Branco, Jaime C; Zachrisson, Olof; Perrot, Serge
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study investigated the efficacy and safety of milnacipran in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) in a European population.......This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study investigated the efficacy and safety of milnacipran in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) in a European population....
Gordh, Torsten E; Stubhaug, Audun; Jensen, Troels S
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over multi-center study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gabapentin in the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by traumatic or postsurgical peripheral nerve injury, using doses up to 2400mg/day. The study comprised a run...
A multicenter, longitudinal, interventional, double blind randomized clinical trial in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients residing in remote areas: Lessons learned from the late cytomegalovirus prevention trial
Louise E. Kimball
Conclusion: Complex randomized, double-blind, multicenter interventional trials with treatment decisions made at a central coordinating site can be conducted safely and effectively according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP guidelines over a large geographic area.
Dalsgareth, Oli Jacob; Hansen, Niels-Christian Gerner; Søes-Petersen, Ulrik
Despite changes in smoking behavior, one-third of the Danish population continues to smoke. Many of these smokers are hospital employees. This 6-month, multicenter, parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated treatment with bupropion hydrochloride sustained release...
Duloxetine for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: evidence-based findings from post hoc analysis of three multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies
Kajdasz, Daniel K; Iyengar, Smriti; Desaiah, Durisala
peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP). METHODS: Data were pooled from three 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies in which patients received 60 mg duloxetine either QD or BID or placebo. NNT was calculated based on rates of response (defined as >or=30...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several uncontrolled studies of hyperbaric treatment in children with autism have reported clinical improvements; however, this treatment has not been evaluated to date with a controlled study. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial to assess the efficacy of hyperbaric treatment in children with autism. Methods 62 children with autism recruited from 6 centers, ages 2–7 years (mean 4.92 ± 1.21, were randomly assigned to 40 hourly treatments of either hyperbaric treatment at 1.3 atmosphere (atm and 24% oxygen ("treatment group", n = 33 or slightly pressurized room air at 1.03 atm and 21% oxygen ("control group", n = 29. Outcome measures included Clinical Global Impression (CGI scale, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC. Results After 40 sessions, mean physician CGI scores significantly improved in the treatment group compared to controls in overall functioning (p = 0.0008, receptive language (p Conclusion Children with autism who received hyperbaric treatment at 1.3 atm and 24% oxygen for 40 hourly sessions had significant improvements in overall functioning, receptive language, social interaction, eye contact, and sensory/cognitive awareness compared to children who received slightly pressurized room air. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00335790
Preliminary report: prescription of prism-glasses by the Measurement and Correction Method of H.-J. Haase or by conventional orthoptic examination: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study
Simonsz, H. J.; van Els, J.; Ruijter, J. M.; Bakker, D.; Spekreijse, H.
In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in the Netherlands, the effectiveness of (prism-)glasses prescribed by the Measurement and Correction Method of H.-J. Haase (MKH) was compared to that of glasses prescribed by conventional orthoptic examination. Nine pairs of
Ågren, Magnus S.; Ostenfeld, Ulla; Kallehave, Finn Lasse
The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial was to compare topical zinc oxide with placebo mesh on secondary healing pilonidal wounds. Sixty-four (53 men) consecutive patients, aged 17-60 years, were centrally randomized to either treatment with 3% zinc oxide...... (n = 33) or placebo (n = 31) by concealed allocation. Patients were followed with strict recording of beneficial and harmful effects including masked assessment of time to complete wound closure. Analysis was carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. Median healing times were 54 days (interquartile...... range 42-71 days) for the zinc and 62 days (55-82 days) for the placebo group (p = 0.32). Topical zinc oxide increased (p placebo...
Agren, Magnus S; Ostenfeld, Ulla; Kallehave, Finn
The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial was to compare topical zinc oxide with placebo mesh on secondary healing pilonidal wounds. Sixty-four (53 men) consecutive patients, aged 17-60 years, were centrally randomized to either treatment with 3% zinc oxide...... range 42-71 days) for the zinc and 62 days (55-82 days) for the placebo group (p = 0.32). Topical zinc oxide increased (p zinc levels to 1,540 (1,035-2,265) microM and decreased (p zinc oxide (n = 3) than placebo......-treated patients (n = 12) were prescribed postoperative antibiotics (p = 0.005). Serum-zinc levels increased (p Zinc oxide was not associated with increased pain by the visual analog scale, cellular...
Mao, Jia-Ming; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Chuan-Hang; Ning, Ke-Qin; Liu, Ji-Hong; Yang, Shu-Wen; Li, Hai-Song; Zhou, Shao-Hu; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Ji-Xiu; Huang, Yong-Han
To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Qilin Pills in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia in infertile men. This multi-centered randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial included 216 infertile males with oligoasthenospermia, 108 in the trial group and the other 108 in the control, the former treated with Qilin Pills at the dose of 6 g tid while the latter with Wuziyanzong Pills at 6 g bid, both for 12 weeks. We examined the total sperm count, sperm motility and the count of progressively motile sperm of the patients before and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after medication and evaluated the safety of the drug based on the adverse events and the laboratory results of blood and urine routine examinations and liver and kidney function tests. Compared with the baseline, the patients in the trial group showed a significant time-dependent improvement after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication in sperm motility (21.75% vs 27.54%, 29.04% and 32.95%, P Pills can evidently improve the semen quality of oligoasthenospermia patients with no obvious adverse events.
Bom, T. van der; Winter, M.M.; Bouma, B.J.; Groenink, M.; Vliegen, H.W.; Pieper, P.G.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Sieswerda, G.T.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Mulder, B.J.
BACKGROUND: The role of angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with a systemic right ventricle has not been elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial of angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan 160 mg twice daily compared
van der Bom, Teun; Winter, Michiel M.; Bouma, Berto J.; Groenink, Maarten; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Sieswerda, Gertjan T.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.
Background-The role of angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with a systemic right ventricle has not been elucidated. Methods and Results-We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial of angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan 160 mg twice daily compared
van der Bom, Teun; Winter, Michiel M.; Bouma, Berto J.; Groenink, Maarten; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Sieswerda, Gertjan T.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.
The role of angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with a systemic right ventricle has not been elucidated. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial of angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan 160 mg twice daily compared with placebo in patients with a
Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with tumor necrosis factor a inhibitors: findings with up to five years of treatment in the multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 GO-AFTER study
Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Doyle, Mittie; Landewé, Robert; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jürgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Xu, Stephen; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who discontinued previous tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-inhibitor(s). Methods: Patients enrolled into this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of active
de Jongh, Saskia; Ose, Leiv; Szamosi, Tamás; Gagné, Claude; Lambert, M.; Scott, Russell; Perron, P.; Dobbelaere, Dries; Saborio, M.; Tuohy, Mary B.; Stepanavage, Michael; Sapre, Aditi; Gumbiner, Barry; Mercuri, Michele; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Bakker, Henk D.; Kastelein, John J. P.
Background-A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate LDL cholesterol-lowering efficacy, overall safety, and tolerability and the influence on growth and pubertal development of simvastatin in a large cohort of boys and girls with heterozygous
Furyk, Jeremy S; Chu, Kevin; Banks, Colin; Greenslade, Jaimi; Keijzers, Gerben; Thom, Ogilvie; Torpie, Tom; Dux, Carl; Narula, Rajan
We assess the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin compared with placebo as medical expulsive therapy in patients with distal ureteric stones less than or equal to 10 mm in diameter. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial of adult participants with calculus on computed tomography (CT). Patients were allocated to 0.4 mg of tamsulosin or placebo daily for 28 days. The primary outcomes were stone expulsion on CT at 28 days and time to stone expulsion. There were 403 patients randomized, 81.4% were men, and the median age was 46 years. The median stone size was 4.0 mm in the tamsulosin group and 3.7 mm in the placebo group. Of 316 patients who received CT at 28 days, stone passage occurred in 140 of 161 (87.0%) in the tamsulosin group and 127 of 155 (81.9%) with placebo, a difference of 5.0% (95% confidence interval -3.0% to 13.0%). In a prespecified subgroup analysis of large stones (5 to 10 mm), 30 of 36 (83.3%) tamsulosin participants had stone passage compared with 25 of 41 (61.0%) with placebo, a difference of 22.4% (95% confidence interval 3.1% to 41.6%) and number needed to treat of 4.5. There was no difference in urologic interventions, time to self-reported stone passage, pain, or analgesia requirements. Adverse events were generally mild and did not differ between groups. We found no benefit overall of 0.4 mg of tamsulosin daily for patients with distal ureteric calculi less than or equal to 10 mm in terms of spontaneous passage, time to stone passage, pain, or analgesia requirements. In the subgroup with large stones (5 to 10 mm), tamsulosin did increase passage and should be considered. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koll, R; Buhr, M; Dieter, R; Pabst, H; Predel, H G; Petrowicz, O; Giannetti, B; Klingenburg, S; Staiger, C
Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and tissue regenerating properties. In a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, group comparison study on patients suffering from unilateral acute ankle sprains (n = 142, mean age 31.8 years, 78.9% male), the percutaneous efficacy of an ointment of comfrey extract (Kytta-Salbe f, four treatments per day for 8 days) was confirmed decisively. Compared to placebo, the active treatment was clearly superior regarding the reduction of pain (tonometric measurement, pcomfrey.
Dalsgareth, O.J.; Gerner Hansen, Niels-Christian; Soes-Petersen, U.
(Zyban) compared with placebo as an aid to smoking cessation in health care workers. A total of 336 hospital employees who smoked at least 10 cigarettes daily were randomized (2:1) to 7 weeks of treatment with bupropion (n=222) or placebo (n=114). All participants were motivated to quit smoking......Despite changes in smoking behavior, one-third of the Danish population continues to smoke. Many of these smokers are hospital employees. This 6-month, multicenter, parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated treatment with bupropion hydrochloride sustained release...... more frequently in the bupropion group than in the placebo group. Bupropion was effective as an aid to smoking cessation in a broad group of hospital employees in Denmark....
Li, Yanqing; Cheng, Lei; Chen, Xiaoning; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Dehui
To further evaluate the efficacy and safety of a pollen blocker cream against dust-mite allergy. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was conducted in a Chinese population. Patients diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis, sensitive to dust-mite allergy including Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were randomly allocated to receive a pollen blocker cream or placebo, which was applied and spread evenly to the lower internal nose region three times daily for a total of 30 days. The primary outcome measurements for efficacy were total nasal symptom score (TNSS) and individual nasal symptom score (iNSS). Adverse events were also monitored. After application of a pollen blocker, the mean TNSS decreased from 23.1 to 13.8, the decrease of the pollen blocker group (9.3) was highly significant compared with the placebo group (5.2; p 0.05), and no severe systematic reactions were observed. Pollen Blocker is a safe and effective alternative to the drugs for treatment of AR, especially for Chinese people allergic to dust-mite allergy.
The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida as Add-On Medication in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Ineffectively Managed by Metformin Monotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial
Lian, Fengmei; Tian, Jiaxing; Chen, Xinyan; Li, Zhibin; Piao, Chunli; Guo, Junjie; Ma, Licheng; Zhao, Lijuan; Xia, Chengdong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tong, Xiaolin
Background Metformin plays an important role in diabetes treatment. Studies have shown that the combined use of oral hypoglycemic medications is more effective than metformin monotherapy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, we evaluated whether Jinlida, a Chinese herbal medicine, enhances the glycemic control of metformin in type 2 diabetes patients whose HbA1c was ineffectively controlled with metformin alone. Methods A total of 186 diabetes patients were...
van Tilburg, C W J; Stronks, D L; Groeneweg, J G; Huygen, F J P M
Investigate the effect of percutaneous radiofrequency compared to a sham procedure, applied to the ramus communicans for treatment of lumbar disc pain. Randomized sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover, multicenter clinical trial. Multidisciplinary pain centres of two general hospitals. Sixty patients aged 18 or more with medical history and physical examination suggestive for lumbar disc pain and a reduction of two or more on a numerical rating scale (0-10) after a diagnostic ramus communicans test block. Treatment group: percutaneous radiofrequency treatment applied to the ramus communicans; sham: same procedure except radiofrequency treatment. pain reduction. Secondary outcome measure: Global Perceived Effect. No statistically significant difference in pain level over time between the groups, as well as in the group was found; however, the factor period yielded a statistically significant result. In the crossover group, 11 out of 16 patients experienced a reduction in NRS of 2 or more at 1 month (no significant deviation from chance). No statistically significant difference in satisfaction over time between the groups was found. The independent factors group and period also showed no statistically significant effects. The same applies to recovery: no statistically significant effects were found. The null hypothesis of no difference in pain reduction and in Global Perceived Effect between the treatment and sham group cannot be rejected. Post hoc analysis revealed that none of the investigated parameters contributed to the prediction of a significant pain reduction. Interrupting signalling through the ramus communicans may interfere with the transition of painful information from the discs to the central nervous system. Methodological differences exist in studies evaluating the efficacy of radiofrequency treatment for lumbar disc pain. A randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial on the effect of radiofrequency at the ramus
FISHER, C. J.; DHAINAUT, J. F. A.; Opal, S. M.; Pribble, J. P.; BALK, R. A.; SLOTMAN, G. J.; IBERTI, T. J.; RACKOW, E. C.; SHAPIRO, M. J.; GREENMAN, R. L.; REINES, H. D.; SHELLY, M. P.; THOMPSON, B. W.; LABRECQUE, J. F.; Catalano, M. A.; KNAUS, W. A.; Sadoff, J. C.; ASTIZ, M.; CARPATI, C.; BONE, R. C.; FREIDMAN, B.; MURE, A. J.; BRATHWAITE, C.; SHAPIRO, E.; MELHORN, L.; TAYLOR, R.; KEEGAN, M.; OBRIEN, J.; SCHEIN, R.; PENA, M.; WASSERLOUF, M.; OROPELLO, J.; BENJAMIN, E.; DELGUIDICE, R.; EMMANUEL, G.; LIE, T.; Anderson, L.; Marshall, J.; DEMAJO, W.; ROTSTEIN, O.; FOSTER, D.; Abraham, E.; MIDDLETON, H.; Perry, C.; LEVY, H.; FRY, D. E.; SIMPSON, S. Q.; CROWELL, R. E.; Neidhart, M.; Stevens, D.; COFFMAN, T.; NARASIMHAM, N.; MERRICK, D. K.; BERGQUIST, W.; MATZEL, K. E.; HUEBLER, M.; Foulke, G. E.; ALBERTSON, T. E.; WALBY, W. F.; ALLEN, R. P.; Baughman, R.; HASSELGREN, P. O.; Fink, M. P.; FAVORITO, F.; THOMPSON, B. T.; CORBIN, R.; SHELLHORSE, G. Y.; FRAZIER, A.; White, S.; GARRARD, C.; ACOURT, C.; STORER, S.; GERVICH, D. H.; FOSHE, D.; BRASE, R.; BAGDAHN, A.; COONEY, R.; Smith, J. S.; MARTIN, L. F.; Vincent, J. L.; Friedman, G.; Berlot, G.; FLETCHER, J. R.; WILLIAMS, M. D.; WRIGHT, T. F.; Johnson, S.; FEILD, C.; WOLF, K.; MACINTYRE, N.; DUBIN, H. G.; DURKIN, M. R.; DUBIN, P. K.; STAUBACH, K. H.; FEIN, A. M.; SCHULMAN, D. B.; NIEDERMAN, M. S.; CHALFIN, D. B.; van Leeuwen, P. A. M.; Boermeester, M. A.; Schneider, A. J.; BANDER, J.; IMM, A.; BERNARD, G.; Nelson, L.; Stroud, M.; SAFCSAK, K.; CERRA, F.; RINDAL, J.; Mann, H.; HALPERN, N.; SILVERSTEIN, J.; ALICEA, M.; Sibbald, W. J.; MARTIN, C. M.; RUTLEDGE, F. S.; PETTI, K.; RUSSELL, J. A.; KRUGER, R.; DRUMMOND, A.; LANGE, P.; SEIFERT, T.; DUROCHER, A.; TENAILLON, A.; BOITEAU, R.; LHERM, T.; Lowry, S. F.; Coyle, S. M.; Barie, P. S.; DEMARIA, E.; SNYDMAN, D. R.; SCHWAITZBERG, S. D.; NASRAWAY, S. A.; GRINDLINGER, J.; SUMMER, W.; DEBOISBLANC, B.; WAHL, M.; ALESTIG, K.; GROSSMAN, J.; MAKI, D.; PAZ, H. L.; Weiner, M.; BIHARI, D.; Campbell, D.; BLEICHNER, G.; DAHN, M. S.; LANGE, M. P. A.; Hall, J.; POHLMAN, A.; WENZEL, R. P.; GROSSERODE, M.; COSTIGAN, M.; MILESKI, W.; WEIGELT, J.; YESTON, N.; IRIZARRY, C.; Ross, J.; ROBBINS, J.; NIGHTINGALE, P.; OWEN, K.; SANDSTEDT, S.; Berg, S.; SIMON, G. L.; SENEFF, M. G.; CONRY, K. M.; ZIMMERMAN, J. L.; Dellinger, R. P.; Johnston, R.; ALLEE, P.; GRANDE, P. O.; MYHRE, E.; DHAINAUT, J. F.; HAMY, I.; Mira, J. P.; HARMON, J.; White, J.; MCKIE, L.; SILVERMAN, H.; TUMA, P.; Bennett, D.; PORTER, J. C.; LAURELL, M. H.; Jacobs, S.; ASH, S.; Stiles, D. M.; PRIOR, M. J.; KNATTERUD, G.; TERRIN, M.; KUFERA, J.; WILKENS, P.; RA, K.; MONROE, L.; SPRUNG, C.; HAMILTON, C. M.; MATTHAY, R.; MCCABE, W.; TONASCIA, J.; WIEDEMAN, H.; Wittes, J.; CAMPION, G. V.; CROFT, C. R.; LUSTICK, R.; LOOKABAUGH, J.; GORDON, G. S.; NOE, L.; BLOEDOW, D.; SMITH, C. G.; BRANNON, D.; KUSH, R.; NG, D.; MOORE, E.; BAZEMORE, K.; GALVAN, M.; Wagner, D.; HARRELL, F.; STABLEIN, D.
Objective.-To further define the safety and efficacy of recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (rhlL-1ra) in the treatment of sepsis syndrome. Study Design.-Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational clinical trial. Population.-A total of 893 patients with
Yoon, So Ra; Lee, Jong Hwa; Lee, Jae Hyang; Na, Ga Yoon; Lee, Kyun-Hee; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Jung, Gu-Hun; Kim, Oh Yoen
Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) are poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates that play an important role in inducing functional gut symptoms. A low-FODMAP diet improves abdominal symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. However, there were no study for the effect of FODMAP content on gastrointestinal intolerance and nutritional status in patients receiving enteral nutrition (EN). In this randomized, multicenter, double-blind, 14-day clinical trial, eligible hospitalized patients receiving EN (n = 100) were randomly assigned to three groups; 84 patients completed the trial (low-FODMAP EN, n = 30; moderate-FODMAP EN, n = 28; high-FODMAP EN, n = 26). Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured; stool assessment was performed using the King's Stool Chart and clinical definition. Baseline values were not significantly different among the three groups. After the 14-day intervention, diarrhea significantly improved in the low-FODMAP group than in the moderate- and high-FODMAP groups (P nutritional status and facilitating prompt recovery from illness.
Full Text Available A gluten-free diet (GFD is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”, or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”. A and B diets included gluten-free (GF products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score and intestinal permeability tests (IPT, were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Thornton, Steven; Goodwin, Thomas M; Greisen, Gorm
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare barusiban with placebo in threatened preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. One hundred sixty-three women at 34-35 weeks plus 6 days, and with 6 or more contractions of 30 seconds...
Park, Eun Ah; Lee, Whal [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Doo Kyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); and others
This multi-center, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of contrast agents iohexol-380 and iohexol-350 for coronary CT angiography in healthy subjects. Volunteers were randomized to receive 420 mgI/kg of either iohexol-350 or iohexol-380 using a flow rate of 4 mL/sec. All adverse events were recorded. Two blinded readers independently reviewed the CT images and conflicting results were resolved by a third reader. Luminal attenuations (ascending aorta, left main coronary artery, and left ventricle) in Hounsfield units (HUs) and image quality on a 4-point scale were calculated. A total of 225 subjects were given contrast media (115 with iohexol-380 and 110 with iohexol-350). There was no difference in number of adverse drug reactions between groups: 75 events in 56 (48.7%) of 115 subjects in the iohexol-380 group vs. 74 events in 51 (46.4%) of 110 subjects in the iohexol-350 group (p = 0.690). No severe adverse drug reactions were recorded. Neither group showed an increase in serum creatinine. Significant differences in mean density between the groups was found in the ascending aorta: 375.8 ± 71.4 HU with iohexol-380 vs. 356.3 ± 61.5 HU with iohexol-350 (p = 0.030). No significant differences in image quality scores between both groups were observed for all three anatomic evaluations (all, p > 0.05). Iohexol-380 provides improved enhancement of the ascending aorta and similar attenuation of the coronary arteries without any increase in adverse drug reactions, as compared with iohexol-350 using an identical amount of total iodine.
Park, Eun Ah; Lee, Whal; Kang, Doo Kyoung
This multi-center, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of contrast agents iohexol-380 and iohexol-350 for coronary CT angiography in healthy subjects. Volunteers were randomized to receive 420 mgI/kg of either iohexol-350 or iohexol-380 using a flow rate of 4 mL/sec. All adverse events were recorded. Two blinded readers independently reviewed the CT images and conflicting results were resolved by a third reader. Luminal attenuations (ascending aorta, left main coronary artery, and left ventricle) in Hounsfield units (HUs) and image quality on a 4-point scale were calculated. A total of 225 subjects were given contrast media (115 with iohexol-380 and 110 with iohexol-350). There was no difference in number of adverse drug reactions between groups: 75 events in 56 (48.7%) of 115 subjects in the iohexol-380 group vs. 74 events in 51 (46.4%) of 110 subjects in the iohexol-350 group (p = 0.690). No severe adverse drug reactions were recorded. Neither group showed an increase in serum creatinine. Significant differences in mean density between the groups was found in the ascending aorta: 375.8 ± 71.4 HU with iohexol-380 vs. 356.3 ± 61.5 HU with iohexol-350 (p = 0.030). No significant differences in image quality scores between both groups were observed for all three anatomic evaluations (all, p > 0.05). Iohexol-380 provides improved enhancement of the ascending aorta and similar attenuation of the coronary arteries without any increase in adverse drug reactions, as compared with iohexol-350 using an identical amount of total iodine
Redón, Josep; Pascual-Izuel, Jose M; Rodilla, Enrique; Vicente, Antonio; Oliván, Josefina; Bonet, Josep; Torguet, Josep Pere; Calaforra, Oscar; Almirall, Jaume
The main objective was to compare the mean change in augmentation index of hypertensive patients treated with nebivolol or atenolol. Multicenter, double-blind randomized study conducted in six Spanish centers. We enrolled outpatients between the ages of 40 and 65 years with mild or moderate essential hypertension (systolic blood pressure, SBP ≥ 140 mmHg to ≤ 179 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure, DBP ≥ 90 mmHg to ≤ 109 mmHg after a 2-week run-in placebo period). Patients received nebivolol 5 mg or atenolol 50 mg once daily. At week 3, atenolol could be titrated up to 100 mg qd for non-responders. Additionally, patients not achieving normal blood pressure after 6 weeks could be treated with 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide. Follow-up visits were at 3, 6 and 10 weeks. The final study population of 138 patients (58% men; median age 52.6 years, range 40-67 years) was randomized into two groups of 69 patients each. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. At the screening visit, 69% presented with mild hypertension. Nebivolol modified the mean augmentation index to a lesser extent than atenolol after 10 weeks (mean difference 3.1%, 95% CI 0.55-5.69; p = 0.027). A higher proportion of patients in the atenolol group required a diuretic. Reductions in central aortic pressure and peripheral arterial pressure were similar for both treatment groups. The study confirms that nebivolol produces a less pronounced impact on augmentation index than atenolol.
The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida as Add-On Medication in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Ineffectively Managed by Metformin Monotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial.
Lian, Fengmei; Tian, Jiaxing; Chen, Xinyan; Li, Zhibin; Piao, Chunli; Guo, Junjie; Ma, Licheng; Zhao, Lijuan; Xia, Chengdong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tong, Xiaolin
Metformin plays an important role in diabetes treatment. Studies have shown that the combined use of oral hypoglycemic medications is more effective than metformin monotherapy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, we evaluated whether Jinlida, a Chinese herbal medicine, enhances the glycemic control of metformin in type 2 diabetes patients whose HbA1c was ineffectively controlled with metformin alone. A total of 186 diabetes patients were enrolled in this double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive either Jinlida (9 g) or the placebo TID for 12 consecutive weeks. All subjects in both groups also continuously received their metformin without any dose change. During this 12-week period, the HbA1c, FPG, 2 h PG, body weight, BMI were assessed. HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) were also evaluated. At week 12, compared to the HbA1c level from week 0, the level of the Jinlida group was reduced by 0.92 ± 1.09% and that of the placebo group was reduced by 0.53 ± 0.94%. The 95% CI was 0.69-1.14 for the Jinlida group vs. 0.34-0.72 for the placebo group. There was a very significant HbA1c reduction between the two groups after 12 weeks (p Jinlida group and placebo group were reduced from week 0. There were a very significant FG and 2 h PG level reductions between the two groups after 12 weeks (both p Jinlida group also showed improved β-cell function with a HOMA-β increase (p Jinlida significantly enhanced the hypoglycemic action of metformin when the drug was used alone. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value as an add-on medication to metformin monotherapy. Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-13003159.
Morgia, Giuseppe; Russo, Giorgio I; Voce, Salvatore; Palmieri, Fabiano; Gentile, Marcello; Giannantoni, Antonella; Blefari, Franco; Carini, Marco; Minervini, Andrea; Ginepri, Andrea; Salvia, Giuseppe; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Santelli, Giorgio; Cimino, Sebastiano; Allegro, Rosalinda; Collura, Zaira; Fragalà, Eugenia; Arnone, Salvatore; Pareo, Rosaria M
Phytotherapy has been used to treat patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy between Serenoa Repens (SeR), Lycopene (Ly), and Selenium (Se) + tamsulosin versus single therapies. PROCOMB trial (ISRCTN78639965) was a randomized double-blinded, double-dummy multicenter study of 225 patients between 55 and 80 years old, PSA ≤ 4 ng/ml, IPSS ≥12, prostate volume ≤60 cc, Qmax ≤15 ml/sec, postvoid residual urine (PVR) tamsulosin 0.4 mg), group C (SeR-Se-Ly + tamsulosin 0.4 mg). The primary endpoints of the study were the reduction of IPSS, PVR, and increase of Qmax in group C versus monotherapy groups. The decrease for combination therapy was significantly greater versus group A (P tamsulosin therapy is more effective than single therapies in improving IPSS and increasing Qmax in patients with LUTS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2b Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Recombinant Human Soluble Thrombomodulin, ART-123, in Patients With Sepsis and Suspected Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Vincent, Jean-Louis; Ramesh, Mayakonda K.; Ernest, David; Larosa, Steven P.; Pachl, Jan; Aikawa, Naoki; Hoste, Eric; Levy, Howard; Hirman, Joe; Levi, Marcel; Daga, Mradul; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J.; Crowther, Mark; Bernard, Gordon R.; Devriendt, Jacques; Puigserver, Joan Vidal; Blanzaco, Daniel U.; Esmon, Charles T.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Guzzi, Louis; Henderson, Seton J.; Pothirat, Chaicharn; Mehta, Parthiv; Fareed, Jawed; Talwar, Deepak; Tsuruta, Kazuhisa; Gorelick, Kenneth J.; Osawa, Yutaka; Kaul, Inder
Objectives: To determine the safety and efficacy of recombinant thrombomodulin (ART-123) in patients with suspected sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation. Design: Phase 2b, international, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, screening trial.
Westenberg, HGM; Stein, DJ; Yang, HC; Li, D; Barbato, LM
This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fluvoxamine in a controlled release (CR) formulation for treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). A total of 300 subjects with GSAD were randomly assigned to
Lee, Belinda T; Gabardi, Steven; Grafals, Monica; Hofmann, R Michael; Akalin, Enver; Aljanabi, Aws; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Adey, Deborah B; Heher, Eliot; Fan, Pang-Yen; Conte, Sarah; Dyer-Ward, Christine; Chandraker, Anil
BK virus reactivation in kidney transplant recipients can lead to progressive allograft injury. Reduction of immunosuppression remains the cornerstone of treatment for active BK infection. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are known to have in vitro antiviral properties, but the evidence for their use in patients with BK viremia is inconclusive. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of levofloxacin in the treatment of BK viremia. Enrollment in this prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial occurred from July 2009 to March 2012. Thirty-nine kidney transplant recipients with BK viremia were randomly assigned to receive levofloxacin, 500 mg daily, or placebo for 30 days. Immunosuppression in all patients was adjusted on the basis of standard clinical practices at each institution. Plasma BK viral load and serum creatinine were measured monthly for 3 months and at 6 months. At the 3-month follow-up, the percentage reductions in BK viral load were 70.3% and 69.1% in the levofloxacin group and the placebo group, respectively (P=0.93). The percentage reductions in BK viral load were also equivalent at 1 month (58% versus and 67.1%; P=0.47) and 6 months (82.1% versus 90.5%; P=0.38). Linear regression analysis of serum creatinine versus time showed no difference in allograft function between the two study groups during the follow-up period. A 30-day course of levofloxacin does not significantly improve BK viral load reduction or allograft function when used in addition to overall reduction of immunosuppression.
Iwata, Satoshi; Nakata, Shuji; Ukae, Susumu; Koizumi, Yoshitugu; Morita, Yasuyuki; Kuroki, Haruo; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Shizuya, Toshiyuki; Schödel, Florian; Brown, Michelle L; Lawrence, Jody
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children under 5 y of age. Estimates of disease burden in Japan suggest that between 26,500 and 78,000 children in this age group need hospitalization each year, resulting in a direct medical cost of 10 to 24 billion Yen. Since being introduced in routine infant immunization schedules in the United States in 2006, the oral live pentavalent rotavirus vaccine RV5 (RotaTeq™) has contributed to dramatic reductions in the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and in health care resource utilization. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 3-dose regimen of RV5 in healthy infants, age 6 to 12 weeks, at 32 sites across Japan. The results indicate that RV5 was significantly efficacious in preventing any severity [74.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.9%, 90.6%; pvaccine. The observed cases of RVGE included rotavirus types G1 (n=19), G3 (n=9), G9 (n=5) and one unspecified G serotype with P1A. No G2 or G4 RVGE cases were observed, and this study was not powered to evaluate efficacy against individual serotypes. RV5 was generally safe and well tolerated in Japanese infants. These results are comparable to those observed in clinical studies conducted in other developed countries. Introduction of the vaccine in Japan may reduce disease burden and associated health care costs.
Tomusiak, Anna; Strus, Magdalena; Heczko, Piotr B; Adamski, Paweł; Stefański, Grzegorz; Mikołajczyk-Cichońska, Aleksandra; Suda-Szczurek, Magdalena
The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether Lactobacillus colonization promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Altogether, 376 women were assessed for eligibility, and signed informed consent. One hundred and sixty eligible women with abnormal, also called intermediate, vaginal microflora, as indicated by a Nugent score of 4-6 and pH >4.5 and zero or low Lactobacillus count, were randomized. Each participant was examined four times during the study. Women were randomly allocated to receive either the probiotic preparation inVag(®), or a placebo (one capsule for seven consecutive days vaginally). The product inVag includes the probiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum 57A, Lactobacillus plantarum 57B, and Lactobacillus gasseri 57C. We took vaginal swabs during visits I, III, and IV to determine the presence and abundance of bacteria from the Lactobacillus genus, measure the pH, and estimate the Nugent score. Drug safety evaluation was based on analysis of the types and occurrence of adverse events. Administration of inVag contributed to a significant decrease (between visits) in both vaginal pH (Pvaginal microbiota, as demonstrated by predominance of the Lactobacillus bacteria in vaginal microbiota.
Ozono, Keiichi; Ogata, Tsutomu; Horikawa, Reiko; Matsubara, Yoichi; Ogawa, Yoshihisa; Nishijima, Keiji; Yokoya, Susumu
This randomized double-blind multicenter trial (NCT01927861) evaluated the growth-promoting effect and safety of Norditropin ® (NN220; somatropin) in Japanese children with short stature due to Noonan syndrome. Prepubertal children aged 3-Noonan syndrome were randomized to receive GH 0.033 mg/kg/day (n = 25, mean age 6.57 years, 11 females) or 0.066 mg/kg/day (n = 26, mean age 6.06 years, eight females) for 104 weeks. Change in height standard deviation score (HSDS) from baseline was analyzed based on an ANCOVA model. Baseline HSDS was -3.24. Estimated change in HSDS [95% CI] after 104 weeks' treatment was 0.84 [0.66, 1.02] and 1.47 [1.29, 1.64] for the lower and higher doses, respectively; estimated mean difference 0.63 [0.38, 0.88], p Noonan syndrome, with a favorable safety profile. The effect was greater with 0.066 mg/kg/day compared with 0.033 mg/kg/day.
Ennis, William J; Foremann, Phil; Mozen, Neal; Massey, Joi; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Meneses, Patricio
An estimated 15% of patients with diabetes will develop a foot ulcer sometime in their life, making them 30 to 40 times more likely to undergo amputation due to a non-healing foot ulcer than the non-diabetic population. To determine the safety and efficacy of a new, non-contact, kilohertz ultrasound therapy for the healing of recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers - as well as to evaluate the impact on total closure and quantitative bacterial cultures and the effect on healing of various levels of sharp/surgical debridement - a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in hospital-based and private wound care clinics. Patients (55 met criteria for efficacy analysis) received standard of care, which included products that provide a moist environment, offloading diabetic shoes and socks, debridement, wound evaluation, and measurement. The "therapy" was either active 40 KHz ultrasound delivered by a saline mist or a "sham device" which delivered a saline mist without the use of ultrasound. After 12 weeks of care, the proportion of wounds healed (defined as complete epithelialization without drainage) in the active ultrasound therapy device group was significantly higher than that in the sham control group (40.7% versus 14.3%, P = 0.0366, Fisher's exact test). The ultrasound treatment was easy to use and no difference in the number and type of adverse events between the two treatment groups was noted. Of interest, wounds were debrided at baseline followed by a quantitative culture biopsy. The results of these cultures demonstrated a significant bioburden (greater than 10(5)) in the majority of cases, despite a lack of clinical signs of infection. Compared to control, this therapeutic modality was found to increase the healing rate of recalcitrant, diabetic foot ulcers.
Gao, Jian-Wei; Gao, Xue-Min; Zou, Ting; Zhao, Tian-Meng; Wang, Dong-Hua; Wu, Zong-Gui; Ren, Chang-Jie; Wang, Xing; Geng, Nai-Zhi; Zhao, Ming-Jun; Liang, Qiu-Ming; Feng, Xing; Yang, Bai-Song; Shi, Jun-Ling; Hua, Qi
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Xinling Wan on patients with stable angina pectoris, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo parallel-controlled, multicenter clinical trial was conducted. A total of 232 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into experiment group and placebo group. The experiment group was treated with Xinling Wan (two pills each time, three times daily) for 4 weeks, and the placebo group was treated with placebo. The effectiveness evaluation showed that Xinling Wan could significantly increase the total duration of treadmill exercise among patients with stable angina pectoris. FAS analysis showed that the difference value of the total exercise duration was between experiment group (72.11±139.32) s and placebo group (31.25±108.32) s. Xinling Wan could remarkably increase the total effective rate of angina pectoris symptom score, and the analysis showed that the total effective rate was 78.95% in experiment group and 42.61% in placebo group. The reduction of nitroglycerin dose was (2.45±2.41) tablets in experiment group and (0.50±2.24) tablets in placebo group on the basis of FAS analysis. The decrease of symptom integral was (4.68±3.49) in experiment group and (3.19±3.31) in placebo group based on FAS analysis. Besides, Xinling Wan could decrease the weekly attack time and the duration of angina pectoris. PPS analysis results were similar to those of FAS analysis. In conclusion, Xinling Wan has an obvious therapeutic effect in treating stable angina pectoris, with a good safety and a low incidence of adverse event and adverse reaction in experiment group. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
A randomized double-blind phase III study of nimorazole as a hypoxic radiosensitizer of primary radiotherapy in supraglottic larynx and pharynx carcinoma. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Study (DAHANCA) Protocol 5-85
Overgaard, J; Hansen, Hanne Sand; Overgaard, Marie
A multicenter randomized and balanced double-blind trial with the objective of assessing the efficacy and tolerance of nimorazole given as a hypoxic radiosensitizer in conjunction with primary radiotherapy of invasive carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx and pharynx....
Noehren, Brian; Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Vance, Carol G T; Zimmerman, Miriam B; Crofford, Leslie J; Sluka, Kathleen A
Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition that has a significant impact on quality of life and often leads to disability. To date, there have been few well-controlled trials assessing the utility of nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in the management of pain and improvement in function in individuals with fibromyalgia. The purpose of this study will be to complete a long-term, multicenter study to assess the effects of TENS in women with fibromyalgia. This will be a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Three hundred forty-three participants with fibromyalgia will be recruited for this study. Participants will be randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: the intervention (TENS), placebo, or no treatment. After completing the randomized period, all participants will receive the intervention for 1 month. The participants will be asked to use TENS at the highest tolerable level for at least 2 hours daily during physical activity. The primary outcome will be pain with movement, with secondary outcomes assessing functional abilities, patient-reported outcomes, and quantitative sensory testing. Because having participants refrain from their typical medications is not practical, their usage and any change in medication use will be recorded. The results of this study will provide some of the first evidence from a large-scale, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effectiveness of TENS on pain control and quality-of-life changes in patients with fibromyalgia. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.
Maki, P M; Gast, M J; Vieweg, A J; Burriss, S W; Yaffe, K
To evaluate the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on cognition and subjective quality of life (QoL) in recently postmenopausal women with cognitive complaints. Cognitive Complaints in Early Menopause Trial (COGENT) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, pilot study of 180 healthy postmenopausal women aged 45 to 55 years, randomly assigned to receive either placebo or conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg/medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg for 4 months. Outcome measures included memory, subjective cognition, QoL, sexuality, and sleep, which were assessed at baseline and month 4. The study was terminated before the expected final sample size of 275 due to a decrease in enrollment coinciding with the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative. There were no differences between groups on any cognitive or QoL measures, except for an increase in sexual interest and thoughts with HT. Modest negative effects on short- and long-term verbal memory approached significance (p or=0.45, this study suggests potential modest negative effects on verbal memory that are consistent with previous hormone therapy trials in older women.
Arnold, Lesley M; Arsenault, Pierre; Huffman, Cynthia; Patrick, Jeffrey L; Messig, Michael; Chew, Marci L; Sanin, Luis; Scavone, Joseph M; Pauer, Lynne; Clair, Andrew G
Safety and efficacy of a once daily controlled-released (CR) formulation of pregabalin was evaluated in patients with fibromyalgia using a placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal design. This multicenter study included 6 week single-blind pregabalin CR treatment followed by 13 week double-blind treatment with placebo or pregabalin CR. The starting dose of 165 mg/day was escalated during the first 3 weeks, up to 495 mg/day based on efficacy and tolerability. Patients with ≥50% reduction in average daily pain score at the end of the single-blind phase were randomized to continue pregabalin CR at the optimized dose (330-495 mg/day) or to placebo. The primary endpoint was time to loss of therapeutic response (LTR), defined as treatment' (Benefit, Satisfaction, and Willingness to Continue Scale) in the pregabalin CR group; no other secondary endpoints were statistically significant. Most AEs were mild to moderate in severity (most frequent: dizziness, somnolence). The percentage of pregabalin CR patients discontinuing because of AEs was 12.2% and 4.8% in the single-blind and double-blind phases, respectively (placebo, 0%). Time to LTR was significantly longer with pregabalin CR versus placebo in fibromyalgia patients who initially showed improvement with pregabalin CR, indicating maintenance of response. Pregabalin CR was well tolerated in most patients. Generalizability may be limited by study duration and selective population.
Malay, D Scot; Pressman, Martin M; Assili, Amir; Kline, Jason T; York, Shane; Buren, Ben; Heyman, Eugene R; Borowsky, Pam; LeMay, Carley
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of recalcitrant proximal plantar fasciitis. The objective of this investigation was to compare the outcomes of participants treated with a new ESWT device with those treated with placebo. A total of 172 volunteer participants were randomized in a 2:1 active-to-placebo ratio in this prospective, double-blind, multicenter trial conducted between October 2003 and December 2004. ESWT (n=115) or placebo control (n=57) was administered on a single occasion without local or systemic anesthesia or sedation, after which follow-up was undertaken. The primary outcomes were the blind assessor's objective, and the participant's subjective assessments of heel pain during the first 3 months of follow-up. Participants were also followed up to 1 year to identify any adverse outcomes that may have been related to the shockwave device. On the visual analog scale, the blind assessor's objective assessment of heel pain displayed a mean reduction of 2.51 in the shockwave group and 1.57 in the placebo group; this difference was statistically significant (P=.045). On the visual analog scale, the participant's self-assessment of heel pain displayed a mean reduction of 3.39 in the shockwave group and 1.78 in the placebo group; this difference was statistically significant (P<.001). No serious adverse events were observed at any time. It was concluded that ESWT was both efficacious and safe for participants with chronic proximal plantar fasciitis that had been unresponsive to exhaustive conservative treatment.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the major health concerns affects the quality of life among Thai male. The treatment of ED by the first-line drugs is limited to a certain group of patients due to their side effects and costs. Alternative medicine can be beneficial for the treatment of ED. This is a randomized, double-blind, ...
The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida as Add-On Medication in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Ineffectively Managed by Metformin Monotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial.
Full Text Available Metformin plays an important role in diabetes treatment. Studies have shown that the combined use of oral hypoglycemic medications is more effective than metformin monotherapy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, we evaluated whether Jinlida, a Chinese herbal medicine, enhances the glycemic control of metformin in type 2 diabetes patients whose HbA1c was ineffectively controlled with metformin alone.A total of 186 diabetes patients were enrolled in this double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive either Jinlida (9 g or the placebo TID for 12 consecutive weeks. All subjects in both groups also continuously received their metformin without any dose change. During this 12-week period, the HbA1c, FPG, 2 h PG, body weight, BMI were assessed. HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and β-cell function (HOMA-β were also evaluated.At week 12, compared to the HbA1c level from week 0, the level of the Jinlida group was reduced by 0.92 ± 1.09% and that of the placebo group was reduced by 0.53 ± 0.94%. The 95% CI was 0.69-1.14 for the Jinlida group vs. 0.34-0.72 for the placebo group. There was a very significant HbA1c reduction between the two groups after 12 weeks (p < 0.01. Both FG and 2 h PG levels of the Jinlida group and placebo group were reduced from week 0. There were a very significant FG and 2 h PG level reductions between the two groups after 12 weeks (both p < 0.01. The Jinlida group also showed improved β-cell function with a HOMA-β increase (p < 0.05. No statistical significance was observed in the body weight and BMI changes. No serious adverse events were reported.Jinlida significantly enhanced the hypoglycemic action of metformin when the drug was used alone. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value as an add-on medication to metformin monotherapy.Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-13003159.
Weil, E H; Eerdmans, P H; Dijkman, G A; Tamussino, K; Feyereisl, J; Vierhout, M E; Schmidbauer, C; Egarter, C; Kölle, D; Plasman, J E; Heidler, H; Abbühl, B E; Wein, W
Midodrine is a potent and selective alpha1-receptor agonist and its potential to increase urethral closure pressure could be useful in the treatment of female stress incontinence. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of midodrine for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. The primary criterion of efficacy was the maximum urethral closure pressure at rest. Voiding diaries, symptom and incontinence questionnaires and patient/investigator global assessment were also used to evaluate its efficacy. After 4 weeks of treatment no significant changes in MUCP were found. The global assessment by the patient and investigator did indicate that patients on active treatment had a more positive assessment than the placebo group. In conclusion, midodrine did not cause significant improvements in urodynamic parameters, but there were subjective improvements in some of the patients in the treated groups. Furthermore midodrine was well tolerated.
Li, Nuo; Zhao, Wenbin; Xing, Jianmin; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Guangzhong; Zhang, Yunbi; Li, Yuanwen; Liu, Wali; Shi, Fei; Bai, Yanping
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal Pulian ointment in treating psoriasis vulgaris of blood-heat syndrome. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Participants with psoriasis vulgaris of blood-heat syndrome were blinded and randomized to receive Pulian ointment or placebo ointment twice daily for 4 weeks, with follow-up 8 weeks after treatment. Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores, severity of each symptom and area of skin lesion and quality of life were assessed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks. Adverse events were recorded during the study. SAS 9.4 software and SPSS 17.0 software was applied for data analysis. A total of 300 participants with psoriasis vulgaris of blood-heat syndrome were assessed for eligibility, and 294 were randomly assigned to the Pulian ointment and placebo group from six study centers. Full analysis set (FAS): after 4 weeks of treatment, there were significant differences between groups in PASI score and the separate score of skin lesion area, favoring Pulian ointment group (P 0.05). Per protocol set (PPS): There was no statistically significant difference in PASI score and separate score of each symptom and area of skin lesion between two groups (P > 0.05). Quality of life measured by Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) improved after treatment in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). After being followed up for 8 weeks, the total relapse rates of the Pulian Ointment group and placebo group were 5.88 and 8.45%, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant between the two groups (P > 0.05). No adverse event was observed in both groups throughout the study. Pulian Ointment seems effective and well tolerated in improving the
Ocak, Tarik; Tekin, Erdal; Basturk, Mustafa; Duran, Arif; Serinken, Mustafa; Emet, Mucahit
There is a lack of specificity of the analgesic agents used to treat headache and underlying acute carbon monoxide poisoning. To compare effectiveness of "oxygen alone" vs "metoclopramide plus oxygen" vs "metamizole plus oxygen" therapy in treating carbon monoxide-induced headache. A prospective, multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial. Three emergency departments in Turkey. Adult carbon monoxide poisoning patients with headache. A total of 117 carbon monoxide-intoxicated patients with headache were randomized into 3 groups and assessed at baseline, 30 minutes, 90 minutes, and 4 hours. The primary outcome was patient-reported improvement rates for headache. Secondary end points included nausea, need for rescue medication during treatment, and reduction in carboxyhemoglobin levels. During observation, there was no statistical difference between drug type and visual analog scale score change at 30 minutes, 90 minutes, or 4 hours, for either headache or nausea. No rescue medication was needed during the study period. The reduction in carboxyhemoglobin levels did not differ among the 3 groups. The use of "oxygen alone" is as efficacious as "oxygen plus metoclopramide" or "oxygen plus metamizole sodium" in the treatment of carbon monoxide-induced headache. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone) for moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain treatment.
Rauck, Richard L; Hale, Martin E; Bass, Almasa; Bramson, Candace; Pixton, Glenn; Wilson, Jacquelyn G; Setnik, Beatrice; Meisner, Paul; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Malhotra, Bimal K; Wolfram, Gernot
The objective of this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent formulation containing pellets of extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride (HCl) surrounding sequestered naltrexone HCl, compared with placebo in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. An open-label titration period in which all patients received ALO-02 was followed by a double-blind treatment period where patients meeting treatment response criteria were randomized to either a fixed dose of ALO-02 or placebo. Daily average low back pain was assessed using an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS)-Pain. Of the 663 patients screened, 410 received ALO-02 during the open-label conversion and titration period and 281 patients were randomized to the double-blind treatment period (n = 134, placebo; n = 147, ALO-02). Change in the mean NRS-Pain score from randomization baseline to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period was significantly different favoring ALO-02 compared with placebo (P = 0.0114). Forty-four percent of patients treated with placebo and 57.5% of patients treated with ALO-02 reported ≥30% improvement in weekly average NRS-Pain scores from screening to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period (P = 0.0248). In the double-blind treatment period, 56.8% of patients in the ALO-02 group and 56.0% of patients in the placebo group experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). The most common treatment-related TEAEs for ALO-02 during the treatment period were nausea, vomiting, and constipation, consistent with opioid therapy. ALO-02 has been demonstrated to provide significant reduction of pain in patients with chronic low back pain and has a safety profile similar to other opioids.
Hameeteman, W.; v d Boomgaard, D. M.; Dekker, W.; Schrijver, M.; Wesdorp, I. C.; Tytgat, G. N.
A single-blind randomized multicenter study was performed in 42 patients with endoscopically documented reflux esophagitis. Patients were randomly given 400 mg cimetidine q.i.d. or a suspension of 1 g sucralfate q.i.d. for a period of 8 weeks. Forty patients were evaluated after 8 weeks. Symptomatic
Chang, Jing; Dong, Shou-Jin; She, Bin; Zhang, Rui-Ming; Meng, Mao-Bin; Xu, Yan-Ling; Wan, Li-Ling; Shi, Ke-Hua; Pan, Jun-Hun; Mao, Bing
This study was designed to determine the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the Shi-cha capsule, a Chinese herbal formula, in the treatment of patients with wind-cold type common cold. In our multi-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial, patients with wind-cold type common cold received 0.6 g of Shi-cha capsule plus 0.6 g placebo (group A), 1.2 g of Shi-cha capsule (group B), or 1.2 g placebo (group C), three times daily for 3 days and followed up to 10 days. The primary end point was all symptom duration. The secondary end points were main symptom duration, minor symptom duration, the changes in cumulative symptom score, main symptom score, and minor symptom score 4 days after the treatment, as well as adverse events. A total of 377 patients were recruited and 360 met the inclusive criteria; 120 patients constituted each treatment group. Compared with patients in group C, patients in groups A and B had significant improvement in the all symptom duration, main symptom duration, minor symptom duration, as well as change from baseline of cumulative symptom score, main symptom score, and minor symptom score at day 4. The symptom durations and scores showed slight superiority of group B over group A, although these differences were not statistically significant. There were no differences in adverse events. The Shi-cha capsule is efficacious and safe for the treatment of patients with wind-cold type common cold. Larger trials are required to fully assess the benefits and safety of this treatment for common cold. PMID:23346193
Gottrup, F.; Jorgensen, B.; Karlsmark, T.
Six out of 10 patients with chronic wounds suffer from persistent wound pain. A multinational and multicenter randomized double-blind clinical investigation of 122 patients compared two moist wound healing dressings: a nonadhesive foam dressing with ibuprofen (62 patients randomized to Biatain Ibu...... Nonadhesive Coloplast A/S) and a nonadhesive foam without ibuprofen (60 patients to Biatain Non-Adhesive-comparator). Patients were recruited from September 2005 to April 2006. The ibuprofen foam was considered successful if the pain relief on a five-point Verbal Rating Scale was higher than the comparator...... higher in the ibuprofen-foam group, as compared with the comparator on day 1-5, with a quick onset of action (p ibuprofen foam during day 1-5 with 40% from baseline, compared with 30% with the comparator (p
Stern, Matthew B; Marek, Kenneth L; Friedman, Joseph; Hauser, Robert A; LeWitt, Peter A; Tarsy, Daniel; Olanow, C Warren
Rasagiline (N-propargyl-1(R)-aminoindan) mesylate is a potent, selective, and irreversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor. This study was designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of rasagiline monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease (PD) patients not receiving levodopa. The study was performed as a multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 10-week study. Fifty-six PD patients were randomly assigned to rasagiline mesylate 1, 2, or 4 mg once daily, or placebo. A 3-week dose-escalation period was followed by a 7-week maintenance phase. At week 10, the mean (+/-SE) changes from baseline in total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score were -1.8 (+/-1.3), -3.6 (+/-1.7), -3.6 (+/-1.2), and -0.5 (+/-0.8) in the rasagiline 1, 2, and 4 mg/day and placebo groups, respectively. Analysis of responders showed that 28% of patients (12 of 43) receiving rasagiline had an improvement in total UPDRS score of greater than 30%, compared with none of the patients receiving placebo (P rasagiline-treated and placebo-treated patients were similar. These results suggest that rasagiline monotherapy is well tolerated and efficacious in early PD. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society
Morin-Papunen, Laure; Rantala, Anni S; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Tiitinen, Aila; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Perheentupa, Antti; Tinkanen, Helena; Bloigu, Risto; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Tapanainen, Juha S
The role of metformin in the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still controversial. OBJECTIVE AND OUTCOMES: We investigated whether metformin decreases the early miscarriage rate and improves the pregnancy rates (PR) and live-birth rates (LBR) in PCOS. This was a multicenter, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Three hundred twenty women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility were randomized to metformin (n = 160, Diformin; obese women, 1000 mg two times daily; nonobese subjects, 500 mg + 1000 mg daily) or identical doses of placebo (n = 160). After 3 months' treatment, another appropriate infertility treatment was combined if necessary. If pregnancy occurred, metformin/placebo was continued up to the 12th week. Miscarriage rates were low and similar in the two groups (metformin 15.2% vs. placebo 17.9%, P = 0.8). Intent-to-treat analysis showed that metformin significantly improved PR and LBR (vs. placebo) in the whole study population (PR: 53.6 vs. 40.4%, P = 0.006; LBR: 41.9 vs. 28.8%, P = 0.014) and PR in obese women (49.0 vs. 31.4%, P = 0.04), and there was a similar trend in nonobese (PR: 58.6 vs. 47.6%, P = 0.09; LBR: 46.7 vs. 34.5%, P = 0.09) and in obese women with regard to LBR (35.7 vs. 21.9%, P = 0.07). Cox regression analysis showed that metformin plus standard infertility treatment increased the chance of pregnancy 1.6 times (hazard rate 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.27). Obese women especially seem to benefit from 3 months' pretreatment with metformin and its combination thereafter with routine ovulation induction in anovulatory infertility.
Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara
Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…
Milnacipran and venlafaxine at flexible doses (up to 200 mg/day) in the outpatient treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder: a 24-week randomized, double-blind exploratory study
Jean-Pierre Olié1, David Gourion2, Agnès Montagne3, Michel Rostin4, Marie-France Poirier11Service de Santé Mentale et Thérapeutique, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Paris, France; 217 rue des Marronniers, 75016 Paris, France; 3Pierre Fabre Médicament, Labège, France; 4Pierre Fabre Médicament, Castres, FranceAbstract: The objective of this exploratory, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study, was to evaluate the e...
Li, Ruo Yu; Wang, A P; Xu, J H; Xi, L Y; Fu, M H; Zhu, M; Xu, M L; Li, X Q; Lai, W; Liu, W D; Lu, X Y; Gong, Z Q
Superficial fungal skin infections are treated using topical antifungals. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a single application of 1 % terbinafine film-forming solution (FFS) versus placebo for the treatment of tinea pedis in the Chinese population. Six centers in China randomized 290 patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 1 % terbinafine FFS or FFS vehicle (placebo) once on the affected foot/feet. Efficacy assessments included microscopy and mycologic culture, and assessing clinical signs and symptoms at baseline, and at weeks 1 and 6 after the topical treatment. All adverse events were recorded. At week 6, 1 % terbinafine FFS was superior to placebo for effective treatment rate (63 vs. 8 %); clinical cure (30 vs. 6 %); mycological cure (86 vs. 12 %); negative microscopy (90 vs. 24 %); and negative mycological culture (90 vs. 27 %): all p ≤ 0.001 and clinically relevant. At week 6, 1 % terbinafine FFS was clinically superior to placebo for the absence of: erythema (69 vs. 29 %); desquamation (33 vs. 8 %); and pruritus (70 vs. 30 %): all p ≤ 0.001 and clinically relevant. At week 6, differences in the average total signs and symptoms scores were significantly lower for 1 % terbinafine FFS versus placebo (p ≤ 0.001). Both 1 % terbinafine FFS and placebo were safe and well tolerated based on adverse events and investigator and patient assessments. This double-blind, randomized, multicenter study demonstrated one single topical application of 1 % terbinafine FFS was safe and effective in the treatment of tinea pedis in the Chinese population.
Sanoff, Hanna K; Goldberg, Richard M; Ivanova, Anastasia; O'Reilly, Seamus; Kasbari, Samer S; Kim, Richard D; McDermott, Ray; Moore, Dominic T; Zamboni, William; Grogan, William; Cohn, Allen Lee; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios S; Leonard, Gregory; Ryan, Theresa; Olowokure, Olugbenga O; Fernando, Nishan H; McCaffrey, John; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Horgan, Anne M; Sherrill, Gary Bradley; Yacoub, George Hosni; O'Neil, Bert H
Regorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor that inhibits angiogenesis, growth, and proliferation, prolongs survival as monotherapy in patients with refractory colorectal cancer. This international, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial assessed the efficacy of regorafenib with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) as a second-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who progressed on first-line oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine enrolled at 45 sites in the United States and Ireland. Patients, stratified by prior bevacizumab use, were randomized 2:1 to regorafenib or placebo. The treatment consisted of FOLFIRI on days 1 and 2 and days 15 and 16 with 160 mg of regorafenib or placebo on days 4 to 10 and days 18 to 24 of every 28-day cycle. Crossover was not allowed. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Under the assumption of a 75% event rate, 180 patients were required for 135 events to achieve 90% power to detect a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.65 with a 1-sided α value of .1. One hundred eighty-one patients were randomized (120 to regorafenib-FOLFIRI and 61 to placebo-FOLFIRI) with a median age of 62 years. Among these, 117 (65%) received prior bevacizumab or aflibercept. PFS was longer with regorafenib-FOLFIRI than placebo-FOLFIRI (median, 6.1 vs 5.3 months; HR, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-1.01; log-rank P = .056). The median overall survival was not longer (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.71-1.44). The response rate was higher with regorafenib-FOLFIRI (34%; 95% CI, 25%-44%) than placebo-FOLFIRI (21%; 95% CI, 11%-33%; P = .07). Grade 3/4 adverse events with a >5% absolute increase from regorafenib included diarrhea, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, hypophosphatemia, and hypertension. The addition of regorafenib to FOLFIRI as second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer only modestly prolonged PFS over FOLFIRI alone. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer
Pujadas, M. C.; Camacho, C.; Guasp, M.; Villaescusa, J. I.
In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) subjects and researchers do not know the assignment to treatment groups to ovoid the appearance of subjective biases of information. The employment of radiopharmaceuticals in double-blind RCTs raises a dilemma from the point ov view of the radiological protection. On the one hand, the obligation to act in cases of contamination and/or risk of irradiation exists, but on the other hand the duty of keeping the blind study also exists. In this paper some of the possible problems that arise when conducting a double-blind RCT with radiopharmaceuticals from the point of view of the radiological protection are presented. We comment our experience with the radiopharmaceutical Alpharadin and, in addition, we propose useful recommendations based on the randomness of the decontamination process. (Author) 7 refs.
den Heijer, P; Vermeer, F; Ambrosioni, E; Sadowski, Z; Lopez-Sendon, JL; von Essen, R; Beaufils, P; Thadani, U; Adgey, J; Pierard, L; Brinker, J; Davies, RF; Smalling, RW; Wallentin, L; Caspi, A; Pangerl, A; Trickett, L; Hauck, C; Henry, D; Chew, P
Background-Lanoteplase (nPA) is a rationally designed variant of tissue plasminogen activator with greater fibrinolytic potency and slower plasma clearance than alteplase. Methods and Results-InTIME (Intravenous nPA for Treatment of Infarcting Myocardium Early), a multicenter, double-blind,
Cohen, Lawrence B; Cattau, Edward; Goetsch, Allen; Shah, Atul; Weber, John R; Rex, Douglas K; Kline, Jacqueline M
This double-blind, multicenter study evaluated the safety and efficacy of intravenous fospropofol (6.5 mg/kg vs. 2 mg/kg) for moderate sedation in patients undergoing colonoscopy. In all, 314 patients >or=18 years (American Society of Anesthesiologists PS1 to PS3) were randomized to receive fospropofol 2 mg/kg, fospropofol 6.5- mg/kg, or midazolam 0.02 mg/kg, after pretreatment with intravenous fentanyl 50 mcg. Supplemental doses of study medication were permitted to achieve a Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale score sedation success, recovery, memory retention, physician satisfaction, and safety. Sedation success was higher in the fospropofol 6.5 mg/kg versus 2 mg/kg group (87% vs. 26%; Pmemory retention (70% and 82% for the 6.5 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg groups, respectively) compared with 41% for the midazolam group. Mean physician satisfaction scores were higher in the fospropofol 6.5-mg/kg group (7.7) than the 2-mg/kg group (4.5), Psedation during colonoscopy and was associated with higher rates of sedation success, memory retention, and physician satisfaction than the fospropofol 2-mg/kg dose.
Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Fearon, Frank J.
Objective: To investigate the effect of noxious level electrical stimulation on pain, grip strength and functional abilities in subjects with chronic lateral epicondylitis. Design: Randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study. Setting: Physical Therapy Department, North Georgia College and
de Waal, Yvonne C. M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Winkel, Edwin G.; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan
Aim The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to study the effect of implant surface decontamination with chlorhexidine (CHX)/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) on microbiological and clinical parameters. Material & Methods Thirty patients (79 implants) with
de Waal, Yvonne C.M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Huddleston Slater, James J R; Meijer, Hendrikus; Winkel, Edwin G; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan
AIM: The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to study the effect of implant surface decontamination with chlorhexidine (CHX)/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) on microbiological and clinical parameters. MATERIAL & METHODS: Thirty patients (79 implants) with
Lansoprazole for secondary prevention of gastric or duodenal ulcers associated with long-term low-dose aspirin therapy: results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, active-controlled trial.
Sugano, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Itabashi, Tsukasa; Abe, Sumihisa; Sakaki, Nobuhiro; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Chiba, Tsutomu; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Uemura, Naomi; Hiramatsu, Naoki
The efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole has not been established for the prevention of recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcers in those receiving long-term low-dose aspirin (LDA) for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection. This study sought to examine the efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole (15 mg once daily) for the secondary prevention of LDA-associated gastric or duodenal ulcers. Patients were randomized to receive lansoprazole 15 mg daily (n = 226) or gefarnate 50 mg twice daily (n = 235) for 12 months or longer in a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized active-controlled trial, followed by a 6-month follow-up study with open-label lansoprazole treatment. The study utilized 94 sites in Japan and 461 Japanese patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. The primary endpoint was the development of gastric or duodenal ulcers. The cumulative incidence of gastric or duodenal ulcers on days 91, 181, and 361 from the start of the study was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method as 1.5, 2.1, and 3.7%, respectively, in the lansoprazole group versus 15.2, 24.0, and 31.7%, respectively, in the gefarnate group. The risk of ulcer development was significantly (log-rank test, P lansoprazole group than in the gefarnate group, with the hazard ratio being 0.099 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.042-0.230). Lansoprazole was superior to gefarnate in reducing the risk of gastric or duodenal ulcer recurrence in patients with a definite history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy.
Gilbert, Donald L.; Batterson, J. Robert; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sallee, Floyd R.
Objective: To compare the tic suppression, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, weight gain, and side effect profiles of pimozide versus risperidone in children and adolescents with tic disorders. Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover (evaluable patient analysis) study. Nineteen children aged 7 to 17 years with Tourette's or chronic…
Koike, Haruki; Akiyama, Kazuo; Saito, Toyokazu; Sobue, Gen
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), previously called Churg-Strauss syndrome, frequently affects the peripheral nervous system. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, three-arm treatment period, randomized, pre-post trial to assess the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) administration for residual peripheral neuropathy in patients with EGPA that is in remission, indicated by laboratory indices. Twenty-three patients were randomly assigned into three groups, in which the timing of IVIg and placebo administration was different. Each group received one course of intervention and two courses of placebo at 2-week intervals. Treatment effects were assessed every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure, the amount of change in the manual muscle testing sum score 2 weeks after IVIg administration, significantly increased (p = 0.002). The results over time suggested that this effect continued until the last assessment was done 8 weeks later. The number of muscles with manual muscle testing scores of three or less (p = 0.004) and the neuropathic pain scores represented by the visual analogue scale (p = 0.005) also improved significantly 2 weeks after IVIg administration. This study indicates that IVIg treatment for EGPA patients with residual peripheral neuropathy should be considered even when laboratory indices suggest remission of the disease.
Han, Seung Beom; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Hye Jo; Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young Youn; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Dong Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho; Kang, Jin Han
A new reduced-dose tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine was developed in Korea, and phase I and II clinical trials were successfully undertaken. We conducted this double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase III clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the new Td vaccine. Healthy adolescents 11-12 years of age were enrolled and randomized to receive the new Td vaccine (study group) or a commercially available Td vaccine (control group). Blood samples were collected prior to and 4 weeks after the vaccination. Between the study and control groups, seroprotection rate, booster response, and geometric mean titer of antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were compared after the vaccination. All solicited and unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events during the 6-week study period were monitored. A total of 164 adolescents received vaccination, and 156 of them were evaluated to assess immunogenicity. The seroprotection rate and geometric mean titer for antibodies against diphtheria were significantly higher in the study group, whereas those against tetanus were significantly higher in the control group. However, all seroprotection rates against diphtheria and tetanus in the study and control groups were high: 100% against diphtheria and tetanus in the study group, and 98.7% against diphtheria and 100% against tetanus in the control group. No significant differences in the frequency of solicited and unsolicited adverse events were observed between the two vaccine groups. The new Td vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe, and this new Td vaccine can be effectively used for preventing diphtheria and tetanus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Munasinghe, Sujeeva A.; Oliff, Carolyn; Finn, Judith; Wray, John A.
To examine the effects of a digestive enzyme supplement in improving expressive language, behaviour and other symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial using crossover design over 6 months for 43 children, aged 3-8 years. Outcome measurement tools included monthly Global Behaviour Rating…
Wejse, Christian; Gomes, Victor F; Rabna, Paulo
RATIONALE: Vitamin D has been shown to be involved in the host immune response toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: To test whether vitamin D supplementation of patients with tuberculosis (TB) improved clinical outcome and reduced mortality. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind...
Yingli Zhang; Huan Yang; Shichang Yang; Wei Liang; Ping Dai; Changhong Wang; Yalin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety of short-term and long-term use of antidepres-sants in the treatment of bipolar disorder. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of randomized, double-blind, control ed trials published until December 2012 was performed using the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Control ed Trials databases. The keywords“bipolar disorder, bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, cyclothymia, mixed mania and depression, rapid cycling and bipolar disorder”, AND “antidepressant agent, antidepressive agents second-generation, antidepressive agents tricyclic, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, noradrenaline uptake in-hibitor, serotonin uptake inhibitor, and tricyclic antidepressant agent” were used. The studies that were listed in the reference list of the published papers but were not retrieved in the above-mentioned databases were supplemented. STUDY SELECTION: Studies selected were double-blind randomized control ed trials assessing the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in patients with bipolar disorder. Al participants were aged 18 years or older, and were diagnosed as having primary bipolar disorder. Antidepressants or antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers were used in experimental interventions. Placebos, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics and other antide pressants were used in the control interventions. Studies that were quasi-randomized studies, or used antidepressants in combination with antipsy-chotics in the experimental group were excluded. Al analyses were conducted using Review Man-ager 5.1 provided by the Cochrane Col aboration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was the response and switching to mania. The secondary outcomes included remission, discontinuation rate, and suicidality. RESULTS: Among 5 001 treatment studies published, 14 double-blind randomized control ed trials involving 1 244 patients were included in the meta
Full Text Available Yan Jiang,1,* Zhen-Lin Zhang,2,* Zhong-Lan Zhang,3 Han-Min Zhu,4 Yi-Yong Wu,5 Qun Cheng,4 Feng-Li Wu,5 Xiao-Ping Xing,1 Jian-Li Liu,3 Wei Yu,6 Xun-Wu Meng11Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 2Metabolic Bone Disease and Genetic Research Unit, Department of Osteoporosis and Bone Disease, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army, Beijing, 4Department of Geriatrics, Shanghai Huadong Hospital, Shanghai, 5Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Beijing Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Beijing, 6Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To evaluate whether the efficacy and safety of menatetrenone for the treatment of osteoporosis is noninferior to alfacalcidol in Chinese postmenopausal women.Method: This multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, noninferiority, positive drug-controlled clinical trial was conducted in five Chinese sites. Eligible Chinese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (N=236 were randomized to Group M or Group A and received menatetrenone 45 mg/day or alfacalcidol 0.5 µg/day, respectively, for 1 year. Additionally, all patients received calcium 500 mg/day. Posttreatment bone mineral density (BMD, new fracture onsets, and serum osteocalcin (OC and undercarboxylated OC (ucOC levels were compared with the baseline value in patients of both groups.Results: A total of 213 patients (90.3% completed the study. After 1 year of treatment, BMD among patients in Group M significantly increased from baseline by 1.2% and 2.7% at the lumbar spine and trochanter, respectively (P<0.001; and the percentage increase of BMD in Group A was 2
Han, Seung Beom; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Hye Jo; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Park, Joon Soo; Kim, Hwang Min; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Dong Ho; Choi, Young Youn; Cha, Sung-Ho; Hong, Young Jin; Kang, Jin Han
A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, active-control phase III clinical trial was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine. Korean children between the ages of 6 months and 18 y were enrolled and randomized into a study (study vaccine) or a control vaccine group (commercially available trivalent, inactivated split influenza vaccine) in a 5:1 ratio. Antibody responses were determined using hemagglutination inhibition assay, and post-vaccination immunogenicity was assessed based on seroconversion and seroprotection rates. For safety assessment, solicited local and systemic adverse events up to 28 d after vaccination and unsolicited adverse events up to 6 months after vaccination were evaluated. Immunogenicity was assessed in 337 and 68 children of the study and control groups. In the study vaccine group, seroconversion rates against influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B strains were 62.0% (95% CI: 56.8-67.2), 53.4% (95% CI: 48.1-58.7), and 54.9% (95% CI: 48.1-60.2), respectively. The corresponding seroprotection rates were 95.0% (95% CI: 92.6-97.3), 93.8% (95% CI: 91.2-96.4), and 95.3% (95% CI: 93.0-97.5). The lower 95% CI limits of the seroconversion and seroprotection rates were over 40% and 70%, respectively, against all strains. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates were not significantly different between the study and control vaccine groups. Furthermore, the frequencies of adverse events were not significantly different between the 2 vaccine groups, and no serious vaccination-related adverse events were noted. In conclusion, the study vaccine exhibited substantial immunogenicity and safety in Korean children and is expected to be clinically effective.
Tagarro, Alfredo; Otheo, Enrique; Baquero-Artigao, Fernando; Navarro, María-Luisa; Velasco, Rosa; Ruiz, Marta; Penín, María; Moreno, David; Rojo, Pablo; Madero, Rosario
To assess whether dexamethasone (DXM) decreases the time to recovery in patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion. This was a multicenter, randomized, double blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 60 children, ranging in age from 1 month to 14 years, with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pleural effusion. Patients received either intravenous DXM (0.25?mg/kg/dose) or placebo every 6 hours over a period of 48 hours, along with antibiotics. The primary endpoint was the time to recovery in hours, defined objectively. We also evaluated complications and adverse events. Among the 60 randomized patients (mean age, 4.7 years; 58% female), 57 (95%) completed the study. Compared with placebo recipients, the patients receiving DXM had a shorter time to recovery, after adjustment by severity group and stratification by center (hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.10-3.45; P?=?.021). The median time to recovery for patients receiving DXM was 68 hours (2.8 days) shorter than patients receiving placebo (109 hours vs 177 hours; P?=?.037). In exploratory subgroup analysis, the median time to recovery for patients with simple effusion receiving DXM was 76 hours (3.1 days) shorter than for patients with simple effusion receiving placebo (P?=?.017). The median time to recovery for patients with complicated effusion receiving DXM was 14 hours (0.5 days) shorter than for patients with complicated effusion receiving placebo (P?=?.66). The difference in the effect of DXM in the 2 severity groups was not statistically significant (P?=?.138 for interaction). There were no significant differences in complications or adverse events attributable to the study drugs, except for hyperglycemia. In this trial, DXM seemed to be a safe and effective adjunctive therapy for parapneumonic pleural effusion. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01261546. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miller, I; Lynggaard, C D; Lophaven, S
BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has an impact on patients' quality of life. Treatment of HS is generally unsatisfactory, thus new treatments are needed. OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of adalimumab in HS. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled,......BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has an impact on patients' quality of life. Treatment of HS is generally unsatisfactory, thus new treatments are needed. OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of adalimumab in HS. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo......-controlled, two-centre clinical trial conducted in Denmark. Inclusion criteria were age above 18 years and a clinical diagnosis of moderate to severe HS defined as Hurley stage II or III for at least 6 months. The patients were randomized 1:2 (placebo/active). Actively treated patients received adalimumab 80 mg...... subcutaneously (s.c.) at baseline followed by 40 mg s.c. every other week for 12 weeks. Placebo-treated patients received identical-looking injections with no active ingredient. The medicine was dispensed in sequentially numbered computer-randomized containers. Participants, care givers and those assessing...
Efficacy and safety of single injection of cross-linked sodium hyaluronate vs. three injections of high molecular weight sodium hyaluronate for osteoarthritis of the knee: a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, non-inferiority study.
Ha, Chul-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Choi, Chong-Hyuk; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Lee, Ju-Hong; Yoo, Jae Doo; Yoo, Ju-Hyung; Choi, Choong-Hyeok; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Hee-Chun; Oh, Kwang-Jun; Bin, Seong-Il; Lee, Myung Chul
This randomized, double-blind, multi-center, non-inferiority trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a cross-linked hyaluronate (XLHA, single injection form) compared with a linear high molecular hyaluronate (HMWHA, thrice injection form) in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Two hundred eighty seven patients with osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade I to III) were randomized to each group. Three weekly injections were given in both groups but two times of saline injections preceded XLHA injection to maintain double-blindness. Primary endpoint was the change of weight-bearing pain (WBP) at 12 weeks after the last injection. Secondary endpoints included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index; patient's and investigator's global assessment; pain at rest, at night, or in motion; OMERACT-OARSI responder rate; proportion of patients achieving at least 20 mm or 40% decrease in WBP; and rate of rescue medicine use and its total consumption. Mean changes of WBP at 12 weeks after the last injection were -33.3 mm with XLHA and -29.2 mm with HMWHA, proving non-inferiority of XLHA to HMWHA as the lower bound of 95% CI (-1.9 mm, 10.1 mm) was well above the predefined margin (-10 mm). There were no significant between-group differences in all secondary endpoints. Injection site pain was the most common adverse event and no remarkable safety issue was identified. This study demonstrated that a single injection of XLHA was non-inferior to three weekly injections of HMWHA in terms of WBP reduction, and supports XLHA as an effective and safe treatment for knee osteoarthritis. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01510535 ). This trial was registered on January 6, 2012.
David H. Adams
Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that long-term treatment with pomaglumetad methionil would demonstrate significantly less weight gain than aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia. In this 24-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 study, 678 schizophrenia patients were randomized to either pomaglumetad methionil (n=516 or aripiprazole (n=162. Treatment groups were also compared on efficacy and various safety measures, including serious adverse events (SAEs, discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS, and suicide-related thoughts and behaviors. The pomaglumetad methionil group showed significantly greater weight loss at Week 24 (Visit 12 compared with the aripiprazole group (−2.8 ± 0.4 versus 0.4 ± 0.6; P<0.001. However, change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total scores for aripiprazole was significantly greater than for pomaglumetad methionil (−15.58 ± 1.58 versus −12.03 ± 0.99; P=0.045. The incidences of SAEs (8.2% versus 3.1%; P=0.032 and discontinuation due to AEs (16.2% versus 8.7%; P=0.020 were significantly higher for pomaglumetad methionil compared with aripiprazole. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of TEAEs, EPS, or suicidal ideation or behavior were noted between treatment groups. In conclusion, long-term treatment with pomaglumetad methionil resulted in significantly less weight gain than aripiprazole. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01328093.
Hannemann, Pascal; Göttgens, Kevin W A; van Wely, Bob J; Kolkman, Karel A; Werre, Andries J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G
The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences.Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning).Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory.Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional
Full Text Available Abstract Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%, non-union (5-21% and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32% which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning. Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation
Lansoprazole for secondary prevention of gastric or duodenal ulcers associated with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy: results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, active-controlled trial.
Sugano, Kentaro; Kontani, Teiji; Katsuo, Shinichi; Takei, Yoshinori; Sakaki, Nobuhiro; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Asaka, Masahiro; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Soen, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Hiraishi, Hideyuki; Hiramatsu, Naoki
Low-dose lansoprazole has not been intensively evaluated for its efficacy in the prevention of recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcers in patients receiving long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy for pain relief in such diseases as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and low back pain. This multi-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled study involving 99 sites in Japan was designed to compare the efficacy of lansoprazole (15 mg daily) with gefarnate (50 mg twice daily). Patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term NSAID therapy were randomized to receive lansoprazole 15 mg daily (n = 185) or gefarnate 50 mg twice daily (n = 181) and followed up for 12 months or longer prospectively. The cumulative incidence of gastric or duodenal ulcer at days 91, 181, and 361 from the start of the study was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method as 3.3, 5.9, and 12.7%, respectively, in the lansoprazole group versus 18.7, 28.5, and 36.9%, respectively, in the gefarnate group. The risk for ulcer development was significantly (log-rank test, P lansoprazole group than in the gefarnate group, with the hazard ratio being 0.2510 (95% CI 0.1400-0.4499). A long-term follow-up study showed an acceptable safety profile for low-dose lansoprazole therapy, with diarrhea as the most frequent adverse event. Lansoprazole was superior to gefarnate in reducing the risk of gastric or duodenal ulcer recurrence in patients with a definite history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term NSAID therapy.
Kawashima, Makoto; Sato, Shinichi; Furukawa, Fukumi; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Igarashi, Atsuyuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nagare, Toshitaka; Katsuramaki, Tsuneo
A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative, multicenter study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gel, administrated once daily for 12 weeks to Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. Efficacy was evaluated by counting all inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Safety was evaluated based on adverse events, local skin tolerability scores and laboratory test values. All 609 subjects were randomly assigned to receive the study products (2.5% and 5% BPO and placebo), and 607 subjects were included in the full analysis set, 544 in the per protocol set and 609 in the safety analyses. The median rates of reduction from baseline to the last evaluation of the inflammatory lesion counts, the primary end-point, in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 72.7% and 75.0%, respectively, and were significantly higher than that in the placebo group (41.7%). No deaths or other serious adverse events were observed. The incidences of adverse events in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 56.4% and 58.8%, respectively; a higher incidence than in the placebo group, but there was no obvious difference between the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups. All adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Most adverse events did not lead to study product discontinuation. The results suggested that both 2.5% and 5% BPO are useful for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Peura, David A; Traxler, Barry; Kocun, Christopher; Lind, Tore
To determine the efficacy of a 14-day regimen of esomeprazole 20 mg for the treatment of frequent heartburn in subjects who are likely to self-treat with over-the-counter medications without consulting a health care provider. Adults with frequent heartburn ≥ 2 days per week in the past 4 weeks were randomly assigned to 14-day double-blind treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg once daily or placebo in 2 identical multicenter studies (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01370525, NCT01370538). The primary efficacy outcome was percentage of heartburn-free 24-hour days across 14 days. Secondary efficacy outcomes included heartburn resolution, defined as heartburn ≤ 2 days over 14 days, and percentages of subjects reporting ≤ 1 day with heartburn in the first and final weeks of treatment. Subjects recorded data in daily self-assessment diaries. The percentage of heartburn-free 24-hour days over 14 days was significantly higher (P heartburn resolution over 14 days and in the first and final weeks compared with placebo. Within the first 4 days, the proportion of subjects with heartburn-free days was significantly greater with esomeprazole 20 mg versus placebo. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with a safety pattern consistent with the known profile for esomeprazole. A 14-day regimen of esomeprazole 20 mg once daily was effective for treating frequent heartburn in subjects who are likely to self-treat with over-the-counter medications.
Novel sublingual low-dose zolpidem tablet reduces latency to sleep onset following spontaneous middle-of-the-night awakening in insomnia in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, outpatient study.
Roth, Thomas; Krystal, Andrew; Steinberg, Frank J; Singh, Nikhilesh N; Moline, Margaret
To evaluate efficacy and safety of 3.5-mg zolpidem tartrate sublingual tablets (ZST) on latency to sleep onset after middle-of-the-night (MOTN) awakenings in patients with insomnia characterized by difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings. Multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group. Outpatient. There were 295 adults (median age 43 y; 68.1% female) with primary insomnia and difficulty returning to sleep after MOTN awakenings (three or more MOTN awakenings/wk during screening). After a 2-wk, single-blind placebo eligibility period, participants were randomized 1:1 to as-needed MOTN dosing with 3.5 mg ZST or placebo for 28 nights. An interactive voice response system determined if the study drug could be taken and recorded sleep/wake efficacy measures. ZST significantly (P Zolpidem Tartrate Tablet in Adult Patients with Insomnia" http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00466193?spons=%22Transcept+Pharmaceuticals%22&spons_ex=Y&rank=2
Yang, Dao-Feng; Guo, Wei; Tian, De-Ying; Luo, Xiao-Ping; He, Yong-Wen; Dai, Yong-An; Xu, Hua-Lin
To assess the efficacy and safety of reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ROORS) in treatment of mild to moderate dehydration caused by acute diarrhea in children. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, positive drug controlled clinical trial was conducted in 125 cases aged 1 to 17 years. These children with acute diarrhea and signs of dehydration were randomly assigned to receive either ROORS (trial group, n = 62) or oral rehydration salts II (ORS II) (control group, n = 63). The volume of intravenous infusion were recorded. The improvements of systemic symtoms and signs, diarrhea, dehydration and total scores were compared between the two groups. The adverse events and changes of electrolyte and other laboratory tests during treatment were also observed and analyzed. The overall effective rates in trial group and control group were 96.8% and 96.8%, respectively. The recovery of systemic symptoms, dehydration signs and diarrhea occurred in 96%, 97% and 78% patients in trial groups, and 96%, 98% and 85% patients in control group. The scores of symptoms and signs in both groups decreased significantly after treatment. All the above parameters and the number of cases who needed intravenous infusion (41 vs. 39) were not statistically different between two groups. However, the average volume of intravenously infused fluids in trial group was (450.98 +/- 183.07) ml, 24.5% less than that in the control group (597.30 +/- 343.37) ml (P 0.05). A case in trial group had mild abdominal distention and recovered spontaneously. ROORS was shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of mild and moderate dehydration induced by acute diarrhea. Compared to ORS II, ROORS could decrease the intravenous supplement of fluid and lower the risk of hypernatremia.
Full Text Available "nObjective:Premenstrual syndromes (PMS affecting 20-40% of women of reproductive age. The aim of this double blind and placebo controlled trial was to investigate whether femicofort a supplement contains Vitamin B6, Vitamin E and evening primrose oil could relieve symptoms of PMS. "nMethod: This was a randomized and double blind clinical trial. The trial was conducted between November 2009 and April March 2010. Women aged 20 to 45 years with regular menstrual cycles and experience of PMS symptoms (According to the current diagnostic criteria proposed by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology for at least 6 months were eligible for the study. Patients were randomized to receive femicomfort or placebo in a 1: ratio using a computer-generated code. The assignments were kept in sealed, opaque envelopes until the point of analysis of data. In this double-blind, patients were randomly assigned to receive capsule of femicomfort (Group A or capsule placebo for two menstrual cycles (cycles 3 and 4. The primary outcome measure was the Daily Symptom Report, a checklist of 17 premenstrual symptoms rated from 0 to 4 according to their severity throughout the menstrual cycle. Secondary outcome measure was Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17-item. "nResults:Femicomfort at this dose was found to be effective in relieving symptoms of PMS. The difference between the femicomfort and placebo in the frequency of side effects was not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the efficacy of femicomfort in the treatment of PMS.
Andersen, L.O.; Husted, H.; Otte, K.S.
with a detailed description of the infiltration technique. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 12 patients undergoing bilateral knee arthroplasty, saline or high-volume (170 ml) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine was infiltrated around each knee, with repeated doses administered...
Thamsborg, G; Florescu, A; Oturai, P
OBJECTIVE: The investigation aimed at determining the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee by conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. DESIGN: The trial consisted of 2h daily treatment 5 days per...
Esan, Michael O.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Nkhoma, Ernest; Musicha, Crispin; White, Sarah A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Phiri, Kamija S.
It is unknown whether iron supplementation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children living in regions with high infection pressure is safe or beneficial. A 2-arm, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of iron supplementation on hemoglobin, HIV
Randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of 17DD and WHO 17D-213/77 yellow fever vaccines in children: implications for the Brazilian National Immunization Program.
Vaccines against yellow fever currently recommended by the World Health Organization contain either virus sub-strains 17D or 17DD. In adults, the 17DD vaccine demonstrated high seroconversion and similar performance to vaccines manufactured with the WHO 17D-213/77 seed-lot. In another study, 17DD vaccine showed lower seroconversion rates in children younger than 2 years. Data also suggested lower seroconversion with simultaneous application of measles vaccine. This finding in very young children is not consistent with data from studies with 17D vaccines. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was designed (1) to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of two yellow fever vaccines: 17DD (licensed product) and 17D-213/77 (investigational product) in children aged 9-23 months; (2) to assess the effect of simultaneous administration of yellow fever and the measles-mumps-rubella vaccines; and (3) to investigate the interference of maternal antibodies in the response to yellow fever vaccination. The anticipated implications of the results are changes in vaccine sub-strains used in manufacturing YF vaccine used in several countries and changes in the yellow fever vaccination schedule recommendations in national immunization programs.
Zhang, Ling-Ling; Wei, Wei; Xiao, Feng; Xu, Jian-Hua; Bao, Chun-De; Ni, Li-Qing; Li, Xing-Fu
To assess the efficacy and safety of chicken type II collagen (CCII) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with methotrexate (MTX). We conducted a prospective, 24-week, followup, multicenter, double-blind, controlled study of CCII (0.1 mg/day) versus MTX (10 mg/week) in patients with active RA. Clinical assessments were performed at screening and at 12, 18, and 24 weeks of treatment. A total of 236 RA patients were included; 211 patients (89.4%) completed the 24-week followup. In both groups there was a decrease in pain, morning stiffness, tender joint count, swollen joint count, Health Assessment Questionnaire score, and investigator and patient assessment of function; all differences were statistically significant. In the MTX group, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level decreased. Rheumatoid factor did not change in either group. At 24 weeks, 68.57% of patients in the CCII group and 83.02% in the MTX group met the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR20), and 40.95% and 57.54%, respectively, met the ACR50 criteria. The ACR20 and ACR50 response rates in the CCII group were lower than those in the MTX group, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal symptoms were common in both groups. There were fewer and milder side effects in the CCII group than the MTX group. The difference in incidence of adverse events between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). CCII is effective in the treatment of RA. CCII is well tolerated, and the incidence of adverse events of CCII is lower than that of MTX.
This randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial assessed the effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on genogroup I.1 human norovirus (HuNoV) inactivation in virus-seeded oysters when ingested by subjects. The safety and efficacy of HPP treatments were assessed in three study phases wi...
Engberink, M.F.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.; Mierlo, van L.A.J.; Brouwer, I.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.
Milk-derived peptides with ACE-inhibiting properties may have antihypertensive effects in humans. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to examine the blood pressure lowering potential of 2 ACE-inhibiting lactotripeptides, ie, Isoleucine-Proline-Proline and
de Waal, Y. C. M.; Raghoebar, G. M.; Meijer, H. J. A.; Winkel, E. G.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.
ObjectiveThe objective of this randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic, and microbiological effects of implant surface decontamination with a 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) solution in comparison with a 0.12% chlorhexidine+0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)
Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Smulders, Sara; Hoes, Arno W; Hak, Eelko
In a randomized double-blind controlled trial, the safety was assessed of simultaneous administration of influenza and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children with previous physician-diagnosed respiratory tract infections. In total, 579 children aged 18-72 months were assigned to receive
Schneider, T; Rübben, H
Phytotherapy of BPS has a long tradition in Germany; nevertheless, data referring to single phytotherapeutic agents are rare. We therefore performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study for 1 year with Bazoton uno (459 mg dry extract of stinging nettle roots) with 246 patients. The IPSS decreased on average from 18.7+/-0.3 to 13.0+/-0.5 with a statistically significant difference compared to placebo (18.5+/-0.3 to 13.8+/-0.5; p=0.0233). The median Q(max) increased by 3.0+/-0.4 ml/s in comparison to 2.9+/-0.4 ml/s (placebo), thus not statistically significantly different, as well as the median volume of residual urine, which changed from 35.5+/-3.4 ml before therapy to 20.0+/-2.8 ml and from 40.0+/-4.0 ml to 21.0+/-2.9 ml under placebo application. The number of adverse events (29/38) as well as urinary infections etc. (3/10 events) was smaller under Bazoton uno therapy compared to placebo. Treatment with Bazoton uno can therefore be considered a safe therapeutic option for BPS, especially for reducing irritative symptoms and BPS-associated complications due to the postulated antiphlogistic and antiproliferative effects of the stinging nettle extract. A strong increase of Q(max) or reduction of residual urine are not to be expected.
Full Text Available To assess the impact of maintenance nifedipine therapy on pregnancy duration in women with preterm placenta previa bleeding.PPADAL was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between 05/2008 and 05/2012 in five French hospitals. The trial included 109 women, aged ≥ 18 years, with at least one episode of placenta previa bleeding, intact membranes and no other pregnancy complication, at gestational age 24 to 34 weeks and after 48 hours of complete acute tocolysis. Women were randomly allocated to receive either 20 mg of slow-release nifedipine three times daily (n = 54 or placebo (n = 55 until 36 + 6 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome for the trial was length of pregnancy measured in days after enrolment. Main secondary outcomes were rates of recurrent bleeding, cesarean delivery due to hemorrhage, blood transfusion, maternal side effects, gestational age at delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes (perinatal death, chronic lung disease, neonatal sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage > grade 2, perventricular leukomalacia > grade 1, or necrotizing enterocolitis. Analysis was by intention to treat.Mean (SD prolongation of pregnancy was not different between the nifedipine (n = 54 and the placebo (n = 55 group; 42.5 days ± 23.8 versus 44.2 days ± 24.5, p = 0.70. Cesarean due to hemorrhage performed before 37 weeks occurred more frequently in the nifedipine group in comparison with the placebo group (RR, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.72. Adverse perinatal outcomes were comparable between groups; 3.8% for nifedipine versus 5.5% for placebo (relative risk, 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.10-2.61. No maternal mortality or perinatal death occurred.Maintenance oral nifedipine neither prolongs duration of pregnancy nor improves maternal or perinatal outcomes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00620724.
A Herbal Medicine, Gongjindan, in Subjects with Chronic Dizziness (GOODNESS Study: Study Protocol for a Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Clinical Trial for Effectiveness, Safety, and Cost-Effectiveness
Full Text Available This study protocol aims to explore the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of a herbal medication, Gongjindan (GJD, in patients with chronic dizziness. This will be a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial. Seventy-eight patients diagnosed with Meniere’s disease, psychogenic dizziness, or dizziness of unknown cause will be randomized and allocated to either a GJD or a placebo group in a 1 : 1 ratio. Participants will be orally given 3.75 g GJD or placebo in pill form once a day for 56 days. The primary outcome measure will be the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score. Secondary outcome measures will be as follows: severity (mean vertigo scale and visual analogue scale and frequency of dizziness, balance function (Berg Balance Scale, fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale and deficiency pattern/syndrome (qi blood yin yang-deficiency questionnaire levels, and depression (Korean version of Beck’s Depression Inventory and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory levels. To assess safety, adverse events, including laboratory test results, will be monitored. Further, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated based on quality-adjusted life years (from the EuroQoL five dimensions’ questionnaire and medical expenses. Data will be statistically analyzed at a significance level of 0.05 (two-sided. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03219515, in July 2017.
Nourbakhsh, Bardia; Revirajan, Nisha; Waubant, Emmanuelle
Fatigue is the most common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Amantadine, modafinil and amphetamine-like stimulants are commonly used in clinical practice for treatment of fatigue; however, the evidence supporting their effectiveness is sparse and conflicting. To describe the design of a trial study funded by Patient-Centered Outcome Research Institute (PCORI) that will compare the efficacy of commonly used fatigue medications in patients with MS. The study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, four-sequence, four-period, double-blind, multicenter trial of three commonly used medications for the treatment of MS-related fatigue (amantadine, modafinil, methylphenidate) versus placebo in fatigued subjects with MS. Adult patients with MS, with an Expanded Disability Status Scale of MS-related fatigue. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT03185065. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
von Lindern Jeannette
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is associated with development of cerebral palsy and cognitive disability later in life and is therefore one of the fundamental problems in perinatal medicine. The xanthine-oxidase inhibitor allopurinol reduces the formation of free radicals, thereby limiting the amount of hypoxia-reperfusion damage. In case of suspected intra-uterine hypoxia, both animal and human studies suggest that maternal administration of allopurinol immediately prior to delivery reduces hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Methods/Design The proposed trial is a randomized double blind placebo controlled multicenter study in pregnant women at term in whom the foetus is suspected of intra-uterine hypoxia. Allopurinol 500 mg IV or placebo will be administered antenatally to the pregnant woman when foetal hypoxia is suspected. Foetal distress is being diagnosed by the clinician as an abnormal or non-reassuring foetal heart rate trace, preferably accompanied by either significant ST-wave abnormalities (as detected by the STAN-monitor or an abnormal foetal blood scalp sampling (pH Primary outcome measures are the amount of S100B (a marker for brain tissue damage and the severity of oxidative stress (measured by isoprostane, neuroprostane, non protein bound iron and hypoxanthine, both measured in umbilical cord blood. Secondary outcome measures are neonatal mortality, serious composite neonatal morbidity and long-term neurological outcome. Furthermore pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics will be investigated. We expect an inclusion of 220 patients (110 per group to be feasible in an inclusion period of two years. Given a suspected mean value of S100B of 1.05 ug/L (SD 0.37 ug/L in the placebo group this trial has a power of 90% (alpha 0.05 to detect a mean value of S100B of 0.89 ug/L (SD 0.37 ug/L in the 'allopurinol-treated' group (z-test2-sided. Analysis will be by intention to treat and it allows for one interim analysis
Versyck, B.; Geffen, G.J. van; Houwe, P. Van
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical trial was to test the hypothesis whether adding the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block type II to the anesthetic procedure reduces opioid consumption during and after breast surgery. DESIGN: A prospective randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. SETTING:
Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Budesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid with high topical potency and low systemic activity recommended in the treatment of chronic asthma. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of inhaled budesonide via a breath-activated, multi-dose, dry-powder inhaler. TYPE OF STUDY: Multicenter randomized parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. SETTING: Multicenter study in the university units. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with mild-to-moderate asthma that was not controlled using bronchodilator therapy alone. PROCEDURES: Comparison of budesonide 400 µg administered twice daily via a breath-activated, multi-dose, dry-powder inhaler with placebo, in 43 adult patients (aged 15 to 78 years with mild-to-moderate asthma (FEV1 71% of predicted normal that was not controlled using bronchodilator therapy alone. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Efficacy was assessed by pulmonary function tests and asthma symptom control (as perceived by the patients and the use of rescue medication. RESULTS: Budesonide 400 µg (bid was significantly more effective than placebo in improving morning peak expiratory flow (mean difference: 67.9 l/min; P < 0.005 and FEV1 (mean difference: 0.60 l; P < 0.005 over the 8-week treatment period. Onset of action, assessed by morning peak expiratory flow, occurred within the first two weeks of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Budesonide via a breath-activated, multi-dose, dry-powder inhaler results in a rapid onset of asthma control, which is maintained over time and is well tolerated in adults with mild-to-moderate asthma.
Cohen, Steven P; Peterlin, B Lee; Fulton, Larry; Neely, Edward T; Kurihara, Connie; Gupta, Anita; Mali, Jimmy; Fu, Diana C; Jacobs, Michael B; Plunkett, Anthony R; Verdun, Aubrey J; Stojanovic, Milan P; Hanling, Steven; Constantinescu, Octav; White, Ronald L; McLean, Brian C; Pasquina, Paul F; Zhao, Zirong
Occipital neuralgia (ON) is characterized by lancinating pain and tenderness overlying the occipital nerves. Both steroid injections and pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) are used to treat ON, but few clinical trials have evaluated efficacy, and no study has compared treatments. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness study in 81 participants with ON or migraine with occipital nerve tenderness whose aim was to determine which treatment is superior. Forty-two participants were randomized to receive local anesthetic and saline, and three 120 second cycles of PRF per targeted nerve, and 39 were randomized to receive local anesthetic mixed with deposteroid and 3 rounds of sham PRF. Patients, treating physicians, and evaluators were blinded to interventions. The PRF group experienced a greater reduction in the primary outcome measure, average occipital pain at 6 weeks (mean change from baseline -2.743 ± 2.487 vs -1.377 ± 1.970; P occipital pain through 3 months (mean change from baseline -1.925 ± 3.204 vs -0.541 ± 2.644; P = 0.043), and average overall headache pain through 6 weeks (mean change from baseline -2.738 ± 2.753 vs -1.120 ± 2.1; P = 0.037). Adverse events were similar between groups, and few significant differences were noted for nonpain outcomes. We conclude that although PRF can provide greater pain relief for ON and migraine with occipital nerve tenderness than steroid injections, the superior analgesia may not be accompanied by comparable improvement on other outcome measures.
Efficacy of aprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with a moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimen: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study in patients with gynecologic cancer receiving paclitaxel and carboplatin.
Yahata, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Sonoda, Kenzo; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Ohgami, Tatsuhiro; Saito, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Shinji; Sakai, Kunihiro; Ichinoe, Akimasa; Ueoka, Yousuke; Hasuo, Yasuyuki; Nishida, Makoto; Masuda, Satohiro; Kato, Kiyoko
Substance P contributes to the hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to paclitaxel in a rat model. Aprepitant acts as an inhibitor of the binding of substance P to the neurokinin-1 receptor and, consequently, may reduce the frequency of paclitaxel-induced HSR. While aprepitant has a prophylactic effect against vomiting caused by high-dose cisplatin, the benefits of aprepitant have not been clearly demonstrated in patients receiving paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC) combination chemotherapy. We conducted a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study in Japanese patients with gynecologic cancer who received TC combination chemotherapy. Patients received aprepitant or placebo together with both a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone prior to chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with HSR, and the secondary endpoints were the proportion of patients with "no vomiting", "no significant nausea", and complete response, respectively. Of the 324 randomized patients, 297 (151 in the aprepitant group; 146 in the placebo group) were evaluated. The percentage of patients with HSR (9.2 vs. 7.5 %, respectively; P = 0.339) was not significantly different between the groups. The percentage of "no vomiting" patients (78.2 vs. 54.8 %; P gynecologic cancer patients receiving TC combination chemotherapy.
Full Text Available Anna Tomusiak,1 Magdalena Strus,1 Piotr B Heczko,1 Paweł Adamski,2 Grzegorz Stefański,3 Aleksandra Mikołajczyk-Cichońska,3 Magdalena Suda-Szczurek3 1Department of Microbiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 2Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, 3IBSS BIOMED SA, Kraków, Poland Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether Lactobacillus colonization promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. Patients and methods: The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Altogether, 376 women were assessed for eligibility, and signed informed consent. One hundred and sixty eligible women with abnormal, also called intermediate, vaginal microflora, as indicated by a Nugent score of 4–6 and pH >4.5 and zero or low Lactobacillus count, were randomized. Each participant was examined four times during the study. Women were randomly allocated to receive either the probiotic preparation inVag®, or a placebo (one capsule for seven consecutive days vaginally. The product inVag includes the probiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum 57A, Lactobacillus plantarum 57B, and Lactobacillus gasseri 57C. We took vaginal swabs during visits I, III, and IV to determine the presence and abundance of bacteria from the Lactobacillus genus, measure the pH, and estimate the Nugent score. Drug safety evaluation was based on analysis of the types and occurrence of adverse events. Results: Administration of inVag contributed to a significant decrease (between visits in both vaginal pH (P<0.05 and Nugent score (P<0.05, and a significant increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus between visit I and visits III and IV (P<0.05. Molecular typing revealed the presence of Lactobacillus strains originating from inVag in 82% of women taking the drug at
Murata, Yoko; Song, Michael; Kikuchi, Hisayuki; Hisamichi, Katsuya; Xu, Xie L; Greenspan, Andrew; Kato, Mai; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Kato, Takeshi; Guzzo, Cynthia; Thurmond, Robin L; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Furue, Masutaka
This trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the H4 R-antagonist JNJ-39758979 in adult Japanese patients with moderate atopic dermatitis (AD). Eligible patients were randomly assigned to JNJ-39758979 300 mg, 100 mg or placebo once daily for 6 weeks in this phase 2a, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study. Primary efficacy was assessed via week-6 Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) scores. Secondary efficacy assessments included Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) and patient-reported outcome (PRO) pruritus assessments (Pruritus Categorical Response Scale [PCRS], Pruritus Numeric Rating Scales [PNRS], Pruritus Interference Numeric Rating Scale [PINRS] and Subject's Global Impressions of Change in Pruritus [SGICP]). Eighty-eight of 105 planned patients were randomized before the study was stopped and unblinded for safety reasons. The study did not meet the primary end-point. However, numerical improvements (i.e. decreases) in median EASI were observed with JNJ-39758979 100 mg (-3.7) and 300 mg (-3.0) versus placebo (-1.3) at week 6. Nominally significant improvements across PRO PCRS, PNRS and SGICP assessments were consistently observed, particularly with JNJ-39758979 300 mg. Safety, including adverse events (AE), was comparable between JNJ-39758979 and placebo with the exception of two patients (both receiving JNJ-39758979 300 mg) with serious AE of neutropenia, leading to premature study discontinuation. No deaths were reported. Except for neutropenia, no clinically relevant changes in laboratory values were observed. Although not conclusive, findings suggest H4 R-antagonism may be beneficial for AD, particularly in controlling pruritus. JNJ-39758979 appears to be associated with drug-induced agranulocytosis, likely an off-target effect. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD suggesting antiplatelet agents may be therapeutic. To evaluate the safety of prasugrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, in adult patients with SCD, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Methods The primary endpoint, safety, was measured by hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention. Patients were randomized to prasugrel 5 mg daily (n = 41 or placebo (n = 21 for 30 days. Platelet function by VerifyNow® P2Y12 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein assays at days 10 and 30 were significantly inhibited in prasugrel- compared with placebo-treated SCD patients. Results There were no hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention in either study arm. Mean pain rate (percentage of days with pain and intensity in the prasugrel arm were decreased compared with placebo. However, these decreases did not reach statistical significance. Platelet surface P-selectin and plasma soluble P-selectin, biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation, were significantly reduced in SCD patients receiving prasugrel compared with placebo. In sum, prasugrel was well tolerated and not associated with serious hemorrhagic events. Conclusions Despite the small size and short duration of this study, there was a decrease in platelet activation biomarkers and a trend toward decreased pain.
Kappelle L Jaap
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Paracetamol (Acetaminophen In Stroke (PAIS study is a phase III multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of high-dose acetaminophen in patients with acute stroke. The trial compares treatment with a daily dose of 6 g acetaminophen, started within 12 hours after the onset of symptoms, with matched placebo. The purpose of this study is to assess whether treatment with acetaminophen for 3 days will result in improved functional outcome through a modest reduction in body temperature and prevention of fever. The previously planned statistical analysis based on a dichotomization of the scores on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS may not make the most efficient use of the available baseline information. Therefore, the planned primary analysis of the PAIS study has been changed from fixed dichotomization of the mRS to a sliding dichotomy analysis. Methods Instead of taking a single definition of good outcome for all patients, the definition is tailored to each individual patient's baseline prognosis on entry into the trial. Conclusion The protocol change was initiated because of both advances in statistical approaches and to increase the efficiency of the trial by improving statistical power. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials [ISCRTN74418480
Cantillon, Marc; Prakash, Arul; Alexander, Ajay; Ings, Robert; Sweitzer, Dennis; Bhat, Laxminarayan
The study objectives were to evaluate the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of RP5063 versus placebo. The study was conducted in adults with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. This 28-day, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study randomized 234 subjects to RP5063 15, 30, or 50mg; aripiprazole; or placebo (3:3:3:1:2) once daily. The aripiprazole arm was included solely to show assay sensitivity and was not powered to show efficacy. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to Day 28/EOT (End-of-Treatment) in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score; secondary endpoints included PANSS subscales, improvement ≥1 point on the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S), depression and cognition scales. The primary analysis of PANSS Total showed improvement by a mean (SE) of -20.23 (2.65), -15.42 (2.04), and -19.21 (2.39) in the RP5063 15, 30, and 50mg arms, versus -11.41 (3.45) in the placebo arm. The difference between treatment and placebo reached statistical significance for the 15mg (p=0.021) and 50mg (p=0.016) arms. Improvement with RP5063 was also seen for multiple secondary efficacy outcomes. Discontinuation for any reason was much lower for RP5063 (14%, 25%, 12%) versus placebo (26%) and aripiprazole (35%). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) in the RP5063 groups were insomnia and agitation. There were no significant changes in body weight, electrocardiogram, or incidence of orthostatic hypotension; there was a decrease in blood glucose, lipid profiles, and prolactin levels. In conclusion, the novel dopamine serotonin stabilizer, RP5063 is an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment for acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Schimmer, Christoph; Oezkur, Mehmet; Sinha, Bhanu; Hain, Johannes; Gorski, Armin; Hager, Benjamin; Leyh, Rainer
Objective: Prophylactic retrosternal placement of a gentamicin-collagen sponge has been the subject of several recent clinical studies and is a matter of controversy. The present study is the first controlled, prospective, randomized, double-blind, single-center study to investigate the efficacy of
Pariser, David; Loss, Robert; Jarratt, Michael; Abramovits, William; Spencer, James; Geronemus, Roy; Bailin, Philip; Bruce, Suzanne
The use of light-emitting diode light offers practical advantages in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) for management of actinic keratoses (AK). We sought to evaluate the efficacy of MAL PDT using red light-emitting diode light. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study. A total of 49 patients with 363 AK lesions had 16.8% MAL cream applied under occlusion for 3 hours, and 47 patients with 360 AK lesions had vehicle cream similarly applied. The lesions were then illuminated (630 nm, light dose 37 J/cm2) with repeated treatment 1 week later. Complete lesion and patient (all lesions showing complete response) response rates were evaluated 3 months after last treatment. MAL PDT was superior (PAK. MAL PDT using red light-emitting diode light is an appropriate treatment alternative for multiple AK lesions.
Rawal, Narinder; Macquaire, Valery; Catalá, Elena; Berti, Marco; Costa, Rui; Wietlisbach, Markus
This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial compared efficacy and safety of tramadol HCL 37.5 mg/paracetamol 325 mg combination tablet with tramadol HCL 50 mg capsule in the treatment of postoperative pain following ambulatory hand surgery with iv regional anesthesia. Patients received trial medication at admission, immediately after surgery, and every 6 hours after discharge until midnight of the first postoperative day. Analgesic efficacy was assessed by patients (n = 128 in each group, full analysis set) and recorded in a diary on the evening of surgery day and of the first postoperative day. They also documented the occurrence of adverse events. By the end of the first postoperative day, the proportion of treatment responders based on treatment satisfaction (primary efficacy variable) was comparable between the groups (78.1% combination, 71.9% tramadol; P = 0.24) and mean pain intensity (rated on a numerical scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = worst imaginable pain) had been reduced to 1.7 ± 2.0 for both groups. Under both treatments, twice as many patients experienced no pain (score = 0) on the first postoperative day compared to the day of surgery (35.9% vs 16.4% for tramadol/paracetamol and 36.7% vs 18% for tramadol treatment). Rescue medication leading to withdrawal (diclofenac 50 mg) was required by 17.2% patients with tramadol/paracetamol and 13.3% with tramadol. Adverse events (mainly nausea, dizziness, somnolence, vomiting, and increased sweating) occurred less frequently in patients under combination treatment (P = 0.004). Tramadol/paracetamol combination tablets provided comparable analgesic efficacy with a better safety profile to tramadol capsules in patients experiencing postoperative pain following ambulatory hand surgery. PMID:21559356
Furst, Daniel E; Venkatraman, Manorama M; McGann, Mary; Manohar, P Ram; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Sarin, Reshmi; Sekar, P G; Raveendran, K G; Mahapatra, Anita; Gopinath, Jidesh; Kumar, P R Krishna
To compare classic Ayurveda, methotrexate (MTX), and their combination in a double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, pilot trial in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for 36 weeks. Forty-three seropositive RA patients by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria with disease duration of less than 7 years were assigned to the following treatment groups: MTX plus Ayurvedic placebo (n = 14), Ayurveda plus MTX placebo (n = 12), or Ayurveda plus MTX (n = 17). Outcomes included the Disease Activity Score (DAS28-CRP), ACR20/50/70, and Health Assessment Questionnaire--Disability Index. All measures were obtained every 12 weeks for 36 weeks. Analyses included descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, χ², or Student t test. The unique features of this study included the development of placebos for each Ayurvedic pharmacological dosage form and individualization of Ayurvedic therapy. All groups were comparable at baseline in demographics and disease characteristics. There were no statistically significant differences among the 3 groups on the efficacy measures. ACR20 results were MTX 86%, Ayurveda 100%, and combination 82%, and DAS28-CRP response were MTX -2.4, Ayurveda -1.7, and combination -2.4. Differences in adverse events among groups were also not statistically significant, although the MTX groups experienced more adverse event (MTX 174, Ayurveda 112, combination 176). No deaths occurred. In this first-ever, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study comparing Ayurveda, MTX, and their combination, all 3 treatments were approximately equivalent in efficacy, within the limits of a pilot study. Adverse events were numerically fewer in the Ayurveda-only group. This study demonstrates that double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies are possible when testing individualized classic Ayurvedic versus allopathic treatment in ways acceptable to western standards and to Ayurvedic physicians. It also justifies the need for larger studies.
Multicenter, double-blind, parallel group study investigating the non-inferiority of efficacy and safety of a 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with a 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp.
Buechner, Stanislaw A
This study investigated the non-inferiority of efficacy and tolerance of 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. A randomized, double-blind, comparative, parallel group, multicenter study was done. A total of 274 patients (145 miconazole, 129 ketoconazole) were enrolled. Treatment was twice-weekly for 4 weeks. Safety and efficacy assessments were made at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Assessments included symptoms of erythema, itching, scaling ['Symptom Scale of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis' (SSSD)], disease severity and global change [Clinical Global Impressions (CGIs) and Patient Global Impressions (PGIs)]. Miconazole shampoo is at least as effective and safe as ketoconazole shampoo in treating scalp seborrheic dermatitis scalp.
Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Okada, Yosuke; Taguchi, Isao; Yamaoka-Tojo, Minako; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Teragawa, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Seigo; Yoshida, Hisako; Sato, Yasunori; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Ikehara, Yumi; Machii, Noritaka; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Shima, Kosuke R; Takamura, Toshinari; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuo; Sakuma, Masashi; Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Inoue, Teruo; Higashi, Yukihito; Ueda, Shinichiro; Node, Koichi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by systemic metabolic abnormalities and the development of micro- and macrovascular complications, resulting in a shortened life expectancy. A recent cardiovascular (CV) safety trial, the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, showed that empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, markedly reduced CV death and all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with T2DM and established CV disease (CVD). SGLT2 inhibitors are known to not only decrease plasma glucose levels, but also favorably modulate a wide range of metabolic and hemodynamic disorders related to CV pathways. Although some experimental studies revealed a beneficial effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on atherosclerosis, there is a paucity of clinical data showing that they can slow the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM. Therefore, the EMBLEM trial was designed to investigate whether empagliflozin treatment can improve endothelial function, which plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, in patients with T2DM and established CVD. The EMBLEM trial is an ongoing, prospective, multicenter, placebo-controlled double-blind randomized, investigator-initiated clinical trial in Japan. A total of 110 participants with T2DM (HbA1c range 6.0-10.0%) and with established CVD will be randomized (1:1) to receive either empagliflozin 10 mg once daily or a placebo. The primary endpoint of the trial is change in the reactive hyperemia (RH)-peripheral arterial tonometry-derived RH index at 24 weeks from baseline. For comparison of treatment effects between the treatment groups, the baseline-adjusted means and their 95% confidence intervals will be estimated by analysis of covariance adjusted for the following allocation factors: HbA1c (EMBLEM is the first trial to assess the effect of empagliflozin on endothelial function in patients with T2DM and established CVD. Additionally, mechanisms associating
Colau, Jean-Claude; Vincent, Stéphane; Marijnen, Philippe; Allaert, François-André
Homeopathic medicines have a place among the non-hormonal therapies for the treatment of hot flashes during the menopause. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the non-hormonal treatment BRN-01 in reducing hot flashes in menopausal women. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study carried out between June 2010 and July 2011. The study was conducted in 35 active centers in France (gynecologists in private practice). One hundred and eight menopausal women, ≥ 50 years of age, were enrolled in the study. The eligibility criteria included menopause for professional and/or personal life. Treatment was either BRN-01 tablets, a registered homeopathic medicine containing Actaea racemosa (4 centesimal dilutions [4CH]), Arnica montana (4CH), Glonoinum (4CH), Lachesis mutus (5CH), and Sanguinaria canadensis (4CH), or identical placebo tablets, prepared by Laboratoires Boiron according to European Pharmacopoeia standards. Oral treatment (2 to 4 tablets per day) was started on day 3 after study enrollment and was continued for 12 weeks. The main outcome measure was the hot flash score (HFS) compared before, during, and after treatment. Secondary outcome criteria were the quality of life (QoL) [measured using the Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS)], severity of symptoms (measured using the Menopause Rating Scale), evolution of the mean dosage, and compliance. All adverse events (AEs) were recorded. One hundred and one women were included in the final analysis (intent-to-treat population: BRN-01, n = 50; placebo, n = 51). The global HFS over the 12 weeks, assessed as the area under the curve (AUC) adjusted for baseline values, was significantly lower in the BRN-01 group than in the placebo group (mean ± SD 88.2 ± 6.5 versus 107.2 ± 6.4; p = 0.0411). BRN-01 was well tolerated; the frequency of AEs was similar in the two treatment groups, and no serious AEs were attributable to BRN
Ooms, Marcel E.; Roos, Jan C.; Bezemer, P. Dick; van der Vijgh, Wim J F; Bouter, Lex M.; Lips, Paul
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone turnover and bone loss in elderly women. Three hundred forty-eight women, ages 70 yr and older, were randomized to receive 400 IU vitamin D3 per day (n = 177) or placebo (n = 171), double-blind, for a period of
Bisgaard, T; Klarskov, B; Trap, R
cholecystectomy using two 10-mm and two 5-mm trocars (LC). Incisional pain at each port incision and overall pain were recorded for 1 week after the operation. Fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pulmonary function, and cosmetic results were also measured. RESULTS: Data from 52 patients were analyzed; eight patients......BACKGROUND: Downsizing the port incisions may reduce pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: In a double-blind controlled study, 60 patients were randomized to undergo either microlaparoscopic cholecystectomy using one 10-mm and three 3.5-mm trocars (3.5-mm LC) or traditional laparoscopic.......01). In both groups, pain scores at the supraumbilical 10-mm port were significantly higher compared with other port sites (p
Kushner, Pamela R; Snoddy, Andrew M; Gilderman, Larry; Peura, David A
To investigate the efficacy and safety of a 14-day treatment period with lansoprazole 15 mg for frequent heartburn in patients who are likely to select a nonprescription medication before consulting a prescriber. Adults with untreated frequent heartburn > or = 2 days a week over the past month were recruited for 2 identical multicenter, double-blind studies conducted with a 1-week screening and heartburn medication washout, a 1-week placebo run-in, a 2-week placebo-controlled treatment, and a 1-week placebo follow-up. After the washout and placebo run-in, subjects were randomly assigned to receive lansoprazole 15 mg or placebo once daily for 14 days in a double-blind fashion. Antacid tablets were permitted as rescue medication. Endpoints included percentage of 24-hour days without heartburn (primary), percentage of night-times without heartburn, and percentage of subjects without heartburn during day 1 of treatment (secondary endpoints). Data were collected daily via an interactive voice response system. In studies 1 and 2, 282 and 288 subjects, respectively, were randomly assigned to lansoprazole, and 282 in each study received placebo. The mean percentage of days without heartburn was greater among lansoprazole recipients compared with placebo recipients (P heartburn and no heartburn during day 1 of the 14-day treatment. Adverse events were infrequent and were similar for lansoprazole and placebo groups. During the 14-day treatment period in a population with frequent heartburn who were likely to select a medication without consulting a prescriber, lansoprazole 15 mg once daily showed rapid and sustained effectiveness throughout a 24-hour period and was well tolerated.
Miller, Larry E; Stewart, Morgan E
The use of blinding strengthens the credibility of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by minimizing bias. However, there is confusion surrounding the definition of blinding as well as the terms single, double, and triple blind. It has been suggested that these terms should be discontinued due to their broad misinterpretation. We recommend that, instead of abandoning the use of these terms, explicit definitions of blinding should be adopted. We address herein the concept of blinding, propose standard definitions for the consistent use of these terms, and detail when different types of blinding should be utilized. Standardizing the definition of blinding and utilizing proper blinding methods will improve the quality and clarity of reporting in RCTs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The SNAP trial: a double blind multi-center randomized controlled trial of a silicon nitride versus a PEEK cage in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disorders: study protocol
Background Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been widely used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disorders, and show good clinical results. Still, complications such as subsidence and migration of the cage are frequently seen. A lack of osteointegration and fibrous tissues surrounding PEEK cages are held responsible. Ceramic implants made of silicon nitride show better biocompatible and osteoconductive qualities, and therefore are expected to lower complication rates and allow for better fusion. Purpose of this study is to show that fusion with the silicon nitride cage produces non-inferior results in outcome of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire at all follow-up time points as compared to the same procedure with PEEK cages. Methods/Design This study is designed as a double blind multi-center randomized controlled trial with repeated measures analysis. 100 patients (18–75 years) presenting with symptomatic lumbar degenerative disorders unresponsive to at least 6 months of conservative treatment are included. Patients will be randomly assigned to a PEEK cage or a silicon nitride cage, and will undergo a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screw fixation. Primary outcome measure is the functional improvement measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Secondary outcome parameters are the VAS leg, VAS back, SF-36, Likert scale, neurological outcome and radiographic assessment of fusion. After 1 year the fusion rate will be measured by radiograms and CT. Follow-up will be continued for 2 years. Patients and clinical observers who will perform the follow-up visits will be blinded for type of cage used during follow-up. Analyses of radiograms and CT will be performed independently by two experienced radiologists. Discussion In this study a PEEK cage will be compared with a silicon nitride cage in the treatment of symptomatic degenerative lumbar disc disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled
van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Palsson, Olafur S; Ringel, Yehuda; Whitehead, William E
Ginger is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but no data exists about its effectiveness. Double blind randomized controlled trial. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Forty-five IBS patients were randomly assigned to three groups: placebo, 1g of ginger, and 2g of ginger daily for 28 days. The IBS severity scale (IBS-SS) was administered, as well as adequate relief of symptoms scale. A responder was defined as having at least 25% reduction in IBS-SS post-treatment. There were 57.1% responders to placebo, 46.7% to 1g and 33.3% to 2g of ginger. Adequate relief was reported by 53.3% on placebo and 53.3% in both ginger groups combined. Side effects were mild and reported by 35.7% in the placebo and 16.7% in the ginger groups. This double blind randomized controlled pilot study suggests ginger is well tolerated but did not perform better than placebo. Larger trials are needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allais, G; Bussone, G; Tullo, V; Cortelli, P; Valguarnera, F; Barbanti, P; Sette, G; D'Onofrio, F; Curone, M; Benedetto, C
The purpose of this article is to investigate the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan plus dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg (FroDex25 or FroDex37.5, respectively) compared to that of frovatriptan 2.5 mg (Frova) in menstrually related migraine (MRM). The aim of this article is to analyze a subgroup of 76 women who treated an MRM attack in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. The primary end-point was the proportion of patients who were pain free (PF) at two hours. Secondary end-points included pain-relief (PR) at two hours and 48 hours sustained pain free (SPF). PF rates at two hours were 29% under Frova, 48% under FroDex25 and 64% under FroDex37.5 (p dexketoprofen produced higher PF rates at two hours compared to Frova while maintaining efficacy at 48 hours. Tolerability profiles were comparable. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Lindholm, Asa; Bixo, Marie; Björn, Inger; Wölner-Hanssen, Pål; Eliasson, Mats; Larsson, Anders; Johnson, Owe; Poromaa, Inger Sundström
To examine the efficacy of sibutramine together with brief lifestyle modification for weight reduction in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Investigator-initiated, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology in primary care, referral centers, and private practice. Forty-two patients with confirmed PCOS were included in the study, and 34 patients completed the study. Sibutramine 15 mg once daily together with brief lifestyle modification was compare with placebo together with brief lifestyle modification. The primary endpoint was to assess weight loss. Secondary endpoints included the efficacy of sibutramine for treatment of menstrual pattern and cardiovascular risk factors. After 6 months the sibutramine group had lost 7.8 +/- 5.1 kg compared with a weight loss of 2.8 +/- 6.2 kg in the placebo group. Sibutramine treatment resulted in significant decreases in apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A ratio, triglycerides, and cystatin C levels. Sibutramine in combination with lifestyle intervention results in significant weight reduction in obese patients with PCOS. In addition to the weight loss, sibutramine seems to have beneficial effects on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors.
Vranken, J. H.; Dijkgraaf, M. G. W.; Kruis, M. R.; van der Vegt, M. H.; Hollmann, M. W.; Heesen, M.
The effective treatment of patients suffering from central neuropathic pain remains a clinical challenge, despite a standard pharmacological approach in combination with anticonvulsants and antidepressants. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of pregabalin on
Szegedi, Armin; Durgam, Suresh; Mackle, Mary; Yu, Sung Yun; Wu, Xiao; Mathews, Maju; Landbloom, Ronald P
The authors determined the efficacy and safety of asenapine in preventing recurrence of any mood episode in adults with bipolar I disorder. Adults with an acute manic or mixed episode per DSM-IV-TR criteria were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled trial consisting of an initial 12- to 16-week open-label period and a 26-week double-blind randomized withdrawal period. The target asenapine dosage was 10 mg b.i.d. in the open-label period but could be titrated down to 5 mg b.i.d. After completing the open-label period, subjects meeting stabilization/stable-responder criteria were randomized to asenapine or placebo treatment in the double-blind period. The primary efficacy endpoint was time to recurrence of any mood event during the double-blind period. Kaplan-Meier estimation was performed, and 95% confidence intervals were determined. Safety was assessed throughout. A total of 549 subjects entered the open-label period, of whom 253 enrolled in the double-blind randomized withdrawal period (127 in the placebo group; 126 in the asenapine group). Time to recurrence of any mood episode was statistically significantly longer for asenapine- than placebo-treated subjects. In post hoc analyses, significant differences in favor of asenapine over placebo were seen in time to recurrence of manic and depressive episodes. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were somnolence (10.0%), akathisia (7.7%), and sedation (7.7%) in the open-label period and mania (11.9% of the placebo group compared with 4.0% of the asenapine group) and bipolar I disorder (6.3% compared with 1.6%) in the double-blind period. Long-term treatment with asenapine was more effective than placebo in preventing recurrence of mood events in adults with bipolar I disorder and was generally well-tolerated.
In a randomized double-blind study, treatment with either metoprolol, nifedipine, or their combination was compared for effects on ischemic variables and heart rate obtained during ambulatory monitoring in 42 patients with chronic stable angina. All patients had severe chronic stable angina...... could be detected during nifedipine monotherapy. It is concluded that metoprolol monotherapy, as well as its combination with nifedipine, effectively reduces total ischemic activity compared with placebo and nifedipine monotherapy. Control of ischemic activity in chronic stable angina may have...
Kucera, Miroslav; Barna, Milos; Horàcek, Ondrej; Kàlal, Jan; Kucera, Alexander; Hladìkova, Marie
The effectiveness and tolerability of the topical Symphytum product Traumaplant (Harras Pharma Curarina, München, Germany) (10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous-ethanolic pressed concentrate of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb [Symphytum uplandicum Nyman], corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream) in the treatment of patients with myalgia (n=104) were tested against a 1% reference product (corresponding to 2.5 g of fresh comfrey herb in 100 g of cream; n=111). The primary efficacy parameter in this double-blind, reference- controlled, randomized, multicenter study of 215 patients with pain in the lower and upper back was pain in motion, assessed with the aid of a visual analogue scale. Secondary efficacy parameters included pain at rest, pain on palpation, and functional impairment. With high concentrations of the treatment product, amelioration of pain on active motion (P<5 x 10 -9 ), pain at rest (P<.001), and pain on palpation (P=5 x 10 -5 ) was significantly more pronounced than that attained with the reference product and was clinically highly relevant. A number needed to treat of 3.2 was calculated from the study results. Global efficacy was significantly better (P=1 x 10 -8 ) and onset of effects was faster (P=4 x 10 -7 ) with the high-concentration product. Tolerability of the highly concentrated study product was good to excellent in all patients. Study results confirm the known anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of topical (Symphytum cream. As a new finding, applicability in certain forms of back pain can be concluded.
Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.
Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…
Dali, Christine í; Hansen, Flemming Juul; Pedersen, Søren Anker
A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out to determine whether a group of stable children with cerebral palsy (36 males, 21 females; mean age 10 years 11 months, range 5 to 18 years) would improve their motor skills after 12 months of threshold electrical...... stimulation (TES). Two thirds received active and one third received inactive stimulators. For the primary outcome we constructed a set of plausible motor function tests and studied the change in summary indices of the performance measurements. Tests were videotaped and assessed blindly to record qualitative...
COMPARE CPM-RMI Trial: Intramyocardial Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived CD133+ Cells and MNCs during CABG in Patients with Recent MI: A Phase II/III, Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial.
Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Madani, Hoda; Ahmadi Tafti, Seyed Hossein; Moshkani Farahani, Maryam; Kazemi Saleh, Davood; Hosseinnejad, Hossein; Hosseini, Saeid; Hekmat, Sepideh; Hossein Ahmadi, Zargham; Dehghani, Majid; Saadat, Alireza; Mardpour, Soura; Hosseini, Seyedeh Esmat; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Sadeghian, Hakimeh; Bahoush, Gholamreza; Bassi, Ali; Amin, Ahmad; Fazeli, Roghayeh; Sharafi, Yaser; Arab, Leila; Movahhed, Mansour; Davaran, Saeid; Ramezanzadeh, Narges; Kouhkan, Azam; Hezavehei, Ali; Namiri, Mehrnaz; Kashfi, Fahimeh; Akhlaghi, Ali; Sotoodehnejadnematalahi, Fattah; Vosough Dizaji, Ahmad; Gourabi, Hamid; Syedi, Naeema; Shahverdi, Abdol Hosein; Baharvand, Hossein; Aghdami, Nasser
The regenerative potential of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD133+ stem cells in the heart varies in terms of their pro-angiogenic effects. This phase II/III, multicenter and double-blind trial is designed to compare the functional effects of intramyocardial autologous transplantation of both cell types and placebo in patients with recent myocardial infarction (RMI) post-coronary artery bypass graft. This was a phase II/III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial COMPARE CPM-RMI (CD133, Placebo, MNCs - recent myocardial infarction) conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki that assessed the safety and efficacy of CD133 and MNCs compared to placebo in patients with RMI. We randomly assigned 77 eligible RMI patients selected from 5 hospitals to receive CD133+ cells, MNC, or a placebo. Patients underwent gated single photon emission computed tomography assessments at 6 and 18 months post-intramyocardial transplantation. We tested the normally distributed efficacy outcomes with a mixed analysis of variance model that used the entire data set of baseline and between-group comparisons as well as within subject (time) and group×time interaction terms. There were no related serious adverse events reported. The intramyocardial transplantation of both cell types increased left ventricular ejection fraction by 9% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.14% to 15.78%, P=0.01] and improved decreased systolic wall thickening by -3.7 (95% CI: -7.07 to -0.42, P=0.03). The CD133 group showed significantly decreased non-viable segments by 75% (P=0.001) compared to the placebo and 60% (P=0.01) compared to the MNC group. We observed this improvement at both the 6- and 18-month time points. Intramyocardial injections of CD133+ cells or MNCs appeared to be safe and efficient with superiority of CD133+ cells for patients with RMI. Although the sample size precluded a definitive statement about clinical outcomes, these results have provided the
Sammour, Tarik; Kahokehr, Arman; Hayes, Julian; Hulme-Moir, Mike; Hill, Andrew G
We aimed to test the hypothesis that warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 would lead to reduced postoperative pain and improved recovery by reducing peritoneal inflammation in laparoscopic colonic surgery. Warming and humidification of insufflation gas is thought be beneficial in laparoscopic surgery, but evidence in prolonged laparoscopic procedures is lacking. We used a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled design. The Study Group received warmed (37 degrees C), humidified (98% RH) insufflation carbon dioxide, and the Control Group received standard gas (19 degrees C, 0% RH). Anesthesia and analgesia were standardized. Intraoperative oesophageal temperature was measured at 15 minutes intervals. At the conclusion of surgery, the primary surgeon was asked to rate camera fogging on a Likert scale. Postoperative opiate usage was determined using Morphine Equivalent Daily Dose (MEDD), and pain was measured using visual analogue scores. Peritoneal and plasma cytokine concentrations were measured at 20 hours postoperatively. Postoperative recovery was measured using defined discharge and complication criteria, and the Surgical Recovery Score. Eighty-two patients were randomized, with 41 in each arm. Groups were well matched at baseline. Intraoperative core temperature was similar in both groups. Median camera fogging score was significantly worse in the Study group (4 vs. 2, P = 0.040). There were marginal differences in pain scores, but no significant differences were detected in MEDD usage, cytokine concentrations, or any recovery parameters measured. Warming and humidification of insufflation CO2 does not attenuate the early inflammatory cytokine response, and confers no clinically significant benefit in laparoscopic colonic surgery.
van der Spoel, Johan I; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Kuiper, Michael A; van Roon, Eric N; Zandstra, Durk F; van der Voort, Peter H J
OBJECTIVE: To study whether lactulose or polyethylene glycol is effective to promote defecation in critically ill patients, whether either of the two is superior, and whether the use of enteral laxatives is related to clinical outcome. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.
Kambiz Eftekhari; Zahra Vahedi; Mojtaba Kamali Aghdam; Diana Noemi Diaz
Background: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is one of the most common diseases, and large percentages of children suffer from it. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri in treatment of children with functional abdominal pain. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Children aged 4 to ...
Berlin, Joshua M; Eisenberg, David P; Berlin, Mindy B; Sarro, Robert A; Leeman, Douglas R; Fein, Howard
Senile purpura is a common, chronic skin condition affecting more than 10 percent of individuals over the age of 50. Despite being a benign condition, the continual development of purpura lesions in afflicted patients is frequently a source of significant visual and social concern. To date, there are no known effective treatments for this condition. To evaluate the efficacy of a novel nutraceutical citrus bioflavonoid blend in improving the skin's appearance in patients with senile purpura. A six-week, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted to determine whether a uniquely formulated, oral citrus bioflavonoid supplement could treat active lesions of senile purpura while preventing new lesions from arising. Seventy patients with senile purpura were enrolled and 67 completed the study. Subjects were randomized into two groups receiving either a citrus bioflavonoid blend or placebo medication, which was taken orally twice daily for six weeks. Clinical evaluations were performed by blinded investigators at two locations. A statistically significant reduction in the number of new purpura lesions in the skin area undergoing clinical study was documented. At the end of six weeks, the citrus bioflavonoid blend treated group showed a 50 percent reduction in purpura lesions from baseline. Patient self-assessment of the effectiveness of the medication echoed the results of an investigator global assessment with a statistically significant improvement in the skin's appearance noted by the patients receiving the active medication. No adverse effects were noted by either the patients or investigators. This new treatment appears to both safely and effectively diminish skin bruising in patients with senile purpura.
History of early abuse as a predictor of treatment response in patients with fibromyalgia : A post-hoc analysis of a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled release
Pae, Chi-Un; Masand, Prakash S.; Marks, David M.; Krulewicz, Stan; Han, Changsu; Peindl, Kathleen; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.
Objectives. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to determine whether a history of physical or sexual abuse was associated with response to treatment in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled release (CR) in fibromyalgia. Methods. A randomized, double-blind,
Kawakita, Tetsuya; Uchino, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Yoshino, Kenichi; Shimazaki, Seika; Toda, Ikuko; Tanaka, Mari; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sakatani, Keiko; Hata, Seiichiro; Okano, Takashi; Tsubota, Kazuo
In a previous study, we demonstrated that topical D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ameliorates corneal epithelial erosion and superficial punctate keratopathy in a rat model of dry eye disease. In the current investigation, we performed a prospective, randomized, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops in patients with dry eye disease. A total of 65 patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group, and the treatments were administered 6 times a day for 4 weeks. We then evaluated corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer score, and subjective symptoms. At both 2 and 4 weeks, the corneal rose Bengal score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group. Among patients with an initial Schirmer score of ≤5 mm, the corneal fluorescein staining score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group at two weeks. Mild ocular symptoms occurred in both groups, and these spontaneously resolved. The present study suggested that 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops are safe and effective in treating ocular surface disorders in patients with tear-deficient dry eye disease.
Efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) in Japanese patients with chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: Rationale for and design of the randomized, double-blind PARALLEL-HF study.
Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Momomura, Shinichi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ohishi, Tomomi; Okino, Naoko; Guo, Weinong
The prognosis of heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in Japan remains poor, although there is growing evidence for increasing use of evidence-based pharmacotherapies in Japanese real-world HF registries. Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor shown to reduce mortality and morbidity in the recently completed largest outcome trial in patients with HFrEF (PARADIGM-HF trial). The prospectively designed phase III PARALLEL-HF (Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACE inhibitor to determine the noveL beneficiaL trEatment vaLue in Japanese Heart Failure patients) study aims to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of LCZ696 in Japanese HFrEF patients, and show similar improvements in clinical outcomes as the PARADIGM-HF study enabling the registration of LCZ696 in Japan. This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active controlled study of 220 Japanese HFrEF patients. Eligibility criteria include a diagnosis of chronic HF (New York Heart Association Class II-IV) and reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%) and increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides [N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) ≥600pg/mL, or NT-proBNP ≥400pg/mL for those who had a hospitalization for HF within the last 12 months] at the screening visit. The study consists of three phases: (i) screening, (ii) single-blind active LCZ696 run-in, and (iii) double-blind randomized treatment. Patients tolerating LCZ696 50mg bid during the treatment run-in are randomized (1:1) to receive LCZ696 100mg bid or enalapril 5mg bid for 4 weeks followed by up-titration to target doses of LCZ696 200mg bid or enalapril 10mg bid in a double-blind manner. The primary outcome is the composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization and the study is an event-driven trial. The design of the PARALLEL-HF study is aligned with the PARADIGM-HF study and aims to assess
Full Text Available A recent randomized clinical trial showed buspirone efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children. However, results from a recent multi-site controlled clinical trial of transdermal buspirone failed to separate it from placebo in a large sample of children with ADHD. Therefore, due to these inconsistent findings, this study was designed to assess the efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of children with ADHD compared to methylphenidate in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Forty outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were study population of this trial. Subjects were recruited from an outpatient child and adolescent clinic for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. All study subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment using tablet of buspirone at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for 30kg (group 1 or methylphenidate at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for 30kg (group 2 for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. The principal measure of outcome was the Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale IV. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 21 and 42 days after the medication started. Significant differences were observed between the two groups on the Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -8.95±8.73 (mean±SD and -15.60±7.81 (mean±SD for buspirone and methyphenidate, for Parent ADHD Rating Scale. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -9.80 ±7.06 (mean±SD and -22.40±9.90 (mean±SD for buspirone and methyphenidate, respectively for Teacher ADHD Rating Scale. The difference between the buspirone and methylphenidate groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant except for decreased appetite, headache and insomnia that were observed more frequently in the methylphenidate group. The results of this study suggest that administration of
Full Text Available Preliminary evidence suggests a nephroprotective effect of urinary alkalinization in patients at risk of acute kidney injury. In this study, we tested whether prophylactic bicarbonate-based infusion reduces the incidence of acute kidney injury and tubular damage in patients undergoing open heart surgery.In a multicenter, double-blinded (patients, clinical and research personnel, randomized controlled trial we enrolled 350 adult patients undergoing open heart surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. At induction of anesthesia, patients received either 24 hours of intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (5.1 mmol/kg or sodium chloride (5.1 mmol/kg. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients developing acute kidney injury. Secondary endpoints included the magnitude of acute tubular damage as measured by urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, initiation of acute renal replacement therapy, and mortality. The study was stopped early under recommendation of the Data Safety and Monitoring Committee because interim analysis suggested likely lack of efficacy and possible harm. Groups were non-significantly different at baseline except that a greater proportion of patients in the sodium bicarbonate group (66/174 [38%] presented with preoperative chronic kidney disease compared to control (44/176 [25%]; p = 0.009. Sodium bicarbonate increased urinary pH (from 6.0 to 7.5, p<0.001. More patients receiving bicarbonate (83/174 [47.7%] developed acute kidney injury compared with control patients (64/176 [36.4%], odds ratio [OR] 1.60 [95% CI 1.04-2.45]; unadjusted p = 0.032. After multivariable adjustment, a non-significant unfavorable group difference affecting patients receiving sodium bicarbonate was found for the primary endpoint (OR 1.45 [0.90-2.33], p = 0.120]. A greater postoperative increase in urinary NGAL in patients receiving bicarbonate infusion was observed compared to control patients (p = 0
Andresen, Sven R; Bing, Jette; Hansen, Rikke Bod Middelhede
, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel multicenter study was performed to investigate the effect of ultramicronized PEA (PEA-um) as add-on therapy on neuropathic pain in individuals with SCI. A pain diary was completed and questionnaires were completed before and after the 12-week treatment...... with either placebo or PEA-um. The primary outcome measure was the change in mean neuropathic pain intensity from the 1-week baseline period to the last week of treatment measured on a numeric rating scale ranging from 0 to 10. The primary efficacy analysis was the intention to treat (baseline observation...... included in the primary analysis. There was no difference in mean pain intensity between PEA-um and placebo treatment (P = 0.46, mean reductions in pain scores 0.4 (-0.1 to 0.9) vs 0.7 (0.2-1.2); difference of means 0.3 (-0.4 to 0.9)). There was also no effect of PEA-um as add-on therapy on spasticity...
Stellamans, Karin; Lievens, Yolande; Lambin, Philippe; Van den Weyngaert, Danielle; Van den Bogaert, Walter; Scalliet, Pierre; Hutsebaut, Liesbeth; Haustermans, Karin
STUDY AND METHODS: A double-blind placebo-controlled study randomized 108 patients to investigate the effect of sucralfate on gastrointestinal side effects of pelvic radiation. Overall, pelvic radiation with the administered doses and fields and performed according to nowadays technical standards, was well tolerated. Comparison of the mean scores and the peak reactions for radiotherapy discomfort, diarrhoea and number of stools per day in the 80 evaluable patients showed no statistically significant difference between sucralfate and placebo. Based on these results, the use of sucralfate can not be recommended as standard practice.
Stellamans, Karin; Lievens, Yolande; Lambin, Philippe; Van den Weyngaert, Danielle; Van den Bogaert, Walter; Scalliet, Pierre; Hutsebaut, Liesbeth; Haustermans, Karin
Study and methods: A double-blind placebo-controlled study randomized 108 patients to investigate the effect of sucralfate on gastrointestinal side effects of pelvic radiation. Results: Overall, pelvic radiation with the administered doses and fields and performed according to nowadays technical standards, was well tolerated. Comparison of the mean scores and the peak reactions for radiotherapy discomfort, diarrhoea and number of stools per day in the 80 evaluable patients showed no statistically significant difference between sucralfate and placebo. Conclusion: Based on these results, the use of sucralfate can not be recommended as standard practice
Rudnicki, M; Frölich, A; Rasmussen, W F
The effects of magnesium were compared with those of placebo in a randomized double-blind controlled study of 58 patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension, of whom 27 received magnesium and 31 placebo. Twenty patients in each group were nulliparas. The treatment comprised 48 h of either intrav...
Kundu, Anjana; Lin, Yuting; Oron, Assaf P; Doorenbos, Ardith Z
To examine the effects of Reiki as an adjuvant therapy to opioid therapy for postoperative pain control in pediatric patients. This was a double-blind, randomized controlled study of children undergoing dental procedures. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either Reiki therapy or the control therapy (sham Reiki) preoperatively. Postoperative pain scores, opioid requirements, and side effects were assessed. Family members were also asked about perioperative care satisfaction. Multiple linear regressions were used for analysis. Thirty-eight children participated. The blinding procedure was successful. No statistically significant difference was observed between groups on all outcome measures. Our study provides a successful example of a blinding procedure for Reiki therapy among children in the perioperative period. This study does not support the effectiveness of Reiki as an adjuvant therapy to opioid therapy for postoperative pain control in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bruyère, O; Zegels, B; Leonori, L; Rabenda, V; Janssen, A; Bourges, C; Reginster, J-Y
Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a food supplement made of collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day versus placebo during 6 months, in subjects with joint pain at the lower or upper limbs or at the lumbar spine. Comparative double-blind randomized multicenter study in parallel groups. 200 patients of both genders of at least 50 years old with joint pain assessed as ≥30 mm on a visual analogical scale (VAS). Collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day or placebo during 6 months. Comparison of the percentage of clinical responder between the active collagen hydrolysate group and the placebo group after 6 months of study. A responder subject was defined as a subject experiencing a clinically significant improvement (i.e. by 20% or more) in the most painful joint using the VAS score. All analyses were performed using an intent-to-treat procedure. At 6 months, the proportion of clinical responders to the treatment, according to VAS scores, was significantly higher in the collagen hydrolysate (CH) group 51.6%, compared to the placebo group 36.5% (pvs. 39.6%, p=0.53). No significant difference in terms of security and tolerability was observed between the two groups. This study suggests that collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day could increase the number of clinical responders (i.e. improvement of at least 20% on the VAS) compared to placebo. More studies are needed to confirm the clinical interest of this food supplement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Berk, Michael; Copolov, David L; Dean, Olivia; Lu, Kristy; Jeavons, Sue; Schapkaitz, Ian; Anderson-Hunt, Murray; Bush, Ashley I
Treatment-resistant subthreshold depression is a major problem in bipolar disorder. Both depression and bipolar disorder are complicated by glutathione depletion. We hypothesized that treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a safe, orally bioavailable precursor of glutathione, may improve the depressive component of bipolar disorder. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study of individuals (n = 75) with bipolar disorder in the maintenance phase treated with NAC (1 g twice daily) adjunctive to usual medication over 24 weeks, with a 4-week washout. The two primary outcomes were the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and time to a mood episode. Secondary outcomes included the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale and 11 other ratings of clinical status, quality of life, and functioning. NAC treatment caused a significant improvement on the MADRS (least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval]: -8.05 [-13.16, -2.95], p = .002) and most secondary scales at end point. Benefit was evident by 8 weeks on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale and at 20 weeks on the MADRS. Improvements were lost after washout. There was no effect of NAC on time to a mood episode (log-rank test: p = .968) and no significant between-group differences in adverse events. Effect sizes at end point were medium to high for improvements in MADRS and 9 of the 12 secondary readouts. NAC appears a safe and effective augmentation strategy for depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder.
Wilson, Darrell M; Abrams, Stephanie H; Aye, Tandy; Lee, Phillip D K; Lenders, Carine; Lustig, Robert H; Osganian, Stavroula V; Feldman, Henry A
Metformin has been proffered as a therapy for adolescent obesity, although long-term controlled studies have not been reported. To test the hypothesis that 48 weeks of daily metformin hydrochloride extended release (XR) therapy will reduce body mass index (BMI) in obese adolescents, as compared with placebo. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The 6 centers of the Glaser Pediatric Research Network from October 2003 to August 2007. Obese (BMI > or = 95th percentile) adolescents (aged 13-18 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 39) or placebo groups. Intervention Following a 1-month run-in period, subjects following a lifestyle intervention program were randomized 1:1 to 48 weeks' treatment with metformin hydrochloride XR, 2000 mg once daily, or an identical placebo. Subjects were monitored for an additional 48 weeks. Main Outcome Measure Change in BMI, adjusted for site, sex, race, ethnicity, and age and metformin vs placebo. After 48 weeks, mean (SE) adjusted BMI increased 0.2 (0.5) in the placebo group and decreased 0.9 (0.5) in the metformin XR group (P = .03). This difference persisted for 12 to 24 weeks after cessation of treatment. No significant effects of metformin on body composition, abdominal fat, or insulin indices were observed. Metformin XR caused a small but statistically significant decrease in BMI when added to a lifestyle intervention program. clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00209482 and NCT00120146.
Rivkin, Anna; Alexander, Robert C.; Knighton, Jennifer; Hutson, Pete H.; Wang, Xiaojing J.; Snavely, Duane B.; Rosah, Thomas; Watt, Alan P.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Adler, Lenard A.
Objective: Preclinical models, receptor localization, and genetic linkage data support the role of D4 receptors in the etiology of ADHD. This proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate MK-0929, a selective D4 receptor antagonist as treatment for adult ADHD. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted…
Pokhis, Karina; Bitterlich, Norman; Cornelli, Umberto; Cassano, Giuseppina
Background The purpose of this clinical study was to ascertain whether low molecular weight chitosan polyglucosamine is able to produce significantly better weight loss than placebo. Method 115 participants were included in the study. We used a two-center randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled design. The participants followed a standard treatment (ST), which included the combination of a low-calorie diet achieved through creating a daily calorie deficit (500 cal) and an increased daily...
Vranken, J. H.; Hollmann, M. W.; van der Vegt, M. H.; Kruis, M. R.; Heesen, M.; Vos, K.; Pijl, A. J.; Dijkgraaf, M. G. W.
The mechanisms underlying central neuropathic pain are poorly understood. Pain inhibitory mechanisms including sertononergic and norepinephrine systems may be dysfunctional. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effects of duloxetine on pain relief
Y. van Pareren; M. Houdijk; M. Jansen (Maarten); M. Reeser; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)
textabstractThe GH dose-response effect of long-term continuous GH treatment on adult height (AH) was evaluated in 54 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) who were participating in a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial. Patients were randomly and blindly
Hurtado, R; Celani, M; Geber, S
To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. We performed a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial over 3 years. Randomization was performed using computer-generated sorting. All participants were blinded to the use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) or placebo and FMD was assessed by a blinded examiner, before and after 28 days of medication. A total of 64 healthy postmenopausal women were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of treatment: 0.625 mg of CEE or placebo. FMD values were statistically different between the groups (p = 0.025): the group receiving CEE showed a FMD value of 0.011 compared to the placebo group (FMD = -0.082). The two groups were additionally evaluated for homogeneity through the Shapiro-Wilk test in respect to variables that could interfere with endothelial function such as age (p = 0.729), body mass index (p = 0.891), and time since menopause (p = 0.724). Other variables were excluded during selection of the participants such as chronic vascular conditions, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. Our results demonstrate that the administration of 0.625 mg CEE for 28 days is effective in improving vascular nitric oxide-dependent dilation assessed by FMD of the brachial artery in postmenopausal women. NCT01482416.
Tuk, Jacco G. C.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; Mertens, Ine C.; Keleş, Zühal; Lindeboom, Jérôme A. H.; Milstein, Dan M. J.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on preinjection sites in patients scheduled for third molar removal. This double-blind randomized controlled trial included 163 healthy patients undergoing third molar extractions. The study participants
Morer, Carla; Roques, Christian-François; Françon, Alain; Forestier, Romain; Maraver, Francisco
The aims of this study were to conduct a systematic literature review on balneotherapy about the specific therapeutic role of mineral elements and other chemical compounds of mineral waters and derivate peloids/muds and to discuss the study methods used to evaluate it (in musculoskeletal conditions). We searched Medline by PubMed using the following key words: "spa therapy" "balneotherapy" "mud" "peloid" "mud pack Therapy" in combination with "randomized controlled trial" "double blind trial." We also reviewed the reference list of articles retrieved by the Medline search. We selected the double-blind randomized clinical trials that assessed the effects of mineral water or mud treatments compared to tap water, attenuated peloid/mud therapy or similar treatments without the specific minerals or chemical compounds of the treatment group ("non-mineral"). We evaluated the internal validity and the quality of the statistical analysis of these trials. The final selection comprised 27 double-blind randomized clinical trials, 20 related to rheumatology. A total of 1118 patients with rheumatological and other musculoskeletal diseases were evaluated in these studies: 552 of knee osteoarthritis, 47 of hand osteoarthritis, 147 chronic low back pain, 308 of reumathoid arthritis, and 64 of osteoporosis; 293 of these participants were assigned to the experimental groups of knee osteoarthritis, 24 in hand osteoarthritis, 82 of low back pain, 152 with reumathoid arthritis, and 32 with osteoporosis. They were treated with mineral water baths and/or mud/peloid (with or without other forms of treatment, like physical therapy, exercise…). The rest were allocated to the control groups; they received mainly tap water and/or "non-mineral" mud/peloid treatments. Mineral water or mud treatments had better and longer improvements in pain, function, quality of life, clinical parameters, and others in some rheumatologic diseases (knee and hand osteoarthritis, chronic low back pain
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of Adderall XR in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and diurnal variation in responses were assessed by a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial at 47 sites, and reported from the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.
Bussone, G; Tullo, V; Cortelli, P; Valguarnera, F; Barbanti, P; Sette, G; D’Onofrio, F; Curone, M; Benedetto, C
Purpose The purpose of this article is to investigate the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan plus dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg (FroDex25 or FroDex37.5, respectively) compared to that of frovatriptan 2.5 mg (Frova) in menstrually related migraine (MRM). Aim The aim of this article is to analyze a subgroup of 76 women who treated an MRM attack in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Methods The primary end-point was the proportion of patients who were pain free (PF) at two hours. Secondary end-points included pain-relief (PR) at two hours and 48 hours sustained pain free (SPF). Results PF rates at two hours were 29% under Frova, 48% under FroDex25 and 64% under FroDex37.5 (p dexketoprofen produced higher PF rates at two hours compared to Frova while maintaining efficacy at 48 hours. Tolerability profiles were comparable. PMID:25053749
Perez, R.S.G.M.; Pragt, E.; Geurts, J.J.G.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Patijn, J.; van Kleef, M.
To assess the effects of intravenous administration of the free radical scavenger mannitol 10% on complaints associated with complex regional pain syndrome Type I (CRPS I), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial was performed. Forty-one CRPS I patients according to the Bruehl et al
Higurashi, Takuma; Fujisawa, Nobutaka; Uchiyama, Shiori; Ezuka, Akiko; Nagase, Hajime; Kessoku, Takaomi; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Shoji; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Morita, Satoshi; Nakajima, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Endo, Hiroki; Hosono, Kunihiro; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Uchiyama, Takashi; Hata, Yasuo
Colorectal cancer is one of the major neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Metformin, a biguanide, which is widely used for treating diabetes mellitus, has recently been suggestive to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In a previous study conducted in non-diabetic subjects, we showed that oral short-term low-dose metformin suppressed the development of colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF). ACF have been considered as a useful surrogate biomarker of CRC, although the biological significance of these lesions remains controversial. We devised a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of metformin against metachronous colorectal polyps and the safety of this drug in non-diabetic post-polypectomy patients. This study is a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in non-diabetic patients with a recent history of undergoing colorectal polypectomy. All adult patients visiting the Yokohama City University hospital or affiliated hospitals for polypectomy shall be recruited for the study. Eligible patients will then be allocated randomly into either one of two groups: the metformin group and the placebo group. Patients in the metformin group shall receive oral metformin at 250 mg per day, and those in the placebo group shall receive an oral placebo tablet. At the end of 1 year of administration of metformin/placebo, colonoscopy will be performed to evaluate the polyp formation. This is the first study proposed to explore the effect of metformin against colorectal polyp formation. Metformin activates AMPK, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The mTOR pathway plays an important role in the cellular protein translational machinery and cell proliferation. Patients with type 2 diabetes taking under treatment with metformin have been
Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is one of the major neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Metformin, a biguanide, which is widely used for treating diabetes mellitus, has recently been suggestive to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In a previous study conducted in non-diabetic subjects, we showed that oral short-term low-dose metformin suppressed the development of colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF. ACF have been considered as a useful surrogate biomarker of CRC, although the biological significance of these lesions remains controversial. We devised a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of metformin against metachronous colorectal polyps and the safety of this drug in non-diabetic post-polypectomy patients. Methods/Design This study is a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in non-diabetic patients with a recent history of undergoing colorectal polypectomy. All adult patients visiting the Yokohama City University hospital or affiliated hospitals for polypectomy shall be recruited for the study. Eligible patients will then be allocated randomly into either one of two groups: the metformin group and the placebo group. Patients in the metformin group shall receive oral metformin at 250 mg per day, and those in the placebo group shall receive an oral placebo tablet. At the end of 1 year of administration of metformin/placebo, colonoscopy will be performed to evaluate the polyp formation. Discussion This is the first study proposed to explore the effect of metformin against colorectal polyp formation. Metformin activates AMPK, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. The mTOR pathway plays an important role in the cellular protein translational machinery and cell proliferation. Patients with
Pecknold, J; Luthe, L; Munjack, D; Alexander, P
This is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose, multicenter, 6-week study comparing regular alprazolam (compressed tablet, CT), given four times per day, and extended release alprazolam (XR), given once in the morning. The aim of the XR preparation is to offer less frequent dosing and to reduce interdose anxiety. Of the intent-to-treat group of 209 patients, 184 completed 3 weeks of medication and were evaluated according to protocol. There was a completer rate for the 6 weeks of 94% (CT), 97% (XR), and 87% (placebo). On global measures, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, phobia rating, and work disability measures, both active treatment groups were equally effective and significantly more efficacious than the placebo cell on endpoint MANOVA analysis. On analysis of the panic factor with endpoint data, both active treatment groups were equally effective throughout the 6-week trial and significantly more efficacious than the placebo group. Drowsiness occurred more frequently with CT alprazolam (86% of patients) than with the XR preparation (79%) or placebo (49%).
Holte, Kathrine; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Valentiner, Lotte
BACKGROUND: There are few data describing the relationship between amount of perioperative fluid and organ function. In this study we investigated the effects of two levels of intravascular fluid administration ("liberal" versus "restrictive") in knee arthroplasty on physiological recovery...... with a standardized volume of colloid. All other aspects of perioperative management (including anesthesia, preoperative fluid status, and postoperative management) were standardized. Primary outcome variables included pulmonary function (spirometry), exercise capacity ("timed up and go" test), coagulation...... as the primary outcome variable. METHODS: In a double-blind study, 48 ASA I-III patients undergoing fast-track elective knee arthroplasty were randomized to restrictive or liberal perioperative intravascular fluid administration. Patients received a fixed rate infusion of Ringer's lactate solution...
Andresen, Sven Robert; Bing, Jette; Hansen, Rikke Bod Middelhede
. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel multicenter study. Study population of at least 66 patients must complete the 12 week trial.Questionnaires regarding neuropathic pain, spasticity, insomnia, anxiety and depression are completed before and after treatment. A numeric...
Shukla, Aparna; Misra, Shilpi
Clinical need for a nondepolarizing agent with a rapid onset time and a brief duration of action has led to the development of rocuronium bromide. The aim of this study was to evaluate optimal dose of rocuronium bromide for intubation and to compare the onset time, duration of action, intubating conditions, and hemodynamic effects of two doses of rocuronium bromide. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study. All the patients were divided in a randomized, double-blind fashion into two groups of twenty patients each. Group I patients received rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg/kg intravenously and intubated at 60 s, Group II patients received rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg/kg and intubated at 60 s. The neuromuscular block was assessed using single twitch stimulation of 0.1 Hz at adductor pollicis muscle of hand at every 10 s. The results were compiled and analyzed statistically using Chi-square test for qualitative data and Student's t -test for quantitative data. Time of onset was significantly shorter ( P Rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg/kg is a safer alternative to rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg/kg for endotracheal intubation with shorter time of onset and better intubating conditions.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in subjects with self-reported occasional constipation. Eligible subjects ≥ 17 years of age were randomized to receive either placebo or PEG 3350 17 g once daily in this multicenter, double-blind trial. Evaluations were conducted before (baseline) and after a 7-d treatment period. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of subjects reporting complete resolution of straining and hard or lumpy stools. Secondary efficacy variables assessed the severity of the subjects' daily bowel movement (BM) symptoms, and preference of laxatives based on diary entries, visual analog scale scores, and questionnaires. Of the 203 subjects enrolled in the study, 11 had major protocol violations. Complete resolution was noted by 36/98 (36.7%) subjects in the PEG 3350 group and 23/94 (24.5%) in the placebo group (P = 0.0595). The number of complete BMs without straining or lumpy stools was similar between both groups. Subjects receiving PEG 3350 experienced significant relief in straining and reduction in hardness of stools over a 7-d period (P PEG 3350 had a better effect on their daily lives, provided better control over a BM, better relief from constipation, cramping, and bloating, and was their preferred laxative. Adverse events (AEs) were balanced between the PEG 3350 and the placebo groups. No deaths, serious AEs, or discontinuations due to AEs were reported. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00770432. Oral administration of 17 g PEG 3350 once daily for a week is effective, safe, and well tolerated in subjects with occasional constipation.
Ablove, Tova; Bell, Lauren N; Liang, Hong; Chappell, Richard J; Toklu, Hale Z; Yale, Steven H
To determine the effectiveness of the muscarinic receptor antagonist solifenacin (VESIcare®) in the treatment of postvoid dribbling (PVD). We carried out a multicenter, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design study. Between 2012 and 2015, a total of 118 women (age 18-89 years) with PVD at least twice/weekly, were randomized to receive solifenacin (5 mg; n = 58) or placebo (n = 60) once daily. The primary outcome was the percentage reduction in PVD episodes. Secondary outcomes included the percentage of patients with ≥50% reduction in PVD episodes and changes in quality of life. There were no differences in either the primary or secondary outcome variables. Subgroup analysis, based on those with more severe disease (>10 PVD episodes/week), showed a greater and significant percentage reduction in the frequency of PVD episodes per day (60.3% vs 32.1%; p = 0.035) and a higher percentage of patients showing ≥50% reduction in the frequency of PVD episodes with solifenacin (68.1% vs 45.8%; p = 0.0476). A significant solifenacin effect occurred at week 2 and continued through week 12 for the subgroup. For solifenacin, PVD reduction was the same for the entire cohort and subgroup, whereas for placebo, it was 10% lower in the subgroup, declining from 42% to 32%. There were no differences in PVD outcomes between the solifenacin and placebo groups. Solifenacin may play a role in treating women with the most severe symptoms. Because of the powerful placebo response seen in this study, behavior-based interventions may be useful for treating PVD.
Schjerning, Ole; Damkier, Per; Lykkegaard, Signe Engelhardt
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is frequent in patients with schizophrenia and poses a major impact on patients perceived quality of life, daily functioning and risk of suicide. Pregabalin has shown effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and has been suggested for the treatment of anxiety...... in patients with schizophrenia. As evidence is sparse regarding treatment of anxiety in this patient group, we aimed to investigate the use of pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study was used. Patients were randomized to either...... placebo or pregabalin (≤600mg/d) as add-on treatment. Primary analyses were intention-to-treat based with change in Hamilton Anxiety Scale after 4 and 8weeks of treatment as primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were change in psychopathology, quality-of-life, cognitive functioning and sleep. The study used...
Gropper, Savion; Albareda, Nuria; Chelius, Klaus; Kruger, Dawie; Mitha, Ismail; Vahed, Yacoob; Gani, Mashra; García-Alonso, Fernando
We compared the efficacy and safety of ozenoxacin (a new nonfluorinated quinolone) 1% cream with placebo in the treatment of impetigo. In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study, patients received ozenoxacin cream or placebo cream twice daily for 5 days (a third group received retapamulin 1% ointment as a control). Clinical, microbiological and laboratory evaluations were performed during follow-up (over 2 weeks). Ozenoxacin was superior to placebo (success rate 34.8 vs 19.2%; p = 0.003). Microbiological success was 70.8% for ozenoxacin and 38.2% for placebo after 3-4 days and 79.2% versus 56.6% after 6-7 days. Ozenoxacin produced more rapid microbiological clearance than retapamulin. All treatments were well tolerated. Ozenoxacin 1% cream was effective and safe in the treatment of impetigo.
Feb 2, 2014 ... EAsT AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. February 2014 .... based randomised double- blinded clinical trial evaluating effectiveness of ... study drugs was undertaken following a random ... included sodium citrate, citric acid monohydrate, ... post-hoc test to carry out pair-wise comparisons of .... self-care market.
Harfterkamp, M.; Loo-Neus, G. van de; Minderaa, R.B.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Escobar, R.; Schacht, A.; Pamulapati, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoekstra, P.J.
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of atomoxetine as treatment of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been established. METHOD: In this study, 97 patients aged 6 to 17 years with ADHD and ASD were randomly assigned to double-blind
Harfterkamp, Myriam; van de Loo-Neus, Gigi; Minderaa, Ruud B.; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Escobar, Rodrigo; Schacht, Alexander; Pamulapati, Sireesha; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.
Objective: The efficacy of atomoxetine as treatment of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been established. Method: In this study, 97 patients aged 6 to 17 years with ADHD and ASD were randomly assigned to double-blind
[Comparison of benazepril monotherapy to amlodipine plus benazepril in the treatment of patients with mild and moderate hypertension: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-controlled study].
Fan, Chao-mei; Yan, Li-rong; Tao, Yong-kang; Wang, Li; Li, Yu-qing; Gao, Ming-ming; Wang, Yan-ni; Li, Cheng-xiang; Wang, Xiao-wan; Lu, Xiao-lei; Pang, Hui-min; Li, Yi-shi
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the fixed combination of amlodipine 5 mg/benazepril 10 mg once-daily therapy, compared with benazepril, 10 mg, monotherapy in patients with mild and moderate hypertension, and to evaluate the 24 h antihypertensive efficacy and the duration of action by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel controlled trial, 356 cases of hypertensive patients after 2 weeks wash-out, and then given 4 weeks of benazepril 10 mg monotherapy, 220 patients with mean seated diastolic blood pressure (SeDBP) remained ≥ 90 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) were randomly divided into benazepril 10 mg/amlodipine 5 mg (BZ10/AML5) fixed-dose combination therapy group (once a day, n = 113), and benazepril monotherapy group (daily 20 mg, n = 107). In the two groups the patients with SeDBP ≥ 90 mm Hg were doubled the dosage of the initial regimen at the end of 4-week treatment for additional 4 weeks, and the patients with SeDBP benazepril/amlodipine (10 mg/5 mg) and benazepril (20 mg) alone were 83.1%/76.0% and 85.8%/79.5%, respectively. Adverse events rates were 16.8% in the combination therapy group and 35.5% in the monotherapy group (P benazepril/amlodipine was superior to benazepril monotherapy and was well tolerated in patients with essential hypertension and allowing a satisfactory BP control for 24 hours.
Full Text Available Background: Ureteral double J stent are routinely applied for urologic patients although stent-related symptoms are common. Several attempts have been reported to minimize these symptoms. Objective: To compare Tolterodine, Tamsulosin, and placebo effects on double J stent–related symptoms. Material and method: In all, 125 patients (82 males and 43 females with double J stent were randomly divided into three groups (group 1, n: 42, group2, n: 40 and group 3, n: 43. Each patient randomly received one pack of drug in different colors by a nurse unaware of the content to take Tamsulosin 0.4 mg before sleep (MODALUSINE, Tolterodine 2 mg twice a day or placebo once daily (capsules filled with starch: group 1 received placebo, group 2 Tamsulosin and group 3 Tolterodine for 1 month in a double-blind manner. Ureteral stent-related morbidity indices which analyzed include urinary symptom, pain, general health, quality of work and sex scores. All of indices measured by Ureteral Symptom Score Questionnaire for first and fourth weeks after drug consumption and the first week after double J stent removal (labeled as w1, w4, and w5, respectively. Result: The mean age was 44.8 years (range: 15–83 years. There was no statistically significant difference in background characteristics between groups (p value > 0.05. The most important and statistically significant results were Tolterodine-reduced urinary symptom score (p value = 0.001 and improved general health score (p value = 0.007 of the fourth week. The pain score in groups of Tamsulosin and Tolterodine significantly reduced between weeks 4 and 1 and 5 and 1 (both with the p value < 0.05, but in other indices, there was no significant difference between them. Conclusion: According to our results, we suggest Tolterodine to minimize stent-related urinary symptom and improve general health in patients with double J stent.
Full Text Available Susan L Cusack,1 Mark Jaros,2 Michael Kuss,3 Harold S Minkowitz,4 Peter Winkle,5 Lisa Hemsen61Cusack Pharmaceutical Consulting, Burlington, NJ, 2Summit Analytical, Denver, CO, USA; 3Premier Research Group, Austin, TX, USA; 4Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 5Advanced Clinical Research Institute, Anaheim, CA, USA; 6Innocoll Technologies, Athlone, IrelandBackground: XaraColl®, a collagen-based implant that delivers bupivacaine to the site of surgical trauma, is under development for postoperative analgesia. Because of differing patient attitudes to postoperative pain control and the inability to assess baseline pain, standard clinical methods for evaluating analgesic efficacy are compromised and justify application of novel integrated approaches.Methods: We conducted two independent, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in men undergoing unilateral inguinal hernioplasty by open laparotomy to evaluate the safety and efficacy of XaraColl at different doses (100 mg and 200 mg of bupivacaine hydrochloride; study 1 and 2, respectively. Enrolled patients (50 in study 1 and 53 in study 2 were randomized to receive active or placebo implants in a 1:1 ratio. Postoperative pain intensity and use of supplementary opioid medication were recorded through 72 hours. Safety was assessed through 30 days. The principal efficacy variables were the summed pain intensity (SPI, total use of opioid analgesia (TOpA, and an integrated endpoint (I-SPI-TOpA. Each variable was analyzed at 24, 48, and 72 hours after implantation. A pooled analysis of both studies was also performed retrospectively.Results: Through 24 and 48 hours, XaraColl-treated patients experienced significantly less pain in study 1 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively whereas they took significantly less opioid analgesia in study 2 (P = 0.004 and P = 0.042, respectively. Over the same time intervals in the pooled analysis, treated patients experienced
Full Text Available Abstract Background N-acetyl cysteine (NAC is a glutathione precursor that has been shown to have antidepressant efficacy in a placebo-controlled trial. The current study aimed to investigate the maintenance effects of NAC following eight weeks of open-label treatment for bipolar disorder. Method The efficacy of a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial of 2 g/day NAC as adjunct maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder was examined. Participants (n = 149 had a Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Score of ≥12 at trial entry and, after eight weeks of open-label NAC treatment, were randomized to adjunctive NAC or placebo, in addition to treatment as usual. Participants (primarily outpatients were recruited through public and private services and through newspaper advertisements. Time to intervention for a mood episode was the primary endpoint of the study, and changes in mood symptoms, functionality and quality of life measures were secondary outcomes. Results There was a substantial decrease in symptoms during the eight-week open-label NAC treatment phase. During the subsequent double-blind phase, there was minimal further change in outcome measures with scores remaining low. Consequently, from this low plateau, between-group differences did not emerge on recurrence, clinical functioning or quality of life measures. Conclusions There were no significant between-group differences in recurrence or symptomatic outcomes during the maintenance phase of the trial; however, these findings may be confounded by limitations. Trial Registration The trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12607000074493.
Grzegorz Lukasz Fojecki, MD
Fojecki GL, Tiessen S, Osther PJS. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction—12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study. Sex Med 2018;6:1–7.
Full Text Available Abstract Background 15-20% of all patients initially diagnosed with colorectal cancer develop metastatic disease and surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment available. Current 5-year survival following R0-resection of liver metastases is 28-39%, but recurrence eventually occurs in up to 70%. To date, adjuvant chemotherapy has not improved clinical outcomes significantly. The primary objective of the ongoing LICC trial (L-BLP25 In Colorectal Cancer is to determine whether L-BLP25, an active cancer immunotherapy, extends recurrence-free survival (RFS time over placebo in colorectal cancer patients following R0/R1 resection of hepatic metastases. L-BLP25 targets MUC1 glycoprotein, which is highly expressed in hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. In a phase IIB trial, L-BLP25 has shown acceptable tolerability and a trend towards longer survival in patients with stage IIIB locoregional NSCLC. Methods/Design This is a multinational, phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a sample size of 159 patients from 20 centers in 3 countries. Patients with stage IV colorectal adenocarcinoma limited to liver metastases are included. Following curative-intent complete resection of the primary tumor and of all synchronous/metachronous metastases, eligible patients are randomized 2:1 to receive either L-BLP25 or placebo. Those allocated to L-BLP25 receive a single dose of 300 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide (CP 3 days before first L-BLP25 dose, then primary treatment with s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg once weekly for 8 weeks, followed by s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg maintenance doses at 6-week (years 1&2 and 12-week (year 3 intervals unless recurrence occurs. In the control arm, CP is replaced by saline solution and L-BLP25 by placebo. Primary endpoint is the comparison of recurrence-free survival (RFS time between groups. Secondary endpoints are overall survival (OS time, safety, tolerability, RFS/OS in MUC-1 positive
Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih
Jehn-Yu Huang, Po-Ting Yeh, Yu-Chih Hou Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extract...
Ong, L. M.; Visser, M. R.; Lammes, F. B.; van der Velden, J.; Kuenen, B. C.; de Haes, J. C.
PURPOSE: By means of a randomized double-blind study, the effect of providing taped initial consultations on cancer patients' satisfaction, recall, and quality of life was investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive cancer patients referred to either the gynecology or medical oncology outpatient
Efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in heart failure patients with volume overload despite the standard treatment with conventional diuretics: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (QUEST study).
Matsuzaki, Masunori; Hori, Masatsugu; Izumi, Tohru; Fukunami, Masatake
Diuretics are recommended to treat volume overload with heart failure (HF), however, they may cause serum electrolyte imbalance, limiting their use. Moreover, patients with advanced HF could poorly respond to these diuretics. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tolvaptan, a competitive vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist developed as a new drug to treat volume overload in HF patients. A phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in treating HF patients with volume overload despite the use of conventional diuretics. One hundred and ten patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 15 mg/day tolvaptan for 7 consecutive days. Compared with placebo, tolvaptan administered for 7 days significantly reduced body weight and improved symptoms associated with volume overload. The safety profile of tolvaptan was considered acceptable for clinical use with minimal adverse effects. Tolvaptan reduced volume overload and improved congestive symptoms associated with HF by a potent water diuresis (aquaresis).
Willemsen, Joep C N; Van Dongen, Joris; Spiekman, Maroesjka; Vermeulen, Karin M; Harmsen, Martin C; van der Lei, Berend; Stevens, H P Jeroen
Lipofilling is a treatment modality to restore tissue volume, but it may also rejuvenate the aging skin. Platelet-rich plasma has been reported to augment the efficacy of lipofilling, both on graft take and rejuvenation, by altering the adipose-derived stem cells. The authors hypothesized that addition of platelet-rich plasma would increase the rejuvenating effect and shorten recovery time. The study conducted was a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (2012 to 2015). In total, a well-defined cohort of 32 healthy female patients enrolled in the study, with 25 completing the follow-up. All patients underwent aesthetic facial lipofilling with either saline or platelet-rich plasma added. Outcome was determined by changes in skin elasticity, volumetric changes of the nasolabial fold, recovery time, and patient satisfaction during follow-up (1 year). Platelet-rich plasma did not improve the outcome of facial lipofilling when looking at skin elasticity improvement, graft volume maintenance in the nasolabial fold. Reversal of the correlation between age and elasticity, however, might suggest a small effect size, and thus might not be significant with our small study population. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study clearly has shown that platelet-rich plasma significantly reduces postoperative recovery time but does not improve patient outcome when looking at skin elasticity, improvement of the nasolabial fold, or patient satisfaction. The reversal of the correlation between age and elasticity might indicate some effect on skin but requires more power in future studies. Therapeutic, II.
The Belgian trial with azithromycin for acute COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization: an investigator-initiated study protocol for a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Full Text Available Kristina Vermeersch,1 Maria Gabrovska,2 Griet Deslypere,3 Ingel K Demedts,4 Hans Slabbynck,5 Joseph Aumann,3 Vincent Ninane,2 Geert M Verleden,1 Thierry Troosters,1,6 Kris Bogaerts,7,8 Guy G Brusselle,9 Wim Janssens1 On behalf of the BACE Trial Investigators 1KU Leuven, Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Leuven, Belgium; 2Department of Pneumology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Pierre, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Pneumology, Jessa Ziekenhuis, Hasselt, Belgium; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, AZ Delta Roeselare-Menen, Roeselare, Belgium; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, ZNA Middelheim, Antwerpen, Belgium; 6KU Leuven, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Leuven, Belgium; 7KU Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, I-BioStat, Leuven, Belgium; 8Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium; 9Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium Background: Long-term use of macrolide antibiotics is effective to prevent exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. As risks and side effects of long-term intervention outweigh the benefits in the general COPD population, the optimal dose, duration of treatment, and target population are yet to be defined. Hospitalization for an acute exacerbation (AE of COPD may offer a targeted risk group and an obvious risk period for studying macrolide interventions.Methods/design: Patients with COPD, hospitalized for an AE, who have a smoking history of ≥10 pack-years and had ≥1 exacerbation in the previous year will be enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT02135354. On top of a standardized treatment of systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics, subjects will be randomized to receive either azithromycin or placebo during 3 months, at an uploading dose of 500 mg once a day for
Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized controlled trials have shown that treatment of chronically ventilated preterm infants after the first week of life with dexamethasone reduces the incidence of the combined outcome death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. However, there are concerns that dexamethasone may increase the risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Hydrocortisone has been suggested as an alternative therapy. So far no randomized controlled trial has investigated its efficacy when administered after the first week of life to ventilated preterm infants. Methods/Design The SToP-BPD trial is a randomized double blind placebo controlled multicenter study including 400 very low birth weight infants (gestational age Discussion This trial will determine the efficacy and safety of postnatal hydrocortisone administration at a moderately early postnatal onset compared to placebo for the reduction of the combined outcome mortality and BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age in ventilator dependent preterm infants. Trial registration number Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2768
Jain, Sejal V; Horn, Paul S; Simakajornboon, Narong; Beebe, Dean W; Holland, Katherine; Byars, Anna W; Glauser, Tracy A
Insomnia, especially maintenance insomnia, is widely prevalent in epilepsy. Although melatonin is commonly used, limited data address its efficacy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to identify the effects of melatonin on sleep and seizure control in children with epilepsy. Eleven prepubertal, developmentally normal children aged 6-11 years with epilepsy were randomized by a software algorithm to receive placebo or a 9-mg sustained release (SR) melatonin formulation for four weeks, followed by a one-week washout and a four-week crossover condition. The pharmacy performed blinding; patients, parents, and study staff other than a statistician were blinded. The primary outcomes were sleep onset latency and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) measured on polysomnography. The secondary outcomes included seizure frequency, epileptiform spike density per hour of sleep on electroencephalogram (EEG), and reaction time (RT) measures on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Statistical tests appropriate for crossover designs were used for the analysis. Data were analyzed from 10 subjects who completed the study. Melatonin decreased sleep latency (mean difference, MD, of 11.4 min and p = 0.02) and WASO (MD of 22 min and p = 0.04) as compared to placebo. No worsening of spike density or seizure frequency was seen. Additionally, slow-wave sleep duration and rapid eye movement (REM) latency were increased with melatonin and REM sleep duration was decreased. These changes were statistically significant. Worsening of headache was noted in one subject with migraine on melatonin. SR melatonin resulted in statistically significant decreases in sleep latency and WASO. No clear effects on seizures were observed, but the study was too small to allow any conclusions to be drawn in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Duits, Puck; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; van Megen, Harold J.; Vulink, Nienke C.; Denys, Damiaan A.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J.; Cath, Danielle C.
Purpose/Background: D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-Daspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the
Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Duits, Puck; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; van Megen, Harold J.; Vulink, Nienke C.; Denys, Damiaan A.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J.; Cath, Danielle C.
Purpose/Background: D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-Daspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the
Boxer, Adam L.; Knopman, David S.; Kaufer, Daniel I.; Grossman, Murray; Onyike, Chiadi; Graf-Radford, Neill; Mendez, Mario; Kerwin, Diana; Lerner, Alan; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Koestler, Mary; Shapira, Jill; Sullivan, Kathryn; Klepac, Kristen; Lipowski, Kristine; Ullah, Jerin; Fields, Scott; Kramer, Joel H.; Merrilees, Jennifer; Neuhaus, John; Mesulam, M. Marsel; Miller, Bruce L.
Background Memantine has been used off-label to treat frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTD). A previous 26 week open label study suggested a transient, modest benefit on neuropsychiatric symptoms as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Methods We performed a randomized, parallel group, double blind, placebo controlled trial of 20 mg memantine taken orally daily for 26 weeks in FTD. Participants met Neary criteria for behavioral variant (bvFTD) or semantic dementia (SD) and had characteristic brain atrophy. Use of cholinesterase inhibitors was prohibited. The objective of the study was to determine whether memantine is an effective treatment for FTD. Individuals were randomized to memantine or matched placebo tablets in blocks of two and four. Primary endpoints were the change in total NPI score and Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scores after 26 weeks. Secondary outcomes included a neuropsychological battery, and other cognitive, global and activity of daily living measures. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00545974 Findings 100 subjects were screened, 81 were randomized, 5 (6%) discontinued and 76 completed all visits. Enrollment numbers were lower than planned due to many subjects’ preference to take memantine or cholinesterase inhibitors off-label rather than participate in a clinical trial. 39 memantine and 42 placebo subjects entered the primary intent to treat analysis. There was no effect of memantine treatment on either the NPI (mean difference [MD] 2.2, 95%CI: −3.9, 8.3, p = 0.47) or CGIC (MD 0, 95%CI: −0.4, 0.4, p = 0.90) after 26 weeks of treatment. Memantine was generally well tolerated, however there were more frequent cognitive adverse events in the memantine group. Interpretation There was no benefit of memantine treatment in bvFTD or SD. These data do not support memantine use in FTD. Funding Forest Research Institute PMID:23290598
Full Text Available Background: postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV frequently hampers implementation of ambulatory surgery in spite of so many antiemetic drugs and regimens. Aims: the study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Ramosetron and Ondansetron in preventing PONV after ambulatory surgery. Setting and Design: it was a prospective, double blinded, and randomized controlled study. Methods: 124 adult patients of either sex, aged 25-55, of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for day care surgery, were randomly allocated into Group A [(n=62 receiving (IV Ondansetron (4 mg] and Group B [(n=62 receiving IV Ramosetron (0.3 mg] prior to the induction of general anesthesia in a double-blind manner. Episodes of PONV were noted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 h, 6 , 12, and 18 h postoperatively. Statistical Analysis and Results: statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (P <0.05 was found showing that Ramosetron was superior to Ondansetron as antiemetic both regarding frequency and severity. Conclusion: it was evident that preoperative prophylactic administration of single dose IV Ramosetron (0.3 mg has better efficacy than single dose IV Ondansetron (4 mg in reducing the episodes of PONV over 18 h postoperatively in patients undergoing day-care surgery under general anesthesia.
Full Text Available Objective: Glutamate is considered a target for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. The efficacy and safety of the nutritional supplement of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC as an adjuvant to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI for treating children and adolescents with OCD has never been examined.Methods: This was a 10-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with 34 OCD outpatients. The patients received citalopram plus NAC or placebo. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™ were used. Adverse effects were monitored.Results: YBOCS score was not different between the two groups at baseline, but the score was different between the two groups at the end of this trial (P<0.02. The YBOCS score of NAC group significantly decreased from 21.0(8.2 to 11.3(5.7 during this study. However, no statistically significant decrease of YBOCS was found in the placebo group. The Cohen’s d effect size was 0.83.The mean change of score of resistance/control to obsessions in the NAC and placebo groups was 1.8(2.3 and 0.8(2.1, respectively (P = 0.2. However, the mean score of change for resistance/control to compulsion in the NAC and placebo groups was 2.3(1.8 and 0.9(2.3, respectively. Cohen’s d effect size was 0.42.The score of three domains of quality of life significantly decreased in N-Acetylcysteine group during this trial. However, no statistically significant decrease was detected in the placebo group. No serious adverse effect was found in the two groups.Conclusion: This trial suggests that NAC adds to the effect of citalopram in improving resistance/control to compulsions in OCD children and adolescents. In addition, it is well tolerated.
Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Duits, Puck; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Van Megen, Harold J.; Vulink, Nienke C.; Denys, Damiaan A.; Van Den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Cath, Danielle C.
Purpose/Background D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the
Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Duits, Puck; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; van Megen, Harold J; Vulink, Nienke C; Denys, D.; van den Hout, Marcel A; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Cath, Danielle C
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the
Seo, Byung-Kwan; Han, Kyungsun; Kwon, Ojin; Jo, Dae-Jean; Lee, Jun-Hwan
Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain (CLBP) through the pharmacological effects of bee venom and the simultaneous stimulation of acupoints. However, evidence of its efficacy and safety in humans remains unclear. Using a double-blind, randomized study, 54 patients with non-specific CLBP were assigned to the BVA and sham groups. All participants underwent six sessions of real or sham BVA for 3 weeks, in addition to administration of 180 mg of loxonin p...
de Ridder, Inger R; den Hertog, Heleen M; van Gemert, H Maarten A; Schreuder, A H C M L Tobien; Ruitenberg, Annemieke; Maasland, E Lisette; Saxena, Ritu; van Tuijl, Jordie H; Jansen, Ben P W; Van den Berg-Vos, Renske M; Vermeij, Frederique; Koudstaal, Peter J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; van der Worp, H Bart; Dippel, Diederik W J
Subfebrile body temperature and fever in the first days after stroke are strongly associated with unfavorable outcome. A subgroup analysis of a previous trial suggested that early treatment with paracetamol may improve functional outcome in patients with acute stroke and a body temperature of ≥36.5°C. In the present trial, we aimed to confirm this finding. PAIS 2 (Paracetamol [Acetaminophen] in Stroke 2) was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. We aimed to include 1500 patients with acute ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage within 12 hours of symptom onset. Patients were treated with paracetamol in a daily dose of 6 g or matching placebo for 3 consecutive days. The primary outcome was functional outcome at 3 months, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale and analyzed with multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Because of slow recruitment and lack of funding, the study was stopped prematurely. Between December 2011 and October 2015, we included 256 patients, of whom 136 (53%) were allocated to paracetamol. In this small sample, paracetamol had no effect on functional outcome (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.79). There was no difference in the number of serious adverse events (paracetamol n=35 [26%] versus placebo n=28 [24%]). Treatment with high-dose paracetamol seemed to be safe. The effect of high-dose paracetamol on functional outcome remains uncertain. Therefore, a large trial of early treatment with high-dose paracetamol is still needed. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR2365. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Zheng, Jinping; Yang, Jinghua; Zhou, Xiangdong; Zhao, Li; Hui, Fuxin; Wang, Haoyan; Bai, Chunxue; Chen, Ping; Li, Huiping; Kang, Jian; Brose, Manja; Richard, Frank; Goehring, Udo-Michael; Zhong, Nanshan
Roflumilast is the only oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor indicated for use in the treatment of COPD. Previous studies of roflumilast have predominantly involved European and North American populations. A large study was necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of roflumilast in a predominantly ethnic Chinese population. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, phase 3 study, patients of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity (N = 626) with severe to very severe COPD were randomized 1:1 to receive either roflumilast 500 μg once daily or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was change in prebronchodilator FEV1 from baseline to study end. Three hundred thirteen patients were assigned to each treatment. Roflumilast provided a sustained increase over placebo in mean prebronchodilator FEV1 (0.071 L; 95% CI, 0.046, 0.095 L; P < .0001). Similar improvements were observed in the secondary end points of postbronchodilator FEV1 (0.068 L; 95% CI 0.044, 0.092 L; P < .0001) and prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FVC (0.109 L; 95% CI, 0.061, 0.157 L; P < .0001 and 0.101 L; 95% CI, 0.055, 0.146 L; P < .0001, respectively). The adverse event profile was consistent with previous roflumilast studies. The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse event was diarrhea (6.0% and 1.0% of patients in the roflumilast and placebo groups, respectively). Roflumilast plays an important role in lung function improvement and is well tolerated in an Asian population. It provides an optimal treatment choice for patients with severe to very severe COPD.
Pang, Weiwu; Liu, Yu-Cheng; Maboudou, Edgard; Chen, Tom Xianxiu; Chois, John M; Liao, Cheng-Chun; Wu, Rick Sai-Chuen
Multimodal analgesia has been effectively used in postoperative pain control. Tramadol can be considered "multimodal" because it has two main mechanisms of action, an opioid agonist and a reuptake inhibitor of norepinephrine and serotonin. Tramadol is not as commonly used as morphine due to the increased incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). As metoclopramide is an antiemetic and an analgesic, it was hypothesized that when added to reduce PONV, metoclopromide may enhance the multimodal feature of tramadol by the analgesic property of metoclopramide. Therefore, the effectiveness of postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine was compared against PCA with combination of tramadol and metoclopramide. A prospective, randomized, double blind clinical trial. Academic pain service of a university hospital. Sixty patients undergoing elective total knee arthroplasty with general anesthesia. Sixty patients were randomly divided into Group M and Group T. In a double-blinded fashion, Group M received intraoperative 0.2 mg/kg morphine and postoperative PCA with 1 mg morphine per bolus, whereas Group T received intraoperative tramadol 2.5 mg/kg and postoperative PCA with 20 mg tramadol plus 1 mg metoclopramide per bolus. Lockout interval was 5 minutes in both groups. Pain scale, satisfaction rate, analgesic consumption, PCA demand, and side effects were recorded by a blind investigator. These two groups displayed no statistically significant difference between the items and variables evaluated. This combination provides analgesia equivalent to that of morphine and can be used as an alternative to morphine PCA. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective : "nWe conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study todetermine the efficacy of an herbal sexual supplement (vigRX on premature ejaculation (PE. Method: "nA randomized double blind study was conducted on a fixed dose of herbal vigRX at Roozbeh Psychiatry Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample consisted of 85 married patients diagnosed withprimary PE according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Each patient underwent diagnostic evaluation by one trained psychiatrist, using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. Each patient was evaluated by researchers to exclude the organic sexual dysfunctions. The patients were randomly assigned in to two groups: group 1 consisting of 42 patients receiving placebo, and group 2 consisting of 43 patients receiving 540 mg herbal vigRX for a 4-week treatment course. The effects of the drug on the ejaculatory function in each group were assessed by the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT, and the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE before and at the end of the treatment course. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (15th version. Results: "nThe mean IELT increased 22.4 and 32.0 seconds in the placebo and the vigRX group respectively after the treatment course. The mean IELT differences between the two groups was not significant. The mean CIPE score increased 2.40 and 4.37 in the placebo and the vigRX group respectively .The mean CIPE score differences between the two groups was not significant.No side effect was reported by the subjects in neither groups during the treatment course. "nConclusion: Although the improvement in IELT and CIPE scores in the herbal vigRX group was more than the placebo group, this difference was not statistically significant. The increasing of IELT and CIPE score in the placebo group may be due to the placebo effects. Further studies with higher vigRX doses, greater sample size
Effects of Tadalafil Once-Daily or On-Demand vs Placebo on Return to Baseline Erectile Function After Bilateral Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy - Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial (REACTT)
Mulhall, John P; Brock, Gerald; Oelke, Matthias
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled REACTT trial suggested that treatment with tadalafil once daily (OaD) started early after bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nsRP) for prostate cancer may contribute to erectile function......: REACTT included 422 men blind treatment (DBT) with tadalafil 5 mg OaD (n = 139), tadalafil 20 mg on...
Full Text Available Narinder Rawal1, Valery Macquaire2, Elena Catalá3, Marco Berti4, Rui Costa5, Markus Wietlisbach61Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 2Clinique du Parc Leopold, Brussels, Belgium; 3Pain Clinic, Department Anesthesiology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Parma Hospital, Parma, Italy; 5Garcia de Orta Hospital, Almada, Portugal; 6Department of Anesthesiology, Sursee Hospital, Sursee, SwitzerlandAbstract: This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial compared efficacy and safety of tramadol HCL 37.5 mg/paracetamol 325 mg combination tablet with tramadol HCL 50 mg capsule in the treatment of postoperative pain following ambulatory hand surgery with iv regional anesthesia. Patients received trial medication at admission, immediately after surgery, and every 6 hours after discharge until midnight of the first postoperative day. Analgesic efficacy was assessed by patients (n = 128 in each group, full analysis set and recorded in a diary on the evening of surgery day and of the first postoperative day. They also documented the occurrence of adverse events. By the end of the first postoperative day, the proportion of treatment responders based on treatment satisfaction (primary efficacy variable was comparable between the groups (78.1% combination, 71.9% tramadol; P = 0.24 and mean pain intensity (rated on a numerical scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = worst imaginable pain had been reduced to 1.7 ± 2.0 for both groups. Under both treatments, twice as many patients experienced no pain (score = 0 on the first postoperative day compared to the day of surgery (35.9% vs 16.4% for tramadol/paracetamol and 36.7% vs 18% for tramadol treatment. Rescue medication leading to withdrawal (diclofenac 50 mg was required by 17.2% patients with tramadol/paracetamol and 13.3% with tramadol. Adverse events (mainly nausea, dizziness
Voors, Adriaan A.; Dahlke, Marion; Meyer, Sven; Stepinska, Janina; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; Jones, Andrew; Zhang, Yiming; Laurent, Didier; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Navis, Gerjan J.
Background-Serelaxin is a promising therapy for acute heart failure. The renal hemodynamic effects of serelaxin in patients with chronic heart failure are unknown. Methods and Results-In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study, patients with New York Heart Association
Turan, Yasemin; Bayraktar, Kevser; Kahvecioglu, Fatih; Tastaban, Engin; Aydin, Elif; Kurt Omurlu, Imran; Berkit, Isil Karatas
This double-blind, randomized controlled study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effect of magnetic field therapy applied to the hip region on clinical and functional status in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Patients with AS (n = 66) who were diagnosed according to modified New York criteria were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. Participants were randomly assigned to receive magnetic field therapy (2 Hz) (n = 35), or placebo magnetic field therapy (n = 31) each hip region for 20 min. Patients in each group were given heat pack and short-wave treatments applied to bilateral hip regions. Both groups had articular range of motion and stretching exercises and strengthening exercises for surrounding muscles for the hip region as well as breathing and postural exercises by the same physical therapist. These treatment protocols were continued for a total of 15 sessions (1 session per day), and patients were examined by the same physician at months 1, 3 and 6. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain, VAS fatigue, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrologic Index (BASMI), DFI, Harris hip assessment index and Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life scale (ASQOL) were obtained at the beginning of therapy and at month 1, month 3 and month 6 for each patient. There were no significant differences between groups in the VAS pain, VAS fatigue, morning stiffness, BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI, DFI, Harris hip assessment index and ASQoL at baseline, month 1, month 3 or month 6 (p > 0.05). Further randomized, double-blind controlled studies are needed in order to establish the evidence level for the efficacy of modalities with known analgesic and anti-inflammatory action such as magnetotherapy, particularly in rheumatic disorders associated with chronic pain.
Vincendeau, Sébastien; Bellissant, Eric; Houlgatte, Alain; Doré, Bertrand; Bruyère, Franck; Renault, Alain; Mouchel, Catherine; Bensalah, Karim; Guillé, François
α-Blockers induce selective relaxation of ureteral smooth muscle with subsequent inhibition of ureteral spasms and dilatation of the ureteral lumen. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the α-blocker tamsulosin hydrochloride in patients with ureteral colic owing to a distal ureteral stone. This was a multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Patients with emergency admission for ureteral colic with a 2- to 7-mm-diameter radio-opaque distal ureteral stone were included in the study. They received tamsulosin (0.4 mg/d) or matching placebo until stone expulsion or day 42, whichever came first. The main end point was time to stone expulsion between inclusion and day 42. Sequential statistical analysis was performed using the triangular test. A total of 129 patients with acute renal colic were recruited from emergency wards between February 1, 2002, and December 8, 2006, in 6 French hospitals. Of these 129 randomized patients (placebo, 63; tamsulosin, 66), 7 were excluded from analyses: 5 for major deviations from inclusion criteria, 1 for stone expulsion before the first treatment administration, and 1 for consent withdrawal. At inclusion, mean (SD) stone diameters were 3.2 (1.2) and 2.9 (1.0) mm in the placebo and tamsulosin groups, respectively (P = .23). Expulsion delay distributions during 42 days did not show any difference (P = .30). The numbers of patients who spontaneously expelled their stone within 42 days were 43 of 61 (70.5%) and 47 of 61 (77.0%) in the placebo and tamsulosin groups, respectively (P = .41). Corresponding delays were 10.1 (10.0) and 9.6 (9.8) days (P = .82). Other secondary end points and tolerance were not different between groups. Although well tolerated, a daily administration of 0.4 mg of tamsulosin did not accelerate the expulsion of distal ureteral stones in patients with ureteral colic. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00151567.
Stevens, Markus F.; Werdehausen, Robert; Golla, Elisabeth; Braun, Sebastian; Hermanns, Henning; Ilg, Ansgar; Willers, Reinhardt; Lipfert, Peter
BACKGROUND: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind trial we investigated the use of stimulating catheters in patients during and after shoulder surgery; functional improvement being the primary outcome measurement. METHODS: After eliciting an adequate muscular twitch at
Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to explore the efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel for metabolic risk factors in obese male and female adults. Background: Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai (Rutaceae, called “sudachi”, is a small, round, green citrus fruit that is mainly cultivated in Tokushima Prefecture in Japan. Our group reported that Citrus sudachi peel powder improved glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia in Zucher-fatty rats and reduced hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in GK diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 40 participants with abdominal obesity and metabolic risk factors including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and elevated triglyceride levels. Participants were randomized to receive either tablets that contained 1.3 g dried Citrus sudachi peel powder or placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The sudachi peel group included 14 males and 5 females with a mean age of 54.5 years, and the placebo group included 18 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51.9 years. Results: Physical status including body weight, waist circumference and blood pressure and laboratory markers including metabolic parameters were not different at any observation point between the two groups. However, among participants with serum triglyceride levels of more than 120 mg/dl, body weight, waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased at several observation points after the start of treatment in the sudachi peel group but not in the placebo group. No serious adverse events were observed in the sudachi peel group. Conclusions: Citrus sudachi peel has the potential effect to safely improve abdominal obesity and lower serum levels of TG in obese individuals with hypertriglyceridemia. A large-scale randomized, double-blind clinical study targeting subjects with both abdominal obesity and high TG levels is needed to confirm the metabolic effects of
Ou, Jian-Jun; Xun, Guang-Lei; Wu, Ren-Rong; Li, Le-Hua; Fang, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Geng; Xie, Shi-Ping; Shi, Jian-Guo; Du, Bo; Yuan, Xue-Qin; Zhao, Jing-Ping
S-citalopram (escitalopram) is the very active moiety of citalopram. It has been shown in many studies to be an effective and safe antidepressant for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of escitalopram vs citalopram in Chinese MDD patients. In the double-blind study, 240 MDD patients were randomly assigned to treatment for 6 weeks either with escitalopram (10-20 mg/d) or citalopram (20-40 mg/d). The primary efficacy measurement was the change of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) total score from baseline to the end of study. The secondary efficacy measurements were response and remission rates. The adverse events (AEs) were recorded by the investigator. Two hundred and three (85%) patients completed the trial. The average dose was 13.9 mg/d in the escitalopram group and 27.6 mg/d in the citalopram group. No significant differences were found between the two groups in the change in HAMD-17 total score, response, and remission rate. These results were similar in severe MDD patients. No significant differences were found between the two groups in AEs. No serious AEs were observed in this study. The study suggests that escitalopram 10-20 mg/d are as effective and safe as citalopram 20-40 mg/d in the short-term treatment for Chinese MDD patients.
Jung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Park, Hyojin; Lee, Joon Seong; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Nayoung; Park, KyungSik; Choi, Suck Chei; Lee, Oh Young; Huh, Kyu Chan; Song, Geun Am; Hong, Su Jin; Sohn, Chong Il; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Lee, Yong Chan; Rew, Jong Sun; Jee, Sam Ryong; Kwon, Joong Goo
The effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in Asian functional dyspepsia (FD) patients has not been well established as in Westerncountries. DA-9701, a novel prokinetic agent, stimulates gastric emptying and modulates visceral hypersensitivity in vivo and in human studies. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of DA-9701 with a conventional PPI in mono or combination therapy in patients with FD. In this double-blind, randomized, non-inferiority trial, 389 patients diagnosed with FD using Rome III criteria were allocated among3 groups: 30-mg DA-9701 t.i.d (means 3 times a day), 40-mg pantoprazole, and 30-mg DA-9701 t.i.d + 40-mg pantoprazole. Theprimary efficacy end-point was a global assessment of the patient binary response or response on a 5-Likert scale after 4 weeks. The global symptomatic improvement was 60.5% in the DA-9701 group, 65.6% in the pantoprazole group, and 63.5% in the DA-9701 + pantoprazole group using a 5-Likert scale at week 4 with no significant difference among 3 groups (P = 0.685). Symptomimprovement measured by binary outcome was significantly achieved in each of the 3 groups, but not different among groups.Patients in all treatment groups reported significant improvement in the response rate and symptoms according to FD subtypes anddyspepsia-related quality of life (P DA-9701 improves global and individual symptoms and increases dyspepsia-specific quality of life in patients with FD. The efficacyof DA-9701 monotherapy is comparable with pantoprazole and there is no additive effect with combination of DA-9701 andpantoprazole in patients with FD.
Full Text Available Background: The transverse abdominis plane (TAP block, a regional block provides effective analgesia after lower abdominal surgeries if used as part of multimodal analgesia. In this prospective, randomized double-blind study, we determined the efficacy of TAP block in patients undergoing cesarean section. Materials and Methods: Totally, 62 parturients undergoing cesarean section were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive either bilateral TAP block at the end of surgery with 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine or no TAP block, in addition to standard analgesic comprising 75 mg diclofenac 8 hourly and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA tramadol. Each patient was assessed at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after surgery by an independent observer for pain at rest and on movement using numeric rating scale of 0-10, time of 1 st demand for tramadol, total consumption of PCA tramadol, satisfaction with pain management and side effects. Results: Use of tramadol was reduced in patients given TAP block by 50% compared to patients given no block during 48 h after surgery (P < 0.001. Pain scores were lower both on rest and activity at each time point for 24 h in study group (P < 0.001, time of first analgesia was significantly longer, satisfaction was higher, and side effects were less in study group compared to control group. Conclusion: Transverse abdominis plane block was effective in providing analgesia with a substantial reduction in tramadol use during 48 h after cesarean section when used as adjunctive to standard analgesia.
Harfterkamp, Myriam; van de Loo-Neus, Gigi; Minderaa, Ruud B.; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Escobar, Rodrigo; Schacht, Alexander; Pamulapati, Sireesha; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.
Objective: The efficacy of atomoxetine as treatment of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been established. Method: In this study, 97 patients aged 6 to 17 years with ADHD and ASD were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with 1.2 mg/kg/day atomoxetine or…
Lansbergen, M.M.; Dongen-Boomsma, M. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.
Electroencephalography (EEG)-neurofeedback has been shown to offer therapeutic benefits to patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in several, mostly uncontrolled studies. This pilot study is designed to test the feasibility and safety of using a double-blind placebo
Herschorn, Sender; Staskin, David; Tu, Le Mai; Fialkov, Jonathan; Walsh, Terry; Gooch, Katherine; Schermer, Carol R
The PREFER study was an assessment of medication tolerability, treatment preference and symptom improvement during treatment with mirabegron (M) and tolterodine (T) extended release (ER) in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). In this analysis of PREFER, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were assessed during treatment. PREFER was a two-period, 8-week crossover, double-blind, phase IV study (NCT02138747) of treatment-naïve adults with OAB ≥3 months randomized to 1 of 4 treatment sequences (M/T; T/M; M/M; T/T), separated by a 2-week washout. Tolterodine ER was dosed at 4 mg for 8 weeks and mirabegron was dosed at 25 mg for 4 weeks then increased to 50 mg for the next 4 weeks. At each visit, PROs related to treatment satisfaction, quality of life and symptom bother were assessed using the OAB Satisfaction (OAB-S; 3 independent scales/5 single-item overall assessments), OAB-q (total health-related QoL [HRQoL] and subscales [Sleep, Social, Coping, Concern] and Symptom Bother scale) and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) questionnaires. Responder rates were reported for OAB-q subscales based on a minimal important difference (MID; ≥ 10-point improvement) and OAB-S Medication Tolerability score ≥ 90. In total, 358 randomized patients received ≥1 dose of double-blind study medication and completed ≥1 post-baseline value (OAB-S scale, OAB-q, PPBC): M/T (n = 154), T/M (n = 144), M/M (n = 30) or T/T (n = 30). At end of treatment (EoT), mirabegron and tolterodine ER were associated with similar mean improvements in 7 of the 8 OAB-S scores investigated, OAB-q scales and PPBC. A higher percentage of patients achieved clinically relevant improvements (MID) in OAB-q scales and OAB-S Medication Tolerability score during treatment with mirabegron than tolterodine ER. On average, patients with OAB experienced improvements in treatment satisfaction, HRQoL and symptom bother that were of a similar magnitude during treatment with
Hinz, J; Hautzinger, H; Helling, J; Schirren, G; Sell, G; Stahl, K W; Kühne, F W
In 38 patients with chronic therapeutically resistant wounds, which, in 25 cases, had been existing for more than one year, Tetrachlorodecaoxide ( TCDO ) in a water solution containing glycerin was analyzed for its capacity to induce wound healing and compared in this respect to the standard in moist wound treatment, physiological sodium chloride. The results of the clinical trial demonstrate that the TCDO solution is significantly superior to physiological saline in local wound treatment regarding the degree of wound smear reduction, the formation of wound granulation tissue, the stimulation of epithelisation on the wound borders and the shrinking of the wound surface. The differences in therapeutic efficiency are so large that, in spite of the relatively small patient samples (21 + 17) it was possible to verify the superiority of a method for wound treatment in a randomized double blind clinical trial.
van Ittersum, Miriam W; van Wilgen, C Paul; van der Schans, Cees P; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W; Nijs, Jo
Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A double-blind, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial with 6-month follow-up was conducted. Patients with FM (n = 114) that consented to participate were randomly allocated to receive either written pain neuroscience education or written relaxation training. Written pain neuroscience education comprised of a booklet with pain neuroscience education plus a telephone call to clarify any difficulties; the relaxation group received a booklet with relaxation education and a telephone call. The revised illness perception questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire were used as outcome measures. Both patients and assessors were blinded. Repeated-measures analyses with last observation carried forward principle were performed. Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all within-group changes and between-group differences. The results reveal that written pain neuroscience education does not change the impact of FM on daily life, catastrophizing, or perceived symptoms of patients with FM. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education improved beliefs in a chronic timeline of FM (P = 0.03; ES = 0.50), but it does not impact upon other domains of illness perceptions. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education slightly improved illness perceptions of patients with FM, but it did not impart clinically meaningful effects on pain, catastrophizing, or the impact of FM on daily life. Face-to-face sessions of pain neuroscience education are required to change inappropriate cognitions and perceived health in patients with FM. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.
Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Xu, Jian-Hua; Xiao, Feng; Bao, Chun-De; Ni, Li-Qing; Li, Xing-Fu; Wu, Yu-Qing; Sun, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Sun, Bao-Liang; Xu, Sheng-Qian; Liu, Shang; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Jie; Liu, Hua-Xiang; Wang, Ren-Cheng
Chicken type II collagen (CCII) is a protein extracted from the cartilage of chicken breast and exhibits intriguing possibilities for the treatment of autoimmune diseases by inducing oral tolerance. A 24-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, methotrexate (MTX)-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CCII in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Five hundred three RA patients were included in the study. Patients received either 0.1 mg daily of CCII (n = 326) or 10 mg once a week of MTX (n = 177) for 24 weeks. Each patient was evaluated for pain, morning stiffness, tender joint count, swollen joint count, health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), assessments by investigator and patient, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) by using the standard tools at baseline (week 0) and at weeks 12 and 24. Additionally, rheumatoid factor (RF) was evaluated at weeks 0 and 24. Measurement of a battery of biochemical parameters in serum, hematological parameters, and urine analysis was performed to evaluate the safety of CCII. Four hundred fifty-four patients (94.43%) completed the 24-week follow-up. In both groups, there were decreases in pain, morning stiffness, tender joint count, swollen joint count, HAQ, and assessments by investigator and patient, and all differences were statistically significant. In the MTX group, ESR and CRP decreased. RF did not change in either group. At 24 weeks, 41.55% of patients in the CCII group and 57.86% in the MTX group met the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR-20) and 16.89% and 30.82%, respectively, met the ACR 50% improvement criteria (ACR-50). Both response rates for ACR-20 and ACR-50 in the CCII group were lower than those of the MTX group, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The DAS28 (disease activity score using 28 joint counts) values of the two treatment groups were calculated, and there was a statistically
Santos,Fânia Cristina; Souza,Polianna Mara Rodrigues de; Toniolo Neto,João; Atallah,Álvaro Nagib
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common arthropathy and one of the major causes of chronic pain in the elderly population, which may lead to major functional incapacity of these individuals. Aiming at treating pain of elderly patients with knee OA, we have used lysine clonixinate (LC) and have evaluated its effectiveness METHOD: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 109 elderly patients with knee OA-related pain. Participants were distribut...
Cepeda, M Soledad; Carr, Daniel B; Sarquis, Tony; Miranda, Nelcy; Garcia, Ricardo J; Zarate, Camilo
A growing multibillion dollar industry markets magnetic necklaces, bracelets, bands, insoles, back braces, mattresses, etc., for pain relief, although there is little evidence for their efficacy. We sought to evaluate the effect of magnetic therapy on pain intensity and opioid requirements in patients with postoperative pain. We designed a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. One-hundred-sixty-five patients older than 12 yr of age were randomized to magnetic (n = 81) or sham therapy (n = 84) upon reporting moderate-to-severe pain in the postanesthesia care unit. Devices were placed over the surgical incision and left in place for 2 h. Patients rated their pain intensity on a 0-10 scale every 10 min and received incremental doses of morphine until pain intensity was Magnetic therapy lacks efficacy in controlling acute postoperative pain intensity levels or opioid requirements and should not be recommended for pain relief in this setting.
Resbeut, Michel; Marteau, Philippe; Cowen, Didier; Richaud, Pierre; Bourdin, Sylvain; Dubois, Jean Bernard; Mere, Pascale; N'Guyen, Tan D.
Background and purpose: Symptoms of acute radiation enteritis (ARE), dominated by diarrhea, occur in more than 70% of patients receiving pelvic irradiation. Eicosanoids and free radicals release have been implicated in the pathogenesis. Mesalazine (5-ASA) is a potent inhibitor of their synthesis in the mucosa and could therefore be of some interest in preventing ARE. Patients and methods: The study was performed in six radiotherapy units in France who agreed on standardized irradiation procedures. One hundred and fifty-three patients planned for external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis ≥45 Gy for prostate (n = 97) or uterus (n = 54) cancer were randomized on a double blind basis to receive prophylactic 5-ASA (4 g/day Pentasa[reg]) or placebo. Patients with concomitant chemotherapy were excluded. Prostate and uterus cancers were chosen since these centropelvic tumors require a similar radiotherapy protocol during the first step of treatment and involve a comparable volume of small intestine. The symptoms of ARE and their severity were assessed every week during irradiation, and 1 and 3 months after its end. All patients followed a low fiber and low lactose diet. End points were diarrhea, use of antidiarrheal agents, abdominal pain, and body weight. Efficacy was evaluated using intention to treat. Results: (means ± SD) Groups did not differ for age (mean 64 ± 9 years), sex, tumor site, or irradiation procedure. During irradiation, diarrhea occurred in 69% and 66% of the 5-ASA and placebo groups, respectively (χ 2 , P = 0.22). Curves of survival without diarrhea did not differ between groups (logrank P = 0.09). Severity of diarrhea did not differ between groups except at d15 where it was significantly more severe in the 5-ASA group (ANOVA P = 0.006). Duration of diarrhea did not differ (22 ± 15 days in both groups, P = 0.88). Abdominal pain was less frequently reported in the 5-ASA group at d28 (34% vs. 51%, P 0.048). Use of antidiarrheal agents and body weight
Rafii, Michael S; Skotko, Brian G; McDonough, Mary Ellen; Pulsifer, Margaret; Evans, Casey; Doran, Eric; Muranevici, Gabriela; Kesslak, Patrick; Abushakra, Susan; Lott, Ira T
ELND005 (scyllo-Inositol; cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol) has been evaluated as a potential disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk for developing AD dementia. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of ELND005 and to determine its pharmacokinetics (PK) and relationship between PK parameters, safety outcome measures, and exploratory efficacy outcome measures in young adults with DS without dementia. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, three-arm, multicenter Phase II study of the safety and pharmacokinetics of ELND005 administered orally for 4 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01791725). Participants who met study eligibility criteria were randomly assigned in a 2 : 1:1 ratio to receive ELND005 at either 250 mg twice daily (BID) or 250 mg once daily (QD) or matching placebo for 4 weeks. There were no apparent treatment group-related trends on cognitive or behavioral measures and there were no SAEs and no deaths in the study. Overall, mean changes from baseline in clinical laboratory parameters, vital sign measurements, electrocardiogram results, and other physical findings were unremarkable. ELND005 accumulation averaged approximately 2-fold with QD dosing, and 3- to 4-fold with BID dosing. Overall, treatment of adults with DS with ELND005 at both doses was well tolerated, achieved measurable blood levels and demonstrated no safety findings. Further studies will be needed to test efficacy.
Faessel, Helene; Ravva, Patanjali; Williams, Kathryn
Varenicline is approved as an aid to smoking cessation in adults aged > or =18 years. The goal of this study was to characterize the multiple-dose pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of varenicline in adolescent smokers. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study enrolled healthy 12- to 16-year-old smokers (> or =3 cigarettes daily) into high-body-weight (>55 kg) and low-body-weight (daily. The apparent renal clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) of varenicline and the effect of body weight on these parameters were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The high-body-weight group consisted of 35 subjects (65.7% male; 77.1% white; mean age, 15.2 years). The low-body-weight group consisted of 37 subjects (37.8% male; 48.6% white; mean age, 14.3 years). The pharmacokinetic parameters of varenicline were dose proportional over the dose range from 0.5 to 2 mg/d. The CL/F for a 70-kg adolescent was 10.4 L/h, comparable to that in a 70-kg adult. The estimated varenicline V/F was decreased in individuals of small body size, thus predicting a varenicline C(max) approximately 30% greater in low-body-weight subjects than in high-body-weight subjects. In high-body-weight subjects, steady-state varenicline exposure, as represented by the AUC(0-24), was 197.0 ng . h/mL for varenicline 1 mg BID and 95.7 ng . h/mL for varenicline 0.5 mg BID, consistent with values reported previously in adult smokers at the equivalent doses. In low-body-weight subjects, varenicline exposure was 126.3 ng . h/mL for varenicline 0.5 mg BID and 60.1 ng . h/mL for varenicline 0.5 mg once daily, values at the lower end of the range observed previously in adults at doses of 1 mg BID and 0.5 mg BID, respectively. Among high-body-weight subjects, adverse events (AEs) were reported by 57.1% of subjects in both the high- and low-dose varenicline groups and by 14.3% of subjects in the placebo group; among low-body-weight subjects, AEs
Martenson, James A.; Hyland, Glenn; Moertel, Charles G.; Mailliard, James A.; O'Fallon, Judith R.; Collins, Roger T.; Morton, Roscoe F.; Tewfik, Hamed H.; Moore, Randy L.; Frank, Albert R.; Urias, Rodolfo E.; Deming, Richard L.
Purpose: A randomized clinical trial from Great Britain suggested a possible beneficial effect of acetylsalicylate in the prevention of radiation-induced bowel toxicity. Olsalazine is an orally administered drug designed to deliver 5-aminosalicylate to the large bowel with minimal systemic absorption. A randomized clinical trial was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of olsalazine in preventing acute diarrhea in patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy were randomized, in double-blind fashion, to olsalazine 250 mg, two capsules twice daily, or an identical appearing placebo, two capsules twice daily. Patients were then evaluated weekly during radiation therapy for the primary study endpoint, diarrhea, as well as rectal bleeding, abdominal cramping, and tenesmus. Results: The study was closed early, after entry of 58 evaluable patients, when a preliminary analysis showed excessive diarrhea in patients randomized to olsalazine. The incidence and severity of diarrhea were worse in patients randomized to olsalazine (p 0.0036). Sixty percent of the patients randomized to olsalazine experienced Grade 3 or 4 diarrhea compared to only 14% randomized to placebo. There was also a trend toward higher incidence and greater severity of abdominal cramping in patients who were randomized to olsalazine (p = 0.084). Conclusion: Administration of olsalazine during pelvic radiation therapy resulted in an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea. Olsalazine is contraindicated in patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy
Tytgat, G. N.; Nicolai, J. J.; Reman, F. C.
Four different cimetidine dosage regimens--800 mg u.i.d. HS or nocte, 800 mg u.i.d. dinnertime, 400 mg q.i.d., and 800 mg b.i.d.--were investigated for the treatment of reflux esophagitis in three independent large-scale, double-blind, controlled multicenter trials in which more than 1100 patients
Li, Yan; Ma, Hongli; Zhang, Yuehui; Kuang, Hongying; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Hou, Lihui; Wu, Xiaoke
Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and presence of polycystic ovaries on pelvic scanning. Insulin resistance is significantly associated with the long-term risks of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Berberine has effects on insulin resistance but its use in women with PCOS has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we present a research design evaluating the effects of berberine on insulin resistance in women with PCOS. This is a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind trial. A total of 120 patients will be enrolled in this study and will be randomized into two groups. Berberine or placebo will be taken orally for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is the whole body insulin action assessed with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. We postulate that women with PCOS will have improved insulin resistance following berberine administration. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01138930.
Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Berkiten, Güler; Saltürk, Ziya; Ataç, Enes; Atar, Yavuz; Uyar, Yavuz
Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of trimetazidine dihydrochloride as a treatment for chronic tinnitus. Methods. A total of 97 chronic tinnitus patients were evaluated in this randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After assessing for eligibility, 82 patients were randomly assigned into placebo or trimetazidine groups according to the medication. The trimetazidine group received 20×3 mg/day per oral trimetazidine dihydrochloride and the placebo group received 20×3 mg/day per oral placebo for 3 months. Tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires and audiometric results were used to determine the effectiveness of trimetazidine treatment. Results. The study group comprised 82 tinnitus subjects, 42 (51%) of whom received trimetazidine dihydrochloride and 40 (49%) who received placebo. There was no significant difference between placebo and trimetazidine groups in THI grade and VAS (both pre- and posttreatment scores) (P>0.05) and no significant improvement was observed in subjective loudness score in either group (P>0.05). Additionally there was no significant difference between groups in pre- and posttreatment pure tone hearing thresholds at all measured frequencies (P>0.05). Conclusion. Trimetazidine dihydrochloride therapy was ineffective for relieving chronic tinnitus. PMID:27230273
Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of chlorhexidine prophylaxis for 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis with nonblinded randomized comparison to oral cooling (cryotherapy) in gastrointestinal malignancies.
Sorensen, Jens Benn; Skovsgaard, Torben; Bork, Ellen; Damstrup, Lars; Ingeberg, Sten
The purpose was to evaluate prevention of oral mucositis (OM) using chlorhexidine compared with placebo and with oral cooling (cryotherapy) during fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Patients with previously untreated GI cancer receiving bolus 5-FU/leucovorin chemotherapy were randomized to chlorhexidine mouthrinse 3 times a day for 3 weeks (Arm A), double-blind placebo (normal saline) with the same dose and frequency (Arm B), or cryotherapy with crushed ice 45 minutes during chemotherapy (Arm C). Patients self-reported on severity (CTC-grading) and duration of OM. Among 225 patients randomized, 206 answered the questionnaire (70, 64, and 63 patients in Arms A, B, and C, respectively) and were well balanced with respect to diagnoses, stage, age, sex, smoking habits, and performance status. Mucositis grade 3-4 occurred more frequently in Arm B (33%) than in A (13%, Pcryotherapy. The latter is easy and inexpensive but has limited use, as it is drug- and schedule-dependent. The current study is the first double-blind randomized evaluation of prophylactic chlorhexidine in a large adult patient population with solid tumors receiving highly OM-inducing chemotherapy. A role for chlorhexidine in the prevention of OM is suggested, which should be evaluated further.
A randomized double-blind phase III study of nimorazole as a hypoxic radiosensitizer of primary radiotherapy in supraglottic larynx and pharynx carcinoma. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Study (DAHANCA) Protocol 5-85
Overgaard, J.; Hansen, H.S.; Overgaard, M.
PURPOSE: A multicenter randomized and balanced double-blind trial with the objective of assessing the efficacy and tolerance of nimorazole given as a hypoxic radiosensitizer in conjunction with primary radiotherapy of invasive carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx and pharynx. PATIENTS AND TREATMENT...... for the end-points of final loco-regional control (including surgical salvage) and cancer-related deaths (52 versus 41%, P = 0.002). This trend was also found in the overall survival but to a lesser, non-significant extent (26 versus 16%, 10-year actuarial values, P = 0.32). Cox multivariate regression...... of dying from cancer. The compliance to radiotherapy was good and 98% of the patients received the planned dose. Late radiation-related morbidity was observed in 10% of the patients, irrespective of nimorazole treatment. Drug-related side-effects were minor and tolerable with transient nausea and vomiting...
Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Koester, Juergen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick
Objective To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized
Friedly Janna L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is one of the most common causes of low back pain among older adults and can cause significant disability. Despite its prevalence, treatment of spinal stenosis symptoms remains controversial. Epidural steroid injections are used with increasing frequency as a less invasive, potentially safer, and more cost-effective treatment than surgery. However, there is a lack of data to judge the effectiveness and safety of epidural steroid injections for spinal stenosis. We describe our prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial that tests the hypothesis that epidural injections with steroids plus local anesthetic are more effective than epidural injections of local anesthetic alone in improving pain and function among older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods We will recruit up to 400 patients with lumbar central canal spinal stenosis from at least 9 clinical sites over 2 years. Patients with spinal instability who require surgical fusion, a history of prior lumbar surgery, or prior epidural steroid injection within the past 6 months are excluded. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either ESI with local anesthetic or the control intervention (epidural injections with local anesthetic alone. Subjects receive up to 2 injections prior to the primary endpoint at 6 weeks, at which time they may choose to crossover to the other intervention. Participants complete validated, standardized measures of pain, functional disability, and health-related quality of life at baseline and at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months after randomization. The primary outcomes are Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and a numerical rating scale measure of pain intensity at 6 weeks. In order to better understand their safety, we also measure cortisol, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, weight, and blood pressure at baseline, and at 3 and 6 weeks post-injection. We also obtain data on resource utilization
Piver, M.S.; Barlow, J.J.; Vongtama, V.; Blumenson, L.
From June, 1972, to December, 1976, 40 patients with FIGO (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics) Stage IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix were entered into a prospective, double-blind, randomized study to evaluate the possible radiation-potentiating properties (i.e., improved survival) of the S-phase cell cycle-specific inhibitor of DNA synthesis, hydroxyurea. All patients were documented to be without aortic lymph node metastasis by pretherapy staging para-aortic lymphadenectomy. All 40 patients were followed up for longer than 5 years (5.2 to 9.2 years) or until death. The double-blind code was not broken until all patients had been followed up for a minimum of 2 to 5 years. Leukopenia (white blood cell count less than 2,500 mm3) was significantly increased in the patients given hydroxyurea as compared to those given placebo (P less than 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference relative to anemia, thrombocytopenia, radiation-induced skin reaction, and radiation-induced intestinal reaction between the patients given placebo or those given hydroxyurea. Life-table survival for the patients given hydroxyurea was 94% as compared to 53% for the patients given placebo (P . 0.006). Only one (5%) patient given hydroxyurea died of cervical cancer. Of the other patients who died in the group given hydroxyurea, all were confirmed by postmortem examination to have been without recurrent cervical cancer. In contrast, 45% (nine) of the patients given placebo died of cervical cancer
Timon Cheng-Yi Liu
Full Text Available The intranasal low intensity GaInP/AlGaInP diode 650 nm laser therapy (ILGLT might improve blood lipid and hemorheologic behavior of patients in view of its previous research, but it should be further supported by a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical study. In this paper, 90 patients with coronary heart disease or cerebral infarction were randomly divided into two groups, 60 in the treatment group and 30 in the control group, and were blindly treated with ILGLT at 8.38 and 0 mW/cm2 for 30 min each time once a day ten days each session for two sessions between which there were three days for rest, respectively. Fasting blood lipid such as total cholesterol and low/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hemorheologic behavior such as blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, redox viscosity and red blood cell aggregation were assessed before the first treatment and after the two sessions and were found to be significantly improved by ILGLT. It was concluded that ILGLT may improve blood lipid and hemorheologic behavior of patients with coronary heart disease or cerebral infarction.
Venkatnarayan, Kannan; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Agarwal, Ramesh; Paul, Vinod K; Deorari, Ashok K
To evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic oral phenobarbitone (PB) in neonates with Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn. In this double-blind randomized trial conducted in a tertiary care unit, we randomly allocated neonates with Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn born at or after 32 weeks' gestation to PB (10 mg/kg/day on day 1 followed by 5 mg/kg/day on days 2-5) (n = 23) or oral glucose (n = 21). The primary outcome was the duration of phototherapy. Baseline variables were comparable. There was no difference in the median duration of phototherapy [54 (range: 0-180) vs. 35 h (0-127); p = 0.39] and in the incidences of failure of phototherapy or significant rebounds of serum bilirubin. However, the proportion of infants with cholestasis was significantly lower in the PB group (0 vs. 19%; p = 0.04). PB does not reduce duration of phototherapy or its episodes. Its potential to reduce cholestasis needs validation in larger studies.
Barbosa, Teresa Negreira Navarro; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo; Palma, Domingos; Ancona-Lopez, Fábio; Braga, Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini
To evaluate the impact of the fortification of rolls with microencapsulated iron sulfate with sodium alginate on the hemoglobin levels in preschoolers as compared to controls. Double-blind randomized controlled trial comprised of children aged 2 to 6 years with initial hemoglobin exceeding 9 g/dL from four not-for-profit daycares randomly selected in the city of São Paulo - Brazil. Children of 2 daycares (n = 88) received rolls with fortified wheat flour as the exposed group (EC) and children of 2 daycares (n = 85) received rolls without fortification as the control group (CG) over a 24-week period. Rolls with 4 mg iron each were offered once a day, five days a week. Hemoglobin concentrations were determined in capillary blood by HemoCue® at three moments of trial: baseline (Ml), after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention (M2, M3). Hemoglobin concentration presented significant increase up to M3 in EG (11.7-12.5-12.6 g/dL) and in CG (11.1-12.4-12.3 g/dL) with higher elevations in children initially with anemia. There was significant reduction in the occurrence of anemia from 22% to 9% in EG and from 47% to 8.2% in CG at M3. Rolls fortified with microencapsulated iron sulfate were well tolerated, increased hemoglobin levels and reduced the occurrence of anemia, but with no difference compared to the control group.
Clinical and Microbiological Effect of a Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation in Celiac Patients With Persistent IBS-type Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Trial.
Francavilla, Ruggiero; Piccolo, Maria; Francavilla, Antonio; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Semeraro, Francesco; Cristofori, Fernanda; Castellaneta, Stefania; Barone, Michele; Indrio, Flavia; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria
The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a probiotic mixture in patients with celiac disease (CD) with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms despite a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). About 30% of patients with CD adherent to a GFD suffer from IBS-type symptoms; a possible cause resides in the imbalances of the intestinal microbiota in CD. Probiotics may represent a potential treatment. CD patients with IBS-type symptoms entered a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. A 6-week treatment period was preceded by a 2-week run-in and followed by a 6-week follow-up phase. Clinical data were monitored throughout the study by validated questionnaires: IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS); Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS); Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS); and IBS Quality of Life Questionnaire (IBS-QOL). The fecal microbiota were assayed using plate counts and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. In total, 109 patients were randomized to probiotics (n=54) or placebo (n=55). IBS-SSS and GSRS decreased significantly in probiotics, as compared with placebo [(-15.9%±14.8% vs. 8.2%±25.9%; Psymptoms, in CD patients on strict GFD, and is associated with a modification of gut microbiota, characterized by an increase of bifidobacteria.
Pontip Meteerattanapipat; Vorapong Phupong
The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of alginate-based reflux suppressant and magnesium-aluminium antacid gel for treatment of heartburn in pregnancy. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. One hundred pregnant women at less than 36 weeks gestation with heartburn at least twice per week were randomized to either alginate-based reflux suppressant or to magnesium-aluminium antacid gel. Details of heartburn were recorded before beginning the treatm...
Andrada Hamer, Maria; Larsson, Per-Göran; Teleman, Pia; Bergqvist, Christina Eten; Persson, Jan
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this prospective randomized multicenter study was to compare retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) with TVT Secur in terms of efficacy and safety. METHODS: We set out to enrol 280 stress urinary incontinent (SUI) women with a half-time interim analysis of short-term cure and adverse events. The short-term results have previously been published. Of the133 randomized women, 125 underwent surgery, and 121 (TVT n = 61, TVT Secur n = 60)...
Hordinsky, Maria; Fleischer, Alan; Rivers, Jason K; Poulin, Yves; Belsito, Donald; Hultsch, Thomas
Chronic hand dermatitis is common and difficult to treat. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of pimecrolimus cream 1% in mild-to-moderate chronic hand dermatitis. Adult patients (n = 652) were randomized to pimecrolimus 1% or vehicle cream twice daily with overnight occlusion for 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week open-label pimecrolimus treatment. Primary efficacy was 5-point Investigators' Global Assessment of prospectively selected 'target hand' as treatment success (Investigators' Global Assessment 0 or 1) and treatment failure. Pruritus relief was also assessed. Following double-blind phase treatment, target hand treatment success was achieved in 29.8 and 23.2% of the patients in the pimecrolimus and vehicle groups, respectively (p = 0.057). The proportion of patients experiencing pruritus relief was significantly higher in the pimecrolimus group compared to the vehicle group at all time points throughout the double-blind phase. The groups were comparable with respect to treating disease signs. Pruritus relief, however, was significantly greater in the pimecrolimus group. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Appelhof, Bente C.; Fliers, Eric; Wekking, Ellie M.; Schene, Aart H.; Huyser, Jochanan; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Endert, Erik; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.
Controversy remains about the value of combined treatment with levothyroxine (LT4) and liothyronine (LT3), compared with LT4 alone in primary hypothyroidism. We compared combined treatment with LT4 and LT3 in a ratio of 5: 1 or 10: 1 with LT4 monotherapy. We conducted a double-blind, randomized,
Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Köster, Jürgen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick
To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. The
Effects of influenza plus pneumococcal conjugate vaccination versus influenza vaccination alone in preventing respiratory tract infections in children : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Hoes, Arno W; van Loon, Anton M; Hak, Eelko
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of influenza vaccination with or without heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comprising 579 children age 18 to 72 months with
Wildermuth, Kerstin; Zabel, Sonja; Rosychuk, Rod A W
Various antihistamines have been used in the management of feline atopic dermatitis, with variable reported benefit. To date, there have been no randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trials on the use of this drug class in cats. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of cetirizine hydrochloride for the control of pruritus and dermatitis in cats diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial, 21 client-owned cats diagnosed with mild to moderate nonseasonal atopic dermatitis were randomly assigned to two groups. Cats in each group received either 1 mg/kg cetirizine hydrochloride or placebo once daily per os for 28 days followed by a 14 day wash-out period. Treatments were then crossed over, and cats received placebo or cetirizine hydrochloride for another 28 days. Owners marked a pruritus severity scale before inclusion in the study and weekly throughout the entire study period. Lesions were scored by the clinician using a Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03 modified for the cat before enrolment and at day 28 of each treatment. Nineteen cats completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment with cetirizine hydrochloride and placebo for modified CADESI-03 or pruritus scores. This study suggests that cetirizine hydrochloride cannot be recommended for the management of feline atopic dermatitis. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.
Topsoee, Märta Fink; Bergholt, Thomas; Ravn, Pernille
and in 2004, 8% of all women in Denmark undergoing benign hysterectomy experienced a bleeding complication. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that has shown to effectively reduce bleeding complications within other surgical and medical areas. However, knowledge about the drug's effect in relation...... to benign hysterectomy is still missing. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antihemorrhagic effect of prophylactic tranexamic acid in elective benign hysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: A double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 4 gynecological departments in Denmark from April 2013 to October...... 2014. A total of 332 women undergoing benign abdominal, laparoscopic, or vaginal hysterectomy were included in the trial, randomized to either 1 g of intravenous tranexamic acid or placebo at start of surgery. Chi-square test and Student t test statistical analyses were applied. RESULTS: The primary...
Nielsen, R E; Levander, S; Nielsen, Jimmi
Nielsen RE, Levander S, Thode D, Nielsen J. Effects of sertindole on cognition in clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients. Objective: To assess the cognitive effects of sertindole augmentation in clozapine-treated patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Cognition is secondary outcome of the trial....... Method: A 12-week, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, augmentation study of patients treated with clozapine. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 16 mg of sertindole or placebo as adjunctive treatment to clozapine. Results: Participants displayed substantial cognitive deficits......, ranging from 1.6 standard deviation below norms at baseline to more than three standard deviations on tests of response readiness and focused attention. There were no significant differences between sertindole augmentation and placebo groups at study end. Correlation analysis of Positive and Negative...
Hirose, Asuka; Terauchi, Masakazu; Osaka, Yurika; Akiyoshi, Mihoko; Kato, Kiyoko; Miyasaka, Naoyuki
Background Lecithin is a complex mixture of phospholipids which compose lipid bilayer cell membranes. Lipid replacement therapy, or administration of phospholipids for the purpose of repairing the dmaged cell membranes, had been shown to alleviate fatigue. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on fatigue in middle-aged women, as well as other menopausal symptoms and various health parameters. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included ...
Combined Use of Hyperbaric and Hypobaric Ropivacaine Significantly Improves Hemodynamic Characteristics in Spinal Anesthesia for Caesarean Section: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Study
Quan, ZheFeng; Tian, Ming; Chi, Ping; Li, Xin; He, HaiLi; Luo, Chao
Purpose To observe the hemodynamic changes of parturients in the combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg) and hypobaric (6 mg) ropivacaine during spinal anesthesia for caesarean section in this randomized double-blind study. Methods Parturients (n = 136) undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly and equally allocated to receive either combined hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine (Group A) or hyperbaric ropivacaine (Group B). Outcome measures were: hemodynamic characteristics, maximum heig...
Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Stein, Mark A; Childress, Ann C; Youcha, Sharon; White, Carla; Enright, Gail; Rubin, Jonathan
To examine the efficacy and tolerability of guanfacine extended release (GXR) administered in the morning or evening in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-optimization study, children 6 to 12 years of age with ADHD were randomized to receive GXR (1-4 mg/d) in the morning and placebo in the evening (GXR am), placebo in the morning and GXR in the evening (GXR pm), or twice-daily placebo. The primary efficacy measure was the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV). A total of 333 child participants received study drug in the following cohorts: GXR am (n = 107), GXR pm (n = 114), or placebo (n = 112). Mean (standard deviation) changes from baseline to week 8 (visit 10 or last observation carried forward) in ADHD-RS-IV total scores were significant for both GXR treatment groups combined (GXR all-active: -20.0 [12.97]) and separately (GXR am: -19.8 [12.95]; GXR pm: -20.1 [13.04]) compared with placebo (-11.0 [12.93]; p ADHD symptoms. The levels of response and tolerability observed with GXR were similar regardless of time of dosing (morning versus evening), indicating that once-daily GXR monotherapy is effective whether administered in the morning or evening. Clinical trial registration information-Tolerability and Efficacy of AM and PM Once Daily Dosing With Extended-release Guanfacine Hydrochloride in Children 6-12 With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (The ADHD Tempo Study. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Course of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Detected Inflammation and Structural Lesions in the Sacroiliac Joints of Patients in the Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Danish Multicenter Study of Adalimumab in Spondyloarthritis, as Assessed by the Berlin and Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada Methods
Pedersen, Susanne J; Poddubnyy, Denis; Sørensen, Inge J
OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in MRI inflammation and structural lesions in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) during treatment with adalimumab (ADA) vs. placebo (PLA). METHODS: In a 48-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 52 SpA patients were randomized to sc. ADA 40 mg (n=25) or PLA for 12...
Borgi, Lea; McMullan, Ciaran; Wohlhueter, Ann; Curhan, Gary C; Fisher, Naomi D; Forman, John P
Higher levels of serum uric acid are independently associated with endothelial dysfunction, a mechanism for incident hypertension. Overweight/obese individuals are more prone to endothelial dysfunction than their lean counterparts. However, the effect of lowering serum uric acid on endothelial dysfunction in these individuals has not been examined thoroughly. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nonhypertensive, overweight, or obese individuals with higher serum uric acid (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and serum uric acid ≥5.0 mg/dL), we assigned subjects to probenecid (500-1000 mg/d), allopurinol (300-600 mg/d), or matching placebo. The primary outcome was endothelium-dependent vasodilation measured by brachial artery ultrasound at baseline and 8 weeks. By the end of the trial, 47, 49, and 53 participants had been allocated to receive probenecid, allopurinol, and placebo, respectively. Mean serum uric acid levels significantly decreased in the probenecid (from 6.1 to 3.5 mg/dL) and allopurinol groups (from 6.1 to 2.9 mg/dL) but not in the placebo group (6.1 to 5.6 mg/dL). None of the interventions produced any significant change in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (probenecid, 7.4±5.1% at baseline and 8.3±5.1% at 8 weeks; allopurinol, 7.6±6.0% at baseline and 6.2±4.8% at 8 weeks; and placebo, 6.5±3.8% at baseline and 7.1±4.9% at 8 weeks). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, uric acid lowering did not affect endothelial function in overweight or obese nonhypertensive individuals. These data do not support the hypothesis that uric acid is causally related to endothelial dysfunction, a potential mechanism for development of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Faurschou, A.; Wulf, Hans Chr.
Objective: To examine the effect of topical corticosteroid treatment on acute sunburn. Design: Randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Setting: University dermatology department. Patients: Twenty healthy volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types I (highly sensitive, always burns easily, tans...... minimally) through III (sun-sensitive skin, sometimes burns, slowly tans to light brown). Intervention: Seven 34-cm(2) areas were marked on the upper aspect of the back of each participant. An untreated area was tested to determine UV sensitivity. Two areas were treated with excess amounts (2 mg/cm(2......) was determined by the following equation: SIF=MED(minimal erythema dose) on treated skin/MED on nontreated skin. An SIF greater than 1 indicated an effect of topical corticosteroids in sunburn relief. Results: The SIFs in the areas treated with either topical corticosteroid 30 minutes before UV-B exposure...
Thiese, Matthew S; Hughes, Matthew; Biggs, Jeremy
Non-invasive electrotherapy is commonly used for treatment of chronic low back pain. Evidence for efficacy of most electrotherapy modalities is weak or lacking. This study aims to execute a high-quality, double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial comparing 1) H-Wave(®) Device stimulation plus usual care with 2) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) plus usual care, and 3) Sham electrotherapy plus usual care to determine comparative efficacy for treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain patients. Chronic non-specific low back pain patients between ages of 18-65 years, with pain of at least 3 months duration and minimal current 5/10 VAS pain. Patients will have no significant signs or symptoms of lumbosacral nerve impingement, malignancy, spinal stenosis, or mood disorders. Double blind RCT with 3 arms and 38 subjects per arm. Randomization by permuted blocks of random length, stratified by Workers Compensation claim (yes vs. no), and use of opioids. The null hypothesis of this study is that there are no statistically significant differences in functional improvement between treatment types during and at the end of a 12-week week treatment period. Subjective data will be collected using Filemaker Pro™ database management collection tools. Objective data will be obtained through functional assessments. Data will be collected at enrollment and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks for each participant by a blinded assessor. H-Wave(®) device stimulation (Intervention A) plus usual care, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) (Intervention B) plus usual care, and sham electrotherapy plus usual care (control). Each treatment arm will have identical numbers of visits (4) and researcher contact time (approximately 15 hours). Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary measures include: Rowland Morris Instrument, VAS pain score, functional evaluation including strength when pushing and pulling, pain free range of motion in flexion and extension
Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J.; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S.; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Courts, Fraser
Background Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. Methods This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight indivi...
Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine
"Airwave" is the new communication system currently being rolled out across the United Kingdom for the police and emergency services, based on the Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System (TETRA). Some police officers have complained about skin rashes, nausea, headaches, and depression as a consequence of using their Airwave handsets. In addition, a small subgroup in the population self-report being sensitive to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in general. We conducted a randomized double-blind provocation study to establish whether short-term exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on the health and well-being of individuals with self-reported "electrosensitivity" and of participants who served as controls. Fifty-one individuals with self-reported electrosensitivity and 132 age- and sex-matched controls participated in an open provocation test; 48 sensitive and 132 control participants went on to complete double-blind tests in a fully screened semianechoic chamber. Heart rate, skin conductance, and blood pressure readings provided objective indices of short-term physiological response. Visual analog scales and symptom scales provided subjective indices of well-being. We found no differences on any measure between TETRA and sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions for either controls or electrosensitive participants, and neither group could detect the presence of a TETRA signal at rates greater than chance (50%). When conditions were not double blind, however, the self-reported electrosensitive individuals did report feeling worse and experienced more severe symptoms during TETRA compared with sham. Our findings suggest that the adverse symptoms experienced by electrosensitive individuals are due to the belief of harm from TETRA base stations rather than to the low-level EMF exposure itself.
Rafii, Michael S.; Skotko, Brian G.; McDonough, Mary Ellen; Pulsifer, Margaret; Evans, Casey; Doran, Eric; Muranevici, Gabriela; Kesslak, Patrick; Abushakra, Susan; Lott, Ira T.
Background ELND005 (scyllo-Inositol; cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol) has been evaluated as a potential disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk for developing AD dementia. Objective To evaluate the safety and tolerability of ELND005 and to determine its pharmacokinetics (PK) and relationship between PK parameters, safety outcome measures, and exploratory efficacy outcome measures in young adults with DS without dementia. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, three-arm, multicenter Phase 2 study of the safety and pharmacokinetics of ELND005 administered orally for 4 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01791725). Participants who met study eligibility criteria were randomly assigned in a 2:1:1 ratio to receive ELND005 at either 250 mg twice daily (BID) or 250 mg once daily (QD) or matching placebo for 4 weeks. Results There were no apparent treatment group-related trends on cognitive or behavioral measures and there were no SAEs and no deaths in the study. Overall, mean changes from baseline in clinical laboratory parameters, vital sign measurements, electrocardiogram (ECG) results, and other physical findings were unremarkable. ELND005 accumulation averaged approximately 2-fold with QD dosing, and 3- to 4-fold with BID dosing. Conclusion Overall, treatment of adults with DS with ELND005 at both doses was well tolerated, achieved measurable blood levels and demonstrated no safety findings. Further studies will be needed to test efficacy. PMID:28453471
Lonauer, G.; Tisscher, J. R.; Lim, H. G.; Bijlsma, J. W.
The efficacy and tolerability of etodolac was compared to diclofenac in a multi-centre, double-blind, randomized parallel group study. Fifty-three patients with rheumatoid arthritis received etodolac (400 mg/day) and 55 patients received diclofenac (150 mg/day) for 12 weeks. Thirty-nine
U. C. Adler
Full Text Available Homeopathy is a complementary and integrative medicine used in depression, The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority and tolerability of individualized homeopathic medicines [Quinquagintamillesmial (Q-potencies] in acute depression, using fluoxetine as active control. Ninety-one outpatients with moderate to severe depression were assigned to receive an individualized homeopathic medicine or fluoxetine 20 mg day−1 (up to 40 mg day−1 in a prospective, randomized, double-blind double-dummy 8-week, single-center trial. Primary efficacy measure was the analysis of the mean change in the Montgomery & Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS depression scores, using a non-inferiority test with margin of 1.45. Secondary efficacy outcomes were response and remission rates. Tolerability was assessed with the side effect rating scale of the Scandinavian Society of Psychopharmacology. Mean MADRS scores differences were not significant at the 4th (P = .654 and 8th weeks (P = .965 of treatment. Non-inferiority of homeopathy was indicated because the upper limit of the confidence interval (CI for mean difference in MADRS change was less than the non-inferiority margin: mean differences (homeopathy-fluoxetine were −3.04 (95% CI −6.95, 0.86 and −2.4 (95% CI −6.05, 0.77 at 4th and 8th week, respectively. There were no significant differences between the percentages of response or remission rates in both groups. Tolerability: there were no significant differences between the side effects rates, although a higher percentage of patients treated with fluoxetine reported troublesome side effects and there was a trend toward greater treatment interruption for adverse effects in the fluoxetine group. This study illustrates the feasibility of randomized controlled double-blind trials of homeopathy in depression and indicates the non-inferiority of individualized homeopathic Q-potencies as compared to fluoxetine in acute treatment of
Adler, U. C.; Paiva, N. M. P.; Cesar, A. T.; Adler, M. S.; Molina, A.; Padula, A. E.; Calil, H. M.
Homeopathy is a complementary and integrative medicine used in depression, The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority and tolerability of individualized homeopathic medicines [Quinquagintamillesmial (Q-potencies)] in acute depression, using fluoxetine as active control. Ninety-one outpatients with moderate to severe depression were assigned to receive an individualized homeopathic medicine or fluoxetine 20 mg day−1 (up to 40 mg day−1) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind double-dummy 8-week, single-center trial. Primary efficacy measure was the analysis of the mean change in the Montgomery & Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) depression scores, using a non-inferiority test with margin of 1.45. Secondary efficacy outcomes were response and remission rates. Tolerability was assessed with the side effect rating scale of the Scandinavian Society of Psychopharmacology. Mean MADRS scores differences were not significant at the 4th (P = .654) and 8th weeks (P = .965) of treatment. Non-inferiority of homeopathy was indicated because the upper limit of the confidence interval (CI) for mean difference in MADRS change was less than the non-inferiority margin: mean differences (homeopathy-fluoxetine) were −3.04 (95% CI −6.95, 0.86) and −2.4 (95% CI −6.05, 0.77) at 4th and 8th week, respectively. There were no significant differences between the percentages of response or remission rates in both groups. Tolerability: there were no significant differences between the side effects rates, although a higher percentage of patients treated with fluoxetine reported troublesome side effects and there was a trend toward greater treatment interruption for adverse effects in the fluoxetine group. This study illustrates the feasibility of randomized controlled double-blind trials of homeopathy in depression and indicates the non-inferiority of individualized homeopathic Q-potencies as compared to fluoxetine in acute treatment of outpatients
Rosenson, Jonathan; Clements, Carter; Simon, Barry; Vieaux, Jules; Graffman, Sarah; Vahidnia, Farnaz; Cisse, Bitou; Lam, Joseph; Alter, Harrison
Acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AAWS) is encountered in patients presenting acutely to the Emergency Department (ED) and often requires pharmacologic management. We investigated whether a single dose of intravenous (i.v.) phenobarbital combined with a standardized lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol decreases intensive care unit (ICU) admission in ED patients with acute alcohol withdrawal. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of i.v. phenobarbital (10 mg/kg in 100 mL normal saline) or placebo (100 mL normal saline). All patients were placed on the institutional symptom-guided lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol. The primary outcome was initial level of hospital admission (ICU vs. telemetry vs. floor ward). There were 198 patients enrolled in the study, and 102 met inclusion criteria for analysis. Fifty-one patients received phenobarbital and 51 received placebo. Baseline characteristics and severity were similar in both groups. Patients that received phenobarbital had fewer ICU admissions (8% vs. 25%, 95% confidence interval 4-32). There were no differences in adverse events. A single dose of i.v. phenobarbital combined with a symptom-guided lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol resulted in decreased ICU admission and did not cause increased adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buchard Nørager, Charlotte; Jensen, Martin Bach; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk
This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical performance in healthy citizens aged ≥70 yr. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted in 15 men and 15 women recruited by their general practitioner. Participants abstained from caffeine for 48 h...... and were randomized to receive one capsule of placebo and then caffeine (6 mg/kg) or caffeine and then placebo with 1 wk in between. One hour after intervention, we measured reaction and movement times, postural stability, walking speed, cycling at 65% of expected maximal heart rate, perceived effort...... during cycling, maximal isometric arm flexion strength, and endurance. Analysis was by intention to treat, and P Caffeine increased cycling endurance by 25% [95% confidence interval (CI): 13–38; P = 0.0001] and isometric arm flexion endurance by 54% (95% CI: 29–83; P...
Trevisani Virgínia FM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma; SSc is an orphan disease with the highest case-specific mortality of any connective-tissue disease. Excessive collagen deposit in affected tissues is a key for the disease's pathogenesis and comprises most of the clinical manifestations. Lidocaine seems to be an alternative treatment for scleroderma considering that: a the patient's having excessive collagen deposits in tissues affected by scleroderma; b the patient's demonstrating increased activity of the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase, an essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of collagen; and c lidocaine's reducing the activity of prolyl hydroxylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lidocaine in treating scleroderma. Methods A randomized double-blind clinical trial included 24 patients with scleroderma randomized to receive lidocaine or placebo intravenously in three cycles of ten days each, with a one-month interval between them. Outcomes: cutaneous (modified Rodnan skin score, oesophageal (manometry and microvascular improvement (nailfold capillaroscopy; improvement in subjective self-assessment and in quality of life (HAQ. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for any outcome after the treatment and after 6-months follow-up. Improvement in modified Rodnan skin score occurred in 66.7% and 50% of placebo and lidocaine group, respectively (p = 0.408. Both groups showed an improvement in subjective self-assessment, with no difference between them. Conclusions Despite the findings of a previous cohort study favouring the use of lidocaine, this study demonstrated that lidocaine at this dosage and means of administration showed a lack of efficacy for treating scleroderma despite the absence of significant adverse effects. However, further similar clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine when administered in different dosages and by other means.
Pan, Wen-Harn; Lai, Ying-Ho; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Chen, Jiunn-Rong; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Chang, Ku-Chou; Lin, Huey-Juan; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Chern, Chang-Ming; Lien, Li-Ming; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Chen, Wei-Hung; Chang, Anna
Background: Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and neurologic deficits. Management measures to improve neurologic outcomes are in great need. Our previous intervention trial in elderly subjects successfully used salt as a carrier for potassium, demonstrating a 41% reduction in cardiovascular mortality by switching to potassium-enriched salt. Dietary magnesium has been associated with lowered diabetes and/or stroke risk in humans and with neuroprotection in animals. Objective: Because a large proportion of Taiwanese individuals are in marginal deficiency states for potassium and for magnesium and salt is a good carrier for minerals, it is justifiable to study whether further enriching salt with magnesium at an amount near the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) amount may provide additional benefit for stroke recovery. Design: This was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comprising 291 discharged stroke patients with modified Rankin scale (mRS) ≤4. There were 3 arms: 1 ) regular salt (Na salt) ( n = 99), 2 ) potassium-enriched salt (K salt) ( n = 97), and 3 ) potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt (K/Mg salt) ( n = 95). The NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI), and mRS were evaluated at discharge, at 3 mo, and at 6 mo. A good neurologic performance was defined by NIHSS = 0, BI = 100, and mRS ≤1. Results: After the 6-mo intervention, the proportion of patients with good neurologic performance increased in a greater magnitude in the K/Mg salt group than in the K salt group and the Na salt group, in that order. The K/Mg salt group had a significantly increased OR (2.25; 95% CI: 1.09, 4.67) of achieving good neurologic performance compared with the Na salt group. But the effect of K salt alone (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 0.77, 3.22) was not significant. Conclusions: This study suggests that providing the DRI amount of magnesium and potassium together long term is beneficial for stroke patient recovery from neurologic deficits. This trial was
Favilla, V; Russo, G I; Zucchi, A; Siracusa, G; Privitera, S; Cimino, S; Madonia, M; Cai, T; Cavallini, G; Liguori, G; D'Achille, G; Silvani, M; Franco, G; Verze, P; Palmieri, A; Torrisi, B; Mirone, V; Morgia, G
Several intralesional therapeutic protocols have been proposed for the treatment of Peyronie's disease. Among all, hyaluronic acid (HA) and verapamil have been differently tested. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional verapamil (ILVI) compared with intralesional HA in patients with early onset of Peyronie's disease (PD). This is a multi-centre prospective double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. intralesional HA after 12-weeks. Sexually active men, older than 18 years and affected by the acute phase of PD were eligible for this study. Patients have been double-blinded randomly divided into two groups (1 : 1 ratio): Group A received intralesional treatment with Verapamil (10 mg in 5 mL of normal saline water) weekly for 12 weeks, while group B received intralesional treatment with HA (0.8% highly purified sodium salt HA 16 mg/2 mL) weekly for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was the change from the baseline to the endpoint (12 weeks after therapy) for the penile curvature (degree). The secondary outcome was the change in the plaque size and in the International Index of erectile Function (IIEF-5) score. The difference between post- and pre-treatment plaque size was -1.36 mm (SD ± 1.27) for Group A and -1.80 mm (SD ± 2.47) for Group B (p-value = NS). IIEF-5 increased of 1.46 points (SD ± 2.18) in Group A and 1.78 (SD ± 2.48) in Group B (p-value ± NS). No difference in penile curvature was observed in Group A, while in Group B the penile curvature decreased of 4.60° (SD ± 5.63) from the baseline (p < 0.001) and vs. Group A. According to PGI-I results, we found significant difference as concerning patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I) (4.0 vs. 2.0; p < 0.05). This prospective, double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. HA as intralesional therapy showed greater efficacy of HA in terms of penile curvature and PGI-I. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and
Full Text Available Most patients with facial scarring would value even a slight improvement in scar quality. Botulinum toxin A is widely used to alleviate facial dynamic rhytides but is also believed to improve scar quality by reducing wound tension during healing. The main objective was to assess the effect of Botulinum toxin on scars resultant from standardized upper lip wounds.In this double-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled, prospective clinical trial, 60 consecutive consenting adults undergoing cleft lip scar revision (CLSR surgery between July 2010 and March 2012 were randomized to receive botulinum toxin A (n = 30 or vehicle (normal saline; n = 30 injections into the subjacent orbicularis oris muscle immediately after wound closure. Scars were independently assessed at 6-months follow-up in blinded fashion using: Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and photographic plus ultrasound measurements of scar widths.58 patients completed the trial. All scar assessment modalities revealed statistically significantly better scars in the experimental than the vehicle-control group.Quality of surgical upper lip scars, which are oriented perpendicular to the direction of pull of the underlying orbicularis oris muscle, is significantly improved by its temporary paralysis during wound healing.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01429402.
Results of a randomized, prospective, double-dummy, double-blind trial to compare efficacy and safety of a herbal combination containing Tropaeoli majoris herba and Armoraciae rusticanae radix with co-trimoxazole in patients with acute and uncomplicated cystitis
Full Text Available Rainer Stange,1 Berthold Schneider,2 Uwe Albrecht,3 Valentina Mueller,3 Joerg Schnitker,4 Andreas Michalsen1 1Internal and Complementary Medicine, Immanuel Krankenhaus Berlin-Wannsee, Berlin, 2Institute for Biostatistics, Medical University, 3Mediconomics GmbH, Hannover, 4Institute for Applied Statistics, Bielefeld, Germany Objectives: To demonstrate non-inferiority of an herbal combination (horseradish root and nasturtium herb to an antibiotic (co-trimoxazole in acute uncomplicated cystitis. Design: Randomized, prospective, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, phase III clinical study, using block randomization of 4 blocks (size 2. Setting: Twenty-six centers in Germany, from May 2011 to June 2013. Participants: Adult patients (median age, 38.5 years; 90% female with acute uncomplicated cystitis confirmed via urinalysis and bacterial counts. Interventions: Patients received the herbal combination (five tablets, four times per day or the antibiotic (two tablets daily for a period of 7 or 3 days, respectively, followed by a 21-days without drug treatment. Placebos ensured blinding. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The primary endpoint was the percentage of responders, expressed as reduction of germ count from >105 to <103 CFU/mL of pathogens between visit 1 (day 0 and 3 (day 15. Secondary endpoints included change of symptom scores, duration of symptoms, efficacy assessments, relapse frequency, and safety. A sample size of 178 patients per group was estimated. Results: Of the 96 randomized patients (intent-to-treat; 45 in the phytotherapy group, 51 in the antibiotic group, 51 were considered per-protocol patients (22 in the phytotherapy group, 29 in the antibiotic group. Responder rates were 10/22 (45.5% for the phytotherapy group and 15/29 (51.1% for the antibiotic group (group difference: –6.27% [95% CI: –33.90%–21.3%]. The study was terminated prematurely due to slow recruitment rates. Non-inferiority could not be assumed by
Lou, Wenhui; Xia, Ying; Xiang, Peng; Zhang, Liangqing; Yu, Xiangyou; Lim, Sam; Xu, Mo; Zhao, Lina; Rydholm, Hans; Traxler, Barry; Qin, Xinyu
To assess the efficacy and safety of esomeprazole in preventing upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in critically ill Chinese patients, using cimetidine as an active comparator. A pre-specified non-inferiority limit (5%) was used to compare rates of significant upper GI bleeding in this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 study across 27 intensive care units in China. Secondary endpoints included safety and tolerability measures. Patients required mechanical ventilation and had at least one additional risk factor for stress ulcer bleeding. Patients were randomized to receive either active esomeprazole 40 mg, as a 30-min intravenous (IV) infusion twice daily, and an IV placebo cimetidine infusion or active cimetidine 50 mg/h, as a continuous infusion following an initial bolus of 300 mg, and placebo esomeprazole injections, given up to 14 days. Patients were blinded using this double-dummy technique. Of 274 patients, 2.7% with esomeprazole and 4.6% with cimetidine had significant upper GI bleeding (bright red blood in the gastric tube not clearing after lavage or persistent Gastroccult-positive "coffee grounds" material). Non-inferiority of esomeprazole to cimetidine was demonstrated. The safety profiles of both drugs were similar and as expected in critically ill patients. Esomeprazole is effective in preventing upper GI bleeding in critically ill Chinese patients, as demonstrated by the non-inferiority analysis using cimetidine as an active control. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02157376.
Marshall J Glesby
Full Text Available Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT volume.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA. Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02; by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03 differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004, increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (-17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and -22.7% in rhGH but not in the rosiglitazone alone (-2.5% or control arms (-1.9%. SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter.The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00130286.
Glesby, Marshall J; Albu, Jeanine; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Ham, Kirsis; Engelson, Ellen; He, Qing; Muthukrishnan, Varalakshmi; Ginsberg, Henry N; Donovan, Daniel; Ernst, Jerry; Lesser, Martin; Kotler, Donald P
Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA). Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02); by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03) differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004), increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (-17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and -22.7% in rhGH) but not in the rosiglitazone alone (-2.5%) or control arms (-1.9%). SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter. The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00130286.
Adler, Lenard A.; Clemow, David B.; Williams, David W.; Durell, Todd M.
Objective To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine treatment on executive functions in young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods In this Phase 4, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, young adults (18–30 years) with ADHD were randomized to receive atomoxetine (20–50 mg BID, N = 220) or placebo (N = 225) for 12 weeks. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult (BRIEF-A) consists of 75 self-report items within 9 nonoverlapping clinical scales measuring various aspects of executive functioning. Mean changes from baseline to 12-week endpoint on the BRIEF-A were analyzed using an ANCOVA model (terms: baseline score, treatment, and investigator). Results At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the percentage of patients with BRIEF-A composite or index T-scores ≥60 (p>.5), with over 92% of patients having composite scores ≥60 (≥60 deemed clinically meaningful for these analyses). At endpoint, statistically significantly greater mean reductions were seen in the atomoxetine versus placebo group for the BRIEF-A Global Executive Composite (GEC), Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI), and Metacognitive Index (MI) scores, as well as the Inhibit, Self-Monitor, Working Memory, Plan/Organize and Task Monitor subscale scores (patomoxetine versus placebo group as measured by changes in the BRIEF-A scales. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00510276 PMID:25148243
Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615
Akhtari, Elham; Raisi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Hosseini, Hamed; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghobadi, Ali
Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted.
Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Luedtke, Connie A.; King, Susan M.; Cha, Stephen S.; Elkin, Peter L.; Bruce, Barbara K.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Bergeson, Jody R.; Eickhoff, Andrea L.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A.
Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein) shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02) and by 18% in the placebo group (P fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control) shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated. PMID:18990724
Moesgaard, F; Jensen, L S; Christiansen, P M
AND TREATMENT: One hundred and ninety-four consecutive patients undergoing acute colorectal surgery for perforated and/or obstructed large bowel were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive ranitidine 100 mg i.v. twice a day commencing at induction of anesthesia and continued for five days (group I...... patients were withdrawn from the study (for reasons such as other diagnosis, refused to continue, medication not given as prescribed). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were observed for signs of infectious complications; such as wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, septicemia, and pneumonia. RESULTS...
Silverman, Bernard L; Martin, William; Memisoglu, Asli; DiPetrillo, Lauren; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M
Antipsychotic medications are associated with weight gain and adverse metabolic effects that complicate the treatment and management of schizophrenia. Olanzapine (OLZ) in particular is associated with significant weight gain and adverse metabolic effects. The present Phase 1, proof of concept, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the safety and effect on weight of a combination of OLZ (10mg) and the opioid modulator samidorphan (SAM; 5mg) in comparison to OLZ alone in healthy, male normal weight volunteers. Altogether, 106 male subjects with stable body weight and BMI 18-25kg/m 2 were randomized to OLZ alone, OLZ+SAM, SAM alone, or placebo in a 2:2:1:1 ratio. The primary efficacy endpoint, mean (SD) body weight change from baseline to last assessment in the 3-week treatment period, was significantly less for OLZ+SAM vs. OLZ alone subjects [+2.2 (1.4) kg vs. +3.1 (1.9) kg; respectively; p=0.02]. In contrast, there was no significant difference in weight from baseline for either SAM or placebo [+0.1 (1.0) kg and +0.8 (1.4) kg, respectively]; p=0.09. Overall, OLZ+SAM compared to OLZ alone had similar safety and tolerability. In addition, less nausea was observed in subjects given OLZ+SAM compared to SAM alone. Thus, OLZ+SAM may offer effective treatment of schizophrenia with less weight gain and metabolic risk. Additional research exploring additional doses over longer durations in psychiatric populations is warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tejani, Furqan H; Thompson, Randall C; Iskandrian, Ami E; McNutt, Bruce E; Franks, Billy
Caffeine attenuates the coronary hyperemic response to adenosine by competitive A₂(A) receptor blockade. This study aims to determine whether oral caffeine administration compromises diagnostic accuracy in patients undergoing vasodilator stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with regadenoson, a selective adenosine A(2A) agonist. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study includes patients with suspected coronary artery disease who regularly consume caffeine. Each participant undergoes three SPECT MPI studies: a rest study on day 1 (MPI-1); a regadenoson stress study on day 3 (MPI-2), and a regadenoson stress study on day 5 with double-blind administration of oral caffeine 200 or 400 mg or placebo capsules (MPI-3; n = 90 per arm). Only participants with ≥ 1 reversible defect on the second MPI study undergo the subsequent stress MPI test. The primary endpoint is the difference in the number of reversible defects on the two stress tests using a 17-segment model. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses will evaluate the effect of caffeine on the regadenoson exposure-response relationship. Safety will also be assessed. The results of this study will show whether the consumption of caffeine equivalent to 2-4 cups of coffee prior to an MPI study with regadenoson affects the diagnostic validity of stress testing (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00826280).
Eitan, Renana; Fontaine, Denys; Benoît, Michel; Giordana, Caroline; Darmon, Nelly; Israel, Zvi; Linesky, Eduard; Arkadir, David; Ben-Naim, Shiri; Iserlles, Moshe; Bergman, Hagai; Hulse, Natasha; Abdelghani, Mohamed; McGuffin, Peter; Farmer, Anne; DeLea, Peichel; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Lerer, Bernard
Subcallosal Brodmann's Area 25 (Cg25) Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a new promising therapy for treatment resistant major depressive disorder (TR-MDD). While different DBS stimulating parameters may have an impact on the efficacy and safety of the therapy, there is no data to support a protocol for optimal stimulation parameters for depression. Here we present a prospective multi-center double-blind randomized crossed-over 13-month study that evaluated the effects of High (130 Hz) vs Low (20 Hz) frequency Cg25 stimulation for nine patients with TR-MDD. Four out of nine patients achieved response criteria (≥40% reduction of symptom score) compared to mean baseline values at the end of the study. The mean percent change of MADRS score showed a similar improvement in the high and low frequency stimulation groups after 6 months of stimulation (-15.4 ± 21.1 and -14.7 ± 21.1 respectively). The mean effect at the end of the second period (6 months after cross-over) was higher than the first period (first 6 months of stimulation) in all patients (-23.4 ± 19.9 (n = 6 periods) and -13.0 ± 22 (n = 9 periods) respectively). At the end of the second period, the mean percent change of the MADRS scores improved more in the high than low frequency groups (-31.3 ± 19.3 (n = 4 patients) and -7.7 ± 10.9 (n = 2 patients) respectively). Given the small numbers, detailed statistical analysis is challenging. Nonetheless the results of this study suggest that long term high frequency stimulation might confer the best results. Larger scale, randomized double blind trials are needed in order to evaluate the most effective stimulation parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stem cell mobilization induced by subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to improve cardiac regeneration after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: result of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial
Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Jørgensen, Erik; Wang, Yongzhong
BACKGROUND: Phase 1 clinical trials of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment after myocardial infarction have indicated that G-CSF treatment is safe and may improve left ventricular function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial aimed to assess the efficacy...... hours after symptom onset. Patients were randomized to double-blind treatment with G-CSF (10 microg/kg of body weight) or placebo for 6 days. The primary end point was change in systolic wall thickening from baseline to 6 months determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An independent core...
Ye, Zhangqun; Zeng, Guohua; Yang, Huan; Tang, Kun; Zhang, Xiaochun; Li, Hong; Li, Weibing; Wu, Zhong; Chen, Lingwu; Chen, Xingfa; Liu, Xiankui; Deng, Yaoliang; Pan, Tiejun; Xing, Jinchun; Wang, Shusheng; Cheng, Yue; Gu, Xiaojian; Gao, Wenxi; Yang, Jianggen; Zhang, Yonghai; Mi, Qiwu; Qi, Lin; Li, Jiongming; Hu, Weilie; Liang, Peiyu; Sun, Zhaolin; Xu, Changbao; Long, Yongfu; Liao, Yongbin; Liu, Siping; Liu, Guoqing; Xu, Xun; He, Wei; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xu, Hua
Recent large high-quality trials have questioned the clinical effectiveness of medical expulsive therapy using tamsulosin for ureteral stones. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin for distal ureteral stones compared with placebo. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3296 patients with distal ureteral stones, across 30 centers, to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) into tamsulosin (0.4mg) or placebo groups for 4 wk. The primary end point of analysis was the overall stone expulsion rate, defined as stone expulsion, confirmed by negative findings on computed tomography, over a 28-d surveillance period. Secondary end points included time to stone expulsion, use of analgesics, and incidence of adverse events. Among 3450 patients randomized between September 1, 2011, and August 31, 2013, 3296 (96%) were included in the primary analysis. Tamsulosin benefits from a higher stone expulsion rate than the placebo (86% vs 79%; ptamsulosin for the treatment of large distal ureteral stones (>5mm). Considering the secondary end points, tamsulosin-treated patients reported a shorter time to expulsion (ptamsulosin use benefits distal ureteral stones in facilitating stone passage and relieving renal colic. Subgroup analyses find that tamsulosin provides a superior expulsion rate for stones >5mm, but no effect for stones ≤5mm. In this report, we looked at the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin for the treatment of distal ureteral stones. We find that tamsulosin significantly facilitates the passage of distal ureteral stones and relieves renal colic. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marques, Duarte Nuno da Silva; da Mata, António Duarte Sola Pereira; Silveira, João Miguel Lourenço; Marques, Joana Rita Oliveira Faria; Amaral, João Pedro de Almeida Rato; Guilherme, Nuno Filipe Rito Parada Marques
The objective of this study is to compare salivary hydrogen peroxide (HP) release kinetics and potential toxicity of systemic exposure of four different whitening products. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a Portuguese dental faculty clinic. Two hundred forty volunteers were randomized to eight intervention groups. Participants were randomly assigned to receive active or placebo applications of one of four different products: Opalescence 10% PF™ (OPL), Vivastyle® 10%™ (VS10%), Vivadent Paint On Plus™ (PO+), and Trés White Supreme™ (TWS). Saliva collection was obtained by established methods at different times. The HP salivary content was determined by a photometric method. Salivary HP variations, total amount of salivary HP, and counts of subjects above the safe daily HP dose were the main outcome measures. All whitening systems significantly released HP to the saliva when compared to placebo, and all showed different release kinetics. The adaptable tray system (TWS) presented a risk increase of 37% [20-54%, 95% confidence interval] when compared to the other systems. The use of an adaptable tray whitening system with higher concentration of HP increases the toxicity potential.
Rootmensen, Geert N.; van Keimpema, Anton R. J.; Looysen, Elske E.; van der Schaaf, Letty; de Haan, Rob J.; Jansen, Henk M.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of additional information based nursing care program in the treatment of asthma and COPD patients at a pulmonary outpatient clinic. METHODS: In a double blind, randomized clinical trial, 191 patients were allocated to an additional care group or control group.
Bell, K.L.; Galasko, D.; Galvin, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.; van Dyck, C.H.; Aisen, P.S.
Background: Lowering cholesterol is associated with reduced CNS amyloid deposition and increased dietary cholesterol increases amyloid accumulation in animal studies. Epidemiologic data suggest that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) may decrease the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and a single-site trial suggested possible benefit in cognition with statin treatment in AD, supporting the hypothesis that statin therapy is useful in the treatment of AD. Objective: To determine if the lipid-lowering agent simvastatin slows the progression of symptoms in AD. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin was conducted in individuals with mild to moderate AD and normal lipid levels. Participants were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin, 20 mg/day, for 6 weeks then 40 mg per day for the remainder of 18 months or identical placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive portion (ADAS-Cog). Secondary outcomes measured clinical global change, cognition, function, and behavior. Results: A total of 406 individuals were randomized: 204 to simvastatin and 202 to placebo. Simvastatin lowered lipid levels but had no effect on change in ADAS-Cog score or the secondary outcome measures. There was no evidence of increased adverse events with simvastatin treatment. Conclusion: Simvastatin had no benefit on the progression of symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate AD despite significant lowering of cholesterol. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that simvastatin 40 mg/day does not slow decline on the ADAS-Cog. PMID:21795660
Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Yamamoto, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Sadako; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Kagimura, Tatsuro; Sarashina, Akiko; Rascol, Olivier; Schapira, Anthony H V; Barone, Paolo; Hauser, Robert A; Poewe, Werner
To compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and trough plasma levels of pramipexole extended-release (ER) and pramipexole immediate-release (IR), and to assess the effects of overnight switching from an IR to an ER formulation, in L-dopa-treated patients with Parkinson disease (PD). After a 1- to 4-week screening/enrollment, 112 patients who had exhibited L-dopa-related problems or were receiving suboptimal L-dopa dosage were randomized in double-blind, double-dummy, 1:1 fashion to pramipexole ER once daily or pramipexole IR 2 to 3 times daily for 12 weeks, both titrated to a maximum daily dose of 4.5 mg. Successful completers of double-blind treatment were switched to open-label pramipexole ER, beginning with a 4-week dose-adjustment phase. Among the double-blind treatment patients (n = 56 in each group), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Parts II+III total scores decreased significantly from baseline and to a similar degree with pramipexole ER and IR formulations. In each group, 47 double-blind patients (83.9%) reported adverse events (AEs), requiring withdrawal of 3 ER patients (5.4%) and 2 IR patients (3.6%). Trough plasma levels at steady state (at the same doses and dose-normalized concentrations) were also similar with both formulations. Among open-label treatment patients (n = 53 from IR to ER), 83% were successfully switched (no worsening of PD symptoms) to pramipexole ER. In L-dopa-treated patients, pramipexole ER and pramipexole IR demonstrated similar efficacy, safety, tolerability, and trough plasma levels. Patients can be safely switched overnight from pramipexole IR to pramipexole ER with no impact on efficacy.
S Ashraffodin Ghoshegir
Full Text Available Background: We aimed to evaluate the effects of Pimpinella anisum (anise from Apiaceae family on relieving the symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome (PDS in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Totally, 107 patients attending the gastroenterology clinic, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with PDS according to ROME III criteria and signed a written consent form were enrolled. They were randomized to receive either anise or placebo, blindly, for 4 weeks. Anise group included 47 patients and received anise powders, 3 g after each meal (3 times/day. Control group involved 60 patients and received placebo powders (corn starch, 3 gafter each meal (3 times/day. The severity of Functional dyspepsia (FD symptoms was assessed by FD severity scale. Assessments were done at baseline and by the end of weeks 2, 4 and 12. Mean scores of severity of FD symptoms and the frequency distribution of patients across the study period were compared. Results: The age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, and coffee drinking pattern of the intervention and control groups were not significantly different. Mean (standard deviation total scores of FD severity scale before intervention in the anise and control groups were 10.6 (4.1 and 10.96 (4.1, respectively (P = 0.6. They were 7.04 (4.1 and 12.30 (4.3 by week 2, respectively (P = 0.0001, 2.44 (4.2 and 13.05 (5.2 by week 4, respectively (P = 0.0001, and 1.08 (3.8 and 13.30 (6.2 by week 12, respectively (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of anise in relieving the symptoms of postpartum depression. The findings were consistent across the study period at weeks 2, 4 and 12.
Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Maeda, Shin; Morita, Satoshi; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Nagase, Hajime; Nakajima, Atsushi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Iida, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ezuka, Akiko; Uchiyama, Shiori; Yamada, Eiji
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemoprevention trials, in general, the incidence of polyps or of the cancer itself is set as the study endpoint. Although the incidence rate of CRC would be the most reliable endpoint, use of this endpoint would be unsuitable for chemoprevention trials, because of the relatively low occurrence rate of CRC in the general population and the long-term observation period that it would necessitate. Moreover, there is an ethical problem in conducting long-term trials to determine whether a test drug might be effective or harmful. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), defined as lesions containing crypts that are larger in diameter and stain more darkly with methylene blue than normal crypts, are considered as a reliable surrogate biomarker of CRC. Thus, we devised a prospective randomized controlled trial as a preliminary study prior to a CRC chemoprevention trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of EPA against colorectal ACF formation and the safety of this drug, in patients scheduled for polypectomy. This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral 900-mg EPA capsules thrice daily (total daily
Nielsen, G L; Faarvang, K L; Thomsen, B S
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments of Rheumato......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments...
Benussi, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo; Cotelli, Maria; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara
Numerous studies have highlighted the possibility of modulating the excitability of cerebellar circuits using transcranial direct current stimulation. The present study investigated whether a single session of cerebellar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation could improve symptoms in patients with ataxia. Nineteen patients with ataxia underwent a clinical and functional evaluation pre- and post-double-blind, randomized, sham, or anodal transcranial direct current stimulation. There was a significant interaction between treatment and time on the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia, on the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale, on the 9-Hole Peg Test, and on the 8-Meter Walking Time (P transcranial direct current stimulation can transiently improve symptoms in patients with ataxia and might represent a promising tool for future rehabilitative approaches. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
In patients undergoing fast track total knee arthroplasty, addition of buprenorphine to a femoral nerve block has no clinical advantage A prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled trial
van Beek, Rienk; Zonneveldt, Harry J.; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Steens, Jeroen; Lirk, Phillip; Hollmann, Marcus W.
Background: Several adjuvants have been proposed to prolong the effect of peripheral nerve blocks, one of which is buprenorphine. In this randomized double blinded placebo controlled trial we studied whether the addition of buprenorphine to a femoral nerve block prolongs analgesia in patients
Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth
BACKGROUND Latrepirdine is an orally administered experimental small molecule that was initially developed as an antihistamine and subsequently was shown to stabilize mitochondrial membranes and function, which might be impaired in Huntington disease. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of latrepir......BACKGROUND Latrepirdine is an orally administered experimental small molecule that was initially developed as an antihistamine and subsequently was shown to stabilize mitochondrial membranes and function, which might be impaired in Huntington disease. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect...... of latrepirdine on cognition and global function in patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING Sixty-four research centers in Australia, Europe, and North America. PATIENTS Four hundred three patients with mild to moderate Huntington...... between those randomized to latrepirdine (68.5%) and placebo (68.0%). CONCLUSION In patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease and cognitive impairment, treatment with latrepirdine for 6 months was safe and well tolerated but did not improve cognition or global function relative to placebo. TRIAL...
Thiel, John A; Lukwinski, Angelina; Kamencic, Huse; Lim, Hyung
To compare the pain reported by patients during the Essure Micro-Insert sterilization procedure using either intravenous conscious sedation or oral analgesia. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). Tertiary care ambulatory women's clinic. Eighty women of reproductive age women requesting permanent sterilization. Hysteroscopic placement of the Essure Micro-Insert permanent birth control system. Patients undergoing placement of the Essure Micro-Insert system for permanent contraception were randomized to receive either intravenous conscious sedation, oral analgesia, or placebo. During the procedure, pain scores were recorded using a visual analog scale. Patients in the oral analgesia group reported slightly more pain during insertion of the hysteroscope and placement of the second micro-insert; the groups were otherwise equivalent. They were also equivalent when all visual analog scale scores were combined. Oral analgesia is an effective method of pain control during placement of the Essure Micro-Insert permanent birth control system. Copyright Â© 2011 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moini, Ashraf; Ebrahimi, Tabandeh; Shirzad, Nooshin; Hosseini, Reihaneh; Radfar, Mania; Bandarian, Fatemeh; Jafari-Adli, Shahrzad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Hemmatabadi, Mahboobeh
Dysmenorrhea is common among women of reproductive age. This study aim was to investigate the effect of vitamin D (vit D) supplementation in treatment of primary dysmenorrhea with vit D deficiency. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 women with primary dysmenorrhea and vit D deficiency referred to our clinic at Arash Women's Hospital from September 2013 to December 2014. Eligible women were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups (30 in each group). Individuals in the treatment group received 50 000 IU oral vit D and the control group received placebo weekly for eight weeks. After two months of treatment, there was a significant difference in serum vit D concentration between the two groups (p dysmenorrhea and vit D deficiency could improve pain intensity.
Whitley, Julie Anne; Rich, Bonnie L
To explore the hypothesis that nontouch therapy such as therapeutic touch (TT) reduces stress to a clinically important degree and is safe to use in preterm infants. A pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Two groups of 10 infants were enrolled and randomly assigned to treatment or nontreatment groups. Gestational age was less than 29 weeks. Demographic descriptions of the 2 groups were statistically similar. The observer and staff were blinded to assignment; the TT practitioner was blinded to observed measurements. Each infant received either TT or no therapeutic touch (NTT) for 5 minutes on 3 consecutive days at the same time of day, behind a curtain. Heart period variability (HPV) was measured 5 minutes before, during, and after the treatment phase. Examination of the parameters of oxygen saturation and episodes of apnea demonstrated no increase in adverse events in TT group compared with NTT group. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance on HPV revealed differences in the interaction of group assignment with low-frequency, high-frequency, and low-to-high- frequency ratio interaction (F2,143 = 8.076, P = .000) and for group, day, and low-frequency, high-frequency, and low-to-high-frequency ratio (F2,288 = 3.146, P = .015), and in the posttreatment time period (F1,16 = 6.259, P = .024), reflective of greater parasympathetic activity in TT group. In this pilot trial, HPV showed an increase for the TT group compared with the NTT group. The study reveals no adverse effects of TT in preterm infants.
Mischoulon, David; Shelton, Richard C; Baer, Lee; Bobo, William V; Curren, Laura; Fava, Maurizio; Papakostas, George I
To examine motoric, cardiovascular, endocrine, and metabolic effects of adjunctive ziprasidone in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and prior nonresponse to 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. A multicenter, parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 3 US academic medical centers from July 2008 to October 2013. Recruited were 139 outpatients with persistent DSM-IV MDD following an 8-week open-label trial of escitalopram. Subjects were then randomized to adjunctive ziprasidone (escitalopram + ziprasidone, n = 71) or placebo (escitalopram + placebo, n = 68) for 8 additional weeks. Cardiac and metabolic measures were obtained at each treatment visit. Barnes Akathisia Scale and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores were also obtained. Changes in outcome measures for each treatment group were compared by independent-samples t test. A trend toward significance (P = .06) in corrected QT interval (QTc) increase was observed for ziprasidone (mean [SD] = 8.8 [20.2] milliseconds) versus placebo (-0.02 [25.5] milliseconds). Ziprasidone-treated patients had a significantly greater increase in global akathisia scores (P = .01) and significant weight increase (mean [SD] = 3.5 [11.8] kg, or 7.7 [26.1] lb) compared to placebo (1.0 [6.4] kg, or 2.2 [14.1] lb) (P = .03). No significant changes in AIMS scores were observed for either treatment group. Adjunctive ziprasidone, added to escitalopram, led to a greater weight gain and greater but modest akathisia compared to placebo. The effect of ziprasidone on QTc showed a trend toward significance, and therefore caution should be used in the administration of ziprasidone. While ziprasidone augmentation in patients with MDD appears safe, precautions should be taken in practice, specifically regular monitoring of electrocardiogram, weight, extrapyramidal symptoms, and involuntary movements. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00633399. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate
Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin add-on to insulin monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an open-label period.
Kadowaki, Takashi; Kondo, Kazuoki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Miyayama, Kyoko; Yokota, Shoko; Terata, Ryuji; Gouda, Maki
To assess the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin as add-on to insulin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In a 16-week, double-blind period, 148 Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control with insulin and diet/exercise therapies were randomized to placebo or teneligliptin 20 mg. In a subsequent 36-week, open-label period, all patients received teneligliptin once daily. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c at the end of the double-blind period. The difference between placebo and teneligliptin in change in HbA1c in the double-blind period (least squares mean ± SE) was -0.80% ± 0.11%; teneligliptin was superior (ANCOVA, P 1). The HbA1c-lowering effect of teneligliptin was maintained throughout the open-label period. The incidence of adverse events was 53.5% with placebo and 44.2% with teneligliptin in the double-blind period, 66.7% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period, and 77.9% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. The incidence of hypoglycemic symptoms was 11.1% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period and 27.3% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. Teneligliptin was effective and well tolerated in Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control. NCT02081599.
Cañete, Roberto; Rodríguez, Pablo; Mesa, Lumey; Brito, Katia; Prior, Ada; Guilhem, Dirce; Novaes, M R C G
Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole carbamate compound currently in use for human medical practice against enterobiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH); However, its spectrum of activity is broad and goes beyond these infections. This study compares the efficacy and safety of ABZ versus metronidazole (MTZ) in human giardiasis. A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out at the Centre of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology in Matanzas City, Cuba. Adult patients with confirmed symptomatic G. duodenalis mono-infection were randomly assigned to receive either ABZ [400 mg daily (n = 75)] or MTZ [250 mg t.i.d. (n = 75)], both for 5 days. Follow-up fecal samples were obtained at 3, 5, 7 days after treatment end. The efficacy was similar for both treatment groups: ABZ (82.6%) and MTZ (85.3%); p > 0.05. Side-effects including bitter taste, headache, vomiting and dizziness were significantly higher in the MTZ group. Abdominal pain was significantly higher in ABZ group. ABZ was found as effective as MTZ in the treatment of G. duodenalis infections in adult patients from Cuba and could be a useful drug in areas where co-infection with STH infections is common.
Kern, Philippe; Ramelet, Albert-Adrien; Wutschert, Robert; Mazzolai, Lucia
Chromated glycerin (CG) is an effective, although painful, sclerosing agent for telangiectasias and reticular leg veins treatment. To determine pain level and relative efficacy of pure or one-third lidocaine-epinephrine 1% mixed chromated glycerin in a prospective randomized double-blind trial. Patients presenting with telangiectasias and reticular leg veins on the lateral aspect of the thigh (C(1A) or (S) E(P) A(S) P(N1) ) were randomized to receive pure CG or CG mixed with one-third lidocaine-epinephrine 1% (CGX) treatment. Lower limb photographs were taken before and after treatment and analyzed by blinded expert reviewers for efficacy assessment (visual vein disappearance). Patients' pain and satisfaction were assessed using visual analogue scales. Data from 102 of 110 randomized patients could be evaluated. Patient pain scores were significantly higher when pure CG was used than with CGX (psclerotherapy pain without affecting efficacy when treating telangiectasias and reticular leg veins. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
Vinit K. Srivastava
Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Succinylcholine is commonly used to achieve profound neuromuscular blockade of rapid onset and short duration. OBJECTIVE: The present study compared the efficacy of pregabalin for prevention of succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and myalgia. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blinded study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients of both genders undergoing elective spine surgery were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in Group P (pregabalin group received 150 mg of pregabalin orally 1 h prior to induction of anesthesia with sips of water and patients in Group C (control group received placebo. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 1.5 mcg/kg, propofol 1.5-2.0 mg/kg followed by succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg. The intensity of fasciculations was assessed by an observer blinded to the group allotment of the patient on a 4-point scale. A blinded observer recorded postoperative myalgia grade after 24 h of surgery. Patients were provided patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl for postoperative pain relief. RESULTS: Demographic data of both groups were comparable (p > 0.05. The incidence of muscle fasciculation's was not significant between two groups (p = 0.707, while more patients in group C had moderate to severe fasciculation's compared to group P (p = 0.028. The incidence and severity of myalgia were significantly lower in group P (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Pregabalin 150 mg prevents succinylcholine-induced fasciculations and myalgia and also decreases the fentanyl consumption in elective sine surgery.
Lindelof, K; Bendtsen, L; Lindelof, K
Treatment for chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is unsatisfactory. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist memantine in the prophylactic treatment of CTTH. We included 40 patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial....... Memantine 20-40 mg/day or placebo was each given for 10 weeks separated by a 2-week wash-out period; 29 patients completed the study. The primary efficacy variable, area-under-the-headache curve (duration x intensity), did not differ between memantine (1352 +/- 927) and placebo (1449 +/- 976; P = 0.......10). Headache intensity in both sexes was significantly lower on a 0-10 verbal rating scale with memantine (3.8) than with placebo (4.1; P = 0.03). In women, area-under-the-headache curve was significantly lower with memantine (1343 +/- 919) than with placebo (1555 +/- 1019; P = 0.01). The most common side...
Henderson, V W; Paganini-Hill, A; Miller, B L; Elble, R J; Reyes, P F; Shoupe, D; McCleary, C A; Klein, R A; Hake, A M; Farlow, M R
AD, the most prevalent cause of dementia, affects twice as many women as men. Therapeutic options are limited, but results of prior studies support the hypothesis that estrogen treatment may improve symptoms of women with this disorder. Forty-two women with mild-to-moderate dementia due to AD were enrolled into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial of unopposed conjugated equine estrogens (1.25 mg/day) for 16 weeks. Outcome data were available for 40 women at 4 weeks and 36 women at 16 weeks. At both 4 and 16 weeks, there were no significant differences or statistical trends between treatment groups on the primary outcome measure (the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale), clinician-rated global impression of change, or caregiver-rated functional status. Exploratory analyses of mood and specific aspects of cognitive performance also failed to demonstrate substantial group differences. Although conclusions are limited by small sample size and the possibility of a type II error, results suggest that short-term estrogen therapy does not improve symptoms of most women with AD. These findings do not address possible long-term effects of estrogen in AD, possible interactions between estrogen and other treatment modalities, or putative effects of estrogen in preventing or delaying onset of this disorder.
Lee, Jeannette Y.; Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael
Objectives: This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM).
Wood, Robert A; Kim, Jennifer S; Lindblad, Robert; Nadeau, Kari; Henning, Alice K; Dawson, Peter; Plaut, Marshall; Sampson, Hugh A
Although studies of oral immunotherapy (OIT) for food allergy have shown promise, treatment is frequently complicated by adverse reactions and, even when successful, has limited long-term efficacy because benefits usually diminish when treatment is discontinued. We sought to examine whether the addition of omalizumab to milk OIT reduces treatment-related reactions, improves outcomes, or both. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with subjects randomized to omalizumab or placebo. Open-label milk OIT was initiated after 4 months of omalizumab/placebo with escalation to maintenance over 22 to 40 weeks, followed by daily maintenance dosing through month 28. At month 28, omalizumab was discontinued, and subjects passing an oral food challenge (OFC) continued OIT for 8 weeks, after which OIT was discontinued with rechallenge at month 32 to assess sustained unresponsiveness (SU). Fifty-seven subjects (7-32 years) were randomized, with no significant baseline differences in age, milk-specific IgE levels, skin test results, or OFC results. At month 28, 24 (88.9%) omalizumab-treated subjects and 20 (71.4%) placebo-treated subjects passed the 10-g "desensitization" OFC (P = .18). At month 32, SU was demonstrated in 48.1% in the omalizumab group and 35.7% in the placebo group (P = .42). Adverse reactions were markedly reduced during OIT escalation in omalizumab-treated subjects for percentages of doses per subject provoking symptoms (2.1% vs 16.1%, P = .0005), dose-related reactions requiring treatment (0.0% vs 3.8%, P = .0008), and doses required to achieve maintenance (198 vs 225, P = .008). In this first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of omalizumab in combination with food OIT, we found significant improvements in measurements of safety but not in outcomes of efficacy (desensitization and SU). Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gommoll, Carl; Durgam, Suresh; Mathews, Maju; Forero, Giovanna; Nunez, Rene; Tang, Xiongwen; Thase, Michael E
Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, is approved for treating major depressive disorder in adults. This study (NCT01629966 ClinicalTrials.gov) evaluated the efficacy and safety of vilazodone in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). A multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in patients with GAD randomized (1:1:1) to placebo (n = 223), or vilazodone 20 mg/day (n = 230) or 40 mg/day (n = 227). Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were total score change from baseline to week 8 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), respectively, analyzed using a predefined mixed-effect model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety outcomes were presented by descriptive statistics. The least squares mean difference (95% confidence interval) in HAMA total score change from baseline (MMRM) was statistically significant for vilazodone 40 mg/day versus placebo (-1.80 [-3.26, -0.34]; P = .0312 [adjusted for multiple comparisons]), but not for vilazodone 20 mg/day versus placebo. Mean change from baseline in SDS total score was not significantly different for either dose of vilazodone versus placebo when adjusted for multiplicity; significant improvement versus placebo was noted for vilazodone 40 mg/day without adjustment for multiplicity (P = .0349). The incidence of adverse events was similar for vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day (∼71%) and slightly lower for placebo (62%). Nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, vomiting, and fatigue were reported in ≥5% of patients in either vilazodone group and at least twice the rate of placebo. Vilazodone was effective in treating anxiety symptoms of GAD. No new safety concerns were identified. © 2015 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cardoso, G.L.; Nagy, S.; Nampuri, S. [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa, 1049-001 (Portugal)
We present the on-shell double copy dictionary for linearised N=2 supergravity coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets in four dimensions. Subsequently, we use it to construct a double copy description of multi-centered BPS black hole solutions in these theories in the weak-field approximation.
Chan, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Yi-Hung; Yang, Szu-Nian; Lo, Wan-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng
Methadone maintenance therapy is an effective treatment for opiate dependence, but more than three-quarters of persons receiving the treatment report sleep quality disturbances. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we recruited 90 individuals receiving methadone for at least one month who reported sleep disturbances and had Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores > 5. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Suan Zao Ren Tang, one of the most commonly prescribed ...
Inaba, Naoko; Sato, Toshiro; Yamashita, Takatoshi
Vitamin K is essential for bone health, but the effects of low-dose vitamin K intake in Japanese subjects remain unclear. We investigated the effective minimum daily menaquinone-7 dose for improving osteocalcin γ-carboxylation. Study 1 was a double-blind, randomized controlled dose-finding trial; 60 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 y were allocated to one of four dosage group and consumed 0, 50, 100, or 200 μg menaquinone-7 daily for 4 wk, respectively, with a controlled diet in accordance with recommended daily intakes for 2010 in Japan. Study 2 was a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial based on the results of Study 1; 120 subjects aged 20-69 y were allocated to the placebo or MK-7 group and consumed 0 or 100 μg menaquinone-7 daily for 12 wk, respectively. In both studies, circulating carboxylated osteocalcin and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured. The carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio decreased significantly from baseline in the 0 μg menaquinone-7 group, in which subjects consumed the recommended daily intake of vitamin K with vitamin K1 and menaquinone-4 (Study 1). Menaquinone-7 increased the carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio dose dependently, and significant effects were observed in both the 100 and 200 μg groups compared with the 0 μg group. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentrations decreased significantly, and the carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio increased significantly in the 100 μg menaquinone-7 group compared with the placebo group (Study 2). Daily menaquinone-7 intake ≥100 μg was suggested to improve osteocalcin γ-carboxylation.
Effectiveness and Safety of Transdermal Buprenorphine Versus Sustained-release Tramadol in Patients With Moderate to Severe Musculoskeletal Pain: An 8-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Multicenter, Active-controlled, Noninferiority Study.
Leng, Xiaomei; Li, Zhanguo; Lv, Houshan; Zheng, Yi; Liu, Yi; Dai, Kerong; Yao, Chen; Yan, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Xiaofeng
The aim of this noninferiority study was to investigate clinical effectiveness and safety of buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS) in patients with moderate to severe musculoskeletal pain inadequately controlled with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, compared with sustained-release tramadol tablets. Eligible patients were randomized (1:1) to receive low-dose 7-day BTDS (5, 10, and 20 μg/h, maximum dosage of 20 μg/h) or sustained-release tramadol tablets (100 mg, maximum dosage of 400 mg/d) over an 8-week double-blind treatment period (3-week titration, 5-week maintenance). The primary endpoint was the difference in the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores from baseline to treatment completion. Noninferiority was assumed if the treatment difference on the VAS scale was within ±1.5 cm, this threshold indicating a clinically meaningful result. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01476774. Two hundred eighty patients were randomized to BTDS (n=141) or to tramadol (n=139). Both treatments were associated with a significant reduction in pain by the end of the treatment. The least squares mean difference of the change from baseline in VAS scores between the BTDS and tramadol groups were 0.45 (95% confidence interval, -0.02 to 0.91), which was within the ±1.5 cm predefined threshold, indicating that the effectiveness of BTDS was not inferior to the effectiveness of sustained-release tramadol tablets. The incidence of adverse events was comparable between the 2 treatment groups. Our results suggest that BTDS is a good therapeutic option for patients experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain of moderate to severe intensity that is insufficiently controlled by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Brogårdh, Christina; Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Lexell, Jan
To evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training in individuals after stroke. A double-blind randomized controlled study with assessments pre- and posttraining. A university hospital rehabilitation department. Participants (N=31; mean age ± SD, 62±7 y; 6-101 mo poststroke) were randomized to an intervention group or a control group. Supervised WBV training (2 sessions/wk for 6wk; 12 repetitions of 40-60s WBV per session). The intervention group trained on a vibrating platform with a conventional amplitude (3.75 mm) and the control group on a "placebo" vibrating platform (0.2mm amplitude); the frequency was 25Hz on both platforms. All participants and examiners were blinded to the amplitudes of the 2 platforms. Primary outcome measures were isokinetic and isometric knee muscle strength (dynamometer). Secondary outcome measures were balance (Berg Balance Scale), muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale), gait performance (Timed Up & Go, comfortable gait speed, fast gait speed, and six-minute walk tests), and perceived participation (Stroke Impact Scale). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups after the WBV training. Significant but small improvements (Pnormative variation. Six weeks of WBV training on a vibration platform with conventional amplitude was not more efficient than a placebo vibrating platform. Therefore, the use of WBV training in individuals with chronic stroke and mild to moderate disability is not supported. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas
Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis
Middleton, Lisa S.; Wong, Conrad J.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Campbell, Charles L.; Rush, Craig R.; Lofwall, Michelle R.
Background Cocaine abuse continues to be a significant public health problem associated with morbidity and mortality. To date, no pharmacotherapeutic approach has proven effective for treating cocaine use disorders. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that noradrenergic activity may play a role in mediating some effects of cocaine and may be a rational target for treatment. Methods This double blind, placebo-controlled randomized, parallel group, 12-week outpatient clinical trial enrolled cocaine dependent individuals seeking treatment to examine the potential efficacy of the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine (80 mg/day; p.o.; n=25), compared to placebo (n=25). Subjects were initially stratified on cocaine use (atomoxetine and placebo groups (X2=0.2, p=.66; OR=0.89 [95% CI 0.41 – 1.74). Atomoxetine was generally well tolerated in this population. Conclusions These data provide no support for the utility of atomoxetine in the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:23200303
Anandkumar, Sudarshan; Sudarshan, Shobhalakshmi; Nagpal, Pratima
Double blind pre-test post-test control group design. To compare the isokinetic quadriceps torque, standardized stair-climbing task (SSCT) and pain during SSCT between subjects diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis pre and post kinesio tape (KT) application with and without tension. Strength of the quadriceps and torque producing capability is frequently found to be compromised in knee osteoarthritis. The efficacy of KT in improving isokinetic quadriceps torque in knee osteoarthritis is unknown, forming the basis for this study. Forty subjects were randomly allocated to either the experimental (therapeutic KT with tension) or control group (sham KT without tension) with the allocation being concealed. Pre and post test measurements of isokinetic quadriceps torque, SSCT and pain during SSCT were carried out by a blinded assessor. A large effect size with significant improvements in the peak quadriceps torque (concentric and eccentric at angular velocities of 90° per second and 120° per second), SSCT and pain were obtained in the experimental group when compared to the control group. Application of therapeutic KT is effective in improving isokinetic quadriceps torque, SSCT and reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis.
Schjerling, Lisbeth; Hjermind, Lena E; Jespersen, Bo
Object The authors' aim was to compare the subthalamic nucleus (STN) with the globus pallidus internus (GPi) as a stimulation target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for medically refractory dystonia. Methods In a prospective double-blind crossover study, electrodes were bilaterally implanted in ...
Liu, Ding-Hao; Tsai, Mei-Wun; Lin, Shan-Hui; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chiu, Jan-Wei; Chiang, Chao-Ching; Kao, Chung-Lan
To investigate the effects of ultrasound-guided injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) versus steroid for trigger fingers in adults. Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled study. Tertiary care center. Subjects with a diagnosis of trigger finger (N=36; 39 affected digits) received treatment and were evaluated. Subjects were randomly assigned to HA and steroid injection groups. Both study medications were injected separately via ultrasound guidance with 1 injection. The classification of trigger grading, pain, functional disability, and patient satisfaction were evaluated before the injection and 3 weeks and 3 months after the injection. At 3 months, 12 patients (66.7%) in the HA group and 17 patients (89.5%) in the steroid group exhibited no triggering of the affected fingers (P=.124). The treatment results at 3 weeks and 3 months showed similar changes in the Quinnell scale (P=.057 and .931, respectively). A statistically significant interaction effect between group and time was found for visual analog scale (VAS) and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ) evaluation (Pinjection (steroid 0.5±1.1 vs HA 2.7±2.4; Pinjection of HA demonstrated promising results for the treatment of trigger fingers. The optimal frequency, dosage, and molecular weight of HA injections for trigger fingers deserve further investigation for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative bleeding has a great clinical importance and can contribute to increased mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we evaluated the effect of prophylactic administration of fibrinogen concentrate on post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery bleeding. METHODS: A total of 60 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the fibrinogen group received 1 g of fibrinogen concentrate 30 min prior to the operation, while patients in the control group received placebo. Post-operative bleeding volumes, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, INR, hemoglobin and transfused blood products in both groups were recorded. A strict red blood cell transfusion protocol was used in all patients. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between intra-operative packed red blood cells infusion in the studied groups (1.0 ± 1.4 in fibrinogen group, and 1.3 ± 1.1 in control group. Less postoperative bleeding was observed in the fibrinogen group (477 ± 143 versus 703 ± 179, p = 0.0001. Fifteen patients in the fibrinogen group and 21 in the control group required post-op packed red blood cells infusion (p = 0.094. No thrombotic event was observed through 72 h after surgery. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic fibrinogen reduces post-operative bleeding in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft.
Asadabadi, Mahtab; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Ashrafi, Mandana; Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Forghani, Saeedeh; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
Autism is associated with activation of the inflammatory response system. This study aims to assess the efficacy of a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of autism In a 10-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, 40 outpatient children with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision clinical diagnosis of autism were randomly allocated to celecoxib plus risperidone or placebo plus risperidone. The dose of risperidone and celecoxib were titrated up to 3 and 300 mg/day, respectively. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, and 10 weeks of starting medication using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) Rating Scale. Primary outcome measure was the change in irritability subscale of ABC-C. Significant time × treatment interaction was observed for Irritability (F (1.658, 63.021) = 13.580, P autism. (Registration, www.irct.ir ; IRCT138711091556N2).
Full Text Available Hamid Reza Faiz,1 Poupak Rahimzadeh,1 Ognjen Visnjevac,2 Behzad Behzadi,1 Mohammad Reza Ghodraty,1 Nader D Nader2 1Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2VA Western NY Healthcare System, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA Background: In recent years, intravenously (IV administered acetaminophen has become one of the most common perioperative analgesics. Despite its now-routine use, IV acetaminophen's analgesic comparative efficacy has never been compared with that of ketamine, a decades-old analgesic familiar to obstetricians, gynecologists, and anesthesiologists alike. This double-blind clinical trial aimed to evaluate the analgesic effects of ketamine and IV acetaminophen on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Methods: Eighty women aged 25–70 years old and meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly allocated into two groups of 40 to receive either IV acetaminophen or ketamine intraoperatively. Postoperatively, each patient had patient-controlled analgesia. Pain and sedation (Ramsay Sedation Scale were documented based on the visual analog scale in the recovery room and at 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after the surgery. Hemodynamic changes, adverse medication effects, and the need for breakthrough meperidine were also recorded for both groups. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Visual analog scale scores were significantly lower in the IV acetaminophen group at each time point (P<0.05, and this group required significantly fewer doses of breakthrough analgesics compared with the ketamine group (P=0.039. The two groups had no significant differences in terms of adverse effects. Conclusion: Compared with ketamine, IV acetaminophen significantly improved postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Keywords: intravenous acetaminophen, abdominal hysterectomy, ketamine, analgesia, postoperative pain
Repici, Alessandro; Wallace, Michael; Sharma, Prateek; Bhandari, Pradeep; Lollo, Gianluca; Maselli, Roberta; Hassan, Cesare; Rex, Douglas K
SIC-8000 (Eleview) is a new FDA-approved solution for submucosal injection developed to provide long-lasting cushion to facilitate endoscopic resection maneuvers. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of SIC-8000 with those of saline solution, when performing endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of large colorectal lesions. In a randomized double-blind trial, patients undergoing EMR for ≥20 mm colorectal non-pedunculated lesions were randomized in a 1:1 ratio between SIC-8000 and saline solution as control solution in 5 tertiary centers. Endoscopists and patients were blinded to the type of submucosal solution used. Total volume to complete EMR and per lesion size and time of resection were primary end-points, whereas the Sydney Resection Quotient (SRQ), as well as other EMR outcomes, and the rate of adverse events were secondary. A 30-day telephone follow up was performed. An alpha level <0.05 was considered as statistically significant (NCT 02654418). Of the 327 patients screened, 226 (mean age: 66±10; males: 56%) were enrolled in the study and randomized between the 2 submucosal agents. Of these, 211 patients (mean size of the lesions 33±13 mm; I-s: 36%; proximal colon: 74%) entered in the final analysis (SIC-8000: 102; saline solution: 109). EMR was complete in all cases. The total volume needed for EMR was significantly less in the SIC-8000 arm compared with saline solution (16.1±9.8 mL vs 31.6±32.0 mL; p<0.001). This corresponded to an average volume per lesion size of 0.5±0.3 mL/mm and 0.9±0.6 mL/mm with SIC-8000 and saline solution, respectively, (p<0.001). The mean time to completely resect the lesion tended to be lower with SIC-8000 as compared with saline solution (19.1±16.8 minutes vs 29.7±68.9 minutes; p=0.1). The SRQ was significantly higher with SIC-8000 as compared with saline solution (10.3±8.1 vs 8.0±5.7; p=0.04) with a trend for a lower number of resected pieces (5.7±6.0 vs 6.5±5.04; p=0.052) and a higher rate of en bloc
Gerami, Hooshang; Saberi, Alia; Nemati, Shadman; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Aghajanpour, Mohammad
It is still a challenge to find an effective treatment for tinnitus. The aim of this study was the evaluation of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine effects on tinnitus. In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, 57 patients who were visited in a university hospital due to chronic non-pulsatile tinnitus, were randomized in three groups and treated with carbamazepine (300-600 mg/day), oxcarbazepine (450-900 mg/day) and placebo for 12 weeks. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and tinnitus severity index (TSI) were measured in all subjects in the beginning and at the end of the 8(th) and 12(th) weeks of the trial. Data was analyzed by repeated measure analysis, paired and independent t-test. Among 51 participants who completed the trial course (28 men, 23 women), carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and placebo decreased tinnitus severity in 56.6%, 46.2% and 38.5% of patients according to VAS, and in 61.1%, 58.8% and 50% of patients according to TSI, respectively. The effects of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine were better in the first 8 weeks of treatment. However, their effect on tinnitus did not show any statistical difference in comparison with placebo (P = 0.34, P = 0.28). Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are not more effective than placebo in decreasing tinnitus severity.
Chang, Matthew S; Minaya, Maria T; Cheng, Jianfeng; Connor, Bradley A; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H R
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is one cause of a poor response to a gluten-free diet (GFD) and persistent symptoms in celiac disease. Rifaximin has been reported to improve symptoms in non-controlled trials. To determine the effect of rifaximin on gastrointestinal symptoms and lactulose-hydrogen breath tests in patients with poorly responsive celiac disease. A single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease and persistent gastrointestinal symptoms despite a GFD was conducted. Patients were randomized to placebo (n = 25) or rifaximin (n = 25) 1,200 mg daily for 10 days. They completed the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and underwent lactulose-hydrogen breath tests at weeks 0, 2, and 12. An abnormal breath test was defined as: (1) a rise in hydrogen of ≥20 parts per million (ppm) within 100 min, or (2) two peaks ≥20 ppm over baseline. GSRS scores were unaffected by treatment with rifaximin, regardless of baseline breath tests. In a multivariable regression model, the duration of patients' gastrointestinal symptoms significantly predicted their overall GSRS scores (estimate 0.029, p symptoms and hydrogen breath tests do not reliably identify who will respond to antibiotic therapy.
Full Text Available Objectives: A correlation between hyperhomocysteinemia, and depression has been reported. Saffron (Crocus sativus is recommended for treatment of depression; hence, in this study the effect of co-administration of saffron and fluoxetine on plasma homocysteine and depression was evaluated. Material and methods: This was a 4-week randomized and double-blind clinical trial which was conducted from March 2013 to February 2014. In this trial, 40 male and females (20-55 years old diagnosed with severe depression were selected and following filing the Beck form, were randomly divided into two groups. Experimental group was treated with fluoxetine 20 mg/day and saffron 30 mg /day and the control group received placebo and fluoxetine 20 mg/day for four weeks. Before treatment and at the end of the study, fasting blood samples were collected. For females, blood samples were collected on the third day of their menstrual cycle. Results: A significant reduction of homocysteine levels was observed in both sex in the experimental group compared to before treatment (p
Mogollon, Jaime Andres; Boivin, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone; Blanchet, Claudine; Claveau, Joël; Dodin, Sylvie
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has deleterious effects on the skin, including sunburn, photoaging and cancer. Chocolate flavanols are naturally-occurring antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules that could play a role in preventing cutaneous UV damage. We investigated the influence of 12-week high-flavanol chocolate (HFC) consumption on skin sensitivity to UV radiation, measured by minimal erythema dose (MED). We also evaluated skin elasticity and hydration. In this 2-group, parallel, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 74 women aged 20-65 years and Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I or II were recruited from the general community in Quebec City, for randomization to either HFC (n = 33) or low-flavanol chocolate (LFC) (n = 41). A blocked randomisation (4), considering date of entry, skin type and age as factors, generated a sequentially-numbered allocation list. Study participants and research assistants were blinded. Totally, 30 g of chocolate were consumed daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 3-week washout period. MED was assessed at baseline and at 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks. Main outcome was changes in MED at week 12. 33 participants in the HFC group and 41 in the LFC group were analyzed with 15 weeks of follow-up. Both groups showed similarly-increased MED at 12 weeks (HFC: 0.0252 ± 0.1099 J/cm2 [mean ± standard deviation (SD)]; LFC: 0.0151 ± 0.1118; mean difference (MD): 0.0100 J/cm2; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.0417 to 0.0618). However, after 3-week washout, the HFC group presented decreased MED (-0.0248 ± 0.1145) whereas no effect was seen in the LFC group (0.0168 ± 0.1698) (MD: -0.0417; 95% CI: -0.1106 to 0.0272). Net temple elasticity increased slightly but significantly by 0.09 ± 0.12 mm in the HFC group at 12 weeks compared to 0.02 ± 0.12 mm in the LFC group (MD: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.12 ). No significant adverse events were reported. Our study failed to demonstrate a statistically
Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has deleterious effects on the skin, including sunburn, photoaging and cancer. Chocolate flavanols are naturally-occurring antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules that could play a role in preventing cutaneous UV damage. We investigated the influence of 12-week high-flavanol chocolate (HFC) consumption on skin sensitivity to UV radiation, measured by minimal erythema dose (MED). We also evaluated skin elasticity and hydration. Methods In this 2-group, parallel, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 74 women aged 20–65 years and Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I or II were recruited from the general community in Quebec City, for randomization to either HFC (n = 33) or low-flavanol chocolate (LFC) (n = 41). A blocked randomisation (4), considering date of entry, skin type and age as factors, generated a sequentially-numbered allocation list. Study participants and research assistants were blinded. Totally, 30 g of chocolate were consumed daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 3-week washout period. MED was assessed at baseline and at 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks. Main outcome was changes in MED at week 12. Results 33 participants in the HFC group and 41 in the LFC group were analyzed with 15 weeks of follow-up. Both groups showed similarly-increased MED at 12 weeks (HFC: 0.0252 ± 0.1099 J/cm2 [mean ± standard deviation (SD)]; LFC: 0.0151 ± 0.1118; mean difference (MD): 0.0100 J/cm2; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.0417 to 0.0618). However, after 3-week washout, the HFC group presented decreased MED (-0.0248 ± 0.1145) whereas no effect was seen in the LFC group (0.0168 ± 0.1698) (MD: -0.0417; 95% CI: -0.1106 to 0.0272). Net temple elasticity increased slightly but significantly by 0.09 ± 0.12 mm in the HFC group at 12 weeks compared to 0.02 ± 0.12 mm in the LFC group (MD: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.12 ). No significant adverse events were reported. Conclusion Our study failed to
Efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection: a prospective, randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled study5
Kupcinskas, L.; Lafolie, P.; Lignell, A.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in functional dyspepsia in different doses and compared with placebo. DESIGN: The study was a controlled, prospective, randomized, and double blind trial. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with functional d...
Nations, Kari R; Smits, Jasper A J; Tolin, David F; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Hofmann, Stefan G; Tart, Candyce D; Lee, Allen; Schipper, Jacques; Sjogren, Magnus; Xue, Dixi; Szegedi, Armin; Otto, Michael W
A growing body of evidence supports the efficacy of D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor, as augmentation to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Org 25935 is a glycine transporter 1 inhibitor that acts to increase synaptic glycine levels and enhance NMDA-mediated glutamatergic activity. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a glutamatergic compound other than DCS in a CBT augmentation paradigm. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial for which participants were recruited from November 2008 through February 2010. Eligible adult patients diagnosed (DSM-IV) with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N = 40) were scheduled to receive 5 manualized CBT treatment sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a dose of Org 25935 (4 mg or 12 mg) or placebo 2 hours prior to the start of CBT sessions 3, 4, and 5. The primary endpoint was symptomatic change as measured by the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) 1 week following the last CBT session. Although mean PDSS total scores decreased significantly from baseline to end of treatment in every group, no statistically significant benefit was observed for Org 25935 (4 or 12 mg) over placebo on the primary endpoint or on any secondary efficacy endpoint. Org 25935 showed no safety issues at either dose but was much better tolerated at the 4-mg dose level than at the 12-mg dose level. Org 25935 demonstrated no benefit over placebo in augmenting CBT for panic disorder. Study limitations and implications are discussed. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00725725. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
de Bejczy, Andrea; Nations, Kari R; Szegedi, Armin; Schoemaker, Joep; Ruwe, Frank; Söderpalm, Bo
Org 25935 is a glycine transporter inhibitor that increases extracellular glycine levels and attenuates alcohol-induced dopaminergic activity in the nucleus accumbens. In animal models, Org 25935 has dose-dependent effects on ethanol intake, preference, and relapse-like behavior without tolerance. The current study aimed to translate these animal findings to humans by examining whether Org 25935 prevents relapse in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Adult patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence were randomly assigned to receive Org 25935 12 mg twice a day or placebo for 84 days. The primary end point was percentage heavy drinking days (defined as ≥ 5 standard drinks per day for men and ≥ 4 for women). Secondary end points included other measures of relapse-related drinking behavior (e.g., drinks per day, time to relapse), as well as measures of global functioning, alcohol-related thoughts and cravings, and motivation. A total of 140 subjects were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The trial was stopped approximately midway after a futility analysis showing that the likelihood of detecting a signal at study term was Org 25935 and placebo on percentage heavy drinking days or any other measure of relapse-related drinking behavior. Org 25935 showed no safety issues and was fairly well tolerated, with fatigue, dizziness, and transient visual events as the most commonly occurring side effects. Org 25935 demonstrated no benefit over placebo in preventing alcohol relapse. Study limitations and implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Devanand, D P; Nobler, Mitchell S; Cheng, Jocelyn; Turret, Nancy; Pelton, Gregory H; Roose, Steven P; Sackeim, Harold A
The authors compared the efficacy and side effects of fluoxetine and placebo in elderly outpatients with dysthymic disorder. Patients were randomly assigned to fluoxetine (20 mg-60 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks in a double-blind trial. Of 90 randomized patients, 71 completed the trial. In the intent-to-treat sample, random regression analyses of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D; 24-item) and Cornell Dysthymia Rating Scale (CDRS) scores at each visit produced significant time x treatment group interactions favoring the fluoxetine group. Analysis of percentage change in Ham-D scores yielded no effect for treatment group, but a similar analysis of percentage change in CDRS scores yielded a main effect for treatment group, favoring fluoxetine over placebo. In the intent-to-treat sample, response rates were 27.3% for fluoxetine and 19.6% for placebo. In the completer sample, response rates were 37.5% for fluoxetine and 23.1% for placebo. Fluoxetine had limited efficacy in elderly dysthymic patients. The clinical features of elderly dysthymic patients are typically distinct from those of dysthymic disorder in young adults, and the findings suggest that treatments effective for young adult dysthymic patients may not be as useful in elderly dysthymic patients. Further research is needed to identify efficacious treatments for elderly patients with dysthymic disorder, and investigative tools such as electronic/computerized brain scans and neuropsychological testing may help identify the factors that moderate antidepressant treatment response and resistance.
Zhu, Jingfen; Shi, Rong; Chen, Su; Dai, Lihua; Shen, Tian; Feng, Yi; Gu, Pingping; Shariff, Mina; Nguyen, Tuong; Ye, Yeats; Rao, Jianyu; Xing, Guoqiang
Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older adults that can often predict further cognitive impairment. No proven effective agents are available for SMCs. The effect of BrainPower Advanced, a dietary supplement consisting of herbal extracts, nutrients, and vitamins, was evaluated in 98 volunteers with SMCs, averaging 67 years of age (47?88), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective hypomnesis/memory loss (SML) and attention/concentration deficits (SAD) w...
Dose-dependent social-cognitive effects of intranasal oxytocin delivered with novel Breath Powered device in adults with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover trial
Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Hope, S; N?rland, T; Elvs?shagen, T; D?rum, E; Rustan, ?; Valstad, M; Rezvaya, L; Lishaugen, H; Stens?nes, E; Yaqub, S; Smerud, K T; Mahmoud, R A; Djupesland, P G
The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise as a treatment for symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, clinical research progress has been hampered by a poor understanding of oxytocin?s dose?response and sub-optimal intranasal delivery methods. We examined two doses of oxytocin delivered using a novel Breath Powered intranasal delivery device designed to improve direct nose-to-brain activity in a double-blind, crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. In a randomized sequ...
Robb, Adelaide; Bose, Anjana
Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extended efficacy, safety, and tolerability of escitalopram relative to placebo in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Adolescents (12–17 years) who completed an 8-week randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled, lead-in study of escitalopram 10–20 mg versus placebo could enroll in a 16–24-week, multisite extension trial; patients maintained the same lead-in randomization (escitalopram or placebo) and dosage (escitalopram 10 or 20 mg/day, or placebo) during the extension. The primary efficacy was Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) change from the lead-in study baseline to treatment week 24 (8-week lead-in study plus 16-week extension); the secondary efficacy was Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) score at week 24. All efficacy analyses used the last observation carried forward (LOCF) approach; sensitivity analyses used observed cases (OC) and mixed-effects model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety was evaluated via adverse event (AE) reports and the clinician-rated Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Results Following lead-in, 165 patients enrolled in the double-blind extension (82 placebo; 83 escitalopram); 40 (48.8%) placebo and 37 (44.6%) escitalopram patients completed treatment. CDRS-R total score improvement was significantly greater for escitalopram than for placebo (p=0.005, LOCF; p=0.014; MMRM). Response rates (CDRS-R ≥40% reduction from baseline [adjusted and unadjusted] and CGI-I ≤2) were significantly higher for escitalopram than for placebo (LOCF); remission rates (CDRS-R ≤28) were 50.6% for escitalopram and 35.7% for placebo (p=0.002). OC analyses were not significantly different between groups. The most frequent escitalopram AEs (≥5% and more frequent than placebo) were headache, nausea, insomnia, vomiting, influenza-like symptoms, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection. Most AEs were
Mathiassen, Ole N; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N; Christensen, Kent L; Buus, Niels H; Schroeder, Anne P; Lederballe, Ole; Rickers, Hans; Kampmann, Ulla; Poulsen, Per L; Hansen, Klavs W; Btker, Hans E; Peters, Christian D; Engholm, Morten; Bertelsen, Jannik B; Lassen, Jens F; Langfeldt, Sten; Andersen, Gratien; Pedersen, Erling B; Kaltoft, Anne
Renal denervation (RDN), treating resistant hypertension, has, in open trial design, been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) dramatically, but this was primarily with respect to office BP. We conducted a SHAM-controlled, double-blind, randomized, single-center trial to establish efficacy data based on 24-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM). Inclusion criteria were daytime systolic ABPM at least 145 mmHg following 1 month of stable medication and 2 weeks of compliance registration. All RDN procedures were carried out by an experienced operator using the unipolar Medtronic Flex catheter (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, California, USA). We randomized 69 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension to RDN (n = 36) or SHAM (n = 33). Groups were well balanced at baseline. Mean baseline daytime systolic ABPM was 159 ± 12 mmHg (RDN) and 159 ± 14 mmHg (SHAM). Groups had similar reductions in daytime systolic ABPM compared with baseline at 3 months [-6.2 ± 18.8 mmHg (RDN) vs. -6.0 ± 13.5 mmHg (SHAM)] and at 6 months [-6.1 ± 18.9 mmHg (RDN) vs. -4.3 ± 15.1 mmHg (SHAM)]. Mean usage of antihypertensive medication (daily defined doses) at 3 months was equal [6.8 ± 2.7 (RDN) vs. 7.0 ± 2.5 (SHAM)].RDN performed at a single center and by a high-volume operator reduced ABPM to the same level as SHAM treatment and thus confirms the result of the HTN3 trial. Further, clinical use of RDN for treatment of resistant hypertension should await positive results from double-blinded, SHAM-controlled trials with multipolar ablation catheters or novel denervation techniques.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the naturally derived topical oil, "Neuragen PN®" for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Methods Sixty participants with plantar cutaneous (foot sole pain due to all cause peripheral neuropathy were recruited from the community. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments (Neuragen PN® or placebo per week in a crossover design. The primary outcome measure was acute spontaneous pain level as reported on a visual analog scale. Results There was an overall pain reduction for both treatments from pre to post application. As compared to the placebo, Neuragen PN® led to significantly (p ® reported pain reduction within 30 minutes. This reduction within 30 minutes occurred in only twenty one of sixty (35.0% subjects receiving the placebo. In a break out analysis of the diabetic only subgroup, 94% of subjects in the Neuragen PN® group achieved pain reduction within 30 minutes vs 11.0% of the placebo group. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions This randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial with crossover design revealed that the naturally derived oil, Neuragen PN®, provided significant relief from neuropathic pain in an all cause neuropathy group. Participants with diabetes within this group experienced similar pain relief. Trial registration ISRCTN registered: ISRCTN13226601
Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Husted, Henrik; Laursen, Mogens Berg
(1:1:1) to either gabapentin 1300 mg/d (group A), gabapentin 900 mg/d (group B), or placebo (group C) daily from 2 hours preoperatively to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized multimodal analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 hours after surgery......Gabapentin has shown acute postoperative analgesic effects, but the optimal dose and procedure-specific benefits vs harm have not been clarified. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 300 opioid-naive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized......, and the secondary outcome was sedation 6 hours after surgery. Other outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest and sedation during the first 48 hours and from days 2-6, morphine use, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and nausea, vomiting, dizziness, concentration difficulty, headache...
Williams, Kathryn E; Reeves, Karen R; Billing, Clare B; Pennington, Ann M; Gong, Jason
We assessed the safety of long-term varenicline administration for smoking cessation. In this randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, eligible adult smokers (18-75 years) who smoked an average of > or =10 cigarettes/day were randomized to either varenicline 1 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo for 52 weeks. Subjects made weekly clinic visits until week 8, and then every 4 weeks until week 52, with a follow-up visit at week 53. The target quit date was the morning of the week 1 clinic visit. Brief counseling was provided at each visit, and vital signs, adverse events (AEs), and smoking status were documented. Other laboratory measures were collected at specified visits. A total of 251 subjects were randomized to varenicline and 126 to placebo. Approximately half of the subjects in each arm completed the study (53.8% varenicline; 46.8% placebo). Treatment-emergent AEs were observed in 96.4% of varenicline- and 82.5% of placebo-treated subjects during the study. Common varenicline-associated AEs were nausea (40.2%), abnormal dreams (22.7%), and insomnia (19.1%). Most AEs were considered mild or moderate in intensity. AEs leading to discontinuation of varenicline treatment included nausea (7.6%), insomnia (3.2%), and abnormal dreams (2.4%). A single varenicline-related serious AE, bilateral subcapsular cataracts, was observed. At week 52, 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were 36.7% (varenicline) and 7.9% (placebo). Varenicline 1 mg BID can be safely administered for up to 1 year. Varenicline was also a more effective smoking cessation aid than placebo throughout the study, supporting both its short- (12-week) and long-term (52-week) efficacy.
Schwarz, Konstantin; Singh, Satnam; Parasuraman, Satish K; Rudd, Amelia; Shepstone, Lee; Feelisch, Martin; Minnion, Magdalena; Ahmad, Shakil; Madhani, Melanie; Horowitz, John; Dawson, Dana K; Frenneaux, Michael P
In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial, we investigated whether oral sodium nitrate, when added to existing background medication, reduces exertional ischemia in patients with angina. Seventy patients with stable angina, positive electrocardiogram treadmill test, and either angiographic or functional test evidence of significant ischemic heart disease were randomized to receive oral treatment with either placebo or sodium nitrate (600 mg; 7 mmol) for 7 to 10 days, followed by a 2-week washout period before crossing over to the other treatment (n=34 placebo-nitrate, n=36 nitrate-placebo). At baseline and at the end of each treatment, patients underwent modified Bruce electrocardiogram treadmill test, modified Seattle Questionnaire, and subgroups were investigated with dobutamine stress, echocardiogram, and blood tests. The primary outcome was time to 1 mm ST depression on electrocardiogram treadmill test. Compared with placebo, inorganic nitrate treatment tended to increase the primary outcome exercise time to 1 mm ST segment depression (645.6 [603.1, 688.0] seconds versus 661.2 [6183, 704.0] seconds, P =0.10) and significantly increased total exercise time (744.4 [702.4, 786.4] seconds versus 760.9 [719.5, 802.2] seconds, P =0.04; mean [95% confidence interval]). Nitrate treatment robustly increased plasma nitrate (18.3 [15.2, 21.5] versus 297.6 [218.4, 376.8] μmol/L, P nitrate treatment). Other secondary outcomes were not significantly altered by the intervention. Patients on antacid medication appeared to benefit less from nitrate supplementation. Sodium nitrate treatment may confer a modest exercise capacity benefit in patients with chronic angina who are taking other background medication. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT02078921. EudraCT number: 2012-000196-17. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Beckman, Anders; Persson, Liselott
Having good balance is a facilitating factor in the performance of everyday activities. Good balance is also essential in various sport activities in order to both get results and prevent injury. A common measure of balance is postural sway, which can be measured both antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally. There are several companies marketing wristbands whose intended function is to improve balance, strength and flexibility. Randomized controlled trials have shown that wristbands with holograms have no effect on balance but studies on wristbands with minerals seem to be lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate if the mineral wristband had any effect on postural sway in a group of healthy individuals. Randomized, controlled, double-blind study. The study group consisted of 40 healthy persons. Postural sway was measured antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally on a force plate, to compare: the mineral wristband, a placebo wristband, and without any wristband. The measurements were performed for 30 s, in four situations: with open eyes and closed eyes, standing on a firm surface and on foam. Analyses were made with multilevel technique. The use of wristband with or without minerals did not alter postural sway. Closed eyes and standing on foam both prolonged the dependent measurement, irrespective if it was medio-lateral or antero-posterior. Wearing any wristband (mineral or placebo) gave a small (0.22-0.36 mm/s) but not statistically significant reduction of postural sway compared to not wearing wristband. This study showed no effect on postural sway by using the mineral wristband, compared with a placebo wristband or no wristband. Wearing any wristband at all (mineral or placebo) gave a small but not statistically significant reduction in postural sway, probably caused by sensory input.
Villar-García, Judit; Hernández, Juan J; Güerri-Fernández, Robert; González, Alicia; Lerma, Elisabet; Guelar, Ana; Saenz, David; Sorlí, Lluisa; Montero, Milagro; Horcajada, Juan P; Knobel Freud, Hernando
Microbial translocation has been associated with an increase in immune activation and inflammation in HIV infection despite effective highly active antiretroviral therapy. It has been shown that some probiotics have a beneficial effect by reducing intestinal permeability and, consequently, microbial translocation. To assess changes in microbial translocation and inflammation after treatment with probiotics (Saccharomyces boulardii) in HIV-1-infected patients with virologic suppression. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 44 nonconsecutive HIV-1-infected patients with viral load of boulardii decreases microbial translocation (LBP) and inflammation parameters (IL-6) in HIV-1-infected patients with long-term virologic suppression.
Full Text Available Ikuko Yataba,1 Noboru Otsuka,1 Isao Matsushita,1 Hideo Matsumoto,2 Yuichi Hoshino3 1Taisho Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 2Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, 3Department of Orthopedics Surgery, School of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID patches are convenient for use and show much less gastrointestinal side effects than oral NSAIDs, whereas its percutaneous absorption is not sufficient for the expression of clinical efficacy at satisfactory level. S-flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP has shown dramatic improvement in percutaneous absorption results from animal and clinical studies. In this study, the efficacy and safety of SFPP were compared with placebo in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA to determine its optimal dose. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study. Patients and methods: Enrolled 509 knee OA patients were treated with placebo or SFPP at 10, 20, or 40 mg applied on the affected site once daily for 2 weeks. The primary endpoint for efficacy was improvement in knee pain on rising from the chair assessed by visual analog scale (VAS. The other endpoints were clinical symptoms, pain on walking, and global assessment by both investigator and patient. Safety was evaluated by observing adverse events (AEs. Results: VAS change in knee pain from baseline to trial end was dose-dependent, least squares mean was 29.5, 31.5, 32.0, and 35.6 mm in placebo and SFPP 10, 20, and 40 mg, respectively. A significant difference was observed between placebo and SFPP 40 mg (P=0.001. In contrast, the effect of SFPP at a dose ≤20 mg was not significantly different from that of placebo. The proportion of the patients who achieved 50% pain relief was 72.4% in 40 mg and 51.2% in placebo (P<0.001. In all other endpoints, SFPP 40 mg showed significant improvement compared with placebo. The incidence of AEs was
Lemoel, Fabien; Contenti, Julie; Giolito, Didier; Boiffier, Mathieu; Rapp, Jocelyn; Istria, Jacques; Fournier, Marc; Ageron, François-Xavier; Levraut, Jacques
The goal of our study was to compare the frequency and severity of recovery reactions between ketamine and ketamine-propofol 1:1 admixture ("ketofol"). We performed a multicentric, randomized, double-blind trial in which adult patients received emergency procedural sedations with ketamine or ketofol. Our primary outcome was the proportion of unpleasant recovery reactions. Other outcomes were frequency of interventions required by these recovery reactions, rates of respiratory or hemodynamic events, emesis, and satisfaction of patients as well as providers. A total of 152 patients completed the study, 76 in each arm. Compared with ketamine, ketofol determined a 22% reduction in recovery reactions incidence (p ketamine. We found a significant reduction in recovery reactions and emesis frequencies among adult patients receiving emergency procedural sedations with ketofol, compared with ketamine. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Balaskas, Elias; Szepietowski, Jacek C.; Bessis, Didier; Ioannides, Dimitrios; Ponticelli, Claudio; Ghienne, Corinne; Taberly, Alain
Summary Background and objectives Uremic xerosis is a bothersome condition that is poorly responsive to moisturizing and emollient therapy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A randomized, double-blind, intraindividual (left versus right comparison), multicentric clinical study was performed on 100 patients with moderate to severe uremic xerosis for 7 days, during which the patients applied twice daily an emulsion combining glycerol and paraffin (test product) on one allocated lower leg, and the emulsion alone (comparator) on the other lower leg. This was followed by an open-labeled use of the test product on all of the xerotic areas for 49 days. The main efficacy parameter was treatment response on each lower leg, as defined by a reduction from baseline of at least two grades in a five-point clinical score on day 7. Results Among the 99 patients analyzed, the test product was highly effective with a treatment response in 72 patients (73%), whereas 44 patients (44%) responded to the comparator (P < 0.0001, intergroup analysis). This was associated with an objective reduction in the density and thickness of the scales on day 7 (P < 0.0001 compared with the comparator) and a substantial improvement of the uremic pruritus (75%) and quality of life of the patients at study end (P < 0.001, intragroup analysis). The test product was very well tolerated, with product-related local intolerance (exacerbated pruritus, local burning, or erythema) occurring in only five patients (5%). Conclusions Uremic xerosis can be managed successfully when an appropriate emollient therapy is used. PMID:21258039
Del Toro, Israel; Berberich, Gabriele M; Ribbons, Relena R; Berberich, Martin B; Sanders, Nathan J; Ellison, Aaron M
Ecological studies often are subjected to unintentional biases, suggesting that improved research designs for hypothesis testing should be used. Double-blind ecological studies are rare but necessary to minimize sampling biases and omission errors, and improve the reliability of research. We used a double-blind design to evaluate associations between nests of red wood ants ( Formica rufa , RWA) and the distribution of tectonic faults. We randomly sampled two regions in western Denmark to map the spatial distribution of RWA nests. We then calculated nest proximity to the nearest active tectonic faults. Red wood ant nests were eight times more likely to be found within 60 m of known tectonic faults than were random points in the same region but without nests. This pattern paralleled the directionality of the fault system, with NNE-SSW faults having the strongest associations with RWA nests. The nest locations were collected without knowledge of the spatial distribution of active faults thus we are confident that the results are neither biased nor artefactual. This example highlights the benefits of double-blind designs in reducing sampling biases, testing controversial hypotheses, and increasing the reliability of the conclusions of research.
Caljouw, Monique A A; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Putter, Hein; Achterberg, Wilco P; Cools, Herman J M; Gussekloo, Jacobijn
Objectives To determine whether cranberry capsules prevent urinary tract infection (UTI) in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. Design Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Setting Long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Participants LTCF residents (N = 928; 703 women, median age 84). Measurements Cranberry and placebo capsules were taken twice daily for 12 months. Participants were stratified according to UTI risk (risk factors included long-term catheterization, diabetes mellitus, ≥1 UTI in preceding year). Main outcomes were incidence of UTI according to a clinical definition and a strict definition. Results In participants with high UTI risk at baseline (n = 516), the incidence of clinically defined UTI was lower with cranberry capsules than with placebo (62.8 vs 84.8 per 100 person-years at risk, P = .04); the treatment effect was 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.57–0.97). For the strict definition, the treatment effect was 1.02 (95% CI = 0.68–1.55). No difference in UTI incidence between cranberry and placebo was found in participants with low UTI risk (n = 412). Conclusion In LTCF residents with high UTI risk at baseline, taking cranberry capsules twice daily reduces the incidence of clinically defined UTI, although it does not reduce the incidence of strictly defined UTI. No difference in incidence of UTI was found in residents with low UTI risk. PMID:25180378
Comparison of Murraya koenigii- and Tribulus terrestris-based oral formulation versus tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in men aged >50 years: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial.
Sengupta, Gairik; Hazra, Avijit; Kundu, Anup; Ghosh, Anirban
Drug treatment can defer surgical intervention in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common disorder in elderly men, and is widely practiced. Various herbal formulations have been used for the treatment of BPH, but few have been compared with established modern medicines in head-to-head clinical trials. We compared the effectiveness and tolerability of an oral formulation, comprising standardized extracts of Murraya koenigii and Tribulus terrestris leaves being marketed in India under Ayurvedic license, versus tamsulosin in the treatment of symptomatic BPH. A double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was conducted with treatment-naive ambulatory patients with BPH aged >50 years. Patients received either the plant drug in a dose of 2 capsules BID or tamsulosin 400 μg once daily for 12 weeks with 2 interim follow-up visits at the end of 4 and 8 weeks. The double-dummy technique was used to ensure double-blinding. The primary effectiveness measure was reduction in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Proportion of patients becoming completely or relatively symptom free (IPSS terrestris-based formulation significantly lowered IPSS scores in the initial treatment of symptomatic BPH. Further trials are needed to determine if the beneficial effect is sustained beyond the 12-week observation period of this trial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Choi, Myung Gyu; Lee, Sung Joon; Kim, Sung Kook; Song, Geun Am; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Jung, Hwoon Yong; Kang, Dae Hwan; Lee, Yong Chan; Lee, Si Hyung; Choi, Suck Chei; Shim, Ki Nam; Seol, Sang Yong; Moon, Jeong Seop; Shin, Yong Woon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Soo Teik; Cho, Jin Woong; Choi, Eun Kwang; Lee, Oh Young; Jang, Jin Seok
This study compared the efficacy of DA-9601 (Dong-A ST Co., Seoul, Korea) and its new formulation, DA-5204 (Dong-A ST Co.), for treating erosive gastritis. This phase III, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, non-inferiority trial randomly assigned 434 patients with endoscopically proven gastric mucosal erosions into two groups: DA-9601 3 times daily or DA-5,204 twice daily for 2 weeks. The final analysis included 421 patients (DA-5204, 209; DA-9601, 212). The primary endpoint (rate of effective gastric erosion healing) and secondary endpoints (cure rate of endoscopic erosion and gastrointestinal [GI] symptom relief) were assessed using endoscopy after the treatment. Drug-related adverse events (AEs), including GI symptoms, were also compared. At week 2, gastric healing rates with DA-5204 and DA-9601 were 42.1% (88/209) and 42.5% (90/212), respectively. The difference between the groups was -0.4% (95% confidence interval, -9.8% to 9.1%), which was above the non-inferiority margin of -14%. The cure rate of gastric erosion in both groups was 37.3%. The improvement rates of GI symptoms with DA-5204 and DA-9601 were 40.4% and 40.8%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in both secondary endpoints. AEs were reported in 18 (8.4%) patients in the DA-5204 group and 19 (8.8%) in the DA-9601 group. Rates of AE were not different between the two groups. No serious AE or adverse drug reaction (ADR) occurred. These results demonstrate the non-inferiority of DA-5204 compared to DA-9601. DA-5204 is as effective as DA-9601 in the treatment of erosive gastritis. Registered randomized clinical trial at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02282670). © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.
Asaka, M; Sugiyama, T; Kato, M; Satoh, K; Kuwayama, H; Fukuda, Y; Fujioka, T; Takemoto, T; Kimura, K; Shimoyama, T; Shimizu, K; Kobayashi, S
Two triple therapies with lansoprazole (LPZ)/amoxicillin (AMPC)/clarithromycin (CAM) for eradication of Helicobacter pylori were studied in multicenter, double-blind fashion to evaluate the eradication rate of H. pylori and safety of eradiation treatment in Japanese patients with H. pylori-positive active gastric ulcers or duodenal ulcers. Patients were randomly chosen for the control treatment of LPZ 30 mg twice a day (b.i.d.; Group A-LPZ-only) or the test treatments of LPZ 30 mg plus AMPC 750 mg and CAM 200 mg b.i.d. (Group B-LAC200) and LPZ 30 mg, AMPC 750 mg and CAM 400 mg b.i.d. (Group C-LAC400). All eradication treatments lasted for a period of 7 days. Successful eradication was assessed by culture and gastric histology 1 month after completion of the ulcer treatment. The eradication rates of H. pylori in the full analysis set were 0% in Group A-LPZ-only, 87.5% in Group B-LAC200 and 89.2% in Group C-LAC400 for gastric ulcer and, 4.4% in Group A-LPZ-only, 91.1% in Group B-LAC200 and 83.7% in Group C-LAC400 for duodenal ulcer. The eradication rates of Group B-LAC200 and Group C-LAC400 were 89.2% (95% CI: 84.8-93.7%) and 86.4% (95%CI: 81.5-91.3%) in total in the full analysis set, 89% (95% CI: 84.3-93.7%) and 85.3% (95%CI: 80.1-90.5%) in the per protocol set. The eradication rates in Groups B-LAC200 and group C-LAC400 were statistically significantly higher than the rate in Group A-LPZ-only for both gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer patients (p high H. pylori eradication rate was obtained in Japanese ulcer patients with the triple therapy regimen consisting of LPZ 30 mg, AMPC 750 mg, and CAM 200 mg b.i.d.
Effect of Losartan on Right Ventricular Dysfunction: Results From the Double-Blind, Randomized REDEFINE Trial (Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Tetralogy of Fallot: Inhibition of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System) in Adults With Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot.
Bokma, Jouke P; Winter, Michiel M; van Dijk, Arie P; Vliegen, Hubert W; van Melle, Joost P; Meijboom, Folkert J; Post, Martijn C; Berbee, Jacqueline K; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Groenink, Maarten; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Mulder, Barbara J M; Bouma, Berto J
The effect of angiotensin II receptor blockers on right ventricular (RV) function is still unknown. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are beneficial in patients with acquired left ventricular dysfunction, and recent findings have suggested a favorable effect in symptomatic patients with systemic RV dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine the effect of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, on subpulmonary RV dysfunction in adults after repaired tetralogy of Fallot. The REDEFINE trial (Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Tetralogy of Fallot: Inhibition of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System) is an investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective, 1:1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and RV dysfunction (RV ejection fraction [EF] 0.30 for all). In predefined subgroup analyses, losartan did not have a statistically significant impact on RV EF in subgroups with symptoms, restrictive RV, RV EFtetralogy of Fallot. Future larger studies may determine whether there might be a role for losartan in specific vulnerable subgroups. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02010905. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Sereni, Alice; Cesari, Francesca; Gori, Anna Maria; Maggini, Niccolò; Marcucci, Rossella; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco
Ancient grain varieties have been shown to have some beneficial effects on health. Forty-five clinically healthy subjects were included in a randomized, double-blinded crossover trial aimed at evaluating the effect of a replacement diet with bread derived from ancient grain varieties versus modern grain variety on cardiovascular risk profile. After 8 weeks of intervention, consumption of bread obtained by the ancient varieties showed a significant amelioration of various cardiovascular parameters. Indeed, the ancient varieties were shown to result in a significant reduction of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and blood glucose, whereas no significant differences during the phase with the modern variety were reported. Moreover, a significant increase in circulating endothelial progenitor cells were reported after the consumption of products made from the ancient "Verna" variety. The present results suggest that a dietary consumption of bread obtained from ancient grain varieties was effective in reducing cardiovascular risk factors.
Fujita, Mitsue; Sato, Katsuaki; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Sakai, Fumihiko
The objective of this article is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two doses of oral sumatriptan vs placebo in the acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents. Currently, there is no approved prescription medication in Japan for the treatment of migraine in children and adolescents. This was a multicenter, outpatient, single-attack, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Eligible patients were children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years diagnosed with migraine with or without aura (ICHD-II criteria 1.1 or 1.2) from 17 centers. They were randomized to receive sumatriptan 25 mg, 50 mg or placebo (1:1:2). The primary efficacy endpoint was headache relief by two grades on a five-grade scale at two hours post-dose. A total of 178 patients from 17 centers in Japan were enrolled and randomized to an investigational product in double-blind fashion. Of these, 144 patients self-treated a single migraine attack, and all provided a post-dose efficacy assessment and completed the study. The percentage of patients in the full analysis set (FAS) population who report pain relief at two hours post-treatment for the primary endpoint was higher in the placebo group than in the pooled sumatriptan group (38.6% vs 31.1%, 95% CI: -23.02 to 8.04, P = 0.345). The percentage of patients in the FAS population who reported pain relief at four hours post-dose was higher in the pooled sumatriptan group (63.5%) than in the placebo group (51.4%) but failed to achieve statistical significance ( P = 0.142). At four hours post-dose, percentages of patients who were pain free or had complete relief of photophobia or phonophobia were numerically higher in the sumatriptan pooled group compared to placebo. Both doses of oral sumatriptan were well tolerated. No adverse events (AEs) were serious or led to study withdrawal. The most common AEs were somnolence in 6% (two patients) in the sumatriptan 25 mg treatment group and chest
Wymenga, ANM; vanderGraaf, WTA; Wils, JA; vanHeukelom, LS; vanderLinden, GHM; DullemondWestland, AC; Nooy, M; vanderHeul, C; deBruijn, KM; deVries, EGE
Background: This study compares efficacy safety and tolerability of 2 and 5 mg tropisetron in prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by low-dose cisplatin- or non-cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. Patients and methods: 152 chemotherapy-naive cancer patients were randomized in a double-blind
Mansel, Robert E; Das, Tapas; Baggs, Geraldine E; Noss, Michael J; Jennings, William P; Cohen, Jay; Portman, David; Cohen, Mario; Voss, Anne Coble
A randomized, multicenter, controlled double-blind trial was performed in women with cyclic breast pain (mastalgia) associated with fibrocystic breast changes (FBCs) to determine whether a nutritional formula reduced breast pain and/or nodularity. Women were randomized to receive a specifically designed liquid formulation (n = 93) (1 g gamma-linolenic acid [GLA], 750 μg iodine, and 70 μg selenium) or control formula (n = 95) (without GLA, iodine, and selenium) daily for three cycles. Women recorded breast pain, medications, and menstrual signs daily using interactive voice-response system. Nodularity was determined by physical breast examination. Breast pain scores decreased similarly in the experimental (-32.2%) and control (-33.1%) groups (p = 0.64). Nodularity was reduced in the experimental, but not the control group (p = 0.03). Among women who continued pain medication, the amount was reduced in the experimental group relative to controls (p = 0.02). Women with FBC using the formula containing GLA, iodine, and selenium experienced reduced nodularity and in those women who took over-the-counter breast pain medication, a decrease in the quantity of pain medication was observed.
Wijkstra, J.; Burger, H.; van den Broek, W. W.; Birkenhager, T. K.; Janzing, J. G. E.; Boks, M. P. M.; Bruijn, J. A.; van der Loos, M. L. M.; Breteler, L. M. T.; Ramaekers, G. M. G. I.; Verkes, R. J.; Nolen, W. A.
Objective: It remains unclear whether unipolar psychotic depression should be treated with an antidepressant and an antipsychotic or with an antidepressant alone. Method: In a multi-center RCT, 122 patients (18-65 years) with DSM-IV-TR psychotic major depression and HAM-D-17 >= 18 were randomized to
Celani, M F S; Hurtado, R; Brandão, A H F; Maciel da Fonseca, A M R; Geber, S
Objective To evaluate the effect of short-term hormone replacement therapy with tibolone 2.5 mg daily on endothelial function of healthy postmenopausal women, using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A total of 100 healthy postmenopausal women were randomly allocated to receive tibolone (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50) for 28 days. Measurement of the FMD of the brachial artery was performed before and after the use of tibolone and placebo. Results A total of 31 women completed the study in the tibolone group, and 32 women completed the study in the control group. The results of the FMD measurements obtained from the women in the two groups before treatment were similar (0.018 and 0.091, for tibolone and placebo, p = 0.57). The values of the FMD in women who used tibolone and placebo, before and after the treatment, were similar in both groups. The numbers of women who presented an increase in the values of the FMD in both groups were also similar. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the administration of 2.5 mg tibolone to healthy postmenopausal women for 28 days does not promote endothelial-dependent vasodilation, measured by FMD of the brachial artery.
Rezaei, Farzin; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Mardani, Roya; Hamidi, Seiran; Hassanzadeh, Kambiz
To date, no medication has been approved as an effective treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Topiramate has attracted considerable attention as a treatment for the dependence on alcohol and stimulants. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of topiramate for methamphetamine dependence. This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. In the present investigation, 62 methamphetamine-dependent adults were enrolled and randomized into two groups, and received topiramate or a placebo for 10 weeks in escalating doses from 50 mg/day to the target maintenance dose of 200 mg/day. Addiction severity index (ASI) and craving scores were registered every week. The Beck questionnaire was also given to each participant at baseline and every 2 weeks during the treatment. Urine samples were collected at baseline and every 2 weeks during the treatment. Fifty-seven patients completed 10 weeks of the trial. There was no significant difference between both groups in the mean percentage of prescribed capsules taken by the participants. At week six, the topiramate group showed a significantly lower proportion of methamphetamine-positive urine tests in comparison with the placebo group (P = 0.01). In addition, there were significantly lower scores in the topiramate group in comparison with the placebo group in two domains of ASI: drug use severity (P methamphetamine dependence. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.
Zodpe, Prakash; Cho, Jae Gu; Kang, Hee Joon; Hwang, Soon Jae; Lee, Heung-Man
To evaluate the effectiveness of sucralfate in influencing throat pain, otalgia, analgesic requirement, bleeding, mucosal recovery, and incidence of postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. A prospective double-blind randomized study. University-affiliated tertiary referral hospital. Eighty adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome requiring uvulopalatopharyngoplasty were recruited and randomly allocated into either a sucralfate treatment group or a control group. All patients underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Patients enrolled in the sucralfate group (n=40) were instructed to gargle the sucralfate suspension and then to swallow. Patients enrolled in the control group (n=40) were instructed to gargle placebo suspension at the same doses and schedule. Postoperative throat pain, otalgia, amount of analgesic required, degree of strength (defined as patients' general well-being and return to regular daily activities), percentage of mucosal covering, and postoperative bleeding. Throat pain and otalgia occurred significantly less often in sucralfate group, with less analgesic requirement and with rapid mucosal healing and early return to regular daily activities. There was no significant difference in episodes of postoperative bleeding between the 2 groups (P=.37). Although sucralfate therapy may not provide complete analgesia after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, it may reduce the amount of analgesic required, thus preventing dose-related adverse effects from the analgesic agent. It can also significantly reduce the total number of days needed to return to normal daily activities (P=.41).
Jimenez, Joaquin J; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Bergfeld, Wilma; Hordinsky, Maria; Hickman, Janet G; Hamblin, Michael R; Schachner, Lawrence A
Male and female pattern hair loss are common, chronic dermatologic disorders with limited therapeutic options. In recent years, a number of commercial devices using low-level laser therapy have been promoted, but there have been little peer-reviewed data on their efficacy. To determine whether treatment with a low-level laser device, the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, increases terminal hair density in both men and women with pattern hair loss. Randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted at multiple institutional and private practices. A total of 146 male and 188 female subjects with pattern hair loss were screened. A total of 128 male and 141 female subjects were randomized to receive either a lasercomb (one of three models) or a sham device in concealed sealed packets, and were treated on the whole scalp three times a week for 26 weeks. Terminal hair density of the target area was evaluated at baseline and at 16- and 26-week follow-ups, and analyzed to determine whether the hypothesis formulated prior to data collection, that lasercomb treatment would increase terminal hair density, was correct. The site investigators and the subjects remained blinded to the type of device they dispensed/received throughout the study. The evaluator of masked digital photographs was blinded to which trial arm the subject belonged. Seventy-eight, 63, 49, and 79 subjects were randomized in four trials of 9-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, compared with the sham device, respectively. Nineteen female and 25 male subjects were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 122 female and 103 male subjects in the efficacy analysis, the mean terminal hair count at 26 weeks increased from baseline by 20.2, 20.6, 18.4, 20.9, and 25.7 per cm2 in 9-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 12-beam
Kathryn J Swoboda
Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA has demonstrated potential as a therapeutic candidate for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA in vitro and in vivo.Two cohorts of subjects were enrolled in the SMA CARNIVAL TRIAL, a non-ambulatory group of "sitters" (cohort 1 and an ambulatory group of "walkers" (cohort 2. Here, we present results for cohort 1: a multicenter phase II randomized double-blind intention-to-treat protocol in non-ambulatory SMA subjects 2-8 years of age. Sixty-one subjects were randomized 1:1 to placebo or treatment for the first six months; all received active treatment the subsequent six months. The primary outcome was change in the modified Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (MHFMS score following six months of treatment. Secondary outcomes included safety and adverse event data, and change in MHFMS score for twelve versus six months of active treatment, body composition, quantitative SMN mRNA levels, maximum ulnar CMAP amplitudes, myometry and PFT measures.At 6 months, there was no difference in change from the baseline MHFMS score between treatment and placebo groups (difference = 0.643, 95% CI = -1.22-2.51. Adverse events occurred in >80% of subjects and were more common in the treatment group. Excessive weight gain was the most frequent drug-related adverse event, and increased fat mass was negatively related to change in MHFMS values (p = 0.0409. Post-hoc analysis found that children ages two to three years that received 12 months treatment, when adjusted for baseline weight, had significantly improved MHFMS scores (p = 0.03 compared to those who received placebo the first six months. A linear regression analysis limited to the influence of age demonstrates young age as a significant factor in improved MHFMS scores (p = 0.007.This study demonstrated no benefit from six months treatment with VPA and L-carnitine in a young non-ambulatory cohort of subjects with SMA. Weight gain, age and treatment duration were significant confounding variables that
Healy, Laura A; Ryan, Aoife; Doyle, Suzanne L; Ní Bhuachalla, Éadaoin Bríd; Cushen, Samantha; Segurado, Ricardo; Murphy, Thomas; Ravi, Narayanasamy; Donohoe, Claire L; Reynolds, John V
This randomized controlled trial (RCT) hypothesized that prolonged enteral nutrition (EN) with supplemental eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid with immune and anabolic properties, may impact on clinical and nutritional outcomes. Esophagectomy is associated with significant weight loss and catabolism, and negatively impacts quality of life (QL). Strategies to counter sustained catabolism have therapeutic rationale. This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT was powered on a 5% difference in lean body mass (LBM) at 1 month. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either EN-EPA (2.2 g EPA/day) (n = 97) or isocaloric isonitrogenous standard EN (EN-S) (n = 94), preoperatively (5 days orally), and postoperatively via a jejunostomy until 1 month postdischarge. Assessments perioperatively, and at 1, 3, and 6 months included weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, muscle strength, cytokines, complications, and QL. The median (range) nutrition support was for 51 (36 to 78) days, and overall compliance was 96%. For the entire cohort, a significant (P < 0.005) decrease in weight (-7.4 ± 6.6 kg), BMI (-2.6 ± 2.2 kg/m), LBM (-2.5 ± 8.7 kg), and fat mass (-3.4 ± 5.8 kg) was evident from preoperatively to 6 months. The mean (±SD) loss of LBM (kg) at 1 month was -3.7 ± 8.7 in the EN-S group, compared with -5.6 ± 12.1 in the EN-EPA group (P = 0.355). Per-protocol analysis revealed no difference between the EN-EPA and EN-S in any clinical, nutritional, functional, QL or immune parameter at any time point. The thesis that EPA impacts on anabolism, immune function, and clinical outcomes post-esophagectomy was not supported. Compliance with home EN was excellent, but weight, muscle, and fat loss was significant in 30% of patients, highlighting the complexity of postoperative weight loss.
Christidis, Nikolaos; Omrani, Shahin; Fredriksson, Lars; Gjelset, Mattias; Louca, Sofia; Hedenberg-Magnusson, Britt; Ernberg, Malin
Serotonin (5-HT) mediates pain by peripheral 5-HT3-receptors. Results from a few studies indicate that intramuscular injections of 5-HT3-antagonists may reduce musculoskeletal pain. The aim of this study was to investigate if repeated intramuscular tender-point injections of the 5-HT3-antagonist granisetron alleviate pain in patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders (M-TMD). This prospective, randomized, controlled, double blind, parallel-arm trial (RCT) was carried out during at two centers in Stockholm, Sweden. The randomization was performed by a researcher who did not participate in data collection with an internet-based application ( www.randomization.com ). 40 patients with a diagnose of M-TMD according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) were randomized to receive repeated injections, one week apart, with either granisetron (GRA; 3 mg) or isotonic saline as control (CTR). The median weekly pain intensities decreased significantly at all follow-ups (1-, 2-, 6-months) in the GRA-group (Friedman test; P 0.075). The numbers needed to treat (NNT) were 4 at the 1- and 6-month follow-ups, and 3.3 at the 2-month follow-up in favor of granisetron. Repeated intramuscular tender-point injections with granisetron provide a new pharmacological treatment possibility for myofascial pain patients with repeated intramuscular tender-point injections with the serotonin type 3 antagonist granisetron. It showed a clinically relevant pain reducing effect in the temporomandibular region, both in a short- and long-term aspect. European Clinical Trials Database 2005-006042-41 as well as at Clinical Trials NCT02230371 .
Rationale and design of the RIACT–study: a multi-center placebo controlled double blind study to test the efficacy of RItuximab in Acute Cellular tubulointerstitial rejection with B-cell infiltrates in renal Transplant patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute kidney allograft rejection is a major cause for declining graft function and has a negative impact on the long-term graft survival. The majority (90% of acute rejections are T-cell mediated and, therefore, the anti-rejection therapy targets T-cell-mediated mechanisms of the rejection process. However, there is increasing evidence that intragraft B-cells are also important in the T-cell-mediated rejections. First, a significant proportion of patients with acute T-cell-mediated rejection have B-cells present in the infiltrates. Second, the outcome of these patients is inferior, which has been related to an inferior response to the conventional anti-rejection therapy. Third, treatment of these patients with an anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab improves the allograft outcome as reported in single case observations and in one small study. Despite the promise of these observations, solid evidence is required before incorporating this treatment option into a general treatment recommendation. Methods/Design The RIACT study is designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group multicenter Phase III study. The study examines whether rituximab, in addition to the standard treatment with steroid-boli, leads to an improved one-year kidney allograft function, compared to the standard treatment alone in patients with acute T-cell mediated tubulointerstitial rejection and significant B-cell infiltrates in their biopsies. A total of 180 patients will be recruited. Discussion It is important to clarify the relevance of anti-B cell targeting in T-cell mediated rejection and answer the question whether this novel concept should be incorporated in the conventional anti-rejection therapy. Trial registration Clinical trials gov. number: NCT01117662
Faghihi, Gita; Elahipoor, Azam; Iraji, Fariba; Behfar, Shadi; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh
Introduction. Actinic keratoses (AKs), a premalignant skin lesion, are a common lesion in fair skin. Although destructive treatment remains the gold standard for AKs, medical therapies may be preferable due to the comfort and reliability .This study aims to compare the effects of topical 1% colchicine gel and 3% diclofenac sodium gel in AKs. Materials and Methods. In this randomized double-blind study, 70 lesions were selected. Patients were randomized before receiving either 1% colchicine gel or 3% diclofenac sodium cream twice a day for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated in terms of their lesion size, treatment complications, and recurrence at 7, 30, 60, and 120 days after treatment. Results. The mean of changes in the size was significant in both groups both before and after treatment ( 0.05). No case of erythema was seen in the colchicine group, while erythema was seen in 22.9% (eight cases) of patients in the diclofenac sodium group (p = 0.005). Conclusions. 1% colchicine gel was a safe and effective medication with fewer side effects and lack of recurrence of the lesion.
Full Text Available Introduction. Actinic keratoses (AKs, a premalignant skin lesion, are a common lesion in fair skin. Although destructive treatment remains the gold standard for AKs, medical therapies may be preferable due to the comfort and reliability .This study aims to compare the effects of topical 1% colchicine gel and 3% diclofenac sodium gel in AKs. Materials and Methods. In this randomized double-blind study, 70 lesions were selected. Patients were randomized before receiving either 1% colchicine gel or 3% diclofenac sodium cream twice a day for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated in terms of their lesion size, treatment complications, and recurrence at 7, 30, 60, and 120 days after treatment. Results. The mean of changes in the size was significant in both groups both before and after treatment ( 0.05. No case of erythema was seen in the colchicine group, while erythema was seen in 22.9% (eight cases of patients in the diclofenac sodium group (p = 0.005. Conclusions. 1% colchicine gel was a safe and effective medication with fewer side effects and lack of recurrence of the lesion.
Manzardo, Ann M; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G
Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analog, benfotiamine (BF), and BF's effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, -611 ± 380 standard drinks; PL: N=11, -159 ± 562 standard drinks, p-value=0.02). BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
MacKenzie, Todd; Comi, Richard; Sluss, Patrick; Keisari, Ronit; Manwar, Simone; Kim, Janice; Larson, Robin; Baron, John A
In short-term studies, caffeine has been shown to increase insulin levels, reduce insulin sensitivity, and increase cortisol levels. However, epidemiological studies have indicated that long-term consumption of beverages containing caffeine such as coffee and green tea is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a paucity of randomized studies addressing the metabolic and hormonal effects of consuming caffeine over periods of more than 1 day. We evaluated the effect of oral intake of 200 mg of caffeine taken twice a day for 7 days on glucose metabolism, as well as on serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione, and on nighttime salivary melatonin. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study with periods of 7 days and washouts of 5 days comparing caffeine with placebo capsules was conducted. Participants were 16 healthy adults aged 18 to 22 years with a history of caffeine consumption. Blood samples from each subject were assayed for glucose, insulin, serum cortisol, DHEA, and androstenedione on the eighth day of each period after an overnight fast. Nighttime salivary melatonin was also measured. Insulin levels were significantly higher (by 1.80 microU/mL; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-3.28) after caffeine intake than after placebo. The homeostasis model assessment index of insulin sensitivity was reduced by 35% (95% confidence interval, 7%-62%) by caffeine. There were no differences in glucose, DHEA, androstenedione, and melatonin between treatment periods. This study provides evidence that daily caffeine intake reduces insulin sensitivity; the effect persists for at least a week and is evident up to 12 hours after administration.
Lam, Tze J; Mulder, Chris Jj; Felt-Bersma, Richelle Jf
Patients suffering from chronic constipation require long-term, regular therapy with laxatives. Literature regarding patient preference and acceptance in polyethylene glycol preparations is scarce. Therefore, this research aimed to identify preference between the three polyethylene glycol 3350, namely Molaxole(®), Movicol(®), and Laxtra Orange(®). Furthermore, taste is one of the most important factors leading to patients' adherence, particularly when the treatment lasts for a long time. In this randomized, cross-over double-blind study, 100 volunteers were recruited by advertisement. The volunteers were invited to taste the preparations and grade the taste using a five-point hedonic scale (extremely poor taste  to extremely good taste ). The volunteers were then asked to choose the most palatable preparation. One hundred volunteers with a mean age of 35 years (range 20-61) were randomized (76 females). Molaxole(®), Movicol(®), and Laxtra Orange(®) had a mean hedonic score of 2.76 (SD: 0.82), 2.81 (SD: 0.76) and 3.12 (SD: 0.82) respectively. The hedonic taste score for Laxtra Orange(®) was significantly better than Molaxole(®) (P = 0.001) and Movicol(®) (P = 0.001). No difference was found between Molaxole(®) and Movicol(®) (P = 0.61). Molaxole(®) was the most preferred preparation for 19 volunteers (19%), Movicol(®) for 24 volunteers (25%) and Laxtra Orange(®) for 55 volunteers (56%). Two volunteers had no preference. The order in which volunteers tested the preparations had no influence on the taste results. No significant differences in age or gender were observed. Laxtra Orange(®) was most palatable preparation. This may have implications for adherence in patients with chronic constipation.
Zhong, Yisheng; Xiang, Minhong; Ye, Wen; Cheng, Yu; Jiang, Youqin
To evaluate the visual field protective effect of Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand. Mazz. (EBHM) extract on glaucoma with controlled intraocular pressure (IOP). Forty patients (40 eyes) with primary open-angle glaucoma, visual field defects and a postsurgical IOP of <18 mmHg were enrolled. The EBHM and placebo tablets were given orally according to the randomized and double-blind principle. Two tablets (of either EBHM or placebo) were taken three times a day for a period of 6 months. Patients were examined every 2 months after treatment commenced. At the end of the study, the results were given to the drug manufacturer. All patients completed the prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. No obvious adverse effects were found in patients during the treatment period. In the placebo group, no significant difference was found in mean defect (MD) or mean sensitivity (MS) between the values at pre-treatment and after 2, 4, and 6 months of treatment. After 6 months of EBHM treatment, the MD was significantly decreased and the MS was significantly increased compared with pre-treatment (p < 0.05). In the patients with moderate and late glaucoma, the MD was significantly decreased and the MS was significantly increased after 2, 4, and 6 months of EBHM treatment compared with pre-treatment. EBHM extract may have a partial protective effect on the visual field of glaucoma patients with controlled IOP. Further studies are needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of long-term EBHM treatment.
Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of chlorhexidine prophylaxis for 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis with nonblinded randomized comparison to oral cooling (cryotherapy) in gastrointestinal malignancies
Skovsgaard, T.; Bork, E.; Damstrup, L.
BACKGROUND: The purpose was to evaluate prevention of oral mucositis (OM) using chlorhexidine compared with placebo and with oral cooling (cryotherapy) during fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. METHODS: Patients with previously untreated GI cancer receiving...... bolus 5-FU/leucovorin chemotherapy were randomized to chlorhexidine mouthrinse 3 times a day for 3 weeks (Arm A), double-blind placebo (normal saline) with the same dose and frequency (Arm B), or cryotherapy with crushed ice 45 minutes during chemotherapy (Arm C). Patients self-reported on severity (CTC...... (33%) than in A (13%, Pcryotherapy. The latter is easy and inexpensive but has...
Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yim, Jung-Eun
Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have anticholesterol, antithrombotic and insulin-sensitizing properties. Here, we investigated the effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidative defense in obese woman. This study was randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy obese participants were randomly assigned that eighteen subjects received red soft capsuled OPE (100 mg/d, 50 mg bis in die), while the other nineteen subjects received same capsuled placebo for 12 weeks. ROS production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma were determined by using ROS and SOD assay kits, respectively. Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, OPE consumption significantly reduced waist and hip circumference. Plasma ROS level and SOD activity were decreased in both placebo and OPE groups compared with baseline values. However, plasma ROS level in OPE group was significantly lower than in placebo group while plasma SOD activity in OPE group was significantly higher than in placebo group after 12 weeks of consumption. These findings indicate that OPE consumption may exert antioxidative effect by preventing the decrease of SOD activity as well as the production of ROS in obese women.
Marco Antonio Botelho
Full Text Available Several different plant extracts have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and for reduction of gingivitis. Given that a large number of these substances have been associated with significant side effects that contraindicate their long-term use, new compounds need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term safety and efficacy of a Lippia sidoides ("alecrim pimenta"-based essential oil mouthrinse on gingival inflammation and bacterial plaque. Fifty-five patients were enrolled into a pilot, double-blinded, randomized, parallel-armed study. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo a 7-day treatment regimen with either the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse or 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse. The results demonstrated decreased plaque index, gingival index and gingival bleeding index scores at 7 days, as compared to baseline. There was no statistically significance difference (p>0.05 between test and control groups for any of the clinical parameters assessed throughout the study. Adverse events were mild and transient. The findings of this study demonstrated that the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse was safe and efficacious in reducing bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation.
Botelho, Marco Antonio; Bezerra, José Gomes; Correa, Luciano Lima; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Montenegro, Danusa; Gapski, Ricardo; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro; Heukelbach, Jörg
Several different plant extracts have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and for reduction of gingivitis. Given that a large number of these substances have been associated with significant side effects that contraindicate their long-term use, new compounds need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term safety and efficacy of a Lippia sidoides ("alecrim pimenta")-based essential oil mouthrinse on gingival inflammation and bacterial plaque. Fifty-five patients were enrolled into a pilot, double-blinded, randomized, parallel-armed study. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo a 7-day treatment regimen with either the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse or 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse. The results demonstrated decreased plaque index, gingival index and gingival bleeding index scores at 7 days, as compared to baseline. There was no statistically significance difference (p>0.05) between test and control groups for any of the clinical parameters assessed throughout the study. Adverse events were mild and transient. The findings of this study demonstrated that the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse was safe and efficacious in reducing bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation. PMID:19089126
Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Haghighi, Alireza
There are some uncontrolled studies about the efficacy and safety of both aripiprazole and risperidone for treating tic disorder. Moreover, the efficacy of these medications has never been compared. This is the first double blind randomized clinical trial comparing the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole and risperidone for treating patients with tic disorder. Sixty children and adolescents with tic disorder were randomly allocated into one of the two groups to receive either aripiprazole or risperidone for 2 months. The primary outcome measure was the score of Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. In addition, health related quality of life and adverse events were assessed. Both aripiprazole and risperidone decreased the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale score during this trial. Moreover, both medications increased the health related quality of life score. Both aripiprazole and risperidone were tolerated well. Aripiprazole [3.22 (1.9) mg/day] decreased tic score as much as risperidone [0.6 (0.2) mg/day]. Their adverse effects and their effects on health related quality of life were comparable. However, risperidone increased the patients' social functioning more than aripiprazole in short term.
Fowler, Sara; Fullmer, Spencer; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al
The purpose of this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effects of a combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 mg hydrocodone on cold pulpal testing in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred emergency patients in moderate to severe pain diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a double-blind manner, identical capsules of either a combination of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 hydrocodone or placebo. Cold testing with Endo-Ice (1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane; Hygenic Corp, Akron, OH) was performed at baseline and every 10 minutes for 60 minutes. Pain to cold testing was recorded by the patient using a Heft-Parker visual analog scale. Patients' reaction to the cold application was also rated. Cold testing at baseline and at 10 minutes resulted in severe pain for both the acetaminophen/hydrocodone and placebo groups. Although pain ratings decreased from 20-60 minutes, the ratings still resulted in moderate pain. Patient reaction to cold testing showed that 56%-62% had a severe reaction. Although the reactions decreased in severity over the 60 minutes, 20%-34% still had severe reactions at 60 minutes. Regarding pain and patients' reactions to cold testing, there were no significant differences between the combination acetaminophen/hydrocodone and placebo groups at any time period. A combination dose of 1000 mg of acetaminophen/10 mg of hydrocodone did not statistically affect cold pulpal testing in patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Patients experienced moderate to severe pain and reactions to cold testing. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Feldman Samantha; Alvarez Patricia; Schwartz Howard I; Kalman Douglas S; Pezzullo John C; Krieger Diane R
Abstract Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence) but no gastrointestinal (GI) diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg) and randomized to either Digest...
Arslan, Zakir; Çalık, Eyup Serhat; Kaplan, Bekir; Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral
There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.0007 and p=0.0188, respectively). There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.4325). Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (ppheniramine group and lidocaine group (p=0.856). Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Arslan, Zakir; Çalık, Eyup Serhat; Kaplan, Bekir; Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral
There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.0007 and p=0.0188, respectively). There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.4325). Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (ppheniramine group and lidocaine group (p=0.856). Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Amy S Chappell
Full Text Available Amy S Chappell1, Laurence A Bradley2, Curtis Wiltse1, Michael J Detke1,3,4, Deborah N D’Souza1, Michael Spaeth51Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; 3Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Practice for Internal Medicine/Rheumatology, Graefelfing, GermanyObjective: Assess the efficacy of duloxetine 60/120 mg (N = 162 once daily compared with placebo (N = 168 in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia, during six months of treatment.Methods: This was a phase-III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study assessing the efficacy and safety of duloxetine.Results: There were no significant differences between treatment groups on the co-primary efficacy outcome measures, change in the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI average pain severity from baseline to endpoint (P = 0.053 and the Patient’s Global Impressions of Improvement (PGI-I at endpoint (P = 0.073. Duloxetine-treated patients improved significantly more than placebo-treated patients on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire pain score, BPI least pain score and average interference score, Clinical Global Impressions of Severity scale, area under the curve of pain relief, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory mental fatigue dimension, Beck Depression Inventory-II total score, and 36-item Short Form Health Survey mental component summary and mental health score. Nausea was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event in the duloxetine group. Overall discontinuation rates were similar between groups.Conclusions: Although duloxetine 60/120 mg/day failed to demonstrate significant improvement over placebo on the co-primary outcome measures, in this supportive study, duloxetine demonstrated significant improvement compared with placebo on numerous secondary measures.Keywords: fibromyalgia, duloxetine, placebo, double-blind, trial
Fuglsang, S.; Madsen, Jan Lysgård
emptying, small intestinal transit and colonic transit of a radiolabelled, 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal ingested on day 2. RESULTS: Aprepitant did not change gastric retention at 15 min, gastric half emptying time, gastric mean transit time, time to small intestinal transit of 10%, small intestinal...... in healthy humans. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a crossover, double-blind study. In random order, each volunteer had a 125-mg capsule of aprepitant or placebo on day 1 followed by an 80-mg capsule of aprepitant or placebo on days 2-5. Gamma camera imaging was used to measure gastric...
He, Zhong; Chen, Rong; Zhou, Yingfang; Geng, Li; Zhang, Zhenyu; Chen, Shuling; Yao, Yanjun; Lu, Junli; Lin, Shouqing
To investigate the efficacy and safety of VAC BNO 1095 extract in Chinese women suffering from moderate to severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Prospective, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group, multi-center clinical trial design was employed. After screening and preparation phase lasting three cycles, Eligible patients were randomly assigned into treatment or placebo groups and had treatment with VAC extract or placebo for up to three cycles. Efficacy was assessed using the Chinese version PMS-diary (PMSD) and PMTS. Two hundred and seventeen women were eligible to enter the treatment phase (TP) and were randomly assigned into the treatment group (108) or the placebo group (109), 208 provided the efficacy data (treatment 104, placebo 104), and 202 completed the treatment phase (treatment 101, placebo 101). The mean total PMSD score decreased from 29.23 at baseline (0 cycle) to 6.41 at the termination (3rd cycle) for the treatment group and from 28.14 at baseline (0 cycle) to 12.64 at the termination (3rd cycle) for the placebo group. The total PMSD score of 3rd cycle was significantly lower than the baseline in both groups (pVitex agnus castus (VAC BNO 1095 corresponding to 40mg herbal drug) is a safe, well tolerated and effective drug of the treatment for Chinese women with the moderate to severe PMS.
Full Text Available Bromocriptine mesylate (BRC, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist has been shown to confer neuroprotection, sustained motor function and slowed disease progression in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS Here we report a first in human trial in ALS.A multicenter, Riluzole add-on, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 102-week extension BRC clinical trial.The trial was conducted between January 2009 and March 2012 on 36 Japanese ALS patients. A 12-week treatment with Riluzole observational period was followed by combined treatment (Riluzole + BRC; n = 29 or Riluzole + placebo; n = 7. The dosing commenced at 1.25 mg/day increasing in steps at two weeks intervals to a maximum of 15 mg/day. The efficacy of BRC was evaluated by comparing BRC and placebo groups upon completion of stepwise dosing at 14 weeks 2 points (1st endpoint and upon completion or discontinuation of the study (2nd endpoint of the dosing.Statistics analyses revealed a marginal BRC treatment efficacy with P≦20%to placebo by 1st and 2nd endpoint analysis. In the 1st endpoint analysis, BRC group was significantly effective on the scores of ALSAQ40-communicaton (P = 1.2%, eating and drinking (P = 2.2%, ALSFRS-R total (P = 17.6%, grip strength (P = 19.8% compared to the placebo group. In the 2nd endpoint analysis, differences between the scores of Limb Norris Scale (P = 18.3%, ALSAQ40-communication (P = 11.9%, eating and drinking (P = 13.6%, and neck forward-bent test (P = 15.4% of BRC group were detected between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for adverse events or serious drug reactions incidence.BRC sustains motoneuronal function at least in part through BRC treatment. Further analysis involving a Phase 2b or 3 clinical trial is required but BRC currently shows promise for ALS treatment.UMIN Clinical Trials UMIN000008527.
Buigues, Cristina; Fernández-Garrido, Julio; Pruimboom, Leo; Hoogland, Aldert J; Navarro-Martínez, Rut; Martínez-Martínez, Mary; Verdejo, Yolanda; Mascarós, Mari Carmen; Peris, Carlos; Cauli, Omar
Aging can result in major changes in the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal system and result in impaired function of the immune system. We assessed the efficacy of prebiotic Darmocare Pre(®) (Bonusan Besloten Vennootschap (BV), Numansdorp, The Netherlands) to evaluate whether the regular intake of this product can improve frailty criteria, functional status and response of the immune system in elderly people affected by the frailty syndrome. The study was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind design in sixty older participants aged 65 and over. The prebiotic product was composed of a mixture of inulin plus fructooligosaccharides and was compared with placebo (maltodextrin). Participants were randomized to a parallel group intervention of 13 weeks' duration with a daily intake of Darmocare Pre(®) or placebo. Either prebiotic or placebo were administered after breakfast (between 9-10 a.m.) dissolved in a glass of water carefully stirred just before drinking. The primary outcome was to study the effect on frailty syndrome. The secondary outcomes were effect on functional and cognitive behavior and sleep quality. Moreover, we evaluated whether prebiotic administration alters blood parameters (haemogram and biochemical analysis). The overall rate of frailty was not significantly modified by Darmocare Pre(®) administration. Nevertheless, prebiotic administration compared with placebo significantly improved two frailty criteria, e.g., exhaustion and handgrip strength (p sleep quality. The use of novel therapeutic approaches influencing the gut microbiota-muscle-brain axis could be considered for treatment of the frailty syndrome.
Levin, Frances R; Mariani, John J; Pavlicova, Martina; Brooks, Daniel; Glass, Andrew; Mahony, Amy; Nunes, Edward V; Bisaga, Adam; Dakwar, Elias; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Sullivan, Maria A; Choi, Jean C
Cannabis use disorder is associated with substantial morbidity and, after alcohol, is the most common drug bringing adolescents and adults into treatment. At present, there are no FDA-approved medications for cannabis use disorder. Combined pharmacologic interventions might be particularly useful in mitigating withdrawal symptoms and promoting abstinence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, and lofexidine, an alpha-2 agonist, in treating cannabis dependence. One hundred fifty six cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled and following a 1-week placebo lead-in phase 122 were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 11-week trial. Participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20mg three times a day and lofexidine 0.6 mg three times a day or placebo. Medications were maintained until the end of week eight, were then tapered over two weeks and patients were monitored off medications during the last study week. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline follow-back method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 3 weeks of abstinence during the maintenance phase of the trial (27.9% for the medication group and 29.5% for the placebo group), although both groups showed a reduction over time. Based on this treatment study, the combined intervention did not show promise as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Magnussen, L V; Andersen, P E; Diaz, Alejandro Rafael
Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) often have lowered testosterone levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Ectopic fat increases the risk of CVD, whereas subcutaneous gluteofemoral fat protects against CVD and has a beneficial adipokine-secreting profile. Testosterone...... replacement therapy (TRT) may reduce the content of ectopic fat and improve the adipokine profile in men with T2D. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 39 men aged 50-70 years with T2D and bioavailable testosterone levels...
Tabassomi, Farzaneh; Zarghami, Mehran; Shiran, Mohammad-Reza; Farnia, Samaneh; Davoodi, Mohsen
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of opium tincture versus methadone syrup in the management of acute withdrawal syndrome in opium dependent patients during the detoxification period. In this double-blind randomized controlled study, a total of 74 adult male raw opium dependent patients were treated with opium tincture or methadone syrup 2 times daily for 5 consecutive days. Detoxification was initiated by tapered dose reductions to reach abstinence. At the end of the 10th day, the medications were discontinued. The Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale was used to assess withdrawal symptoms every day. Significant decreases on the Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale were found for both treatment methods during the study period (p Opium tincture can be considered as a potential substitute for methadone syrup for suppression of raw opium withdrawal symptoms, with minimal adverse effects.
Full Text Available A Ebru Salman,1 Fahri Yetisir,2 Banu Yürekli,3 Mustafa Aksoy,1 Murat Yildirim,2 Mehmet Kiliç21Anesthesiology and Reanimation Department, 2General Surgery Department, Atatürk Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 3Endocrinology Department, Bozyaka Research and Training Hospital, Izmir, TurkeyPurpose: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, our aim was to compare the analgesic efficacy of the semi-blind approach of transversus abdominis plane (TAP block with a placebo block in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair.Methods: After receiving hospital ethical committee approval and informed patient consents, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I–III patients aged 18–80 were enrolled in the study. Standard anesthesia monitoring was applied to all patients. After premedication, spinal anesthesia was administered to all patients with 3.5 mL heavy bupivacaine at the L3-L4 subarachnoid space. Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Group I (n = 32 received a placebo block with 20 mL saline, Group II (n = 32 received semi-blind TAP block with 0.25% bupivacaine in 20 mL with a blunt regional anesthesia needle into the neurofascial plane via the lumbar triangle of Petit near the midaxillary line before fascial closure. At the end of the operation, intravenous (IV dexketoprofen was given to all patients. The verbal analog scale (VAS was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Paracetamol IV was given to patients if their VAS score > 3. A rescue analgesic of 0.05 mg/kg morphine IV was applied if VAS > 3. Total analgesic consumption and morphine requirement in 24 hours were recorded.Results: TAP block reduced VAS scores at all postoperative time points (P < 0.001. Postoperative analgesic and morphine requirement in 24 hours was significantly lower in group II (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Semi-blind TAP block provided effective analgesia, reducing total 24-hour postoperative analgesic
Zaccara, Gaetano; Giovannelli, Fabio; Maratea, Dario; Fadda, Valeria; Verrotti, Alberto
Analysis of overall tolerability and neurological adverse effects (AEs) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), lacosamide (LCM) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) from double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Indirect comparisons of patients withdrawing because of AEs, and the incidence of some vestibulocerebellar AEs between these three antiepileptic dugs (AEDs). We searched MEDLINE for all randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigating therapeutic effects of fixed oral doses of ESL, LCM and OXC in patients with drug resistant epilepsy. Withdrawal rate due to AEs, percentages of patients with serious AEs, and the proportion of patients experiencing any neurological AE, nausea and vomiting were assessed for their association with the experimental drug. Analyses were performed between recommended daily doses of each AED according to the approved summary of product characteristics (SPC). Risk differences were used to evaluate the association of any AE [99% confidence intervals (CIs)] or study withdrawals because of AEs (95% CIs) with the experimental drug. Indirect comparisons between withdrawal rate and AEs dizziness, coordination abnormal/ataxia and diplopia were estimated according to network meta-analysis (Net-MA). Eight randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials (4 with ESL, 3 with LCM, and 1 with OXC) were included in our analysis. At high doses (OXC 1200mg, ESL 1200mg and LCM 400mg) there was an increased risk of AE-related study withdrawals compared to placebo for all drugs. Several AEs were associated with the experimental drug. Both number and frequency of AEs were dose-related. At high recommended doses, patients treated with OXC withdrew from the experimental treatment significantly more frequently than patients treated with ESL and LCM. Furthermore, the AEs coordination abnormal/ataxia and diplopia were significantly more frequently observed in patients treated with OXC compared to patients treated with LCM and ESL. The overall tolerability
Wood, Robert A.; Kim, Jennifer S.; Lindblad, Robert; Nadeau, Kari; Henning, Alice K.; Dawson, Peter; Plaut, Marshall; Sampson, Hugh A.
Background Although studies of oral immunotherapy (OIT) for food allergy have shown promise, treatment is frequently complicated by adverse reactions and, even when successful, has limited long-term efficacy as benefits usually diminish when treatment is discontinued. Objective We sought to examine whether the addition of omalizumab to milk OIT (MOIT) reduces treatment-related reactions and/or improves outcomes. Methods This was a double-blind placebo-controlled trial with subjects randomized to omalizumab or placebo. Open-label MOIT was initiated after 4 months of omalizumab/placebo with escalation to maintenance over 22–40 weeks, followed by daily maintenance dosing through month-28. At month-28, omalizumab was discontinued and subjects passing an oral food challenge (OFC) continued OIT for 8 weeks, after which OIT was discontinued with re-challenge at month-32 to assess sustained unresponsiveness (SU). Results Fifty-seven subjects (7–32 years) were randomized, with no significant baseline differences in age, milk-specific IgE, skin tests, or OFCs. At month-28, 24 (88.9%) omalizumab-treated subjects and 20 (71.4%) placebo-treated subjects passed the 10 gram “desensitization” OFC (p=0.18). At month-32, SU was demonstrated in 48.1% in the omalizumab group and 35.7% in the placebo group (p=0.42). Adverse reactions were markedly reduced during OIT escalation in omalizumab subjects for percent doses/subject provoking symptoms (2.1% versus 16.1%; p=0.0005), dose-related reactions requiring treatment (0.0% versus 3.8%, p=0.0008), and doses required to achieve maintenance (198 versus 225; p=0.008). Conclusions In this first randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial of omalizumab in combination with food OIT, we found significant improvements in measurements of safety, but not in outcomes of efficacy (desensitization and SU). Trial Registration OIT and XolairR (Omalizumab) in Cow’s Milk Allergy, NCT01157117, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01157117
Joensen, J B; Juul, Svend; Henneberg, E
PURPOSE: The purpose was to investigate in a large, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, whether antibiotic treatment can prevent progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five hundred and seven patients were included; all patients had an established...... analyzed mainly by Cox regression and linear regression. RESULTS: Included patients with PAD were randomized. Two patients withdrew. Of the remaining, 248 received roxithromycin and 257 placebo. In the treatment group 55% were seropositive and 53% in the placebo group. Mean follow-up was 2.1 years (range 0.......06-5.1 years). In the placebo group, 26 died and 80 primary events occurred in total. In the treatment group, 28 died and 74 primary events were observed. The hazard ratio of death was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.90), and of primary events 0.92 (95% CI: 0.67; 1.26). Also on secondary events and ABPI changes...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea causes an estimated 2.5 million child deaths in developing countries each year, 35% of which are due to acute diarrhea. Zinc and copper stores in the body are known to be depleted during acute diarrhea. Our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of zinc and copper supplementation when given with standard treatment to children with acute watery or bloody diarrhea. Methods We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial in the Department of Pediatrics at Indira Gandhi Government Medical College Nagpur, India. Eight hundred and eight children aged 6 months to 59 months with acute diarrhea were individually randomized to placebo (Pl, zinc (Zn only, and zinc and copper (Zn+Cu together with standard treatment for acute diarrhea. Results The mean duration of diarrhea from enrolment and the mean stool weight during hospital stay were 63.7 hours and 940 grams, respectively, and there were no significant differences in the adjusted means across treatment groups. Similarly, the adjusted means of the amount of oral rehydration solution or intravenous fluids used, the proportion of participants with diarrhea more than 7 days from onset, and the severity of diarrhea indicated by more than three episodes of some dehydration or any episode of severe dehydration after enrolment, did not differ across the three groups. Conclusion The expected beneficial effects of zinc supplementation for acute diarrhea were not observed. Therapeutic Zn or Zn and Cu supplementation may not have a universal beneficial impact on the duration of acute diarrhea in children. Trial registration The study was registered as an International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN85071383.
Background Delirium is a frequent disorder in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with serious consequences. Therefore, preventive treatment for delirium may be beneficial. Worldwide, haloperidol is the first choice for pharmacological treatment of delirious patients. In daily clinical practice, a lower dose is sometimes used as prophylaxis. Some studies have shown the beneficial effects of prophylactic haloperidol on delirium incidence as well as on mortality, but evidence for effectiveness in ICU patients is limited. The primary objective of our study is to determine the effect of haloperidol prophylaxis on 28-day survival. Secondary objectives include the incidence of delirium and delirium-related outcome and the side effects of haloperidol prophylaxis. Methods This will be a multicenter three-armed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prophylactic intervention study in critically ill patients. We will include consecutive non-neurological ICU patients, aged ≥18 years with an expected ICU length of stay >1 day. To be able to demonstrate a 15% increase in 28-day survival time with a power of 80% and alpha of 0.05 in both intervention groups, a total of 2,145 patients will be randomized; 715 in each group. The anticipated mortality rate in the placebo group is 12%. The intervention groups will receive prophylactic treatment with intravenous haloperidol 1 mg/q8h or 2 mg/q8h, and patients in the control group will receive placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%), both for a maximum period of 28-days. In patients who develop delirium, study medication will be stopped and patients will subsequently receive open label treatment with a higher (therapeutic) dose of haloperidol. We will use descriptive summary statistics as well as Cox proportional hazard regression analyses, adjusted for covariates. Discussion This will be the first large-scale multicenter randomized controlled prevention study with haloperidol in ICU patients with a high risk of delirium, adequately
Full Text Available "nAs the most common male sexual disorder premature ejaculation (PE, also referred to as early ejaculation (EE or rapid ejaculation (RE, affects 30%-40% of sexually active men. Despite the limited number of available studies comparing the efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI they have been thought to have beneficial effects for the treatment of patients with PE. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of on-demand use of citalopram, in the treatment of premature ejaculation. A randomized double blind study of fixed dose on-demand use of citalopram was performed in Roozbeh Psychiatry Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample was consisted of 80 married patients diagnosed with PE according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 consisting of 42 patients received 20mg citalopram, and group 2 consisting of 38 patients received placebo four hours before intercourse for a 4-week treatment course. The effects of drug on the ejaculatory function in each group were assessed by the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT, and the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE before and at the end of treatment course. The mean IELT increased from 66.78±36.94 to 80.85±43.05 seconds in group 1 and from 63.44±33.16 to 65.71±34.26 seconds in group 2 (P = 0.000. Mean CIPE score increased 1.14±1.04 and 0.52±0.50 in group 1 and 2 respectively (P = 0.002. The patients treated with on demand citalopram showed significantly greater improvement in IELT and CIPE score compared to the patients receiving placebo. It seems that citalopram may be an effective treatment of premature ejaculation with on-demand usage. However further studies are warranted.
Kaminski, Juliana; Miasaki, Fabíola Yukiko; Paz-Filho, Gilberto; Graf, Hans; Carvalho, Gisah Amaral de
To compare the effects of a unique fixed combination levothyroxine/liothyronine (LT4/LT3) therapy in patients with primary hypothyroidism. This is a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Adults with primary hypothyroidism (n = 32, age 42.6 ± 13.3, 30 females) on stable doses of LT4 for ≥ 6 months (125 or 150 μg/day) were randomized to continue LT4 treatment (G1) or to start LT4/LT3 therapy (75/15 μg/day; G2). After 8 weeks, participants switched treatments for 8 more weeks. Thyroid function, lipid profile, plasma glucose, body weight, electrocardiogram, vital signs, and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated at weeks 0, 8 and 16. Free T4 levels were significantly lower while on LT4/LT3 (G1: 1.07 ± 0.29 vs. 1.65 ± 0.46; G2: 0.97 ± 0.26 vs. 1.63 ± 0.43 ng/dL; P < 0.001). TSH and T3 levels were not affected by type of therapy. More patients on LT4/LT3 had T3 levels above the upper limit (15% vs. 3%). The combination therapy led to an increase in heart rate, with no significant changes in electrocardiogram or arterial blood pressure. Lipid profile, body weight and QoL remained unchanged. The combination therapy yielded significantly lower free T4 levels, with no changes in TSH or T3 levels. More patients on LT4/T3 had elevated T3 levels, with no significant alterations in the evaluated outcomes. No clear clinical benefit of the studied formulation could be observed. Future trials need to evaluate different formulations and the impact of the combined therapy in select populations with genetic polymorphisms.
Wong, Eliza L Y; Sung, Rita Yn Tz; Leung, Ting Fan; Wong, Yeuk Oi; Li, Albert M C; Cheung, Kam Lau; Wong, Chun Kwok; Fok, Tai Fai; Leung, Ping Chung
The purpose of this trial was to evaluate whether the herbal formula of CUF2 used as complementary therapy improves the clinical symptoms and biochemical markers in children with asthma using inhaled corticosteroids. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective trial, 85 children with asthma aged 7-15 years were randomly assigned to receive either a daily oral herbal formula of 0.619-g CUF2 capsule of dried aqueous extract with an equal weight of five herbs (Astragalus mongholius Bunge, Cordyceps sinensis Sacc., Radix stemonae, Bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae, and Radix scutellariae) or placebo for 6 months. The primary endpoint was the change in steroids dosage; the secondary outcomes included the disease severity score, lung function test, and biochemical markers in blood. Eighty-five (85) children (42 on active treatment and 43 on placebo) completed the 6-month clinical trial. Children randomized to the herbal formula of CUF2 and the placebo showed a similar improvement in clinical symptoms and biomedical markers. The comparison between the CUF2 group and the placebo group showed no significant difference on the dosage of steroids (-2.3 versus -3.1 mg, p = 0.915), disease severity score (-2.3 versus -3.1, p = 0.215), and lung function test of forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity percent (0.1 versus 0.6%, p = 0.809) and peak expiratory flow rate (-7.3 versus -0.6 l/minutes, p = 0.118). No significant difference was found between the two study groups in the biochemical outcomes measured. The intervention effect of CUF2 was smaller than the placebo effect. This study provides no evidence to support the use of the herbal formula of CUF2 in children with asthma. Parents are thus advised to discuss with health professionals before choosing an herbal formula in preference to conventional treatment modes.
Udani, Jay K
To evaluate the ability of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract from the larch tree (ResistAid, Lonza Ltd., Basel, Switzerland) to change the immune response in healthy adults to a standardized antigenic challenge (tetanus and influenza vaccines) in a dose-dependent manner compared to placebo. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 75 healthy adults (18-61 years old). Subjects were randomized to receive either 1.5 or 4.5 g/day of ResistAid or placebo for 60 days. At day 30, subjects were administered both tetanus and influenza vaccines. Serum antigenic response (tetanus immunoglobulin G [IgG], influenza A and B IgG and immunoglobulin M [IgM]) was measured at days 45 (15 days after vaccination) and 60 (30 days after vaccination) of the study and compared to baseline antibody levels. Frequency and intensity of adverse events were monitored throughout the study. As expected, all 3 groups demonstrated an expected rise in tetanus IgG levels 15 and 30 days following the vaccine. There was a strongly significant difference in the rise in IgG levels at day 60 in the 1.5 g/day group compared to placebo (p = 0.008). In the 4.5 g/day group, there was significant rise in tetanus IgG at days 45 and 60 compared to baseline (p < 0.01) but these values were not significant compared to placebo. Neither group demonstrated any significant elevations in IgM or IgG antibodies compared to placebo following the influenza vaccine. There were no clinically or statistically significant or serious adverse events. ResistAid at a dose of 1.5 g/day significantly increased the IgG antibody response to tetanus vaccine compared to placebo. In conjunction with earlier studies, this validates the effect of ResistAid on the augmentation of the response to bacterial antigens (in the form of vaccine).
Bacci, C; Vanzo, V; Frigo, A C; Stellini, E; Sbricoli, L; Valente, M
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study assessed the efficacy of topical tocopherol acetate compared with placebo in easing oral discomfort in patients with reticular oral lichen planus (ROLP). Thirty-four patients with clinically diagnosed and histologically confirmed ROLP were randomly assigned to two groups, which received first one of two treatments (treatment 1 or 2) for a month, then the other (treatment 2 or 1) for another month, with a two-week washout between them. One treatment contained tocopherol acetate and the other only liquid paraffin. The primary outcome was less discomfort, measured on a visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes were as follows: length of striae measured and photographed at each follow-up; surface area of lesions; and a modified Thongprasom score. No statistically significant differences emerged between the two treatments (1 vs 2) in terms of VAS scores (P > 0.05; 0.8624) or length of striae (P = 0.0883). Significant differences were seen for surface area of lesions (P < 0.05, P = 0.0045) and modified Thongprasom scores (P = 0.0052). The two treatments differed only in terms of the surface area of the lesions and Thongprasom scores, not in VAS scores for discomfort or the length of patients' striae. Topical tocopherol proved effective in the treatment of ROLP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smits, M.; van Maanen, A.; Meijer, A.M.; van der Heijden, K.; Oort, F.
Introduction: To examine effects of melatonin and light therapy on cognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes in children with chronic sleep onset insomnia; and to disentangle direct effects from indirect effects through sleep improvement. Methods: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled
Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Ghosh, Shubhamoy
Few homeopathic complexes seemed to produce significant effects in osteoarthritis; still, individualized homeopathy remained untested. We evaluated the feasibility of conducting an efficacy trial of individualized homeopathy in osteoarthritis. A prospective, parallel-arm, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted from January to October 2014 involving 60 patients (homeopathy, n = 30; placebo, n = 30) who were suffering from acute painful episodes of knee osteoarthritis and visiting the outpatient clinic of Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India. Statistically significant reduction was achieved in 3 visual analog scales (measuring pain, stiffness, and loss of function) and Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores in both groups over 2 weeks (P .05). Overall, homeopathy did not appear to be superior to placebo; still, further rigorous evaluation in this design involving a larger sample size seems feasible in future. Clinical Trials Registry, India (CTRI/2014/05/004589). © The Author(s) 2015.
Waldinger, M D; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known to induce delayed orgasm and ejaculation. However, different SSRIs may differentially delay ejaculation. A double-blind, fixed-dose study in healthy men with lifelong rapid ejaculation was performed to evaluate potential differences between clinically relevant doses of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, paroxetine and citalopram, in their effects on ejaculation. Thirty men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) less than 1 minute were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (20 mg/day) and citalopram (20 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after taking half the dosage in the first week. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment period, IELTs were measured at home by using a stopwatch procedure. The trial was completed by 23 men. Analysis of variance revealed a between-group difference in the evolution of IELT delay over time (p = 0.0004); the IELT after paroxetine and citalopram gradually increased from 18 and 21 seconds to approximately 170 and 44 seconds, respectively. Paroxetine 20 mg/day exerted a strong delay (8.9-fold increase), whereas citalopram 20 mg/day mildly delayed ejaculation (1.8-fold increase). These results indicate that paroxetine leads to a significant delay in orgasm and ejaculation, whereas citalopram seems to have less of an effect on it.
Momsen, A H; Jensen, M B; Norager, C B; Madsen, M R; Vestersgaard-Andersen, T; Lindholt, J S
Intermittent claudication is a disabling symptom of peripheral arterial disease for which few medical treatments are available. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical capacity in patients with intermittent claudication. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study included 88 patients recruited by surgeons from outpatient clinics. The participants abstained from caffeine for 48 h before each test and then received either a placebo or oral caffeine (6 mg/kg). After 75 min, pain-free and maximal walking distance on a treadmill, perceived pain, reaction times, postural stability, maximal isometric knee extension strength, submaximal knee extension endurance and cognitive function were measured. The analysis was by intention to treat. Caffeine increased the pain-free walking distance by 20.0 (95 per cent confidence interval 3.7 to 38.8) per cent (P = 0.014), maximal walking distance by 26.6 (12.1 to 43.0) per cent (P postural stability was reduced significantly, by 22.1 (11.7 to 33.4) per cent with eyes open (P < 0.001) and by 21.8 (7.6 to 37.8) per cent with eyes closed (P = 0.002). Neither reaction time nor cognition was affected. In patients with moderate intermittent claudication, caffeine increased walking distance, maximal strength and endurance, but affected balance adversely.
Faurschou, Annesofie; Wulf, Hans C
To examine the effect of topical corticosteroid treatment on acute sunburn. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial. University dermatology department. Twenty healthy volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types I (highly sensitive, always burns easily, tans minimally) through III (sun-sensitive skin, sometimes burns, slowly tans to light brown). Seven 34-cm(2) areas were marked on the upper aspect of the back of each participant. An untreated area was tested to determine UV sensitivity. Two areas were treated with excess amounts (2 mg/cm(2)) of either a moderate-potency corticosteroid or a high-potency corticosteroid 30 minutes before UV-B exposure as controls. Six or 23 hours after exposure to radiation, the remaining areas were treated with the 2 corticosteroid preparations. The sunburn improvement factor (SIF) was determined by the following equation: SIF = MED (minimal erythema dose) on treated skin/MED on nontreated skin. An SIF greater than 1 indicated an effect of topical corticosteroids in sunburn relief. The SIFs in the areas treated with either topical corticosteroid 30 minutes before UV-B exposure or high-potency corticosteroid 6 hours after UV-B exposure were significantly different from SIFs in areas that received no treatment (SIF 1.1-1.7; P sunburn reaction when applied 6 or 23 hours after UV exposure.
Murray, D.W.; Spencer, F.W.; Spencer, D.D.
On March 20, 1998, Sandia National Laboratories performed a double-blind test of the DKL LifeGuard human presence detector and tracker. The test was designed to allow the device to search for individuals well within the product's published operational parameters. The Test Operator of the DKL LifeGuard was provided by the manufacturer and was a high-ranking member of DKL management. The test was developed and implemented to verify the performance of the device as specified by the manufacturer. The device failed to meet its published specifications and it performed no better than random chance
Kendrick, Jessica; Andrews, Emily; You, Zhiying; Moreau, Kerrie; Nowak, Kristen L; Farmer-Bailey, Heather; Seals, Douglas R; Chonchol, Michel
High circulating vitamin D levels are associated with lower cardiovascular mortality in CKD, possibly by modifying endothelial function. We examined the effect of calcitriol versus cholecalciferol supplementation on vascular endothelial function in patients with CKD. We performed a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial of 128 adult patients with eGFR=15-44 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level Colorado. Participants were randomly assigned to oral cholecalciferol (2000 IU daily) or calcitriol (0.5 μ g) daily for 6 months. The primary end point was change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation. Secondary end points included changes in circulating markers of mineral metabolism and circulating and cellular markers of inflammation. One hundred and fifteen patients completed the study. The mean (SD) age and eGFR of participants were 58±12 years old and 33.0±10.2 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , respectively. There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. After 6 months, neither calcitriol nor cholecalciferol treatment resulted in a significant improvement in flow-mediated dilation (mean±SD percentage flow-mediated dilation; calcitriol: baseline 4.8±3.1%, end of study 5.1±3.6%; cholecalciferol: baseline 5.2±5.2%, end of study 4.7±3.6%); 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased significantly in the cholecalciferol group compared with the calcitriol group (cholecalciferol: 11.0±9.5 ng/ml; calcitriol: -0.8±4.8 ng/ml; P <0.001). Parathyroid hormone levels decreased significantly in the calcitriol group compared with the cholecalciferol group (median [interquartile range]; calcitriol: -22.1 [-48.7-3.5] pg/ml; cholecalciferol: -0.3 [-22.6-16.9] pg/ml; P =0.004). Six months of therapy with calcitriol or cholecalciferol did not improve vascular endothelial function or improve inflammation in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Upper airway stabilization by osteopathic manipulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion versus sham manipulation in OSAS patients: a proof-of-concept, randomized, crossover, double-blind, controlled study.
Jacq, Olivier; Arnulf, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Attali, Valérie
Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is used empirically for the treatment of rhinitis and snoring and is thought to increase pharyngeal stability. This trial was designed to study the effects of this treatment on pharyngeal stability evaluated by critical closing pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. This single-centre, randomized, crossover, double-blind study compared active manipulation and sham manipulation of the SPG. Randomization was computer-generated. Patients each received one active manipulation and one sham manipulation at an interval of 21 days and were evaluated 30 min and 48 h after each session administered by a qualified osteopath. Neither the patients, nor the investigator performing the evaluations were informed about the order of the two techniques (double-blind). The primary endpoint was the percentage of responding patients presenting increased pharyngeal stability defined by a variation of critical closing pressure (Pcrit) of at least -4 cmH 2 O at 30 min. Secondary endpoints were the variation of Pcrit in absolute values, sleepiness and snoring. Others endpoints were lacrimation (Schirmer's test), induced pain, sensations experienced during OMT. Ten patients were included and nine (57 [50; 58] years, comprising 7 men, with an apnoea-hypopnoea index of 31.0 [25.5; 33.2]/h; (values are median [quartiles])) were analysed. Seven patients were analysed for the primary endpoint and nine patients were analysed for secondary endpoints. Five patients responded after active manipulation versus no patients after sham manipulation (p = 0.0209). Active manipulation induced more intense pain (p = 0.0089), increased lacrimation (ns) and more tactile, nociceptive and gustatory sensations (13 versus 1) compared to sham manipulation. No significant difference was observed for the other endpoints. Osteopathic manipulative treatment of the SPG may improve pharyngeal stability in obstructive sleep
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is one of the major health issues worldwide. An increasing number of cancer patients are offered treatment with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is one of the most common complementary therapies offered to cancer patients in Taiwan. We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of TCM in patients with cancer. Methods/design In this study, inclusion criteria are postoperative patients with histologically confirmed cancer within 3 years who are undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy, more than 18 years old, have given signed informed consent, have the ability to read Chinese, and the ability for oral intake. Exclusion criteria include being pregnant, breast feeding, having completed chemotherapy or radiotherapy, brain metastasis with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG performance status of two to four, delusion or hallucinations, acute infection, and have received medications under other clinical trials. The patients were separated into an intervention group (Shen-Mai-San, SMS and a placebo group for four weeks using a randomized, double-blind procedure. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Quality of Life questionnaire (QOL-C30 was used to evaluate the quality of life. General data, hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Hct, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, TCM diagnosis data and heart rate variability (HRV were also recorded. These data were collected at baseline, two weeks and four weeks after receiving medication. The patients were prescribed granules which contained therapeutic medicines or placebo. Paired-T test was used for statistical analysis. Discussion Shen-Mai-San is composed of processed Ginseng radis, Liriope spicata, and Schizandrae fructus. It was found to be effective for
Manohar, Chikka Moga Siddaiah; Nagabhushana, Mahadevappa; Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Sanjay, Ramachandra Pudakalkatti; Kamath, Ananth Janardhan; Keshavamurthy, Ramaiah
Currently alpha1-adrenoceptor blockers (AB) are widely used as first-line therapy to improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We compared the efficacy and safety profile of tamsulosin, alfuzosin and silodosin in LUTS due to BPH. Consecutive consenting male patients (N = 269) undergoing medical management of BPH with AB from February 2012 to October 2015 were enrolled. Patients were randomized to a 0.4 mg tamsulosin (group T), 10 mg alfuzosin (group A) or a 8 mg silodosin (group S) by double-blind randomization. All patients were assessed for improvements and post-void residual urine (PVR) and for adverse drug events (ADE). IPSS showed significant improvement in Group S at the first week (11.7 ±4.18, p = 0.027) and at 3 months (7.97 ±3.84, p = 0.020). QOL showed significant improvement at 1 (2.2 ±0.76, p = 0.020), 4 (1.47 ±0.63, p BPH and objectively improves maximum flow rate. However, silodosin has more adverse events when compared to tamsulosin and alfuzosin.
Full Text Available Background: Propofol is one of the widely used intravenous (i.v. anaesthetics, although pain on injection still remains a considerable concern for the anaesthesiologists. A number of techniques has been tried to minimize propofol-induced pain with variable results. Recently, a 5-HT 3 antagonist, ondansetron pre-treatment, has been shown to reduce propofol-induced pain. The aim of our randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study was to determine whether pre-treatment with intravenous granisetron, which is routinely used in our practice for prophylaxis of post-operative nausea and vomiting, would reduce propofol-induced pain. Methods: Eighty-two women, aged 18-50 years, American society of Anaesthesiologist grading (ASA I-II, scheduled for various surgeries under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. One group received 2 mL 0.9% sodium chloride while the other group received 2 mL granisetron (1 mg/mL, and were accompanied by manual venous occlusion for 1 min. Then, 2 mL propofol was injected through the same cannula. Patients were asked by a blinded investigator to score the pain on injection of propofol with a four-point scale: 0=no pain, 1=mild pain, 2=moderate pain, 3=severe pain. Results: Twenty-four patients (60% complained of pain in the group pre-treated with normal saline as compared with six (15% in the group pre-treated with granisetron. Pain was reduced significantly in the granisetron group (P<0.05. Severity of pain was also lesser in the granisetron group compared with the placebo group (2.5% vs. 37.5%. Conclusion: We conclude that pre-treatment with granisetron along with venous occlusion for 1 min for prevention of propofol-induced pain was highly successful.
Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Nabavi, Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Arshi, Saba; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Fallahpour, Morteza; Mortazavi, Negar
The effect of aspirin desensitization (AD) on immunologic profile of patients with AERD has been poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of AD on clinical and immunological markers of patients with AERD. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial comprised 34 adult patients (67.6% female) with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and aspirin-intolerant asthma. The active group underwent AD over a 2-day period with increasing doses of aspirin (60, 125, 325, and 625 mg), followed by receiving aspirin 625 mg twice daily for 6 months. Symptom scores and medication needs of patients with AERD who have undergone AD were significantly lower compared to the placebo group after 6 months (7.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.6 ± 3.8 and 9.3 ± 2.0 vs. 11.0 ± 3.1, respectively, all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in serum concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β between two groups neither at baseline nor at the end of study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Soto, Jaime; Toledo, Julia; Luzz, Magda; Gutierrez, Patricia; Berman, Jonathan; Duparc, Stephane
Malarone was compared with placebo in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of prophylaxis of malaria in predominately Plasmodium vivax areas of Colombia. The study population consisted of 180 completely non-immune Colombian soldiers, male, average age 19 years, and average weight 63 kg. Twenty-four subjects were considered unevaluable because of compliance issues, including one Malarone subject (with no detectable drug levels) who became infected with P. vivax. Of the 97 evaluable subjects who received Malarone (250 mg atovaquone plus 100 mg proguanil hydrochloride) daily from 1 day before entering the endemic area to 7 days after leaving the endemic area, none became parasitemic. Of the 46 evaluable placebo subjects, 11 became infected with P. vivax and 2 became infected with Plasmodium falciparum. The protective efficacy of Malarone for all malaria and for P. vivax malaria was 100% (LL 95% CI = 63%) and 100% (LL 95% CI = 58%), respectively, and was 96% if the one case with undetectable blood levels was included. Malarone has high protective efficacy for P. vivax in Colombia.
Fujiwara, Takashi; Nishida, Naoya; Nota, Jumpei; Kitani, Takashi; Aoishi, Kunihide; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sugahara, Takuya; Hato, Naohito
Chlorophyll c2 extracted from Sargassum horneri improved allergic symptoms in an animal model of allergic rhinitis. In the present study, we explored the efficacy of chlorophyll c2 in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. This was a single-center, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-six patients aged 20-43 years, each with a 2-year history of seasonal allergic rhinitis, were randomly assigned to receive either a single daily dose (0.7 mg) of chlorophyll c2 or placebo for 12 weeks. The use of medications including H1-antihistamines and topical nasal steroids was recorded by rescue medication scores (RMSs) noted after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. Disease-specific quality of life was measured using the Japan Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JRQLQ) both before and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. The RMS at 8 weeks was significantly better in the chlorophyll c2 than the placebo group (mean RMS difference = -3.09; 95 % confidence interval = -5.96 to -0.22); the mean RMS at 4 weeks was only slightly better in the chlorophyll c2 group. The JRQLQ scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. Chlorophyll c2 would have a potential to be an alternative treatment for allergic rhinitis.
Shah Gaurang R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is lacking for multi-ingredient herbal supplements claiming therapeutic effect in sexual dysfunction in men. We examined the safety and efficacy of VigRX Plus (VXP – a proprietary polyherbal preparation for improving male sexual function, in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled, parallel groups, multi-centre study. Methods 78 men aged 25–50 years of age; suffering from mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED, participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to receive VXP or placebo at a dose of two capsules twice daily for 12 weeks. The international index of erectile function (IIEF was the primary outcome measure of efficacy. Other efficacy measures were: Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS, Serum testosterone, Semen analysis, Investigator’s Global assessment and Subjects’ opinion. Results In subjects receiving VXP, the IIEF-Erectile Function (EF scores improved significantly as compared to placebo. After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean (sd IIEF-EF score at baseline increased from 16.08 (2.87 to 25.08 (4.56 in the VXP group versus 15.86 (3.24 to 16.47 (4.25 in the placebo group (P P Conclusions VigRX Plus was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in improving sexual function in men. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry India, CTRI/2009/091/000099, 31-03-2009
Gerber, G S; Kuznetsov, D; Johnson, B C; Burstein, J D
To assess the effects of saw palmetto on urinary symptoms, sexual function, and urinary flow rate in men with lower urinary tract symptoms using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The eligible patients were 45 years of age or older and had an International Prostate Symptom Score of 8 or greater. After a 1-month placebo run-in period, 85 men were randomized to receive saw palmetto or placebo for 6 months. Patients were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score, a sexual function questionnaire, and by measurement of the urinary flow rate. The mean symptom score decreased from 16.7 to 12.3 in the saw palmetto group compared with 15.8 to 13.6 in the placebo group (P = 0.038). The quality-of-life score improved to a greater degree in the saw palmetto group, but this difference was not statistically significant. No change occurred in the sexual function questionnaire results in either group. The peak flow rate increased by 1.0 mL/s and 1.4 mL/s in the saw palmetto and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.73). Saw palmetto led to a statistically significant improvement in urinary symptoms in men with lower urinary tract symptoms compared with placebo. Saw palmetto had no measurable effect on the urinary flow rates. The mechanism by which saw palmetto improves urinary symptoms remains unknown.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular hydrogen has prominent effects on more than 30 animal models especially of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases. In addition, hydrogen effects on humans have been reported in diabetes mellitus type 2, hemodialysis, metabolic syndrome, radiotherapy for liver cancer, and brain stem infarction. Hydrogen effects are ascribed to specific radical-scavenging activities that eliminate hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite, and also to signal-modulating activities, but the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain elusive. Hydrogen is a safe molecule that is largely produced by intestinal bacteria in rodents and humans, and no adverse effects have been documented. Methods We performed open-label trial of drinking 1.0 liter per day of hydrogen-enriched water for 12 weeks in five patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (PMD, four patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM, and five patients with mitochondrial myopathies (MM, and measured 18 serum parameters as well as urinary 8-isoprostane every 4 weeks. We next conducted randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of 0.5 liter per day of hydrogen-enriched water or placebo water for 8 weeks in 10 patients with DM and 12 patients with MM, and measured 18 serum parameters every 4 weeks. Results In the open-label trial, no objective improvement or worsening of clinical symptoms was observed. We, however, observed significant effects in lactate-to-pyruvate ratios in PMD and MM, fasting blood glucose in PMD, serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3 in PM/DM, and serum triglycerides in PM/DM. In the double-blind trial, no objective clinical effects were observed, but a significant improvement was detected in lactate in MM. Lactate-to-pyruvate ratios in MM and MMP3 in DM also exhibited favorable responses but without statistical significance. No adverse effect was observed in either trial except for hypoglycemic episodes in an insulin
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. Methods: This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. Results: Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5% and lidocaine group (15% (Fischer exact test, p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0188, respectively. There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5% and lidocaine group (15% (Fischer exact test, p = 0.4325. Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.009, respectively. There was no significant change in cough severity between pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p = 0.856. Conclusion: Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough.
Bivard, Andrew; Lillicrap, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Pagram, Heather; Nilsson, Michael; Parsons, Mark; Levi, Christopher R
This study aimed to assess the efficacy of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent in alleviating post-stroke fatigue ≥3 months after stroke. We hypothesized that 200 mg of modafinil daily for 6 weeks would result in reduced symptoms of fatigue compared with placebo. This single-center phase 2 trial used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The key inclusion criterion was a multidimensional fatigue inventory score of ≥60. Patients were randomized to either modafinil or placebo for 6 weeks of therapy, then after a 1 week washout period swapped treatment arms for a second 6 weeks of therapy. The primary outcome was the multidimensional fatigue inventory; secondary outcomes included the Montreal cognitive assessment, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL) scale. The multidimensional fatigue inventory is a self-administered questionnaire with a range of 0 to 100. Treatment efficacy was assessed using linear regression by estimating within-person, baseline-adjusted differences in mean outcomes after therapy. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12615000350527). A total of 232 stroke survivors were screened and 36 were randomized. Participants receiving modafinil reported a significant decrease in fatigue (multidimensional fatigue inventory, -7.38; 95% CI, -21.76 to -2.99; P 0.05). Stroke survivors with nonresolving fatigue reported reduced fatigue and improved quality of life after taking 200 mg daily treatment with modafinil. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=368268. Unique identifier: ACTRN12615000350527. © 2017 The Authors.
Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Meeus, Mira; Paul, Lorna; De Schryver, Mieke; Pascal, Aurelie; Lambrecht, Luc; Nijs, Jo
There is evidence that education on pain physiology can have positive effects on pain, disability, and catastrophization in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. A double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) was performed to examine whether intensive pain physiology education is also effective in fibromyalgia (FM) patients, and whether it is able to influence the impaired endogenous pain inhibition of these patients. Thirty FM patients were randomly allocated to either the experimental (receiving pain physiology education) or the control group (receiving pacing self-management education). The primary outcome was the efficacy of the pain inhibitory mechanisms, which was evaluated by spatially accumulating thermal nociceptive stimuli. Secondary outcome measures included pressure pain threshold measurements and questionnaires assessing pain cognitions, behavior, and health status. Assessments were performed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 3 months follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVAS were used to reveal possible therapy effects and effect sizes were calculated. After the intervention the experimental group had improved knowledge of pain neurophysiology (Pphysiology. Pain physiology education seems to be a useful component in the treatment of FM patients as it improves health status and endogenous pain inhibition in the long term.
Kikuchi, Yosuke; Nozaki, Satomi; Makita, Miki; Yokozuka, Shoji; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Aoe, Seiichiro
Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has become increasingly common in Japan. Epidemiological studies show inverse associations between intake of whole wheat grains and metabolic syndrome, but few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole wheat grain consumption. It was investigated whether a diet in which refined wheat bread (RW diet) was substituted by whole grain wheat bread (WW diet) would reduce visceral fat obesity in Japanese subjects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 50 Japanese subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m 2 . Subjects were randomly assigned WW (WW group) or RW diets (RW group) for 12 weeks. Blood samples and computed tomography scans were obtained every 6th week. The WW group showed decrease (-4 cm 2 ) in visceral fat area (VFA) (p < 0.05), whereas the RW group showed no significant changes. These time-dependent changes were significantly different between the groups. WW diet led to significant and safe reductions in VFA in subjects with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m 2 . WW diet may contribute to preventing visceral fat obesity.
Dalai, Shebani Sethi; Adler, Sarah; Najarian, Thomas; Safer, Debra Lynn
Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are associated with severe psychological and medical consequences. Current therapies are limited, leaving up to 50% of patients symptomatic despite treatment, underscoring the need for additional treatment options. Qsymia, an FDA-approved medication for obesity, combines phentermine and topiramate ER. Topiramate has demonstrated efficacy for both BED and BN, but limited tolerability. Phentermine is FDA-approved for weight loss. A rationale for combined phentermine/topiramate for BED and BN is improved tolerability and efficacy. While a prior case series exploring Qsymia for BED showed promise, randomized studies are needed to evaluate Qsymia's safety and efficacy when re-purposed in eating disorders. We present a study protocol for a Phase I/IIa single-center, prospective, double-blinded, randomized, crossover trial examining safety and preliminary efficacy of Qsymia for BED and BN. Adults with BED (n=15) or BN (n=15) are randomized 1:1 to receive 12weeks Qsymia (phentermine/topiramate ER, 3.75mg/23mg-15mg/92mg) or placebo, followed by 2-weeks washout and 12-weeks crossover, where those on Qsymia receive placebo and vice versa. Subsequently participants receive 8weeks follow-up off study medications. The primary outcome is the number of binge days/week measured by EDE. Secondary outcomes include average number of binge episodes, percentage abstinence from binge eating, and changes in weight/vitals, eating psychopathology, and mood. To our knowledge this is the first randomized, double-blind protocol investigating the safety and efficacy of phentermine/topiramate in BED and BN. We highlight the background and rationale for this study, including the advantages of a crossover design. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02553824 registered on 9/17/2015. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02553824. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kahaly, George J; Riedl, Michaela; König, Jochem; Diana, Tanja; Schomburg, Lutz
Supplemental selenium (Se) may affect the clinical course of Graves disease (GD). Evaluate efficacy of add-on Se on medical treatment in GD. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized supplementation trial. Academic endocrine outpatient clinic. Seventy untreated hyperthyroid patients with GD. Additionally to methimazole (MMI), patients received for 24 weeks either sodium selenite 300 µg/d po or placebo. MMI was discontinued at 24 weeks in euthyroid patients. Response rate (week 24), recurrence rate (week 36), and safety. A response was registered in 25 of 31 patients (80%) and in 27 of 33 (82%) at week 24 [odds ratio (OR) 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26 to 3.25; P = 0.904] in the Se (+MMI) and placebo (+MMI) groups, respectively. During a 12-week follow-up, 11 of 23 (48%) and 12 of 27 (44%) relapsed (OR 1.13; 95% CI, 0.29 to 2.66; P = 0.81) in the Se and placebo groups, respectively. Serum concentrations of Se and selenoprotein P were unrelated to response or recurrence rates. At week 36, 12 of 29 (41%) and 15 of 33 (45%) were responders and still in remission in the Se and placebo groups, respectively (OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.31 to 2.32; P = 0.80). Serum levels of free triiodothyronine/free tetraiodothyronine, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, prevalence of moderate to severe Graves orbitopathy, thyroid volume, and MMI starting dose were significantly lower in responders than in nonresponders. A total of 56 and 63 adverse events occurred in the Se and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.164), whereas only one drug-related side effect (2.9%) was noted in 35 patients on placebo + MMI. Supplemental Se did not affect response or recurrence rates in GD. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society
Full Text Available Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n=28 or the sham laser acupuncture group (n=28. Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.
Doerfler, A.; Wanke, I.; Forsting, M.; Fiebach, J.; Sartor, K.; Henseke, P.
Iodixanol is a new nonionic dimer, isotonic with blood at all clinically relevant concentrations. Iodixanol (270 mg I/ml) was compared in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, phase-III study to the monomeric nonionic iohexol (300 mg I/ml) for evaluation of safety, tolerability and radiographic efficacy during cerebral CT. One hundred adult patients scheduled to undergo contrast-enhanced cerebral CT were randomly allocated to receive either iodixanol or iohexol. All completed the trial. Safety was evaluated by recording discomfort and other adverse events, tolerance by assessing intensity and incidence of discomfort. Radiographic efficacy was assessed from the diagnostic information and the radiographic density. No serious adverse events occurred. One patient (2 %) in the iodixanol group and one patient (2 %) in the iohexol group experienced a transient reddening at the neck and lower neck-line, respectively. Both contrast agents were well tolerated. One patient (2 %) in the iodixanol group and two patients (4 %) in the iohexol group experienced a sensation of warmth (discomfort) in connection with the injection. No difference between the two contrast media were noted radiographically. This comparison between iodixanol and iohexol showed both contrast media to be safe, well-tolerated and efficacious for use in cerebral CT. (orig.)
Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Hochu-ekki-to in the Long-Term Management of Kikyo (Delicate Constitution Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A 6-Month, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study
Full Text Available Hochu-ekki-to is a traditional herbal (Kampo medicine that has been shown to be effective for patients with Kikyo (delicate, easily fatigable, or hypersensitive constitution. Previous case reports have suggested that this herbal drug was effective for a certain subgroup of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Hochu-ekki-to in the long-term management of Kikyo patients with AD. In this multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 91 Kikyo patients with AD were enrolled. Kikyo condition was evaluated by a questionnaire scoring system. All patients continued their ordinary treatments (topical steroids, topical tacrolimus, emollients or oral antihistamines before and after their protocol entry. Hochu-ekki-to or placebo was orally administered twice daily for 24 weeks. The skin severity scores, total equivalent amount (TEA of topical agents used for AD treatment, prominent efficacy (cases with skin severity score = 0 at the end of the study rate and aggravated rate (more than 50% increase of TEA of topical agents from the beginning of the study were monitored and evaluated. Seventy-seven out of 91 enrolled patients completed the 24-week treatment course (Hochu-ekki-to: n = 37, placebo: n = 40. The TEA of topical agents (steroids and/or tacrolimus was significantly (P < 0.05 lower in the Hochu-ekki-to group than in the placebo group, although the overall skin severity scores were not statistically different. The prominent efficacy rate was 19% (7 of 37 in the Hochu-ekki-to group and 5% (2 of 40 in the placebo group (P = 0.06. The aggravated rate was significantly (P < 0.05 lower in the Hochu-ekki-to group (3%; 1 of 37 than in the placebo group (18%; 7 of 39. Only mild adverse events such as nausea and diarrhea were noted in both groups without statistical difference. This placebo-controlled study demonstrates that Hochu-ekki-to is a useful adjunct to conventional treatments for AD
Full Text Available Aging can result in major changes in the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal system and result in impaired function of the immune system. We assessed the efficacy of prebiotic Darmocare Pre® (Bonusan Besloten Vennootschap (BV, Numansdorp, The Netherlands to evaluate whether the regular intake of this product can improve frailty criteria, functional status and response of the immune system in elderly people affected by the frailty syndrome. The study was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind design in sixty older participants aged 65 and over. The prebiotic product was composed of a mixture of inulin plus fructooligosaccharides and was compared with placebo (maltodextrin. Participants were randomized to a parallel group intervention of 13 weeks’ duration with a daily intake of Darmocare Pre® or placebo. Either prebiotic or placebo were administered after breakfast (between 9–10 a.m. dissolved in a glass of water carefully stirred just before drinking. The primary outcome was to study the effect on frailty syndrome. The secondary outcomes were effect on functional and cognitive behavior and sleep quality. Moreover, we evaluated whether prebiotic administration alters blood parameters (haemogram and biochemical analysis. The overall rate of frailty was not significantly modified by Darmocare Pre® administration. Nevertheless, prebiotic administration compared with placebo significantly improved two frailty criteria, e.g., exhaustion and handgrip strength (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively. No significant effects were observed in functional and cognitive behavior or sleep quality. The use of novel therapeutic approaches influencing the gut microbiota–muscle–brain axis could be considered for treatment of the frailty syndrome.
Vickers, A J; van Haselen, R; Heger, M
To pilot a method for determining whether homeopathically prepared mercury causes more symptoms (a "drug proving") in healthy volunteers than placebo. One hundred and eighteen (118) healthy volunteers ages 18 to 65 were recruited by local advertising. Subjects unfamiliar with homeopathy undertook a 1-week single-blind placebo run-in, a 1-week of double-blind, randomized treatment on either homeopathically prepared mercury 12C or placebo, and a third week of placebo run-out. Each day, symptoms were recorded on a checklist that included both true mercury symptoms and symptoms not expected to be caused by mercury (false symptoms). Additional symptoms were assessed by open reporting. Outcome was assessed by calculating a score for each day as the number of true symptoms minus the number of false symptoms. The mean score during placebo was then subtracted from the mean score for weeks two and three of the trial. Fourteen (14) subjects dropped out during placebo run-in. The remaining 104 completed the trial. Baseline comparability was good. Mean difference score was -0.125 (SD 3.47) for mercury and -0.221 (SD 3.01) for placebo (p > 0.2). No significant differences between groups were found for the number of subjects meeting predefined criteria for a drug-proving reaction. This pilot study failed to find evidence that mercury 12C causes significantly more symptoms in healthy volunteers than placebo. Questionnaires with a limited number of gross symptoms do not seem to be an appropriate methodological technique in drug proving research. If drug-proving phenomena exist, they appear to be rare.
van Laar, T.; Jansen, E.N.H.; Essink, A.W.G.; Neef, C.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.
Five patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease with severe response fluctuations were selected for a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, concerning the clinical effects of subcutaneous apomorphine and its assessment in `off¿-periods. The study was designed as five n = 1 studies, in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Computerized cognitive bias modification for social anxiety disorder has in several well conducted trials shown great promise with as many as 72% no longer fulfilling diagnostic criteria after a 4 week training program. To test if the same program can be transferred from a clinical setting to an internet delivered home based treatment the authors conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Methods After a diagnostic interview 79 participants were randomized to one of two attention training programs using a probe detection task. In the active condition the participant was trained to direct attention away from threat, whereas in the placebo condition the probe appeared with equal frequency in the position of the threatening and neutral faces. Results Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, including all randomized participants. Immediate and 4-month follow-up results revealed a significant time effect on all measured dimensions (social anxiety scales, general anxiety and depression levels, quality of life. However, there were no time x group interactions. The lack of differences in the two groups was also mirrored by the infinitesimal between group effect size both at post test and at 4-month follow-up. Conclusion We conclude that computerized attention bias modification may need to be altered before dissemination for the Internet. Trial registration ISRCTN01715124
Soto, Roy; Jahr, Jonathan S; Pavlin, Janet; Sabo, Daniel; Philip, Beverly K; Egan, Talmage D; Rowe, Everton; de Bie, Joris; Woo, Tiffany
Complex surgical procedures are increasingly performed in an outpatient setting, with emphasis on rapid recovery and case turnover. In this study, the combination of rocuronium for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversed by single-dose sugammadex was compared with succinylcholine followed by spontaneous recovery in outpatient surgery. This multicenter, randomized, safety assessor-blinded study enrolled adults undergoing a short elective outpatient surgical procedure requiring NMB and tracheal intubation. Patients were randomized to NMB with either rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg for tracheal intubation with incremental doses of rocuronium 0.15 mg/kg and subsequent reversal with sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg at 1-2 posttetanic counts or succinylcholine 1.0 mg/kg for intubation with spontaneous recovery. The primary efficacy end point was the time from sugammadex administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9; for succinylcholine, time from administration to recovery of the first twitch (T1) to 90% was assessed. From 167 patients enrolled, 150 received treatment. The all-subjects-treated population comprised 70 patients in the rocuronium-sugammadex group and 80 in the succinylcholine group. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval) time from the start of sugammadex administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 1.8 (1.6-2.0) minutes. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval) time from succinylcholine administration to recovery of T1 to 90% was 10.8 (10.1-11.5) minutes. Health outcome variables were similar between the groups. Adverse events were reported in 87.1% and 93.8% of patients for rocuronium-sugammadex and succinylcholine, respectively. In conclusion, rocuronium for intubation followed by sugammadex for reversal of NMB offers a viable treatment option in outpatient surgery without prolonging recovery duration or jeopardizing safety.
Maruani, Annabel; Vierron, Emilie; Machet, Laurent; Giraudeau, Bruno; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Boucaud, Alain
Sonophoresis [low-frequency ultrasound (US)] has been used in animals and in vitro to investigate enhanced percutaneous absorption of drugs. No study focused on its clinical human tolerance has been published as yet. We aimed to assess the bioeffects of low-frequency US in vivo on human skin in a double-blind randomized-controlled study. We applied pulse-mode US at 36 kHz for 5 min in a step procedure of increasing dosage, from 1.57 to 3.50 W/cm(2), and placebo. The primary outcome was toxic effects of the procedure, defined as a pain score >40 on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale or necrosis. Erythema (scored from 0 to 3 in severity) was also evaluated. The secondary outcomes were measurements of skin thickness by high-resolution skin imaging, of skin capacitance and temperature. We included 34 healthy volunteers. We found no pain score >38 and no skin necrosis with either US or placebo. Erythema was systematically observed immediately after US application, but after 1 day, we observed three cases in the knee group. The most frequent adverse effect was tinnitus. We observed no marked increase in temperature or cutaneous thickness after US or placebo. Cutaneous capacitance increased immediately after both applications. Such data demonstrating good tolerance of sonophoresis can be useful before the initiation of a clinical trial of the therapeutic use of low-frequency sonophoresis in humans. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
This prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was designed to compare the outcome of diathermy incisions versus scalpel incisions in general surgery. A total of 369 patients who underwent diathermy incision (group A: 185 patients) or scalpel incision (group B: 184 patients) were analyzed. Variables analyzed were: surgical wound classification, length and depth of incision, incision time, duration of operation, incisional blood loss, postoperative pain, duration of hospital stay, duration of healing, and postoperative complications. The inclusion criteria were all patients who underwent elective or emergency general surgery. The exclusion criteria were only cases with incomplete patients' data and patients who were lost to follow-up. This study was conducted at Fatima Hospital-Baqai Medical University and Shamsi Hospital (Karachi), from January 2006 to December 2007. Incision time was significantly longer for patients in group B (p = 0.001). Incisional blood loss also was more for patients in group B (p = 0.000). Pain perception was found to be markedly reduced during the first 48 h in group A (p = 0.000). Total period of hospital stay (p = 0.129) and time for complete wound healing (p = 0.683) were almost the same for both groups. Postoperative complication rate by wound classification did not differ markedly between the two groups (p = 0.002 vs. p = 0.000). Diathermy incision has significant advantages compared with the scalpel because of reduced incision time, less blood loss, & reduced early postoperative pain.
Rezende, Márcia; Chemin, Kaprice; Vaez, Savil Costa; Peixoto, Aline Carvalho; Rabelo, Jéssica de Freitas; Braga, Stella Sueli Lourenço; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Silva, Gisele Rodrigues da; Soares, Carlos José; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Reis, Alessandra
Tooth sensitivity commonly occurs during and immediately after dental bleaching. The authors conducted a trial to compare tooth sensitivity after in-office bleaching after the use of either a topical dipyrone or placebo gel. A split-mouth, triple-blind, randomized, multicenter clinical trial was conducted among 120 healthy adults having teeth that were shade A2 or darker. The facial tooth surfaces of the right or left sides of the maxillary arch of each patient were randomly assigned to receive either topical dipyrone or placebo gel before 2 in-office bleaching sessions (35% hydrogen peroxide) separated by 2 weeks. Visual analog and numerical rating scales were used to record tooth sensitivity during and up to 48 hours after bleaching. Tooth color change from baseline to 1 month after bleaching was measured with shade guide and spectrophotometer measures. The primary outcome variable was absolute risk of tooth sensitivity. An intention-to-treat analysis was used to analyze data from all patients who were randomly assigned to receive the dipyrone and placebo gels. No statically significant difference was found in the absolute risk of tooth sensitivity between the dipyrone and placebo gels (83% and 90%, respectively, P = .09; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 1.0). A whitening effect was observed in both groups with no statistically significant difference (P > .05) between them. No adverse effects were observed. Topical use of dipyrone gel before tooth bleaching, at the levels used in this study, did not reduce the risk or intensity of bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity. Topical application of dipyrone gel does not reduce bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arıkan, Müge; Aslan, Bilge; Arıkan, Osman; Horasanlı, Eyüp; But, Abdulkadir
To compare the effects of magnesium sulfate and ketamine on postoperative pain and total morphine consumption in a placebo-controlled design. One hundred and twenty women scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy were included in this prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Postoperatively, when the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) was four or more, IV-PCA morphine was applied to all patients. The patients were randomized into three groups: Group K ketamine, Group M magnesium, and Group C saline received as infusion. Total morphine consumption for 48h, pain scores, adverse effects, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated. Total morphine consumption was significantly lower in Group K (32.6±9.2 mg) than in Group M (58.9±6.5 mg) and in Group C (65.7±8.2 mg). The satisfaction level of patients in Group K was higher than the other two groups (petamine to IV-PCA morphine reduces the total consumption of morphine without psychotic effects; however, magnesium did not influence morphine consumption.
Meredith, Ruby; Salter, Merle; Kim, Robert; Spencer, Sharon; Weppelmann, Burkhard; Rodu, Brad; Smith, Judy; Lee, Jeanette
Purpose: To determine if addition of the ulcer-coating polysaccharide sucralfate could improve symptomatic relief of radiation mucositis over a popular combination of antacid, diphenhydramine, and viscous lidocaine alone. Methods and Materials: A double-blind study was conducted in which nurses and pharmacists coded patient groups and distributed medication in a manner blinded to both the patients and physicians. Eligible patients receiving radiation to the head and neck and/or chest sites that included the esophagus were randomized to a standard combination of antacid, diphenhydramine, and viscous lidocaine vs. the same solution plus sucralfate. Eligible patients were those receiving >40 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction, one fraction/day, five fractions/week. Participating patients were stratified between chest, small field head and neck, and large field head and neck. The observations and smears for Candidiasis screening. Medication was prescribed when the patient became symptomatic and concomitant use of other locally effective nonstudy agents was not allowed. The ability to eat various consistency of foods was graded 0-5, with 5 indicating no compromise of ability to ingest a food compared to baseline. Statistical analysis included mean + SD for food and soreness scores, paired t-test, and two-way analyses of variance to evaluate effects of site and treatment group on the changes in scores. Results: Over 2 years, 111 patients were entered. Because some withdrew and others did not require medication, results are presented for evaluable patients in each category. Mild adverse effects from the medication solution (usually mouth discomfort) were reported by <10% of patients in each treatment group among 106 patients evaluable for toxicity. There was a comparable incidence of mild-moderate mucositis for the two treatment groups. Severe mucositis was noted in two patients of the standard medication group and none among patients receiving sucralfate. The groups were comparable
Rossetti, Luca; Digiuni, Maurizio; Montesano, Giovanni; Giovanni, Montesano; Centofanti, Marco; Fea, Antonio M; Iester, Michele; Frezzotti, Paolo; Figus, Michele; Ferreras, Antonio; Oddone, Francesco; Tanga, Lucia; Rolle, Teresa; Battaglino, Valentina; Posarelli, Chiara; Motolese, Ilaria; Mittica, Pietro; Bagaglia, Simone Alex; Menicacci, Cristina; De Cilla', Stefano; Autelitano, Alessandro; Fogagnolo, Paolo
To evaluate frequency, conversion rate, and risk factors for blindness in glaucoma patients treated in European Universities. This multicenter retrospective study included 2402 consecutive patients with glaucoma in at least one eye. Medical charts were inspected and patients were divided into those blind and the remainder ('controls'). Blindness was defined as visual acuity≤0.05 and/or visual field loss to less than 10°. Unilateral and bilateral blindness were respectively 11.0% and 1.6% at the beginning, and 15.5% and 3.6% at the end of the observation period (7.5±5.5 years, range:1-25 years); conversion to blindness (at least unilateral) was 1.1%/year. 134 eyes (97 patients) developed blindness by POAG during the study. At the first access to study centre, they had mean deviation (MD) of -17.1±8.3 dB and treated intraocular pressure (IOP) of 17.1±6.6 mmHg. During follow-up the IOP decreased by 14% in these eyes but MD deteriorated by 1.1±3.5 dB/year, which was 5-fold higher than controls (0.2±1.6 dB/year). In a multivariate model, the best predictors for blindness by glaucoma were initial MD (pblindness occurred in about 20%. Blindness by glaucoma had 2 characteristics: late diagnosis and/or late referral, and progression of the disease despite in most cases IOP was within the range of normality and target IOP was achieved; it could be predicted by high initial MD, high initial IOP, and old age.
Elder, Jennifer Harrison; Shankar, Meena; Shuster, Jonathan; Theriaque, Douglas; Burns, Sylvia; Sherrill, Lindsay
This study tested the efficacy of a gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diet in treating autism using a randomized, double blind repeated measures crossover design. The sample included 15 children aged 2-16 years with autism spectrum disorder. Data on autistic symptoms and urinary peptide levels were collected in the subjects' homes over the 12…
A randomized, double-blind study of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets versus oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for cancer pain: efficacy and safety in Japanese cancer patients (EXHEAL: a Phase III study of EXtended-release HydromorphonE for cAncer pain reLief
Full Text Available Satoshi Inoue,1 Yoji Saito,2 Satoru Tsuneto,3 Etsuko Aruga,4 Azusa Ide,1 Yasuyuki Kakurai5 1Clinical Development Department, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo, Tokyo,2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Shimane, 3Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 4Department of Palliative Medicine, School of Medicine, Teikyo University, Tokyo, 5Biostatistics and Data Management Department, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo, Tokyo, Japan Background: In Japan, there are limited options for switching opioid analgesics. Hydromorphone is an opioid analgesic that is routinely used instead of morphine for cancer pain; however, it is not yet available in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone (DS-7113b extended-release tablets in opioid-naïve patients with cancer pain not relieved by non-opioid analgesics.Subjects and methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. A double-dummy method was used for blinding. Each randomized subject received either hydromorphone extended-release tablets plus placebo oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets 4 mg/day (n=88 or placebo hydromorphone extended-release tablets plus oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets 10 mg/day (n=93 orally for 7 days (once-daily dosing for hydromorphone and twice-daily dosing for oxycodone. The doses were adjusted as necessary. Efficacy was evaluated by change in visual analog scale (VAS score from baseline to completion of treatment.Results: The between-group difference in least squares mean changes in VAS score from baseline to completion or discontinuation of treatment was −0.4 mm (95% CI −5.9 to 5 mm by analysis of covariance where the baseline VAS score was used as a covariate. The upper limit of the 95% CI was below 10 mm, which was predefined as the noninferiority limit. This verified the noninferiority of hydromorphone tablets
Odawara, Masato; Yoshiki, Mika; Sano, Misako; Hamada, Izumi; Lukashevich, Valentina; Kothny, Wolfgang
Introduction The use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in combination with metformin is increasing in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but no single-pill combination (SPC) is currently available in Japan. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin/metformin SPC in Japanese patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with vildagliptin monotherapy. Methods This was a 14-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-contro...
Ottesen, L.H.; Aagaard, Niels Kristian; Kiszka-Kanowitz, M.
variable effects. Twenty-five cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension were randomized in a double-blind design to placebo or a single subcutaneous dose of a long-acting formulation of octreotide (octreotide-LAR) (20 mg). Renal function tests were performed before dosing and repeated after 30 days...... with octreotide-LAR. It is concluded that in spite of increased arterial pressure, octreotide-LAR has no significant effect on renal hemodynamics and tubular function in clinically stable cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension....
Full Text Available Acute, non-clinical insomnia is not uncommon. Sufferers commonly turn to short-term use of herbal supplements to alleviate the symptoms. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the efficacy of LZComplex3 (lactium™, Zizyphus, Humulus lupulus, magnesium and vitamin B6, in otherwise healthy adults with mild insomnia. After a 7-day single-blind placebo run-in, eligible volunteers (n = 171 were randomized (1:1 to receive daily treatment for 2 weeks with LZComplex3 or placebo. Results revealed that sleep quality measured by change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI score improved in both the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. There were no significant between group differences between baseline and endpoint on the primary outcome. The majority of secondary outcomes, which included daytime functioning and physical fatigue, mood and anxiety, cognitive performance, and stress reactivity, showed similar improvements in the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. A similar proportion of participants reported adverse events (AEs in both groups, with two of four treatment-related AEs in the LZComplex3 group resulting in permanent discontinuation. It currently cannot be concluded that administration of LZComplex3 for 2 weeks improves sleep quality, however, a marked placebo response (despite placebo run-in and/or short duration of treatment may have masked a potential beneficial effect on sleep quality.
Prawirohardjono, W; Dwiprahasto, I; Astuti, I; Hadiwandowo, S; Kristin, E; Muhammad, M; Kelly, M F
Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) has been suggested to cause postprandial symptoms after the ingestion of Chinese or oriental meals. Therefore, we examined whether such symptoms could be elicited in Indonesians ingesting levels of MSG typically found in Indonesian cuisine. Healthy volunteers (n = 52) were treated with capsules of placebo or MSG (1.5 and 3.0 g/person) as part of a standardized Indonesian breakfast. The study used a rigorous, randomized, double-blind, crossover design. The occurrence of symptoms after MSG ingestion did not differ from that after consumption of the placebo.
Lenard A Adler
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine treatment on executive functions in young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.In this Phase 4, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, young adults (18-30 years with ADHD were randomized to receive atomoxetine (20-50 mg BID, N = 220 or placebo (N = 225 for 12 weeks. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult (BRIEF-A consists of 75 self-report items within 9 nonoverlapping clinical scales measuring various aspects of executive functioning. Mean changes from baseline to 12-week endpoint on the BRIEF-A were analyzed using an ANCOVA model (terms: baseline score, treatment, and investigator.At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the percentage of patients with BRIEF-A composite or index T-scores ≥60 (p>.5, with over 92% of patients having composite scores ≥60 (≥60 deemed clinically meaningful for these analyses. At endpoint, statistically significantly greater mean reductions were seen in the atomoxetine versus placebo group for the BRIEF-A Global Executive Composite (GEC, Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI, and Metacognitive Index (MI scores, as well as the Inhibit, Self-Monitor, Working Memory, Plan/Organize and Task Monitor subscale scores (p<.05, with decreases in scores signifying improvements in executive functioning. Changes in the BRIEF-A Initiate (p = .051, Organization of Materials (p = .051, Shift (p = .090, and Emotional Control (p = .219 subscale scores were not statistically significant. In addition, the validity scales: Inconsistency (p = .644, Infrequency (p = .097, and Negativity (p = .456 were not statistically significant, showing scale validity.Statistically significantly greater improvement in executive function was observed in young adults with ADHD in the atomoxetine versus placebo group as measured by changes in the BRIEF-A scales.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00510276.
Hanly, J.G.; Hassan, J.; Moriarty, M.; Barry, C.; Molony, J.; Casey, E.; Whelan, A.; Feighery, C.; Bresnihan, B.
Twenty patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with 750-rad or 2,000-rad lymphoid irradiation in a randomized double-blind comparative study. Over a 12-month followup period, there was a significant improvement in 4 of 7 and 6 of 7 standard parameters of disease activity following treatment with 750 rads and 2,000 rads, respectively. Transient, short-term toxicity was less frequent with the lower dose. In both groups, there was a sustained peripheral blood lymphopenia, a selective depletion of T helper (Leu-3a+) lymphocytes, and reduced in vitro mitogen responses. These changes did not occur, however, in synovial fluid. These results suggest that 750-rad lymphoid irradiation is as effective as, but less toxic than, that with 2,000 rads in the management of patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis
Smith, David H; Neutel, Joel M; Lacourcière, Yves; Kempthorne-Rawson, Joan
This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) results from double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) and prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) hypertension trials are statistically comparable. Two DBPC and three PROBE parallel-group studies were selected from an angiotensin II receptor blocker clinical programme. These were fixed-dose studies involving similar mild to moderate hypertensive patient populations. All used SpaceLabs 90207 ABPM devices, and each comprised a 4-week placebo period and a 4-8-week treatment period. Data from patients receiving telmisartan 80 mg were used to compare the results of DBPC (126 patients) and PROBE (734 patients) trials. The analysis had approximately 87% power to show equivalence between the two design types in terms of ruling out differences of >or= 3 mmHg in SBP and >or= 2 mmHg in DBP. Office blood pressure was also compared. The change from baseline in mean 24-h ambulatory SBP was -12.2 mmHg in DBPC trials and -12.3 mmHg in PROBE trials, a rounded difference of 0.2 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): -1.8, 2.1]. The change from baseline in mean 24-h ambulatory DBP was -7.7 mmHg in DBPC trials versus -7.9 mmHg in PROBE trials, a difference of 0.2 mmHg (95% CI: -1.1, 1.5). Ambulatory pulse pressure results were identical. Thus, changes in mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure from the DBPC and PROBE trials in this meta-analysis are statistically equivalent in terms of ruling out a difference of >or= 3 mmHg in SBP and >or= 2 mmHg in DBP. This supports the validity of the PROBE design in assessing antihypertensive efficacy based on blinded ABPM measurements.
Mensure Yılmaz Çakırgöz
Full Text Available Objective: A prospective, randomized and double-blind study was planned to identify the optimum dose of esmolol infusion to suppress the increase in bispectral index values and the movement and hemodynamic responses to tracheal intubation. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups in a double-blind fashion. 2.5 mg kg-1 propofol was administered for anesthesia induction. After loss of consciousness, and before administration of 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium, a tourniquet was applied to one arm and inflated to 50 mm Hg greater than systolic pressure. The patients were divided into 3 groups; 1 mg kg-1 h-1 esmolol was given as the loading dose and in Group Es50 50 μg kg-1 min-1, in Group Es150 150 μg kg-1 min-1, and in Group Es250 250 μg kg-1 min-1 esmolol infusion was started. Five minutes after the esmolol has been begun, the trachea was intubated; gross movement within the first minute after orotracheal intubation was recorded. Results: Incidence of movement response and the ΔBIS max values were comparable in Group Es250 and Group Es150, but these values were significantly higher in Group Es50 than in the other two groups. In all three groups in the 1st minute after tracheal intubation heart rate and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher compared to values from before intubation (p < 0.05. In the study period there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion: In clinical practise we believe that after 1 mg kg-1 loading dose, 150 μg kg-1 min-1 iv esmolol dose is sufficient to suppress responses to tracheal intubation without increasing side effects.
Fox, Esther E; Hough, Alan D; Creanor, Siobhan; Gear, Margaret; Freeman, Jennifer A
Pilates exercise is often undertaken by people with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have balance and mobility difficulties. The primary aim of the study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of Pilates exercises with relaxation on balance and mobility. Secondary aims were: (1) to compare standardized exercises with relaxation and (2) to compare Pilates exercises with standardized exercises. A multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores of 4.0 to 6.5 were randomly allocated to groups receiving 12 weeks of Pilates exercises, standardized exercises, or relaxation. Assessments were undertaken at baseline and weeks 12 and 16 (primary outcome measure: 10-Meter Timed Walk Test [10MTW]). One hundred participants (mean age=54 years, 74% female) were randomized to study groups. Six participants relapsed (withdrew from the study), leaving 94 participants for intention-to-treat analysis. There was no significant difference in mean 10MTW measurements between the Pilates and relaxation groups. At 12 weeks, there was a mean reduction of 4.2 seconds for the standardized exercise group compared with the relaxation group (95% confidence interval [relaxation group minus standardized exercise group measurements]=0.0, 8.4) and a mean reduction of 3.7 seconds for the Pilates group compared with the standardized exercise group (95% confidence interval [Pilates group minus standardized exercise group measurements]=-0.4 to 7.8). At 16 weeks, mean 10MTW times for the standardized exercise group remained quicker than those for the Pilates and relaxation groups, although the differences were nonsignificant. There were no significant differences between the Pilates and relaxation groups for any secondary outcome measure. In this study, therapists were limited to a standardized basket of exercises that may have affected the study outcomes. Furthermore, choosing measures such as posturography to assess balance
Juhász, Márk; Nagy, Viktor L; Székely, Hajnal; Kocsis, Dorottya; Tulassay, Zsolt; László, János F
This pilot study was devoted to the effect of static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure on erosive gastritis. The randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study included 16 patients of the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University diagnosed with erosive gastritis. The instrumental analysis followed a qualitative (pre-intervention) assessment of the symptoms by the patient: lower heartburn (in the ventricle), upper heartburn (in the oesophagus), epigastric pain, regurgitation, bloating and dry cough. Medical diagnosis included a double-line upper panendoscopy followed by 30 min local inhomogeneous SMF-exposure intervention at the lower sternal region over the stomach with peak-to-peak magnetic induction of 3 mT and 30 mT m(-1) gradient at the target site. A qualitative (post-intervention) assessment of the same symptoms closed the examination. Sham- or SMF-exposure was used in a double-blind manner. The authors succeeded in justifying the clinically and statistically significant beneficial effect of the SMF- over sham-exposure on the symptoms of erosive gastritis, the average effect of inhibition was 56% by p = 0.001, n = 42 + 96. This pilot study was aimed to encourage gastroenterologists to test local, inhomogeneous SMF-exposure on erosive gastritis patients, so this intervention may become an evidence-based alternative or complementary method in the clinical use especially in cases when conventional therapy options are contraindicated. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Pieścik-Lech, Małgorzata; Urbańska, Magdalena; Szajewska, Hania
Diarrhea treatment with either Lactobacillus GG (LGG) or smectite as an adjuvant to standard rehydration therapy has proven efficacy. In countries where both LGG and smectite are available, concomitant use is frequently practiced. We investigated whether LGG plus smectite is superior to LGG alone in the management of children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was performed. Children aged 4 to 60 months with AGE received LGG 6 × 10(9) colony forming units/day plus randomly either smectite (3 g) or placebo as an adjuvant to the standard rehydration therapy. Of the 88 children randomized, 81 (92 %) were available for intention-to-treat analysis. The duration of diarrhea in the LGG/smectite group (n = 44) compared with the LGG/placebo group (n = 37) was similar (P = 0.43). There were no significant differences between the study groups for the secondary outcomes, with three exceptions. On day 4, in the LGG/placebo group compared to the LGG/smectite group, there was significantly reduced stool frequency (P = 0.03). While there was a significant (P = 0.05) difference in stool consistency on the Bristol Stool Form Scale on day 4, it was not of clinical relevance. Finally, in the LGG/smectite group compared to the LGG/placebo group, there was a significantly shorter duration of intravenous therapy after randomization (P = 0.02). No adverse events were observed in the study groups. LGG plus smectite and LGG alone are equally effective for treating young children with AGE. Combined use of the two interventions is not justified.
Full Text Available Background: Macrolides are prescribed in the treatment of pityriasis rosea despite conflicting results of the limited number of studies evaluating their role in its treatment. Aim: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of azithromycin on the clinical course of pityriasis rosea. Methods: Seventy patients of pityriasis rosea were given either azithromycin (n = 35 or placebo (n = 35 and were followed-up at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Pruritus was assessed in both groups using the visual analogue scale (VAS . Change in the pityriasis rosea severity score (PRSS and in the VAS were recorded as outcome measures and were compared statistically. Results: The decrease in PRSS from baseline through 2, 4 and 6 weeks within both treatment (P < 0.001 and placebo (P < 0.001 arms was found to be statistically significant; however, this change was not significantly different in the two groups (P = 0.179. Similarly, the decrease in VAS was found to be statistically significant within both groups (P < 0.001; however, the change was comparable between the two groups (P < 0.937. Analysis by Fisher′s exact test did not find a significant difference between the two groups for PRSS and VAS. Conclusion: Azithromycin is not effective in pityriasis rosea and the use of macrolides for this disease should not be encouraged in clinical practice.
Findling, Robert L.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; McClellan, Jon; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Ritz, Louise; McNamara, Nora K.; Lingler, Jacqui; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E.; Kaufman, Emily Michael; Noyes, Nancy; Sikich, Linmarie
Objective: To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of three antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Method: Patients (8 to 19 years old) who had improved during an 8-week, randomized, double-blind acute trial of olanzapine, risperidone, or molindone (plus benztropine) were eligible to continue on the same medication…
Full Text Available Objective. To assess the short-term efficacy and safety of two kinds of Traditional Chinese herbal patches, Fufang Nanxing Zhitong Gao (FNZG and Shangshi Jietong Gao (SJG, for painful knee osteoarthritis (OA. Methods. Patients were randomly enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive FNZG (n=60, SJG (n=60, or placebo patch (n=30 for 7 days. Outcome measures included visual analogue scale (VAS, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Questionnaire (TCMSQ subscale. Results. Although there was no significant difference among, three groups in short-term pain management, patients receiving FNZG got significant improvement in symptom of fear of coldness as compared with placebo patch (P=0.029. The most common local adverse events of rash, itching, erythema, and slightly damaged skin were observed in 7% of participants. Conclusions. FNZG may be a useful treatment for symptom of knee OA and merits long-term study in broader populations.
Keshtgar, Alireza S; Ward, Harry C; Sanei, Ahmad; Clayden, Graham S
Myectomy of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) has been performed on some children after failure of medical treatment to treat idiopathic constipation. The aim of this study was to compare botulinum toxin injection with myectomy of the IAS in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and soiling in children. This was a double-blind randomized trial. Patients between 4 and 16 years old were included in the study if they had failed to respond to laxative treatment and anal dilatation for chronic idiopathic constipation. All study patients had anorectal manometry and anal endosonography under ketamine anesthesia. Outcome was measured using a validated symptom severity (SS) scoring system, with scores ranging from 0 to 65. Of 42 children, 21 were randomized to the botulinum group and 21 were randomized to the myectomy group. At the 3-month follow-up, the median preoperative SS score improved from 34 (range = 19-47) to 20 (range = 2-43) in the botulinum group (P 41) for the botulinum group and the myectomy group, respectively (P IAS for chronic idiopathic constipation and fecal incontinence in children.
Gerami, Hooshang; Saberi, Alia; Nemati, Shadman; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Aghajanpour, Mohammad
Background: It is still a challenge to find an effective treatment for tinnitus. The aim of this study was the evaluation of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine effects on tinnitus.Methods: In a randomized double–blind clinical trial, 57 patients who were visited in a university hospital due to chronic non-pulsatile tinnitus, were randomized in three groups and treated with carbamazepine (300-600 mg/day), oxcarbazepine (450-900 mg/day) and placebo for 12 weeks. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and tin...
Solis, Marina Yazigi; Hayashi, Ana Paula; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Roschel, Hamilton; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Otaduy, Maria Concepción; De Sã Pinto, Ana Lucia; Silva, Clovis Artur; Sallum, Adriana Maluf Elias; Pereira, Rosa Maria R; Gualano, Bruno
It has been suggested that creatine supplementation is safe and effective for treating idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, but no pediatric study has been conducted to date. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of creatine supplementation in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) patients. In this study, JDM patients received placebo or creatine supplementation (0.1 g/kg/day) in a randomized, crossover, double-blind design. Subjects were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. The primary outcome was muscle function. Secondary outcomes included body composition, aerobic conditioning, health-related quality of life, and muscle phosphocreatine (PCr) content. Safety was assessed by laboratory parameters and kidney function measurements. Creatine supplementation did not affect muscle function, intramuscular PCr content, or any other secondary outcome. Kidney function was not affected, and no side effects were reported. Twelve weeks of creatine supplementation in JDM patients were well-tolerated and free of adverse effects, but treatment did not affect muscle function, intramuscular PCr, or any other parameter. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of etoricoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, in osteoarthritis (OA patients. Methods A double-blind, randomized, multicenter study was conducted in 617 patients with OA of the knee. The base study was 14 weeks in duration and consisted of 2 parts; in Part I (6 weeks, patients were allocated to once daily oral etoricoxib 5, 10, 30, 60, 90 mg or placebo. In Part II (8 weeks; the placebo, etoricoxib 5 and 10 mg groups were reallocated to etoricoxib 30, 60, or 90 mg qd or diclofenac 50 mg t.i.d. Treatment was continued for consecutive 12 and 26 week extensions. Primary efficacy endpoints were the WOMAC VA 3.0 pain subscale and investigator global assessment of disease status. Safety and tolerability were assessed by collecting adverse events throughout the study. Results Compared with placebo, the etoricoxib groups displayed significant (p Conclusion In this extension study, etoricoxib, at doses ranging from 30 to 90 mg, demonstrated a maintenance of significant clinical efficacy in patients with OA through 52 weeks of treatment. Etoricoxib displayed clinical efficacy similar to diclofenac 150 mg and was generally well tolerated.
Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Sadeghi, Amirsaeid; Malekzadeh, Reza; Khatavi, Fatima; Etemadi, Mehrnoosh; Kalantri, Ebrahim; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Rostami, Kamran
Several studies have shown that a large number of patients who are fulfilling the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are sensitive to gluten. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a gluten-free diet on gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. In this double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 148 IBS patients fulfilling the Rome III criteria were enrolled between 2011 and 2013. However, only 72 out of the 148 commenced on a gluten-free diet for up to six weeks and completed the study; clinical symptoms were recorded biweekly using a standard visual analogue scale (VAS). In the second stage after six weeks, patients whose symptoms improved to an acceptable level were randomly divided into two groups; patients either received packages containing powdered gluten (35 cases) or patients received placebo (gluten free powder) (37 cases). Overall, the symptomatic improvement was statistically different in the gluten-containing group compared with placebo group in 9 (25.7%), and 31 (83.8%) patients respectively (p gluten. Using the term of IBS can therefore be misleading and may deviate and postpone the application of an effective and well-targeted treatment strategy in gluten sensitive patients.
Levy, Jason A; Bachur, Richard G; Monuteaux, Michael C; Waltzman, Mark
We seek to determine whether an initial intravenous bolus of 5% dextrose in normal saline solution compared with normal saline solution will lead to a lower proportion of hospitalized patients and a greater reduction in serum ketone levels in children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. We enrolled children aged 6 months to 6 years in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department. Subjects were randomized to receive a 20 mL/kg infusion of either 5% dextrose in normal saline solution or normal saline solution. Serum ketone levels were measured before and at 1- and 2-hour intervals after the initial study fluid bolus administration. Primary outcome was the proportion of children hospitalized. Secondary outcome was change in serum ketone levels over time. One hundred eighty-eight children were enrolled. The proportion of children hospitalized did not differ between groups (35% in the 5% dextrose in normal saline solution group versus 44% in the normal saline solution group; risk difference 9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -5% to 22%). Compared with children who received normal saline solution, those who received 5% dextrose in normal saline solution had a greater reduction in mean serum ketone levels at both 1 hour (mean Δ 1.2 versus 0.1 mmol/L; mean difference 1.1 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.9 mmol/L) and 2 hours (mean Δ 1.9 versus 0.3 mmol/L; mean difference 1.6 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.9 to 2.3 mmol/L). Administration of a dextrose-containing bolus compared with normal saline did not lead to a lower rate of hospitalization for children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. There was, however, a greater reduction in serum ketone levels in patients who received 5% dextrose in normal saline solution. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Maria Laura Menezes Bonow
Full Text Available The aim of this double-blind randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of 1.23% APF gel application on the arrest of active incipient carious lesions in children. Sixty 7- to 12-year-old children, with active incipient lesions were included in the study. Children were divided randomly into 2 groups: 1.23% APF gel and placebo gel applications. Each group received 8 weekly applications of treatment. The lesions were re-evaluated at the 4th and 8th appointments. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks of the presence of active white spot lesions. Groups showed similar results (PR = 1.67; CI 95% 0.69–3.98. The persistence of at least 1 active lesion was associated with a higher number of lesions in the baseline (PR = 2.67; CI 95% 1.19–6.03, but not with sugar intake (PR = 1.06; CI 95% 0.56–2.86 and previous exposure to fluoride dentifrice (PR = 1.26; CI 95% 0.49–2.29. The trial demonstrates the equivalence of the treatments. The use of the APF gel showed no additional benefits in this sample of children exposed to fluoridated water and dentifrice. The professional dental plaque removal in both groups may also account for the resulting equivalence of the treatments.
Allain, H; Belliard, S; Lieury, A; Menard, G; Patat, A; Le Coz, F; Gandon, J M
Thirty five subjects (age: 45-69 years) with subjective memory loss, without any other neuropsychiatric or somatic disease, were recruited in a phase II study. This double blind randomized versus placebo controlled study compared the effects of minaprine (200 mg/d) with placebo, in two parallel groups, during 2 months, on memory, attention and vigilance. Three psychometric tests were the main criteria of assessment: a standardized battery of memory tests (SM 5), the dual-coding test, the analysis of choice reaction times (CRT) and the critical flicker fusion point (CFF). A positive effect of minaprine was detected on words delayed recall (p = 0.028) and immediate recognition of words (p = 0.049). The global clinical tests (CGI, MacNair scale) were not statistically modified. Tolerability of minaprine and placebo were comparable. A positive pharmacodynamic activity on mnemonic performance is thus demonstrated in favour of minaprine (200 mg/d) in this specific population characterized by a memory complaint. These results would lead to a phase III study in which the main criteria would be global scales in order to confirm the clinical reliability of the present results.
Full Text Available Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases of childhood. Its symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration. In the emergency ward, intravenous rather than oral rehydration is usually preferred because of the high likelihood of emesis. Treatments to reduce emesis are of value in improving the rehydration procedure. Our study is a double-blind randomized trial and proposes the use of ondansetron as an anti-emetic drug to treat children with acute gastroenteritis. Seventy-four in-patients, aged 3 months to 15 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned to an ondansetron or placebo group. Inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis and the absence of other diseases or allergies to drugs. A single bolus (0.15 mg/kg of ondansetron was injected intravenously; normal 0.9% saline solution was used as a placebo. This treatment induced vomiting cessation in the ondansetron group significantly in comparison to the placebo group. The length of the hospital stay and the oral rehydration fluid volume were similar in the two groups and no adverse effects were noticed. Thus, safety, low cost, and overall benefit of ondansetron treatment suggests that this drug can be administered successfully to children with acute gastroenteritis.
Full Text Available Acute headaches are responsible for a significant percentage of the case load at primary care units and emergency rooms in Brazil. Dipyrone (metamizol is easily available in these settings, being the most frequently used drug. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to assess the effect of dipyrone in the acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache. Sixty patients were randomized to receive placebo (intravenous injection of 10 ml saline or 1 g dipyrone in 10 ml saline. We used seven parameters of analgesic evaluation. The patients receiving dipyrone showed a statistically significant improvement (P<0.05 of pain compared to placebo up to 30 min after drug administration. The therapeutic gain was 30% in 30 min and 40% in 60 min. The number of patients needed to be treated for at least one to have benefit was 3.3 in 30 min and 2.2 in 60 min. There were statistically significant reductions in the recurrence (dipyrone = 25%, placebo = 50% and use of rescue medication (dipyrone = 20%, placebo = 47.6% for the dipyrone group. Intravenous dipyrone is an effective drug for the relief of pain in tension-type headache and its use is justified in the emergency room setting.
Tarumi, Yoko; Wilson, Mitchell P; Szafran, Olga; Spooner, G Richard
The stool softener docusate is widely used in the management of constipation in hospice patients. There is little experimental evidence to support this practice, and no randomized trials have been conducted in the hospice setting. To assess the efficacy of docusate in hospice patients. This was a 10-day, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docusate and sennosides vs. placebo and sennosides in hospice patients in Edmonton, Alberta. Patients were included if they were age 18 years or older, able to take oral medications, did not have a gastrointestinal stoma, and had a Palliative Performance Scale score of 20% or more. The primary outcome measures were stool frequency, volume, and consistency. Secondary outcomes were patient perceptions of bowel movements (difficulty and completeness of evacuation) and bowel-related interventions. A total of 74 patients were randomized into the study (35 to the docusate group and 39 to the placebo group). There were neither significant differences between the groups in stool frequency, volume, or consistency, nor in difficulty or completeness of evacuation. On the Bristol Stool Form Scale, more patients in the placebo group had Type 4 (smooth and soft) and Type 5 (soft blobs) stool, whereas in the docusate group, more had Type 3 (sausage like) and Type 6 (mushy) stool (P=0.01). There was no significant benefit of docusate plus sennosides compared with placebo plus sennosides in managing constipation in hospice patients. Docusate use should be considered on an individual basis. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
El-Chaar, G M; Mardy, G; Wehlou, K; Rubin, L G
The taste of oral liquid medications influences compliance in children. Generic preparations are prescribed to reduce cost and may taste worse than brand name products. This was a prospective, randomized, double blind, crossover trial of the differences in taste and compliance between brand and generic antibiotic suspensions in children 3 to 14 years of age. Verbal and visual assessment methods were used to assess taste, and compliance was measured by the amount of drug returned after use. Ten children in each of the cephalexin and erythromycin-sulfisoxazole groups did not report that the brand and generic formulations tasted differently. Fifteen children thought that brand trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole tasted better than the generic preparation. Brand name oral liquid antibiotics do not necessarily taste better than their generic counterparts. Despite preference for the taste of brand trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, all of the children in this study were compliant with both brand and generic medications.
Full Text Available Background: As of 2010, the rivastigmine patch was licensed for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD in 64 countries. Methods: This 24-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the 5-cm2 (9-mg loading dose; 4.6 mg/24 h delivery rate and 10-cm2 (18-mg loading dose; 9.5 mg/24 h delivery rate rivastigmine patch in Japanese patients with AD. Results: In the primary analysis population (intent-to-treat last observation carried forward at week 24, delayed deterioration was seen with the 10-cm2 patch versus placebo on the Japanese version of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-J cog; p = 0.005 and the Japanese version of the Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus Caregiver Input (CIBIC plus-J; p = 0.067. Participants receiving the rivastigmine patch showed numerically less decline versus placebo at week 24 on the CIBIC plus-J, although this did not reach statistical significance. Statistical significance for the CIBIC plus-J was met following adjustment for body weight and baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score as dynamic allocation factors (p = 0.042 and on the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD; p = 0.024 and Mental Function Impairment (MENFIS; p = 0.016 subscales. Serious adverse events were rare and were consistent with the known safety profile of the rivastigmine patch. Conclusion: The rivastigmine patch has a favorable efficacy and tolerability profile in Japanese patients with AD.
Full Text Available Tze J Lam, Chris JJ Mulder, Richelle JF Felt-BersmaDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the NetherlandsBackground and aim: Patients suffering from chronic constipation require long-term, regular therapy with laxatives. Literature regarding patient preference and acceptance in polyethylene glycol preparations is scarce. Therefore, this research aimed to identify preference between the three polyethylene glycol 3350, namely Molaxole®, Movicol®, and Laxtra Orange®. Furthermore, taste is one of the most important factors leading to patients’ adherence, particularly when the treatment lasts for a long time.Methods: In this randomized, cross-over double-blind study, 100 volunteers were recruited by advertisement. The volunteers were invited to taste the preparations and grade the taste using a five-point hedonic scale (extremely poor taste  to extremely good taste . The volunteers were then asked to choose the most palatable preparation.Results: One hundred volunteers with a mean age of 35 years (range 20–61 were randomized (76 females. Molaxole®, Movicol®, and Laxtra Orange® had a mean hedonic score of 2.76 (SD: 0.82, 2.81 (SD: 0.76 and 3.12 (SD: 0.82 respectively. The hedonic taste score for Laxtra Orange® was significantly better than Molaxole® (P = 0.001 and Movicol® (P = 0.001. No difference was found between Molaxole® and Movicol® (P = 0.61. Molaxole® was the most preferred preparation for 19 volunteers (19%, Movicol® for 24 volunteers (25% and Laxtra Orange® for 55 volunteers (56%. Two volunteers had no preference. The order in which volunteers tested the preparations had no influence on the taste results. No significant differences in age or gender were observed.Conclusion: Laxtra Orange® was most palatable preparation. This may have implications for adherence in patients with chronic constipation.Keywords: constipation, polyethylene glycol, laxative, macrogol
Amir H Faghihi
Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate potential improvement effect for probiotic E. coliNissle 1917 in the management of refractory IBS in an Iranian population. Methods: a double blind placebo controlled approach as been used in the current clinical trial. 139 confirmed IBS patients were included into the study, and were given probiotic E.coli Nissle 1917 for 6 weeks. 11 items Birmingham IBS Symptom Questionnairehas been used for evaluation of changes in the symptoms every 2 weeks. Results: sixty eight subjects (49% were males. Mean±SD age of the participants was 38±13.3 years. 49(35.3% of the patients were diarrhea-predominant. The total scores showed no significant difference between the intervention vs. control group(-6.7±6.8 vs. -6.7±6.5, respectively; p=0.95; neither did any of the questionnaire items any significant alterations in the two groups. After stratification of patients based on their IBS type, diarrhea-predominant patients showed a positive response to the probiotic improving their sleep (p=0.05&0.03 at weeks 2&6, respectively. Patients with constipation-predominant IBS showed no response to the probiotic; while patients with diarrhea-constipation mixed IBS showed unfavorable response to the probiotic in the need for strain to pass a motion compared to the placebo (p=0.03&0.02 at weeks 4&6, respectively. Conclusion: probiotic therapy with E.coliNissle 1917 was not able to induce significant improvement in the symptoms of patients with non-categorized IBS. Nevertheless, when IBS patients were recategorized to subgroups according to their main symptoms, evaluation of the efficacy of the probiotic on some individual items in the symptom list reached the significance level. Prospective clinical trials are recommended to confirm our findings. Key words: probiotic Escherichia Coli Nissle 1917, irritable bowel syndrome, double blind randomized controlled trial.
Full Text Available Emergency pain management in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis commonly includes use of nonnarcotic analgesics. Acupuncture has been used in dentistry to alleviate pain after tooth extraction. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of acupuncture therapy and ibuprofen for pain management in such patients. A total of 157 patients participated in this study and were randomly assigned to three groups, Group I—classical acupuncture with placebo tablet, Group II—sham acupuncture with placebo tablet, and Group III—sham acupuncture with ibuprofen. Before commencement of the experiment, initial pain assessment was done using a HP-VAS scale. Treatment was done by first operator, while pain assessment was done by the second operator who was blinded to the procedure performed. Acupuncture needles were inserted for 15–20 minutes at acupoints for classical acupuncture and at nonacupoints for sham acupuncture. Posttreatment pain assessment was carried out at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes intervals. Follow-up analysis was recorded at 12, 24, and 48 hours using VAS verbal scale. The mean final HP VAS values for Group I showed statistically significant lower pain values when compared with groups II and III (p < 0.05, with no significant difference between groups II and III. Follow-up analysis showed Group I with higher percentage of no pain, which was statistically significant when compared with other two groups. It can be concluded that classical acupuncture is more effective in pain relief (faster and prolonged than analgesics.
The Vitamin D for Enhancing the Immune System in Cystic Fibrosis (DISC trial: Rationale and design of a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of high dose bolus administration of vitamin D3 during acute pulmonary exacerbation of cystic fibrosis
Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in children and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF. Recent studies have found an association between vitamin D status and risk of pulmonary exacerbations in children and adults with CF. The ongoing Vitamin D for enhancing the Immune System in Cystic fibrosis (DISC study, a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, will test the hypothesis of whether high dose vitamin D given as a single oral bolus of 250,000 IU to adults with CF during a pulmonary exacerbation followed by a maintenance dose of vitamin D will improve time to next pulmonary exacerbation and re-hospitalization, improve survival and lung function compared to placebo and reduce the rates of pulmonary exacerbation. Subjects will be randomized 1:1 at each clinical site to vitamin D or placebo within 72 h of hospital admission for pulmonary exacerbation. Clinical follow-up visits will occur at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days, and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after randomization. Blood and sputum will be collected and determination of clinical outcomes will be assessed at each visit. The primary endpoint will be the time to next pulmonary exacerbation requiring antibiotics, re-hospitalization or death. The secondary endpoints will include lung function assessed by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, blood markers of inflammatory cytokines, anti-microbial peptide expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and circulating concentrations in blood. Other exploratory endpoints will examine the phenotype of neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages in sputum. Nutritional status will be assessed by 3 day food records and food frequency questionnaire.
Vollebregt, Madelon A.; van Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine
Background: The number of placebo-controlled randomized studies relating to EEG-neurofeedback and its effect on neurocognition in attention-deficient/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is limited. For this reason, a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the effects of EEG-neurofeedback on neurocognitive functioning…
A prospective, double-blind, randomized, two-period crossover, multicenter study to evaluate tolerability and patient preference between mirabegron and tolterodine in patients with overactive bladder (PREFER study).
Staskin, David; Herschorn, Sender; Fialkov, Jonathan; Tu, Le Mai; Walsh, Terry; Schermer, Carol R
The objective of this study was to assess the tolerability and treatment preference in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) treated with mirabegron or tolterodine. This was a two-period, 8-week crossover, double-blind, phase IV study (PREFER; NCT02138747) in treatment-naive adults with OAB for 3 months or longer randomized to one of four treatment sequences in a 5:5:1:1 ratio (mirabegron/tolterodine, tolterodine/mirabegron, mirabegron/mirabegron, or tolterodine/tolterodine), separated by a washout period of 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was drug tolerability using the Medication Tolerability scale of the OAB Treatment Satisfaction (OAB-S) questionnaire at end of treatment (EoT). Period-by-treatment interactions were analyzed to determine any effect of drug order. Patient preference, change from baseline in OAB symptoms, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were assessed. A total of 358 randomized patients completed the OAB-S Medication Tolerability scale questionnaire at one or more visits after the baseline evaluation. The mean (95% CI) OAB-S Medication Tolerability scores were significantly higher (better tolerability) for mirabegron (86.29 [83.50, 89.08]) than for tolterodine (83.40 [80.59, 86.20]; p = 0.004). The period-by-treatment interaction was not significant (p = 0.955). Improvements in OAB-S Medication Tolerability scores at EoT were more evident in women, patients aged ≥65 years, and in patients without baseline incontinence, and were greater with mirabegron than with tolterodine extended release. There were no significant differences in patient preference or improvements in OAB symptoms. Significant differences in favor of mirabegron were observed for anticholinergic TEAEs (20.4% vs. 27.4%; p = 0.042) and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders (14.7% vs. 22.5%; p = 0.015). Tolerability of mirabegron was significantly higher than that of tolterodine, and patient preference and improvements in OAB symptoms were comparable
Martí, M L; De los Santos, A R; Di Girolamo, G; Gil, M; Manero, E O; Fraga, C
Lysine clonixinate (LC), an effective and well tolerated non-morphinic analgesic whose mechanism of action is basically due to the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase, was assessed with a double-blind randomized dummy design versus paracetamol (P) on 200 patients suffering from pain after minor dental surgery. Patients received according to their needs 1 or 2 tablets of 125 mg lysine clonixinate or 500 mg paracetamol every 8 h during 48 h or until pain relief. Both groups, each composed of 100 patients, were comparable in terms of demographic conditions (t test), initial symptoms (chi-square test), characteristics of the extracted dental pieces, surgical complications and wound treatment (chi-square test). Pain intensity scores and daily average intake of tablets (3.4/day) documented in the patients' diary revealed no statistically significant differences between the two treatments (chi-square test). It was found that spontaneous pain measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) decreased significantly in both treatment groups at the 24-h control examination. The following values were observed in the LC group: baseline 4.38 +/- 1.7; 24-h * 1.20 +/- 1.4; 48-h * 0.36 +/- 1.2. In the P group the values were: baseline 4.28 +/- 1.6; 24-h * 1.11 +/- 1.4; 48-h * 0.30 +/- 0.7 (*p < 0.05). Other variables like facial swelling and night pain, evaluated on a score from 0 to 4 and symptom presence or absence respectively, showed a similar response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Dalbeth, Nicola; Saag, Kenneth G; Palmer, William E; Choi, Hyon K; Hunt, Barbara; MacDonald, Patricia A; Thienel, Ulrich; Gunawardhana, Lhanoo
To assess the effect of treatment with febuxostat versus placebo on joint damage in hyperuricemic subjects with early gout (1 or 2 gout flares). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 314 subjects with hyperuricemia (serum uric acid [UA] level of ≥7.0 mg/dl) and early gout were randomized 1:1 to receive once-daily febuxostat 40 mg (increased to 80 mg if the serum UA level was ≥6.0 mg/dl on day 14) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the mean change from baseline to month 24 in the modified Sharp/van der Heijde erosion score for the single affected joint. Additional efficacy end points included change from baseline to month 24 in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring (RAMRIS) scores for synovitis, erosion, and edema in the single affected joint, the incidence of gout flares, and serum UA levels. Safety was assessed throughout the study. Treatment with febuxostat did not lead to any notable changes in joint erosion over 2 years. In both treatment groups, the mean change from baseline to month 24 in the modified Sharp/van der Heijde erosion score for the single affected joint was minimal, with no between-group differences. However, treatment with febuxostat significantly improved the RAMRIS synovitis score at month 24 compared with placebo treatment (change from baseline -0.43 versus -0.07; P gout flares (29.3% versus 41.4%; P gout flares in subjects with early gout. © 2017 The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.
Full Text Available To evaluate frequency, conversion rate, and risk factors for blindness in glaucoma patients treated in European Universities.This multicenter retrospective study included 2402 consecutive patients with glaucoma in at least one eye. Medical charts were inspected and patients were divided into those blind and the remainder ('controls'. Blindness was defined as visual acuity≤0.05 and/or visual field loss to less than 10°.Unilateral and bilateral blindness were respectively 11.0% and 1.6% at the beginning, and 15.5% and 3.6% at the end of the observation period (7.5±5.5 years, range:1-25 years; conversion to blindness (at least unilateral was 1.1%/year. 134 eyes (97 patients developed blindness by POAG during the study. At the first access to study centre, they had mean deviation (MD of -17.1±8.3 dB and treated intraocular pressure (IOP of 17.1±6.6 mmHg. During follow-up the IOP decreased by 14% in these eyes but MD deteriorated by 1.1±3.5 dB/year, which was 5-fold higher than controls (0.2±1.6 dB/year. In a multivariate model, the best predictors for blindness by glaucoma were initial MD (p<0.001, initial IOP (p<0.001, older age at the beginning of follow-up (p<0.001, whereas final IOP was found to be protective (p<0.05.In this series of patients, blindness occurred in about 20%. Blindness by glaucoma had 2 characteristics: late diagnosis and/or late referral, and progression of the disease despite in most cases IOP was within the range of normality and target IOP was achieved; it could be predicted by high initial MD, high initial IOP, and old age.
Zhao, Hong; Feng, Yi; Jiang, Yan; Lu, Qun
In this prospective double-blind randomized study, we evaluated the analgesic effect and potential effect on pregnancy rate of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen axetil in patients undergoing ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. A total of 200 patients scheduled to undergo ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval were randomly allocated to receive 1.5 mg/kg of flurbiprofen axetil (FA group) or placebo (control group) 30 minutes before the procedure. Postoperative pain scores, embryo implantation rate, and pregnancy rate were recorded. Neuroendocrine biomarkers and prostaglandin E2 levels in follicular fluid were tested after oocyte retrieval. Patients in the FA group awakened earlier after surgery than patients in the control group (3.3 ± 2.6 vs 5.3 ± 3.4 minutes, P Flurbiprofen axetil given before ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval for patients under propofol-remifentanil general anesthesia relieves pain without any detrimental effect on clinical pregnancy rate.
Amichai, B; Grunwald, M H
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin disease, which mainly affects children. Xerosis is one of the most troublesome signs of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of liquid soap containing 12% ammonium lactate + 20% urea in patients with AD. In a randomized, double-blind study, 36 patients (both male and female patients; age range 3-40 years) with mild to moderate AD were enrolled. Patients were divided randomly into two groups, in a ratio of 2:1 (active:placebo). The prescribed soap was used on a daily basis during a shower for 3 weeks. All patients continued all other systemic or topical medication but avoided any other soap or emollients. After 3 weeks of treatment, efficacy was assessed both by clinician and patient. There were significant improvements in scaling (P liquid soap was found to be effective in patients with AD, as use of this soap in patients with stable mild to moderate AD improved the parameters studied.
Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig
INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 patients were randomized to tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg given as a bolus intravenous injection, followed by a continuous infusion of 1 mg/kg/hour for 10 hours) or placebo (20 mL saline given intravenously) 15 minutes before the incision. We recorded the peroperative and postoperative...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...
Samimi, Mansooreh; Jamilian, Mehri; Ebrahimi, Faraneh Afshar; Rahimi, Maryam; Tajbakhsh, Banafsheh; Asemi, Zatollah
Limited data are available for evaluating the effects of oral carnitine supplementation on weight loss and metabolic profiles of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study was designed to determine the effects of oral carnitine supplementation on weight loss, and glycaemic and lipid profiles in women with PCOS. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 overweight patients diagnosed with PCOS were randomized to receive either 250 mg carnitine supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify parameters of glucose homoeostasis and lipid concentrations. At the end of the 12 weeks, taking carnitine supplements resulted in a significant reduction in weight (-2·7 ± 1·5 vs +0·1 ± 1·8 kg, P weight, BMI, WC and HC, and beneficial effects on glycaemic control; however, it did not affect lipid profiles or free testosterone. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.