation.

  16. Uracil Excision for Assembly of Complex Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2015-01-01

    Despite decreasing prices on synthetic DNA constructs, higher-order assembly of PCR-generated DNA continues to be an important exercise in molecular and synthetic biology. Simplicity and robustness are attractive features met by the uracil excision DNA assembly method, which is one of the most in...

  17. Evolution of a strategy for preparing bioactive small molecules by sequential multicomponent assembly processes, cyclizations, and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahn, James J; Granger, Brett A; Martin, Stephen F

    2014-10-21

    A strategy for generating diverse collections of small molecules has been developed that features a multicomponent assembly process (MCAP) to efficiently construct a variety of intermediates possessing an aryl aminomethyl subunit. These key compounds are then transformed via selective ring-forming reactions into heterocyclic scaffolds, each of which possesses suitable functional handles for further derivatizations and palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions. The modular nature of this approach enables the facile construction of libraries of polycyclic compounds bearing a broad range of substituents and substitution patterns for biological evaluation. Screening of several compound libraries thus produced has revealed a large subset of compounds that exhibit a broad spectrum of medicinally-relevant activities.

  18. Rigid Biopolymer Nanocrystal Systems for Controlling Multicomponent Nanoparticle Assembly and Orientation in Thin Film Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-10-31

    We have discovered techniques to synthesize well-defined DN conjugated nanostructures that are stable in a wide variety of conditions needed for DNA mediated assembly. Starting from this, we have shown that DNA can be used to control the assembly and integration of semiconductor nanocrystals into thin film devices that show photovoltaic effects.

  19. Predicting Chiral Nanostructures, Lattices and Superlattices in Complex Multicomponent Nanoparticle Self-Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Hur, Kahyun; Hennig, Richard G.; Escobedo, Fernando A.; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    "Bottom up" type nanoparticle (NP) self-assembly is expected to provide facile routes to nanostructured materials for various, for example, energy related, applications. Despite progress in simulations and theories, structure prediction of self

  20. Assembly of multicomponent nanoframes via the synergistic actions of graphene oxide space confinement effect and oriented cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanguo; Zhao, Yanyan; Sun, Hongyu; Zhang, Beibei; Cao, Sufeng; Xu, Xiaobin; Wang, Zhihong; Arandiyan, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent nanoframes (NFs) with a hollow structural character have shown the potential to be applied in many fields. Here we report a novel strategy to synthesize Zn_xCd_1_−_xS NFs via the synergistic actions of the graphene oxide (GO) confinement effect and oriented cation exchange. The obtained samples have been systematically characterized by x-ray diffractometry (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photospectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectrometry. The results show that the two dimensional space confinement effect induced by GO and the oriented cation exchange reaction are responsible for the formation of the multicomponent NFs. The high photoelectrochemical activity and the low cost of the starting materials will make the multicomponent NFs applicable in photoelectronic and photoelectrocatalytic fields. (paper)

  1. Dynamic colloidal assembly pathways via low dimensional models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuguang; Bevan, Michael A., E-mail: mabevan@jhu.edu [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Thyagarajan, Raghuram; Ford, David M. [Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Here we construct a low-dimensional Smoluchowski model for electric field mediated colloidal crystallization using Brownian dynamic simulations, which were previously matched to experiments. Diffusion mapping is used to infer dimensionality and confirm the use of two order parameters, one for degree of condensation and one for global crystallinity. Free energy and diffusivity landscapes are obtained as the coefficients of a low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation to capture the thermodynamics and kinetics of microstructure evolution. The resulting low-dimensional model quantitatively captures the dynamics of different assembly pathways between fluid, polycrystal, and single crystals states, in agreement with the full N-dimensional data as characterized by first passage time distributions. Numerical solution of the low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation reveals statistical properties of the dynamic evolution of states vs. applied field amplitude and system size. The low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation and associated landscapes calculated here can serve as models for predictive control of electric field mediated assembly of colloidal ensembles into two-dimensional crystalline objects.

  2. Reiterative Recombination for the in vivo assembly of libraries of multigene pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Wingler, Laura M.; Cornish, Virginia W.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing sophistication of synthetic biology is creating a demand for robust, broadly accessible methodology for constructing multigene pathways inside of the cell. Due to the difficulty of rationally designing pathways that function as desired in vivo, there is a further need to assemble libraries of pathways in parallel, in order to facilitate the combinatorial optimization of performance. While some in vitro DNA assembly methods can theoretically make libraries of pathways, these tec...

  3. Towards supramolecular engineering of functional nanomaterials: pre-programming multi-component 2D self-assembly at solid-liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; Palma, Carlos-Andres; Bonini, Massimo; Samorì, Paolo

    2010-08-24

    Materials with a pre-programmed order at the supramolecular level can be engineered with a sub-nanometer precision making use of reversible non- covalent interactions. The intrinsic ability of supramolecular materials to recognize and exchange their constituents makes them constitutionally dynamic materials. The tailoring of the materials properties relies on the full control over the self-assembly behavior of molecular modules exposing recognition sites and incorporating functional units. In this review we focus on three classes of weak-interactions to form complex 2D architectures starting from properly designed molecular modules: van der Waals, metallo-ligand and hydrogen bonding. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies will provide evidence with a sub-nanometer resolution, on the formation of responsive multicomponent architectures with controlled geometries and properties. Such endeavor enriches the scientist capability of generating more and more complex smart materials featuring controlled functions and unprecedented properties.

  4. Self-assembly of coiled coil peptides into nanoparticles vs 2-d plates: effects of assembly pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Pochan, Darrin

    Molecular solution assembly, or self-assembly, is a process by which ordered nanostructures or patterns are formed by non-covalent interactions during assembly. Biomimicry, the use of bioinspired molecules or biologically relevant materials, is an important area of self-assembly research with peptides serving a critical role as molecular tools. The morphology of peptide assemblies can be controlled by adjusting solution conditions such as the concentration of peptides, the temperature, and pH. Herein, spherical nanostructures, which have potential for creating an encapsulation system, are formed by self-assembly when coiled coil peptides are combined in solution. These peptides are homotrimeric and heterodimeric coiled-coil bundles and the homotrimer is connected with each of heterodimer through their external surfaces via disulfide bonds. The resultant covalent constructs could co-assemble into complementary trimeric hubs, respectively. The two peptide constructs are directly mixed and assembled in solution in order to produce either spherical particles or 2-d plates depending on the solution conditions and kinetic pathway of assembly. In particular, structural changes of the self-assembled peptides are explored by control of the thermal history of the assembly solution.

  5. Role of Achiral Nucleobases in Multicomponent Chiral Self-Assembly: Purine-Triggered Helix and Chirality Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ming; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Yuqian; Liu, Minghua

    2016-11-21

    Chiral self-assembly is a basic process in biological systems, where many chiral biomolecules such as amino acids and sugars play important roles. Achiral nucleobases usually covalently bond to saccharides and play a significant role in the formation of the double helix structure. However, it remains unclear how the achiral nucleobases can function in chiral self-assembly without the sugar modification. Herein, we have clarified that purine nucleobases could trigger N-(9-fluorenylmethox-ycarbonyl) (Fmoc)-protected glutamic acid to self-assemble into helical nanostructures. Moreover, the helical nanostructure could serve as a matrix and transfer the chirality to an achiral fluorescence probe, thioflavin T (ThT). Upon chirality transfer, the ThT showed not only supramolecular chirality but also circular polarized fluorescence (CPL). Without the nucleobase, the self-assembly processes cannot happen, thus providing an example where achiral molecules played an essential role in the expression and transfer of the chirality. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Reiterative Recombination for the in vivo assembly of libraries of multigene pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingler, Laura M; Cornish, Virginia W

    2011-09-13

    The increasing sophistication of synthetic biology is creating a demand for robust, broadly accessible methodology for constructing multigene pathways inside of the cell. Due to the difficulty of rationally designing pathways that function as desired in vivo, there is a further need to assemble libraries of pathways in parallel, in order to facilitate the combinatorial optimization of performance. While some in vitro DNA assembly methods can theoretically make libraries of pathways, these techniques are resource intensive and inherently require additional techniques to move the DNA back into cells. All previously reported in vivo assembly techniques have been low yielding, generating only tens to hundreds of constructs at a time. Here, we develop "Reiterative Recombination," a robust method for building multigene pathways directly in the yeast chromosome. Due to its use of endonuclease-induced homologous recombination in conjunction with recyclable markers, Reiterative Recombination provides a highly efficient, technically simple strategy for sequentially assembling an indefinite number of DNA constructs at a defined locus. In this work, we describe the design and construction of the first Reiterative Recombination system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we show that it can be used to assemble multigene constructs. We further demonstrate that Reiterative Recombination can construct large mock libraries of at least 10(4) biosynthetic pathways. We anticipate that our system's simplicity and high efficiency will make it a broadly accessible technology for pathway construction and render it a valuable tool for optimizing pathways in vivo.

  7. Elucidating dominant pathways of the nano-particle self-assembly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangze; Li, Bin; Qiao, Qin; Zhu, Lizhe; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-09-14

    Self-assembly processes play a key role in the fabrication of functional nano-structures with widespread application in drug delivery and micro-reactors. In addition to the thermodynamics, the kinetics of the self-assembled nano-structures also play an important role in determining the formed structures. However, as the self-assembly process is often highly heterogeneous, systematic elucidation of the dominant kinetic pathways of self-assembly is challenging. Here, based on mass flow, we developed a new method for the construction of kinetic network models and applied it to identify the dominant kinetic pathways for the self-assembly of star-like block copolymers. We found that the dominant pathways are controlled by two competing kinetic parameters: the encounter time Te, characterizing the frequency of collision and the transition time Tt for the aggregate morphology change from rod to sphere. Interestingly, two distinct self-assembly mechanisms, diffusion of an individual copolymer into the aggregate core and membrane closure, both appear at different stages (with different values of Tt) of a single self-assembly process. In particular, the diffusion mechanism dominates the middle-sized semi-vesicle formation stage (with large Tt), while the membrane closure mechanism dominates the large-sized vesicle formation stage (with small Tt). Through the rational design of the hydrophibicity of the copolymer, we successfully tuned the transition time Tt and altered the dominant self-assembly pathways.

  8. Multi-scale coarse-graining for the study of assembly pathways in DNA-brick self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Pedro; Romano, Flavio; Schreck, John S.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Doye, Jonathan P. K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2018-04-01

    Inspired by recent successes using single-stranded DNA tiles to produce complex structures, we develop a two-step coarse-graining approach that uses detailed thermodynamic calculations with oxDNA, a nucleotide-based model of DNA, to parametrize a coarser kinetic model that can reach the time and length scales needed to study the assembly mechanisms of these structures. We test the model by performing a detailed study of the assembly pathways for a two-dimensional target structure made up of 334 unique strands each of which are 42 nucleotides long. Without adjustable parameters, the model reproduces a critical temperature for the formation of the assembly that is close to the temperature at which assembly first occurs in experiments. Furthermore, the model allows us to investigate in detail the nucleation barriers and the distribution of critical nucleus shapes for the assembly of a single target structure. The assembly intermediates are compact and highly connected (although not maximally so), and classical nucleation theory provides a good fit to the height and shape of the nucleation barrier at temperatures close to where assembly first occurs.

  9. Construction of energy transfer pathways self-assembled from DNA-templated stacks of anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaura, Rika; Yui, Hiroharu; Someya, Yuu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi

    2014-01-05

    We describe optical properties of anthracene stacks formed from single-component self-assembly of thymidylic acid-appended anthracene 2,6-bis[5-(3'-thymidylic acid)pentyloxy] anthracene (TACT) and the binary self-assembly of TACT and complementary 20-meric oligoadenylic acid (TACT/dA20) in an aqueous buffer. UV-Vis and emission spectra for the single-component self-assembly of TACT and the binary self-assembly of TACT/dA20 were very consistent with stacked acene moieties in both self-assemblies. Interestingly, time-resolved fluorescence spectra from anthracene stacks exhibited very different features of the single-component and binary self-assemblies. In the single-component self-assembly of TACT, a dynamic Stokes shift (DSS) and relatively short fluorescence lifetime (τ=0.35ns) observed at around 450nm suggested that the anthracene moieties were flexible. Moreover, a broad emission at 530nm suggested the formation of an excited dimer (excimer). In the binary self-assembly of TACT/dA20, we detected a broad, red-shifted emission component at 534nm with a lifetime (τ=0.4ns) shorter than that observed in the TACT single-component self-assembly. Combining these results with the emission spectrum of the binary self-assembly of TACT/5'-HEX dA20, we concluded that the energy transfer pathway was constructed by columnar anthracene stacks formed from the DNA-templated self-assembly of TACT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Drosophila parthenogenesis: A tool to decipher centrosomal vs acentrosomal spindle assembly pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano

    2008-01-01

    Development of unfertilized eggs in the parthenogenetic strain K23-O-im of Drosophila mercatorum requires the stochastic interactions of self-assembled centrosomes with the female chromatin. In a portion of the unfertilized eggs that do not assemble centrosomes, microtubules organize a bipolar anastral mitotic spindle around the chromatin like the one formed during the first female meiosis, suggesting that similar pathways may be operative. In the cytoplasm of eggs in which centrosomes do form, monastral and biastral spindles are found. Analysis by laser scanning confocal microscopy suggests that these spindles are derived from the stochastic interaction of astral microtubules directly with kinetochore regions or indirectly with kinetochore microtubules. Our findings are consistent with the idea that mitotic spindle assembly requires both acentrosomal and centrosomal pathways, strengthening the hypothesis that astral microtubules can dictate the organization of the spindle by capturing kinetochore microtubules

  11. Construction of a controllable β-carotene biosynthetic pathway by decentralized assembly strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenping; Liu, Min; Lv, Xiaomei; Lu, Wenqiang; Gu, Jiali; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important platform organism for the synthesis of a great number of natural products. However, the assembly of controllable and genetically stable heterogeneous biosynthetic pathways in S. cerevisiae still remains a significant challenge. Here, we present a strategy for reconstructing controllable multi-gene pathways by employing the GAL regulatory system. A set of marker recyclable integrative plasmids (pMRI) was designed for decentralized assembly of pathways. As proof-of-principle, a controllable β-carotene biosynthesis pathway (∼16 kb) was reconstructed and optimized by repeatedly using GAL10-GAL1 bidirectional promoters with high efficiency (80-100%). By controling the switch time of the pathway, production of 11 mg/g DCW of total carotenoids (72.57 mg/L) and 7.41 mg/g DCW of β-carotene was achieved in shake-flask culture. In addition, the engineered yeast strain exhibited high genetic stability after 20 generations of subculture. The results demonstrated a controllable and genetically stable biosynthetic pathway capable of increasing the yield of target products. Furthermore, the strategy presented in this study could be extended to construct other pathways in S. cerevisisae. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Energetics, kinetics, and pathway of SNARE folding and assembly revealed by optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli

    2017-07-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are universal molecular engines that drive membrane fusion. Particularly, synaptic SNAREs mediate fast calcium-triggered fusion of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles with plasma membranes for synaptic transmission, the basis of all thought and action. During membrane fusion, complementary SNAREs located on two apposed membranes (often called t- and v-SNAREs) join together to assemble into a parallel four-helix bundle, releasing the energy to overcome the energy barrier for fusion. A long-standing hypothesis suggests that SNAREs act like a zipper to draw the two membranes into proximity and thereby force them to fuse. However, a quantitative test of this SNARE zippering hypothesis was hindered by difficulties to determine the energetics and kinetics of SNARE assembly and to identify the relevant folding intermediates. Here, we first review different approaches that have been applied to study SNARE assembly and then focus on high-resolution optical tweezers. We summarize the folding energies, kinetics, and pathways of both wild-type and mutant SNARE complexes derived from this new approach. These results show that synaptic SNAREs assemble in four distinct stages with different functions: slow N-terminal domain association initiates SNARE assembly; a middle domain suspends and controls SNARE assembly; and rapid sequential zippering of the C-terminal domain and the linker domain directly drive membrane fusion. In addition, the kinetics and pathway of the stagewise assembly are shared by other SNARE complexes. These measurements prove the SNARE zippering hypothesis and suggest new mechanisms for SNARE assembly regulated by other proteins. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  13. Assembly and Multiplex Genome Integration of Metabolic Pathways in Yeast Using CasEMBLR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnas, Tadas; Jensen, Emil D.; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2018-01-01

    and marker-free integration of the carotenoid pathway from 15 exogenously supplied DNA parts into three targeted genomic loci. As a second proof-of-principle, a total of ten DNA parts were assembled and integrated in two genomic loci to construct a tyrosine production strain, and at the same time knocking......Genome integration is a vital step for implementing large biochemical pathways to build a stable microbial cell factory. Although traditional strain construction strategies are well established for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome...... engineering allow much higher throughput and robustness in terms of strain construction. In this chapter, we describe CasEMBLR, a highly efficient and marker-free genome engineering method for one-step integration of in vivo assembled expression cassettes in multiple genomic sites simultaneously. Cas...

  14. The step-wise pathway of septin hetero-octamer assembly in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Andrew; McMurray, Michael

    2017-05-25

    Septin proteins bind guanine nucleotides and form rod-shaped hetero-oligomers. Cells choose from a variety of available septins to assemble distinct hetero-oligomers, but the underlying mechanism was unknown. Using a new in vivo assay, we find that a stepwise assembly pathway produces the two species of budding yeast septin hetero-octamers: Cdc11/Shs1-Cdc12-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Cdc12-Cdc11/Shs1. Rapid GTP hydrolysis by monomeric Cdc10 drives assembly of the core Cdc10 homodimer. The extended Cdc3 N terminus autoinhibits Cdc3 association with Cdc10 homodimers until prior Cdc3-Cdc12 interaction. Slow hydrolysis by monomeric Cdc12 and specific affinity of Cdc11 for transient Cdc12•GTP drive assembly of distinct trimers, Cdc11-Cdc12-Cdc3 or Shs1-Cdc12-Cdc3. Decreasing the cytosolic GTP:GDP ratio increases the incorporation of Shs1 vs Cdc11, which alters the curvature of filamentous septin rings. Our findings explain how GTP hydrolysis controls septin assembly, and uncover mechanisms by which cells construct defined septin complexes.

  15. The molecular mechanisms of signaling by cooperative assembly formation in innate immunity pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajjhala, Parimala R; Ve, Thomas; Bentham, Adam; Stacey, Katryn J; Kobe, Bostjan

    2017-06-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against infection and responses are initiated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs also detect endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are released by damaged or dying cells. The major PRRs include the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members, the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) family, the PYHIN (ALR) family, the RIG-1-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the oligoadenylate synthase (OAS)-like receptors and the related protein cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). The different PRRs activate specific signaling pathways to collectively elicit responses including the induction of cytokine expression, processing of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell-death responses. These responses control a pathogenic infection, initiate tissue repair and stimulate the adaptive immune system. A central theme of many innate immune signaling pathways is the clustering of activated PRRs followed by sequential recruitment and oligomerization of adaptors and downstream effector enzymes, to form higher-order arrangements that amplify the response and provide a scaffold for proximity-induced activation of the effector enzymes. Underlying the formation of these complexes are co-operative assembly mechanisms, whereby association of preceding components increases the affinity for downstream components. This ensures a rapid immune response to a low-level stimulus. Structural and biochemical studies have given key insights into the assembly of these complexes. Here we review the current understanding of assembly of immune signaling complexes, including inflammasomes initiated by NLR and PYHIN receptors, the myddosomes initiated by TLRs, and the MAVS CARD filament initiated by RIG-1. We highlight the co-operative assembly mechanisms during assembly of each of these complexes. Copyright

  16. Assembly and Multiplex Genome Integration of Metabolic Pathways in Yeast Using CasEMBLR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakočiūnas, Tadas; Jensen, Emil D; Jensen, Michael K; Keasling, Jay D

    2018-01-01

    Genome integration is a vital step for implementing large biochemical pathways to build a stable microbial cell factory. Although traditional strain construction strategies are well established for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering allow much higher throughput and robustness in terms of strain construction. In this chapter, we describe CasEMBLR, a highly efficient and marker-free genome engineering method for one-step integration of in vivo assembled expression cassettes in multiple genomic sites simultaneously. CasEMBLR capitalizes on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate double-strand breaks in genomic loci, thus prompting native homologous recombination (HR) machinery to integrate exogenously derived homology templates. As proof-of-principle for microbial cell factory development, CasEMBLR was used for one-step assembly and marker-free integration of the carotenoid pathway from 15 exogenously supplied DNA parts into three targeted genomic loci. As a second proof-of-principle, a total of ten DNA parts were assembled and integrated in two genomic loci to construct a tyrosine production strain, and at the same time knocking out two genes. This new method complements and improves the field of genome engineering in S. cerevisiae by providing a more flexible platform for rapid and precise strain building.

  17. Assembly of inflammation-related genes for pathway-focused genetic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Loza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent identifications of associations between novel variants in inflammation-related genes and several common diseases emphasize the need for systematic evaluations of these genes in disease susceptibility. Considering that many genes are involved in the complex inflammation responses and many genetic variants in these genes have the potential to alter the functions and expression of these genes, we assembled a list of key inflammation-related genes to facilitate the identification of genetic associations of diseases with an inflammation-related etiology. We first reviewed various phases of inflammation responses, including the development of immune cells, sensing of danger, influx of cells to sites of insult, activation and functional responses of immune and non-immune cells, and resolution of the immune response. Assisted by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we then identified 17 functional sub-pathways that are involved in one or multiple phases. This organization would greatly increase the chance of detecting gene-gene interactions by hierarchical clustering of genes with their functional closeness in a pathway. Finally, as an example application, we have developed tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (tSNP arrays for populations of European and African descent to capture all the common variants of these key inflammation-related genes. Assays of these tSNPs have been designed and assembled into two Affymetrix ParAllele customized chips, one each for European (12,011 SNPs and African (21,542 SNPs populations. These tSNPs have greater coverage for these inflammation-related genes compared to the existing genome-wide arrays, particularly in the African population. These tSNP arrays can facilitate systematic evaluation of inflammation pathways in disease susceptibility. For additional applications, other genotyping platforms could also be employed. For existing genome-wide association data, this list of key inflammation-related genes and

  18. Assembly of a novel biosynthetic pathway for production of the plant flavonoid fisetin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlhut, Steen G; Siedler, Solvej; Malla, Sailesh; Harrison, Scott J; Maury, Jérôme; Neves, Ana Rute; Forster, Jochen

    2015-09-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are an underutilized pool of bioactive molecules for applications in the food, pharma and nutritional industries. One such molecule is fisetin, which is present in many fruits and vegetables and has several potential health benefits, including anti-cancer, anti-viral and anti-aging activity. Moreover, fisetin has recently been shown to prevent Alzheimer's disease in mice and to prevent complications associated with diabetes type I. Thus far the biosynthetic pathway of fisetin in plants remains elusive. Here, we present the heterologous assembly of a novel fisetin pathway in Escherichia coli. We propose a novel biosynthetic pathway from the amino acid, tyrosine, utilizing nine heterologous enzymes. The pathway proceeds via the synthesis of two flavanones never produced in microorganisms before--garbanzol and resokaempferol. We show for the first time a functional biosynthetic pathway and establish E. coli as a microbial platform strain for the production of fisetin and related flavonols. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Degradative pathways for p-toluenecarboxylate and p-toluenesulfonate and their multicomponent oxygenases in Comamonas testosteroni strains PSB-4 and T-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, F; Saller, E; Schläfli Oppenberg, H R; Kroneck, P M; Leisinger, T; Cook, A M

    1996-09-01

    Three multicomponent oxygenases involved in the degradation of p-toluenesulfonate and p-toluenecarboxylate and the regulation of their synthesis have been examined in three strains (T-2, PSB-4 and TER-1) of Comamonas testosteroni. Strain T-2 utilizes p-toluenesulfonate as a source of carbon and energy for growth via p-sulfobenzoate and protocatechuate, and p-toluenecarboxylate via terephthalate and protocatechuate, and has the unusual property of requiring the reductase (TsaB) of the toluenesulfonate methyl monooxygenase system (TsaMB) in an incompletely expressed sulfobenzoate dioxygenase system (PsbAC) [Schläfli Oppenberg, H.R., Chen, G., Leisinger, T. & Cook, A. M. (1995). Microbiology 141, 1891-1899]. The independently isolated C. testosteroni PSB-4 utilized only sulfobenzoate and terephthalate via protocatechuate. Mutant TER-1, derived from strain T-2, utilized only terephthalate via protocatechuate. We detected no enzymes of the pathway from toluenesulfonate to sulfobenzoate in strains PSB-4 and TER-1, and confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis that the genes (tsaMB) encoding toluenesulfonate monooxygenase were absent. We concluded that, in strain PSB-4, the regulatory unit encoding the genes for the conversion of toluenesulfonate to sulfobenzoate was missing, and that generation of mutant TER-1 involved deletion of this regulatory unit and of the regulatory unit encoding desulfonation of sulfobenzoate. The degradation of sulfobenzoate in strain PSB-4 was catalysed by a fully inducible sulfobenzoate dioxygenase system (PsbACPSB-4), which, after purification of the oxygenase component (PsbAPSB-4), turned out to be indistinguishable from the corresponding component from strain T-2 (PsbAT-2). Reductase PsbCPSB-4, which we could separate but not purify, was active with oxygenase PsbAPSB-4 and PsbAT-2. Oxygenase PsbAPSB-4 was shown by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to contain a Rieske [2Fe-2S] centre. The enzyme system oxygenating terephthalate

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly and the putative biosynthetic pathway of steroidal sapogenins of Dioscorea composita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    Full Text Available The plant Dioscorea composita has important applications in the medical and energy industries, and can be used for the extraction of steroidal sapogenins (important raw materials for the synthesis of steroidal drugs and bioethanol production. However, little is known at the genetic level about how sapogenins are biosynthesized in this plant. Using Illumina deep sequencing, 62,341 unigenes were obtained by assembling its transcriptome, and 27,720 unigenes were annotated. Of these, 8,022 unigenes were mapped to 243 specific pathways, and 531 unigenes were identified to be involved in 24 secondary metabolic pathways. 35 enzymes, which were encoded by 79 unigenes, were related to the biosynthesis of steroidal sapogenins in this transcriptome database, covering almost all the nodes in the steroidal pathway. The results of real-time PCR experiments on ten related transcripts (HMGR, MK, SQLE, FPPS, DXS, CAS, HMED, CYP51, DHCR7, and DHCR24 indicated that sapogenins were mainly biosynthesized by the mevalonate pathway. The expression of these ten transcripts in the tuber and leaves was found to be much higher than in the stem. Also, expression in the shoots was low. The nucleotide and protein sequences and conserved domains of four related genes (HMGR, CAS, SQS, and SMT1 were highly conserved between D. composita and D. zingiberensis; but expression of these four genes is greater in D. composita. However, there is no expression of these key enzymes in potato and no steroidal sapogenins are synthesized.

  1. RECOVERY ACT - Thylakoid Assembly and Folded Protein Transport by the Tat Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabney-Smith, Carole [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Assembly of functional photosystems complete with necessary intrinsic (membrane-bound) and extrinsic proteins requires the function of at least 3 protein transport pathways in thylakoid membranes. Our research focuses on one of those pathways, a unique and essential protein transport pathway found in the chloroplasts of plants, bacteria, and some archaebacteria, the Twin arginine translocation (Tat) system. The chloroplast Tat (cpTat) system is thought to be responsible for the proper location of ~50% of thylakoid lumen proteins, several of which are necessary for proper photosystem assembly, maintenance, and function. Specifically, cpTat systems are unique because they transport fully folded and assembled proteins across ion tight membranes using only three membrane components, Tha4, Hcf106, and cpTatC, and the protonmotive force generated by photosynthesis. Despite the importance of the cpTat system in plants, the mechanism of transport of a folded precursor is not well known. Our long-term goal is to investigate the role protein transport systems have on organelle biogenesis, particularly the assembly of membrane protein complexes in thylakoids of chloroplasts. The objective of this proposal is to correlate structural changes in the membrane-bound cpTat component, Tha4, to the mechanism of translocation of folded-precursor substrates across the membrane bilayer by using a cysteine accessibility and crosslinking approach. Our central hypothesis is that the precursor passes through a proteinaceous pore of assembled Tha4 protomers that have undergone a conformational or topological change in response to transport. This research is predicated upon the observations that Tha4 exists in molar excess in the membrane relative to the other cpTat components; its regulated assembly to the precursor-bound receptor; and our data showing oligomerization of Tha4 into very large complexes in response to transport. Our rationale for these studies is that understanding cp

  2. Molecular mechanism of protein assembly on DNA double-strand breaks in the non-homologous end-joining pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Ken-ichi; Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Adachi, Noritaka; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2009-01-01

    Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the major repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian species. Upon DSB induction, a living cell quickly activates the NHEJ pathway comprising of multiple molecular events. However, it has been difficult to analyze the initial phase of DSB responses in living cells, primarily due to technical limitations. Recent advances in real-time imaging and site-directed DSB induction using laser microbeam allow us to monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of NHEJ factors in the immediate-early phase after DSB induction. These new approaches, together with the use of cell lines deficient in each essential NHEJ factor, provide novel mechanistic insights into DSB recognition and protein assembly on DSBs in the NHEJ pathway. In this review, we provide an overview of recent progresses in the imaging analyses of the NHEJ core factors. These studies strongly suggest that the NHEJ core factors are pre-assembled into a large complex on DSBs prior to the progression of the biochemical reactions in the NHEJ pathway. Instead of the traditional step-by-step assembly model from the static view of NHEJ, a novel model for dynamic protein assembly in the NHEJ pathway is proposed. This new model provides important mechanistic insights into the protein assembly at DSBs and the regulation of DSB repair. (author)

  3. Assembly of functional photosystem complexes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides incorporating carotenoids from the spirilloxanthin pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuang C.; Mothersole, David J.; Dilbeck, Preston; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Zhang, Hao; Qian, Pu; Vasilev, Cvetelin; Grayson, Katie J.; Jackson, Philip J.; Martin, Elizabeth C.; Li, Ying; Holten, Dewey; Neil Hunter, C.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus against harmful radicals arising from the presence of both light and oxygen. They also act as accessory pigments for harvesting solar energy, and are required for stable assembly of many light-harvesting complexes. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides phytoene desaturase (CrtI) catalyses three sequential desaturations of the colourless carotenoid phytoene, extending the number of conjugated carbon–carbon double bonds, N, from three to nine and producing the yellow carotenoid neurosporene; subsequent modifications produce the yellow/red carotenoids spheroidene/spheroidenone (N = 10/11). Genomic crtI replacements were used to swap the native three-step Rba. sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2′-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. The new carotenoid pathway was elucidated using a combination of HPLC and mass spectrometry. Premature termination of this new pathway by inactivating crtC or crtD produced strains with lycopene or rhodopin as major carotenoids. All of the spirilloxanthin series carotenoids are accepted by the assembly pathways for LH2 and RC–LH1–PufX complexes. The efficiency of carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer for 2,2′-diketo-spirilloxanthin (15 conjugated C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 C bonds; N = 15) in LH2 complexes is low, at 35%. High energy transfer efficiencies were obtained for neurosporene (N = 9; 94%), spheroidene (N = 10; 96%) and spheroidenone (N = 11; 95%), whereas intermediate values were measured for lycopene (N = 11; 64%), rhodopin (N = 11; 62%) and spirilloxanthin (N = 13; 39%). The variety and stability of these novel Rba. sphaeroides antenna complexes make them useful experimental models for investigating the

  4. Multicomponent Syntheses of Macrocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Géraldine; Neuville, Luc; Bughin, Carine; Fayol, Aude; Zhu, Jieping

    How to access efficiently the macrocyclic structure remained to be a challenging synthetic topic. Although many elegant approaches/reactions have been developed, construction of diverse collection of macrocycles is still elusive. This chapter summarized the recently emerged research area dealing with multicomponent synthesis of macrocycles, with particular emphasis on the approach named "multiple multicomponent reaction using two bifunctional building blocks".

  5. The RanGTP pathway: from nucleo-cytoplasmic transport to spindle assembly and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso eCavazza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The small GTPase Ran regulates the interaction of transport receptors with a number of cellular cargo proteins. The high affinity binding of the GTP-bound form of Ran to import receptors promotes cargo release, whereas its binding to export receptors stabilizes their interaction with the cargo. This basic mechanism linked to the asymmetric distribution of the two nucleotide-bound forms of Ran between the nucleus and the cytoplasm generates a switch like mechanism controlling nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Since 1999, we have known that after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD Ran and the above transport receptors also provide a local control over the activity of factors driving spindle assembly and regulating other aspects of cell division. The identification and functional characterization of RanGTP mitotic targets is providing novel insights into mechanisms essential for cell division. Here we review our current knowledge on the RanGTP system and its regulation and we focus on the recent advances made through the characterization of its mitotic targets. We then briefly review the novel functions of the pathway that were recently described. Altogether, the RanGTP system has moonlighting functions exerting a spatial control over protein interactions that drive specific functions depending on the cellular context.

  6. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly in arecanut, Areca catechu L elucidates the secondary metabolite pathway genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Manimekalai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Areca catechu L. belongs to the Arecaceae family which comprises many economically important palms. The palm is a source of alkaloids and carotenoids. The lack of ample genetic information in public databases has been a constraint for the genetic improvement of arecanut. To gain molecular insight into the palm, high throughput RNA sequencing and de novo assembly of arecanut leaf transcriptome was undertaken in the present study. A total 56,321,907 paired end reads of 101 bp length consisting of 11.343 Gb nucleotides were generated. De novo assembly resulted in 48,783 good quality transcripts, of which 67% of transcripts could be annotated against NCBI non – redundant database. The Gene Ontology (GO analysis with UniProt database identified 9222 biological process, 11268 molecular function and 7574 cellular components GO terms. Large scale expression profiling through Fragments per Kilobase per Million mapped reads (FPKM showed major genes involved in different metabolic pathways of the plant. Metabolic pathway analysis of the assembled transcripts identified 124 plant related pathways. The transcripts related to carotenoid and alkaloid biosynthetic pathways had more number of reads and FPKM values suggesting higher expression of these genes. The arecanut transcript sequences generated in the study showed high similarity with coconut, oil palm and date palm sequences retrieved from public domains. We also identified 6853 genic SSR regions in the arecanut. The possible primers were designed for SSR detection and this would simplify the future efforts in genetic characterization of arecanut.

  7. Development and Sensing Properties Study of Underwater Assembled Water Depth-Inclination Sensors for a Multi-Component Mooring System, Using a Self-Contained Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prototype monitoring techniques play an important role in the safety guarantee of mooring systems in marine engineering. In general, the complexities of harsh ocean environmental conditions bring difficulties to the traditional monitoring methods of application, implementation and maintenance. Large amounts of existing mooring systems still lack valid monitoring strategies. In this paper, an underwater monitoring method which may be used to achieve the mechanical responses of a multi-point catenary mooring system, is present. A novel self-contained assembled water depth-inclination (D-I sensor is designed and manufactured. Several advanced technologies, such as standalone, low power consumption and synchronism, are considered to satisfy the long-term implementation requirements with low cost during the design process. The design scheme of the water resistance barrel and installation clamp, which satisfies the diver installation, are also provided in the paper. An on-site test has previously been carried out on a production semisubmersible platform in the South China Sea. The prototype data analyses, including the D-I value in the time domain (including the data recorded during the mooring retraction and release process and spectral characteristics, are presented to reveal the accuracy, feasibility and stability of the sensor in terms of fitting for the prototype monitoring of catenary mooring systems, especially for in-service aging platforms.

  8. Coevolutionary constraints in the sequence-space of macromolecular complexes reflect their self-assembly pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Kundu, Sudip

    2017-07-01

    Is the order in which biomolecular subunits self-assemble into functional macromolecular complexes imprinted in their sequence-space? Here, we demonstrate that the temporal order of macromolecular complex self-assembly can be efficiently captured using the landscape of residue-level coevolutionary constraints. This predictive power of coevolutionary constraints is irrespective of the structural, functional, and phylogenetic classification of the complex and of the stoichiometry and quaternary arrangement of the constituent monomers. Combining this result with a number of structural attributes estimated from the crystal structure data, we find indications that stronger coevolutionary constraints at interfaces formed early in the assembly hierarchy probably promotes coordinated fixation of mutations that leads to high-affinity binding with higher surface area, increased surface complementarity and elevated number of molecular contacts, compared to those that form late in the assembly. Proteins 2017; 85:1183-1189. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Semiclassical multicomponent wave function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostovoy, M.V.

    A consistent method for obtaining the semiclassical multicomponent wave function for any value of adiabatic parameter is discussed and illustrated by examining the motion of a neutral particle in a nonuniform magnetic field. The method generalizes the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule to

  10. Assembly constraints drive co-evolution among ribosomal constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Akashi, Hiroshi; Kundu, Sudip

    2015-06-23

    Ribosome biogenesis, a central and essential cellular process, occurs through sequential association and mutual co-folding of protein-RNA constituents in a well-defined assembly pathway. Here, we construct a network of co-evolving nucleotide/amino acid residues within the ribosome and demonstrate that assembly constraints are strong predictors of co-evolutionary patterns. Predictors of co-evolution include a wide spectrum of structural reconstitution events, such as cooperativity phenomenon, protein-induced rRNA reconstitutions, molecular packing of different rRNA domains, protein-rRNA recognition, etc. A correlation between folding rate of small globular proteins and their topological features is known. We have introduced an analogous topological characteristic for co-evolutionary network of ribosome, which allows us to differentiate between rRNA regions subjected to rapid reconstitutions from those hindered by kinetic traps. Furthermore, co-evolutionary patterns provide a biological basis for deleterious mutation sites and further allow prediction of potential antibiotic targeting sites. Understanding assembly pathways of multicomponent macromolecules remains a key challenge in biophysics. Our study provides a 'proof of concept' that directly relates co-evolution to biophysical interactions during multicomponent assembly and suggests predictive power to identify candidates for critical functional interactions as well as for assembly-blocking antibiotic target sites. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Structure of Hepatitis E Virion-Sized Particle Reveals an RNA-Dependent Viral Assembly Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, L.; Wall, J.; Li, T.-C.; Mayazaki, N.; Simon, M. N.; Moore, M.; Wang, C.-Y.; Takeda, N.; Wakita, T.; Miyamura, T.; Cheng, R. H.

    2010-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) induces acute hepatitis in humans with a high fatality rate in pregnant women. There is a need for anti-HEV research to understand the assembly process of HEV native capsid. Here, we produced a large virion-sized and a small T=1 capsid by expressing the HEV capsid protein in insect cells with and without the N-terminal 111 residues, respectively, for comparative structural analysis. The virion-sized capsid demonstrates a T=3 icosahedral lattice and contains RNA fragment in contrast to the RNA-free T=1 capsid. However, both capsids shared common decameric organization. The in vitro assembly further demonstrated that HEV capsid protein had the intrinsic ability to form decameric intermediate. Our data suggest that RNA binding is the extrinsic factor essential for the assembly of HEV native capsids.

  12. Deconstruction of archaeal genome depict strategic consensus in core pathways coding sequence assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayon Pal

    Full Text Available A comprehensive in silico analysis of 71 species representing the different taxonomic classes and physiological genre of the domain Archaea was performed. These organisms differed in their physiological attributes, particularly oxygen tolerance and energy metabolism. We explored the diversity and similarity in the codon usage pattern in the genes and genomes of these organisms, emphasizing on their core cellular pathways. Our thrust was to figure out whether there is any underlying similarity in the design of core pathways within these organisms. Analyses of codon utilization pattern, construction of hierarchical linear models of codon usage, expression pattern and codon pair preference pointed to the fact that, in the archaea there is a trend towards biased use of synonymous codons in the core cellular pathways and the Nc-plots appeared to display the physiological variations present within the different species. Our analyses revealed that aerobic species of archaea possessed a larger degree of freedom in regulating expression levels than could be accounted for by codon usage bias alone. This feature might be a consequence of their enhanced metabolic activities as a result of their adaptation to the relatively O2-rich environment. Species of archaea, which are related from the taxonomical viewpoint, were found to have striking similarities in their ORF structuring pattern. In the anaerobic species of archaea, codon bias was found to be a major determinant of gene expression. We have also detected a significant difference in the codon pair usage pattern between the whole genome and the genes related to vital cellular pathways, and it was not only species-specific but pathway specific too. This hints towards the structuring of ORFs with better decoding accuracy during translation. Finally, a codon-pathway interaction in shaping the codon design of pathways was observed where the transcription pathway exhibited a significantly different coding

  13. Deconstruction of archaeal genome depict strategic consensus in core pathways coding sequence assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Ayon; Banerjee, Rachana; Mondal, Uttam K; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis; Bothra, Asim K

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive in silico analysis of 71 species representing the different taxonomic classes and physiological genre of the domain Archaea was performed. These organisms differed in their physiological attributes, particularly oxygen tolerance and energy metabolism. We explored the diversity and similarity in the codon usage pattern in the genes and genomes of these organisms, emphasizing on their core cellular pathways. Our thrust was to figure out whether there is any underlying similarity in the design of core pathways within these organisms. Analyses of codon utilization pattern, construction of hierarchical linear models of codon usage, expression pattern and codon pair preference pointed to the fact that, in the archaea there is a trend towards biased use of synonymous codons in the core cellular pathways and the Nc-plots appeared to display the physiological variations present within the different species. Our analyses revealed that aerobic species of archaea possessed a larger degree of freedom in regulating expression levels than could be accounted for by codon usage bias alone. This feature might be a consequence of their enhanced metabolic activities as a result of their adaptation to the relatively O2-rich environment. Species of archaea, which are related from the taxonomical viewpoint, were found to have striking similarities in their ORF structuring pattern. In the anaerobic species of archaea, codon bias was found to be a major determinant of gene expression. We have also detected a significant difference in the codon pair usage pattern between the whole genome and the genes related to vital cellular pathways, and it was not only species-specific but pathway specific too. This hints towards the structuring of ORFs with better decoding accuracy during translation. Finally, a codon-pathway interaction in shaping the codon design of pathways was observed where the transcription pathway exhibited a significantly different coding frequency signature.

  14. Imaging and Quantitation of a Succession of Transient Intermediates Reveal the Reversible Self-Assembly Pathway of a Simple Icosahedral Virus Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, María; Fuertes, Miguel Ángel; Valbuena, Alejandro; Carrillo, Pablo J P; Rodríguez-Huete, Alicia; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2016-11-30

    Understanding the fundamental principles underlying supramolecular self-assembly may facilitate many developments, from novel antivirals to self-organized nanodevices. Icosahedral virus particles constitute paradigms to study self-assembly using a combination of theory and experiment. Unfortunately, assembly pathways of the structurally simplest virus capsids, those more accessible to detailed theoretical studies, have been difficult to study experimentally. We have enabled the in vitro self-assembly under close to physiological conditions of one of the simplest virus particles known, the minute virus of mice (MVM) capsid, and experimentally analyzed its pathways of assembly and disassembly. A combination of electron microscopy and high-resolution atomic force microscopy was used to structurally characterize and quantify a succession of transient assembly and disassembly intermediates. The results provided an experiment-based model for the reversible self-assembly pathway of a most simple (T = 1) icosahedral protein shell. During assembly, trimeric capsid building blocks are sequentially added to the growing capsid, with pentamers of building blocks and incomplete capsids missing one building block as conspicuous intermediates. This study provided experimental verification of many features of self-assembly of a simple T = 1 capsid predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. It also demonstrated atomic force microscopy imaging and automated analysis, in combination with electron microscopy, as a powerful single-particle approach to characterize at high resolution and quantify transient intermediates during supramolecular self-assembly/disassembly reactions. Finally, the efficient in vitro self-assembly achieved for the oncotropic, cell nucleus-targeted MVM capsid may facilitate its development as a drug-encapsidating nanoparticle for anticancer targeted drug delivery.

  15. Coat Protein Mutations That Alter the Flux of Morphogenetic Intermediates through the ϕX174 Early Assembly Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brody J; Li, Shuaizhi; Roznowski, Aaron P; Perez, Alexis R; Villarreal, Rodrigo H; Johnson, Curtis J; Hardy, Margaret; Tuckerman, Edward C; Burch, April D; Fane, Bentley A

    2017-12-15

    Two scaffolding proteins orchestrate ϕX174 morphogenesis. The internal scaffolding protein B mediates the formation of pentameric assembly intermediates, whereas the external scaffolding protein D organizes 12 of these intermediates into procapsids. Aromatic amino acid side chains mediate most coat-internal scaffolding protein interactions. One residue in the internal scaffolding protein and three in the coat protein constitute the core of the B protein binding cleft. The three coat gene codons were randomized separately to ascertain the chemical requirements of the encoded amino acids and the morphogenetic consequences of mutation. The resulting mutants exhibited a wide range of recessive phenotypes, which could generally be explained within a structural context. Mutants with phenylalanine, tyrosine, and methionine substitutions were phenotypically indistinguishable from the wild type. However, tryptophan substitutions were detrimental at two sites. Charged residues were poorly tolerated, conferring extreme temperature-sensitive and lethal phenotypes. Eighteen lethal and conditional lethal mutants were genetically and biochemically characterized. The primary defect associated with the missense substitutions ranged from inefficient internal scaffolding protein B binding to faulty procapsid elongation reactions mediated by external scaffolding protein D. Elevating B protein concentrations above wild-type levels via exogenous, cloned-gene expression compensated for inefficient B protein binding, as did suppressing mutations within gene B. Similarly, elevating D protein concentrations above wild-type levels or compensatory mutations within gene D suppressed faulty elongation. Some of the parental mutations were pleiotropic, affecting multiple morphogenetic reactions. This progressively reduced the flux of intermediates through the pathway. Accordingly, multiple mechanisms, which may be unrelated, could restore viability. IMPORTANCE Genetic analyses have been

  16. Directing reaction pathways by catalyst active-site selection using self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Simon H; Schoenbaum, Carolyn A; Schwartz, Daniel K; Medlin, J Will

    2013-01-01

    One key route for controlling reaction selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is to prepare catalysts that exhibit only specific types of sites required for desired product formation. Here we show that alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers with varying surface densities can be used to tune selectivity to desired hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation products during the reaction of furfural on supported palladium catalysts. Vibrational spectroscopic studies demonstrate that the selectivity improvement is achieved by controlling the availability of specific sites for the hydrogenation of furfural on supported palladium catalysts through the selection of an appropriate alkanethiolate. Increasing self-assembled monolayer density by controlling the steric bulk of the organic tail ligand restricts adsorption on terrace sites and dramatically increases selectivity to desired products furfuryl alcohol and methylfuran. This technique of active-site selection simultaneously serves both to enhance selectivity and provide insight into the reaction mechanism.

  17. Sulfate Anion Delays the Self-Assembly of Human Insulin by Modifying the Aggregation Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarz, Marta; Arosio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying protein self-assembly and of their dependence on solvent composition has implications in a large number of biological and biotechnological systems. In this work, we characterize the aggregation process of human insulin at acidic pH in the presence of sulfate ions using a combination of Thioflavin T fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron mi...

  18. The origin of the supernumerary subunits and assembly factors of complex I: A treasure trove of pathway evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elurbe, Dei M; Huynen, Martijn A

    2016-07-01

    We review and document the evolutionary origin of all complex I assembly factors and nine supernumerary subunits from protein families. Based on experimental data and the conservation of critical residues we identify a spectrum of protein function conservation between the complex I representatives and their non-complex I homologs. This spectrum ranges from proteins that have retained their molecular function but in which the substrate specificity may have changed or have become more specific, like NDUFAF5, to proteins that have lost their original molecular function and critical catalytic residues like NDUFAF6. In between are proteins that have retained their molecular function, which however appears unrelated to complex I, like ACAD9, or proteins in which amino acids of the active site are conserved but for which no enzymatic activity has been reported, like NDUFA10. We interpret complex I evolution against the background of molecular evolution theory. Complex I supernumerary subunits and assembly factors appear to have been recruited from proteins that are mitochondrial and/or that are expressed when complex I is active. Within the evolution of complex I and its assembly there are many cases of neofunctionalization after gene duplication, like ACAD9 and TMEM126B, one case of subfunctionalization: ACPM1 and ACPM2 in Yarrowia lipolytica, and one case in which a complex I protein itself appears to have been the source of a new protein from another complex: NDUFS6 gave rise to cytochrome c oxidase subunit COX4/COX5b. Complex I and its assembly can therewith be regarded as a treasure trove for pathway evolution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of electrostatics in the assembly pathway of a single-stranded RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmann, Rees F; Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Knobler, Charles M; Gelbart, William M

    2014-09-01

    We have recently discovered (R. D. Cadena-Nava et al., J. Virol. 86:3318-3326, 2012, doi:10.1128/JVI.06566-11) that the in vitro packaging of RNA by the capsid protein (CP) of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is optimal when there is a significant excess of CP, specifically that complete packaging of all of the RNA in solution requires sufficient CP to provide charge matching of the N-terminal positively charged arginine-rich motifs (ARMS) of the CPs with the negatively charged phosphate backbone of the RNA. We show here that packaging results from the initial formation of a charge-matched protocapsid consisting of RNA decorated by a disordered arrangement of CPs. This protocapsid reorganizes into the final, icosahedrally symmetric nucleocapsid by displacing the excess CPs from the RNA to the exterior surface of the emerging capsid through electrostatic attraction between the ARMs of the excess CP and the negative charge density of the capsid exterior. As a test of this scenario, we prepare CP mutants with extra and missing (relative to the wild type) cationic residues and show that a correspondingly smaller and larger excess, respectively, of CP is needed for complete packaging of RNA. Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has long been studied as a model system for the assembly of single-stranded RNA viruses. While much is known about the electrostatic interactions within the CCMV virion, relatively little is known about these interactions during assembly, i.e., within intermediate states preceding the final nucleocapsid structure. Theoretical models and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations suggest that viruses like CCMV assemble by the bulk adsorption of CPs onto the RNA driven by electrostatic attraction, followed by structural reorganization into the final capsid. Such a mechanism facilitates assembly by condensing the RNA for packaging while simultaneously concentrating the local density of CP for capsid nucleation. We provide experimental evidence of

  20. De novo assembly of Eugenia uniflora L. transcriptome and identification of genes from the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Frank; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Margis, Rogerio

    2014-12-01

    Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is of particular interest due to its medicinal properties that are attributed to specialized metabolites with known biological activities. Among these molecules, terpenoids are the most abundant in essential oils that are found in the leaves and represent compounds with potential pharmacological benefits. The terpene diversity observed in Myrtaceae is determined by the activity of different members of the terpene synthase and oxidosqualene cyclase families. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transcripts from E. uniflora leaves and to annotation to identify the genes potentially involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway and terpene diversity. In total, 72,742 unigenes with a mean length of 1048bp were identified. Of these, 43,631 and 36,289 were annotated with the NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. The gene ontology categorized the sequences into 53 functional groups. A metabolic pathway analysis with KEGG revealed 8,625 unigenes assigned to 141 metabolic pathways and 40 unigenes predicted to be associated with the biosynthesis of terpenoids. Furthermore, we identified four putative full-length terpene synthase genes involved in sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes biosynthesis, and three putative full-length oxidosqualene cyclase genes involved in the triterpenes biosynthesis. The expression of these genes was validated in different E. uniflora tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "Self-Shaping" of Multicomponent Drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholakova, Diana; Valkova, Zhulieta; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Smoukov, Stoyan K

    2017-06-13

    In our recent study we showed that single-component emulsion drops, stabilized by proper surfactants, can spontaneously break symmetry and transform into various polygonal shapes during cooling [ Denkov Nature 2015 , 528 , 392 - 395 ]. This process involves the formation of a plastic rotator phase of self-assembled oil molecules beneath the drop surface. The plastic phase spontaneously forms a frame of plastic rods at the oil drop perimeter which supports the polygonal shapes. However, most of the common substances used in industry appear as mixtures of molecules rather than pure substances. Here we present a systematic study of the ability of multicomponent emulsion drops to deform upon cooling. The observed trends can be summarized as follows: (1) The general drop-shape evolution for multicomponent drops during cooling is the same as with single-component drops; however, some additional shapes are observed. (2) Preservation of the particle shape upon freezing is possible for alkane mixtures with chain length difference Δn ≤ 4; for greater Δn, phase separation within the droplet is observed. (3) Multicomponent particles prepared from alkanes with Δn ≤ 4 plastify upon cooling due to the formation of a bulk rotator phase within the particles. (4) If a compound, which cannot induce self-shaping when pure, is mixed with a certain amount of a compound which induces self-shaping, then drops prepared from this mixture can also self-shape upon cooling. (5) Self-emulsification phenomena are also observed for multicomponent drops. In addition to the three recently reported mechanisms of self-emulsification [ Tcholakova Nat. Commun. 2017 , ( 8 ), 15012 ], a new (fourth) mechanism is observed upon freezing for alkane mixtures with Δn > 4. It involves disintegration of the particles due to a phase separation of alkanes upon freezing.

  2. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  3. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  4. A Springloaded Metal-Ligand Mesocate Allows Access to Trapped Intermediates of Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, Paul M; Holloway, Lauren R; Lyon, Yana; Onishi, Nicole C; Beran, Gregory J O; Julian, Ryan R; Hooley, Richard J

    2018-04-02

    A strained, "springloaded" Fe 2 L 3 iminopyridine mesocate shows highly variable reactivity upon postassembly reaction with competitive diamines. The strained assembly is reactive toward transimination in minutes at ambient temperature and allows observation of kinetically trapped intermediates in the self-assembly pathway. When diamines are used that can only form less favored cage products upon full equilibration, trapped ML 3 fragments with pendant, "hanging" NH 2 groups are selectively formed instead. Slight variations in diamine structure have large effects on the product outcome: less rigid diamines convert the mesocate to more favored self-assembled cage complexes under mild conditions and allow observation of heterocomplex intermediates in the displacement pathway. The mesocate allows control of equilibrium processes and direction of product outcomes via small, iterative changes in added subcomponent structure and provides a method of accessing metal-ligand cage structures not normally observed in multicomponent Fe-iminopyridine self-assembly.

  5. Self-Assembled Amphiphilic Water Oxidation Catalysts: Control of O-O Bond Formation Pathways by Different Aggregation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Qing; Lei, Tao; Zhang, Li-Ping; Chen, Bin; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-05-17

    The oxidation of water to molecular oxygen is the key step to realize water splitting from both biological and chemical perspective. In an effort to understand how water oxidation occurs on a molecular level, a large number of molecular catalysts have been synthesized to find an easy access to higher oxidation states as well as their capacity to make O-O bond. However, most of them function in a mixture of organic solvent and water and the O-O bond formation pathway is still a subject of intense debate. Herein, we design the first amphiphilic Ru-bda (H2 bda=2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) of formula [Ru(II) (bda)(4-OTEG-pyridine)2 ] (1, OTEG=OCH2 CH2 OCH2 CH2 OCH3 ) and [Ru(II) (bda)(PySO3 Na)2 ] (2, PySO3 (-) =pyridine-3-sulfonate), which possess good solubility in water. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), critical aggregation concentration (CAC) experiments and product analysis demonstrate that they enable to self-assemble in water and form the O-O bond through different routes even though they have the same bda(2-) backbone. This work illustrates for the first time that the O-O bond formation pathway can be regulated by the interaction of ancillary ligands at supramolecular level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Regulated Assembly of Vacuolar ATPase Is Increased during Cluster Disruption-induced Maturation of Dendritic Cells through a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/mTOR-dependent Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Rachel; Bond, Sarah; Shainheit, Mara G.; Stadecker, Miguel J.; Forgac, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are ATP-driven proton pumps composed of a peripheral V1 domain and a membrane-embedded V0 domain. Regulated assembly of V1 and V0 represents an important regulatory mechanism for controlling V-ATPase activity in vivo. Previous work has shown that V-ATPase assembly increases during maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induced by activation of Toll-like receptors. This increased assembly is essential for antigen processing, which is dependent upon an acidic lysosomal pH. Cluster disruption of dendritic cells induces a semi-mature phenotype associated with immune tolerance. Thus, semi-mature dendritic cells are able to process and present self-peptides to suppress autoimmune responses. We have investigated V-ATPase assembly in bone marrow-derived, murine dendritic cells and observed an increase in assembly following cluster disruption. This increased assembly is not dependent upon new protein synthesis and is associated with an increase in concanamycin A-sensitive proton transport in FITC-loaded lysosomes. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with wortmannin or mTORC1 with rapamycin effectively inhibits the increased assembly observed upon cluster disruption. These results suggest that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mTOR pathway is involved in controlling V-ATPase assembly during dendritic cell maturation. PMID:24273170

  7. Multicomponent polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Sabu; Saha, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    The book offers an in-depth review of the materials design and manufacturing processes employed in the development of multi-component or multiphase polymer material systems. This field has seen rapid growth in both academic and industrial research, as multiphase materials are increasingly replacing traditional single-component materials in commercial applications. Many obstacles can be overcome by processing and using multiphase materials in automobile, construction, aerospace, food processing, and other chemical industry applications. The comprehensive description of the processing, characterization, and application of multiphase materials presented in this book offers a world of new ideas and potential technological advantages for academics, researchers, students, and industrial manufacturers from diverse fields including rubber engineering, polymer chemistry, materials processing and chemical science. From the commercial point of view it will be of great value to those involved in processing, optimizing an...

  8. Off-pathway assembly of fimbria subunits is prevented by chaperone CfaA of CFA/I fimbriae from enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Rui; Liu, Yang; Savarino, Stephen J; Xia, Di

    2016-12-01

    The assembly of the class 5 colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae of enterotoxigenic E. coli was proposed to proceed via the alternate chaperone-usher pathway. Here, we show that in the absence of the chaperone CfaA, CfaB, the major pilin subunit of CFA/I fimbriae, is able to spontaneously refold and polymerize into cyclic trimers. CfaA kinetically traps CfaB to form a metastable complex that can be stabilized by mutations. Crystal structure of the stabilized complex reveals distinctive interactions provided by CfaA to trap CfaB in an assembly competent state through donor-strand complementation (DSC) and cleft-mediated anchorage. Mutagenesis indicated that DSC controls the stability of the chaperone-subunit complex and the cleft-mediated anchorage of the subunit C-terminus additionally assist in subunit refolding. Surprisingly, over-stabilization of the chaperone-subunit complex led to delayed fimbria assembly, whereas destabilizing the complex resulted in no fimbriation. Thus, CfaA acts predominantly as a kinetic trap by stabilizing subunit to avoid its off-pathway self-polymerization that results in energetically favorable trimers and could serve as a driving force for CFA/I pilus assembly, representing an energetic landscape unique to class 5 fimbria assembly. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Dissection of β-barrel Outer Membrane Protein Assembly Pathways through Characterizing BamA POTRA 1 Mutants of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Drew; Charlson, Emily S.; Coon, Eric; Misra, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Summary BamA of Escherichia coli is an essential component of the hetero-oligomeric machinery that mediates β-barrel outer membrane protein (OMP) assembly. The C- and N-termini of BamA fold into trans-membrane β-barrel and five soluble POTRA domains, respectively. Detailed characterization of BamA POTRA 1 missense and deletion mutants revealed two competing OMP assembly pathways, one of which is followed by the archetypal trimeric β-barrel OMPs, OmpF and LamB, and is dependent on POTRA 1. Interestingly, our data suggest that BamA also requires its POTRA 1 domain for proper assembly. The second pathway is independent of POTRA 1 and is exemplified by TolC. Site-specific cross-linking analysis revealed that the POTRA 1 domain of BamA interacts with SurA, a periplasmic chaperone required for the assembly of OmpF and LamB, but not that of TolC and BamA. The data suggest that SurA and BamA POTRA 1 domain function in concert to assist folding and assembly of most β-barrel OMPs except for TolC, which folds into a unique soluble α-helical barrel and an OM-anchored β-barrel. The two assembly pathways finally merge at some step beyond POTRA 1 but presumably before membrane insertion, which is thought to be catalyzed by the trans-membrane β-barrel domain of Bam A. PMID:20598079

  10. The interfacial-organized monolayer water film (MWF) induced ``two-step'' aggregation of nanographene: both in stacking and sliding assembly pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenping; Wu, Ren'an

    2013-03-01

    A computational investigation was carried out to understand the aggregation of nanoscale graphene with two typical pathways of stacking assembly and sliding assembly in water. The interfacial-organized monolayer water film (MWF) induced ``two-step'' aggregation of nanographene in both stacking and sliding assembly pathways was reported for the first time. By means of potential mean forces (PMFs) calculation, no energy barrier was observed during the sliding assembly of two graphene nanosheets, while the PMF profiles could be impacted by the contact forms of nanographene and the MWF within the interplate of two graphene nanosheets. To explore the potential physical basis of the ``hindering role'' of self-organized interfacial water, the dynamical and structural properties as well as the status of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for interfacial water were investigated. We found that the compact, ordered structure and abundant H-bonds of the MWF could be taken as the fundamental aspects of the ``hindering role'' of interfacial water for the hydrophobic assembly of nanographene. These findings are displaying a potential to further understand the hydrophobic assembly which mostly dominate the behaviors of nanomaterials, proteins etc. in aqueous solutions.A computational investigation was carried out to understand the aggregation of nanoscale graphene with two typical pathways of stacking assembly and sliding assembly in water. The interfacial-organized monolayer water film (MWF) induced ``two-step'' aggregation of nanographene in both stacking and sliding assembly pathways was reported for the first time. By means of potential mean forces (PMFs) calculation, no energy barrier was observed during the sliding assembly of two graphene nanosheets, while the PMF profiles could be impacted by the contact forms of nanographene and the MWF within the interplate of two graphene nanosheets. To explore the potential physical basis of the ``hindering role'' of self-organized interfacial

  11. De novo assembly and functional annotation of Myrciaria dubia fruit transcriptome reveals multiple metabolic pathways for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Juan C; Maddox, J Dylan; Cobos, Marianela; Requena, David; Zimic, Mirko; Bombarely, Aureliano; Imán, Sixto A; Cerdeira, Luis A; Medina, Andersson E

    2015-11-24

    Myrciaria dubia is an Amazonian fruit shrub that produces numerous bioactive phytochemicals, but is best known by its high L-ascorbic acid (AsA) content in fruits. Pronounced variation in AsA content has been observed both within and among individuals, but the genetic factors responsible for this variation are largely unknown. The goals of this research, therefore, were to assemble, characterize, and annotate the fruit transcriptome of M. dubia in order to reconstruct metabolic pathways and determine if multiple pathways contribute to AsA biosynthesis. In total 24,551,882 high-quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 70,048 unigenes (mean length = 1150 bp, N50 = 1775 bp). Assembled sequences were annotated using BLASTX against public databases such as TAIR, GR-protein, FB, MGI, RGD, ZFIN, SGN, WB, TIGR_CMR, and JCVI-CMR with 75.2 % of unigenes having annotations. Of the three core GO annotation categories, biological processes comprised 53.6 % of the total assigned annotations, whereas cellular components and molecular functions comprised 23.3 and 23.1 %, respectively. Based on the KEGG pathway assignment of the functionally annotated transcripts, five metabolic pathways for AsA biosynthesis were identified: animal-like pathway, myo-inositol pathway, L-gulose pathway, D-mannose/L-galactose pathway, and uronic acid pathway. All transcripts coding enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were also identified. Finally, we used the assembly to identified 6314 genic microsatellites and 23,481 high quality SNPs. This study describes the first next-generation sequencing effort and transcriptome annotation of a non-model Amazonian plant that is relevant for AsA production and other bioactive phytochemicals. Genes encoding key enzymes were successfully identified and metabolic pathways involved in biosynthesis of AsA, anthocyanins, and other metabolic pathways have been reconstructed. The identification of these genes and pathways is in agreement with

  12. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Arunava [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Prevelige, Peter E [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-01-04

    The primary goal of the project was to develop protein-templated approaches for the synthesis and directed assembly of semiconductor nanomaterials that are efficient for visible light absorption and hydrogen production. In general, visible-light-driven photocatalysis reactions exhibit low quantum efficiency for solar energy conversion primarily because of materials-related issues and limitations, such as the control of the band gap, band structure, photochemical stability, and available reactive surface area of the photocatalyst. Synthesis of multicomponent hierarchical nano-architectures, consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with desired optical properties fabricated to maximize spatial proximity for optimum electron and energy transfer represents an attractive route for addressing the problem. Virus capsids are highly symmetrical, self-assembling protein cage nanoparticles that exist in a range of sizes and symmetries. Selective deposition of inorganic, by design, at specific locations on virus capsids affords precise control over the size, spacing, and assembly of nanomaterials, resulting in uniform and reproducible nano-architectures. We utilized the self-assembling capabilities of the 420 subunit, 60 nm icosahedral, P22 virus capsid to direct the nucleation, growth, and proximity of a range of component materials. Controlled fabrication on the exterior of the temperature stable shell was achieved by genetically encoding specific binding peptides into an externally exposed loop which is displayed on each of the 420 coat protein subunits. Localization of complimentary materials to the interior of the particle was achieved through the use “scaffolding-fusion proteins. The scaffolding domain drives coat protein polymerization resulting in a coat protein shell surrounding a core of approximately 300 scaffolding/fusion molecules. The fusion domain comprises a peptide which specifically binds the semiconductor material of interest.

  13. Potential Theory of Multicomponent Adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We developed a theory of multicomponent adsorption on the basis of the potential concept originally suggested by Polanyi. The mixture is considered as a heterogeneous substance segregated in the external field emitted by the adsorbent. The same standard equation of state, with no additional fitting...... parameters, is used for the segregated and for the bulk phases. With this approach, few parameters are needed to correlate pure component adsorption isotherms. These parameters may be used to predict adsorption equilibria of multicomponent mixtures without additional adjustment. A connection between...... the potential theory and the spreading pressure concept is established, and problems of the theory consistency are studied. Numerical algorithms are suggested for evaluation of the segregated state of the mixture in the potential field of adsorption forces. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement...

  14. A new and efficient multicomponent solid-phase synthesis of 2-acylaminomethylthiazoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkel, Bernd; Sax, Michael; Dömling, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    A new multicomponent reaction (MCR) for the preparation of 2-substituted thiazole libraries using Rink amide resin is described. Thiazoles are assembled in a one-pot MCR of a thiocarboxylic acid, aldehyde, 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)-2-isocyanoacrylate with a resin-bound primary amine. Aliphatic and

  15. The origin of the supernumerary subunits and assembly factors of complex I: A treasure trove of pathway evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elurbe, D.M.; Huynen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    We review and document the evolutionary origin of all complex I assembly factors and nine supernumerary subunits from protein families. Based on experimental data and the conservation of critical residues we identify a spectrum of protein function conservation between the complex I representatives

  16. PCP and SAX-3/Robo Pathways Cooperate to Regulate Convergent Extension-Based Nerve Cord Assembly in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pavak K; Tanner, Matthew R; Kovacevic, Ismar; Rankin, Aysha; Marshall, Teagan E; Noblett, Nathaniel; Tran, Nhan Nguyen; Roenspies, Tony; Hung, Jeffrey; Chen, Zheqian; Slatculescu, Cristina; Perkins, Theodore J; Bao, Zhirong; Colavita, Antonio

    2017-04-24

    Formation and resolution of multicellular rosettes can drive convergent extension (CE) type cell rearrangements during tissue morphogenesis. Rosette dynamics are regulated by both planar cell polarity (PCP)-dependent and -independent pathways. Here we show that CE is involved in ventral nerve cord (VNC) assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a VANG-1/Van Gogh and PRKL-1/Prickle containing PCP pathway and a Slit-independent SAX-3/Robo pathway cooperate to regulate, via rosette intermediaries, the intercalation of post-mitotic neuronal cell bodies during VNC formation. We show that VANG-1 and SAX-3 are localized to contracting edges and rosette foci and act to specify edge contraction during rosette formation and to mediate timely rosette resolution. Simultaneous loss of both pathways severely curtails CE resulting in a shortened, anteriorly displaced distribution of VNC neurons at hatching. Our results establish rosette-based CE as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of nerve cord morphogenesis and reveal a role for SAX-3/Robo in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel transcriptome assembly and comparative toxicity pathway analysis in mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos and larvae exposed to Deepwater Horizon oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis Genbo; Mager, Edward M.; Grosell, Martin; Hazard, E. Starr; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The impacts of Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil on morphology and function during embryonic development have been documented for a number of fish species, including the economically and ecologically important pelagic species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). However, further investigations on molecular events and pathways responsible for developmental toxicity have been largely restricted due to the limited molecular data available for this species. We sought to establish the de novo transcriptomic database from the embryos and larvae of mahi-mahi exposed to water accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) of two DWH oil types (weathered and source oil), in an effort to advance our understanding of the molecular aspects involved during specific toxicity responses. By high throughput sequencing (HTS), we obtained the first de novo transcriptome of mahi-mahi, with 60,842 assembled transcripts and 30,518 BLAST hits. Among them, 2,345 genes were significantly regulated in 96hpf larvae after exposure to weathered oil. With comparative analysis to a reference-transcriptome-guided approach on gene ontology and tox-pathways, we confirmed the novel approach effective for exploring tox-pathways in non-model species, and also identified a list of co-expressed genes as potential biomarkers which will provide information for the construction of an Adverse Outcome Pathway which could be useful in Ecological Risk Assessments.

  18. MiYA, an efficient machine-learning workflow in conjunction with the YeastFab assembly strategy for combinatorial optimization of heterologous metabolic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yikang; Li, Gang; Dong, Junkai; Xing, Xin-Hui; Dai, Junbiao; Zhang, Chong

    2018-05-01

    Facing boosting ability to construct combinatorial metabolic pathways, how to search the metabolic sweet spot has become the rate-limiting step. We here reported an efficient Machine-learning workflow in conjunction with YeastFab Assembly strategy (MiYA) for combinatorial optimizing the large biosynthetic genotypic space of heterologous metabolic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using β-carotene biosynthetic pathway as example, we first demonstrated that MiYA has the power to search only a small fraction (2-5%) of combinatorial space to precisely tune the expression level of each gene with a machine-learning algorithm of an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble to avoid over-fitting problem when dealing with a small number of training samples. We then applied MiYA to improve the biosynthesis of violacein. Feed with initial data from a colorimetric plate-based, pre-screened pool of 24 strains producing violacein, MiYA successfully predicted, and verified experimentally, the existence of a strain that showed a 2.42-fold titer improvement in violacein production among 3125 possible designs. Furthermore, MiYA was able to largely avoid the branch pathway of violacein biosynthesis that makes deoxyviolacein, and produces very pure violacein. Together, MiYA combines the advantages of standardized building blocks and machine learning to accelerate the Design-Build-Test-Learn (DBTL) cycle for combinatorial optimization of metabolic pathways, which could significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential Theory of Multicomponent Adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We developed a theory of multicomponent adsorption on the basis of the potential concept originally suggested by Polanyi. The mixture is considered as a heterogeneous substance segregated in the external field emitted by the adsorbent. The same standard equation of state, with no additional fitting...... and high degree of predictability of the theory developed....... the potential theory and the spreading pressure concept is established, and problems of the theory consistency are studied. Numerical algorithms are suggested for evaluation of the segregated state of the mixture in the potential field of adsorption forces. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement...

  20. Multicomponent diffusivities from the free volume theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.A; Bollen, A.M

    In this paper the free volume theory of diffusion is extended to multicomponent mixtures. The free volume is taken to be accessible for any component according to its surface. fraction. The resulting equations predict multicomponent (Maxwell-Stefan) diffusivities in simple liquid mixtures from pure

  1. Microwave-Assisted Multicomponent Synthesis of Heterocycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, A.; Ruijter, E.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Multicomponent reactions are valuable tools for the generation of diverse heterocycles. As in many fields or organic chemistry, microwave irradiation is rapidly replacing conventional heating methods in multicomponent chemistry. In this review, we present an overview of recent applications of the

  2. BUFFER CAPACITY IN HETEROGENEOUS MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Spinu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative basis of the theory of buffer properties for two-phase acid-base buffer systems and for multicomponent heterogeneous systems has been derived. The analytical equations with respect to all components for diverse multicomponent systems were deduced. It has been established, that the buffer capacities of components are mutually proportional.

  3. Pimelic acid, the first precursor of the Bacillus subtilis biotin synthesis pathway, exists as the free acid and is assembled by fatty acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Miglena; Cronan, John E

    2017-05-01

    Biotin synthetic pathways are readily separated into two stages, synthesis of the seven carbon α, ω-dicarboxylic acid pimelate moiety and assembly of the fused heterocyclic rings. The biotin pathway genes responsible for pimelate moiety synthesis vary widely among bacteria whereas the ring synthesis genes are highly conserved. Bacillus subtilis seems to have redundant genes, bioI and bioW, for generation of the pimelate intermediate. Largely consistent with previous genetic studies it was found that deletion of bioW caused a biotin auxotrophic phenotype whereas deletion of bioI did not. BioW is a pimeloyl-CoA synthetase that converts pimelic acid to pimeloyl-CoA. The essentiality of BioW for biotin synthesis indicates that the free form of pimelic acid is an intermediate in biotin synthesis although this is not the case in E. coli. Since the origin of pimelic acid in Bacillus subtilis is unknown, 13 C-NMR studies were carried out to decipher the pathway for its generation. The data provided evidence for the role of free pimelate in biotin synthesis and the involvement of fatty acid synthesis in pimelate production. Cerulenin, an inhibitor of the key fatty acid elongation enzyme, FabF, markedly decreased biotin production by B. subtilis resting cells whereas a strain having a cerulenin-resistant FabF mutant produced more biotin. In addition, supplementation with pimelic acid fully restored biotin production in cerulenin-treated cells. These results indicate that pimelic acid originating from fatty acid synthesis pathway is a bona fide precursor of biotin in B. subtilis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. PMID:26170452

  5. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-08-28

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Multi-component controllers in reactor physics optimality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldemir, T.

    1978-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for the optimality analysis of thermal reactor assemblies with multi-component control vectors. The neutronics of the system under consideration is assumed to be described by the two-group diffusion equations and constraints are imposed upon the state and control variables. It is shown that if the problem is such that the differential and algebraic equations describing the system can be cast into a linear form via a change of variables, the optimal control components are piecewise constant functions and the global optimal controller can be determined by investigating the properties of the influence functions. Two specific problems are solved utilizing this approach. A thermal reactor consisting of fuel, burnable poison and moderator is found to yield maximal power when the assembly consists of two poison zones and the power density is constant throughout the assembly. It is shown that certain variational relations have to be considered to maintain the activeness of the system equations as differential constraints. The problem of determining the maximum initial breeding ratio for a thermal reactor is solved by treating the fertile and fissile material absorption densities as controllers. The optimal core configurations are found to consist of three fuel zones for a bare assembly and two fuel zones for a reflected assembly. The optimum fissile material density is determined to be inversely proportional to the thermal flux

  7. To Be or Not To Be T4: Evidence of a Complex Evolutionary Pathway of Head Structure and Assembly in Giant Salmonella Virus SPN3US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazla Ali

    2017-11-01

    proteins is not always a stable/defining feature. Our identification in SPN3US, and related phages, of a diverged paralog to the prohead protease further hints toward a complicated evolutionary pathway for giant phage head structure and assembly.

  8. Growth kinetics in multicomponent fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Lookman, T.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrodynamic effects on the late-stage kinetics in spinodal decomposition of multicomponent fluids are examined using a lattice Boltzmann scheme with stochastic fluctuations in the fluid and at the interface. In two dimensions, the three- and four-component immiscible fluid mixture (with a 1024 2 lattice) behaves like an off-critical binary fluid with an estimated domain growth of t 0.4 +/= 0.03 rather than t 1/3 as previously estimated, showing the significant influence of hydrodynamics. In three dimensions (with a 256 3 lattice), we estimate the growth as t 0.96 +/= 0.05 for both critical and off-critical quenches, in agreement with phenomenological theory

  9. The multi-component WKI hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yuqin; Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    Firstly a new loop algebra G∼ M with 3M dimensions is constructed, which is devoted to establishing a new isospectral problem. Then the multi-component WKI hierarchy of soliton equations is obtained

  10. Novel energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... Abstract. In this paper, we discuss the fascinating energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons in certain incoherently coupled and coherently coupled nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations arising in the context of nonlinear optics.

  11. High Pressure Multicomponent Adsorption in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  12. A multi-component matrix loop algebra and a unified expression of the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and the multi-component BPT hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    A set of multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed, which is devote to obtaining a new loop algebra A-bar M-1 . It follows that an isospectral problem is established. By making use of Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multi-component hierarchy of soliton equations is generated, which possesses the bi-Hamiltonian structures. As its reduction cases, the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and the formalism of the multi-component BPT hierarchy are given, respectively

  13. A multiple multicomponent approach to chimeric peptide-peptoid podands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Daniel G; León, Fredy; Concepción, Odette; Morales, Fidel E; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2013-05-10

    The success of multi-armed, peptide-based receptors in supramolecular chemistry traditionally is not only based on the sequence but equally on an appropriate positioning of various peptidic chains to create a multivalent array of binding elements. As a faster, more versatile and alternative access toward (pseudo)peptidic receptors, a new approach based on multiple Ugi four-component reactions (Ugi-4CR) is proposed as a means of simultaneously incorporating several binding and catalytic elements into organizing scaffolds. By employing α-amino acids either as the amino or acid components of the Ugi-4CRs, this multiple multicomponent process allows for the one-pot assembly of podands bearing chimeric peptide-peptoid chains as appended arms. Tripodal, bowl-shaped, and concave polyfunctional skeletons are employed as topologically varied platforms for positioning the multiple peptidic chains formed by Ugi-4CRs. In a similar approach, steroidal building blocks with several axially-oriented isocyano groups are synthesized and utilized to align the chimeric chains with conformational constrains, thus providing an alternative to the classical peptido-steroidal receptors. The branched and hybrid peptide-peptoid appendages allow new possibilities for both rational design and combinatorial production of synthetic receptors. The concept is also expandable to other multicomponent reactions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Diclofenac Sodium Loaded Multicomponent Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, Lila; Viitanen, Petrus; Ashammakhi, Nureddin

    2008-02-01

    Earlier we have reported on developing DS releasing bioabsorbable rods for inhibition of osteolysis [l]. Due to their unsatisfactory drug release profiles we assessed the use of sintering technique of enhancement of drug release in the current study. Melt extruded PLGA 80/20 rods were compounded 8 wt-% DS. Some rods were self reinforced (SR) and some of them were sterilized to get three different components with different drug release profiles. Different rods were sintered together with heat and pressure. Three different specimen groups with different construction were studied. Thermal properties were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Changes of IV were performed with capillary analysis and drug release measurements with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Mechanical strength were measured two weeks, when disintegration occurred. Release rate consisted of 1) sharp jump start peak, 2) second smoother peak, and 3) third smooth peak. Released DS concentrations reached local therapeutic levels and maintained at that stage for 24-36 days. All DS was released during 50-70 days. The drug release from multicomponent implant was more stable and commenced earlier than from initial rods. Such properties were favored ones. Initial shear strength was 82 MPa and it decreased to 15 MPa. The mechanical bonding was sufficient although the components disintegrated relatively fast. By sintering different PLGA/DS components with different release rates it is possible to construct a truly controlled release implant for bone fixation with anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Theory of multicomponent disordered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, I.A.; Margolych, I.F.

    1988-01-01

    The method of functional integration is used to investigate a topologically disordered multicomponent system of magnetic atoms with Heisenberg exchange interaction. The partition function for a fixed random configuration of the atoms is represented as a functional integral over fluctuations of the magnetization. The first few coefficient functions are calculated in the functional series that represents the free energy functional. The magnetic part of the free energy for the liquid and amorphous states is obtained in the random phase approximation. The structure factor of the liquid magnet is calculated. For a two-component system, the nature of its variation is investigated, and so too is the shift of the point of thermodynamic instability of the liquid under the influence of a magnetic field. The Curie temperature of an amorphous two-species ferromagnet is found with allowance for the magnetic fluctuations and the topological disorder. For a model system with disorder of liquid type modeled by the structure factor of hard spheres an explicit analytic expression is calculated for the concentration dependence of the temperature of ferromagnetic ordering

  16. The Rab GTPase Rab8 as a shared regulator of ciliogenesis and immune synapse assembly: From a conserved pathway to diverse cellular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrussi, Laura; Baldari, Cosima T

    2016-01-01

    Rab GTPases, which form the largest branch of the Ras GTPase superfamily, regulate almost every step of vesicle-mediated trafficking. Among them, Rab8 is an essential participant in primary cilium formation. In a report recently published in the Journal of Cell Science, Finetti and colleagues identify Rab8 as a novel player in vesicular traffic in the non-ciliated T lymphocytes, which contributes to the assembly of the specialized signaling platform known as the immune synapse. By interacting with the v-SNARE VAMP-3, Rab8 is indeed responsible for the final docking/fusion step in T cell receptor (TCR) recycling to the immune synapse. A second important take-home message which comes to light from this work is that VAMP-3 also interacts with Rab8 at the base of the cilium in NIH-3T3 cells, where it regulates ciliary growth and targeting of Smoothened at the plasma membrane. Hence the data presented in this report, in addition to identifying Rab8 as a novel player in vesicular traffic to the immune synapse, reveal how both ciliated and non-ciliated cells take advantage of a conserved pathway to build highly specific cellular structures.

  17. Multicomponent patterned ultrathin carbon nanomembranes by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Natalie; Scherr, Julian; Beyer, André; Terfort, Andreas; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Hampp, Norbert; Rhinow, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) are a class of two-dimensional materials, which are obtained by electron beam-induced crosslinking of aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on solid substrates. CNMs made from a single type of precursor molecule are uniform with homogeneous chemical and physical properties. We have developed a method for the fabrication of internally patterned CNMs resembling a key feature of biological membranes. Direct laser patterning is used to obtain multicomponent patterned SAMs on gold, which are subsequently crosslinked by electron irradiation. We demonstrate that the structure of internally patterned CNMs is preserved upon transfer to different substrates. The method enables rapid fabrication of patterned 2D materials with local variations in chemical and physical properties on the micrometer to centimeter scale.

  18. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a biologically active functionalized electrospun matrix to permit immobilization and long-term delivery of biologically active agents. In particular the invention relates to a functionalized polymer matrix comprising a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin. Examples of active molecules that may be used with the multicomponent polymer of the invention include, for example, a drug, a biopolymer, for example a growth factor, a protein, a peptide, a nucleotide, a polysaccharide, a biological macromolecule or the like. The invention is further directed to the formation of functionalized crosslinked matrices, such as hydrogels, that include at least one functionalized compatibilizing polymer capable of assembly.

  19. Multicomponent liquid ion exchange with chabazite zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Byers, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In spite of the increasing commercial use of zeolites for binary and multicomponent sorption, the understanding of the basic mass-transfer processes associated with multicomponent zeolite ion-exchange systems is quite limited. This study was undertaken to evaluate Na-Ca-Mg-Cs-Sr ion exchange from an aqueous solution using a chabazite zeolite. Mass-transfer coefficients and equilibrium equations were determined from experimental batch-reactor data for single and multicomponent systems. The Langmuir isotherm was used to represent the equilibrium relationship for binary systems, and a modified Dubinin-Polyani model was used for the multicomponent systems. The experimental data indicate that diffusion through the microporous zeolite crystals is the primary diffusional resistance. Macropore diffusion also significantly contributes to the mass-transfer resistance. Various mass-transfer models were compared to the experimental data to determine mass-transfer coefficients. Effective diffusivities were obtained which accurately predicted experimental data using a variety of models. Only the model which accounts for micropore and macropore diffusion occurring in series accurately predicted multicomponent data using single-component diffusivities. Liquid and surface diffusion both contribute to macropore diffusion. Surface and micropore diffusivities were determined to be concentration dependent

  20. Transport processes in multicomponent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zissis, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This book treats in detail, as indicated in the title, the transport phenomena in multicomponent plasmas. Here, the term 'transport' applies to the study of mass and energy transfer in plasmas due to the interactions between pairs of particles only. Radiation is legitimately omitted; anyway, radiative transfer is another field of study. As the author himself mentions in the introduction, 'the term multicomponent plasma implies a partially or fully ionized mixture of arbitrary number of species of neutral and charged particles satisfying the condition of quasi-neutrality'. In fact, this book treats a large variety of plasmas applying to different systems ranging from low-pressure systems which may be far from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions, to thermal plasmas in LTE or near-LTE states with special attention to two-temperature systems; partially ionized plasmas with low ionization degree for which electron-neutral interactions are predominant, to systems with higher ionization degrees in which charged particle interactions are no more negligible. In addition, for all the above stated situations, the author treats both plasmas which are subjected to an external electromagnetic field and those which are not (homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases). Furthermore, in the last chapters a special discussion concerning molecular plasmas is presented. Taking into account the evolution of plasma modelling in the last few years, the subject is of current interest and the reader will find in the book a large amount of information necessary for a good understanding of transport phenomena in plasmas: for a plasma simulation specialist, this book may be regarded as reference text, which includes all necessary mathematical relations for his work. However, it should not be considered a simple formulary; the reader will also find here an excellent description of the theoretical basis necessary for the derivation of all given expressions. To this point of view

  1. Strategies for innovation in multicomponent reaction design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganem, Bruce

    2009-03-17

    By generating structural complexity in a single step from three or more reactants, multicomponent reactions (MCRs) make it possible to synthesize target compounds with greater efficiency and atom economy. The history of such reactions can be traced to the mid-19th century when Strecker first produced alpha-aminonitriles from the condensation of aldehydes with ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. Recently, academic chemists have renewed their interest in MCRs. In part, the pharmaceutical industry has fueled this resurgence because of the growing need to assemble libraries of structurally complex substances for evaluation as lead compounds in drug discovery and development programs. The application of MCRs to that increasingly important objective remains limited by the relatively small number of such reactions that can be broadly applied to prepare biologically relevant or natural-product-like molecular frameworks. We were interested in applying logic-based approaches, such as our single reactant replacement (SRR) approach, as a way both to improve known MCRs and to design new multiple-component routes to bioactive structures. This Account provides several examples that illustrate the use of SRR with known MCRs as starting points for synthetic innovation in this area. As part of our working hypothesis, we initially explored strategies for engineering improvements into known MCRs, either by increasing the dimensionality--that is, changing an n-component to an (n + 1)-component reaction--or broadening the scope of useful input structures, or both. By exhaustively applying retrosynthetic analysis to the cognate MCR to identify and exploit alternative entry points into the overall reaction manifold, we have devised several such re-engineered MCRs. Serendipitous findings have also augmented the yield of useful developments from our logic-inspired approach. In some cases, we have identified surprising links between different compound families that provide useful new entry points

  2. Numerical modeling of a vaporizing multicomponent droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Sirignano, W. A.

    The fundamental processes governing the energy, mass, and momentum exchange between the liquid and gas phases of vaporizing, multicomponent liquid droplets have been investigated. The axisymmetric configuration under consideration consists of an isolated multicomponent droplet vaporizing in a convective environment. The model considers different volatilities of the liquid components, variable liquid properties due to variation of the species concentrations, and non-Fickian multicomponent gaseous diffusion. The bicomponent droplet model was employed to examine the commonly used assumptions of unity Lewis number in the liquid phase and Fickian gaseous diffusion. It is found that the droplet drag coefficients, the vaporization rates, and the related transfer numbers are not influenced by the above assumptions in a significant way.

  3. Benchmarks for multicomponent diffusion and electrochemical migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasouli, Pejman; Steefel, Carl I.; Mayer, K. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In multicomponent electrolyte solutions, the tendency of ions to diffuse at different rates results in a charge imbalance that is counteracted by the electrostatic coupling between charged species leading to a process called “electrochemical migration” or “electromigration.” Although not commonly...... not been published to date. This contribution provides a set of three benchmark problems that demonstrate the effect of electric coupling during multicomponent diffusion and electrochemical migration and at the same time facilitate the intercomparison of solutions from existing reactive transport codes...

  4. Multiphase, multicomponent phase behavior prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadmohammadi, Younas

    Accurate prediction of phase behavior of fluid mixtures in the chemical industry is essential for designing and operating a multitude of processes. Reliable generalized predictions of phase equilibrium properties, such as pressure, temperature, and phase compositions offer an attractive alternative to costly and time consuming experimental measurements. The main purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of recently generalized activity coefficient models based on binary experimental data to (a) predict binary and ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium systems, and (b) characterize liquid-liquid equilibrium systems. These studies were completed using a diverse binary VLE database consisting of 916 binary and 86 ternary systems involving 140 compounds belonging to 31 chemical classes. Specifically the following tasks were undertaken: First, a comprehensive assessment of the two common approaches (gamma-phi (gamma-ϕ) and phi-phi (ϕ-ϕ)) used for determining the phase behavior of vapor-liquid equilibrium systems is presented. Both the representation and predictive capabilities of these two approaches were examined, as delineated form internal and external consistency tests of 916 binary systems. For the purpose, the universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) model and the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) were used in this assessment. Second, the efficacy of recently developed generalized UNIQUAC and the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) for predicting multicomponent VLE systems were investigated. Third, the abilities of recently modified NRTL model (mNRTL2 and mNRTL1) to characterize liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) phase conditions and attributes, including phase stability, miscibility, and consolute point coordinates, were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the ϕ-ϕ approach represents the binary VLE systems considered within three times the error of the gamma-ϕ approach. A similar trend was observed for the for the generalized model predictions using

  5. Rogue waves in the multicomponent Mel'nikov system and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By virtue of the bilinear method and the KP hierarchy reduction technique, exact explicit rational solutions of the multicomponent Mel'nikov equation and the multicomponent Schrödinger–Boussinesq equation are constructed, which contain multicomponent short waves and single-component long wave. For the ...

  6. Strategies for Innovation in Multicomponent Reaction Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ganem, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    By generating structural complexity in a single step from three or more reactants, multicomponent reactions (MCRs) make it possible to synthesize target compounds with greater efficiency and atom economy. The history of such reactions can be traced to the mid-nineteenth century when Strecker first produced α-aminonitriles from the condensation of aldehydes with ammonia and hydrogen cyanide.

  7. Novel energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    optical communication and in artificial metamaterials. ... multicomponent generalization of Manakov system have been obtained by Kanna et al .... The main objective of the present paper is to give a clear picture of various energy ... occur as a consequence of energy exchange between the two colliding solitons as well as.

  8. Multicomponent density functional theory embedding formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culpitt, Tanner; Brorsen, Kurt R.; Pak, Michael V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon, E-mail: shs3@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Ave, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Multicomponent density functional theory (DFT) methods have been developed to treat two types of particles, such as electrons and nuclei, quantum mechanically at the same level. In the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) approach, all electrons and select nuclei, typically key protons, are treated quantum mechanically. For multicomponent DFT methods developed within the NEO framework, electron-proton correlation functionals based on explicitly correlated wavefunctions have been designed and used in conjunction with well-established electronic exchange-correlation functionals. Herein a general theory for multicomponent embedded DFT is developed to enable the accurate treatment of larger systems. In the general theory, the total electronic density is separated into two subsystem densities, denoted as regular and special, and different electron-proton correlation functionals are used for these two electronic densities. In the specific implementation, the special electron density is defined in terms of spatially localized Kohn-Sham electronic orbitals, and electron-proton correlation is included only for the special electron density. The electron-proton correlation functional depends on only the special electron density and the proton density, whereas the electronic exchange-correlation functional depends on the total electronic density. This scheme includes the essential electron-proton correlation, which is a relatively local effect, as well as the electronic exchange-correlation for the entire system. This multicomponent DFT-in-DFT embedding theory is applied to the HCN and FHF{sup −} molecules in conjunction with two different electron-proton correlation functionals and three different electronic exchange-correlation functionals. The results illustrate that this approach provides qualitatively accurate nuclear densities in a computationally tractable manner. The general theory is also easily extended to other types of partitioning schemes for multicomponent systems.

  9. Identification of a specific assembly of the G protein Golf as a critical and regulated module of dopamine and adenosine-activated cAMP pathways in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eHervé

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the principal neurons of striatum (medium spiny neurons, MSNs, cAMP pathway is primarily activated through the stimulation of dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors, these receptors being mainly expressed in striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, respectively. Since cAMP signaling pathway could be altered in various physiological and pathological situations, including drug addiction and Parkinson’s disease, it is of crucial importance to identify the molecular components involved in the activation of this pathway. In MSNs, cAMP pathway activation is not dependent on the classical Gs GTP-binding protein but requires a specific G protein subunit heterotrimer containing Galpha-olf/beta2/gamma7 in particular association with adenylate cyclase type 5. This assembly forms an authentic functional signaling unit since loss of one of its members leads to defects of cAMP pathway activation in response to D1 or A2A receptor stimulation, inducing dramatic impairments of behavioral responses dependent on these receptors. Interestingly, D1 receptor-dependent cAMP signaling is modulated by the neuronal levels of Galpha-olf, indicating that Galpha-olf represents the rate-limiting step in this signaling cascade and could constitute a critical element for regulation of D1 receptor responses. In both Parkinsonian patients and several animal models of Parkinson’s disease, the lesion of dopamine neurons produces a prolonged elevation of Galpha-olf levels. This observation gives an explanation for the cAMP pathway hypersensitivity to D1 stimulation, occurring despite an unaltered D1 receptor density. In conclusion, alterations in the highly specialized assembly of Galpha-olf/beta2/gamma7 subunits can happen in pathological conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease, and it could have important functional consequences in relation to changes in D1 receptor signaling in the striatum.

  10. Stoichiometric control of multiple different tectons in coordination-driven self-assembly: preparation of fused metallacyclic polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junseong; Ghosh, Koushik; Stang, Peter J

    2009-09-02

    We present a general strategy for the synthesis of stable, multicomponent fused polygon complexes in which coordination-driven self-assembly allows for single supramolecular species to be formed from multicomponent self-assembly and the shape of the obtained polygons can be controlled simply by changing the ratio of individual components. The compounds have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  11. Multi-component lightweight gearwheels with deep-drawn wheel body for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkert, Tim; Hiller, Maria; Volk, Wolfram

    2017-09-01

    Multi-component gearwheels offer great lightweight opportunities for automotive applications. An assembly of a gear ring and a wheel body joined by press fit replaces the monolithic gearwheel. To save weight, the wheel body uses lightweight design. This lightweight design influences the assembled gearwheel’s mechanical properties like stiffness, weight and torque capacity. Further, the wheel body material influences the mentioned properties as well. In this paper, the effects of the lightweight wheel body manufactured by deep-drawing on the mechanical properties of the assembled gearwheel are investigated. Three different wheel body designs are examined regarding their stiffness and weight compared to a reference gearwheel. Using the best design, the influence of five materials with increasing yield strength on the maximum torque the gearwheel can transmit is studied. All research is done virtually using Abaqus 6.12-3.

  12. Form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambui Mutoru, J.; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Irreversible thermodynamics establishes form of multicomponent diffusion coefficients. → Phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors affect sign of diffusion coefficients. → Negative diagonal elements of diffusion coefficients matrix can occur in non-ideal mixtures. → Eigenvalues of the matrix of Fickian diffusion coefficients may not be all real. - Abstract: The form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix in thermodynamically stable mixtures is established based on the form of phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors. While phenomenological coefficients form a symmetric positive definite matrix, the determinant of thermodynamic factors matrix is positive. As a result, the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix has a positive determinant, but its elements - including diagonal elements - can be negative. Comprehensive survey of reported diffusion coefficients data for ternary and quaternary mixtures, confirms that invariably the determinant of the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix is positive.

  13. Multicomponent isotopic separation and recirculation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.; Maroni, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    A digital computer program for design of multicomponent distillation columns has been developed based on an exact method of solution of the governing equations. Although this computer program was developed for enrichment of the spent fuels from presently conceived tokamak-type fusion power reactors by cryogenic distillation, the program can be used for the design of any multicomponent distillation column, provided, of course, the necessary thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data are available. To prove the versatility of the computer program, parametric investigations to study the effect of design and operating variables on the composition of the product streams was carried out for the case of separating hydrogen isotopes. The computer program is very efficient; hence, a number of parametric investigations can be carried out with limited resources. The program does, however, require a fairly large computer storage space

  14. Novel Reagents for Multi-Component Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanguang; Basso, Andrea; Nenajdenko, Valentine G.; Gulevich, Anton V.; Krasavin, Mikhail; Bushkova, Ekaterina; Parchinsky, Vladislav; Banfi, Luca; Basso, Andrea; Cerulli, Valentina; Guanti, Giuseppe; Riva, Renata; Rozentsveig, Igor B.; Rozentsveig, Gulnur N.; Popov, Aleksandr V.; Serykh, Valeriy J.; Levkovskaya, Galina G.; Cao, Song; Shen, Li; Liu, Nianjin; Wu, Jingjing; Li, Lina; Qian, Xuhong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Jinwu; Wang, Yanguang; Lu, Ping; Heravi, Majid M.; Sadjadi, Samaheh; Kazemizadeh, Ali Reza; Ramazani, Ali; Kudyakova, Yulia S.; Goryaeva, Marina V.; Burgart, Yanina V.; Saloutin, Victor I.; Mossetti, Riccardo; Pirali, Tracey; Tron, Gian Cesare; Rozhkova, Yulia S.; Mayorova, Olga A.; Shklyaev, Yuriy V.; Zhdanko, Alexander G.; Nenajdenko, Valentine G.; Stryapunina, Olga G.; Plekhanova, Irina V.; Glushkov, Vladimir A.; Shklyaev, Yurii V.

    Ketenimines are a class of versatile and highly reactive intermediates that can participate in a variety of organic reactions, such as nucleophilic additions, radical additions, [2 + 2] and [2 + 4] cycloadditions, and sigmatropic rearrangements. In this presentation, we report on a series of multi-component reactions that involve a ketenimine intermediate. These reactions could furnish diverse heterocyclic compounds, including functionalized iminocoumarin, iminodihydroqunolines, iminothiochromens, pyrrolines, isoquinolines, pyridines, β-lactams, imino-1,2-dihydrocoumarins, and benzimidazoles.

  15. Multi-component optical solitary waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Thermodiffusion in multicomponent n-alkane mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliero, Guillaume; Bataller, Henri; Bazile, Jean-Patrick; Diaz, Joseph; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Hoang, Hai; Vermorel, Romain; Artola, Pierre-Arnaud; Rousseau, Bernard; Vesovic, Velisa; Bou-Ali, M Mounir; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Xu, Shenghua; Zhang, Ke; Montel, François; Verga, Antonio; Minster, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Compositional grading within a mixture has a strong impact on the evaluation of the pre-exploitation distribution of hydrocarbons in underground layers and sediments. Thermodiffusion, which leads to a partial diffusive separation of species in a mixture due to the geothermal gradient, is thought to play an important role in determining the distribution of species in a reservoir. However, despite recent progress, thermodiffusion is still difficult to measure and model in multicomponent mixtures. In this work, we report on experimental investigations of the thermodiffusion of multicomponent n -alkane mixtures at pressure above 30 MPa. The experiments have been conducted in space onboard the Shi Jian 10 spacecraft so as to isolate the studied phenomena from convection. For the two exploitable cells, containing a ternary liquid mixture and a condensate gas, measurements have shown that the lightest and heaviest species had a tendency to migrate, relatively to the rest of the species, to the hot and cold region, respectively. These trends have been confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. The measured condensate gas data have been used to quantify the influence of thermodiffusion on the initial fluid distribution of an idealised one dimension reservoir. The results obtained indicate that thermodiffusion tends to noticeably counteract the influence of gravitational segregation on the vertical distribution of species, which could result in an unstable fluid column. This confirms that, in oil and gas reservoirs, the availability of thermodiffusion data for multicomponent mixtures is crucial for a correct evaluation of the initial state fluid distribution.

  17. Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, B.; Chang, I.T.H.; Knight, P.; Vincent, A.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Multicomponent alloys containing several components in equal atomic proportions have been manufactured by casting and melt spinning, and their microstructures and properties have been investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffractrometry and microhardness measurements. Alloys containing 16 and 20 components in equal proportions are multiphase, crystalline and brittle both as-cast and after melt spinning. A five component Fe 20 Cr 20 Mn 20 Ni 20 Co 20 alloy forms a single fcc solid solution which solidifies dendritically. A wide range of other six to nine component late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys exhibit the same majority fcc primary dendritic phase, which can dissolve substantial amounts of other transition metals such as Nb, Ti and V. More electronegative elements such as Cu and Ge are less stable in the fcc dendrites and are rejected into the interdendritic regions. The total number of phases is always well below the maximum equilibrium number allowed by the Gibbs phase rule, and even further below the maximum number allowed under non-equilibrium solidification conditions. Glassy structures are not formed by casting or melt spinning of late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys, indicating that the confusion principle does not apply, and other factors are more important in promoting glass formation

  18. Multicomponent droplet vaporization in a convecting environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaridis, C.M.; Sirignano, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a parametric study of the fundamental exchange processes for energy, mass and momentum between the liquid and gas phases of multicomponent liquid vaporizing droplets is presented. The model, which examines an isolated, vaporizing, multicomponent droplet in an axisymmetric, convecting environment, considers the different volatilities of the liquid components, the alteration of the liquid-phase properties due to the spatial/temporal variations of the species concentrations and also the effects of multicomponent diffusion. In addition, the model accounts for variable thermophysical properties, surface blowing and droplet surface regression due to vaporization, transient droplet heating with internal liquid circulation, and finally droplet deceleration with respect to the free flow due to drag. The numerical calculation employs finite-difference techniques and an iterative solution procedure that provides time-varying spatially-resolved data for both phases. The effects of initial droplet composition, ambient temperature, initial Reynolds number (based on droplet diameter), and volatility differential between the two liquid components are investigated for a liquid droplet consisting of two components with very different volatilities. It is found that mixtures with higher concentration of the less volatile substance actually vaporize faster on account of intrinsically higher liquid heating rates

  19. Multicomponent diffusion in two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    A recent hydrodynamic theory of multicomponent diffusion in multitemperature gas mixtures [J. D. Ramshaw, J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 18, 121 (1993)] is generalized to include the velocity-dependent Lorentz force on charged species in a magnetic field B. This generalization is used to extend a previous treatment of ambipolar diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas [J. D. Ramshaw and C. H. Chang, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 13, 489 (1993)] to situations in which B and the electrical current density are nonzero. General expressions are thereby derived for the species diffusion fluxes, including thermal diffusion, in both single- and two-temperature multicomponent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is shown that the usual zero-field form of the Stefan-Maxwell equations can be preserved in the presence of B by introducing generalized binary diffusion tensors dependent on B. A self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation is presented that provides explicit approximate expressions for the diffusion fluxes. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are exploited to obtain an ideal MHD description in which the electron diffusion coefficients drop out, resistive effects vanish, and the electric field reduces to a particularly simple form. This description should be well suited for numerical calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. The PprA-PprB two-component system activates CupE, the first non-archetypal Pseudomonas aeruginosa chaperione-usher pathway system assembling fimbriae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraud, Caroline; Bernard, Christophe S.; Calderon, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    - and chaperone-encoding genes. This locus, widely conserved in different bacterial species, contains four additional genes encoding non-archetypal fimbrial subunits. We first evidenced that the cupE gene cluster was specifically expressed in biofilm conditions and was responsible for fibre assembly containing...

  1. Multicomponent Reactions in Ligation and Bioconjugation Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Leslie; Méndez, Yanira; Humpierre, Ana R; Valdés, Oscar; Rivera, Daniel G

    2018-05-25

    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) encompass an exciting class of chemical transformations that have proven success in almost all fields of synthetic organic chemistry. These convergent procedures incorporate three or more reactants into a final product in one pot, thus combining high levels of complexity and diversity generation with low synthetic cost. Striking applications of these processes are found in heterocycle, peptidomimetic, and natural product syntheses. However, their potential in the preparation of large macro- and biomolecular constructs has been realized just recently. This Account describes the most relevant results of our group in the utilization of MCRs for ligation/conjugation of biomolecules along with significant contributions from other laboratories that validate the utility of this special class of bioconjugation process. Thus, MCRs have proven to be efficient in the ligation of lipids to peptides and oligosaccharides as well as the ligation of steroids, carbohydrates, and fluorescent and affinity tags to peptides and proteins. In the field of glycolipids, we highlight the power of isocyanide-based MCRs with the one-pot double lipidation of glycan fragments functionalized as either the carboxylic acid or amine. In peptide chemistry, the versatility of the multicomponent ligation strategy is demonstrated in both solution-phase lipidation protocols and solid-phase procedures enabling the simultaneous lipidation and biotinylation of peptides. In addition, we show that MCRs are powerful methods for synchronized lipidation/labeling and macrocyclization of peptides, thus accomplishing in one step what usually requires long sequences. In the realm of protein bioconjugation, MCRs have also proven to be effective in labeling, site-selective modification, immobilization, and glycoconjugation processes. For example, we illustrate a successful application of multicomponent polysaccharide-protein conjugation with the preparation of multivalent

  2. Two New Multi-component BKP Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongxia; Liu Xiaojun; Zeng Yunbo

    2009-01-01

    We firstly propose two kinds of new multi-component BKP (mcBKP) hierarchy based on the eigenfunction symmetry reduction and nonstandard reduction, respectively. The first one contains two types of BKP equation with self-consistent sources whose Lax representations are presented. The two mcBKP hierarchies both admit reductions to the k-constrained BKP hierarchy and to integrable (1+1)-dimensional hierarchy with self-consistent sources, which include two types of SK equation with self-consistent sources and of bi-directional SK equations with self-consistent sources.

  3. Phonon excitations in multicomponent amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, I.A.; Migal', V.M.; Tkachuk, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The method of two-time temperature-dependent Green's functions is used to investigate phonon excitations in multicomponent amorphous solids. The equation obtained for the energy spectrum of the phonon excitations takes into account the damping associated with scattering of phonons by structure fluctuations. The quasicrystal approximation is considered, and as an example explicit expressions are obtained for the case of a two-component amorphous solid for the frequencies of the acoustical and optical modes and for the longitudinal and transverse velocities of sound. The damping is investigated

  4. Thermochemical modelling of multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundman, B.; Gueneau, C.

    2015-01-01

    Computational thermodynamic, also known as the Calphad method, is a standard tool in industry for the development of materials and improving processes and there is an intense scientific development of new models and databases. The calculations are based on thermodynamic models of the Gibbs energy for each phase as a function of temperature, pressure and constitution. Model parameters are stored in databases that are developed in an international scientific collaboration. In this way, consistent and reliable data for many properties like heat capacity, chemical potentials, solubilities etc. can be obtained for multi-component systems. A brief introduction to this technique is given here and references to more extensive documentation are provided. (authors)

  5. Producing of multicomponent and composite surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchon, T.; Bielinski, P.; Michalski, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a new method of producing multicomponent and composite layers on steel substrate. The combination of nickel plating with glow-discharge bordering or impulse-plasma deposition method gives an opportunity to obtain good properties of surface layers. The results of examinations of carbon 45 (0.45%C) steel, nickel plated and then borided under glow discharge conditions or covered with TiN layers are presented. The corrosion and friction wear resistance of such layers are markedly higher than for layer produced on non nickel plated substrates. (author). 19 refs, 5 figs

  6. Contact angle determination in multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmieschek, S.M.P.; Harting, J.D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Droplets on hydrophobic surfaces are ubiquitous in microfluidic applications and there exists a number of commonly used multicomponent and multiphase lattice Boltzmann schemes to study such systems. In this paper we focus on a popular implementation of a multicomponent model as introduced by Shan

  7. Temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.M.; Koval'chuk, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Method for calculating temperature dependence of nitrogen solubility in iron base multicomponent melts is suggested. Application areas of existing methods were determined and advantages of the new method for calculating nitrogen solubility in multicomponent-doped iron melts (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo, Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn, Fe-Mo-V) at 1773-2073 K are shown

  8. Capabilities and limitations of predictive engineering theories for multicomponent adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Sofie; Bjørner, Martin Gamel; Solbraa, Even

    2013-01-01

    for the prediction of multicomponent adsorption with parameters obtained solely from correlating single gas/solid data. We have tested them over an extensive database with emphasis on polar systems (both gases and solids). The three theories are the multicomponent Langmuir, the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST...

  9. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohm, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, deceased, Paul Nigel

    2007-10-09

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  10. Theory and Simulation of Multicomponent Osmotic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaweera, Sadish; Gee, Moon Bae; Weerasinghe, Samantha; Smith, Paul E

    2012-05-28

    Most cellular processes occur in systems containing a variety of components many of which are open to material exchange. However, computer simulations of biological systems are almost exclusively performed in systems closed to material exchange. In principle, the behavior of biomolecules in open and closed systems will be different. Here, we provide a rigorous framework for the analysis of experimental and simulation data concerning open and closed multicomponent systems using the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions. The results are illustrated using computer simulations for various concentrations of the solutes Gly, Gly(2) and Gly(3) in both open and closed systems, and in the absence or presence of NaCl as a cosolvent. In addition, KB theory is used to help rationalize the aggregation properties of the solutes. Here one observes that the picture of solute association described by the KB integrals, which are directly related to the solution thermodynamics, and that provided by more physical clustering approaches are different. It is argued that the combination of KB theory and simulation data provides a simple and powerful tool for the analysis of complex multicomponent open and closed systems.

  11. Phase formation in multicomponent monotectic aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Alloys with a miscibility gap in the liquid state are potential materials for advanced bearings in automotive and other applications. While binary alloys, such as Al-Pb or Al-Bi, are well known, the information available for ternary monotectic Al-alloys is scarce. However, the phase formation in multicomponent alloys is not only more challenging from a scientific aspect, it is also a prerequisite for a focused development of advanced alloys. This motivated our detailed study of monotectic Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys including both experimental and computational thermodynamic methods. Based on the initially established systematic classification of monotectic ternary Al-alloys, the first promising monotectic reaction was observed in the ternary Al-Bi-Zn system. Further ternary systems Al-Cu-Sn, Al-Bi-Sn, Al-Bi-Cu and Bi-Cu-Sn were investigated as basis for quaternary Al-Bi-Cu-Sn alloys. Experimental investigations of phase equilibria, enthalpies and solidification microstructures were combined with thermodynamic modeling. The results demonstrate that the developed precise thermodynamic description is vital to reveal the distinct multicomponent monotectic features of pertinent phase diagrams. The solidification paths of ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, were also studied using thermodynamic calculations, revealing specific details of phase formation during solidification of selected alloys.

  12. Bi-continuous Multi-component Nanocrystal Superlattices for Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie [University of Pennsylvania; Murray, Christopher [University of Pennsylvania; Kikkawa, James [University of Pennsylvania; Engheta, Nader [University of Pennsylvania

    2017-06-14

    Our SISGR program studied an emerging class of nanomaterials wherein different combinations of semiconductor or semiconductor and plasmonic nanocrystals (NCs) are self-assembled into three-dimensional multi-component superlattices. The NC assemblies were designed to form bicontinuous semiconductor NC sublattices with type-II energy offsets to drive charge separation onto electron and hole transporting sublattices for collection and introduce plasmonic NCs to increase solar absorption and charge separation. Our group is expert in synthesizing and assembling an extraordinary variety of artificial systems by tailoring the NC building blocks and the superlattice unit cell geometry. Under this DOE BES Materials Chemistry program, we introduced chemical methods to control inter-particle distance and to dope NC assemblies, which enabled our demonstration of strong electronic communication between NCs and the use of NC thin films as electronic materials. We synthesized, assembled and structurally, spectroscopically, and electrically probed NC superlattices to understand and manipulate the flow of energy and charge toward discovering the design rules and optimizing these complex architectures to create materials that efficiently convert solar radiation into electricity.

  13. Bacteriophage Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Aksyuk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  14. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of gaseous fission products released from fuel assemblies stored in an fbr type reactor. Constitution; A cap provided with means capable of storing gas is adapted to amount to the assembly handling head, for example, by way of threading in a storage rack of spent fuel assemblies consisting of a bottom plate, a top plate and an assembly support mechanism. By previously eliminating the gas inside of the assembly and the cap in the storage rack, gaseous fission products upon loading, if released from fuel rods during storage, are stored in the cap and do not scatter in the storage rack. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  16. CRA-1 uncovers a double-strand break-dependent pathway promoting the assembly of central region proteins on chromosome axes during C. elegans meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolikov, Sarit; Schild-Prüfert, Kristina; Colaiácovo, Mónica P

    2008-06-06

    The synaptonemal complex (SC), a tripartite proteinaceous structure that forms between homologous chromosomes during meiosis, is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation. Here we identify CRA-1, a novel and conserved protein that is required for the assembly of the central region of the SC during C. elegans meiosis. In the absence of CRA-1, central region components fail to extensively localize onto chromosomes at early prophase and instead mostly surround the chromatin at this stage. Later in prophase, central region proteins polymerize along chromosome axes, but for the most part fail to connect the axes of paired homologous chromosomes. This defect results in an inability to stabilize homologous pairing interactions, altered double-strand break (DSB) repair progression, and a lack of chiasmata. Surprisingly, DSB formation and repair are required to promote the polymerization of the central region components along meiotic chromosome axes in cra-1 mutants. In the absence of both CRA-1 and any one of the C. elegans homologs of SPO11, MRE11, RAD51, or MSH5, the polymerization observed along chromosome axes is perturbed, resulting in the formation of aggregates of the SC central region proteins. While radiation-induced DSBs rescue this polymerization in cra-1; spo-11 mutants, they fail to do so in cra-1; mre-11, cra-1; rad-51, and cra-1; msh-5 mutants. Taken together, our studies place CRA-1 as a key component in promoting the assembly of a tripartite SC structure. Moreover, they reveal a scenario in which DSB formation and repair can drive the polymerization of SC components along chromosome axes in C. elegans.

  17. Reaction path simulations in multicomponent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method is used in combination with selected experimental investigations to derive reaction paths in multicomponent systems. The method is illustrated by applying computerized thermodynamic databases and suitable software to explain quantitatively the thermal degradation of precursor-derived Si-C-N ceramics and the nitridation of titanium carbide. Reaction sequences in the Si 3 N 4 -SiC-TiC x N l-x -C-N system are illustrated by graphical representation of compatibility regions and indicated reaction paths. From these results the experimentally known microstructure development of TiC reinforced Si 3 N 4 ceramics is explained and quantitative information is provided to optimize the microstructure of such materials. The concept of reaction paths for the understanding of rapid solidification processes is shown by the example of AZ type Mg casting alloys. (orig.)

  18. Solidification in Multicomponent Multiphase Systems (SIMMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, S.; Hecht, U.

    2005-06-01

    The multiphase microstructures that evolve during the solidification of multicomponent alloys are attracting widespread interest for industrial applications and fundamental research.Thermodynamic databases are now well-established for many alloy systems. Thermodynamic calculations provide all the required information about phase equilibria, forming an integral part of both dedicated and comprehensive microstructure models. Among the latter, phase-field modelling has emerged as the method of choice. Solidification experiments are intended to trigger model development or to serve as benchmarks for model validation. For benchmarking, microgravity conditions offer a unique opportunity for avoiding buoyancy-induced convection and buoyancy forces in bulk samples. However, diffusion and the free-energy of interfaces and its anisotropy need to be determined.The measurement of chemical diffusivities in the liquid state can equally benefit from microgravity experiments.

  19. Thermal Conductivity of the Multicomponent Neutral Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Approximate expressions for the thermal conductivity coefficient of the multicomponent neutral atmosphere consisting of N2, O2, O, He, and H are analyzed and evaluated for the atmospheric conditions by comparing them with that given by the rigorous hydrodynamic theory. The new approximations of the thermal conductivity coefficients of simple gases N2, O2, O, He, and H are derived and used. It is proved that the modified Mason and Saxena approximation of the atmospheric thermal conductivity coefficient is more accurate in reproducing the atmospheric values of the rigorous hydrodynamic thermal conductivity coefficient in comparison with those that are generally accepted in atmospheric studies. This approximation of the thermal conductivity coefficient is recommended to use in calculations of the neutral temperature of the atmosphere.

  20. Interatomic spacing distribution in multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda-Caraballo, I.; Wróbel, J.S.; Dudarev, S.L.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology to compute the distribution of interatomic distances in highly concentrated multicomponent alloys is proposed. By using the unit cell parameter and bulk modulus of the elements involved, the method accurately describes the distortion in the lattice produced by the interaction of the different atomic species. To prove this, density functional theory calculations have been used to provide the description of the lattice in a monophasic BCC MoNbTaVW high entropy alloy and its five sub-quaternary systems at different temperatures. Short-range order is also well described by the new methodology, where the mean error in the predicted atomic coordinates in comparison with the atomistic simulations is in the order of 1–2 pm over all the compositions and temperatures considered. The new method can be applied to tailor solid solution hardening, highly dependent on the distribution of interatomic distances, and guide the design of new high entropy alloys with enhanced properties

  1. Solidification paths of multicomponent monotectic aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Groebner, Joachim [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Street 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2008-10-15

    Solidification paths of three ternary monotectic alloy systems, Al-Bi-Zn, Al-Sn-Cu and Al-Bi-Cu, are studied using thermodynamic calculations, both for the pertinent phase diagrams and also for specific details concerning the solidification of selected alloy compositions. The coupled composition variation in two different liquids is quantitatively given. Various ternary monotectic four-phase reactions are encountered during solidification, as opposed to the simple binary monotectic, L' {yields} L'' + solid. These intricacies are reflected in the solidification microstructures, as demonstrated for these three aluminum alloy systems, selected in view of their distinctive features. This examination of solidification paths and microstructure formation may be relevant for advanced solidification processing of multicomponent monotectic alloys.

  2. Multicomponent seismic applications in coalbed methane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.; Trend, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2004-07-01

    Seismic applications for coalbed methane (CBM) development are used to address the following challenges: lateral continuity of coal zones; vertical continuity of coal seams; permeability of cleats and fractures; coal quality and gas content; wet versus dry coal zones; and, monitoring storage of greenhouse gases. This paper presented a brief description of existing seismic programs, including 2-D and 3-D surface seismic surveys; multicomponent seismic surveys; vertical seismic profiles; cross-well seismic surveys; and, time-lapse seismic surveys. A comparative evaluation of their use in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and the Ardley Formation was presented. The study showed that variations in reservoir properties resulting from gas production and dewatering can be effectively imaged using seismic surveys. Seismic surveys are useful in reservoir management, monitoring sweep efficiency during enhanced natural gas from coal (NGC) production, monitoring disposal of produced water and verifying storage of carbon dioxide for carbon credits. tabs., figs.

  3. The sphingolipid long-chain base-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway regulates eisosome assembly and turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Guangzuo; Gruhler, Albrecht; Liu, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Eisosomes are recently described fungal structures that play roles in the organization of the plasma membrane and endocytosis. Their major protein components are Pil1 and Lsp1, and previous studies showed that these proteins are phosphorylated by the sphingolipid long-chain base-activated Pkh1...... that phosphorylation is critical for eisosome organization. We also found that eisosomes are dynamic structures and disassemble when the Ypk protein kinases, which are activated by the sphingolipid-Pkh signaling pathway, are inactivated or when the sphingolipid signal is pharmacologically blocked with myriocin. We...

  4. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications through the Fundamental Understanding of Membrane and MEA Degradation Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Randal L. [DuPont

    2013-10-31

    The Project focused on mitigation of degradation processes on membrane electrode assemblies. The approach was to develop a model to improve understanding of the mechanisms, and to use it to focus mitigation strategies. The detailed effects of various accelerated stress tests (ASTs) were evaluated to determine the best subset to use in model development. A combination of ASTs developed by the Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan and the Fuel Cell Tech Team were selected for use. The ASTs were compared by measuring effects on performance, running in-situ diagnostics, and performing microscopic analyses of the membrane electrode assemblies after the stress tests were complete. Nissan ran FCCJ AST protocols and performed in situ and ex-situ electrochemical testing. DuPont ran FCTT and USFCC AST protocols, performed scanning and transmission electron microscopy and ran in-situ electrochemical tests. Other ex-situ testing was performed by IIT, along with much of the data analysis and model development. These tests were then modified to generate time-dependent data of the degradation mechanisms. Three different catalyst types and four membrane variants were then used to generate data for a theoretically-based degradation model. An important part of the approach was to use commercially available materials in the electrodes and membranes made in scalable semiworks processes rather than lab-based materials. This constraint ensured all materials would be practicable for full-scale testing. The initial model for the electrode layer was tested for internal consistency and agreement with the data. A Java-based computer application was developed to analyze the time-dependent AST data using polarization curves with four different cathode gas feeds and generate model parameters. Data showed very good reproducibility and good consistency as cathode catalyst loadings were varied. At the point of termination of the project, a basic electrode model was in hand with several

  5. Modelling of micro- and macrosegregation for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, K; M'Hamdi, M; Mortensen, D

    2015-01-01

    Realistic predictions of macrosegregation formation during casting of aluminium alloys requires an accurate modeling of solute microsegregation accounting for multicomponent phase diagrams and secondary phase formation. In the present work, the stand alone Alstruc model, a microsegregation model for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys, is coupled with the continuum model ALSIM which calculates the macroscopic transport of mass, enthalpy, momentum, and solutes as well as stresses and deformation during solidification of aluminium. Alstruc deals with multicomponent alloys accounting for temperature dependent partition coefficients, liquidus slopes and the precipitation of secondary phases. The challenge associated with computation of microsegregation for multicomponent alloys is solved in Alstruc by approximating the phase diagram data by simple, analytical expressions which allows for a CPU-time efficient coupling with the macroscopic transport model. In the present work, the coupled model has been applied in a study of macrosegregation including thermal and solutal convection, solidification shrinkage and surface exudation on an industrial DC-cast billet. (paper)

  6. Synthesis of conformationally constrained peptidomimetics using multicomponent reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffelaar, R.; Klein Nijenhuis, R.A.; Paravidino, M.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Ehlers, A.W.; de Kanter, F.J.J.; Groen, M.B.; Orru, R.V.A.; Ruijter, E.

    2009-01-01

    A novel modular synthetic approach toward constrained peptidomimetics is reported. The approach involves a highly efficient three-step sequence including two multicomponent reactions, thus allowing unprecedented diversification of both the peptide moieties and the turn-inducing scaffold. The

  7. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology

  8. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology.

  9. Identification of the CIMP-like subtype and aberrant methylation of members of the chromosomal segregation and spindle assembly pathways in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Lutz; Nones, Katia; Loffler, Kelly A; Nancarrow, Derek; Oey, Harald; Tang, Yue Hang; Wayte, Nicola J; Patch, Ann Marie; Patel, Kalpana; Brosda, Sandra; Manning, Suzanne; Lampe, Guy; Clouston, Andrew; Thomas, Janine; Stoye, Jens; Hussey, Damian J; Watson, David I; Lord, Reginald V; Phillips, Wayne A; Gotley, David; Smithers, B Mark; Whiteman, David C; Hayward, Nicholas K; Grimmond, Sean M; Waddell, Nicola; Barbour, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen significantly over recent decades. Although survival has improved, cure rates remain poor, with <20% of patients surviving 5 years. This is the first study to explore methylome, transcriptome and ENCODE data to characterize the role of methylation in EAC. We investigate the genome-wide methylation profile of 250 samples including 125 EAC, 19 Barrett's esophagus (BE), 85 squamous esophagus and 21 normal stomach. Transcriptome data of 70 samples (48 EAC, 4 BE and 18 squamous esophagus) were used to identify changes in methylation associated with gene expression. BE and EAC showed similar methylation profiles, which differed from squamous tissue. Hypermethylated sites in EAC and BE were mainly located in CpG-rich promoters. A total of 18575 CpG sites associated with 5538 genes were differentially methylated, 63% of these genes showed significant correlation between methylation and mRNA expression levels. Pathways involved in tumorigenesis including cell adhesion, TGF and WNT signaling showed enrichment for genes aberrantly methylated. Genes involved in chromosomal segregation and spindle formation were aberrantly methylated. Given the recent evidence that chromothripsis may be a driver mechanism in EAC, the role of epigenetic perturbation of these pathways should be further investigated. The methylation profiles revealed two EAC subtypes, one associated with widespread CpG island hypermethylation overlapping H3K27me3 marks and binding sites of the Polycomb proteins. These subtypes were supported by an independent set of 89 esophageal cancer samples. The most hypermethylated tumors showed worse patient survival. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Analysis of Multicomponent Adsorption Close to a Dew Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We develop the potential theory of multicomponent adsorption close to a dew point. The approach is based on an asymptotic adsorption equation (AAE) which is valid in a vicinity of the dew point. By this equation the thickness of the liquid film is expressed through thermodynamic characteristics...... and the direct calculations, even if the mixture is not close to a dew point.Key Words: adsorption; potential theory; multicomponent; dew point....

  11. Multicomponent reactions: A simple and efficient route to heterocyclic phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are one of the most important processes for the preparation of highly functionalized organic compounds in modern synthetic chemistry. As shown in this review, they play an important role in organophosphorus chemistry where phosphorus reagents are used as substrates for the synthesis of a wide range of phosphorylated heterocycles. In this article, an overview about multicomponent reactions used for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds bearing a phosphonate group on the ring is given. PMID:27559377

  12. The tripartite capsid gene of Salmonella phage Gifsy-2 yields a capsid assembly pathway engaging features from HK97 and λ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effantin, Gregory; Figueroa-Bossi, Nara; Schoehn, Guy; Bossi, Lionello; Conway, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Phage Gifsy-2, a lambdoid phage infecting Salmonella, has an unusually large composite gene coding for its major capsid protein (mcp) at the C-terminal end, a ClpP-like protease at the N-terminus, and a ∼ 200 residue central domain of unknown function but which may have a scaffolding role. This combination of functions on a single coding region is more extensive than those observed in other phages such as HK97 (scaffold-capsid fusion) and λ (protease-scaffold fusion). To study the structural phenotype of the unique Gifsy-2 capsid gene, we have purified Gifsy-2 particles and visualized capsids and procapsids by cryoelectron microscopy, determining structures to resolutions up to 12 A. The capsids have lambdoid T = 7 geometry and are well modeled with the atomic structures of HK97 mcp and phage λ gpD decoration protein. Thus, the unique Gifsy-2 capsid protein gene yields a capsid maturation pathway engaging features from both phages HK97 and λ.

  13. Time resolved super continuum Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy for multicomponent gas detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaema, Walter Morinobu

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a variation of the technique CRDS (Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy) to obtain simultaneously a multicomponent absorption spectrum in a broad visible range. This new approach uses the Supercontinuum (SC) spectrum (resulting from irradiation of nonlinear media by femtosecond lasers, or simply generated by compact sources) as a light source to illuminate the cavity. In this context it is described the features of the modules assembling a MC-SC-CRDS (Multicomponent Supercontinuum Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy): a set of high reflectivity mirrors, the resonant cavity and the detection system. Some problems related to the multimode excitation, stray light, effective use of the dynamic range of the detector, the poor resolution of the instrument to resolve narrow absorption lines are issued. We present the absorption spectra of H 2 O (polyads 4υ, 4υ + δ) and O 2 (spin-forbidden b-X branch) measured simultaneously by this technique in the visible range and a comparison with the absorption lines based on HITRAN database is made to demonstrate the functionality of this method. (author)

  14. Quantum turbulence in cold multicomponent matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnyuk, Ivan A.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum vortices are pivotal for understanding of phenomena in quantum hydrodynamics. Vortices were observed in different physical systems like trapped dilute Bose-Einstein condensates, liquid helium, exciton-polariton condensates and other types of systems. Foreign particles attached to the vortices often serve for a visualization of the vortex shape and kinematics in superfluid experiments. Fascinating discoveries were made in the field of cold quantum mixtures, where vortices created in one component may interact with the other component. This works raise the fundamental question of the interaction between quantum vortices and matter. The generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation based formalism is applied here to model three different processes involving the interaction of quantum vortices with foreign particles: propagation of a fast classical particle in a superfluid under the influence of sound waves, scattering of a single fermion by a quantized vortex line and dynamics of vortex pairs doped with heavy bosonic matter. The obtained results allow to to clarify the details of recent experiments and acquire a better understanding of the multicomponent quantum turbulence.

  15. Multicomponent ensemble models to forecast induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király-Proag, E.; Gischig, V.; Zechar, J. D.; Wiemer, S.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, human-induced seismicity has become a more and more relevant topic due to its economic and social implications. Several models and approaches have been developed to explain underlying physical processes or forecast induced seismicity. They range from simple statistical models to coupled numerical models incorporating complex physics. We advocate the need for forecast testing as currently the best method for ascertaining if models are capable to reasonably accounting for key physical governing processes—or not. Moreover, operational forecast models are of great interest to help on-site decision-making in projects entailing induced earthquakes. We previously introduced a standardized framework following the guidelines of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, the Induced Seismicity Test Bench, to test, validate, and rank induced seismicity models. In this study, we describe how to construct multicomponent ensemble models based on Bayesian weightings that deliver more accurate forecasts than individual models in the case of Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 enhanced geothermal stimulation projects. For this, we examine five calibrated variants of two significantly different model groups: (1) Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity based on the seismogenic index, simple modified Omori-law-type seismicity decay, and temporally weighted smoothed seismicity; (2) Hydraulics and Seismicity based on numerically modelled pore pressure evolution that triggers seismicity using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. We also demonstrate how the individual and ensemble models would perform as part of an operational Adaptive Traffic Light System. Investigating seismicity forecasts based on a range of potential injection scenarios, we use forecast periods of different durations to compute the occurrence probabilities of seismic events M ≥ 3. We show that in the case of the Basel 2006 geothermal stimulation the models forecast hazardous levels

  16. Exergy Rate Profile of Multicomponent Distillation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adewale Adesina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exergy rate profiles, exergetic efficiency and irreversibility were used to examine the driving forces in multicomponent distillation system with the view to identifying feasible and efficient operating parameters. The mixture used comprised of 5% propane, 15% iso-butane, 25% nbutane, 20% iso-pentane and 35% n-pentane. Operating variables were feed temperature (-30 oC and -80 oC, pressure (800 kPa and 1200 kPa, and reflux-ratio (2 and 6. Stage-by-stage system exergy analysis was estimated. Column profiles of base case -30 oC, -80 oC, -30 oC-reflus ratio 6, -80 oC reflux ratio 6 and base case reflux ratio 6 did not crossed thus are thermodynamically feasible. Base case -30 oC-reflux ratio 2, -80 oC-reflux ratio 2, and base case-reflux ratio 2 were crossed and constricted and are infeasible. Base case results gave efficiency of 81.7% at depropanizer and 65.2% at debutanizer. Base cases sensitivity results with -30 oC, -80 oC and reflux ratio 6, efficiency range 57.40 – 70% and 65.20% - 54.90% for depropanizer and debutanizer respectively. Spitted cases gave 81.7% and 62.20% with more scatter profiles. Splitted feed base case -30 oC design gave the lowest overall system exergy loss rate of 1.12E+6 and efficiency of 95.70%. Design feasible parameters, system efficiency and irreversibility which form basis

  17. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Trevor [Montana State University

    2014-11-21

    The central focus of the work performed under this award has been to develop the bacteriophage P22 viral capsid as a vehicle for the encapsulation of catalyticaly active cargo materials and study their utility towards economic energy harvesting systems. We have demonstrated that the capsid of the bacteriophage P22 can be used to genetically program the assembly and encapsulation of a range of inorganic nanoparticles and protein cargoes. The P22 capsid uses a scaffold protein (SP) to direct the assembly of its coat protein (CP) into icosahedral capsids. By creating a genetic fusion of a desired cargo enzyme or a small peptide that can act as a nucleation site for subsequent NP growth, we have demonstrated the co-assembly of these SP-fusions and CP into stable “nano-reactors”. The cargo is sequestered inside the engineered capsid and can either be used directly as a nanocatalyst or for the nucleation and growth of inorganic or organic nanoparticles or polymers. The synthetic cargos (NP or polymers) were shown to have photocatalytic activity. The time dependent photophysics of a select few of these systems were studied to determine the underlying mechanisms and efficiency of light harversting. Enzyme cargos encapsulated within the P22 were thermally activated catalysts and their kinetic behavior was characterized. During the course of this work we have demonstrated that the method is a robust means to harness biology for materials applications and have initiated work into assembling the P22 nanoreactors into hierarchically ordered materials. The successful implementation of the work performed under this DOE grant provides us with a great deal of knowledge and a library of components to go forward towards the development of bioinspired catalytic materials for energy harvesting.

  18. Mathematical Model for Multicomponent Adsorption Equilibria Using Only Pure Component Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model for nonideal adsorption equilibria in multicomponent mixtures is developed. It is applied with good results for pure substances and for prediction of strongly nonideal multicomponent equilibria using only pure component data. The model accounts for adsorbent...

  19. Versatile Multicomponent Reaction Macrocycle Synthesis Using α-Isocyano-ω-carboxylic Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, George P; Abdelraheem, Eman M M; Neochoritis, Constantinos G; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; McGowan, David C; Dömling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The direct macrocycle synthesis of α-isocyano-ω-carboxylic acids via an Ugi multicomponent reaction is introduced. This multicomponent reaction (MCR) protocol differs by being especially short, convergent, and versatile, giving access to 12-22 membered rings.

  20. Rogue waves in the multicomponent Mel'nikov system and multicomponent Schrödinger-Boussinesq system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baonan; Lian, Zhan

    2018-02-01

    By virtue of the bilinear method and the KP hierarchy reduction technique, exact explicit rational solutions of the multicomponent Mel'nikov equation and the multicomponent Schrödinger-Boussinesq equation are constructed, which contain multicomponent short waves and single-component long wave. For the multicomponent Mel'nikov equation, the fundamental rational solutions possess two different behaviours: lump and rogue wave. It is shown that the fundamental (simplest) rogue waves are line localised waves which arise from the constant background with a line profile and then disappear into the constant background again. The fundamental line rogue waves can be classified into three: bright, intermediate and dark line rogue waves. Two subclasses of non-fundamental rogue waves, i.e., multirogue waves and higher-order rogue waves are discussed. The multirogue waves describe interaction of several fundamental line rogue waves, in which interesting wave patterns appear in the intermediate time. Higher-order rogue waves exhibit dynamic behaviours that the wave structures start from lump and then retreat back to it. Moreover, by taking the parameter constraints further, general higher-order rogue wave solutions for the multicomponent Schrödinger-Boussinesq system are generated.

  1. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the immiscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the open-quotes alkaliclose quotes corner of the NBS submixture

  2. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-04-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the US Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the miscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the ''alkali'' corner of the NBS submixture

  3. Calculation and experimental investigation of multi-component ceramic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, M.

    1994-12-01

    This work shows a way to combine thermodynamic calculations and experiments in order to get useful information on the constitution of metal/non-metal systems. Many data from literature are critically evaluated and used as a basis for experiments and calculations. The following multi-component systems are treated: 1. Multi-component systems of 'ceramic' materials with partially metallic bonding (carbides, nitrides, oxides, borides, carbonitrides, borocarbides, oxinitrides of the 4-8th transition group metals) 2. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant covalent bonding (SiC, Si 3 N 4 , SiB 6 , BN, Al 4 C 3 , Be 2 C) 3. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant heteropolar bonding (Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , BeO, SiO 2 , ZrO 2 ). The interactions between 1. and 2., 2. and 3., 1. and 3. are also considered. The latest commercially available programmes for the calculation of thermodynamical equilibria and phase diagrams are evaluated and compared considering their facilities and limits. New phase diagrams are presented for many presently unknown multi-component systems; partly known systems are completed on the basis of selected thermodynamic data. The calculations are verified by experimental investigations (metallurgical and powder technology methods). Altogether 690 systems are evaluated, 126 are calculated for the first time and 52 systems are experimentally verified. New data for 60 ternary phases are elaborated by estimating the data limits for the Gibbs energy values. A synthesis of critical evaluation of literature, calculations and experiments leads to new important information about equilibria and reaction behaviour in multi-component systems. This information is necessary to develop new stable and metastable materials. (orig./MM) [de

  4. Simplified simulation of multicomponent isotope separation by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhixiong; Ying Chuntong

    1995-01-01

    The expressions of diffusion equation for multicomponent isotope separation by gas centrifuge are derived by utilizing the simplified diffusion transport vector. A method of radial averaging which was restricted to a binary mixture is extended to multicomponent isotope mixtures by using an iterative scheme. A numerical analysis of tetradic UF 6 or SF 6 gas isotope separation by centrifuge is discussed when a special model of velocity distribution is given. The dependence of mutual separation factor for the components on their molecular weights' difference is obtained. Some aspects of the given model of gas fluid are also discussed

  5. A Multi-component Matrix Loop Algebra and Its Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Huanhe; Zhang Ning

    2005-01-01

    A set of multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed. It follows that a type of new loop algebra A M-1 is presented. An isospectral problem is established. Integrable multi-component hierarchy is obtained by Tu pattern, which possesses tri-Hamiltonian structures. Furthermore, it can be reduced to the well-known AKNS hierarchy and BPT hierarchy. Therefore, the major result of this paper can be regarded as a unified expression integrable model of the AKNS hierarchy and the BPT hierarchy.

  6. Modeling of Multicomponent Mixture Separation Processes Using Hollow fiber Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Kuk; Lee, Young Moo; Yeo, Yeong-Koo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    So far, most of research activities on modeling of membrane separation processes have been focused on binary feed mixture. But, in actual separation operations, binary feed is hard to find and most separation processes involve multicomponent feed mixture. In this work models for membrane separation processes treating multicomponent feed mixture are developed. Various model types are investigated and validity of proposed models are analysed based on experimental data obtained using hollowfiber membranes. The proposed separation models show quick convergence and exhibit good tracking performance.

  7. Calculation of thermodynamic properties of multicomponent ionic reciprocal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboungi, M.

    1980-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of multicomponent ionic reciprocal systems are derived using the conformal ionic solution theory. The equations obtained are more general than previous equations and depend solely on the properties of the components and on those of the binary subsystems. The behavior of dilute solutions is carefully studied leading to a priori predictions of solubility products in multicomponent systems. The solubility products and the specific bond free energy for making an ion pair, e.g., the pair (A--X) in the binary solvent BY--CY, are shown to depend upon specific ionic interactions in the binary subsystems. The equations presented are compared with equations derived from prior theories

  8. Centrioles: some self-assembly required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi Hye; Miliaras, Nicholas B; Peel, Nina; O'Connell, Kevin F

    2008-12-01

    Centrioles play an important role in organizing microtubules and are precisely duplicated once per cell cycle. New (daughter) centrioles typically arise in association with existing (mother) centrioles (canonical assembly), suggesting that mother centrioles direct the formation of daughter centrioles. However, under certain circumstances, centrioles can also selfassemble free of an existing centriole (de novo assembly). Recent work indicates that the canonical and de novo pathways utilize a common mechanism and that a mother centriole spatially constrains the self-assembly process to occur within its immediate vicinity. Other recently identified mechanisms further regulate canonical assembly so that during each cell cycle, one and only one daughter centriole is assembled per mother centriole.

  9. Concise Synthesis of Macrocycles by Multicomponent Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelraheem, Eman M. M.; Khaksar, Samad; Dömling, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    A short reaction pathway was devised to synthesize a library of artificial 18-27-membered macrocycles. The five-step reaction sequence involves ring opening of a cyclic anhydride with a diamine, esterification, coupling with an amino acid isocyanide, saponification, and, finally, macro-ring closure

  10. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hideaki; Sakai, Takao; Ishida, Tomio; Yokota, Norikatsu.

    1992-01-01

    The lower ends of a plurality of plate-like shape memory alloys are secured at the periphery of the upper inside of the handling head of a fuel assembly. As the shape memory alloy, a Cu-Zn alloy, a Ti-Pd alloy or a Fe-Ni alloy is used. When high temperature coolants flow out to the handling head, the shape memory alloy deforms by warping to the outer side more greatly toward the upper portion thereof with the temperature increase of the coolants. As the result, the shape of the flow channel of the coolants is changed so as to enlarge at the exit of the upper end of the fuel assembly. Then, the pressure loss of the coolants in the fuel assembly is decreased by the enlargement. Accordingly, the flow rate of the coolants in the fuel assembly is increased to lower the temperature of the coolants. Further, high temperature coolants and low temperature coolants are mixed sufficiently just above the fuel assembly. This can suppress the temperature fluctuation of the mixed coolants in the upper portion of the reactor core, thereby enabling to decrease a fatigue and failures of the structural components in the upper portion of the reactor core. (I.N.)

  11. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Centrioles: Some Self-Assembly Required

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mi Hye; Miliaras, Nicholas B.; Peel, Nina; O'Connell, Kevin F.

    2008-01-01

    Centrioles play an important role in organizing microtubules and are precisely duplicated once per cell cycle. New (daughter) centrioles typically arise in association with existing (mother) centrioles (canonical assembly), suggesting that mother centrioles direct the formation of daughter centrioles. However, under certain circumstances, centrioles can also self-assemble free of an existing centriole (de novo assembly). Recent work indicates that the canonical and de novo pathways utilize a ...

  14. Optimal maintenance of multi-component systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Nicolai (Robin); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we give an overview of the literature on multi-component maintenance optimization. We focus on work appearing since the 1991 survey "A survey of maintenance models for multi-unit systems" by Cho and Parlar. This paper builds forth on the review article by Dekker et al.

  15. Propagation of waves in a multicomponent plasma having charged ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Propagation of waves in a multicomponent plasma having charged dust particles has been investigated by various authors in recent times as the presence of charged dust grains give rise to a new kind of modes called dust modes and it has wide applications in magneto- sphere and space plasma [1–3]. In fact, Rao et al [4] ...

  16. Isocyanide-mediated multicomponent synthesis of C-oximinoamidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercalli, Valentina; Meneghetti, Fiorella; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2013-11-15

    By capitalizing on the different reactivity of nitrile N-oxides with isocyanides and amine, α-oximinoamidines, a so far elusive class of compounds, have been synthesized in a straightforward way by reacting isocyanides, syn-chlorooximes, and amines in a multicomponent fashion.

  17. The Landau-Placzek ratio for multicomponent fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Laidlaw, W.G.

    1972-01-01

    Under the assumption that the coupling between the sound modes and modes associated with heat and mass diffusion can be neglected, an expression for the Landau-Placzek ratio for multicomponent fluids is derived using thermodynamic fluctuation theory. Applications of the general formula to ternary

  18. Multi-component bi-Hamiltonian Dirac integrable equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wenxiu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5700 (United States)], E-mail: mawx@math.usf.edu

    2009-01-15

    A specific matrix iso-spectral problem of arbitrary order is introduced and an associated hierarchy of multi-component Dirac integrable equations is constructed within the framework of zero curvature equations. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of the obtained Dirac hierarchy is presented be means of the variational trace identity. Two examples in the cases of lower order are computed.

  19. Diffusion of elements and vacancies in multi-component systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, MAR (2014), s. 338-367 ISSN 0079-6425 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : multi-component diffusion * vacancy activity * manning theory * stress-driven diffusion Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 27.417, year: 2014

  20. Spinodal decomposition in multicomponent fluid mixtures: A molecular dynamics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laradji, Mohamed; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Toxvaerd, Søren

    1996-01-01

    parameter, leading to large growth-exponent values, the dynamics in multicomponent fluids (p = 3, 4) is found to follow a t(1/3) growth law, where t is time, which we relate to a long-wavelength evaporation-condensation process. These findings, which are proposed to be consequences of the compact domain...

  1. Zener solutions for particle growth in multi-component alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the Zener theory on precipitate growth in supersaturated alloys for planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries is extended to multi-component alloys. The obtained solutions can be used to check the results from numerical simulations under simplified conditions. Further, the

  2. Diastereoselective multicomponent synthesis of dihydropyridones with an isocyanide functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paravidino, M.; Bon, R.S.; Scheffelaar, R.; Vugts, D.J.; Znabet, A.; Schmitz, R.F.; de Kanter, F.J.J.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L; Groen, M.B.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2006-01-01

    In a search for new multicomponent strategies leading to valuable small heterocycles, a new highly diastereoselective four-component reaction (4CR) was found in which a phosphonate, nitriles, aldehydes, and isocyanoacetates combine to afford functionalized 3-isocyano-3,4-dihydro-2-pyridones. In this

  3. Drying of liquid food droplets : enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerdink, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the drying of liquid food droplets is studied from three different points of view: drying kinetics, enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion. Mathematical models are developed and validated experimentally.

    Drying experiments are performed with suspended

  4. Early reading intervention by means of a multicomponent reading game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.A.M. van de; Leeuw, L.C. de; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a

  5. Kelvin Equation for a Non-Ideal Multicomponent Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    The Kelvin equation is generalized by application to a case of a multicomponent non-ideal mixture. Such a generalization is necessary in order to describe the two-phase equilibrium in a capillary medium with respect to both normal and retrograde condensation. The equation obtained is applied...... to the equilibrium state of a hydrocarbon mixture ina gas-condensate reservoir....

  6. On new electromagnetic waves in a multicomponent insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubovik, V. M.

    The dispersion equation for additional transverse electromagnetic waves in a multicomponent amorphous insulator is analyzed in the vicinity of a narrow absorption line. Such waves can be excited due to spatial dispersion associated with fluctuation of the polarizability of insulator molecules. The

  7. A characterization of Markovian homogeneous multicomponent Gaussian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhaguere, G.O.S.

    1980-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a certain class of homogeneous multicomponent Gaussian generalized stochastic fields to possess a Markov property equivalent to Nelson's. The class of Markov fields so characterized has a as a cubclass the class of Markov fields which lead by Nelson's Reconstruction Theorem to some covariant (free) quantum fields. (orig.)

  8. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  9. Multicomponent activation detector measurements of reactor neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, J.; Aarnio, P. A.; Routti, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    Information on the neutron flux is required in many applications of research reactors, such as activation analysis or radiation damage measurements. Flux spectrum measurements are commonly carried out with activation foils. The reaction types used are threshold reactions in the fast energy region, resonance reactions in the intermediate region and neutron capture reactions with l/v-cross section in the thermal region. It has been shown that it is possible to combine several detector elements into homogeneous multicomponent detectors. The activities of all detector reaction products can be determined with a single gamma spectrum measurement. The multicomponent principle sets some restrictions on the choice of detector reactions, for example, each product nuclide may be produced in one reaction only. Separate multicomponent threshold and resonance detectors were designed for the fast and intermediate regions, respectively. The detectors were fabricated in polyethylene irradiation capsules or quartz glass ampoules, and they were irradiated in a cadmium cover. The detectors were succesfully used in the irradiation ring and in the core of a Triga reactor. The intermediate and fast neutron spectrum was unfolded with the least-squares unfolding program LOUHI. According to the preliminary results multicomponent activation detectors might constitute a convenient means for carrying out routine neutron spectrum measurements in research reactors. (orig.)

  10. Valve assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandling, M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved valve assembly, used for controlling the flow of radioactive slurry, is described. Radioactive contamination of the air during removal or replacement of the valve is prevented by sucking air from the atmosphere through a portion of the structure above the valve housing. (U.K.)

  11. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Bassler, E.A.; Huckestein, E.A.; Salton, R.B.; Tower, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

  12. Timing of pathogen adaptation to a multicomponent treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Bourget

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of multicomponent treatments such as combination therapies, combination vaccines/chemicals, and plants carrying multigenic resistance requires an understanding of how their population-wide deployment affects the speed of the pathogen adaptation. Here, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of a mutant pathogen and its dynamics in a heterogeneous host population split into various types by the management strategy. Based on a multi-type Markov birth and death process, the model can be used to provide a basic understanding of how the life-cycle parameters of the pathogen population, and the controllable parameters of a management strategy affect the speed at which a pathogen adapts to a multicomponent treatment. Our results reveal the importance of coupling stochastic mutation and migration processes, and illustrate how their stochasticity can alter our view of the principles of managing pathogen adaptive dynamics at the population level. In particular, we identify the growth and migration rates that allow pathogens to adapt to a multicomponent treatment even if it is deployed on only small proportions of the host. In contrast to the accepted view, our model suggests that treatment durability should not systematically be identified with mutation cost. We show also that associating a multicomponent treatment with defeated monocomponent treatments can be more durable than associating it with intermediate treatments including only some of the components. We conclude that the explicit modelling of stochastic processes underlying evolutionary dynamics could help to elucidate the principles of the sustainable use of multicomponent treatments in population-wide management strategies intended to impede the evolution of harmful populations.

  13. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-07-06

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly.

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel assembly used in a FBR type nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of fuel rods and a moderator guide member (water rod). A moderator exit opening/closing mechanism is formed at the upper portion of the moderator guide member for opening and closing a moderator exit. In the initial fuel charging operation cycle to the reactor, the moderator exit is closed by the moderator exit opening/closing mechanism. Then, voids are accumulated at the inner upper portion of the moderator guide member to harden spectrum and a great amount of plutonium is generated and accumulated in the fuel assembly. Further, in the fuel re-charging operation cycle, the moderator guide member is used having the moderator exit opened. In this case, voids are discharged from the moderator guide member to decrease the ratio, and the plutonium accumulated in the initial charging operation cycle is burnt. In this way, the fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  15. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mitsuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the corrosion rate and suppress the increase of radioactive corrosion products in reactor water of nuclear fuel assemblies for use in BWR type reactors having spacer springs made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloys. Constitution: Spacer rings made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloy are incorporated and used as fuel assemblies after applying treatment of dipping and maintaining at high temperature water followed by heating in steams. Since this can remove the nickel leaching into reactor water at the initial stage, Co-58 as the radioactive corrosion products in the reactor water can be reduced, and the operation at in-service inspection or repairement can be facilitated to improve the working efficiency of the nuclear power plant. The dipping time is desirably more than 10 hours and more desirably more than 30 hours. (Horiuchi, T. )

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  18. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  20. Quantifying the Assembly of Multicomponent Molecular Machines by Single-Molecule Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, E M; Subramanyam, S; Ghoneim, M; Washington, M Todd; Spies, M

    2016-01-01

    Large, dynamic macromolecular complexes play essential roles in many cellular processes. Knowing how the components of these complexes associate with one another and undergo structural rearrangements is critical to understanding how they function. Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful approach for addressing these fundamental issues. In this article, we first discuss single-molecule TIRF microscopes and strategies to immobilize and fluorescently label macromolecules. We then review the use of single-molecule TIRF microscopy to study the formation of binary macromolecular complexes using one-color imaging and inhibitors. We conclude with a discussion of the use of TIRF microscopy to examine the formation of higher-order (i.e., ternary) complexes using multicolor setups. The focus throughout this article is on experimental design, controls, data acquisition, and data analysis. We hope that single-molecule TIRF microscopy, which has largely been the province of specialists, will soon become as common in the tool box of biophysicists and biochemists as structural approaches have become today. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transferrable monolithic multicomponent system for near-ultraviolet optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan; Gao, Xumin; Yuan, Jialei; Shi, Zheng; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Yuhuai; Wang, Yongjin; Amano, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    A monolithic near-ultraviolet multicomponent system is implemented on a 0.8-mm-diameter suspended membrane by integrating a transmitter, waveguide, and receiver into a single chip. Two identical InGaN/Al0.10Ga0.90N multiple-quantum well (MQW) diodes are fabricated using the same process flow, which separately function as a transmitter and receiver. There is a spectral overlap between the emission and detection spectra of the MQW diodes. Therefore, the receiver can respond to changes in the emission of the transmitter. The multicomponent system is mechanically transferred from silicon, and the wire-bonded transmitter on glass experimentally demonstrates spatial light transmission at 200 Mbps using non-return-to-zero on–off keying modulation.

  2. Precipitation behavior of uranium in multicomponent solution by oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.J.; Kim, I.S.; Lee, W.K.; Shin, H.S.; Ro, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    A study on the precipitation of uranium by oxalic acid was carried out in a multicomponent solution. The precipitation method is usually applied to the treatment of radioactive waste and the recovery of uranium from a uranium-scrap contaminated with impurities. In these cases, the problem is how to increase the precipitation yield of target element and to prevent impurities from coprecipitation. The multicomponent solution in the present experiment was prepared by dissolving U, Nd, Cs and Sr in nitric acid. The effects of concentrations of oxalic acid and ascorbic acid on the precipitation yield and purity of uranium were observed. As results of the study, the maximum precipitation yield of uranium is revealed to be about 96.5% and the relative precipitation ratio of Nd, Cs and Sr versus uranium are discussed at the condition of the maximum precipitation yield of uranium, respectively. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  5. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  6. From supramolecular polymers to multi-component biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Olga J G M; Hendrikse, Simone I S; Dankers, Patricia Y W; Meijer, E W

    2017-10-30

    The most striking and general property of the biological fibrous architectures in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the strong and directional interaction between biologically active protein subunits. These fibers display rich dynamic behavior without losing their architectural integrity. The complexity of the ECM taking care of many essential properties has inspired synthetic chemists to mimic these properties in artificial one-dimensional fibrous structures with the aim to arrive at multi-component biomaterials. Due to the dynamic character required for interaction with natural tissue, supramolecular biomaterials are promising candidates for regenerative medicine. Depending on the application area, and thereby the design criteria of these multi-component fibrous biomaterials, they are used as elastomeric materials or hydrogel systems. Elastomeric materials are designed to have load bearing properties whereas hydrogels are proposed to support in vitro cell culture. Although the chemical structures and systems designed and studied today are rather simple compared to the complexity of the ECM, the first examples of these functional supramolecular biomaterials reaching the clinic have been reported. The basic concept of many of these supramolecular biomaterials is based on their ability to adapt to cell behavior as a result of dynamic non-covalent interactions. In this review, we show the translation of one-dimensional supramolecular polymers into multi-component functional biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications.

  7. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Azekura, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    In a reactor core of a heavy water moderated light water cooled pressure tube type reactor, no sufficient effects have been obtained for the transfer width to a negative side of void reactivity change in a region of a great void coefficient. Then, a moderation region divided into upper and lower two regions is disposed at the central portion of a fuel assembly. Coolants flown into the lower region can be discharged to the cooling region from an opening disposed at the upper end portion of the lower region. Light water flows from the lower region of the moderator region to the cooling region of the reactor core upper portion, to lower the void coefficient. As a result, the reactivity performance at low void coefficient, i.e., a void reaction rate is transferred to the negative side. Thus, this flattens the power distribution in the fuel assembly, increases the thermal margin and enables rapid operaiton and control of the reactor core, as well as contributes to the increase of fuel burnup ratio and reduction of the fuel cycle cost. (N.H.)

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  9. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Atsushi; Shimada, Hidemitsu; Aoyama, Motoo; Nakajima, Junjiro

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for an n x n lattice-like BWR type reactor, n is determined to 9 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 4.4% by weight or less. Alternatively, n is determined to 10 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 5.2% by weight or less. An average take-out burnup degree is determined to 39GWd/t or less, and the matrix is determined to 9 x 9 or more, or the average take-out burnup degree is determined to 51GWd/t, and the matrix is determined to 10 x 10 or more and the increase of the margin of the maximum power density obtained thereby is utilized for the compensation of the increase of distortion of power distribution due to decrease of the kinds of plutonium enrichment degree, thereby enabling to reduce the kind of the enrichment degree of MOX fuel rods to one. As a result, the manufacturing step for fuel pellets can be simplified to reduce the manufacturing cost for MOX fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  10. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  11. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 avril 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2016. Programme de travail 2017. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2017 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2018. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposées. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. Élections des vérifica...

  12. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  13. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  15. Aerolization During Boron Nanoparticle Multi-Component Fuel Group Burning Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-03

    overall energy density of the multi-component fuel mixture. Boron nanoparticle- doped multi-component hydrocarbon fuels represent a potential high...addressed, Boron nanoparticle- doped multi-component hydrocarbon fuels represent a potential high-efficiency, tactical fuel that could increase thrust...and micron-sized aluminum particles. Combustion and Flame 158(2): 354-368. Gan, Y., Y. S. Lim, and L. Qiao. 2012. Combustion of nanofluid fuels

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    For improving the economy of a BWR type reactor by making the operation cycle longer, the fuel enrichment degree has to be increased further. However, this makes the subcriticality shallower in the upper portion of the reactor core, to bring about a possibility that the reactor shutdown becomes impossible. In the present invention, a portion of fuel rod is constituted as partial length fuel rods (P-fuel rods) in which the entire stack length in the effective portion is made shorter by reducing the concentration of fissionable materials in the axial portion. A plurality of moderator rods are disposed at least on one diagonal line of a fuel assembly and P-fuel rods are arranged at a position put between the moderator rods. This makes it possible to reactor shutdown and makes the axial power distribution satisfactory even if the fuel enrichment degree is increased. (T.M.)

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    As neutron irradiation progresses on a fuel assembly of an FBR type reactor, a strong force is exerted to cause ruptures if the arrangement of fuel elements is not displaced, whereas the fuel elements may be brought into direct contact with each other not by way of spacers to cause burning damages if the arrangement is displaced. In the present invention, the circumference of fuel elements arranged in a normal triangle lattice is surrounded by a wrapper tube having a hexagonal cross section, wire spacers are wound therearound, and deformable spacers are distributed to optional positions for fuel elements in the wrapper tube. Interaction between the fuel elements caused by irradiation is effectively absorbed, thereby enabling to delay the occurrence of the rupture and burning damages of the elements. (N.H.)

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto.

    1991-01-01

    In a fuel assembly in which spectral shift type moderator guide members are arranged, the moderator guide member has a flow channel resistance member, that provides flow resistance against the moderators, in the upstream of a moderator flowing channel, by which the ratio of removing coolants is set greater at the upstream than downstream. With such a constitution, the void distribution increasing upward in the channel box except for the portion of the moderator guide member is moderated by the increase of the area of the void region that expands downward in the guide member. Accordingly, the axial power distribution is flattened throughout the operation cycle and excess distortion is eliminated to improve the fuel integrity. (T.M.)

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataumi, Kazutoshi; Tajiri, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, a pellet to be loaded comprises an external layer of fissile materials containing burnable poisons and an internal layer of fissile materials not containing burnable poison. For example, there is provided a dual type pellet comprising an external layer made of UO 2 incorporated with Gd 2 O 3 at a predetermined concentration as the burnable poisons and an internal layer made of UO 2 not containing Gd 2 O 3 . The amount of the burnable poisons required for predetermined places is controlled by the thickness of the ring of the external layer. This can dissipate an unnecessary poisoning effect at the final stage of the combustion cycle. Further, since only one or a few kinds of powder mixture of the burnable poisons and the fissile materials is necessary, production and product control can be facilitated. (I.N.)

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Oyama, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a first group are disposed in a region in adjacent with a water rod having a large diameter (neutron moderator rod) disposed to the central portion of a fuel assembly. Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a second group are disposed to a region other than peripheral zone in adjacent with a channel box and corners positioned at an inner zone, in adjacent with the channel box. The average concentration of burnable poisons of the burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of the first group is made greater than that of the second group. With such a constitution, when the burnable poisons of the first group are burnt out, the burnable poisons of the second group are also burnt out at the same time. Accordingly, an amount of burnable poisons left unburnt at the final stage of the operation cycle is reduced, to improve the reactivity. This can improve the economical property. (I.N.)

  1. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ritsuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the operation performance of a BWR type reactor by improving the distribution of the uranium enrichment and the incorporation amount of burnable poisons in fuel assemblies. Constitution: The average enrichment of uranium 235 is increased in the upper portion as compared with that in the lower portion, while the incorporation amount of burnable poisons is increased in an upper portion as compared with that in the lower portion. The difference in the incorporation amount of the burnable poisons between the upper and lower portions is attained by charging two kinds of fuel rods; the ones incorporated with the burnable poisons over the entire length and the others incorporated with the burnable poisons only in the upper portions. (Seki, T.)

  2. Equivalence of two models in single-phase multicomponent flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing

    2016-02-28

    In this work, two models to simulate the single-phase multicomponent flow in reservoirs are introduced: single-phase multicomponent flow model and two-phase compositional flow model. Because the single-phase multicomponent flow is a special case of the two-phase compositional flow, the two-phase compositional flow model can also simulate the case. We compare and analyze the two models when simulating the single-phase multicomponent flow, and then demonstrate the equivalence of the two models mathematically. An experiment is also carried out to verify the equivalence of the two models.

  3. Equivalence of two models in single-phase multicomponent flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing; Sun, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two models to simulate the single-phase multicomponent flow in reservoirs are introduced: single-phase multicomponent flow model and two-phase compositional flow model. Because the single-phase multicomponent flow is a special case of the two-phase compositional flow, the two-phase compositional flow model can also simulate the case. We compare and analyze the two models when simulating the single-phase multicomponent flow, and then demonstrate the equivalence of the two models mathematically. An experiment is also carried out to verify the equivalence of the two models.

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for a BWR type reactor, water rods or water crosses are disposed between fuel rods, and a value with a spring is disposed at the top of the coolant flow channel thereof, which opens a discharge port when pressure is increased to greater than a predetermined value. Further, a control element for the amount of coolant flow rate is inserted retractable to a control element guide tube formed at the lower portion of the water rod or the water cross. When the amount of control elements inserted to the control element guide tube is small and the inflown coolant flow rate is great, the void coefficient at the inside of the water rod is less than 5%. On the other hand, when the control elements are inserted, the flow resistance is increased, so that the void coefficient in the water rod is greater than 80%. When the pressure in the water rod is increased, the valve with the spring is raised to escape water or steams. Then, since the variation range of the change of the void coefficient can be controlled reliably by the amount of the control elements inserted, and nuclear fuel materials can be utilized effectively. (N.H.)

  5. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Koji; Ueda, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    In a fuel assembly used for a light water cooled reactor such as a BWR type reactor, a water rod is divided axially into an upper outer tube and a lower outer tube by means of a plug disposed from the lower end of a water rod to a position 1/4 - 1/2 of the entire length for the water rod. Inlet apertures and exit apertures for moderators are respectively perforated for the divided outer tube and upper and lower portions. Further, an upper inner tube with less neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is perforated on the plug in the outer tube, while a lower inner tube with greater neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is suspended from the lower surface of the plug in the outer tube. Then, the opening area for the exit apertures disposed to the upper outer tube and the lower outer tube is controlled depending on the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the upper inner tube and the upper outer tube, and the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the lower inner tube and the lower outer tube. This enables effective spectral shift operation and improve the fuel economy. (T.M.)

  6. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  7. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor in which a water rod of a large diameter is disposed at the central portion, the cross sectional area perpendicular to the axial direction comprises a region a of a fuel rod group facing to a wide gap water region to which a control rod is inserted, a region b of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the wide gap water region other than the region a, a region d of a fuel rod group facing to a narrow gap water region and a region c of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the narrow gap water region other than the region d. When comparing an amount of fission products contained in the four regions relative to that in the entire regions and average enrichment degrees of fuel rods for the four regions, the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group of the region a is minimized, and the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group in the region b is maximized. Then, reactor shut down margin during cold operation can be improved while flattening the power in the cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. (N.H.)

  8. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham

    2015-01-01

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g m change, threshold voltage V T change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature

  9. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Ting, E-mail: ctlee@ee.ncku.edu.tw; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy (RCETS), National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-28

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g{sub m} change, threshold voltage V{sub T} change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature.

  10. Viscosity and diffusivity in melts: from unary to multicomponent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong; Huang, Baiyun

    2014-05-01

    Viscosity and diffusivity, two important transport coefficients, are systematically investigated from unary melt to binary to multicomponent melts in the present work. By coupling with Kaptay's viscosity equation of pure liquid metals and effective radii of diffusion species, the Sutherland equation is modified by taking the size effect into account, and further derived into an Arrhenius formula for the convenient usage. Its reliability for predicting self-diffusivity and impurity diffusivity in unary liquids is then validated by comparing the calculated self-diffusivities and impurity diffusivities in liquid Al- and Fe-based alloys with the experimental and the assessed data. Moreover, the Kozlov model was chosen among various viscosity models as the most reliable one to reproduce the experimental viscosities in binary and multicomponent melts. Based on the reliable viscosities calculated from the Kozlov model, the modified Sutherland equation is utilized to predict the tracer diffusivities in binary and multicomponent melts, and validated in Al-Cu, Al-Ni and Al-Ce-Ni melts. Comprehensive comparisons between the calculated results and the literature data indicate that the experimental tracer diffusivities and the theoretical ones can be well reproduced by the present calculations. In addition, the vacancy-wind factor in binary liquid Al-Ni alloys with the increasing temperature is also discussed. What's more, the calculated inter-diffusivities in liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni and Al-Ag-Cu alloys are also in excellent agreement with the measured and theoretical data. Comparisons between the simulated concentration profiles and the measured ones in Al-Cu, Al-Ce-Ni and Al-Ag-Cu melts are further used to validate the present calculation method.

  11. Mesoscopic structure prediction of nanoparticle assembly and coassembly: Theoretical foundation

    KAUST Repository

    Hur, Kahyun

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a theoretical framework that unifies polymer field theory and density functional theory in order to efficiently predict ordered nanostructure formation of systems having considerable complexity in terms of molecular structures and interactions. We validate our approach by comparing its predictions with previous simulation results for model systems. We illustrate the flexibility of our approach by applying it to hybrid systems composed of block copolymers and ligand coated nanoparticles. We expect that our approach will enable the treatment of multicomponent self-assembly with a level of molecular complexity that approaches experimental systems. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Use of piezoelectric multicomponent force measuring devices in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Stefan, K.

    1979-01-01

    The characterisitics of piezoelectric multicomponent transducers are discussed, giving attention to the advantages of quartz over other materials. The main advantage of piezoelectric devices in aerodynamic studies is their ability to indicate rapid changes in the values of physical parameters. Problems in the accuracy of measurments by piezoelectric devices can be overcome by suitable design approaches. A practical example is given of how such can be utilized to measure rapid fluctuations of fluid forces exerted on a circular cylinder mounted in a water channel.

  13. Experimental study of multi-component separation by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M.S.; Liang, X.W.; Chen, W.N.; Yin, Y.T.

    2006-01-01

    Stable isotopes are applied in many areas and most stable isotopes are multi-component, This paper presents experimental results of several stable isotopes separation conducted in Tsinghua University by using ultra-speed gas centrifuges. Xe, WF 6 , TeF 6 , SiHCl 3 , SiF 4 were chosen as the process gases. By adjusting some of the centrifuge's parameters, the suitable centrifuge parameters for different process gas separations were found and the overall unit separation factors γ 0 were obtained by means of single gas centrifuge separation. The experimental results show that with appropriate process gases, stable isotope separation by gas centrifuge was effective. (authors)

  14. Biosorption of Metals from Multi-Component Bacterial Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tsertsvadze, L A; Petriashvili, Sh G; Chutkerashvili, D G; Kirkesali, E I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2002-01-01

    The method of extraction of metals from industrial solutions by means of economical and easy to apply biosorbents in subtropics such as products of tea manufacturing, moss, microorganisms is described. The multi-component solutions obtained in the process of leaching of ores, rocks and industrial wastes by peat suspension were used in the experiments. The element composition of sorbent biomass and solutions was investigated by epithermal neutron activation analysis and by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained evidence that the used biosorbents are applicable for extraction of the whole set of heavy metals and actinides (U, Th, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Li, Rb, Sr, Cd, As, Co and others) from industrial solutions.

  15. The multicomponent 2D Toda hierarchy: dispersionless limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mañas, Manuel; Alonso, Luis Martínez

    2009-01-01

    The factorization problem of the multi-component 2D Toda hierarchy is used to analyze the dispersionless limit of this hierarchy. A dispersive version of the Whitham hierarchy defined in terms of scalar Lax and Orlov–Schulman operators is introduced and the corresponding additional symmetries and string equations are discussed. Then, it is shown how KP and Toda pictures of the dispersionless Whitham hierarchy emerge in the dispersionless limit. Moreover, the additional symmetries and string equations for the dispersive Whitham hierarchy are studied in this limit

  16. Fluid description of multi-component solar partially ionized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.; Vitas, N.; Díaz, A.

    2014-01-01

    We derive self-consistent formalism for the description of multi-component partially ionized solar plasma, by means of the coupled equations for the charged and neutral components for an arbitrary number of chemical species, and the radiation field. All approximations and assumptions are carefully considered. Generalized Ohm's law is derived for the single-fluid and two-fluid formalism. Our approach is analytical with some order-of-magnitude support calculations. After general equations are developed, we particularize to some frequently considered cases as for the interaction of matter and radiation

  17. The multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glachette–Johnson (GJ) equation hierarchy and its super-integrable coupling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fajun; Zhang Hongqing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a set of multicomponent matrix Lie algebra, which is used to construct a new loop algebra à M . By using the Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multicomponent equation hierarchy is generated, which possesses the Hamiltonian structure. As its reduction cases, the multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glachette–Johnson (GJ) hierarchy is given. Finally, the super-integrable coupling system of multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional GJ hierarchy is established through enlarging the spectral problem

  18. Communication: A new paradigm for structure prediction in multicomponent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schebarchov, D.; Wales, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the combinatorial aspect of global optimisation for multicomponent systems, which involves searching for the optimal chemical ordering by permuting particles corresponding to different species. The overall composition is presumed fixed, and the geometry is relaxed after each permutation in order to relieve local strain. From ideas used to solve graph partitioning problems we devise a deterministic search scheme that outperforms (by orders of magnitude) conventional and self-guided basin-hopping global optimisation. The search is guided by the energy gain from either swapping particles i and j (ΔE ij ) or changing the identity of particles i (ΔE i ). These quantities are derived from the underlying (arbitrary) energy function, hence not constituting external bias, and for site-separable force fields each ΔE i can be approximated simply and efficiently. In our self-guided variant of basin-hopping, particles are weighted by an approximate ΔE i when randomly selected for an exchange, yielding a significant improvement for segregated multicomponent systems with modest particle size mismatch

  19. Volatilization of multicomponent mixtures in soil vapor extraction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    In soil vapor extraction (SVE) applications involving multicomponent mixtures, prediction of mass removal by volatilization as a function remediation extent is required to estimate remediation time and to size offgas treatment equipment. SVE is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination adsorbed to vadose zone soils. SVE is often applied at sites contaminated with petroleum products, which are usually mixtures of many different compounds with vapor pressures spanning several orders of magnitude. The most volatile components are removed first, so the vapor pressure of the remaining contaminant continually decreases over the course of the remediation. A method for assessing how vapor pressure, and hence the rate of volatilization, of a multicomponent mixture changes over the course of a vapor extraction remedy has been developed. Each component is listed, alone, with its mass fraction in the mixture, in decreasing order of pure component vapor pressure (where component analyses are unavailable, model compounds can be used), For most petroleum distillates, the vapor pressure for each component plotted against the cumulative mass fraction of the component in the mixture on semilog coordinates will produce a straight line with a high correlation coefficient. This regression can be integrated to produce an expression for vapor pressure of the overall mixture as a function of extent or remediation

  20. A multicomponent exercise program for institutionalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Maria; Hamid, Tengku Aizan

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on depression and quality of life in institutionalized older adults. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were recruited from a publicly funded shelter home in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan Malaysia. The experimental group consisted of 23 volunteers 60 or older who performed 60 minutes of supervised exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The control group consisted of 20 volunteers who continued with a sedentary lifestyle. At 12 weeks, the exercise group demonstrated an improvement in quality of life by 10.74% (p > 0.05) but not depression (-1.6%, p > 0.05). The control group demonstrated a decrease in both quality of life by 11.26% (p > 0.05) and level of depression by 17.7% (p > 0.05). This study suggests a multicomponent exercise program is a feasible intervention to improve quality of life in institutionalized older adults. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Performance of an organic Rankine cycle with multicomponent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitanya Prasad, G.S.; Suresh Kumar, C.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2015-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in ORC (organic Rankine cycle) systems for power generation using solar thermal energy. Many authors have studied the performance of ORC with different pure fluids as well as binary zeotropic mixtures in order to improve the thermal efficiency. It has not been well appreciated that zeotropic mixtures can also be used to reduce the size and cost of an ORC system. The main objective of this paper is to present mixtures that help reduce the cost while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The proposed method also allows us to design an optimum mixture for a given expander. This new approach is particularly beneficial for designing mixtures for small ORC systems operating with solar thermal energy. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate this concept. - Highlights: • The performance of an ORC operating with different zeotropic multicomponent mixtures is presented. • A thermodynamic method is proposed for the design of multicomponent mixtures for ORC power plants. • High exergy efficiency as well as high volumetric expander work can be achieved with appropriate mixtures. • The method allows design of mixtures that can be used with off-the-shelf positive displacement expanders

  2. Field experiment on multicomponent ion exchange in a sandy aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerg, P.L.; Christensen, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment is performed in a sandy aquifer in order to study ion exchange processes and multicomponent solute transport modeling. An injection of groundwater spiked with sodium and potassium chloride was performed over a continuous period of 37 days. The plume is monitored by sampling 350 filters in a spatial grid. The sampling aims at establishing compound (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride) breakthrough curves at various filters 15 to 100 m from the point of injection and areal distribution maps at various cross sections from 0 to 200 m from the point of injection. A three-dimensional multicomponent solute transport model will be used to model the field experiments. The chemical model includes cation exchange, precipitation, dissolution, complexation, ionic strength and the carbonate system. Preliminary results from plume monitoring show that the plume migration is relatively well controlled considering the scale and conditions of the experiment. The transverse dispersion is small causing less dilution than expected. The ion exchange processes have an important influence on the plume composition. Retardation of the injected ions is substantial, especially for potassium. Calcium exhibits a substantial peak following chloride due to release from the ion exchange sites on the sediment. (Author) (8 refs., 5 figs., tab.)

  3. Mapping Chemical Selection Pathways for Designing Multicomponent Alloys: an informatics framework for materials design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Broderick, Scott R; Zhang, Ruifeng; Mishra, Amrita; Sinnott, Susan B; Saxena, Surendra K; LeBeau, James M; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-12-18

    A data driven methodology is developed for tracking the collective influence of the multiple attributes of alloying elements on both thermodynamic and mechanical properties of metal alloys. Cobalt-based superalloys are used as a template to demonstrate the approach. By mapping the high dimensional nature of the systematics of elemental data embedded in the periodic table into the form of a network graph, one can guide targeted first principles calculations that identify the influence of specific elements on phase stability, crystal structure and elastic properties. This provides a fundamentally new means to rapidly identify new stable alloy chemistries with enhanced high temperature properties. The resulting visualization scheme exhibits the grouping and proximity of elements based on their impact on the properties of intermetallic alloys. Unlike the periodic table however, the distance between neighboring elements uncovers relationships in a complex high dimensional information space that would not have been easily seen otherwise. The predictions of the methodology are found to be consistent with reported experimental and theoretical studies. The informatics based methodology presented in this study can be generalized to a framework for data analysis and knowledge discovery that can be applied to many material systems and recreated for different design objectives.

  4. An access to a library of novel triterpene derivatives with a promising pharmacological potential by Ugi and Passerini multicomponent reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemann, Jana; Heller, Lucie; Csuk, René

    2018-04-25

    The promising combination of natural product leads and their derivatization by isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs) has gained interest in accessing diversity-oriented libraries with auspicious pharmacological potential. Therefore, a set of 34 Ugi and 3 Passerini products was successfully synthesized starting from naturally occurring triterpenoids, i.e. oleanolic acid (OA) and maslinic acid (MA), followed by a biological evaluation of the novel α-acylamino carboxamides and the α-acyloxy carboxamides in colorimetric SRB assays to determine their cytotoxic potential. Especially, the MA-Ugi products 6a, 6b and 7b showed a remarkable cytotoxicity for A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells in a low μM range. Compounds 6a and 7b induced programmed cell death in part through the apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  6. Biologic Constraints on Modelling Virus Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Garcea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic modelling of icosahedral virus assembly has drawn increasing interest because of the symmetric geometry of the outer shell structures. Many models involve equilibrium expressions of subunit binding, with reversible subunit additions forming various intermediate structures. The underlying assumption is that a final lowest energy state drives the equilibrium toward assembly. In their simplest forms, these models have explained why high subunit protein concentrations and strong subunit association constants can result in kinetic traps forming off pathway partial and aberrant structures. However, the cell biology of virus assembly is exceedingly complex. The biochemistry and biology of polyoma and papillomavirus assembly described here illustrates many of these specific issues. Variables include the use of cellular ‘chaperone’ proteins as mediators of assembly fidelity, the coupling of assembly to encapsidation of a specific nucleic acid genome, the use of cellular structures as ‘workbenches’ upon which assembly occurs, and the underlying problem of making a capsid structure that is metastable and capable of rapid disassembly upon infection. Although formidable to model, incorporating these considerations could advance the relevance of mathematical models of virus assembly to the real world.

  7. Phase behavior of multicomponent membranes: Experimental and computational techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis; Kumar, P.B. Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in biology seems to indicate that the Fluid Mosaic model of membrane proposed by Singer and Nicolson, with lipid bilayer functioning only as medium to support protein machinery, may be too simple to be realistic. Many protein functions are now known to depend on the compositio....... This review includes basic foundations on membrane model systems and experimental approaches applied in the membrane research area, stressing on recent advances in the experimental and computational techniques....... membranes. Current increase in interest in the domain formation in multicomponent membranes also stems from the experiments demonstrating liquid ordered-liquid disordered coexistence in mixtures of lipids and cholesterol and the success of several computational models in predicting their behavior...

  8. Continuous electrophoretic purification of individual analytes from multicomponent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, David G; Chen, David D Y

    2004-04-15

    Individual analytes can be isolated from multicomponent mixtures and collected in the outlet vial by carrying out electrophoretic purification through a capillary column. Desired analytes are allowed to migrate continuously through the column under the electric field while undesired analytes are confined to the inlet vial by application of a hydrodynamic counter pressure. Using pressure ramping and buffer replenishment techniques, 18% of the total amount present in a bulk sample can be purified when the resolution to the adjacent peak is approximately 3. With a higher resolution, the yield could be further improved. Additionally, by periodically introducing fresh buffer into the sample, changes in pH and conductivity can be mediated, allowing higher purity (>or=99.5%) to be preserved in the collected fractions. With an additional reversed cycle of flow counterbalanced capillary electrophoresis, any individual component in a sample mixture can be purified providing it can be separated in an electrophoresis system.

  9. Water activity changes of multicomponent food mixture during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Štencl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Water activity of multicomponent food mixture was analysed and measured. Samples of dry fermented sausages with two different starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus + Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus carnosus + Staphylococcus xylosus + Lactobacillus farciminis were tested during ripening (21 days and storing (91 days. The basic raw materials were the same for all samples: lean beef meat, lean pork and pork fat in equal parts, nitrite salt mixture (2.5 %, and sugars (1.0 %. The method used for water activity tests was indirect manometric in a static environment. Moisture content of samples was measured using halogen dryer. The course of water activity and moisture content of sausages was variable during ripening and steady during storage. Diagrams showed gradual decrease of both parameters. Mathematical models of water activity and moisture content for storage of dry fermented sausages were developed and statistically verified. The influence of starter cultures was not significant.

  10. Multicomponent reactions provide key molecules for secret communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukis, Andreas C; Reiter, Kevin; Frölich, Maximiliane; Hofheinz, Dennis; Meier, Michael A R

    2018-04-12

    A convenient and inherently more secure communication channel for encoding messages via specifically designed molecular keys is introduced by combining advanced encryption standard cryptography with molecular steganography. The necessary molecular keys require large structural diversity, thus suggesting the application of multicomponent reactions. Herein, the Ugi four-component reaction of perfluorinated acids is utilized to establish an exemplary database consisting of 130 commercially available components. Considering all permutations, this combinatorial approach can unambiguously provide 500,000 molecular keys in only one synthetic procedure per key. The molecular keys are transferred nondigitally and concealed by either adsorption onto paper, coffee, tea or sugar as well as by dissolution in a perfume or in blood. Re-isolation and purification from these disguises is simplified by the perfluorinated sidechains of the molecular keys. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry can unequivocally determine the molecular structure and thus the identity of the key for a subsequent decryption of an encoded message.

  11. Absorption from multicomponent gas mixtures comparing with Elemir gasoline plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miscevic, D

    1970-10-01

    A short description and explanation are outlined of all factors which have influence on hydrocarbon absorption from multicomponent gas mixtures. A short review of these different methods for absorption efficiency calculation is given. On the basis of the explained methods, the absorption from one natural gas at the Elemir plant is calculated and the results are given in tabular data. The number of the theoretical plate and L/V ratio for a given recovery of the key component is fixed by the calculation and by a graphical solution. Special attention is given for absorption oil depending on gas flow, pressure, and temperature. A series of diagrams is presented showing required absorption oil at the Elemir plant for given propane recovery, depending on the variables which are mentioned.

  12. A multi-component evaporation model for beam melting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Alexander; Forster, Vera E.; Körner, Carolin

    2017-02-01

    In additive manufacturing using laser or electron beam melting technologies, evaporation losses and changes in chemical composition are known issues when processing alloys with volatile elements. In this paper, a recently described numerical model based on a two-dimensional free surface lattice Boltzmann method is further developed to incorporate the effects of multi-component evaporation. The model takes into account the local melt pool composition during heating and fusion of metal powder. For validation, the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is melted by selective electron beam melting and analysed using mass loss measurements and high-resolution microprobe imaging. Numerically determined evaporation losses and spatial distributions of aluminium compare well with experimental data. Predictions of the melt pool formation in bulk samples provide insight into the competition between the loss of volatile alloying elements from the irradiated surface and their advective redistribution within the molten region.

  13. Irradiation-induced segregation in multi-component alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, I.W.

    1983-01-01

    A unified analysis of irradiation-induced segregation in multi-component alloys is developed using the formulation of irreversible thermodynamics. Three distinct mechanisms for segregation, namely the inverse Kirkendall effect, the vacancy-wind effect, and the solute drag of interstitials, are identified. In particular, the inverse Kirkendall effect due to interstitials arises only if a solute-interstitial interaction or a mutual conversion among interstitials via lattice atom intermediaries operates simultaneously. In the limit of fast conversion a para-equilibrium state may be reached between interstitials and lattice atoms, and the interstitial mechanism becomes formally analogous to the vacancy mechanism. Although the past treatment of rate phenomena in this field was apparently limited to the latter case, the importance of the consideration of separate chemical potentials for interstitials of different species, in segregation and other irradiation effects, is emphasized. (orig.)

  14. Multi-component intermetallic electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M; Trahey, Lynn; Vaughey, John T

    2015-03-10

    Multi-component intermetallic negative electrodes prepared by electrochemical deposition for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries are disclosed. More specifically, the invention relates to composite intermetallic electrodes comprising two or more compounds containing metallic or metaloid elements, at least one element of which can react with lithium to form binary, ternary, quaternary or higher order compounds, these compounds being in combination with one or more other metals that are essentially inactive toward lithium and act predominantly, but not necessarily exclusively, to the electronic conductivity of, and as current collection agent for, the electrode. The invention relates more specifically to negative electrode materials that provide an operating potential between 0.05 and 2.0 V vs. metallic lithium.

  15. Energetic Variational Approach to Multi-Component Fluid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshtein, Arkadz; Liu, Chun; Brannick, James

    2017-11-01

    In this talk I will introduce the systematic energetic variational approach for dissipative systems applied to multi-component fluid flows. These variational approaches are motivated by the seminal works of Rayleigh and Onsager. The advantage of this approach is that we have to postulate only energy law and some kinematic relations based on fundamental physical principles. The method gives a clear, quick and consistent way to derive the PDE system. I will compare different approaches to three-component flows using diffusive interface method and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The diffusive interface method is an approach for modeling interactions among complex substances. The main idea behind this method is to introduce phase field labeling functions in order to model the contact line by smooth change from one type of material to another. The work of Arkadz Kirshtein and Chun Liu is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-141200 and DMS-1216938.

  16. A green multicomponent synthesis of tocopherol analogues with antiproliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingold, Mariana; Dapueto, Rosina; Victoria, Sabina; Galliusi, Germán; Batthyàny, Carlos; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Tejedor, David; García-Tellado, Fernando; Padrón, José M; Porcal, Williams; López, Gloria V

    2018-01-01

    A one-pot efficient, practical and eco-friendly synthesis of tocopherol analogues has been developed using water or solvent free conditions via Passerini and Ugi multicomponent reactions. These reactions can be optimized using microwave irradiation or ultrasound as the energy source. Accordingly, a small library of 30 compounds was prepared for biological tests. The evaluation of the antiproliferative activity in the human solid tumor cell lines A549 (lung), HBL-100 (breast), HeLa (cervix), SW1573 (lung), T-47D (breast), and WiDr (colon) provided lead compounds with GI 50 values between 1 and 5 μM. A structure-activity relationship is also discussed. One of the studied compounds comes up as a future candidate for the development of potent tocopherol-mimetic therapeutic agents for cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Damage buildup and edge dislocation mobility in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granberg, F., E-mail: fredric.granberg@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Djurabekova, F. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Levo, E.; Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We studied the damage buildup in equiatomic multicomponent alloys by MD simulations. • Edge dislocation mobility was lower in the studied alloys compared to elemental Ni. • Damage buildup in alloys saturated at lower levels than in elemental Ni. • Initial damage buildup is faster in alloys compared to elemental Ni. - Abstract: A new class of single phase metal alloys of equal atomic concentrations has shown very promising mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. Moreover, a significant reduction in damage accumulation during prolonged irradiation has also been observed in these equiatomic multicomponent alloys. A comparison of elemental Ni with the two component NiFe- and the three component NiCoCr-alloy showed a substantial reduction in damage in both alloys, and an even larger difference was seen if only larger clusters were considered. One of the factors limiting the damage build-up in the alloys compared to the elemental material was seen to be dislocation mobility (Granberg et al., 2016). In this Article, we focus on a more thorough investigation of the mobility of edge dislocations in different cases of the Ni-, NiFe- and NiCoCr-samples. We find that even though the saturated amount of defects in the alloys is lower than in elemental Ni, the defect buildup in the early stages is faster in the alloys. We also find that the dislocation mobility in NiFe is lower than in Ni, at low stresses, and that the onset stress in NiFe is higher than in Ni. The same phenomenon was seen in comparison between NiFe and NiCoCr, since the three component alloy had lower dislocation mobility and higher onset stress. The dislocation velocity in elemental Ni plateaued out just under the forbidden velocity, whereas the alloys showed a more complex behaviour.

  18. On fault propagation in deterioration of multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhenglin; Parlikad, Ajith Kumar; Srinivasan, Rengarajan; Rasmekomen, Nipat

    2017-01-01

    In extant literature, deterioration dependence among components can be modelled as inherent dependence and induced dependence. We find that the two types of dependence may co-exist and interact with each other in one multi-component system. We refer to this phenomenon as fault propagation. In practice, a fault induced by the malfunction of a non-critical component may further propagate through the dependence amongst critical components. Such fault propagation scenario happens in industrial assets or systems (bridge deck, and heat exchanging system). In this paper, a multi-layered vector-valued continuous-time Markov chain is developed to capture the characteristics of fault propagation. To obtain the mathematical tractability, we derive a partitioning rule to aggregate states with the same characteristics while keeping the overall aging behaviour of the multi-component system. Although the detailed information of components is masked by aggregated states, lumpability is attainable with the partitioning rule. It means that the aggregated process is stochastically equivalent to the original one and retains the Markov property. We apply this model on a heat exchanging system in oil refinery company. The results show that fault propagation has a more significant impact on the system's lifetime comparing with inherent dependence and induced dependence. - Highlights: • We develop a vector value continuous-time Markov chain to model the meta-dependent characteristic of fault propagation. • A partitioning rule is derived to reduce the state space and attain lumpability. • The model is applied on analysing the impact of fault propagation in a heat exchanging system.

  19. Assembly Modulated by Particle Position and Shape: A New Concept in Self-Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavacoli, Joe W; Heuvingh, Julien; Du Roure, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    In this communication we outline how the bespoke arrangements and design of micron-sized superparamagnetic shapes provide levers to modulate their assembly under homogeneous magnetic fields. We label this new approach, 'assembly modulated by particle position and shape' (APPS). Specifically, using...... rectangular lattices of superparamagnetic micron-sized cuboids, we construct distinct microstructures by adjusting lattice pitch and angle of array with respect to a magnetic field. Broadly, we find two modes of assembly: (1) immediate 2D jamming of the cuboids as they rotate to align with the applied field...... (rotation-induced jamming) and (2) aggregation via translation after their full alignment (dipole-dipole assembly). The boundary between these two assembly pathways is independent on field strength being solely a function of the cuboid's dimensions, lattice pitch, and array angle with respect to field...

  20. Communication: Theoretical prediction of free-energy landscapes for complex self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, William M.; Reinhardt, Aleks; Frenkel, Daan [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-14

    We present a technique for calculating free-energy profiles for the nucleation of multicomponent structures that contain as many species as building blocks. We find that a key factor is the topology of the graph describing the connectivity of the target assembly. By considering the designed interactions separately from weaker, incidental interactions, our approach yields predictions for the equilibrium yield and nucleation barriers. These predictions are in good agreement with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. We show that a few fundamental properties of the connectivity graph determine the most prominent features of the assembly thermodynamics. Surprisingly, we find that polydispersity in the strengths of the designed interactions stabilizes intermediate structures and can be used to sculpt the free-energy landscape for self-assembly. Finally, we demonstrate that weak incidental interactions can preclude assembly at equilibrium due to the combinatorial possibilities for incorrect association.

  1. Nonequilibrium Contribution to the Rate of Reaction. III. Isothermal Multicomponent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, B.; Karplus, M.

    1970-10-01

    The nonequilibrium contribution to the reaction rate of an isothermal multicomponent system is obtained by solution of the appropriate Chapman-Enskog equation; the system is composed of reactive species in contact with a heat bath of inert atoms M.

  2. Simultaneous multi-component seismic denoising and reconstruction via K-SVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Sian; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiangyang; Zhao, Qiang; Dai, Hengchang

    2018-06-01

    Data denoising and reconstruction play an increasingly significant role in seismic prospecting for their value in enhancing effective signals, dealing with surface obstacles and reducing acquisition costs. In this paper, we propose a novel method to denoise and reconstruct multicomponent seismic data simultaneously. This method lies within the framework of machine learning and the key points are defining a suitable weight function and a modified inner product operator. The purpose of these two processes are to perform missing data machine learning when the random noise deviation is unknown, and building a mathematical relationship for each component to incorporate all the information of multi-component data. Two examples, using synthetic and real multicomponent data, demonstrate that the new method is a feasible alternative for multi-component seismic data processing.

  3. Linearly decoupled energy-stable numerical methods for multi-component two-phase compressible flow

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu; Wang, Xiuhua

    2017-01-01

    involved in the discrete momentum equation to ensure a consistency relationship with the mass balance equations. Moreover, we propose a component-wise SAV approach for a multi-component fluid, which requires solving a sequence of linear, separate mass

  4. Time-dependent density functional theory for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiecheng Li; Peiqing Tong

    1985-10-01

    The Runge-Gross version of Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham's density functional theory is generalized to multi-component systems, both for arbitrary time-dependent pure states and for arbitrary time-dependent ensembles. (author)

  5. Integrable couplings of the multi-component Dirac hierarchy and its Hamiltonian structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhu; Dong Huanhe

    2008-01-01

    Integrable couplings of the multi-component Dirac hierarchy is obtained by use of the vector loop algebra G ∼ M , then the Hamiltonian structure of the above system is given by the quadratic-form identity

  6. Mixed-mode chromatography with zwitterionic phosphopeptidomimetic selectors from Ugi multicomponent reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargano, Andrea F G; Leek, Tomas; Lindner, Wolfgang; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the present contribution a novel Ugi multicomponent reaction (MCR) was used to generate zwitterionic chromatographic selectors with capability for application in mixed-mode chromatography featuring complementary selectivities in reversed-phase (RP) and hydrophilic interaction liquid

  7. High Performance Multi-GPU SpMV for Multi-component PDE-Based Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelfattah, Ahmad; Ltaief, Hatem; Keyes, David E.

    2015-01-01

    -block structure. While these optimizations are important for high performance dense kernel executions, they are even more critical when dealing with sparse linear algebra operations. The most time-consuming phase of many multicomponent applications, such as models

  8. Fuel assembly guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed toward a nuclear fuel assembly guide tube arrangement which restrains spacer grid movement due to coolant flow and which offers secondary means for supporting a fuel assembly during handling and transfer operations

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Nonstationary Separation Processes in Gas Centrifuge Cascade for Separation of Multicomponent Isotope Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of development of the mathematical model of nonstationary separation processes occurring in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures. This model was used for the calculation parameters of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of germanium isotopes. Comparison of obtained values with results of other authors revealed that developed mathematical model is adequate to describe nonstationary separation processes in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures.

  10. A new multi-component hierarchy and its integrable expanding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Huanhe; Liang Xiangqian

    2008-01-01

    A set of multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed, it follows that a type of new loop algebra is presented and multi-component integrable hierarchy is obtained. Furthermore, the loop algebra is expanded into a larger one and a type of integrable coupling system is worked out. As reduction of the hierarchy, some well-known hierarchy such as DNLS, KN, CLL hierarchy are established

  11. Hierarchies of multi-component mKP equations and theirs integrable couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jie; Yao Yuqin; Zhu Fubo; Chen Dengyuan

    2008-01-01

    First, a new multi-component modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvill (mKP) spectral problem is constructed by k-constraint imposed on a general pseudo-differential operator. Then, two hierarchies of multi-component mKP equations are derived, including positive non-isospectral mKP hierarchy and negative non-isospectral mKP hierarchy. Moreover, new integrable couplings of the resulting mKP soliton hierarchies are constructed by enlarging the associated matrix spectral problem

  12. The elimination of singularities in pair correlation functions of a multicomponent liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'jev, O.M.; Chalij, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method that allows to find nonsingular expressions for pair correlation functions of a multicomponent liquid system. The nature of the method deals with using integral and differential Ornstein-Zernike equations for finding asymptotic expressions for pair correlation functions and their subsequent precision. The obtained results are analyzed taking into account their possible applicability for studying the correlative behaviour of multicomponent liquid systems

  13. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tashima, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies arranged in the form of a lattice wherein there is attached to the interface of one of two adjacent fuel assemblies a plate spring having a concave portion curved toward said interface and to the interface of the other fuel assembly a plate spring having a convex portion curved away from said interface

  15. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways.

  16. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  17. Multicomponent diffusion in basaltic melts at 1350 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chenghuan; Zhang, Youxue

    2018-05-01

    Nine successful diffusion couple experiments were conducted in an 8-component SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O system at ∼1350 °C and at 1 GPa, to study multicomponent diffusion in basaltic melts. At least 3 traverses were measured to obtain diffusion profiles for each experiment. Multicomponent diffusion matrix at 1350 °C was obtained by simultaneously fitting diffusion profiles of diffusion couple experiments. Furthermore, in order to better constrain the diffusion matrix and reconcile mineral dissolution data, mineral dissolution experiments in the literature and diffusion couple experiments from this study, were fit together. All features of diffusion profiles in both diffusion couple and mineral dissolution experiments were well reproduced by the diffusion matrix. Diffusion mechanism is inferred from eigenvectors of the diffusion matrix, and it shows that the diffusive exchange between network-formers SiO2 and Al2O3 is the slowest, the exchange of SiO2 with other oxide components is the second slowest with an eigenvalue that is only ∼10% larger, then the exchange between divalent oxide components and all the other oxide components is the third slowest with an eigenvalue that is twice the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of FeO + K2O with all the other oxide components is the fourth slowest with an eigenvalue that is 5 times the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of MgO with FeO + CaO is the third fastest with an eigenvalue that is 6.3 times the smallest eigenvalue, then the exchange of CaO + K2O with all the other oxide components is the second fastest with an eigenvalue that is 7.5 times the smallest eigenvalue, and the exchange of Na2O with all other oxide components is the fastest with an eigenvalue that is 31 times the smallest eigenvalue. The slowest and fastest eigenvectors are consistent with those for simpler systems in most literature. The obtained diffusion matrix was successfully applied to predict diffusion profiles during

  18. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  19. Nuclear fuel string assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonier, Pierre; Mesnage, Bernard; Nervi, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    This invention refers to fuel assemblies for a liquid metal cooled fast neutron reactor. Each assembly is composed of a hollow vertical casing, of regular polygonal section, containing a bundle of clad pins filled with a fissile or fertile substance. The casing is open at its upper end and has a cylindrical foot at its lower end for positioning the assembly in a housing provided in the horizontal diagrid, on which the core assembly rests. A set of flat bars located on the external surface of the casing enables it to be correctly orientated in its housing among the other core assemblies [fr

  1. Digital holographic microscopy of phase separation in multicomponent lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam Rad, Vahideh; Moradi, Ali-Reza; Darudi, Ahmad; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-12-01

    Lateral in-homogeneities in lipid compositions cause microdomains formation and change in the physical properties of biological membranes. With the presence of cholesterol and mixed species of lipids, phospholipid membranes segregate into lateral domains of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases. Coupling of two-dimensional intralayer phase separations and interlayer liquid-crystalline ordering in multicomponent membranes has been previously demonstrated. By the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHMicroscopy), we quantitatively analyzed the volumetric dynamical behavior of such membranes. The specimens are lipid mixtures composed of sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and unsaturated phospholipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. DHMicroscopy in a transmission mode is an effective tool for quantitative visualization of phase objects. By deriving the associated phase changes, three-dimensional information on the morphology variation of lipid stacks at arbitrary time scales is obtained. Moreover, the thickness distribution of the object at demanded axial planes can be obtained by numerical focusing. Our results show that the volume evolution of lipid domains follows approximately the same universal growth law of previously reported area evolution. However, the thickness of the domains does not alter significantly by time; therefore, the volume evolution is mostly attributed to the changes in area dynamics. These results might be useful in the field of membrane-based functional materials.

  2. Multi-component solid solution alloys having high mixing entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Hongbin

    2015-10-06

    A multi-component high-entropy alloy includes a composition selected from the following group: VNbTaTiMoWRe, VNbTaTiMoW, VNbTaTiMoRe, VNbTaTiWRe, VNbTaMoWRe, VNbTiMoWRe, VTaTiMoWRe, NbTaTiMoWRe, VNbTaTiMo, VNbTaTiW, VNbTaMoW, VNbTiMoW, VTaTiMoW, NbTaTiMoW, VNbTaTiRe, VNbTaMoRe, VNbTiMoRe, VTaTiMoRe, NbTaTiMoRe, VNbTaWRe, VNbTiWRe, VTaTiWRe, NbTaTiWRe, VNbMoWRe, VTaMoWRe, NbTaMoWRe, VTiMoWRe, NbTiMoWRe, TaTiMoWRe, wherein relative amounts of each element vary by no more than .+-.15 atomic %.

  3. Prednisolone multicomponent nanoparticle preparation by aerosol solvent extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Fukino, Mika; Tozuka, Yuichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2009-10-01

    Prednisolone nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer and a surfactant by the aerosol solvent extraction system (ASES). A ternary mixture of prednisolone, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dissolved in methanol was sprayed through a nozzle into the reaction vessel filled with supercritical carbon dioxide. After the ASES process was repeated, precipitates of the ternary components were obtained by depressurizing the reaction vessel. When a methanolic solution of prednisolone/PEG 4000/SDS at a weight ratio of 1:6:2 was sprayed under the optimized ASES conditions, the mean particle size of prednisolone obtained after dispersing the precipitates in water was observed to be ca. 230 nm. Prednisolone nanoparticles were not obtained by the binary ASES process for prednisolone, in the presence of either PEG or SDS. Furthermore, ternary cryogenic cogrinding, as well as solvent evaporation, was not effective for the preparation of prednisolone nanoparticles. As the ASES process can be conducted under moderate temperature conditions, the ASES process that was applied to the ternary system appeared to be one of the most promising methods for the preparation of drug nanoparticles using the multicomponent system.

  4. Efficient transfer of sensitivity information in multi-component models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Rabiti, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    In support of adjoint-based sensitivity analysis, this manuscript presents a new method to efficiently transfer adjoint information between components in a multi-component model, whereas the output of one component is passed as input to the next component. Often, one is interested in evaluating the sensitivities of the responses calculated by the last component to the inputs of the first component in the overall model. The presented method has two advantages over existing methods which may be classified into two broad categories: brute force-type methods and amalgamated-type methods. First, the presented method determines the minimum number of adjoint evaluations for each component as opposed to the brute force-type methods which require full evaluation of all sensitivities for all responses calculated by each component in the overall model, which proves computationally prohibitive for realistic problems. Second, the new method treats each component as a black-box as opposed to amalgamated-type methods which requires explicit knowledge of the system of equations associated with each component in order to reach the minimum number of adjoint evaluations. (author)

  5. Multicomponent T2 relaxation studies of the avian egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Mulkern, Robert V; Maier, Stephan E

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the tissue-like multiexponential T2 signal decays in avian eggs. Transverse relaxation studies of raw, soft-boiled and hard-boiled eggs were performed at 3 Tesla using a three-dimensional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill imaging sequence. Signal decays over a TE range of 11 to 354 ms were fitted assuming single- and multicomponent signal decays with up to three separately decaying components. Fat saturation was used to facilitate spectral assignment of observed decay components. Egg white, yolk and the centrally located latebra all demonstrate nonmonoexponential T2 decays. Specifically, egg white exhibits two-component decays with intermediate and long T2 times. Meanwhile, yolk and latebra are generally best characterized with triexponential decays, with short, intermediate and very long T2 decay times. Fat saturation revealed that the intermediate component of yolk could be attributed to lipids. Cooking of the egg profoundly altered the decay curves. Avian egg T2 decay curves cover a wide range of decay times. Observed T2 components in yolk and latebra as short as 10 ms, may prove valuable for testing clinical sequences designed to measure short T2 components, such as myelin-associated water in the brain. Thus we propose that the egg can be a versatile and widely available MR transverse relaxation phantom. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ion Bernstein wave heating in a multi-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.

    1980-10-01

    Conditions for the coupling and absorption of Gross-Bernstein ion-cyclotron waves in a multi-component plasma are examined. Two cases are distinguished depending upon whether, the antenna initially launches, (i) the quasi-torsional slow electromagnetic wave with azimuthal magnetic field (TM) polarization, or (ii) the quasi-compressional fast wave with the electric field oriented azimuthally (TE). Analytic expressions for the plasma surface impedance are derived taking into account the pertinent warm plasma modifications near the vacuum-plasma interface. Antenna configurations capable of efficient coupling of the radio frequency energy to these modes are studied. A method for simulating waveguide like launching using transmission lines is pointed out. It is found that impurity concentrations exceeding a few parts in a thousand are capable of competing with the bulk ions in the energy absorption processes; this could lead to energy deposition near the plasma edge. Measures for avoiding edge heating problems by a careful choice of parameters e.g. restricting the heating frequency to the fundamental ion gyrofrequency are outlined. Equal care is to be exercised in limiting the nsub(z) spectrum to low discrete values in order to avoid the potentially dangerous problem of runaway electron heating. (orig.)

  7. Predictors of retention in a multicomponent treatment for smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moreno-Coutiño

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is a lack of knowledge about factors that promote or hinder retention of smokers in treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was the identification of variables that predict retention of smokers who received a multicomponent treatment against smoking. Method: Participants (n = 79 simultaneously received pharmacological and psychological treatment, including an intervention phase prior to the date of smoking cessation. They were evaluated periodically in their abstinence, depressive and anxious symptoms, and were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions (nicotine patch, bupropion or nicotine patch + bupropion. Eighteen variables were grouped into four categories (demographic, consumption pattern, mood and treatment. Data were analyzed using student's t test and X2, for inclusion into a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: Results indicate that age of onset of regular tobacco consumption, secondary education and bupropion pharmacological treatment are significant in relation to the retention of smokers to smoking treatment. Discussion: The reported “age of onset” correlates with treatment retention (OR = 1.545, 95 % CI = 1.175-2.032. This variable has not previously been reported in the literature, and taking it into account in the design of prevention and treatment for smoking could increase their success.

  8. Ion channeling study of defects in multicomponent semiconductor compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turos, A.; Nowicki, L.; Stonert, A.

    2002-01-01

    Compound semiconductor crystals are of great technological importance as basic materials for production of modern opto- and microelectronic devices. Ion implantation is one of the principal techniques for heterostructures processing. This paper reports the results of the study of defect formation and transformation in binary and ternary semiconductor compounds subjected to ion implantation with ions of different mass and energy. The principal analytical technique was He-ion channeling. The following materials were studied: GaN and InGaN epitaxial layers. First the semi empirical method of channeling spectra analysis for ion implanted multicomponent single crystal was developed. This method was later complemented by the more sophisticated method based on the Monte Carlo simulation of channeling spectra. Next, the damage buildup in different crystals and epitaxial layers as a function of the implantation dose was studied for N, Mg, Te, and Kr ions. The influence of the substrate temperature on the defect transformations was studied for GaN epitaxial layers implanted with Mg ions. Special attention was devoted to the study of growth conditions of InGaN/GaN/sapphire heterostructures, which are important component of the future blue laser diodes. In-atom segregation and tetragonal distortion of the epitaxial layer were observed and characterized. Next problem studied was the incorporation of hydrogen atoms in GaAs and GaN. Elastic recoil detection (ERDA) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) were applied for the purpose. (author)

  9. Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations.

  10. Local stress calculation in simulations of multicomponent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branicio, Paulo S.; Srolovitz, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The virial and Hardy methods provide accurate local stresses for single component materials such as monatomic metals. In contrast to the elemental material case, both methods provide poor estimates of the local stress for multicomponent materials. Using binary materials such as CaO, SiC and AlN and homogeneous strain, we demonstrate that there are several sources for the slow convergence of the virial and Hardy local stresses to the bulk values. Different approaches such as enforced stoichiometry, atomic localization functions and the atomic voronoi volume are used to improve the convergence and increase the spatial resolution of the local stress. The virial method with enforced stoichiometry and atomic voronoi volumes is the most accurate, giving exact stress values by the first atomic shell. In the general case, not assuming stoichiometry, the virial method with localization functions converge to 93% of the bulk value by the third atomic shell. This work may be particularly useful for the real-time description of stresses in simulations of shock waves and deformation dynamics.

  11. Analysis of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2013-02-01

    This paper analysed the performance of a membrane system over key design/operation parameters. A computation methodology is developed to solve the model of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas feeds. The model represented by a nonlinear differential algebraic equation system is solved via a combination of backward differentiation and Gauss-Seidel methods. Natural gas sweetening problem is investigated as a case study. Model parametric analyses of variables, namely feed gas quality, pressure, area, selectivity and permeance, resulted in better understanding of operating and design optima. Particularly, high selectivities and/or permeabilities are shown not to be necessary targets for optimal operation. Rather, a medium selectivity (<60 in the given example) combined with medium permeance (∼300-500×10-10mol/sm2Pa in the given case study) is more advantageous. This model-based membrane systems engineering approach is proposed for the synthesis of efficient and cost-effective multi-stage membrane networks. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Effect of multicomponent InAsSbP matrix surface on formation of InSb quantum dots at MOVPE growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, V. V.; Dement’ev, P. A.; Moiseev, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Indium-antimonide quantum dots (7–9 × 10"9 cm"2) are produced on an InAs(001) substrate by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy at a temperature of T = 440°C. Epitaxial deposition occurred simultaneously onto an InAs binary matrix and an InAsSbP quaternary alloy matrix layer lattice-matched to the InAs substrate in terms of the lattice parameter. Transformation of the quantum-dot shape and size is studied in relation to the chemical composition of the working matrix surface, onto which the quantum dots are deposited. The use of a multicomponent layer makes it possible to control the lattice parameter of the matrix and the strains produced in the system during the formation of self-assembled quantum dots.

  13. Inverse Problem in Self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Alexei

    2012-02-01

    By decorating colloids and nanoparticles with DNA, one can introduce highly selective key-lock interactions between them. This leads to a new class of systems and problems in soft condensed matter physics. In particular, this opens a possibility to solve inverse problem in self-assembly: how to build an arbitrary desired structure with the bottom-up approach? I will present a theoretical and computational analysis of the hierarchical strategy in attacking this problem. It involves self-assembly of particular building blocks (``octopus particles''), that in turn would assemble into the target structure. On a conceptual level, our approach combines elements of three different brands of programmable self assembly: DNA nanotechnology, nanoparticle-DNA assemblies and patchy colloids. I will discuss the general design principles, theoretical and practical limitations of this approach, and illustrate them with our simulation results. Our crucial result is that not only it is possible to design a system that has a given nanostructure as a ground state, but one can also program and optimize the kinetic pathway for its self-assembly.

  14. Assembly tool design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Naokazu; Nakahira, Masataka; Ohkawa, Yoshinao; Tada, Eisuke; Seki, Masahiro

    1996-06-01

    The reactor core of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is assembled with a number of large and asymmetric components within a tight tolerance in order to assure the structural integrity for various loads and to provide the tritium confinement. In addition, the assembly procedure should be compatible with remote operation since the core structures will be activated by 14-MeV neutrons once it starts operation and thus personal access will be prohibited. Accordingly, the assembly procedure and tool design are quite essential and should be designed from the beginning to facilitate remote operation. According to the ITER Design Task Agreement, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has performed design study to develop the assembly procedures and associated tool design for the ITER tokamak assembly. This report describes outlines of the assembly tools and the remaining issues obtained in this design study. (author)

  15. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  16. Operon Gene Order Is Optimized for Ordered Protein Complex Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan N.; Bergendahl, L. Therese; Marsh, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The assembly of heteromeric protein complexes is an inherently stochastic process in which multiple genes are expressed separately into proteins, which must then somehow find each other within the cell. Here, we considered one of the ways by which prokaryotic organisms have attempted to maximize the efficiency of protein complex assembly: the organization of subunit-encoding genes into operons. Using structure-based assembly predictions, we show that operon gene order has been optimized to match the order in which protein subunits assemble. Exceptions to this are almost entirely highly expressed proteins for which assembly is less stochastic and for which precisely ordered translation offers less benefit. Overall, these results show that ordered protein complex assembly pathways are of significant biological importance and represent a major evolutionary constraint on operon gene organization. PMID:26804901

  17. Internal structure of multicomponent static spherical gravitating fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, E.; Bailyn, M.

    1975-01-01

    The Maxwell--Einstein equations for a fluid comprised of more than one type of particle are not a determinate system even if an equation of state is added. The problem of what the charge distribution is in such fluids is therefore also not determinate. To complete the definition of the problem, more equations are needed. We obtain these for the simple case of a static spherically symmetric multicomponent system (imbedded in a Minkowskian background) by minimizing the energy of the fluid with respect to variations in the number densities of the constituents, with the side conditions that the total number of each constituent is constant during the variations. This procedure results in a determinate set of hydrostatic equilibrium equations, the sum of which is the familiar Tolman--Oppenheimer--Volkoff equation. Some general conclusions can be drawn. For example, the necessary and sufficient condition for charge neutrality is that the mass-energy density be some (arbitrary) function of some (arbitrary) linear combination of the number densities. Thus, since it is well known that the electrons in a white dwarf star at absolute zero form a degenerate gas, there must be a charge imbalance throughout such a star. This imbalance can then be computed self-consistently. An over-all physical interpretation of the new equations is that in equilibrium at any point in the fluid the sum of the non-gravitational forces per unit energy is the same for constituent 1 as for constituent 2 and so on. This is the analog of the corresponding (Galilean) statement for gravitational forces that is valid even without equilibrium

  18. Optical spectroscopy of the Ce-doped multicomponent garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canimoglu, A.; Karabulut, Y.; Ayvacikli, M.; Muresan, L.E.; Perhaita, I.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.; Garcia Guinea, J.; Karali, T.; Can, N.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report our results referring to the preparation of Ce doped Y 2.22 MgGa 2 Al 2 SiO 12 , Y 1.93 MgAl 4 SiO 12 and Y 2.22 Gd 0.75 Ga 2 Al 3 O 12 using solid state reaction at high temperature. Several complementary methods (i.e. powder x-ray diffraction (XRPD), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)) were studied to examine the effects of the synthesis procedure on the morphology and structure. XRD analyses revealed that all compounds include yttrium aluminate phase with garnet structure. Cathodoluminescence (CL), radioluminescence (RL) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out for clarification of relationship between host lattice defects and the spectral luminescence emissions. Luminescence emission of phosphors is peaked at 530 nm assigned to 5d-4f transitions of the dopant Ce 3+ ions with a broad emission band in 400–700 nm range. Under electron irradiation, the emission spectrum of Ce doped (YGd) 3 Ga 2 Al 3 O 12 is well defined and has a characteristic fairly narrow and sharp emission band peaking at 312 nm and 624 nm corresponding to transition of 6 P 7/2 → 8 S 7/2 and 6 G J → 6 P J (Gd 3+ ), respectively. We suggest some of phosphors might be excellent phototherapy phosphor materials under electron excitation. - Highlights: • Ce-doped Multicomponent Garnets were prepared solid state reaction method. • The shape and size of phosphor particles were examined. • The narrow band UV B emission due to Gd 3+ ions were observed.

  19. Damage buildup and edge dislocation mobility in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, F.; Djurabekova, F.; Levo, E.; Nordlund, K.

    2017-02-01

    A new class of single phase metal alloys of equal atomic concentrations has shown very promising mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. Moreover, a significant reduction in damage accumulation during prolonged irradiation has also been observed in these equiatomic multicomponent alloys. A comparison of elemental Ni with the two component NiFe- and the three component NiCoCr-alloy showed a substantial reduction in damage in both alloys, and an even larger difference was seen if only larger clusters were considered. One of the factors limiting the damage build-up in the alloys compared to the elemental material was seen to be dislocation mobility (Granberg et al., 2016). In this Article, we focus on a more thorough investigation of the mobility of edge dislocations in different cases of the Ni-, NiFe- and NiCoCr-samples. We find that even though the saturated amount of defects in the alloys is lower than in elemental Ni, the defect buildup in the early stages is faster in the alloys. We also find that the dislocation mobility in NiFe is lower than in Ni, at low stresses, and that the onset stress in NiFe is higher than in Ni. The same phenomenon was seen in comparison between NiFe and NiCoCr, since the three component alloy had lower dislocation mobility and higher onset stress. The dislocation velocity in elemental Ni plateaued out just under the forbidden velocity, whereas the alloys showed a more complex behaviour.

  20. DSMC multicomponent aerosol dynamics: Sampling algorithms and aerosol processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya

    The post-accident nuclear reactor primary and containment environments can be characterized by high temperatures and pressures, and fission products and nuclear aerosols. These aerosols evolve via natural transport processes as well as under the influence of engineered safety features. These aerosols can be hazardous and may pose risk to the public if released into the environment. Computations of their evolution, movement and distribution involve the study of various processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, etc., and are influenced by factors such as particle shape, charge, radioactivity and spatial inhomogeneity. These many factors make the numerical study of nuclear aerosol evolution computationally very complicated. The focus of this research is on the use of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to elucidate the role of various phenomena that influence the nuclear aerosol evolution. In this research, several aerosol processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, and source reinforcement are explored for a multi-component, aerosol dynamics problem in a spatially homogeneous medium. Among the various sampling algorithms explored the Metropolis sampling algorithm was found to be effective and fast. Several test problems and test cases are simulated using the DSMC technique. The DSMC results obtained are verified against the analytical and sectional results for appropriate test problems. Results show that the assumption of a single mean density is not appropriate due to the complicated effect of component densities on the aerosol processes. The methods developed and the insights gained will also be helpful in future research on the challenges associated with the description of fission product and aerosol releases.

  1. Nonideal mixing in multicomponent lipid/detergent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamaloukas, Alekos; Szadkowska, Halina; Heerklotz, Heiko

    2006-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the mixing properties of membranes to which detergents are added is mandatory for improving the application and interpretation of detergent based protein or lipid extraction assays. For Triton X-100 (TX-100), a nonionic detergent frequently used in the process of solubilizing and purifying membrane proteins and lipids, we present here a detailed study of the mixing properties of binary and ternary lipid mixtures by means of high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). To this end the partitioning thermodynamics of TX-100 molecules from the aqueous phase to lipid bilayers composed of various mixtures of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), egg-sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol (cho) are characterized. Composition-dependent partition coefficients K are analysed within the frame of a thermodynamic model developed to describe nonideal mixing in multicomponent lipid/detergent systems. The results imply that POPC, fluid SM, and TX-100 mix almost ideally (nonideality parameters ρ α/β SM/cho ≤-6RT) and unfavourable PC/cho interactions (ρ PC/cho = 2RT) may under certain conditions cause POPC/TX-100-enriched domains to segregate from SM/cho-enriched ones. TX-100/cho contacts are unfavourable (ρ cho/TX = 4RT), so the system tends to avoid them. That means, addition of TX-100 promotes the separation of SM/cho-rich from PC/TX-100-rich domains. It appears that cho/detergent interactions are crucial governing the abundance and composition of detergent-resistant membrane patches

  2. Polymer Percolation Threshold in Multi-Component HPMC Matrices Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The percolation theory studies the critical points or percolation thresholds of the system, where onecomponent of the system undergoes a geometrical phase transition, starting to connect the whole system. The application of this theory to study the release rate of hydrophilic matrices allows toexplain the changes in release kinetics of swellable matrix type system and results in a clear improvement of the design of controlled release dosage forms. Methods: In this study, the percolation theory has been applied to multi-component hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC hydrophilic matrices. Matrix tablets have been prepared using phenobarbital as drug,magnesium stearate as a lubricant employing different amount of lactose and HPMC K4M as a fillerandmatrix forming material, respectively. Ethylcelullose (EC as a polymeric excipient was also examined. Dissolution studies were carried out using the paddle method. In order to estimate the percolation threshold, the behaviour of the kinetic parameters with respect to the volumetric fraction of HPMC at time zero, was studied. Results: In both HPMC/lactose and HPMC/EC/lactose matrices, from the point of view of the percolation theory, the optimum concentration for HPMC, to obtain a hydrophilic matrix system for the controlled release of phenobarbital is higher than 18.1% (v/v HPMC. Above 18.1% (v/v HPMC, an infinite cluster of HPMC would be formed maintaining integrity of the system and controlling the drug release from the matrices. According to results, EC had no significant influence on the HPMC percolation threshold. Conclusion: This may be related to broad functionality of the swelling hydrophilic matrices.

  3. Pair correlations in an expanding universe for a multicomponent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrup, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Fall and Saslaw have derived an equation for the growth of pair correlations in an expanding universe of identical self-gravitating point masses which is correlation-free at some initial time. Their equation is rigorously true for the earliest stages of growth, assuming only that the system is spatially homogeneous and isotropic, and that it is characterized in the ''comoving frame'' by a Maxwellian distribution of velocities. This paper generalizes their analysis to the case of a multicomponent system of particles with different masses, each species of which is characterized by a Maxwellian distribution at the same temperature. Here there are two types of pair correlations to consider, namely among members of the same species and among members of different species. The general behavior may be understood most readily by considering the covariance functions, which assume very simple forms. Thus one finds that the ''strength'' of the covariance scales, for sufficiently small radial separations, as the product of the masses, whereas the ''range'' of the covariance varies inversely as the square root of the reduced mass of the two constituents. This implies that, for two very different masses, the ''range'' will be set by the lighter constituent. Knowledge of the covariances also permits the calculation of such objects as the correlational energy densities of the various interactions. Consider, for example, a two-component system. Here one finds that even a very small contamination of heavy masses, which would have a negligible effect upon the total mass or kinetic energy densities, can increase the total correlational energy density, and hence decrease the time scale for the evolution of interesting structure, by orders of magnitude

  4. Multi-level predictive maintenance for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Kim-Anh; Do, Phuc; Grall, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel predictive maintenance policy with multi-level decision-making is proposed for multi-component system with complex structure. The main idea is to propose a decision-making process considered on two levels: system level and component one. The goal of the decision rules at the system level is to address if preventive maintenance actions are needed regarding the predictive reliability of the system. At component level the decision rules aim at identifying optimally a group of several components to be preventively maintained when preventive maintenance is trigged due to the system level decision. Selecting optimal components is based on a cost-based group improvement factor taking into account the predictive reliability of the components, the economic dependencies as well as the location of the components in the system. Moreover, a cost model is developed to find the optimal maintenance decision variables. A 14-component system is finally introduced to illustrate the use and the performance of the proposed predictive maintenance policy. Different sensitivity analysis are also investigated and discussed. Indeed, the proposed policy provides more flexibility in maintenance decision-making for complex structure systems, hence leading to significant profits in terms of maintenance cost when compared with existing policies. - Highlights: • A predictive maintenance policy for complex structure systems is proposed. • Multi-level decision process based on prognostic results is proposed. • A cost-based group importance measure is introduced for decision-making. • Both positive and negative dependencies between components are investigated. • A cost model and Monte Carlo simulation are developed for optimization process.

  5. Crystallisation mechanism of a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurth, R.; Pascual, M.J.; Mather, G.C.; Pablos-Martín, A.; Muñoz, F.; Durán, A.; Cuello, G.J.; Rüssel, C.

    2012-01-01

    A base glass of composition 3.5 Li 2 O∙0.15 Na 2 O∙0.2 K 2 O∙1.15 MgO∙0.8 BaO∙1.5 ZnO∙20 Al 2 O 3 ∙67.2 SiO 2 ∙2.6 TiO 2 ∙1.7 ZrO 2 ∙1.2 As 2 O 3 (in wt.%), melted and provided by SCHOTT AG (Mainz), was used to study the crystallisation mechanism of lithium alumino-silicate glass employing X-ray diffraction combined with neutron diffraction and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A high-quartz solid solution of LiAlSi 2 O 6 with nanoscaled crystals forms at 750 °C. Quantitative Rietveld refinement of samples annealed at 750 °C for 8 h determined a crystallised fraction of around 59 wt.%. The room temperature crystallised phase adopts an ordered, β-eucryptite-like structure (2 × 2 × 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. The Avrami parameter (n ∼ 4), calculated from DSC data using different theoretical approaches, indicates that bulk crystallisation occurs and that the number of nuclei increases during annealing. The activation energy of the crystallisation is 531 ± 20 kJ mol −1 . - Highlights: ► Nanoscaled high-quartz crystals from a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass. ► Combined X-ray and neutron diffraction structural refinement. ► β-Eucryptite-like structure (2 × 2×2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. ► 3-Dimensional bulk crystallisation mechanism with an increasing number of nuclei. ► Usage and validation of an alternative approach to calculate the Avrami parameter.

  6. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  7. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  8. Generalized modeling of multi-component vaporization/condensation phenomena for multi-phase-flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K.; Fukuda, K.; Tobita, Y.; Kondo, Sa.; Suzuki, T.; Maschek, W.

    2003-01-01

    A new multi-component vaporization/condensation (V/C) model was developed to provide a generalized model for safety analysis codes of liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs). These codes simulate thermal-hydraulic phenomena of multi-phase, multi-component flows, which is essential to investigate core disruptive accidents of LMRs such as fast breeder reactors and accelerator driven systems. The developed model characterizes the V/C processes associated with phase transition by employing heat transfer and mass-diffusion limited models for analyses of relatively short-time-scale multi-phase, multi-component hydraulic problems, among which vaporization and condensation, or simultaneous heat and mass transfer, play an important role. The heat transfer limited model describes the non-equilibrium phase transition processes occurring at interfaces, while the mass-diffusion limited model is employed to represent effects of non-condensable gases and multi-component mixture on V/C processes. Verification of the model and method employed in the multi-component V/C model of a multi-phase flow code was performed successfully by analyzing a series of multi-bubble condensation experiments. The applicability of the model to the accident analysis of LMRs is also discussed by comparison between steam and metallic vapor systems. (orig.)

  9. Building polyhedra by self-assembly: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ryan; Klobušický, Joseph; Pandey, Shivendra; Gracias, David H; Menon, Govind

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the utility of a mathematical framework based on discrete geometry to model biological and synthetic self-assembly. Our primary biological example is the self-assembly of icosahedral viruses; our synthetic example is surface-tension-driven self-folding polyhedra. In both instances, the process of self-assembly is modeled by decomposing the polyhedron into a set of partially formed intermediate states. The set of all intermediates is called the configuration space, pathways of assembly are modeled as paths in the configuration space, and the kinetics and yield of assembly are modeled by rate equations, Markov chains, or cost functions on the configuration space. We review an interesting interplay between biological function and mathematical structure in viruses in light of this framework. We discuss in particular: (i) tiling theory as a coarse-grained description of all-atom models; (ii) the building game-a growth model for the formation of polyhedra; and (iii) the application of these models to the self-assembly of the bacteriophage MS2. We then use a similar framework to model self-folding polyhedra. We use a discrete folding algorithm to compute a configuration space that idealizes surface-tension-driven self-folding and analyze pathways of assembly and dominant intermediates. These computations are then compared with experimental observations of a self-folding dodecahedron with side 300 μm. In both models, despite a combinatorial explosion in the size of the configuration space, a few pathways and intermediates dominate self-assembly. For self-folding polyhedra, the dominant intermediates have fewer degrees of freedom than comparable intermediates, and are thus more rigid. The concentration of assembly pathways on a few intermediates with distinguished geometric properties is biologically and physically important, and suggests deeper mathematical structure.

  10. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim; Amad, Maan H.; Al-Talla, Zeyad

    2012-01-01

    with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  11. Current state in adsorption from multicomponent solutions of nonelectrolytes on solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowko, M.; Jaroniec, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper surveys the research carried out on the adsorption from multicomponent liquid mixtures of nonelectrolytes on solids with emphasis on the work performed by the authors. The consistent theoretical treatment of adsorption from concentrated and dilute multicomponent solutions and its application to the liquid adsorption chromatography with the mixed mobile phase are presented. This treatment involved nonideality of the bulk and surface phases, energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbent surface and it may be extended to multilayer adsorption from solutions. The multicomponent liquid/solid adsorption systems, studied experimentally, are reviewed. Many of them have been examined by means of the equations derived for liquid adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces. These studies are summarized in this paper. Moreover, the model studies illustrating the influence of solution nonideality and adsorbent heterogeneity on the excess adsorption isotherms and the distribution coefficient are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear fuel assembly for a light or heavy water reactor, or for a fast reactor of the kind with a bundle of cladded pins, maintained parallel to each other in a regular network by an assembly of separate supporting grids, fitted with elastic bearing surfaces on these pins [fr

  13. Assembling Transgender Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author seeks to assemble moments--scholarly, popular, and aesthetic--in order to explore the possibilities that emerge as moments collect in education's encounters with the needs, struggles, and possibilities of transgender lives and practices. Assembling moments, the author argues, illustrates the value of "moments"…

  14. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  15. Fuel Assembly Damping Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kanghee; Kang, Heungseok; Oh, Dongseok; Yoon, Kyungho; Kim, Hyungkyu; Kim, Jaeyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper summary the fuel assembly damping data in air/in still water/under flow, released from foreign fuel vendors, compared our data with the published data. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping measurement testing are also briefly discussed. Understanding of each fuel assembly damping mechanisms according to the surrounding medium and flow velocity can support the fuel design improvement in fuel assembly dynamics and structural integrity aspect. Because the upgraded requirements of the newly-developed advanced reactor system will demands to minimize fuel design margin in integrity evaluation, reduction in conservatism of fuel assembly damping can contribute to alleviate the fuel design margin for sure. Damping is an energy dissipation mechanism in a vibrating mechanical structure and prevents a resonant structure from having infinite vibration amplitudes. The sources of fuel assembly damping are various from support friction to flow contribution, and it can be increased by the viscosity or drag of surrounding fluid medium or the average velocity of water flowing. Fuel licensing requires fuel design evaluation in transient or accidental condition. Dynamic response analysis of fuel assembly is to show fuel integrity and requires information on assembly-wise damping in dry condition and under wet or water flowing condition. However, damping measurement test for the full-scale fuel assembly prototype is not easy to carry out because of the scale (fuel prototype, test facility), unsteadiness of test data (scattering, random sampling and processing), instrumentation under water flowing (water-proof response measurement), and noise. LWR fuel technology division in KAERI is preparing the infra structure for damping measurement test of full-scale fuel assembly, to support fuel industries and related research activities. Here is a preliminary summary of fuel assembly damping, published in the literature. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping

  16. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  17. Enantiomer-specific analysis of multi-component mixtures by correlated electron imaging-ion mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafiee Fanood, M.M.; Ram, N.B.; Lehmann, C.S.; Powis, I.; Janssen, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous, enantiomer-specific identification of chiral molecules in multi-component mixtures is extremely challenging. Many established techniques for single-component analysis fail to provide selectivity in multi-component mixtures and lack sensitivity for dilute samples. Here we show how

  18. 40 CFR 59.506 - How do I demonstrate compliance if I manufacture multi-component kits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I demonstrate compliance if I manufacture multi-component kits? 59.506 Section 59.506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 59.506 How do I demonstrate compliance if I manufacture multi-component kits? (a) If you manufacture...

  19. Recent advances in the chemistry of Rh carbenoids: multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, J J; Nikolaev, V A

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent reactions of diazo compounds catalyzed by Rh II complexes become a powerful tool for organic synthesis. They enable three- or four-step processes to be carried out as one-pot procedures (actually as one step) with high stereoselectivity to give complex organic molecules, including biologically active compounds. This review addresses recent results in the chemistry of Rh-catalyzed multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds with the intermediate formation of N-, O- and C=O–ylides. The diastereo- and enantioselectivity of these reactions and the possibility of using various co-catalysts to increase the efficiency of the processes under consideration are discussed. The bibliography includes 120 references

  20. Performance test of multicomponent quantum mechanical calculation with polarizable continuum model for proton chemical shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Yusuke; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2015-05-21

    Multicomponent quantum mechanical (MC_QM) calculations with polarizable continuum model (PCM) have been tested against liquid (1)H NMR chemical shifts for a test set of 80 molecules. Improvement from conventional quantum mechanical calculations was achieved for MC_QM calculations. The advantage of the multicomponent scheme could be attributed to the geometrical change from the equilibrium geometry by the incorporation of the hydrogen nuclear quantum effect, while that of PCM can be attributed to the change of the electronic structure according to the polarization by solvent effects.

  1. Fluctuation theory for transport properties in multicomponent mixtures: thermodiffusion and heat conductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The theory of transport properties in multicomponent gas and liquid mixtures, which was previously developed for diffusion coefficients, is extended onto thermodiffusion coefficients and heat conductivities. The derivation of the expressions for transport properties is based on the general statis...... of the heat conductivity coefficient for ideal gas. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......The theory of transport properties in multicomponent gas and liquid mixtures, which was previously developed for diffusion coefficients, is extended onto thermodiffusion coefficients and heat conductivities. The derivation of the expressions for transport properties is based on the general...

  2. Numerical simulations of multicomponent evaporation and gas-phase transport using M{sup 2}NOTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.K. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal simulator M{sup 2}NOTS was tested against several one-dimensional experiments. The experiments represented a through-flow limiting condition of soil venting in which air flows through the contaminated region. Predictions using M{sup 2}NOTS of changing in situ compositions and effluent concentrations for toluene and o-xylene mixtures were compared to the observed results. Results showed that M{sup 2}NOTS was able to capture the salient trends and features of multicomponent through-flow venting processes.

  3. Thermodiffusion in Multicomponent Mixtures Thermodynamic, Algebraic, and Neuro-Computing Models

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, Seshasai

    2013-01-01

    Thermodiffusion in Multicomponent Mixtures presents the computational approaches that are employed in the study of thermodiffusion in various types of mixtures, namely, hydrocarbons, polymers, water-alcohol, molten metals, and so forth. We present a detailed formalism of these methods that are based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics or algebraic correlations or principles of the artificial neural network. The book will serve as single complete reference to understand the theoretical derivations of thermodiffusion models and its application to different types of multi-component mixtures. An exhaustive discussion of these is used to give a complete perspective of the principles and the key factors that govern the thermodiffusion process.

  4. A self-consistent model for thermodynamics of multicomponent solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.

    2016-01-01

    The self-consistent concept recently published in this journal (108, 27–30, 2015) is extended from a binary to a multicomponent system. This is possible by exploiting the trapping concept as basis for including the interaction of atoms in terms of pairs (e.g. A–A, B–B, C–C…) and couples (e.g. A–B, B–C, …) in a multicomponent system with A as solvent and B, C, … as dilute solutes. The model results in a formulation of Gibbs-energy, which can be minimized. Examples show that the couple and pair formation may influence the equilibrium Gibbs energy markedly.

  5. Multicomponent transport in membranes for redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) incorporate separator membranes, which ideally prevent mixing of electrochemically active species while permitting crossover of inactive supporting ions. Understanding crossover and membrane selectivity may require multicomponent transport models that account for solute/solute interactions within the membrane, as well as solute/membrane interactions. Application of the Onsager-Stefan-Maxwell formalism allows one to account for all the dissipative phenomena that may accompany component fluxes through RFB membranes. The magnitudes of dissipative interactions (diffusional drag forces) are quantified by matching experimentally established concentration transients with theory. Such transients can be measured non-invasively using DC conductometry, but the accuracy of this method requires precise characterization of the bulk RFB electrolytes. Aqueous solutions containing both vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) are relevant to RFB technology. One of the first precise characterizations of aqueous vanadyl sulfate has been implemented and will be reported. To assess the viability of a separator for vanadium RFB applications with cell-level simulations, it is critical to understand the tendencies of various classes of membranes to absorb (uptake) active species, and to know the relative rates of active-species and supporting-electrolyte diffusion. It is also of practical interest to investigate the simultaneous diffusion of active species and supports, because interactions between solutes may ultimately affect the charge efficiency and power efficiency of the RFB system as a whole. A novel implementation of Barnes's classical model of dialysis-cell diffusion [Physics 5:1 (1934) 4-8] is developed to measure the binary diffusion coefficients and sorption equilibria for single solutes (VOSO4 or H2SO4) in porous membranes and cation-exchange membranes. With the binary diffusion and uptake measurement in hand, a computer simulation that

  6. EFFICACY OF MODIFIED MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEM “1C: ENTERPRISE” IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Modestov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automated accounting and controlling system “1C: Enterprise” is widely used in Russia for optimizing the system of controlling materials and technical resources. Medical organizations modify them in line with their primary activity objectives. For many years, the Scientific Center of Children’s Health has been successfully using a 1C-based medical information system including electronic patient records. An innovative product — an additional block for accounting equipment and supplies (E&S — was developed in 2014.Objective: Our aim was to conduct a sociological analysis of results of the first stage of modified multicomponent system “1C: Enterprise” implementation.Methods: The cross-sectional full-design study was conducted from October 2014 to June 2015. We used the analytical method, the opinion poll method and the expert method. We developed a special questionnaire for the purposes of the poll. We assessed opinions of clinic employees, departments and services indirectly or directly working with the system.Results: The study results demonstrate that multifunctional and adapted towards peculiarities of activities of the Scientific Center of Children’s Health system “1C: Enterprise” provides more efficient control over the use of drugs, expendables and other E&S in patient terms. It also allows simplifying and automatizing operation of the E&S accounting system by the employees and generating financial statements for a given period in terms of patient/department/clinic. At the same time, the poll revealed problematic technical, informational and motivational aspects. This is confirmed by the degree of involvement/personal interest of employees in the end result, as well as by the priorities of motivation for quality work.Conclusion: Analysis of attitude of accountable persons to the modification of accounting policy of the Scientific Center of Children’s Health served as the basis for developing measures of

  7. Crystallisation mechanism of a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurth, R. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Pascual, M.J., E-mail: mpascual@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Mather, G.C.; Pablos-Martin, A.; Munoz, F.; Duran, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Boite Postale 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ruessel, C. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A base glass of composition 3.5 Li{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.15 Na{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.2 K{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 1.15 MgO Bullet-Operator 0.8 BaO Bullet-Operator 1.5 ZnO Bullet-Operator 20 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Bullet-Operator 67.2 SiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 2.6 TiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.7 ZrO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.2 As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in wt.%), melted and provided by SCHOTT AG (Mainz), was used to study the crystallisation mechanism of lithium alumino-silicate glass employing X-ray diffraction combined with neutron diffraction and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A high-quartz solid solution of LiAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} with nanoscaled crystals forms at 750 Degree-Sign C. Quantitative Rietveld refinement of samples annealed at 750 Degree-Sign C for 8 h determined a crystallised fraction of around 59 wt.%. The room temperature crystallised phase adopts an ordered, {beta}-eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. The Avrami parameter (n {approx} 4), calculated from DSC data using different theoretical approaches, indicates that bulk crystallisation occurs and that the number of nuclei increases during annealing. The activation energy of the crystallisation is 531 {+-} 20 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscaled high-quartz crystals from a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined X-ray and neutron diffraction structural refinement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Dimensional bulk crystallisation mechanism with an increasing number of nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Usage and validation of an alternative approach to calculate the Avrami parameter.

  8. Molecular Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Benjamin H.; Powell, Simon N.

    2012-01-01

    The Rad52 protein was largely ignored in humans and other mammals when the mouse knockout revealed a largely “no-effect” phenotype. However, using synthetic lethal approaches to investigate context dependent function, new studies have shown that Rad52 plays a key survival role in cells lacking the function of the BRCA1-BRCA2 pathway of homologous recombination. Biochemical studies also showed significant differences between yeast and human Rad52, in which yeast Rad52 can promote strand invasion of RPA-coated single-stranded DNA in the presence of Rad51, but human Rad52 cannot. This results in the paradox of how is human Rad52 providing Rad51 function: presumably there is something missing in the biochemical assays that exists in-vivo, but the nature of this missing factor is currently unknown. Recent studies have suggested that Rad52 provides back-up Rad51 function for all members of the BRCA1-BRCA2 pathway, suggesting that Rad52 may be a target for therapy in BRCA pathway deficient cancers. Screening for ways to inhibit Rad52 would potentially provide a complementary strategy for targeting BRCA-deficient cancers in addition to PARP inhibitors. PMID:23071261

  9. TPX assembly plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, D.

    1993-01-01

    The TPX machine will be assembled in the TFTR Test Cell at the Plasma Physics Laboratory, utilizing the existing TFTR machine foundation. Preparation of the area for assembly will begin after completion of the decontamination and decommissioning phase on TFTR and certification that the radiation levels remaining, if any, are consistent with the types of operations planned. Assembly operations begin with the arrival of the first components, and conclude, approximately 24 months later, with the successful completion of the integrated systems tests and the achievement of a first plasma

  10. Nuclear reactor control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an assembly for providing global power control in a nuclear reactor having the core split into two halves. It comprises a disk assembly formed from at least two disks each machined with an identical surface hole pattern such that rotation of one disk relative to the other causes the hole pattern to open or close, the disk assembly being positioned substantially at the longitudinal center of and coaxial with the core halves; and means for rotating at least one of the disks relative to the other

  11. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    A bimetallic spacer means is cooperatively associated with a nuclear fuel assembly and operative to resist the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assembly. The bimetallic spacer means in one embodiment of the invention includes a space grid formed, at least principally, of zircaloy to the external surface of which are attached a plurality of stainless steel strips. In another embodiment the strips are attached to fuel pins. In each of the embodiments, the stainless steel strips during power production expand outwardly to a greater extent than do the members to which the stainless steel strips are attached, thereby forming stiff springs which abut against like bimetallic spacer means with which the other nuclear fuel assemblies are provided in a given nuclear reactor core to thus prevent the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assemblies. (author)

  12. Fuel assembly spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Ken-etsu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the pressure loss of coolants by fuel assembly spacers. Constitution: Spacers for supporting a fuel assembly are attached by means of a plurality of wires to an outer frame. The outer frame is made of shape memory alloy such that the wires are caused to slacken at normal temperature and the slacking of the wires is eliminated in excess of the transition temperature. Since the wires slacken at the normal temperature, fuel rods can be inserted easily. After the insertion of the fuel rods, when the entire portion or the outer frame is heated by water or gas at a predetermined temperature, the outer frame resumes its previously memorized shape to tighten the wires and, accordingly, the fuel rods can be supported firmly. In this way, since the fuel rods are inserted in the slacken state of the wires and, after the assembling, the outer frame resumes its memorized shape, the assembling work can be conducted efficiently. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Nuclear reactor spacer assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Groves, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    A fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed wherein the fuel element receiving and supporting grid is comprised of a first metal, the guide tubes which pass through the grid assembly are comprised of a second metal and the grid is supported on the guide tubes by means of expanded sleeves located intermediate the grid and guide tubes. The fuel assembly is fabricated by inserting the sleeves, of initial outer diameter commensurate with the guide tube outer diameters, through the holes in the grid assembly provided for the guide tubes and thereafter expanding the sleeves radially outwardly along their entire length such that the guide tubes can subsequently be passed through the sleeves. The step of radial expansion, as a result of windows provided in the sleeves having dimensions commensurate with the geometry of the grid, mechanically captures the grid and simultaneously preloads the sleeve against the grid whereby relative motion between the grid and guide tube will be precluded

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhorev, Yu.V.; Biryukov, G.I.; Kirilyuk, N.A.; Lobanov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel assembly is proposed for nuclear reactors allowing remote replacement of control rod bundles or their shifting from one assembly to another, i.e., their multipurpose use. This leads to a significant increase in fuel assembly usability. In the fuel assembly the control rod bundle is placed in guide tube channels to which baffles are attached for fuel element spacing. The remote handling of control rods is provided by a hollow cylinder with openings in its lower bottom through which the control rods pass. All control rods in a bundle are mounted to a cross beam which in turn is mounted in the cylinder and is designed for grasping the whole rod bundle by a remotely controlled telescopic mechanism in bundle replacement or shifting. (Z.M.)

  15. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Under the invention the fuel assembly is particularly suitable for liquid metal cooled fast neutron breeder reactors. Hence, according to the invention a fuel assembly cladding includes inward corrugations with respect to the remainder of the cladding according to a recurring pattern determined by the pitch of the metal wire helically wound round the fuel rods of the assembly. The parts of the cladding pressed inwards correspond to the areas in which the wire encircling the peripheral fuel rods is generally located apart from the cladding, thereby reducing the play between the cladding and the peripheral fuel rods situated in these areas. The reduction in the play in turn improves the coolant flow in the internal secondary channels of the fuel assembly to the detriment of the flow in the peripheral secondary channels and thereby establishes a better coolant fluid temperature profile [fr

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Shungo; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1990-01-01

    In a fuel assembly, if the entire fuels comprise mixed oxide fuels, reactivity change in cold temperature-power operation is increased to worsen the reactor shutdown margin. The reactor shutdown margin has been improved by increasing the burnable poison concentration thereby reducing the reactivity of the fuel assembly. However, since unburnt poisons are present at the completion of the reactor operation, the reactivity can not be utilized effectively to bring about economical disadvantage. In view of the above, the reactivity change between lower temperature-power operations is reduced by providing a non-boiling range with more than 9.1% of cross sectional area at the inside of a channel at the central portion of the fuel assembly. As a result, the amount of the unburnt burnable poisons is decreased, the economy of fuel assembly is improved and the reactor shutdown margin can be increase. (N.H.)

  17. Alternative Pathways to Apprenticeships. Good Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    Apprenticeships are changing. The increasing proportions of people entering apprenticeships at various levels of ability and backgrounds are stimulating demand for alternative pathways to completions. This good practice guide assembles the key findings for education practitioners and workplace supervisors from three related research reports on…

  18. MIDAS: A Modular DNA Assembly System for Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Kessans, Sarah A; Van de Bittner, Kyle C; Bustamante, Leyla Y; Bundela, Rudranuj; Scott, Barry; Nicholson, Matthew J; Parker, Emily J

    2018-04-20

    A modular and hierarchical DNA assembly platform for synthetic biology based on Golden Gate (Type IIS restriction enzyme) cloning is described. This enabling technology, termed MIDAS (for Modular Idempotent DNA Assembly System), can be used to precisely assemble multiple DNA fragments in a single reaction using a standardized assembly design. It can be used to build genes from libraries of sequence-verified, reusable parts and to assemble multiple genes in a single vector, with full user control over gene order and orientation, as well as control of the direction of growth (polarity) of the multigene assembly, a feature that allows genes to be nested between other genes or genetic elements. We describe the detailed design and use of MIDAS, exemplified by the reconstruction, in the filamentous fungus Penicillium paxilli, of the metabolic pathway for production of paspaline and paxilline, key intermediates in the biosynthesis of a range of indole diterpenes-a class of secondary metabolites produced by several species of filamentous fungi. MIDAS was used to efficiently assemble a 25.2 kb plasmid from 21 different modules (seven genes, each composed of three basic parts). By using a parts library-based system for construction of complex assemblies, and a unique set of vectors, MIDAS can provide a flexible route to assembling tailored combinations of genes and other genetic elements, thereby supporting synthetic biology applications in a wide range of expression hosts.

  19. A review of multi-component maintenance models with economic dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); R.E. Wildeman (Ralph); F.A. van der Duyn Schouten (Frank)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we review the literature on multi-component maintenance models with economic dependence. The emphasis is on papers that appeared after 1991, but there is an overlap with Section 2 of the most recent review paper by Cho and Parlar (1991). We distinguish between stationary

  20. [Exploration of one-step preparation of Ganoderma lucidum multicomponent microemulsion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun-Jie; Chen, Yan; Du, Meng; Cao, Wei; Yuan, Ling; Zheng, Li-Yan

    2013-03-01

    To explore one-step method for the preparation of Ganoderma lucidum multicomponent microemulsion, according to the dissolution characteristics of triterpenes and polysaccharides in Ganoderma lucidum, formulation of the microemulsion was optimized. The optimal blank microemulsion was used as a solvent to sonicate the Ganoderma lucidum powder to prepare the multicomponent microemulsion, besides, its physicochemical properties were compared with the microemulsion made by conventional method. The results showed that the multicomponent microemulsion was characterized as (43.32 +/- 6.82) nm in size, 0.173 +/- 0.025 in polydispersity index (PDI) and -(3.98 +/- 0.82) mV in zeta potential. The contents of Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes and polysaccharides were (5.95 +/- 0.32) and (7.58 +/- 0.44) mg x mL(-1), respectively. Sonicating Ganoderma lucidum powder by blank microemulsion could prepare the multicomponent microemulsion. Compared with the conventional method, this method is simple and low cost, which is suitable for industrial production.

  1. Nernst-Planck modeling of multicomponent ion transport in a Nafion membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshtari Khah, S.; Oppers, N.A.W.; de Groot, M.T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Schouten, J.C.; van der Schaaf, J.

    A mathematical model of multicomponent ion transport through a cation-exchange membrane is developed based on the Nernst–Planck equation. A correlation for the non-linear potential gradient is derived from current density relation with fluxes. The boundary conditions are determined with the Donnan

  2. Composition tailoring in the Ce-doped multicomponent garnet epitaxial film scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, Petr; Kučera, M.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Onderišinová, Z.; Hanuš, M.; Babin, Vladimir; Beitlerová, Alena; Nikl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2015), s. 3715-3723 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillation * liquid phase epitaxy * photoelectron yield * Ce 3+ * multicomponent garnet Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.425, year: 2015

  3. A method for the study of surface segregation in multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargano, Pablo; Mosca, Hugo; Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    A simple algorithm for the determination of segregation profiles in multicomponent systems based on a mean field formalism and a quantum approximate method for the energetics is introduced. The method is described and applied to two ternary systems, concentrating on the changes in segregation patterns relative to the corresponding binary cases.

  4. Physical principles of the multicomponent media' separation at thermoheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuferov, V.B.; Katrechko, V.V.; Sharyj, S.V.; Svichkar, A.S.; Tkacheva, T.I.; Mufel', E.V.; Il'icheva, V.O.; Khizhnyak, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent composition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in view of the physicochemical properties of the elements and their oxides is considered. The possibility of fission product removing from SNF at the stage of thermal heating is analyzed. The values of the diffusion coefficients and activation energies of some elements for SNF diffusion parameters estimation are presented

  5. The constitutive distributed parameter model of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the literature of distributed parameter modelling of real processes is not considered the class of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The aim of paper is constitutive distributed parameter physicochemical model, constructed on kinetics and phenomenal analysis of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The mass, energy and momentum aspects of these multicomponent chemical reactions and adequate phenomena are utilized in balance operations, by conditions of: constitutive invariance for continuous media with space and time memories, reciprocity principle for isotropic and anisotropic nonhomogeneous media with space and time memories, application of definitions of following derivative and equation of continuity, to the construction of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations, in the following derivative forms for gas, fluid and solid phase. Couched in this way all physicochemical conditions of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase are new form of constitutive distributed parameter model for automatics and its systems of equations are new form of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations in sense of phenomenal distributed parameter control

  6. Development of responder criteria for multicomponent non-pharmacological treatment in fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, V.M.; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is a need to identify individual treatment success in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) who received non-pharmacological treatment. The present study described responder criteria for multicomponent non-pharmacological treatment in FM, and estimated and compared their sensitivity and

  7. On Studying Common Factor Dominance and Approximate Unidimensionality in Multicomponent Measuring Instruments with Discrete Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2018-01-01

    This article outlines a procedure for examining the degree to which a common factor may be dominating additional factors in a multicomponent measuring instrument consisting of binary items. The procedure rests on an application of the latent variable modeling methodology and accounts for the discrete nature of the manifest indicators. The method…

  8. Effects of mobile vacancies on the dynamics of ordering and phase separation in nonconserved multicomponent systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of mobile vacancies on the dynamics of ordering processes and phase separation in multicomponent systems are studied via Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional seven-state ferromagnetic Potts model with varying degrees of site dilution. The model displays phase equilibria...

  9. An Integrative Review of Multicomponent Weight Management Interventions for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alison J.; Jones, Stephanie P.; Chauhan, Umesh; Gibson, Josephine M. E.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is more prevalent in people with intellectual disabilities and increases the risk of developing serious medical conditions. UK guidance recommends multicomponent weight management interventions (MCIs), tailored for different population groups. Methods: An integrative review utilizing systematic review methodology was conducted…

  10. OPERATING OF MOBILE MACHINE UNITS SYSTEM USING THE MODEL OF MULTICOMPONENT COMPLEX MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lebedev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  11. Operating of mobile machine units system using the model of multicomponent complex movement

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lebedev; R. Kaidalov; N. Artiomov; M. Shulyak; M. Podrigalo; D. Abramov; D. Klets

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite) movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  12. Two hierarchies of multi-component Kaup-Newell equations and theirs integrable couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fubo; Ji Jie; Zhang Jianbin

    2008-01-01

    Two hierarchies of multi-component Kaup-Newell equations are derived from an arbitrary order matrix spectral problem, including positive non-isospectral Kaup-Newell hierarchy and negative non-isospectral Kaup-Newell hierarchy. Moreover, new integrable couplings of the resulting Kaup-Newell soliton hierarchies are constructed by enlarging the associated matrix spectral problem

  13. A Novel Model for Multicomponent Supercritical Fluid Extraction and its Application to Ruta graveolens.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Stateva, R.P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, Part 1 (2017), s. 102-112 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06049 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * multicomponent equilibrium * kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  14. Effective Monte Carlo scheme for multicomponent gas adsorption and enantioselectivity in nanoporous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, T.S.; Dubbeldam, D.; Caremans, T.P.; Calero, S.; Martens, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    We devise an efficient Monte Carlo scheme to study the adsorption of a multicomponent gas in a nanoporous material. The configurational bias move is extended by a novel replica exchange procedure where the configurations of the different simulations describing one particular gas content are being

  15. Thermodynamically consistent modeling and simulation of multi-component two-phase flow with partial miscibility

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    A general diffuse interface model with a realistic equation of state (e.g. Peng-Robinson equation of state) is proposed to describe the multi-component two-phase fluid flow based on the principles of the NVT-based framework which is an attractive

  16. Evaluation of a Multicomponent Intervention for Diurnal Bruxism in a Young Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Emily L.; Najdowski, Adel C.; Tarbox, Jonathan; Wilke, Arthur E.; Nollet, Megan D.

    2009-01-01

    Bruxism, forceful grinding of one's teeth together, can produce destructive outcomes such as wear on the teeth and damaged gums and bone structures. The current study implemented a multicomponent intervention that consisted of vocal and physical cues to decrease rates of bruxism. A partial component analysis suggested that the vocal cue was only…

  17. Using Data to Individualize a Multicomponent, Technology-Based Self-Monitoring Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Vogelgesang, Kari; Fernando, Josephine; Lugo, Wilbeth

    2016-01-01

    Technology in schools is abundant as is the call for evidence-based interventions for students who need additional support to be successful. One promising use of technology is for self-monitoring interventions aimed at improving classroom behavior. In this study, two middle school students with disabilities used a multicomponent, self-monitoring…

  18. Effects of a multicomponent exercise on dual-task performance and executive function among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Yau Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Previous studies showed that multicomponent exercise enhanced physical and cognitive functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a multicomponent exercise on dual-task performance and executive function and to demonstrate the relationship between improvement in dual-task performance and enhancement in executive function among the elderly. Methods: A total of 27 people completed the intervention, with 16 in the experimental group and 11 in the control group. The 12-week multicomponent exercise lasted 1 h per day and 3 days per week. Participants' gait performance was assessed in dual-task conditions and executive function was examined at both pre- and post-intervention. Results: Results showed significant interaction effects of time x group on all selected gait parameters in both dual-task conditions and the Executive Interview. Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed greater improvements in most measures following intervention. Improved dual-task performance was correlated with enhanced executive function (r = 0.46–0.75. Conclusion: Our results suggested that a multicomponent exercise positively affects dual-task performance and executive function in the elderly. Keywords: Dual-task, Executive function, Exercise, Gait, Older adults

  19. Composition Dependence of Water Permeation Across Multicomponent Gel-Phase Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, R.M.; Moore, Timothy C.; Iacovella, Christopher R.; Thompson, Michael A.; Bulsara, Pallav A.; Moore, David J.; McCabe, Clare

    2018-01-01

    The permeability of multicomponent phospholipid bilayers in the gel phase is investigated via molecular dynamics simulation. The physical role of the different molecules is probed by comparing multiple mixed-component bilayers containing distearylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) with varying amounts of

  20. Multicomponent Program to Reduce Functional Decline in Frail Elderly People : A Cluster Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruikes, Franca G. H.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Akkermans, Reinier P.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; Schers, Henk J.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increasing number of community-dwelling frail elderly people poses a challenge to general practice. We evaluated the effectiveness of a general practitioner-led extensive, multicomponent program integrating cure, care, and welfare for the prevention of functional decline. Methods: We

  1. Multicomponent Program to Reduce Functional Decline in Frail Elderly People: A Cluster Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruikes, F.G.; Zuidema, S.U.; Akkermans, R.P.; Assendelft, W.J.; Schers, H.J.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing number of community-dwelling frail elderly people poses a challenge to general practice. We evaluated the effectiveness of a general practitioner-led extensive, multicomponent program integrating cure, care, and welfare for the prevention of functional decline. METHODS: We

  2. A dynamic predictive maintenance policy for complex multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Horenbeek, Adriaan; Pintelon, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    The use of prognostic methods in maintenance in order to predict remaining useful life is receiving more attention over the past years. The use of these techniques in maintenance decision making and optimization in multi-component systems is however a still underexplored area. The objective of this paper is to optimally plan maintenance for a multi-component system based on prognostic/predictive information while considering different component dependencies (i.e. economic, structural and stochastic dependence). Consequently, this paper presents a dynamic predictive maintenance policy for multi-component systems that minimizes the long-term mean maintenance cost per unit time. The proposed maintenance policy is a dynamic method as the maintenance schedule is updated when new information on the degradation and remaining useful life of components becomes available. The performance, regarding the objective of minimal long-term mean cost per unit time, of the developed dynamic predictive maintenance policy is compared to five other conventional maintenance policies, these are: block-based maintenance, age-based maintenance, age-based maintenance with grouping, inspection condition-based maintenance and continuous condition-based maintenance. The ability of the predictive maintenance policy to react to changing component deterioration and dependencies within a multi-component system is quantified and the results show significant cost savings

  3. P-Link: A method for generating multicomponent cytochrome P450 fusions with variable linker length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsare, Ketaki D.; Ruff, Anna Joelle; Martinez, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Fusion protein construction is a widely employed biochemical technique, especially when it comes to multi-component enzymes such as cytochrome P450s. Here we describe a novel method for generating fusion proteins with variable linker lengths, protein fusion with variable linker insertion (P...

  4. Triaxial Compression Testing of Multicomponent Geomaterials from Quartz-Poor (Syenitic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krmíček Lukáš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on mafic microgranular enclaves enclosed in quartz-poor igneous rocks and their effect on strength properties of the rock massif. The study examines host rock–enclave multicomponent geomaterials from enclave-bearing syenitic rocks from the Třebíč Massif exposed in the Královec quarry near Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou in the Czech Republic. A series of laboratory tests were performed to describe strength properties of individual constituents of the multicomponent geomaterials. We mainly focused on triaxial compression tests, however, rebound hardness, uniaxial compressive strength and indirect tensile strength were determined as well. The obtained results indicate that enclaves and even the contact zones between the enclaves and host rocks do not have any negative influence on the rock strength. In contrast, enclaves represent “stress concentrators” within such multicomponent systems. Strength properties of various multicomponent geomaterials are practically an unexplored topic in the field of rocks mechanics and future studies are needed to establish a robust database describing the behaviour of such geocomposites.

  5. Compression ignition of light naphtha and its multicomponent surrogate under partially premixed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Y.; Dawood, A.; Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Somers, B.; Chang, J.; Sarathy, M.; Johansson, B.

    2017-01-01

    Light naphtha is the light distillate from crude oil and can be used in compression ignition (CI) engines; its low boiling point and octane rating (RON = 64.5) enable adequate premixing. This study investigates the combustion characteristics of light naphtha (LN) and its multicomponent surrogate

  6. Lattice Boltzmann based multicomponent reactive transport model coupled with geochemical solver for scale simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, R.A.; Perko, J.; Jaques, D.; De Schutter, G.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.

    2013-01-01

    A Lattice Boltzmann (LB) based reactive transport model intended to capture reactions and solid phase changes occurring at the pore scale is presented. The proposed approach uses LB method to compute multi component mass transport. The LB multi-component transport model is then coupled with the

  7. Roles of the State Asthma Program in Implementing Multicomponent, School-Based Asthma Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Laura L.; Wilce, Maureen A.; Gill, Sarah A.; Disler, Sheri L.; Collins, Pamela; Crawford, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a leading chronic childhood disease in the United States and a major contributor to school absenteeism. Evidence suggests that multicomponent, school-based asthma interventions are a strategic way to address asthma among school-aged children. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourages the 36 health…

  8. Equivalence of Brownian dynamics and dynamic Monte Carlo simulations in multicomponent colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, Alejandro; Patti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    We propose a simple but powerful theoretical framework to quantitatively compare Brownian dynamics (BD) and dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) simulations of multicomponent colloidal suspensions. By extending our previous study focusing on monodisperse systems of rodlike colloids, here we generalize the formalism described there to multicomponent colloidal mixtures and validate it by investigating the dynamics in isotropic and liquid crystalline phases containing spherical and rodlike particles. In order to investigate the dynamics of multicomponent colloidal systems by DMC simulations, it is key to determine the elementary time step of each species and establish a unique timescale. This is crucial to consistently study the dynamics of colloidal particles with different geometry. By analyzing the mean-square displacement, the orientation autocorrelation functions, and the self part of the van Hove correlation functions, we show that DMC simulation is a very convenient and reliable technique to describe the stochastic dynamics of any multicomponent colloidal system. Our theoretical formalism can be easily extended to any colloidal system containing size and/or shape polydisperse particles.

  9. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances: A proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, W Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    2016-04-01

    The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (Lava Chairside Oral Scanner C.O.S., 3M). A digital impression was used to design 2 multicomponent orthodontic appliances. Biocompatible acrylic baseplates were produced with the aid of a 3D printer. The metal springs and clasps were produced by a bending robot. The fit of the 2 appliances was assessed by 2 experienced orthodontists. The authors assessed both orthodontic appliances with the volunteer's dentition and found the fit to be excellent. Clinicians can fully produce a multicomponent dental appliance consisting of both an acrylic baseplate and other parts, such as clasps, springs, or screws, using a digital workflow process without the need for a physical model of the patient's dentition. Plaster models can be superfluous for orthodontic treatment as digital models can be used in all phases of a full digital workflow in orthodontics. The arduous task of making a multicomponent dental appliance that involves bending wires can possibly be replaced by a computer, design software, a 3D printer, and a bending robot. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    Background. The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. Methods. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner

  11. Real-time visualization of perforin nanopore assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Carl; Hodel, Adrian W.; Brennan, Amelia J.; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Tran, Sharon; House, Colin M.; Kondos, Stephanie C.; Whisstock, James C.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Trapani, Joseph A.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Saibil, Helen R.; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2017-05-01

    Perforin is a key protein of the vertebrate immune system. Secreted by cytotoxic lymphocytes as soluble monomers, perforin can self-assemble into oligomeric pores of 10-20 nm inner diameter in the membranes of virus-infected and cancerous cells. These large pores facilitate the entry of pro-apoptotic granzymes, thereby rapidly killing the target cell. To elucidate the pathways of perforin pore assembly, we carried out real-time atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy studies. Our experiments reveal that the pore assembly proceeds via a membrane-bound prepore intermediate state, typically consisting of up to approximately eight loosely but irreversibly assembled monomeric subunits. These short oligomers convert to more closely packed membrane nanopore assemblies, which can subsequently recruit additional prepore oligomers to grow the pore size.

  12. Fuel assembly reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, Mario M.; Oliveira, Monica G.N.; Ferreira Junior, Decio B.M.; Santos, Barbara O. dos; Santos, Jorge E. dos

    2009-01-01

    Fuel failures have been happened in Nuclear Power Plants worldwide, without lost of integrity and safety, mainly for the public, environment and power plants workers. The most common causes of these events are corrosion (CRUD), fretting and pellet cladding interaction. These failures are identified by increasing the activity of fission products, verified by chemical analyses of reactor coolant. Through these analyses, during the fourth operation cycle of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant, was possible to observe fuel failure indication. This indication was confirmed in the end of the cycle during the unloading of reactor core through leakage tests of fuel assembly, using the equipment called 'In Mast Sipping' and 'Box Sipping'. After confirmed, the fuel assembly reconstitution was scheduled, and happened in April, 2007, where was identified the cause and the fuel rod failure, which was substitute by dummy rods (zircaloy). The cause was fretting by 'debris'. The actions to avoid and prevent fuel assemblies failures are important. The goals of this work are to describe the methodology of fuel assembly reconstitution using the FARE (Fuel Assembly Reconstitution Equipment) system, to describe the results of this task in economic and security factors of the company and show how the fuel assembly failures are identified during operation and during the outage. (author)

  13. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  14. Multicomponent cognitive-behavioral group therapy with hypnosis for the treatment of fibromyalgia: long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Antoni; Cascón, Rosalia; Padrol, Anna; Sala, José; Rull, Maria

    2012-03-01

    This study compared the efficacy of 2 psychological treatments for fibromyalgia with each other and with standard care. Ninety-three patients with fibromyalgia (FM) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental conditions: 1) multicomponent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT); 2) multicomponent CBT with hypnosis; and 3) pharmacological treatment (standard care control group). The outcome measures of pain intensity, catastrophizing, psychological distress, functionality, and sleep disturbances were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. CBT and CBT with hypnosis participants received the standard pharmacological management plus 14 weekly, 120-minute-long sessions of psychological treatment. All but 1 session followed a group format; the remaining session was individual. The analyses indicated that: 1) patients with FM who received multicomponent CBT alone or multicomponent CBT with hypnosis showed greater improvements than patients who received only standard care; and 2) adding hypnosis enhanced the effectiveness of multicomponent CBT. This study presents new evidence about the efficacy of multicomponent CBT for FM and about the additional effects of hypnosis as a complement to CBT. The relevance and implications of the obtained results are discussed. This article highlights the beneficial effects of adding hypnosis in a multicomponent cognitive-behavioral group treatment of fibromyalgia patients. Also, this research showed that by adding hypnosis the length of treatment did not increase. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. School Based Multicomponent Intervention for Obese Children in Udupi District, South India - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Baby S; Bhat, Vinod H

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity and overweight is a global epidemics and has been increasing in the developing countries. Childhood obesity is linked with increased mortality and morbidity independent of adult obesity. Declining physical activity, access to junk food and parenting style are the major determinants of overweight in children. Thus, there is a need for increasing the physical activity of children, educating the parents as well as the children on lifestyle modification. This can be achieved through implementation of multicomponent intervention. To evaluate the effectiveness of multicomponent intervention on improving the lifestyle practices, reducing the body fat and improving the self esteem of obese children from selected schools of Udupi District, South India. A sample of 120 obese children were enrolled for multicomponent intervention. The components of multicomponent intervention were: education provided to the obese children on lifestyle modification, education of the parents and increasing the physical education activity of these children in the form of aerobics under the supervision of physical education teacher. There was an attrition of 25% in the intervention group. Thus the final sample in the intervention group was 90. Total sample of 131 overweight/ obese children enrolled as controls. There was an attrition of 20.61% in the control group. Thus, the final sample in the control group was 104. Intervention group received the multicomponent intervention for six month. Mixed Method Repeated measures Ananlysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied for analysis of data. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in reducing the Body Mass Index (BMI), triceps, biceps, subscapular skin fold thickness of obese children. The intervention was also effective in improving the lifestyle practices and self-esteem of obese children. Overweight/obese children need to control diet and perform vigorous exercise at least for 20 minutes a day to reduce the excess fat

  16. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  17. Guiding the folding pathway of DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Katherine E; Dannenberg, Frits; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Turberfield, Andrew J; Bath, Jonathan

    2015-09-03

    DNA origami is a robust assembly technique that folds a single-stranded DNA template into a target structure by annealing it with hundreds of short 'staple' strands. Its guiding design principle is that the target structure is the single most stable configuration. The folding transition is cooperative and, as in the case of proteins, is governed by information encoded in the polymer sequence. A typical origami folds primarily into the desired shape, but misfolded structures can kinetically trap the system and reduce the yield. Although adjusting assembly conditions or following empirical design rules can improve yield, well-folded origami often need to be separated from misfolded structures. The problem could in principle be avoided if assembly pathway and kinetics were fully understood and then rationally optimized. To this end, here we present a DNA origami system with the unusual property of being able to form a small set of distinguishable and well-folded shapes that represent discrete and approximately degenerate energy minima in a vast folding landscape, thus allowing us to probe the assembly process. The obtained high yield of well-folded origami structures confirms the existence of efficient folding pathways, while the shape distribution provides information about individual trajectories through the folding landscape. We find that, similarly to protein folding, the assembly of DNA origami is highly cooperative; that reversible bond formation is important in recovering from transient misfoldings; and that the early formation of long-range connections can very effectively enforce particular folds. We use these insights to inform the design of the system so as to steer assembly towards desired structures. Expanding the rational design process to include the assembly pathway should thus enable more reproducible synthesis, particularly when targeting more complex structures. We anticipate that this expansion will be essential if DNA origami is to continue its

  18. WHO: World Health Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, A

    1992-05-23

    1200 delegates from 175 member countries attended the 45th World Health Assembly in Geneva. Everyone at the Assembly ratified measures to prevent and control AIDS. 12 countries intended to do long term planning for community based care for AIDS patients. Further the Assembly denounced instances where countries and individuals denied the gravity of the AIDS pandemic. In fact, it expressed the importance for urgent and intensive action against HIV/AIDS. The assembly backed proposals to prevent and control sexually transmitted diseases that affect AIDS patients, especially hepatitis B. For example, in countries with hepatitis B prevalence 8% (many countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, Asia, the Pacific region, and South America), health officials should introduce hepatitis B vaccine into their existing immunization programs by 1995. By 1997, this vaccine should be part of all immunization programs. The Assembly was aware of the obstacles of establishing reliable cold chains for nationwide distribution, however. Delegates in Committee A objected to the fact that 50% of the populations of developing countries continued to have limited access to essential drugs. They also expressed disapproval in implementation of WHO's 1988 ethical criteria for promotion of drugs which WHO entrusted to the Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). CIOMS lacked WHO's status and thus could not effectively monitor drug advertising. In fact, the pharmaceutical industry as well as WHO provided the funds for a meeting of 25 experts to discuss principles included in the ethical criteria. At least 4 countries insisted that WHO have the ultimate authority in monitoring drug advertising. Delegates did adopt a compromise resolution on this topic which required that industry promotion methods be reported to the 1994 Assembly via the Executive Board. The Assembly requested WHO to establish an international advisory committee on nursing and midwifery and to improve the network of

  19. COMMIX-1A: a three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems. Volume I: users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, H.M.; Schmitt, R.C.; Sha, W.T.; Shah, V.L.

    1983-12-01

    The COMMIX-1A computer program is an updated and improved version of COMMIX-1 designed to analyze steady-state/transient, single-phase, three-dimensional fluid flow with heat transfer in reactor components and multicomponent systems. A new porous-media formulation via local volume averaging has been derived and employed in the COMMIX code. The concepts of volume porosity, directional surface permeability, distributed resistance, and distributed heat source or sink is used in the new porous-media formulation to model a flow domain with stationary structures. The concept of directional surface permeability is new and greatly facilitates modeling of velocity and temperature fields in anisotropic media. The new porous-media formulation represents the first unified approach to thermal-hydraulic analysis. It is now possible to perform a multidimensional thermal-hydraulic simulation of either a single component, such as a rod bundle, reactor plenum, piping system, heat exchanger, etc., or a multicomponent system that is a combination of these components. The conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy based on the new porous-media formulation are solved as a boundary-value problem in space and an initial-value problem in time. Two other unique features provided in the COMMIX-1A code are (1) two solution procedures - a semi-implicit procedure modified from ICE and a fully-implicit procedure, named SIMPLEST-ANL, similar to the SIMPLE/SIMPLER algorithms - available a user's option and (2) a geometrical package capable of approximating many geometries. This report (Volume I) describes in detail the basic equations, formulations, solution procedures, flow charts, rebalancing scheme for faster convergence, options available to users, models to describe the auxiliary phenomena, input instructions, and two sample problems. The Volume II assembles and summarizes the results of many simulations that have been performed with COMMIX-1A computer program

  20. Dynamic behaviour of diagnostic assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecinka, L.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology is shown of calculating the frequency spectrum of a diagnostic assembly. The oscillations of the assembly as a whole, of a fuel rod bundle, the assembly jacket and of the individual rods in the bundle were considered. The manufacture is suggested of a model assembly which would be used for testing forced vibrations using an experimental water loop. (M.S.)

  1. Fuel assembly inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaginuma, Yoshitaka

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to inspect appearance of fuel assemblies by photographing the appearance of fuel assemblies. Namely, the inspection device of the present invention measures bowing of fuel assembly or each of fuel rods or both of them based on the partially photographed images of fuel assembly. In this case, there is disposed a means which flashily projects images in the form of horizontal line from a direction intersecting obliquely relative to a horizontal cross section of the fuel assembly. A first image processing means separates the projected image pictures including projected images and calculates bowing. A second image processing means replaces the projected image pictures of the projected images based on projected images just before and after the photographing. Then, images for the measurement of bowing and images for inspection can be obtained simultaneously. As a result, the time required for the photographing can be shortened, the time for inspection can be shortened and an effect of preventing deterioration of photographing means by radiation rays can be provided. (I.S.)

  2. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  3. Reactor and fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshihiko; Bessho, Yasunori; Sano, Hiroki; Yokomizo, Osamu; Yamashita, Jun-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention realizes an effective spectral operation by applying an optimum pressure loss coefficient while taking the characteristics of a lower tie plate into consideration. That is, the pressure loss coefficient of the lower tie plate is optimized by varying the cross sectional area of a fuel assembly flow channel in the lower tie plate or varying the surface roughness of a coolant flow channel in the lower tie plate. Since there is a pressure loss coefficient to optimize the moderator density over a flow rate change region, the effect of spectral shift rods can be improved by setting the optimum pressure loss coefficient of the lower tie plate. According to the present invention, existent fuel assemblies can easily be changed successively to fuel assemblies having spectral shift rods of a great spectral shift effect by using existent reactor facilities as they are. (I.S.)

  4. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  5. Magnetic nanoparticle assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Trohidou, Kalliopi N

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles with diameters in the range of a few nanometers are today at the cutting edge of modern technology and innovation because of their use in numerous applications ranging from engineering to biomedicine. A great deal of scientific interest has been focused on the functionalization of magnetic nanoparticle assemblies. The understanding of interparticle interactions is necessary to clarify the physics of these assemblies and their use in the development of high-performance magnetic materials. This book reviews prominent research studies on the static and dynamic magnetic properties of nanoparticle assemblies, gathering together experimental and computational techniques in an effort to reveal their optimized magnetic properties for biomedical use and as ultra-high magnetic recording media.

  6. Reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Groves, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel assembly having a lower end fitting and actuating means interacting therewith for holding the assembly down on the core support stand against the upward flow of coolant. Locking means for interacting with projections on the support stand are carried by the lower end fitting and are actuated by the movement of an actuating rod operated from above the top of the assembly. In one embodiment of the invention the downward movement of the actuating rod forces a latched spring to move outward into locking engagement with a shoulder on the support stand projections. In another embodiment, the actuating rod is rotated to effect the locking between the end fitting and the projection. (author)

  7. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiroshi; Watari, Yoshio; Hizahara, Hiroshi; Masuoka, Ryuzo.

    1970-01-01

    When exchanging nuclear fuel assemblies during the operation of a nuclear reactor, melting of fuel bodies, and severence of tubular claddings is halted at the time of insertion by furnishing a neutron absorbing material such as B 10 , Cd, Gd or the like at the forward end of the fuel assembly to thereby lower the power peak at the forward ends of the fuel elements to within tolerable levels and thus prevent both fuel liquification and excessive expansion. The neutron absorbing material may be attached in the form of a plate to the fuel assembly forward tie plate, or may be inserted as a pellet into the front end of the tubular cladding. (Owens, K.J.)

  8. Liaison based assembly design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

  9. Integrated magnetic transformer assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics transformer assembly comprising a first magnetically permeable core forming a first substantially closed magnetic flux path and a second magnetically permeable core forming a second substantially closed magnetic flux path. A first input...... inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the first magnetically permeable core and a second input inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the second magnetically permeable core. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly further comprises a first output......-winding of the first output inductor winding and the first half-winding of the second output inductor winding are configured to produce aligned, i.e. in the same direction, magnetic fluxes through the first substantially closed magnetic flux path. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly is well- suited for use...

  10. Transfer of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuckovich, M.; Burkett, J. P.; Sallustio, J.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor are transferred during fueling or refueling or the like by a crane. The work-engaging fixture of the crane picks up an assembly, removes it from this slot, transfers it to the deposit site and deposits it in its slot at the deposit site. The control for the crane includes a strain gauge connected to the crane line which raises and lowers the load. The strain gauge senses the load on the crane. The signal from the strain gauge is compared with setpoints; a high-level setpoint, a low-level setpoint and a slack-line setpoint. If the strain gauge signal exceeds the high-level setpoint, the line drive is disabled. This event may occur during raising of a fuel assembly which encounters resistance. The high-level setpoint may be overridden under proper precautions. The line drive is also disabled if the strain gauge signal is less than the low-level setpoint. This event occurs when a fuel assembly being deposited contacts the bottom of its slot or an obstruction in, or at the entry to the slot. To preclude lateral movement and possible damage to a fuel assembly suspended from the crane line, the traverse drive of the crane is disabled once the strain-gauge exceets the lov-level setpoint. The traverse drive can only be enabled after the strain-gauge signal is less than the slack-line set-point. This occurs when the lines has been set in slack-line setting. When the line is tensioned after slack-li ne setting, the traverse drive remains enabled only if the line has been disconnected from the fuel assembly

  11. Design strategies for self-assembly of discrete targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madge, Jim; Miller, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Both biological and artificial self-assembly processes can take place by a range of different schemes, from the successive addition of identical building blocks to hierarchical sequences of intermediates, all the way to the fully addressable limit in which each component is unique. In this paper, we introduce an idealized model of cubic particles with patterned faces that allows self-assembly strategies to be compared and tested. We consider a simple octameric target, starting with the minimal requirements for successful self-assembly and comparing the benefits and limitations of more sophisticated hierarchical and addressable schemes. Simulations are performed using a hybrid dynamical Monte Carlo protocol that allows self-assembling clusters to rearrange internally while still providing Stokes-Einstein-like diffusion of aggregates of different sizes. Our simulations explicitly capture the thermodynamic, dynamic, and steric challenges typically faced by self-assembly processes, including competition between multiple partially completed structures. Self-assembly pathways are extracted from the simulation trajectories by a fully extendable scheme for identifying structural fragments, which are then assembled into history diagrams for successfully completed target structures. For the simple target, a one-component assembly scheme is most efficient and robust overall, but hierarchical and addressable strategies can have an advantage under some conditions if high yield is a priority

  12. Neutron detector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Koi; Shirayama, Shinpei.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent gamma-ray from leaking externally passing through the inside of a neutron detector assembly. Constitution: In a neutron detector assembly having a protection pipe formed with an enlarged diameter portion which serves also as a spacer, partition plates with predetermined width are disposed at the upper and the lower portions in this expanded portion. A lot of metal particles are filled into spaces formed by the partition plates. In such a structure, the metal particles well-absorb the gamma-rays from above and convert them into heat to provide shielding for the gamma-rays. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Assembling RNA Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2017-01-01

    RNA nanoparticles are designed and self-assembled according to noncanonical interactions of naturally conserved RNA motifs and/or canonical Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions, which have potential applications in gene therapy and nanomedicine. These artificially engineered nanoparticles are mainly synthesized from in vitro transcribed RNAs, purified by denaturing and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and characterized with native PAGE, AFM, and TEM technologies. The protocols of in vitro transcription, denaturing and native PAGE, and RNA nanoparticle self-assembly are described in detail.

  14. Assembling an aesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Emily

    2012-12-01

    Recent research informing and related to the study of three-dimensional scientific models is assembled here in a way that explores an aesthetic, specifically, of touch. I concentrate on the materiality of models, drawing on insights from the history and philosophy of science, design and metaphysics. This article chronicles the ways in which touch, or material interactions, operate in the world of 3D models, and its role in what models mean and do. I end with a call for greater attention to scientific process, described as assembly of and within science, which is revealed by this focus on touch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear fuel assembly described includes a cluster of fuel elements supported at a distance from each other so that their axes are parallel in order to establish secondary channels between them reserved for the coolant. Several ducts for an auxiliary cooling fluid are arranged in the cluster. The wall of each duct is pierced with coolant ejection holes which are placed circumferentially to a pre-determined pattern established according to the position of the duct in the cluster and by the axial distance of the ejection hole along the duct. This assembly is intended for reactors cooled by light or heavy water [fr

  16. Phenomenology and control of buckling dynamics in multicomponent colloidal droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Binita; Basu, Saptarshi

    2015-06-01

    Self-assembly of nano sized particles during natural drying causes agglomeration and shell formation at the surface of micron sized droplets. The shell undergoes sol-gel transition leading to buckling at the weakest point on the surface and produces different types of structures. Manipulation of the buckling rate with inclusion of surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) and salt (anilinium hydrochloride, AHC) to the nano-sized particle dispersion (nanosilica) is reported here in an acoustically levitated single droplet. Buckling in levitated droplets is a cumulative, complicated function of acoustic streaming, chemistry, agglomeration rate, porosity, radius of curvature, and elastic energy of shell. We put forward our hypothesis on how buckling occurs and can be suppressed during natural drying of the droplets. Global precipitation of aggregates due to slow drying of surfactant-added droplets (no added salts) enhances the rigidity of the shell formed and hence reduces the buckling probability of the shell. On the contrary, adsorption of SDS aggregates on salt ions facilitates the buckling phenomenon with an addition of minute concentration of the aniline salt to the dispersion. Variation in the concentration of the added particles (SDS/AHC) also leads to starkly different morphologies and transient behaviour of buckling (buckling modes like paraboloid, ellipsoid, and buckling rates). Tuning of the buckling rate causes a transition in the final morphology from ring and bowl shapes to cocoon type of structure.

  17. Multicomponent synthesis of unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene precursors and their related transition-metal complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Queval, Pierre; Jahier, Claire; Rouen, Mathieu; Artur, Isabelle; Legeay, Jean Christophe; Falivene, Laura; Toupet, Loï c J.; Cré visy, Christophe; Cavallo, Luigi; Baslé , Olivier; Mauduit, Marc

    2013-01-01

    A low-cost, modular, and easily scalable multicomponent procedure affording access in good yields and excellent selectivity (up to 93 %) to a wide range of (a)chiral unsymmetrical 1-aryl-3-cycloalkyl-imidazolium salts is disclosed. Electronic

  18. A Microwave-Assisted Diastereoselective Multicomponent Reaction To Access Dibenzo[c,e]azepinones: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, V.P.; Modha, S.G.; Ruijter, E.; van Hecke, K.; van Meervelt, L.; Pannecouque, C.; Balzarini, J.; Orru, R.V.A.; van der Eycken, E.

    2011-01-01

    An unprecedented microwave-assisted multicomponent strategy has been elaborated for the fast, efficient, and diastereoselective generation of the dibenzo[c,e]azepinone scaffold. The generated compounds were evaluated for their bioactivity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Polymer-Bound 3-N,N-(Dimethylamino)-2-isocyanoacrylate for the Synthesis of Thiazoles via a Multicomponent Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkel, Bernd; Westner, Benedikt; Dömling, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of resin-bound 3-N,N-(dimethylamino)-2-isocyanoacrylate is described. This bifunctional reagent can be used for the synthesis of thiazoles via a multicomponent reaction. Several examples are reported.

  20. Some consequences of generalised moment inequalities: mass-and charge-response and correlation functions in multicomponent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolescu, A.; Mezincescu, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    The best possible constraints of the static response in terms of two particle correlation functions, which follow from their integral representation, are analysed for homogeneous states of multicomponent systems of charged particles.(authors)

  1. Evaluative Testing of 5LA3421: A Multicomponent Prehistoric and Historic Site, Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles, Mona; Baker, Thann; Markussen, Christine; Nathan, Randy; Duke, Philip

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2002, evaluative testing was undertaken at a large multicomponent site for the purpose of evaluating the potential of this site to yield significant information about the prehistory...

  2. MCR III. Multicomponent reactions and their libraries, a new type of organic chemistry of the isocyanides and phosphorus derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chattopadhyaya, J.; Domling, A.; Lorenz, K.; Richter, W.; Ugi, I.; Werner, B.

    1997-01-01

    Various new one-pot multicomponent reactions (MCRs) of C(II) and P(III) derivatives and their libraries are described here. The preparation of some nucleobase- and phospholipid compound libraries by MCRs have been carried out.

  3. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  4. Turbomachine blade assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-11-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system comprising a turbomachine blade assembly having a blade portion, a shank portion, and a mounting portion, wherein the blade portion, the shank portion, and the mounting portion comprise a first plurality of plies extending from a tip of the airfoil to a base of the dovetail.

  5. Fuel sub-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel sub-assembly for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described in which the bundle of fuel pins are braced apart by a series of spaced grids. The grids at the lower end are capable of yielding, thus allowing pins swollen by irradiation to be withdrawn with a reduced risk of damage. (U.K.)

  6. Nanoparticle assemblies and superstructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kotov, Nicholas A

    2006-01-01

    ... building blocks of larger and more complex systems. Therefore, the present challenge of nanoscale science is to shift from making certain building blocks to organizing them in one-, two-, and three-dimensional structures. Such assemblies and superstructures are the next logical step in the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this re...

  7. Spool assembly support analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the pump pit spool assemblies. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. UBC, AISC, and load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  8. Nanotechnology: A molecular assembler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T. Ross; Snapper, Marc L.

    2017-09-01

    The idea of nanometre-scale machines that can assemble molecules has long been thought of as the stuff of science fiction. Such a machine has now been built -- and might herald a new model for organic synthesis. See Letter p.374

  9. Macroscopic magnetic Self assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löthman, Per Arvid

    2018-01-01

    Exploring the macroscopic scale's similarities to the microscale is part and parcel of this thesis as reflected in the research question: what can we learn about the microscopic scale by studying the macroscale? Investigations of the environment in which the self-assembly takes place, and the

  10. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    that territorialisation is accomplished not just through (re)defining bounded space, but more broadly through the assembling of four elements: space, subjects, objects, and expertise. Four case studies of sustainability certification in seafood are analyzed to show that ‘green gabbing’ is not necessarily the central...

  11. Assembling sustainable territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The authors show how certification assembles ‘sustainable’ territories through a complex layering of regulatory authority in which both government and nongovernment entities claim rule-making authority, sometimes working together, sometimes in parallel, sometimes competitively. It is argued that

  12. Turneri preemia 2015: Assemble

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Turneri 2015. aasta preemia pälvis radikaalne noorte arhitektide kollektiiv Assemble. Rühmitus on 18-liikmeline ja baseerub Ida-Londonis ning selle tegevust võib üldistatult nimetada hüljatud ruumide taaselustamiseks kogukondlike aktsioonide kaudu

  13. Industrial Assembly Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Buch, Jacob Pørksen; Iversen, Thorbjørn Mosekjær

    This technical report presents 13 different industrial assembly tasks, which are composed of 70 different operations. The report is written to provide an overview and do as such not contain product specific information such as object weights, dimensions etc. The operations are classified into a set...

  14. Biosynthesis: Reprogramming assembly lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Binuraj R. K.; Jenner, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Rational engineering of biosynthetic assembly lines for production of new compounds is an attractive prospect, yet it presents many challenges. Learning from biology, some of the rules for expanding the chemical diversity of non-ribosomal peptides have been uncovered in two recent studies.

  15. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly ma...

  16. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may r...

  17. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may require t...

  18. Lageos assembly operation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueger, J.

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines and constraints procedures for LAGEOS assembly, operation, and design performance are given. Special attention was given to thermal, optical, and dynamic analysis and testing. The operation procedures illustrate the interrelation and sequence of tasks in a flow diagram. The diagram also includes quality assurance functions for verification of operation tasks.

  19. Assembly of primary cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte B; Veland, Iben R; Schrøder, Jacob M

    2008-01-01

    knowledge about IFT is based on studies performed in Chlamydomonas and Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, our review of the IFT literature includes studies performed in these two model organisms. The role of several non-IFT proteins (e.g., centrosomal proteins) in the ciliary assembly process is also...... discussed. Developmental Dynamics, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  20. Native gel analysis for RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Tomari, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    Small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate expression of their target mRNAs via the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). A core component of RISC is the Argonaute (Ago) protein, which dictates the RISC function. In Drosophila, miRNAs and siRNAs are generally loaded into Ago1-containing RISC (Ago1-RISC) and Ago2-containing RISC (Ago2-RISC), respectively. We developed a native agarose gel system to directly detect Ago1-RISC, Ago2-RISC, and their precursor complexes. Methods presented here will provide powerful tools to biochemically dissect the RISC assembly pathways.

  1. A new safety assessment model for shallow land burial of LLW based on multicomponent sorption theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, N.; Asano, T.; Tasaka, H.

    1984-01-01

    A new model on the radionuclide migration in underground environment is developed based on ''multicomponent sorption theory''. The model is capable of predicting the behaviors of the coexisting materials in soil-ground water system as ''multicomponent sorption phenomena'' and also predicting the radinuclide migration affected by the changes of concentrations of coexisting materials. The model is not a ''statistical model'' but a ''chemical model'' based on the ''ion exchange theory'' and ''adsorption theory''. Additionally, the model is a ''kinetic model'' capable of estimating the effect of ''rate of sorption'' on the radionuclide migration. The validity of the model was checked by the results of column experiments for sorption. Finally, sample calculations on the radionuclide migration in reference shallow land burial site were carried out for demonstration

  2. Basic separative power of multi-component isotopes separation in a gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hongmin; Lei, Zengguang; Zhuge, Fu

    2008-01-01

    On condition that the overall separation factor per unit exists in centrifuge for multi-component isotopes separation, the relations between separative power of each component and molecular weight have been investigated in the paper while the value function and the separative power of binary-component separation are adopted. The separative power of each component is proportional to the square of the molecular weight difference between its molecular weight and the average molecular weight of other remnant components. In addition, these relations are independent on the number of the components and feed concentrations. The basic separative power and related expressions, suggested in the paper, can be used for estimating the separative power of each component and analyzing the separation characteristics. The most valuable application of the basic separative power is to evaluate the separative capacity of centrifuge for multi-component isotopes. (author)

  3. Chemical ageing and transformation of diffusivity in semi-solid multi-component organic aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrang, C.; Shiraiwa, M.; Pöschl, U.

    2011-07-01

    Recent experimental evidence underlines the importance of reduced diffusivity in amorphous semi-solid or glassy atmospheric aerosols. This paper investigates the impact of diffusivity on the ageing of multi-component reactive organic particles approximating atmospheric cooking aerosols. We apply and extend the recently developed KM-SUB model in a study of a 12-component mixture containing oleic and palmitoleic acids. We demonstrate that changes in the diffusivity may explain the evolution of chemical loss rates in ageing semi-solid particles, and we resolve surface and bulk processes under transient reaction conditions considering diffusivities altered by oligomerisation. This new model treatment allows prediction of the ageing of mixed organic multi-component aerosols over atmospherically relevant timescales and conditions. We illustrate the impact of changing diffusivity on the chemical half-life of reactive components in semi-solid particles, and we demonstrate how solidification and crust formation at the particle surface can affect the chemical transformation of organic aerosols.

  4. Process and apparatus for fractionating close-boiling components of a multi-component system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, U.

    1983-01-01

    A process and apparatus are described for the fractionation of close-boiling components of a multi-component system comprising at least two fractionation columns A, B in series having a plurality of equilibrium stages in which the vapor stream from a downstream fractionation column B is compressed by a compressor and passed into a lower portion of a preceding fractionation column A and a liquid bottom stream from any one of said columns except the last is expanded by an orifice sufficiently to convey the resulting liquid-vapor mixture to the upper portion of the next fractionation column B. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the compressed overhead vapor stream is passed in heat transfer relationship to a liquid stream withdrawn from the preceding fractionation column A prior to introduction into the lower portion of such preceding fractionation column A. In one of the claims, the multi-component close-boiling system is a deuterium oxide-water solution. (author)

  5. Gauss Seidel-type methods for energy states of a multi-component Bose Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Ming; Lin, Wen-Wei; Shieh, Shih-Feng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two iterative methods, a Jacobi-type iteration (JI) and a Gauss-Seidel-type iteration (GSI), for the computation of energy states of the time-independent vector Gross-Pitaevskii equation (VGPE) which describes a multi-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). A discretization of the VGPE leads to a nonlinear algebraic eigenvalue problem (NAEP). We prove that the GSI method converges locally and linearly to a solution of the NAEP if and only if the associated minimized energy functional problem has a strictly local minimum. The GSI method can thus be used to compute ground states and positive bound states, as well as the corresponding energies of a multi-component BEC. Numerical experience shows that the GSI converges much faster than JI and converges globally within 10-20 steps.

  6. Multicomponent Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Proton and Electron Excitation Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Culpitt, Tanner; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2018-04-05

    The quantum mechanical treatment of both electrons and protons in the calculation of excited state properties is critical for describing nonadiabatic processes such as photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer. Multicomponent density functional theory enables the consistent quantum mechanical treatment of more than one type of particle and has been implemented previously for studying ground state molecular properties within the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) framework, where all electrons and specified protons are treated quantum mechanically. To enable the study of excited state molecular properties, herein the linear response multicomponent time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is derived and implemented within the NEO framework. Initial applications to FHF - and HCN illustrate that NEO-TDDFT provides accurate proton and electron excitation energies within a single calculation. As its computational cost is similar to that of conventional electronic TDDFT, the NEO-TDDFT approach is promising for diverse applications, particularly nonadiabatic proton transfer reactions, which may exhibit mixed electron-proton vibronic excitations.

  7. Pharmaceutical cocrystals, salts and multicomponent systems; intermolecular interactions and property based design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David J; Steed, Jonathan W

    2017-08-01

    As small molecule drugs become harder to develop and less cost effective for patient use, efficient strategies for their property improvement become increasingly important to global health initiatives. Improvements in the physical properties of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), without changes in the covalent chemistry, have long been possible through the application of binary component solids. This was first achieved through the use of pharmaceutical salts, within the last 10-15years with cocrystals and more recently coamorphous systems have also been consciously applied to this problem. In order to rationally discover the best multicomponent phase for drug development, intermolecular interactions need to be considered at all stages of the process. This review highlights the current thinking in this area and the state of the art in: pharmaceutical multicomponent phase design, the intermolecular interactions in these phases, the implications of these interactions on the material properties and the pharmacokinetics in a patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Motion of curves and solutions of two multi-component mKdV equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Ruoxia; Qu Changzheng; Li Zhibin

    2005-01-01

    Two classes of multi-component mKdV equations have been shown to be integrable. One class called the multi-component geometric mKdV equation is exactly the system for curvatures of curves when the motion of the curves is governed by the mKdV flow. In this paper, exact solutions including solitary wave solutions of the two- and three-component mKdV equations are obtained, the symmetry reductions of the two-component geometric mKdV equation to ODE systems corresponding to it's Lie point symmetry groups are also given. Curves and their behavior corresponding to solitary wave solutions of the two-component geometric mKdV equation are presented

  9. Multicomponent evaporation model for pure and blended biodiesel droplets in high temperature convective environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, K.; Abu-Ramadan, E.; Li, X. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources are currently being investigated for their reliability, efficiency, and applicability. Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternatives to conventional diesel fuels in compression-ignition (CI) engines. This paper reported on a study that compared pure biodiesel, pure diesel and blended fuels using a comprehensive multicomponent droplet vaporization model. The model considers the difference in the gas phase diffusivity of diesel and biodiesel vapors. The paper presented the vaporization characteristics of pure diesel, pure biodiesel fuel droplets as well as the effect of mixing them in different proportions (B20 and B50). The model successfully predicted the vaporization history of a multicomponent droplet. The modeling study revealed that biodiesel droplets evaporate at a slower rate than the diesel droplets because of relatively low vapor pressure. As such, the blending of diesel fuel with small proportions of biodiesel will result in an increase in the evaporation time of diesel fuel to some extent. 31 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Linearly decoupled energy-stable numerical methods for multi-component two-phase compressible flow

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2017-12-06

    In this paper, for the first time we propose two linear, decoupled, energy-stable numerical schemes for multi-component two-phase compressible flow with a realistic equation of state (e.g. Peng-Robinson equation of state). The methods are constructed based on the scalar auxiliary variable (SAV) approaches for Helmholtz free energy and the intermediate velocities that are designed to decouple the tight relationship between velocity and molar densities. The intermediate velocities are also involved in the discrete momentum equation to ensure a consistency relationship with the mass balance equations. Moreover, we propose a component-wise SAV approach for a multi-component fluid, which requires solving a sequence of linear, separate mass balance equations. We prove that the methods have the unconditional energy-dissipation feature. Numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  11. Phase-field simulation of solidification in multicomponent alloys coupled with thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruijie; Jing Tao; Jie Wanqi; Liu Baicheng

    2006-01-01

    To simulate quantitatively the microstructural evolution in the solidification process of multicomponent alloys, we extend the phase-field model for binary alloys to multicomponent alloys with consideration of the solute interactions between different species. These interactions have a great influence not only on the phase equilibria but also on the solute diffusion behaviors. In the model, the interface region is assumed to be a mixture of solid and liquid with the same chemical potential, but with different compositions. The simulation presented is coupled with thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases, which can accurately predict the phase equilibria and the solute diffusion transportation in the whole system. The phase equilibria in the interface and other thermodynamic quantities are obtained using Thermo-Calc through the TQ interface. As an example, two-dimensional computations for the dendritic growth in Al-Cu-Mg ternary alloy are performed. The quantitative solute distributions and diffusion matrix are obtained in both solid and liquid phases

  12. Coulombic interactions and multicomponent ionic dispersion during transport of charged species in heterogeneous porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo

    Electrochemical cross-coupling plays a significant role for transport of charged species in porous media [1, 2]. In this study we performed flow-through experiments in a quasi two-dimensional setup using dilute solutions of strong electrolytes to study the influence of charge interactions on mass...... occurred. To quantitatively interpret the outcomes of our laboratory experiments in the spatially variable flow fields we developed a two dimensional numerical model based on a multicomponent formulation, on charge conservation and on the accurate description of transverse dispersion. The results...... of the multicomponent transport simulations were compared with the high-resolution (5 mm spacing) concentration measurements of the ionic species at the outlet of the flow-through domain. The excellent agreement between the measured concentrations and the results of purely forward numerical simulations demonstrates...

  13. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaokang Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing.

  14. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiaokang; Zhang, Dan; Wu, Wanneng; Zou, Kunlin

    2016-11-16

    Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC) tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing.

  15. Theoretical and Numerical Study of Growth in Multi-Component Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Arka; Abinandanan, T. A.; Choudhury, Abhik

    2017-10-01

    In multi-component systems, during diffusion-controlled growth of a precipitate from a supersaturated matrix, differential diffusivities lead to a selection of tie-line compositions different from the thermodynamic tie-line containing the alloy composition. In this paper, we address the multi-component version of the growth problem by extending Zener's theory, and derive analytical expressions for predicting tie-lines and composition profiles in the matrix during growth of planar, cylindrical, and spherical precipitates for independent as well as coupled diffusion of solutes in the scaling regime. We confirm our calculations by sharp interface and phase-field simulations in a ternary setting, in which we also extend the tie-line and growth constant predictions for two well-known limiting cases, namely partition and negligible partition under local equilibrium (PLE and NPLE).

  16. Second law of thermodynamics in volume diffusion hydrodynamics in multicomponent gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadzie, S. Kokou, E-mail: k.dadzie@glyndwr.ac.uk [Department of Engineering and Applied Physics, Glyndŵr University, Mold Road, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-01

    We presented the thermodynamic structure of a new continuum flow model for multicomponent gas mixtures. The continuum model is based on a volume diffusion concept involving specific species. It is independent of the observer's reference frame and enables a straightforward tracking of a selected species within a mixture composed of a large number of constituents. A method to derive the second law and constitutive equations accompanying the model is presented. Using the configuration of a rotating fluid we illustrated an example of non-classical flow physics predicted by new contributions in the entropy and constitutive equations. -- Highlights: ► A thermodynamic structure is presented for a new continuum flow model in multicomponent gas mixtures. ► A derivation method to obtain constitutive equations is presented. ► A configuration of a rotating gas is used to illustrate the role of new contributions in the structure of the entropy equation.

  17. [Establishment of modern multi-component sustained-release preparations of oral traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Liu, Dan; Yu, Dan-Hong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-10-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines have a long history, with a large quantity of efficient traditional Chinese medicines and prescriptions. However, the vast majority of pharmaceutical dose forms remain common preparations, with very few efficient, long-lasting and low-dose preparations. The sustain-release preparation allows sustained drug release in a longer period of time, maintains blood drug concentration, reduces the toxic effect and medication frequency, and improves medication compliance. Unlike monomer drugs, the material base of traditional Chinese medicine and compounds is multi-component, instead of single or several active monomers. Therefore, under the guidance of the Chinese medicine theories, modern multi-component sustained-release preparations were developed for oral traditional Chinese medicines, with the aim of finally improving the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines.

  18. Detailed finite element method modeling of evaporating multi-component droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diddens, Christian, E-mail: C.Diddens@tue.nl

    2017-07-01

    The evaporation of sessile multi-component droplets is modeled with an axisymmetic finite element method. The model comprises the coupled processes of mixture evaporation, multi-component flow with composition-dependent fluid properties and thermal effects. Based on representative examples of water–glycerol and water–ethanol droplets, regular and chaotic examples of solutal Marangoni flows are discussed. Furthermore, the relevance of the substrate thickness for the evaporative cooling of volatile binary mixture droplets is pointed out. It is shown how the evaporation of the more volatile component can drastically decrease the interface temperature, so that ambient vapor of the less volatile component condenses on the droplet. Finally, results of this model are compared with corresponding results of a lubrication theory model, showing that the application of lubrication theory can cause considerable errors even for moderate contact angles of 40°. - Graphical abstract:.

  19. Simulating multi-component liquid phase adsorption systems: ethanol and residual sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.; Tezel, F.H.; Thibault, J. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa (Canada)], email: Jules.Thibault@uottawa.ca

    2011-07-01

    A series of multi-component adsorption studies was performed to determine the relative advantages of producing ethanol which is to be blended with gasoline. These studies developed a model to describe the competition for adsorption sites between ethanol and sugar molecules on the surface of the adsorbent. Three competitive adsorption models established by batch systems were examined to evaluate the suitability of the experiment data across different ethanol and sugar concentrations and determine their isotherm parameters. Multi-component packed bed adsorption experiments were then performed. The results show that ethanol capacity was decreased only slightly from that obtained in single component adsorption studies. There is significant evidence to indicate that sugar displacement from adsorption sites occurs because adsorption of ethanol is preferred. So the capacity of sugars will be greatly reduced if there are appreciable ethanol concentrations.

  20. [Impacts of multicomponent environment on solubility of puerarin in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Guo-Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Wen-Ning; Lv, Bei-Ran; Wei, Li; Dong, Ling

    2014-12-01

    To illustrate the solubility involved in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) , the influences of artificial multicomponent environment on solubility were investigated in this study. Mathematical model was built to describe the variation trend of their influence on the solubility of puerarin. Carried out with progressive levels, single component environment: baicalin, berberine and glycyrrhizic acid; double-component environment: baicalin and glycyrrhizic acid, baicalin and berberine and glycyrrhizic acid and berberine; and treble-component environment: baicalin, berberin, glycyrrhizic acid were used to describe the variation tendency of their influences on the solubility of puerarin, respectively. And then, the mathematical regression equation model was established to characterize the solubility of puerarin under multicomponent environment.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of multi-components rare earth oxide-doped molybdenum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guojun; Sun Yuanjun; Zuo Chao; Wei Jianfeng; Sun Jun

    2008-01-01

    Pure molybdenum and molybdenum alloys doped with two- or three-components rare earth oxide particles were prepared by powder metallurgy. Both the tensile property and fracture toughness of the pure molybdenum and multi-components rare earth oxide-doped molybdenum alloys were determined at room temperature. The multi-components rare earth oxide-doped molybdenum alloys are fine grained and contain a homogeneous distribution of fine particles in the submicron and nanometer size ranges, which is why the molybdenum alloys have higher strength and fracture toughness than pure molybdenum. Quantitative analysis is used to explain the increase in yield strength with respect to grain size and second phase strengthening. Furthermore, the relationship between the tensile properties and microstructural parameters is quantitatively established

  2. Modeling and parametric analysis of hollow fiber membrane system for carbon capture from multicomponent flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2011-08-12

    The modeling and optimal design/operation of gas membranes for postcombustion carbon capture (PCC) is presented. A systematic methodology is presented for analysis of membrane systems considering multicomponent flue gas with CO 2 as target component. Simplifying assumptions is avoided by namely multicomponent flue gas represented by CO 2/N 2 binary mixture or considering the co/countercurrent flow pattern of hollow-fiber membrane system as mixed flow. Optimal regions of flue gas pressures and membrane area were found within which a technoeconomical process system design could be carried out. High selectivity was found to not necessarily have notable impact on PCC membrane performance, rather, a medium selectivity combined with medium or high permeance could be more advantageous. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. Application of multicomponent diffusion theory for description of impurities distribution in complex diffusive doping of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskov, V.A.; Kondrachenko, O.E.; Kondrachenko, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    A phenomenological theory of multicomponent diffusion involving interaction between the components is employed to analyze how the interaction between two admixtures affects their simultaneous or consequent diffusion into a semiconductor. The theory uses the equations of multicomponent dissusion under common conditions (constant diffusion coefficients and equilibrium distribution of vacancies). The experiments are described on In and Sb simultaneous diffusion into Ge. The diffusion is performed according to the routine gas phase technology with the use of radioactive isotopes In 114 and Sb 124 . It is shown that the introduction of an additional diffusion coefficient D 12 makes it possible to simply and precisely describe the distribution of interacting admixtures in complex diffusion alloying of semiconductors

  4. Thermodynamics of the multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibrium under capillary pressure difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the two-phase multicomponent equilibrium, provided that the phase pressures are different due to the action of capillary forces. We prove the two general properties of such an equilibrium, which have previously been known for a single-component case, however, to the best of our knowledge......, not for the multicomponent mixtures. The importance is emphasized on the space of the intensive variables P, T and mu (i), where the laws of capillary equilibrium have a simple geometrical interpretation. We formulate thermodynamic problems specific to such an equilibrium, and outline changes to be introduced to common...... algorithms of flash calculations in order to solve these problems. Sample calculations show large variation of the capillary properties of the mixture in the very neighborhood of the phase envelope and the restrictive role of the spinodal surface as a boundary for possible equilibrium states with different...

  5. Comparing Multicomponent Erlang Distribution and Lévy Distribution of Particle Transverse Momentums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hua-Rong; Chen, Ya-Hui; Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Fu-Hu

    2014-01-01

    The transverse momentum spectrums of final-state products produced in nucleus-nucleus and proton-proton collisions at different center-of-mass energies are analyzed by using a multicomponent Erlang distribution and the Lévy distribution. The results calculated by the two models are found in most cases to be in agreement with experimental data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The multicomponent Erlang distribution that resulted from a multisource thermal model seems to give a better description as compared with the Lévy distribution. The temperature parameters of interacting system corresponding to different types of final-state products are obtained. Light particles correspond to a low temperature emission, and heavy particles correspond to a high temperature emission. Extracted temperature from central collisions is higher than that from peripheral collisions

  6. Programming molecular self-assembly of intrinsically disordered proteins containing sequences of low complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Joseph R.; Carroll, Nick J.; Rubinstein, Michael; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; López, Gabriel P.

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic protein-rich intracellular structures that contain phase-separated intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) composed of sequences of low complexity (SLC) have been shown to serve a variety of important cellular functions, which include signalling, compartmentalization and stabilization. However, our understanding of these structures and our ability to synthesize models of them have been limited. We present design rules for IDPs possessing SLCs that phase separate into diverse assemblies within droplet microenvironments. Using theoretical analyses, we interpret the phase behaviour of archetypal IDP sequences and demonstrate the rational design of a vast library of multicomponent protein-rich structures that ranges from uniform nano-, meso- and microscale puncta (distinct protein droplets) to multilayered orthogonally phase-separated granular structures. The ability to predict and program IDP-rich assemblies in this fashion offers new insights into (1) genetic-to-molecular-to-macroscale relationships that encode hierarchical IDP assemblies, (2) design rules of such assemblies in cell biology and (3) molecular-level engineering of self-assembled recombinant IDP-rich materials.

  7. Minimalistic peptide supramolecular co-assembly: expanding the conformational space for nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makam, Pandeeswar; Gazit, Ehud

    2018-05-21

    Molecular self-assembly is a ubiquitous process in nature and central to bottom-up nanotechnology. In particular, the organization of peptide building blocks into ordered supramolecular structures has gained much interest due to the unique properties of the products, including biocompatibility, chemical and structural diversity, robustness and ease of large-scale synthesis. In addition, peptides, as short as dipeptides, contain all the molecular information needed to spontaneously form well-ordered structures at both the nano- and the micro-scale. Therefore, peptide supramolecular assembly has been effectively utilized to produce novel materials with tailored properties for various applications in the fields of material science, engineering, medicine, and biology. To further expand the conformational space of peptide assemblies in terms of structural and functional complexity, multicomponent (two or more) peptide supramolecular co-assembly has recently evolved as a promising extended approach, similar to the structural diversity of natural sequence-defined biopolymers (proteins) as well as of synthetic covalent co-polymers. The use of this methodology was recently demonstrated in various applications, such as nanostructure physical dimension control, the creation of non-canonical complex topologies, mechanical strength modulation, the design of light harvesting soft materials, fabrication of electrically conducting devices, induced fluorescence, enzymatic catalysis and tissue engineering. In light of these significant advancements in the field of peptide supramolecular co-assembly in the last few years, in this tutorial review, we provide an updated overview and future prospects of this emerging subject.

  8. Models of SEC elution curves for binary and multi-component polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš; Kratochvíl, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2009), s. 198-201 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050403; GA AV ČR IAA400500703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : size-exclusion chromatography * multi-component polymers * minority components detection Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.137, year: 2009

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Nonstationary Separation Processes in Gas Centrifuge Cascade for Separation of Multicomponent Isotope Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Alexey; Ushakov Anton; Sovach Victor

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results of development of the mathematical model of nonstationary separation processes occurring in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures. This model was used for the calculation parameters of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of germanium isotopes. Comparison of obtained values with results of other authors revealed that developed mathematical model is adequate to describe nonstationary separation processes in gas centrifuge casca...

  10. Mathematical model of nonstationary hydraulic processes in gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov, Aleksey Alekseevich; Ushakov, Anton; Sovach, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The article presents results of development of a mathematical model of nonstationary hydraulic processes in gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures. This model was used for the calculation parameters of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of silicon isotopes. Comparison of obtained values with results of other authors revealed that developed mathematical model is adequate to describe nonstationary hydraulic processes in gas centrifuge cascades for separation...

  11. Imides: forgotten players in the Ugi reaction. One-pot multicomponent synthesis of quinazolinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossetti, Riccardo; Pirali, Tracey; Saggiorato, Dèsirèe; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2011-06-28

    Up to now, the synthesis of quinazolinones has required lengthy synthetic procedures. Here, we describe an innovative one-pot multicomponent reaction leading to highly substituted quinazolinones. We believe that this novel transformation may open the door for the generation of new and pharmacologically active quinazolinones, but, most important of all, the resurrection of the imide-Ugi scaffold paves the way for the synthesis of novel molecular architectures. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  12. The multi-component model of working memory: explorations in experimental cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovs, G; Baddeley, A

    2006-04-28

    There are a number of ways one can hope to describe and explain cognitive abilities, each of them contributing a unique and valuable perspective. Cognitive psychology tries to develop and test functional accounts of cognitive systems that explain the capacities and properties of cognitive abilities as revealed by empirical data gathered by a range of behavioral experimental paradigms. Much of the research in the cognitive psychology of working memory has been strongly influenced by the multi-component model of working memory [Baddeley AD, Hitch GJ (1974) Working memory. In: Recent advances in learning and motivation, Vol. 8 (Bower GA, ed), pp 47-90. New York: Academic Press; Baddeley AD (1986) Working memory. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press; Baddeley A. Working memory: Thought and action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in press]. By expanding the notion of a passive short-term memory to an active system that provides the basis for complex cognitive abilities, the model has opened up numerous questions and new lines of research. In this paper we present the current revision of the multi-component model that encompasses a central executive, two unimodal storage systems: a phonological loop and a visuospatial sketchpad, and a further component, a multimodal store capable of integrating information into unitary episodic representations, termed episodic buffer. We review recent empirical data within experimental cognitive psychology that has shaped the development of the multicomponent model and the understanding of the capacities and properties of working memory. Research based largely on dual-task experimental designs and on neuropsychological evidence has yielded valuable information about the fractionation of working memory into independent stores and processes, the nature of representations in individual stores, the mechanisms of their maintenance and manipulation, the way the components of working memory relate to each other, and the role they play in other

  13. Dismantling multicomponent behavioral treatment for insomnia in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Dana R; Sidani, Souraya; Bootzin, Richard R; Belyea, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the use of multicomponent insomnia treatment has increased. This study compares the effect of single component and multicomponent behavioral treatments for insomnia in older adults after intervention and at 3 months and 1 yr posttreatment. A randomized, controlled study. Veterans Affairs medical center. 179 older adults (mean age, 68.9 yr ± 8.0; 115 women [64.2%]) with chronic primary insomnia. Participants were randomly assigned to 6 wk of stimulus control therapy (SCT), sleep restriction therapy (SRT), the 2 therapies combined into a multicomponent intervention (MCI), or a wait-list control group. Primary outcomes were subjective (daily sleep diary) and objective (actigraphy) measures of sleep-onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST), time in bed (TIB), and sleep efficiency (SE). Secondary outcomes were clinical measures including response and remission rates. There were no differences between the single and multicomponent interventions on primary sleep outcomes measured by diary and actigraphy. All treatments produced significant improvement in diary-reported sleep in comparison with the control group. Effect sizes for sleep diary outcomes were medium to large. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up for diary and actigraph measured SOL, WASO, and SE. The MCI group had the largest proportion of treatment remitters. For older adults with chronic primary insomnia, the findings provide initial evidence that SCT, SRT, and MCI are equally efficacious and produce sustainable treatment gains on diary, actigraphy, and clinical outcomes. From a clinical perspective, MCI may be a preferred treatment due to its higher remission rate. Behavioral Intervention for Insomnia in Older Adults. NCT01154023. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01154023?term=Behavioral+Intervention+for+Insomnia+in+Older+Adults&rank=1.

  14. Evaluation of diffusion coefficients in multicomponent mixtures by means of the fluctuation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    We derive general expressions for diffusion coefficients in multicomponent non-ideal gas or liquid mixtures. The derivation is based on the general statistical theory of fluctuations around an equilibrium state. The matrix of diffusion coefficients is expressed in terms of the equilibrium...... characteristics. We demonstrate on several examples that the developed theory is in agreement with the established experimental facts and dependencies for the diffusion coefficients. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Stratigraphic inversion of pre-stack multicomponent data; Inversion stratigraphique multicomposante avant sommation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, Y.

    2005-09-15

    This thesis present the extension of mono-component seismic pre-stack data stratigraphical inversion method to multicomponent data, with the objective of improving the determination of reservoir elastic parameters. In addiction to the PP pressure waves, the PS converted waves proved their interest for imaging under gas clouds; and their potential is highly significant for the characterization of lithologies, fluids, fractures... Nevertheless the simultaneous use ol PP and PS data remains problematic because of their different the time scales. To jointly use the information contained in PP and PS data, we propose a method in three steps first, mono-component stratigraphic inversions of PP then PS data; second, estimation of the PP to PS time conversion law; third, multicomponent stratigraphic inversion. For the second point, the estimation of the PP to PS conversion law is based on minimizing the difference between the S impedances obtained from PP and PS mono-component stratigraphic inversion. The pre-stack mono-component stratigraphic inversions was adapted to the case of multicomponent data by leaving each type of data in its own time scale in order to avoid the distortion of the seismic wavelet. The results obtained on a realistic synthetic PP-PS case show on one hand that determining PP to PS conversion law (from the mono-component inversion results) is feasible, and on the other hand that the joint inversion of PP and PS data with this conversion law improves the results compared to the mono-component inversion ones. Although this is presented within the framework of the PP and PS multi-component data, the developed methodology adapts directly to PP and SS data for example. (author)

  16. The desorption of ammonia and carbon dioxide from multicomponent solutions: I. Model description and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotanović Milovan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the desorption process based on the synthesised technological topology of the regeneration process gas components NH3 and CO2, was developed. The logical principle methodology of the mathematical modelling of desorption processes was worked out in detail. The mathematical model of the process, including the following: - The synthesized technological scheme of the desorption of components NH3 and CO2, with all the necessary requirements and limitations of the mathematical model; - The relevant multicomponent systems which exist in the process were defined in which the interphase transformation occurs; - The considered units (aparatus are defined which make up the basic technological topology of the process; - Desorption processes in towers with different types of trays were defined and mathematically described; - The cooling process and condensation of gas phase in a complex multicomponent system was of the gas phase in a complex multicomponent system was defined and mathematically described. Many variants of the process were analyzed by using developed model with the aim of determining the relevant functional dependences between some basic parameters of the process. They will be published in the second part of this study.

  17. Multicomponent quantitative spectroscopic analysis without reference substances based on ICA modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Mushtakova, Svetlana P

    2017-05-01

    A fast and reliable spectroscopic method for multicomponent quantitative analysis of targeted compounds with overlapping signals in complex mixtures has been established. The innovative analytical approach is based on the preliminary chemometric extraction of qualitative and quantitative information from UV-vis and IR spectral profiles of a calibration system using independent component analysis (ICA). Using this quantitative model and ICA resolution results of spectral profiling of "unknown" model mixtures, the absolute analyte concentrations in multicomponent mixtures and authentic samples were then calculated without reference solutions. Good recoveries generally between 95% and 105% were obtained. The method can be applied to any spectroscopic data that obey the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. The proposed method was tested on analysis of vitamins and caffeine in energy drinks and aromatic hydrocarbons in motor fuel with 10% error. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a promising tool for rapid simultaneous multicomponent analysis in the case of spectral overlap and the absence/inaccessibility of reference materials.

  18. The study of multicomponent separation of Xe isotope by centrifugal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinyan Wu; Fu Zhuge

    1996-01-01

    The element Xe has nine isotopes in nature, the separation performance of each component mutually affects the others, so the binary separation theory can't be employed to study the multicomponent separation. Especially, when the molecular wight of a certain component is in the middle of its isotope components, the effect of the others on this component must be considered. In this paper, first, the multicomponent separation of Xe isotopes in a gas centrifuge is studied, with the consideration of the effect of the concentration on the diffusion coefficient and average molecular weight. The multicomponent diffusion equations are solved by the finite difference method. Second, the enrichment of Xe isotopes in a cascade is studied. On the basis of the study of a gas centrifuge, the simplified separation equations of a gas centrifuge for cascade calculation are obtained. Furthermore, the complete equations of the cascade separation are established according to the conservation of mass of each component and solved by a numerical method. The study of this paper can be extended for other isotope separation calculations. (author)

  19. Developing dimensions for a multicomponent multidisciplinary approach to obesity management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Anita J; Dick, Bob; King, Neil A; Hills, Andrew P; Kavanagh, David J

    2017-10-16

    There have been consistent recommendations for multicomponent and multidisciplinary approaches for obesity management. However, there is no clear agreement on the components, disciplines or processes to be considered within such an approach. In this study, we explored multicomponent and multidisciplinary approaches through an examination of knowledge, skills, beliefs, and recommendations of stakeholders involved in obesity management. These stakeholders included researchers, practitioners, educators, and patients. We used qualitative action research methods, including convergent interviewing and observation, to assist the process of inquiry. The consensus was that a multicomponent and multidisciplinary approach should be based on four central meta-components (patient, practitioner, process, and environmental factors), and specific components of these factors were identified. Psychologists, dieticians, exercise physiologists and general practitioners were nominated as key practitioners to be included. A complex condition like obesity requires that multiple components be addressed, and that both patients and multiple disciplines are involved in developing solutions. Implementing cycles of continuous improvement to deal with complexity, instead of trying to control for it, offers an effective way to deal with complex, changing multisystem problems like obesity.

  20. Hydrogen Separation by Natural Zeolite Composite Membranes: Single and Multicomponent Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Farjoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Single and multicomponent gas permeation tests were used to evaluate the performance of metal-supported clinoptilolite membranes. The efficiency of hydrogen separation from lower hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, and ethylene was studied within the temperature and pressure ranges of 25–600 °C and 110–160 kPa, respectively. The hydrogen separation factor was found to reduce noticeably in the gas mixture compared with single gas experiments at 25 °C. The difference between the single and multicomponent gas results decreased as the temperature increased to higher than 300 °C, which is when the competitive adsorption–diffusion mechanism was replaced by Knudsen diffusion or activated diffusion mechanisms. To evaluate the effect of gas adsorption, the zeolite surface isotherms of each gas in the mixture were obtained from 25 °C to 600 °C. The results indicated negligible adsorption of individual gases at temperatures higher than 300 °C. Increasing the feed pressure resulted in a higher separation efficiency for the individual gases compared with the multicomponent mixture, due to the governing effect of the adsorptive mechanism. This study provides valuable insight into the application of natural zeolites for the separation of hydrogen from a mixture of hydrocarbons.

  1. A mesoscopic reaction rate model for shock initiation of multi-component PBX explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y R; Duan, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Ou, Z C; Huang, F L

    2016-11-05

    The primary goal of this research is to develop a three-term mesoscopic reaction rate model that consists of a hot-spot ignition, a low-pressure slow burning and a high-pressure fast reaction terms for shock initiation of multi-component Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX). Thereinto, based on the DZK hot-spot model for a single-component PBX explosive, the hot-spot ignition term as well as its reaction rate is obtained through a "mixing rule" of the explosive components; new expressions for both the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term are also obtained by establishing the relationships between the reaction rate of the multi-component PBX explosive and that of its explosive components, based on the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term of a mesoscopic reaction rate model. Furthermore, for verification, the new reaction rate model is incorporated into the DYNA2D code to simulate numerically the shock initiation process of the PBXC03 and the PBXC10 multi-component PBX explosives, and the numerical results of the pressure histories at different Lagrange locations in explosive are found to be in good agreements with previous experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards Polypharmacokinetics: Pharmacokinetics of Multicomponent Drugs and Herbal Medicines Using a Metabolomics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of pharmacokinetics (PKs of multicomponent pharmaceuticals and/or nutraceuticals (polypharmacokinetics, poly-PKs is difficult due to the vast number of compounds present in natural products, their various concentrations across a wide range, complexity of their interactions, as well as their complex degradation dynamics in vivo. Metabolomics coupled with multivariate statistical tools that focus on the comprehensive analysis of small molecules in biofluids is a viable approach to address the challenges of poly-PK. This paper discusses recent advances in the characterization of poly-PK and the metabolism of multicomponent xenobiotic agents, such as compound drugs, dietary supplements, and herbal medicines, using metabolomics strategy. We propose a research framework that integrates the dynamic concentration profile of bioavailable xenobiotic molecules that result from in vivo absorption and hepatic and gut bacterial metabolism, as well as the human metabolic response profile. This framework will address the bottleneck problem in the pharmacological evaluation of multicomponent pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, leading to the direct elucidation of the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms of these compounds.

  3. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  4. Transition of ion-acoustic perturbations in multicomponent plasma with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sumita Kumari; Devi, Kavita; Adhikary, Nirab Chandra; Bailung, Heremba

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of ion-acoustic compressive (positive) and rarefactive (negative) perturbations in a multicomponent plasma with negative ions has been investigated in a double plasma device. Transition of compressive solitons in electron-positive ion plasma, into a dispersing train of oscillations in a multicomponent plasma, when the negative ion concentration r exceeds a critical value r c , has been observed. On the other hand, an initial rarefactive perturbation initially evolves into a dispersing train of oscillations in electron-positive ion plasma and transforms into rarefactive solitons in a multicomponent plasma when the negative ion concentration is higher than the critical value. The Mach velocity and width of the compressive and rarefactive solitons are measured. The compressive solitons in the range 0 c and the rarefactive solitons in the range r>r c have different characteristics than the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons at r=0 and modified KdV solitons at r=r c . A nonlinear differential equation having two terms to account for the lower and higher order nonlinearity has been used to explain the observed results

  5. Helping boys at-risk of criminal activity: qualitative results of a multi-component intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Erin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This qualitative study examines parent and child experiences of participation in a multi-component community-based program aimed at reducing offending behaviour, and increasing social competence in boys 6 to 11 years old in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The program builds on the concept of crime prevention through social development, and includes structured groups for the identified boy, parents, and siblings. Methods A sample of 35 families participating in the multi-component program took part in the qualitative study. Individual interviews with the boys, parents and siblings asked about changes in themselves, relationships with family and peers, and school after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Results Parents reported improvement in parenting skills and attainment of more effective communication skills, particularly with their children. Parents also found the relationships they formed with other parents in the program and the advice that they gained to be beneficial. Boys who participated in the program also benefited, with both parents and boys reporting improvements in boys' anger management skills, social skills, impulse control, and ability to recognize potentially volatile situations. Both parents and boys described overall improvement in family relationships and school-related success. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed that parents and boys participating in the multi-component program perceived improvements in a number of specific areas, including social competence of the boys. This has not been demonstrated as clearly in other evaluations of the program.

  6. Hydrogen Separation by Natural Zeolite Composite Membranes: Single and Multicomponent Gas Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjoo, Afrooz; Kuznicki, Steve M; Sadrzadeh, Mohtada

    2017-10-06

    Single and multicomponent gas permeation tests were used to evaluate the performance of metal-supported clinoptilolite membranes. The efficiency of hydrogen separation from lower hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, and ethylene) was studied within the temperature and pressure ranges of 25-600 °C and 110-160 kPa, respectively. The hydrogen separation factor was found to reduce noticeably in the gas mixture compared with single gas experiments at 25 °C. The difference between the single and multicomponent gas results decreased as the temperature increased to higher than 300 °C, which is when the competitive adsorption-diffusion mechanism was replaced by Knudsen diffusion or activated diffusion mechanisms. To evaluate the effect of gas adsorption, the zeolite surface isotherms of each gas in the mixture were obtained from 25 °C to 600 °C. The results indicated negligible adsorption of individual gases at temperatures higher than 300 °C. Increasing the feed pressure resulted in a higher separation efficiency for the individual gases compared with the multicomponent mixture, due to the governing effect of the adsorptive mechanism. This study provides valuable insight into the application of natural zeolites for the separation of hydrogen from a mixture of hydrocarbons.

  7. The effect of multi-component adsorption on selectivity in ion exchange displacement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugcu, N; Cramer, S M

    2005-01-21

    This paper examines chemically selective displacement chromatography using affinity ranking plots, batch displacer screening experiments, column displacements, multi-component adsorption isotherms and spectroscopy. The affinity ranking plot indicated that the displacers, sucrose octasulfate (SOS) and tatrazine, should possess sufficient affinity to displace the proteins amyloglucosidase and apoferritin over a wide range of operating conditions. In addition, the plots indicated that the separation of these proteins by displacement chromatography would be extremely difficult. Further, the two proteins were shown to have very similar retention times under shallow linear gradient conditions. When batch displacement experiments were carried out, both tartrazine and SOS exhibited significant selectivity differences with respect to their ability to displace these two proteins, in contrast to the affinity ranking plot results. Column displacement experiments carried out with sucrose octasulfate agreed with the predictions of the affinity ranking plots, with both proteins being displaced but poorly resolved under several column displacement conditions. On the other hand, column displacement with tartrazine as the displacer resulted in the selective displacement and partial purification of apoferritin. Single- and multi-component isotherms of the proteins with or without the presence of displacers were determined and were used to help explain the selectivity reversals observed in the column and batch displacement experiments. In addition, fluorescence and CD spectra suggested that the displacers did not induce any structural changes to either of the proteins. The results in this paper indicate that multi-component adsorption behavior can be exploited for creating chemically selective displacement separations.

  8. Non-stationary component extraction in noisy multicomponent signal using polynomial chirping Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenlong; Xie, Junwei; Wang, Heming; Sheng, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by track-before-detection technology in radar, a novel time-frequency transform, namely polynomial chirping Fourier transform (PCFT), is exploited to extract components from noisy multicomponent signal. The PCFT combines advantages of Fourier transform and polynomial chirplet transform to accumulate component energy along a polynomial chirping curve in the time-frequency plane. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to search optimal polynomial parameters with which the PCFT will achieve a most concentrated energy ridge in the time-frequency plane for the target component. The component can be well separated in the polynomial chirping Fourier domain with a narrow-band filter and then reconstructed by inverse PCFT. Furthermore, an iterative procedure, involving parameter estimation, PCFT, filtering and recovery, is introduced to extract components from a noisy multicomponent signal successively. The Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method has better performance in component extraction from noisy multicomponent signal as well as provides more time-frequency details about the analyzed signal than conventional methods.

  9. Forward modelling of multi-component induction logging tools in layered anisotropic dipping formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jie; Xu, Chenhao; Xiao, Jiaqi

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component induction logging provides great assistance in the exploration of thinly laminated reservoirs. The 1D parametric inversion following an adaptive borehole correction is the key step in the data processing of multi-component induction logging responses. To make the inversion process reasonably fast, an efficient forward modelling method is necessary. In this paper, a modelling method has been developed to simulate the multi-component induction tools in deviated wells drilled in layered anisotropic formations. With the introduction of generalized reflection coefficients, the analytic expressions of magnetic field in the form of a Sommerfeld integral were derived. The fast numerical computation of the integral has been completed by using the fast Fourier–Hankel transform and fast Hankel transform methods. The latter is so time efficient that it is competent enough for real-time multi-parameter inversion. In this paper, some simulated results have been presented and they are in excellent agreement with the finite difference method code's solution. (paper)

  10. The Network of Excellence 'Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Arnaldo

    2008-01-01

    The Network of Excellence 'Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance' (KMM-NoE) consists of 36 institutional partners from 10 countries representing leading European research institutes and university departments (25), small and medium enterprises, SMEs (5) and large industry (7) in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials (KMM), more specifically in intermetallics, metal-ceramic composites, functionally graded materials and thin layers. The main goal of the KMM-NoE (currently funded by the European Commission) is to mobilise and concentrate the fragmented scientific potential in the KMM field to create a durable and efficient organism capable of developing leading-edge research while spreading the accumulated knowledge outside the Network and enhancing the technological skills of the related industries. The long-term strategic goal of the KMM-NoE is to establish a self-supporting pan-European institution in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials--KMM Virtual Institute (KMM-VIN). It will combine industry oriented research with educational and training activities. The KMM Virtual Institute will be founded on three main pillars: KMM European Competence Centre, KMM Integrated Post-Graduate School, KMM Mobility Programme. The KMM-NoE is coordinated by the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT) of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

  11. Optical properties of multicomponent antimony-silver nanoclusters formed in silica by sequential ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhr, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of nanometer dimension metal colloids embedded in a dielectric depend explicitly on the electronic structure of the metal nanoclusters. The ability to control the electronic structure of the nanoclusters may make it possible to tailor the optical properties for enhanced performance. By sequential implantation of different metal ion species multi-component nanoclusters can be formed with significantly different optical properties than single element metal nanoclusters. The authors report the formation of multi-component Sb/Ag nanoclusters in silica by sequential implantation of Sb and Ag. Samples were implanted with relative ratios of Sb to Ag of 1:1 and 3:1. A second set of samples was made by single element implantations of Ag and Sb at the same energies and doses used to make the sequentially implanted samples. All samples were characterized using RBS and both linear and nonlinear optical measurements. The presence of both ions significantly modifies the optical properties of the composites compared to the single element nanocluster glass composites. In the sequentially implanted samples the optical density is lower, and the strong surface plasmon resonance absorption observed in the Ag implanted samples is not present. At the same time the nonlinear response of the these samples is larger than for the samples implanted with Sb alone, suggesting that the addition of Ag can increase the nonlinear response of the Sb particles formed. The results are consistent with the formation of multi-component Sb/Ag colloids

  12. The Network of Excellence ``Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Arnaldo

    2008-02-01

    The Network of Excellence "Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance" (KMM-NoE) consists of 36 institutional partners from 10 countries representing leading European research institutes and university departments (25), small and medium enterprises, SMEs (5) and large industry (7) in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials (KMM), more specifically in intermetallics, metal-ceramic composites, functionally graded materials and thin layers. The main goal of the KMM-NoE (currently funded by the European Commission) is to mobilise and concentrate the fragmented scientific potential in the KMM field to create a durable and efficient organism capable of developing leading-edge research while spreading the accumulated knowledge outside the Network and enhancing the technological skills of the related industries. The long-term strategic goal of the KMM-NoE is to establish a self-supporting pan-European institution in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials—KMM Virtual Institute (KMM-VIN). It will combine industry oriented research with educational and training activities. The KMM Virtual Institute will be founded on three main pillars: KMM European Competence Centre, KMM Integrated Post-Graduate School, KMM Mobility Programme. The KMM-NoE is coordinated by the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT) of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

  13. School Assemblies: The Lost Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Daniel R.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines and suggestions are offered for successful school assemblies. The school assembly should be a positive event; an occasion for developing unity, group loyalty, and desirable audience habits. (Author/MLF)

  14. Assembling large, complex environmental metagenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, A. C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Plant Soil and Microbial Sciences; Jansson, J. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Malfatti, S. A. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tringe, S. G. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tiedje, J. M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Plant Soil and Microbial Sciences; Brown, C. T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Computer Science and Engineering

    2012-12-28

    The large volumes of sequencing data required to sample complex environments deeply pose new challenges to sequence analysis approaches. De novo metagenomic assembly effectively reduces the total amount of data to be analyzed but requires significant computational resources. We apply two pre-assembly filtering approaches, digital normalization and partitioning, to make large metagenome assemblies more computationaly tractable. Using a human gut mock community dataset, we demonstrate that these methods result in assemblies nearly identical to assemblies from unprocessed data. We then assemble two large soil metagenomes from matched Iowa corn and native prairie soils. The predicted functional content and phylogenetic origin of the assembled contigs indicate significant taxonomic differences despite similar function. The assembly strategies presented are generic and can be extended to any metagenome; full source code is freely available under a BSD license.

  15. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  16. Amino Acid Availability Modulates Vacuolar H+-ATPase Assembly*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stransky, Laura A.; Forgac, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an ATP-dependent proton pump composed of a peripheral ATPase domain (V1) and a membrane-integral proton-translocating domain (V0) and is involved in many normal and disease processes. An important mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity is reversible assembly of the V1 and V0 domains. Increased assembly in mammalian cells occurs under various conditions and has been shown to involve PI3K. The V-ATPase is necessary for amino acid-induced activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is important in controlling cell growth in response to nutrient availability and growth signals. The V-ATPase undergoes amino acid-dependent interactions with the Ragulator complex, which is involved in recruitment of mTORC1 to the lysosomal membrane during amino acid sensing. We hypothesized that changes in the V-ATPase/Ragulator interaction might involve amino acid-dependent changes in V-ATPase assembly. To test this, we measured V-ATPase assembly by cell fractionation in HEK293T cells treated with and without amino acids. V-ATPase assembly increases upon amino acid starvation, and this effect is reversed upon readdition of amino acids. Lysosomes from amino acid-starved cells possess greater V-ATPase-dependent proton transport, indicating that assembled pumps are catalytically active. Amino acid-dependent changes in both V-ATPase assembly and activity are independent of PI3K and mTORC1 activity, indicating the involvement of signaling pathways distinct from those implicated previously in controlling assembly. By contrast, lysosomal neutralization blocks the amino acid-dependent change in assembly and reactivation of mTORC1 after amino acid starvation. These results identify an important new stimulus for controlling V-ATPase assembly. PMID:26378229

  17. Welding facilities for NPP assembling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojtenberg, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Recommendations concerning the choice of equipment for welding in pre-assembling work shops, in the enlarging assembling shops and at the assembling site, are given. Advanced production automatic welders and semiautomatic machines, applied during the NPP equipment assembling as well as automatic machines specially produced for welding the main reactor components and pipelines are described. Automatic and semiautomatic machine and manual welding post supply sources are considered

  18. Reflector-moderated critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, H.C.; Jarvis, G.A.; Byers, C.C.

    1975-07-01

    Experiments with reflector-moderated critical assemblies were part of the Rover Program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). These assemblies were characterized by thick D 2 O or beryllium reflectors surrounding large cavities that contained highly enriched uranium at low average densities. Because interest in this type of system has been revived by LASL Plasma Cavity Assembly studies, more detailed descriptions of the early assemblies than had been available in the unclassified literature are provided. (U.S.)

  19. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja M. Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0 yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0. The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.

  20. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Sato, Kenji; Goto, Masakazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate identification of a fuel assembly upon fuel exchange in BWR type reactors. Constitution: Fluorescent material is coated or metal plating is applied to the impressed portion of a upper tie plate handle of a fuel assembly, and the fluorescent material or the metal plating surface is covered with a protective membrane made of transparent material. This enables to distinguish the impressed surface from a distant place and chemical reaction between the impressed surface and the reactor water can be prevented. Furthermore, since the protective membrane is formed such that it protrudes toward the upper side relative to the impressed surface, there is no risk of depositions of claddings thereover. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. Fuel nozzle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC; Lacey, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; York, William David [Greer, SC; Stevenson, Christian Xavier [Inman, SC

    2011-08-30

    A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

  2. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Arata; Wakamatsu, Mitsuo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit the coolant in an FBR type reactor to enter from the entrance nozzle into a nuclear fuel assembly without causing cavitation. Structure: In a nuclear fuel assembly, which comprises a number of thin fuel pines bundled together at a uniform spacing and enclosed within an outer cylinder, with a handling head connected to an upper portion of the outer cylinder and an entrance nozzle connected to a lower portion of the cylinder, the inner surface of the entrance nozzle is provided with a buffer member and an orifice successively in the direction of flow of the coolant. The coolant entering from a low pressure coolant chamber into the entrance nozzle strikes the buffer member and is attenuated, and thereafter flows through an orifice into the outer cylinder. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Molten core retention assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods

  4. Nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, R.S.; Garner, D.L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to nuclear fuel assemblies designed for cooling on the 'tube-in-shell' principle in which the fuel is contained by a shell and is cooled by coolant passed through tubes extending through the shell. It has been proposed to employ coated particle fuel as a porous bed on the tube side and the bleed coolant from the tubes into direct contact with the fuel particles. In this way heat is extracted both by direct contact with the fuel and by heat transfer through the coolant tube walls. The system described aims to provide an improved structure of tube and shell for a fuel assembly of this kind and is particularly suitable for use in a gas cooled fast reactor, being able to withstand the neutron flux and high temperature conditions in these reactors. Constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  5. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly comprising a cluster of fuel elements supported by transversal grids so that their axes are parallel to and at a distance from each other, in order to establish interstices for the axial flow of a coolant. At least one of the interstices is occupied by an axial duct reserved for an auxiliary cooling fluid and is fitted with side holes through which the auxiliary cooling fluid is sprayed into the cluster. Deflectors extend as from a transversal grid in a position opposite the holes to deflect the cooling fluid jet towards those parts of the fuel elements that are not accessible to the auxiliary coolant. This assembly is intended for reactors cooled by light or heavy water [fr

  6. Gamma counter shutter assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aday, R.W. Jr.; Barber, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A shutter assembly for a radioactivity measuring apparatus is described having a sample counting chamber, the assembly having a bulky solid lead cylinder with a sample access port extending therethrough for alignment with the sample chamber. The cylinder is rotated by a Geneva wheel arrangement having a drive wheel with a plurality of equi-angularly disposed pins perpendicular to the surface thereof engaging radially extending open-ended slots in a driven wheel secured to the lead cylinder for concurrent rotation therewith. The drive wheel is rotated at a constant speed with the driven wheel accelerating as a pin traverses the slot from the open end toward the driven wheel center and then decelerating as the pin traverses the reverse direction to provide precise positioning with adjacent pins engaging the open ends of adjacent slots in the stop position of the cylinder. 8 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures

  7. Mechanical seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  8. Mechanical Seal Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1999-06-18

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  9. Nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natori, Hisahide; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the fuel safety by decreasing the gap conductance between fuels and cladding tubes, as well as improve the reactor core controllability by rendering the void coefficient negative. Constitution: Fuel assemblies in a pressure tube comprise a tie-rod, fuel rods in a central region, and fuel rods with burnable poison in the outer circumference region. Here, B 4 C is used as the burnable poison by 1.17 % by weight ratio. The degrees of enrichment for the fissile plutonium as PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel used in the assemblies are 2.7 %, 2.7 % and 1.5 % respectively in the innermost layer, the intermediate layer and the outermost layer. This increases the burn-up degree to improve the plant utilizability, whereby the void coefficient is rendered negative to improve the reactor core controllability. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Tomihiro.

    1970-01-01

    The present invention relates to fuel assemblies employing wire wrap spacers for retaining uniform spatial distribution between fuel elements. Clad fuel elements are helically wound in the oxial direction with a wave-formed wire strand. The strand is therefore provided with spring action which permits the fuel elements to expand freely in the axial and radial directions so as to retain proper spacing and reduce stresses due to thermal deformation. (Ownes, K.J.)

  11. Assembling Toyota in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Tiago; Moniz, António

    2003-01-01

    A lot has been written over the last decade with regard to Toyota and the productive model associated to it (toyota-ism). And more specifically concerning the "(…) best-seller that changed the... sociological world" (Castillo, 1998: 31). But the case of Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (OID), that assembles Toyota light commercial vehicles in Portugal, allows us to put forward a sub-hypothesis that fits into the analysis schema proposed in the First GERPISA International Program – ...

  12. Fuel assembly manufacturing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, P.; Villaeys, R.

    1995-01-01

    The device comprises a central support on which the frame is mounted, a magazine which supports the fuel rods in passages aligned with those in the frame and a traction assembly on the opposite side of the magazine and including an array of pull rods designed to be advanced through the passages in the frame, to grip respective fuel rods in magazine and to pull those rods into the passages on the return stroke. 13 figs

  13. Composite airfoil assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-03-03

    A composite blade assembly for mounting on a turbine wheel includes a ceramic airfoil and an airfoil platform. The ceramic airfoil is formed with an airfoil portion, a blade shank portion and a blade dovetail tang. The metal platform includes a platform shank and a radially inner platform dovetail. The ceramic airfoil is captured within the metal platform, such that in use, the ceramic airfoil is held within the turbine wheel independent of the metal platform.

  14. Pathway Distiller - multisource biological pathway consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doderer, Mark S; Anguiano, Zachry; Suresh, Uthra; Dashnamoorthy, Ravi; Bishop, Alexander J R; Chen, Yidong

    2012-01-01

    One method to understand and evaluate an experiment that produces a large set of genes, such as a gene expression microarray analysis, is to identify overrepresentation or enrichment for biological pathways. Because pathways are able to functionally describe the set of genes, much effort has been made to collect curated biological pathways into publicly accessible databases. When combining disparate databases, highly related or redundant pathways exist, making their consolidation into pathway concepts essential. This will facilitate unbiased, comprehensive yet streamlined analysis of experiments that result in large gene sets. After gene set enrichment finds representative pathways for large gene sets, pathways are consolidated into representative pathway concepts. Three complementary, but different methods of pathway consolidation are explored. Enrichment Consolidation combines the set of the pathways enriched for the signature gene list through iterative combining of enriched pathways with other pathways with similar signature gene sets; Weighted Consolidation utilizes a Protein-Protein Interaction network based gene-weighting approach that finds clusters of both enriched and non-enriched pathways limited to the experiments' resultant gene list; and finally the de novo Consolidation method uses several measurements of pathway similarity, that finds static pathway clusters independent of any given experiment. We demonstrate that the three consolidation methods provide unified yet different functional insights of a resultant gene set derived from a genome-wide profiling experiment. Results from the methods are presented, demonstrating their applications in biological studies and comparing with a pathway web-based framework that also combines several pathway databases. Additionally a web-based consolidation framework that encompasses all three methods discussed in this paper, Pathway Distiller (http://cbbiweb.uthscsa.edu/PathwayDistiller), is established to allow

  15. Fourth Doctoral Student Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Ingrid Haug

    2016-01-01

    On 10 May, over 130 PhD students and their supervisors, from both CERN and partner universities, gathered for the 4th Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber.   The assembly was followed by a poster session, at which eighteen doctoral students presented the outcome of their scientific work. The CERN Doctoral Student Programme currently hosts just over 200 students in applied physics, engineering, computing and science communication/education. The programme has been in place since 1985. It enables students to do their research at CERN for a maximum of three years and to work on a PhD thesis, which they defend at their University. The programme is steered by the TSC committee, which holds two selection committees per year, in June and December. The Doctoral Student Assembly was opened by the Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti, who stressed the importance of the programme in the scientific environment at CERN, emphasising that there is no more rewarding activity than lear...

  16. Metrology for ITER Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.

    2006-01-01

    The overall dimensions of the ITER Tokamak and the particular assembly sequence preclude the use of conventional optical metrology, mechanical jigs and traditional dimensional control equipment, as used for the assembly of smaller, previous generation, fusion devices. This paper describes the state of the art of the capabilities of available metrology systems, with reference to the previous experience in Fusion engineering and in other industries. Two complementary procedures of transferring datum from the primary datum network on the bioshield to the secondary datum s inside the VV with the desired accuracy of about 0.1 mm is described, one method using the access directly through the ports and the other using transfer techniques, developed during the co-operation with ITER/EFDA. Another important task described is the development of a method for the rapid and easy measurement of the gaps between sectors, required for the production of the customised splice plates between them. The scope of the paper includes the evaluation of the composition and cost of the systems and team of technical staff required to meet the requirements of the assembly procedure. The results from a practical, full-scale demonstration of the methodologies used, using the proposed equipment, is described. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of achieving the necessary accuracies for the successful building of ITER. (author)

  17. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Modifications to the statutes of the association Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda...

  18. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  19. RISC assembly: Coordination between small RNAs and Argonaute proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hotaka; Tomari, Yukihide

    2016-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs generally form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes with their partner proteins to exert their functions. Small RNAs, including microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs, assemble with Argonaute (Ago) family proteins into the effector complex called RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which mediates sequence-specific target gene silencing. RISC assembly is not a simple binding between a small RNA and Ago; rather, it follows an ordered multi-step pathway that requires specific accessory factors. Some steps of RISC assembly and RISC-mediated gene silencing are dependent on or facilitated by particular intracellular platforms, suggesting their spatial regulation. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms for RISC assembly of each small RNA class and propose a revised model for the role of the chaperone machinery in the duplex-initiated RISC assembly pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-01

    poisoning, by nitrogen, of catalysts used in the hydrotreating and catalytic cracking of petroleum. Aromatic compounds such as carbazole are representative of the difficult-to-treat organonitrogen compounds most commonly encountered in petroleum. There are two C-N bonds in carbazole and the construction of a metabolic pathway for the removal of nitrogen from carbazole will require enzymes capable cleaving both C-N bonds. A multi-component enzyme, carbazole dioxygenase, which can selectively cleave the first C-N bond has been identified and the genes that encode this enzyme have been cloned, sequenced, and are being expressed in Rhodococcus erythropolis, a bacterial culture that tolerates exposure to petroleum. An enzyme capable of selectively cleaving the second C-N bond in carbazole has not yet been identified, but enrichment culture experiments have recently succeeded in isolating a bacterial culture that is a likely candidate and may possess a suitable enzyme. Research in the near future will verify if a suitable enzyme for the cleavage of the second C-N bond in carbazole has indeed been found, then the genes encoding a suitable enzyme will be identified, cloned, and sequenced. Ultimately genes encoding enzymes for selective cleavage of both C-N bonds in carbazole will be assembled into a new metabolic pathway and the ability of the resulting bacterial culture to remove nitrogen from petroleum will be determined.