WorldWideScience

Sample records for multi legged robots

  1. Two Legged Walking Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a two-legged wirelessly controlled walking robot. This paper describes the construction of the robot, its control electronics, and the solution of the wireless control. The article also includes a description of the application to control the robot. The control electronics of the walking robot are built using the development kit Arduino Mega, which is enhanced with WiFi module allowing the wireless control, a set of ultrasonic sensors for detecting obstacl...

  2. Semi-autonomous exploration of multi-floor buildings with a legged robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Garrett J.; Johnson, Aaron M.; Taylor, Camillo J.; Koditschek, Daniel E.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a semi-autonomous building exploration behavior using the hexapedal robot RHex. Stairwells are used in virtually all multi-floor buildings, and so in order for a mobile robot to effectively explore, map, clear, monitor, or patrol such buildings it must be able to ascend and descend stairwells. However most conventional mobile robots based on a wheeled platform are unable to traverse stairwells, motivating use of the more mobile legged machine. This semi-autonomous behavior uses a human driver to provide steering input to the robot, as would be the case in, e.g., a tele-operated building exploration mission. The gait selection and transitions between the walking and stair climbing gaits are entirely autonomous. This implementation uses an RGBD camera for stair acquisition, which offers several advantages over a previously documented detector based on a laser range finder, including significantly reduced acquisition time. The sensor package used here also allows for considerable expansion of this behavior. For example, complete automation of the building exploration task driven by a mapping algorithm and higher level planner is presently under development.

  3. A tracked robot with novel bio-inspired passive "legs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Jing, Xingjian

    2017-01-01

    For track-based robots, an important aspect is the suppression design, which determines the trafficability and comfort of the whole system. The trafficability limits the robot's working capability, and the riding comfort limits the robot's working effectiveness, especially with some sensitive instruments mounted on or operated. To these aims, a track-based robot equipped with a novel passive bio-inspired suspension is designed and studied systematically in this paper. Animal or insects have very special leg or limb structures which are good for motion control and adaptable to different environments. Inspired by this, a new track-based robot is designed with novel "legs" for connecting the loading wheels to the robot body. Each leg is designed with passive structures and can achieve very high loading capacity but low dynamic stiffness such that the robot can move on rough ground similar to a multi-leg animal or insect. Therefore, the trafficability and riding comfort can be significantly improved without losing loading capacity. The new track-based robot can be well applied to various engineering tasks for providing a stable moving platform of high mobility, better trafficability and excellent loading capacity.

  4. Parallel kinematics robot with five legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, P.

    2011-01-01

    Robot with multiple degrees of freedom comprising five legs (2) linked at a first of their ends to a base ( 3), and at a second of their ends opposite to the first ends to a mobile platform (4), which platform carries at least one tool (5, 6, 121, 12 "), and wherein the robot further comprises an

  5. An Ultralightweight and Living Legged Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Tan, Melvin Y W; Bui, Xuan Hien; Sato, Hirotaka

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we describe the most ultralightweight living legged robot to date that makes it a strong candidate for a search and rescue mission. The robot is a living beetle with a wireless electronic backpack stimulator mounted on its thorax. Inheriting from the living insect, the robot employs a compliant body made of soft actuators, rigid exoskeletons, and flexure hinges. Such structure would allow the robot to easily adapt to any complex terrain due to the benefit of soft interface, self-balance, and self-adaptation of the insect without any complex controller. The antenna stimulation enables the robot to perform not only left/right turning but also backward walking and even cessation of walking. We were also able to grade the turning and backward walking speeds by changing the stimulation frequency. The power required to drive the robot is low as the power consumption of the antenna stimulation is in the order of hundreds of microwatts. In contrast to the traditional legged robots, this robot is of low cost, easy to construct, simple to control, and has ultralow power consumption.

  6. A survey of bio-inspired compliant legged robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Bi Shusheng

    2012-01-01

    The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks. (topical review)

  7. Optimal powering schemes for legged robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Paul; Bednarz, David; Czerniak, Gregory P.; Cheok, Ka C.

    2010-04-01

    Legged Robots have tremendous mobility, but they can also be very inefficient. These inefficiencies can be due to suboptimal control schemes, among other things. If your goal is to get from point A to point B in the least amount of time, your control scheme will be different from if your goal is to get there using the least amount of energy. In this paper, we seek a balance between these extremes by looking at both efficiency and speed. We model a walking robot as a rimless wheel, and, using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle (PMP), we find an "on-off" control for the model, and describe the switching curve between these control extremes.

  8. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  9. Gait Planning Research for an Electrically Driven Large-Load-Ratio Six-Legged Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chao Zhuang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gait planning is an important basis for the walking of a legged robot. To improve the walking stability of multi-legged robots and to reduce the impact force between the foot and the ground, gait planning strategies are presented for an electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot. First, the configuration and walking gait of the electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot are designed. The higher-stable swing sequences of legs and typical walking modes are respectively obtained. Based on the Denavit–Hartenberg (D–H method, the analyses of the forward and inverse kinematics are implemented. The mathematical models of the articulated rotation angles are respectively established. In view of the buffer device installed at the end of shin to decrease the impact force between the foot and the ground, an initial lift height of the leg is brought into gait planning when the support phase changes into the transfer phase. The mathematical models of foot trajectories are established. Finally, a prototype of the electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot is developed. The experiments of the prototype are carried out regarding the aspects of the walking speed and surmounting obstacle. Then, the reasonableness of gait planning is verified based on the experimental results. The proposed strategies of gait planning lay the foundation for effectively reducing the foot–ground impact force and can provide a reference for other large-load-ratio multi-legged robots.

  10. Six-legged walking robot for service operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ihme, T.; Schneider, A.; Schmucker, U.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the control system of a six-legged vehicle including force control. Considered control schemes are control of forces and control of body motion. The experimental result with a six-legged robot is presented.

  11. Novel Door-opening Method for Six-legged Robots Based on Only Force Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Feng; Pan, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Current door-opening methods are mainly developed on tracked, wheeled and biped robots by applying multi-DOF manipulators and vision systems. However, door-opening methods for six-legged robots are seldom studied, especially using 0-DOF tools to operate and only force sensing to detect. A novel door-opening method for six-legged robots is developed and implemented to the six-parallel-legged robot. The kinematic model of the six-parallel-legged robot is established and the model of measuring the positional relationship between the robot and the door is proposed. The measurement model is completely based on only force sensing. The real-time trajectory planning method and the control strategy are designed. The trajectory planning method allows the maximum angle between the sagittal axis of the robot body and the normal line of the door plane to be 45º. A 0-DOF tool mounted to the robot body is applied to operate. By integrating with the body, the tool has 6 DOFs and enough workspace to operate. The loose grasp achieved by the tool helps release the inner force in the tool. Experiments are carried out to validate the method. The results show that the method is effective and robust in opening doors wider than 1 m. This paper proposes a novel door-opening method for six-legged robots, which notably uses a 0-DOF tool and only force sensing to detect and open the door.

  12. Soft Legged Wheel-Based Robot with Terrestrial Locomotion Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years robotics has been influenced by a new approach, soft-robotics, bringing the idea that safe interaction with user and more adaptation to the environment can be achieved by exploiting easily deformable materials and flexible components in the structure of robots. In 2016, the soft-robotics community has promoted a new robotics challenge, named RoboSoft Grand Challenge, with the aim of bringing together different opinions on the usefulness and applicability of softness and compliancy in robotics. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a terrestrial robot based on two soft legged wheels. The tasks predefined by the challenge were set as targets in the robot design, which finally succeeded to accomplish all the tasks. The wheels of the robot can passively climb over stairs and adapt to slippery grounds using two soft legs embedded in their structure. The soft legs, fabricated by integration of soft and rigid materials and mounted on the circumference of a conventional wheel, succeed to enhance its functionality and easily adapt to unknown grounds. The robot has a semi stiff tail that helps in the stabilization and climbing of stairs. An active wheel is embedded at the extremity of the tail in order to increase the robot maneuverability in narrow environments. Moreover two parallelogram linkages let the robot to reconfigure and shrink its size allowing entering inside gates smaller than its initial dimensions.

  13. Running over unknown rough terrain with a one-legged planar robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Ben; Miller, Bruce; Clark, Jonathan E; Schmitt, John

    2011-01-01

    The ability to traverse unknown, rough terrain is an advantage that legged locomoters have over their wheeled counterparts. However, due to the complexity of multi-legged systems, research in legged robotics has not yet been able to reproduce the agility found in the animal kingdom. In an effort to reduce the complexity of the problem, researchers have developed single-legged models to gain insight into the fundamental dynamics of legged running. Inspired by studies of animal locomotion, researchers have proposed numerous control strategies to achieve stable, one-legged running over unknown, rough terrain. One such control strategy incorporates energy variations into the system during the stance phase by changing the force-free leg length as a sinusoidal function of time. In this research, a one-legged planar robot capable of implementing this and other state-of-the-art control strategies was designed and built. Both simulated and experimental results were used to determine and compare the stability of the proposed controllers as the robot was subjected to unknown drop and raised step perturbations equal to 25% of the nominal leg length. This study illustrates the relative advantages of utilizing a minimal-sensing, active energy removal control scheme to stabilize running over rough terrain.

  14. Multi-robot caravanning

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2013-11-01

    We study multi-robot caravanning, which is loosely defined as the problem of a heterogeneous team of robots visiting specific areas of an environment (waypoints) as a group. After formally defining this problem, we propose a novel solution that requires minimal communication and scales with the number of waypoints and robots. Our approach restricts explicit communication and coordination to occur only when robots reach waypoints, and relies on implicit coordination when moving between a given pair of waypoints. At the heart of our algorithm is the use of leader election to efficiently exploit the unique environmental knowledge available to each robot in order to plan paths for the group, which makes it general enough to work with robots that have heterogeneous representations of the environment. We implement our approach both in simulation and on a physical platform, and characterize the performance of the approach under various scenarios. We demonstrate that our approach can successfully be used to combine the planning capabilities of different agents. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. The RiSE climbing robot: body and leg design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A.; Goldman, D. I.; Full, R. J.; Buehler, M.

    2006-05-01

    The RiSE robot is a biologically inspired, six legged climbing robot, designed for general mobility in scansorial (vertical walls, horizontal ledges, ground level) environments. It exhibits ground reaction forces that are similar to animal climbers and does not rely on suction, magnets or other surface-dependent specializations to achieve adhesion and shear force. We describe RiSE's body and leg design as well as its electromechanical, communications and computational infrastructure. We review design iterations that enable RiSE to climb 90° carpeted, cork covered and (a growing range of) stucco surfaces in the quasi-static regime.

  16. Multi-robot control interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  17. Laboratory on Legs: An Architecture for Adjustable Morphology with Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    including walking, running,7 pronking,8,9 leaping and flipping,10 climbing stairs ,11,12 recovering from failures,13 and even running upright on (modified...speed activities requiring large leg torques, such as clambering over rocks and climbing stairs , as well as high speed activities with moderate torques...8] McMordie, D. and Buehler, M., “Towards pronking with a hexapod robot ,” in [International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots

  18. Omnidirectional Wheel-Legged Hybrid Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Vilikó

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of developing hybrid locomotion systems is to merge the advantages and to eliminate the disadvantages of different type of locomotion. The proposed solution combines wheeled and legged locomotion methods. This paper presents the mechatronic design approach and the development stages of the prototype.

  19. On the development a pneumatic four-legged mechanism autonomous vertical wall climbing robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Shukri Zainal Abidin; Shamsudin H.M. Amin . shukri@suria.fke.utm.my

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a prototype legged mechanism together with suction mechanism, the mechanical design, on-board controller and an initial performance test. The design is implemented in the form of a pneumatically powered multi-legged robot equipped with suction pads at the sole of the feet for wall climbing purpose. The whole mechanism and suction system is controlled by controller which is housed on-board the robot. The gait of the motion depended on the logic control patterns as dictated by the controller. The robot is equipped with sensors both at the front and rear ends that function as an obstacle avoidance facility. Once objects are detected, signals are sent to the controller to start an evasive action that is to move in the opposite direction. The mechanism has been tested and initial results have shown promising potential for an autonomous mobile. (Author)

  20. Multi-Locomotion Robotic Systems New Concepts of Bio-inspired Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Toshio; Sekiyama, Kosuke; Aoyama, Tadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, multiple attention have been paid on a robot working in the human living environment, such as in the field of medical, welfare, entertainment and so on. Various types of researches are being conducted actively in a variety of fields such as artificial intelligence, cognitive engineering, sensor- technology, interfaces and motion control. In the future, it is expected to realize super high functional human-like robot by integrating technologies in various fields including these types of researches. The book represents new developments and advances in the field of bio-inspired robotics research introducing the state of the art, the idea of multi-locomotion robotic system to implement the diversity of animal motion. It covers theoretical and computational aspects of Passive Dynamic Autonomous Control (PDAC), robot motion control, multi legged walking and climbing as well as brachiation focusing concrete robot systems, components and applications. In addition, gorilla type robot systems are described as...

  1. Embodiment of Legged Robots Emerged in Evolutionary Design: Pseudo Passive Dynamic Walkers

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Kojiro; Yokoi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    An objective of this paper is to illustrate a physical representation of the embodiment on legged locomotion. Embodiment is here defined as physical features that reduce control complexity and energy consumption of legged robots. In this method, the embodiment of

  2. Controlling legs for locomotion-insights from robotics and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Thomas; Ewald, Alexander; von Twickel, Arndt; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-06-29

    Walking is the most common terrestrial form of locomotion in animals. Its great versatility and flexibility has led to many attempts at building walking machines with similar capabilities. The control of walking is an active research area both in neurobiology and robotics, with a large and growing body of work. This paper gives an overview of the current knowledge on the control of legged locomotion in animals and machines and attempts to give walking control researchers from biology and robotics an overview of the current knowledge in both fields. We try to summarize the knowledge on the neurobiological basis of walking control in animals, emphasizing common principles seen in different species. In a section on walking robots, we review common approaches to walking controller design with a slight emphasis on biped walking control. We show where parallels between robotic and neurobiological walking controllers exist and how robotics and biology may benefit from each other. Finally, we discuss where research in the two fields diverges and suggest ways to bridge these gaps.

  3. Multi-robot caravanning

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory; Giese, Andrew; Mahadevan, Aditya; Marfaing, Arnaud; Glockenmeier, Rachel; Revia, Colton; Rodriguez, Samuel; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    of waypoints. At the heart of our algorithm is the use of leader election to efficiently exploit the unique environmental knowledge available to each robot in order to plan paths for the group, which makes it general enough to work with robots that have

  4. Two-legged walking robot prescribed motion on a rough cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, Yury; Melkumova, Elena

    2018-05-01

    The motion of a walking robot with n legs, that ensure the desired motion of the robot body, is described using general dynamics theoretical framework. When each of the robot legs contacts the surface in a single foothold, the momentum and angular momentum theorems yield a system of six differential equations that form a complete description of the robot motion. In the case of two-leg robot (n = 2) the problem of the existence of the solution can be reduced to a system of algebraic inequalities. Using numerical analysis, the classification of footholds positions for different values of the friction coefficient is obtained.

  5. Locomotion training of legged robots using hybrid machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Doerschuk, Peggy I.; Zhang, Wen-Ran; Li, Andrew L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic are used to control the jumping behavior of a three-link uniped robot. The biped locomotion control problem is an increment of the uniped locomotion control. Study of legged locomotion dynamics indicates that a hierarchical controller is required to control the behavior of a legged robot. A structured control strategy is suggested which includes navigator, motion planner, biped coordinator and uniped controllers. A three-link uniped robot simulation is developed to be used as the plant. Neurocontrollers were trained both online and offline. In the case of on-line training, a reinforcement learning technique was used to train the neurocontroller to make the robot jump to a specified height. After several hundred iterations of training, the plant output achieved an accuracy of 7.4%. However, when jump distance and body angular momentum were also included in the control objectives, training time became impractically long. In the case of off-line training, a three-layered backpropagation (BP) network was first used with three inputs, three outputs and 15 to 40 hidden nodes. Pre-generated data were presented to the network with a learning rate as low as 0.003 in order to reach convergence. The low learning rate required for convergence resulted in a very slow training process which took weeks to learn 460 examples. After training, performance of the neurocontroller was rather poor. Consequently, the BP network was replaced by a Cerebeller Model Articulation Controller (CMAC) network. Subsequent experiments described in this document show that the CMAC network is more suitable to the solution of uniped locomotion control problems in terms of both learning efficiency and performance. A new approach is introduced in this report, viz., a self-organizing multiagent cerebeller model for fuzzy-neural control of uniped locomotion is suggested to improve training efficiency. This is currently being evaluated for a possible

  6. Modelling and Control of Robotic Leg as Assistive Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingye, Yee; Zain, Badrul Aisham bin Md

    2017-10-01

    The ageing population (people older than 60 years old) is expected to constitute 21.8% of global population by year 2050. When human ages, bodily function including locomotors will deteriorate. Besides, there are hundreds of thousands of victims who suffer from multiple health conditions worldwide that leads to gait impairment. A promising solution will be the lower limb powered-exoskeleton. This study is to be a start-up platform to design a lower limb powered-exoskeleton for a normal Malaysian male, by designing and simulating the dynamic model of a 2-link robotic leg to observe its behaviour under different input conditions with and without a PID controller. Simulink in MATLAB software is used as the dynamic modelling and simulation software for this study. It is observed that the 2-links robotic leg behaved differently under different input conditions, and perform the best when it is constrained and controlled by PID controller. Simulink model is formed as a foundation for the upcoming researches and can be modified and utilised by the future researchers.

  7. Multi-Robot Assembly Strategies and Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARVEL, JEREMY A.; BOSTELMAN, ROGER; FALCO, JOE

    2018-01-01

    We present a survey of multi-robot assembly applications and methods and describe trends and general insights into the multi-robot assembly problem for industrial applications. We focus on fixtureless assembly strategies featuring two or more robotic systems. Such robotic systems include industrial robot arms, dexterous robotic hands, and autonomous mobile platforms, such as automated guided vehicles. In this survey, we identify the types of assemblies that are enabled by utilizing multiple robots, the algorithms that synchronize the motions of the robots to complete the assembly operations, and the metrics used to assess the quality and performance of the assemblies. PMID:29497234

  8. Multi-Robot Assembly Strategies and Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Jeremy A; Bostelman, Roger; Falco, Joe

    2018-02-01

    We present a survey of multi-robot assembly applications and methods and describe trends and general insights into the multi-robot assembly problem for industrial applications. We focus on fixtureless assembly strategies featuring two or more robotic systems. Such robotic systems include industrial robot arms, dexterous robotic hands, and autonomous mobile platforms, such as automated guided vehicles. In this survey, we identify the types of assemblies that are enabled by utilizing multiple robots, the algorithms that synchronize the motions of the robots to complete the assembly operations, and the metrics used to assess the quality and performance of the assemblies.

  9. Operation analysis of a Chebyshev-Pantograph leg mechanism for a single DOF biped robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Conghui; Ceccarelli, Marco; Takeda, Yukio

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, operation analysis of a Chebyshev-Pantograph leg mechanism is presented for a single degree of freedom (DOF) biped robot. The proposed leg mechanism is composed of a Chebyshev four-bar linkage and a pantograph mechanism. In contrast to general fully actuated anthropomorphic leg mechanisms, the proposed leg mechanism has peculiar features like compactness, low-cost, and easy-operation. Kinematic equations of the proposed leg mechanism are formulated for a computer oriented simulation. Simulation results show the operation performance of the proposed leg mechanism with suitable characteristics. A parametric study has been carried out to evaluate the operation performance as function of design parameters. A prototype of a single DOF biped robot equipped with two proposed leg mechanisms has been built at LARM (Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics). Experimental test shows practical feasible walking ability of the prototype, as well as drawbacks are discussed for the mechanical design.

  10. LocoKit - A Construction Kit for Exploration of Morphology of Legged Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Producing steady stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in unknown terrain is a big challenge in robotics. In addressing this challenge, it is often desirable to experiment with different morphologies and see how they influence on the way the robot walks....... legged robots. This is accomplished by giving the creator the possibility to easily do morphological changes to the robot even after it have been build, to see how it effects the robot’s ability to walk in unknown terrain....

  11. Force Control Strategies in Hydraulically Actuated Legged Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Montes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, several strategies of force control have been proposed to be implemented and evaluated in ROBOCLIMBER, a quadruped robot of large dimensions. A first group of strategies proposed in this paper is based on impedance control, which is intended to adapt the foot-ground contact forces according to the experimentally specified damping ratio and the undamped natural frequency. A second control strategy of interest for many practical cases is called the parallel force/position control, which has one inner loop position control and two external control loops, one of force and another of position. A third group of control strategies is the posture stabilization for ROBOCLIMBER using the feedback of the ZMP calculation and the position of its legs. Finally, a control strategy for the control of a quasi-static gait using ZMP feedback is proposed and tested by simulation.

  12. Passive Control of Attachment in Legged Space Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gasparetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the space environment the absence of gravity calls for constant safe attachment of any loose object, but the low-pressure conditions prohibit the use of glue-type adhesives. The attachment system of freely hunting spiders, e.g. Evarcha arcuata, employs van der Waals forces and mechanical interlocking. Furthermore, detachment is achieved passively and requires little force. Hence, the spider serves as a model for a versatile legged robot for space applications, e.g. on the outer surface of a space station. In this paper, we analyse the dry attachment systems of E. arcuata and geckos as well as the kinematics of freely hunting spiders. We generalise the results of biological studies on spider locomotion and mobility, including the major movement and the position constraints set by the dry adhesion system. From these results, we define a simplified spider model and study the overall kinematics of the legs both in flight and in contact with the surface. The kinematic model, the data on spider gait characteristics and the adhesion constraints are implemented in a kinematic simulator. The simulator results confirm the principal functionality of our concept.

  13. Artificial Leg Design and Control Research of a Biped Robot with Heterogeneous Legs Based on PID Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Xie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL is proposed to provide an ideal test-bed for intelligent bionic legs (IBL. To make artificial leg gait better suited to a human, a four-bar mechanism is used as its knee joint, and a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM is used as its driving source. The static mathematical model of PAM is established and the mechanical model of a single degree of freedom of a knee joint driven by PAM is analyzed. A control simulation of an artificial leg based on PID control algorithm is carried out and the simulation results indicate that the artificial leg can simulate precisely a normal human walking gait.

  14. On Open- source Multi-robot simulators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namoshe, M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Open source software simulators play a major role in robotics design and research as platforms for developing, testing and improving architectures, concepts and algorithms for cooperative/multi-robot systems. Simulation environment enables control...

  15. Balanced gait generations of a two-legged robot on sloping surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    legged robot moving up and down through the sloping surface is presented. The gait of the lower links during locomotion is obtained after assuming suitable trajectories for the swing leg and hip joint. The trunk motion is initially generated based on ...

  16. Software and Hardware control of a hybrid robot for switching between leg-type and wheel-type modes

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Wagner Tanaka; Okada, Tokuji; Mahmoud, Abeer; Shimizu, Toshimi

    2011-01-01

    One of the objectives of the paper is to describe the hybrid robot PEOPLER-II (Perpendicularly Oriented Planetary Legged Robot) with regard to switching between leg-type and wheel-type. Our robot has an easier design and control system than other hybrid robots. The software and hardware control in the process of performing five robot tasks are considered. These are the walking, rolling, switching, turning and spinning. In the switching task, we show the control method based on minimization of...

  17. Biomimetic Spider Leg Joints: A Review from Biomechanical Research to Compliant Robotic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Landkammer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to their inherent compliance, soft actuated joints are becoming increasingly important for robotic applications, especially when human-robot-interactions are expected. Several of these flexible actuators are inspired by biological models. One perfect showpiece for biomimetic robots is the spider leg, because it combines lightweight design and graceful movements with powerful and dynamic actuation. Building on this motivation, the review article focuses on compliant robotic joints inspired by the function principle of the spider leg. The mechanism is introduced by an overview of existing biological and biomechanical research. Thereupon a classification of robots that are bio-inspired by spider joints is presented. Based on this, the biomimetic robot applications referring to the spider principle are identified and discussed.

  18. Analysis of balance control methods based on inverted pendulum for legged robots

    OpenAIRE

    Denisov, A.; Iakovlev, R.; Mamaev, I.; Pavliuk, N.

    2017-01-01

    Methods of balance control for a legged robot, the model of which is presented as a two-section inverted pendulum, are considered. The following balance methods for humanoid robots are analysed: the parallel algorithm of the network operator method; the method of natural synergies; the method of fuzzy control, the spherical inverted pendulum mode, a dual length linear inverted pendulum method. The best of these methods will be used in the development of the Russian anthropomorphic robot Antares.

  19. Analysis of balance control methods based on inverted pendulum for legged robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of balance control for a legged robot, the model of which is presented as a two-section inverted pendulum, are considered. The following balance methods for humanoid robots are analysed: the parallel algorithm of the network operator method; the method of natural synergies; the method of fuzzy control, the spherical inverted pendulum mode, a dual length linear inverted pendulum method. The best of these methods will be used in the development of the Russian anthropomorphic robot Antares.

  20. Dynamics and Optimal Feet Force Distributions of a Realistic Four-legged Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Agarwal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed dynamic modeling of realistic four-legged robot. The direct and inverse kinematic analysis for each leg has been considered in order to develop an overall kinematic model of the robot, when it follows a straight path. This study also aims to estimate optimal feet force distributions of the said robot, which is necessary for its real-time control. Three different approaches namely, minimization of norm of feet forces (approach 1, minimization of norm of joint torques (approach 2 and minimization of norm of joint power (approach 3 have been developed. Simulation result shows that approach 3 is more energy efficient foot force formulation than other two approaches. Lagrange-Euler formulation has been utilized to determine the joint torques. The developed dynamic models have been examined through computer simulation of continuous gait of the four-legged robot.

  1. Cognitive Coordination for Cooperative Multi-Robot Teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-robot teams have potential advantages over a single robot. Robots in a team can serve different functionalities, so a team of robots can be more efficient, robust and reliable than a single robot. In this dissertation, we are in particular interested in human level intelligent multi-robot

  2. Study on improvement of energy efficiency of walking robots by spring -installed leg design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eung Soo; Song, Heuy Gap

    1993-01-01

    Although a walking robot is potentially useful in nuclear industry, its application has not been successful so far due to poor energy efficiency. In this paper, dynamic spring balancing of a swinging leg is proposed for improving energy efficiency. Since the fluctuation of internal energy is unavoidable due to leg oscillation, springs can be used for storing energy that is otherwise dissipated at the end of the return phase of the leg. Based of approximation to harmonic oscillation, an optimum trajectory and spring parameters are simultaneously synthesized for the leg in the return phase. (Author)

  3. Kinematics and dynamics analysis of a quadruped walking robot with parallel leg mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Sang, Lingfeng; Hu, Xing; Zhang, Dianfan; Yu, Hongnian

    2013-09-01

    It is desired to require a walking robot for the elderly and the disabled to have large capacity, high stiffness, stability, etc. However, the existing walking robots cannot achieve these requirements because of the weight-payload ratio and simple function. Therefore, Improvement of enhancing capacity and functions of the walking robot is an important research issue. According to walking requirements and combining modularization and reconfigurable ideas, a quadruped/biped reconfigurable walking robot with parallel leg mechanism is proposed. The proposed robot can be used for both a biped and a quadruped walking robot. The kinematics and performance analysis of a 3-UPU parallel mechanism which is the basic leg mechanism of a quadruped walking robot are conducted and the structural parameters are optimized. The results show that performance of the walking robot is optimal when the circumradius R, r of the upper and lower platform of leg mechanism are 161.7 mm, 57.7 mm, respectively. Based on the optimal results, the kinematics and dynamics of the quadruped walking robot in the static walking mode are derived with the application of parallel mechanism and influence coefficient theory, and the optimal coordination distribution of the dynamic load for the quadruped walking robot with over-determinate inputs is analyzed, which solves dynamic load coupling caused by the branches’ constraint of the robot in the walk process. Besides laying a theoretical foundation for development of the prototype, the kinematics and dynamics studies on the quadruped walking robot also boost the theoretical research of the quadruped walking and the practical applications of parallel mechanism.

  4. Dynamic control for a quadruped locomotion robot in consideration of the leg-support-exchange phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Akihito; Furusho, Junji; Okajima, Yosuke

    1988-01-01

    This paper proposes a new control method for quardruped walking robots in which the leg-support-exchange is lithely implemented. First, the authors formulate the leg-support-exchange phenomenon in 'Trot' using Lagrange's collision equation. Then the continuous walking can be numerically analyzed. Secondly, we propose a new control algorithm for leg-support-exchange. The conventional high gain local feedback causes many problems such as slip and excessive high torque in the leg-support-exchange phase of dynamic walking since it is impossible in this phase to prepare the proper reference values beforehand. In this algorithm, the control law is changed to 'free mode' or 'constant current mode' in order to adjust to the environment. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is confirmed by computer simulation and experiments using the walking robot 'COLT-1.' (author)

  5. Dynamics of underwater legged locomotion: modeling and experiments on an octopus-inspired robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, M; Corucci, F; Arienti, A; Laschi, C

    2015-07-30

    This paper studies underwater legged locomotion (ULL) by means of a robotic octopus-inspired prototype and its associated model. Two different types of propulsive actions are embedded into the robot model: reaction forces due to leg contact with the ground and hydrodynamic forces such as the drag arising from the sculling motion of the legs. Dynamic parameters of the model are estimated by means of evolutionary techniques and subsequently the model is exploited to highlight some distinctive features of ULL. Specifically, the separation between the center of buoyancy (CoB)/center of mass and density affect the stability and speed of the robot, whereas the sculling movements contribute to propelling the robot even when its legs are detached from the ground. The relevance of these effects is demonstrated through robotic experiments and model simulations; moreover, by slightly changing the position of the CoB in the presence of the same feed-forward activation, a number of different behaviors (i.e. forward and backward locomotion at different speeds) are achieved.

  6. Development and Testing of a Mobile Robot with Hybrid Legged-Wheeled Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Barbu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present the development and testing process of a mobile robot with hybrid legged-wheeled locomotion, that can be used for exploring dangerous environments. The robot has a high adaptability to rough terrain by being able to modify its ride height, to overpass step or ditch type obstacles and most of all, being able to operate while overturned or to revert itself into the normal operating position.

  7. Biologically Inspired Modular Neural Control for a Leg-Wheel Hybrid Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Wörgötter, Florentin; Laksanacharoen, Pudit

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present modular neural control for a leg-wheel hybrid robot consisting of three legs with omnidirectional wheels. This neural control has four main modules having their functional origin in biological neural systems. A minimal recurrent control (MRC) module is for sensory signal...... processing and state memorization. Its outputs drive two front wheels while the rear wheel is controlled through a velocity regulating network (VRN) module. In parallel, a neural oscillator network module serves as a central pattern generator (CPG) controls leg movements for sidestepping. Stepping directions...... or they can serve as useful modules for other module-based neural control applications....

  8. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shang-Chang; Hu, Chia-Jui; Shih, Wen-Pin; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic ...

  9. Bioinspired legged-robot based on large deformation of flexible skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayyas, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present STARbot, a bioinspired legged robot capable of multiple locomotion modalities by using large deformation of its skeleton. We construct STARbot by using origami-style folding of flexible laminates. The long-term goal is to provide a robotic platform with maximum mobility on multiple surfaces. This paper particularly studies the quasistatic model of STARbot’s leg under different conditions. We describe the large elastic deformation of a leg under external force, payload, and friction by using a set of non-dimensional, nonlinear approximate equations. We developed a test mechanism that models the motion of a leg in STARbot. We augmented several foot shapes and then tested them on soft to rough grounds. Both simulation and experimental findings were in good agreement. We utilized the model to develop several scales of tri and quad STARbot. We demonstrated the capability of these robots to locomote by combining their leg deformations with their foot motions. The combination provided a design platform for an active suspension STARbot with controlled foot locomotion. This included the ability of STARbot to change size, run over obstacles, walk and slide. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss a cost effective manufacturing and production method for manufacturing STARbot. (paper)

  10. Bioinspired legged-robot based on large deformation of flexible skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyas, Mohammad

    2014-11-11

    In this article we present STARbot, a bioinspired legged robot capable of multiple locomotion modalities by using large deformation of its skeleton. We construct STARbot by using origami-style folding of flexible laminates. The long-term goal is to provide a robotic platform with maximum mobility on multiple surfaces. This paper particularly studies the quasistatic model of STARbot's leg under different conditions. We describe the large elastic deformation of a leg under external force, payload, and friction by using a set of non-dimensional, nonlinear approximate equations. We developed a test mechanism that models the motion of a leg in STARbot. We augmented several foot shapes and then tested them on soft to rough grounds. Both simulation and experimental findings were in good agreement. We utilized the model to develop several scales of tri and quad STARbot. We demonstrated the capability of these robots to locomote by combining their leg deformations with their foot motions. The combination provided a design platform for an active suspension STARbot with controlled foot locomotion. This included the ability of STARbot to change size, run over obstacles, walk and slide. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss a cost effective manufacturing and production method for manufacturing STARbot.

  11. On the Necessity of Including Joint Passive Dynamics in the Impedance Control of Robotic Legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Arevalo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioinspired quadruped robots are among the best robot designs for field missions over the complex terrain encountered in extraterrestrial landscapes and disaster scenarios caused by natural and human-made catastrophes, such as those caused by nuclear power plant accidents and radiological emergencies. For such applications, the performance characteristics of the robots should include high mobility, adaptability to the terrain, the ability to handle a large payload and good endurance. Nature can provide inspiration for quadruped designs that are well suited for traversing complex terrain. Horse legs are an example of a structure that has evolved to exhibit good performance characteristics. In this paper, a leg design exhibiting the key features of horse legs is briefly described. This leg is an underactuated mechanism because it has two actively driven degrees of freedom (DOFs and one passively driven DOF. In this work, two control laws intended to be use in the stan ce phase are described: a control law that considers passive mechanism dynamics and a second law that neglects these dynamics. The performance of the two control laws is experimentally evaluated and compared. The results indicate that the first control law better achieves the control goal; however, the use of the second is not completely unjustified.

  12. Multisensory guidance of goal-oriented behaviour of legged robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Manoonpong, Poramate; Tuxworth, Gervase

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems often combine cues from two different sensory modalities to execute goal-oriented sensorimotor tasks, which otherwise cannot be accurately executed with either sensory stream in isolation. When auditory cues alone are not sufficient to accurately localise an audio-visual target...... is tasked with localising an audio-visual target by turning towards it. The architecture extracts sound direction information with a model of the peripheral auditory system of lizards to modulate locomotion control parameters driving the turning behaviour. The visual information adaptively changes...... the strength of the acoustomotor coupling to adjust turning speed of the robot. Our experiments demonstrate improved orientation towards the audio-visual target emitting a tone of frequency 2.2kHz located at an angular offset of 45 degrees from the robot....

  13. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    express my heartfelt thanks to my thesis advisor . Rod Brooks. who supported and encouraged me throughout my time at MIT. He provided a good mixture of...group than is possible with individual robots alone. 25 26 CHAPTER 3. ALLIANCE: THE COOPERATIVE ROBO ,ARCHITECTURE’ discuss the implications of these...available, robot teams should take advantage of it; however, I do not want the team to experience total breakdown when communication becomes unavailable

  14. A Dynamic Balancing Approach for a Quadruped Robot Supported by Diagonal Legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Meng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For legged robots, the most important task is to keep balance. This paper proposes a new balance control approach. To simplify the control complexity, first, LQR (linear quadratic regulator control was used to obtain stable state feedback for the model. Then, the 6-DOF model was stabilized by dividing the whole robot into three separate parts. After that, VMC (virtual model control was used to change the configuration of the joints. The simulation results showed that the proposed method allowed the quadruped robot to walk stably, even when certain types of disturbance were exerted on the models. In the simulation model, to mimic real conditions, noise was added to the sensors; the algorithm was then verified as still suitable for the quadruped robot.

  15. Mechanical design for a hydraulically actuated quadruped robot

    OpenAIRE

    Erkekli, Koray

    2017-01-01

    Considerable amount of research efforts are spent on the field of legged robotics in the past 60 years. Studies in this area extend from running on one leg to humanoid robots, from four legged robots (quadruped) to multi-legged bug-inspired robots. The advantage of four legged structure is that it is more balanced compared structures with less legs. This feature makes four legged robots candidates rough terrain conditions and for dangerous tasks. Because of the high power-to-weight ratio and ...

  16. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  17. Behavior-based obstacle avoidance capability for biologically inspired eight-legged walking robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzeldin Ibrahim Mohd; Shamsudin M Amin; Adel Ali Syed Al-Jumaily

    1999-01-01

    Behavior-based approach has proven to be useful in making mobile robot working in real world situations. Since the behaviors are responsible for managing the interaction between the robots and its environment, observing their use can be exploited to model these interactions. A real-time obstacle avoidance algorithm has been developed and implemented. This algorithm permits the detection of unknown obstacle simultaneously with the steering of the mobile robot to avoid collisions and advance toward the target. In our approach the robot is initially given a set of behavior-producing modules to choose from, and the algorithm provides a memory-based approach to dynamically adapt the selection of the behaviors according to the history of their use. We developed a set of algorithms, which uses Subsumption Architecture (SA) for controlling an eight-legged walking robot operating in closed vicinity. This paper describes a successful application of these algorithms to Oct-Ib robot and experimental results of the robot navigating in complex environment. (Author)

  18. Localized irradiation of mouse legs using an image-guided robotic linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufeld, Markus; Escobar, Helena; Marg, Andreas; Pasemann, Diana; Budach, Volker; Spuler, Simone

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the potential of human satellite cells in muscle regeneration small animal models are useful to evaluate muscle regeneration. To suppress the inherent regeneration ability of the tibialis muscle of mice before transplantation of human muscle fibers, a localized irradiation of the mouse leg should be conducted. We analyzed the feasibility of an image-guided robotic irradiation procedure, a routine treatment method in radiation oncology, for the focal irradiation of mouse legs. After conducting a planning computed tomography (CT) scan of one mouse in its customized mold a three-dimensional dose plan was calculated using a dedicated planning workstation. 18 Gy have been applied to the right anterior tibial muscle of 4 healthy and 12 mice with immune defect in general anesthesia using an image-guided robotic linear accelerator (LINAC). The mice were fixed in a customized acrylic mold with attached fiducial markers for image guided tracking. All 16 mice could be irradiated as prevised without signs of acute radiation toxicity or anesthesiological side effects. The animals survived until scarification after 8, 21 and 49 days as planned. The procedure was straight forward and the irradiation process took 5 minutes to apply the dose of 18 Gy. Localized irradiation of mice legs using a robotic LINAC could be conducted as planned. It is a feasible procedure without recognizable side effects. Image guidance offers precise dose delivery and preserves adjacent body parts and tissues.

  19. Long-distance singularities in multi-leg scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, Einan; Duhr, Claude

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent completion of the three-loop calculation of the soft anomalous dimension in massless gauge-theory scattering amplitudes. This brings the state-of-the-art knowledge of long-distance singularities in multi-leg QCD amplitudes with any number of massless particles to three loops. The result displays some novel features: this is the first time non-dipole corrections appear, which directly correlate the colour and kinematic degrees of freedom of four coloured partons. We find that non-dipole corrections appear at three loops also for three coloured partons, but these are independent of the kinematics. The final result is remarkably simple when expressed in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms, and it satisfies several non-trivial constraints. In particular, it is consistent with the high-energy limit behaviour and it satisfies the expected factorization properties in two-particle collinear limits.

  20. Design of robotic leg and physiotherapy (ROLEP) assist with interactive game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A. F.; Husin, M. F. Che; Hashim, M. N.; Rosli, K. A.; Roslim, F. R. A.; Abidin, A. F. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Injuries in certain parts of the feet can cause a person to have difficulty in walking or running if it is not treated through physiotherapy. In Malaysia, therapy centers only provide a service or the use of basic tools that are not efficient as more sophisticated equipment requires a high cost. In fact, exercise requiring close monitoring physiotherapist are also at a high cost. Therefore, using robot therapy is a new technology that can provide an alternative way to solve this problem. The implementation of this project has produced a robotic physiotherapy which has one degree of freedom, portable and inexpensive way to help the movement of the patient's leg. It covers basic electrical circuits, mechanical components, programming and has been combined with an interactive game as the main driver. ROLEP (Robotic-Leg-Physiotherapy) is able to help patients through the therapy process. It was built using CT-UNO as its microprocessor connected to MD10-C which acted as the motor driver. The interactive game produced by using Unity game software is a key driver in getting rid of boredom and reduce pain. As a result, ROLEP designed can operate well within its range of the patient's weight. It has the advantage of portability and easy to use by the patients. ROLEP expected to help patients undergoing therapy process more efficient and interesting in the process of recovery.

  1. RGB–D terrain perception and dense mapping for legged robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belter Dominik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issues of unstructured terrain modeling for the purpose of navigation with legged robots. We present an improved elevation grid concept adopted to the specific requirements of a small legged robot with limited perceptual capabilities. We propose an extension of the elevation grid update mechanism by incorporating a formal treatment of the spatial uncertainty. Moreover, this paper presents uncertainty models for a structured light RGB-D sensor and a stereo vision camera used to produce a dense depth map. The model for the uncertainty of the stereo vision camera is based on uncertainty propagation from calibration, through undistortion and rectification algorithms, allowing calculation of the uncertainty of measured 3D point coordinates. The proposed uncertainty models were used for the construction of a terrain elevation map using the Videre Design STOC stereo vision camera and Kinect-like range sensors. We provide experimental verification of the proposed mapping method, and a comparison with another recently published terrain mapping method for walking robots.

  2. Modification and Actuator Minimization of the Hip Leg Joint in a Bipedal Robot: A Proposed Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Tripathi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, there have been numeric applications of Biped Robots. In this paper, a proposed upper leg hip design of a biped was developed taking cost reduction and optimization as factors for consideration. The proposed system introduces a novel method which consists of a vibration reduction (VR DC stepper motor, microcontroller, microprocessor and gearing arrangement. The program in the microprocessor is so designed that it gives a fixed number of cycles/steps to the VR DC stepper motor in clockwise and thereafter in anti-clockwise direction. This turning movement can then be transmitted to the gearing system which precisely moves one upper leg when the VR DC stepper motor moves in clockwise direction, while the other upper leg remains static, and vice-versa. It has been observed that this new proposed system may reduce the cost overhead, weight and the energy consumption incurred by working on a single VR DC stepper motor while conventionally two stepper motors are used to give the motion of the two upper legs in a biped.

  3. Research on the Obstacle Negotiation Strategy for the Heavy-duty Six-legged Robot based on Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mantian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To make heavy-duty six-legged robots without environment reconstruction system negotiate obstacles after the earthquake successfully, an obstacle negotiation strategy is described in this paper. The reflection strategy is generated by the information of plantar force sensors and Bezier Curve is used to plan trajectory. As the heavy-duty six-legged robot has a large inertia, force controller is necessary to ensure the robot not to lose stability while negotiating obstacles. Impedance control is applied to reduce the impact of collision and active force control is applied to adjust the pose of the robot. The robot can walk through zones that are filled with obstacles automatically because of force control. Finally, the algorithm is verified in a simulation environment.

  4. Insect-computer hybrid legged robot with user-adjustable speed, step length and walking gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Choo, Hao Yu; Sato, Hirotaka

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed an insect-computer hybrid legged robot using a living beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata; Coleoptera). The protraction/retraction and levation/depression motions in both forelegs of the beetle were elicited by electrically stimulating eight corresponding leg muscles via eight pairs of implanted electrodes. To perform a defined walking gait (e.g., gallop), different muscles were individually stimulated in a predefined sequence using a microcontroller. Different walking gaits were performed by reordering the applied stimulation signals (i.e., applying different sequences). By varying the duration of the stimulation sequences, we successfully controlled the step frequency and hence the beetle's walking speed. To the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first demonstration of living insect locomotion control with a user-adjustable walking gait, step length and walking speed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Robustness to Inertial Parameter Errors for Legged Robots Balancing on Level Ground

    OpenAIRE

    Giftsun , Nirmal; Del Prete , Andrea; Lamiraux , Florent

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Model-based control has become more and more popular in the legged robots community in the last ten years. The key idea is to exploit a model of the system to compute precise motor commands that result in the desired motion. This allows to improve the quality of the motion tracking, while using lower gains, leading so to higher compliance. However, the main flaw of this approach is typically its lack of robustness to modeling errors. In this paper we focus on the robus...

  6. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic moduli of the composites can be derived. Next, by using the model that links the curved beam mechanics back to the virtual spring, the resultant stiffness of the composite in a half-circular shape can be estimated without going through intensive experimental tryouts. The overall methodology has been experimentally validated, and the fabricated composites were used on a hexapod robot to perform walking and leaping behaviors.

  7. Multi-sensor measurement system for robotic drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Frommknecht, Andreas; Kühnle, Jens; Pidan, Sergej; Effenberger, Ira

    2015-01-01

    A multi-sensor measurement system for robotic drilling is presented. The system enables a robot to measure its 6D pose with respect to the work piece and to establish a reference coordinate system for drilling. The robot approaches the drill point and performs an orthogonal alignment with the work piece. Although the measurement systems are readily capable of achieving high position accuracy and low deviation to perpendicularity, experiments show that inaccuracies in the robot's 6D-pose and e...

  8. Theory Analysis and Experiment Research of the Leg Mechanism for the Human-Carrying Walking Chair Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Sang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the high carrying capacity of the human-carrying walking chair robot, in this paper, 2-UPS+UP parallel mechanism is selected as the leg mechanism; then kinematics, workspace, control, and experiment of the leg mechanism are researched in detail. Firstly, design of the whole mechanism is described and degrees of freedom of the leg mechanism are analyzed. Second, the forward position, inverse position, and velocity of leg mechanism are studied. Third, based on the kinematics analysis and the structural constraints, the reachable workspace of 2-UPS+UP parallel mechanism is solved, and then the optimal motion workspace is searched in the reachable workspace by choosing the condition number as the evaluation index. Fourth, according to the theory analysis of the parallel leg mechanism, its control system is designed and the compound position control strategy is studied. Finally, in optimal motion workspace, the compound position control strategy is verified by using circular track with the radius 100 mm; the experiment results show that the leg mechanism moves smoothly and does not tremble obviously. Theory analysis and experiment research of the single leg mechanism provide a theoretical foundation for the control of the quadruped human-carrying walking chair robot.

  9. Towards Coordination and Control of Multi-robot Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quottrup, Michael Melholt

    This thesis focuses on control and coordination of mobile multi-robot systems (MRS). MRS can often deal with tasks that are difficult to be accomplished by a single robot. One of the challenges is the need to control, coordinate and synchronize the operation of several robots to perform some...... specified task. This calls for new strategies and methods which allow the desired system behavior to be specified in a formal and succinct way. Two different frameworks for the coordination and control of MRS have been investigated. Framework I - A network of robots is modeled as a network of multi...... a requirement specification in Computational Tree Logic (CTL) for a network of robots. The result is a set of motion plans for the robots which satisfy the specification. Framework II - A framework for controller synthesis for a single robot with respect to requirement specification in Linear-time Temporal...

  10. Obstacle traversal and self-righting of bio-inspired robots reveal the physics of multi-modal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    Most animals move in nature in a variety of locomotor modes. For example, to traverse obstacles like dense vegetation, cockroaches can climb over, push across, reorient their bodies to maneuver through slits, or even transition among these modes forming diverse locomotor pathways; if flipped over, they can also self-right using wings or legs to generate body pitch or roll. By contrast, most locomotion studies have focused on a single mode such as running, walking, or jumping, and robots are still far from capable of life-like, robust, multi-modal locomotion in the real world. Here, we present two recent studies using bio-inspired robots, together with new locomotion energy landscapes derived from locomotor-environment interaction physics, to begin to understand the physics of multi-modal locomotion. (1) Our experiment of a cockroach-inspired legged robot traversing grass-like beam obstacles reveals that, with a terradynamically ``streamlined'' rounded body like that of the insect, robot traversal becomes more probable by accessing locomotor pathways that overcome lower potential energy barriers. (2) Our experiment of a cockroach-inspired self-righting robot further suggests that body vibrations are crucial for exploring locomotion energy landscapes and reaching lower barrier pathways. Finally, we posit that our new framework of locomotion energy landscapes holds promise to better understand and predict multi-modal biological and robotic movement.

  11. A Novel Identification Methodology for the Coordinate Relationship between a 3D Vision System and a Legged Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Chai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Coordinate identification between vision systems and robots is quite a challenging issue in the field of intelligent robotic applications, involving steps such as perceiving the immediate environment, building the terrain map and planning the locomotion automatically. It is now well established that current identification methods have non-negligible limitations such as a difficult feature matching, the requirement of external tools and the intervention of multiple people. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology to identify the geometric parameters of 3D vision systems mounted on robots without involving other people or additional equipment. In particular, our method focuses on legged robots which have complex body structures and excellent locomotion ability compared to their wheeled/tracked counterparts. The parameters can be identified only by moving robots on a relatively flat ground. Concretely, an estimation approach is provided to calculate the ground plane. In addition, the relationship between the robot and the ground is modeled. The parameters are obtained by formulating the identification problem as an optimization problem. The methodology is integrated on a legged robot called “Octopus”, which can traverse through rough terrains with high stability after obtaining the identification parameters of its mounted vision system using the proposed method. Diverse experiments in different environments demonstrate our novel method is accurate and robust.

  12. A Novel Identification Methodology for the Coordinate Relationship between a 3D Vision System and a Legged Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xun; Gao, Feng; Pan, Yang; Qi, Chenkun; Xu, Yilin

    2015-04-22

    Coordinate identification between vision systems and robots is quite a challenging issue in the field of intelligent robotic applications, involving steps such as perceiving the immediate environment, building the terrain map and planning the locomotion automatically. It is now well established that current identification methods have non-negligible limitations such as a difficult feature matching, the requirement of external tools and the intervention of multiple people. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology to identify the geometric parameters of 3D vision systems mounted on robots without involving other people or additional equipment. In particular, our method focuses on legged robots which have complex body structures and excellent locomotion ability compared to their wheeled/tracked counterparts. The parameters can be identified only by moving robots on a relatively flat ground. Concretely, an estimation approach is provided to calculate the ground plane. In addition, the relationship between the robot and the ground is modeled. The parameters are obtained by formulating the identification problem as an optimization problem. The methodology is integrated on a legged robot called "Octopus", which can traverse through rough terrains with high stability after obtaining the identification parameters of its mounted vision system using the proposed method. Diverse experiments in different environments demonstrate our novel method is accurate and robust.

  13. Multi-robot Cooperation Behavior Decision Based on Psychological Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on psychology concept has been proved to be a successful tool used for human-robot interaction. But its related research in multi-robot cooperation has remained scarce until recent studies. To solve the problem, a decision-making mechanism based on psychological values is presented to be regarded as the basis of the multi-robot cooperation. Robots give birth to psychological values based on the estimations of environment, teammates and themselves. The mapping relationship between psychological values and cooperation tendency threshold values is set up with artificial neural network. Robots can make decision on the bases of these threshold values in cooperation scenes. Experiments show that the multi-robot cooperation method presented in the paper not only can ensure the rationality of robots’ decision-making, but also can ensure the speediness of robots’ decision-making.

  14. A Multi-Agent Control Architecture for a Robotic Wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Galindo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistant robots like robotic wheelchairs can perform an effective and valuable work in our daily lives. However, they eventually may need external help from humans in the robot environment (particularly, the driver in the case of a wheelchair to accomplish safely and efficiently some tricky tasks for the current technology, i.e. opening a locked door, traversing a crowded area, etc. This article proposes a control architecture for assistant robots designed under a multi-agent perspective that facilitates the participation of humans into the robotic system and improves the overall performance of the robot as well as its dependability. Within our design, agents have their own intentions and beliefs, have different abilities (that include algorithmic behaviours and human skills and also learn autonomously the most convenient method to carry out their actions through reinforcement learning. The proposed architecture is illustrated with a real assistant robot: a robotic wheelchair that provides mobility to impaired or elderly people.

  15. Bio-inspired swing leg control for spring-mass robots running on ground with unexpected height disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejdani, H R; Hurst, J W; Blum, Y; Daley, M A

    2013-01-01

    We proposed three swing leg control policies for spring-mass running robots, inspired by experimental data from our recent collaborative work on ground running birds. Previous investigations suggest that animals may prioritize injury avoidance and/or efficiency as their objective function during running rather than maintaining limit-cycle stability. Therefore, in this study we targeted structural capacity (maximum leg force to avoid damage) and efficiency as the main goals for our control policies, since these objective functions are crucial to reduce motor size and structure weight. Each proposed policy controls the leg angle as a function of time during flight phase such that its objective function during the subsequent stance phase is regulated. The three objective functions that are regulated in the control policies are (i) the leg peak force, (ii) the axial impulse, and (iii) the leg actuator work. It should be noted that each control policy regulates one single objective function. Surprisingly, all three swing leg control policies result in nearly identical subsequent stance phase dynamics. This implies that the implementation of any of the proposed control policies would satisfy both goals (damage avoidance and efficiency) at once. Furthermore, all three control policies require a surprisingly simple leg angle adjustment: leg retraction with constant angular acceleration. (paper)

  16. Bio-inspired swing leg control for spring-mass robots running on ground with unexpected height disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdani, H R; Blum, Y; Daley, M A; Hurst, J W

    2013-12-01

    We proposed three swing leg control policies for spring-mass running robots, inspired by experimental data from our recent collaborative work on ground running birds. Previous investigations suggest that animals may prioritize injury avoidance and/or efficiency as their objective function during running rather than maintaining limit-cycle stability. Therefore, in this study we targeted structural capacity (maximum leg force to avoid damage) and efficiency as the main goals for our control policies, since these objective functions are crucial to reduce motor size and structure weight. Each proposed policy controls the leg angle as a function of time during flight phase such that its objective function during the subsequent stance phase is regulated. The three objective functions that are regulated in the control policies are (i) the leg peak force, (ii) the axial impulse, and (iii) the leg actuator work. It should be noted that each control policy regulates one single objective function. Surprisingly, all three swing leg control policies result in nearly identical subsequent stance phase dynamics. This implies that the implementation of any of the proposed control policies would satisfy both goals (damage avoidance and efficiency) at once. Furthermore, all three control policies require a surprisingly simple leg angle adjustment: leg retraction with constant angular acceleration.

  17. A Tabular Format for Computing Inverse Kinematic Equations for a 3DOF Robot Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nickols

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented for accurately computing the three servomechanism angles that place the leg tip of a 3DOF robot leg in cylindrical coordinate space, R, θ, Z. The method is characterized by (i a multivariable integer power series for each degree of freedom that can be used to replace traditional trigonometrical functions, and, (ii only integer numbers are used. A technique is shown that derives the coefficients, Ci j k, of each of the terms in the series that represents a servomechanism angle, S. This power series method has the advantage of; (i satisfying accuracy requirements, (ii producing a unique solution, (iii high speed realtime computation, (iv low memory requirement and (v implementation into a generic algorithm or hardware such as a field programmable gate array. The series can represent many continuous kinematic systems just by changing the values of the coefficients. The coefficients are rapidly computed via a spreadsheet. The method can be extended to more than three degrees of freedom and also mapped into other coordinate frames such as a Cartesian or spherical.

  18. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300–800 ms by compressing their body 40–60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s−1, despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion—“body-friction legged crawling” with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces. PMID:26858443

  19. Dynamic characterization of contact interactions of micro-robotic leg structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Jeong Hoon; Oldham, Kenn Richard

    2014-05-01

    Contact dynamics of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are typically complicated and it is consequently difficult to model all dynamic characteristics observed in time-domain responses involving impact. This issue becomes worse when a device, such as a mobile micro-robot, is not clamped to a substrate and has a complex mechanical structure. To characterize such a contact interaction situation, two walking micro-robot prototypes are tested having intentionally simple structures with different dimensions (21.2 mm × 16.3 mm × 0.75 mm and 32 mm × 25.4 mm × 4.1 mm) and weights (0.16 and 2.7 g). Contact interaction behaviors are characterized by analyzing experimental data under various excitation signals. A numerical approach was used to derive a novel contact model consisting of a coefficient of restitution matrix that uses modal vibration information. Experimental validation of the simulation model shows that it captures various dynamic features of the contact interaction when simulating leg behavior more accurately than previous contact models, such as single-point coefficient of restitution or compliant ground models. In addition, this paper shows that small-scale forces can be added to the simulation to improve model accuracy, resulting in average errors across driving conditions on the order of 2-6% for bounce frequency, maximum foot height, and average foot height, although there is substantial variation from case to case.

  20. Body shape helps legged robots climb and turn in complex 3-D terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuanfeng; Wang, Zheliang; Li, Chen

    Analogous to streamlined shapes that reduce drag in fluids, insects' ellipsoid-like rounded body shapes were recently discovered to be ``terradynamically streamlined'' and enhance locomotion in cluttered terrain by facilitating body rolling. Here, we hypothesize that there exist more terradynamic shapes that facilitate other modes of locomotion like climbing and turning in complex 3-D terrains by facilitating body pitching and yawing. To test our hypothesis, we modified the body shape of a legged robot by adding an elliptical and a rectangular shell and tested how it negotiated with circular and square vertical pillars. With a rectangular shell the robot always pitched against square pillars in an attempt to climb, whereas with an elliptical shell it always yawed and turned away from circular pillars given a small initial lateral displacement. Square / circular pillars facilitated pitching / yawing, respectively. To begin to reveal the contact physics, we developed a locomotion energy landscape model. Our model revealed that potential energy barriers to transition from pitching to yawing are high for angular locomotor and obstacle shapes (rectangular / square) but vanish for rounded shapes (elliptical / circular). Our study supports the plausibility of locomotion energy landscapes for understanding the rich locomotor transitions in complex 3-D terrains.

  1. Dynamic characterization of contact interactions of micro-robotic leg structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryou, Jeong Hoon; Oldham, Kenn Richard

    2014-01-01

    Contact dynamics of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are typically complicated and it is consequently difficult to model all dynamic characteristics observed in time-domain responses involving impact. This issue becomes worse when a device, such as a mobile micro-robot, is not clamped to a substrate and has a complex mechanical structure. To characterize such a contact interaction situation, two walking micro-robot prototypes are tested having intentionally simple structures with different dimensions (21.2 mm × 16.3 mm × 0.75 mm and 32 mm × 25.4 mm × 4.1 mm) and weights (0.16 and 2.7 g). Contact interaction behaviors are characterized by analyzing experimental data under various excitation signals. A numerical approach was used to derive a novel contact model consisting of a coefficient of restitution matrix that uses modal vibration information. Experimental validation of the simulation model shows that it captures various dynamic features of the contact interaction when simulating leg behavior more accurately than previous contact models, such as single-point coefficient of restitution or compliant ground models. In addition, this paper shows that small-scale forces can be added to the simulation to improve model accuracy, resulting in average errors across driving conditions on the order of 2–6% for bounce frequency, maximum foot height, and average foot height, although there is substantial variation from case to case. (paper)

  2. DUST, Albedo Monte-Carlo Simulation of Neutron Streaming in Multi-legged Square Concrete Ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DUST simulates the thermal neutron streaming through multi-legged square concrete ducts. 2 - Method of solution: DUST uses the albedo Monte Carlo method. The albedo data used are in the form of empirical formulae based on the measured doubly differential albedo data. Sampling of the reflected polar and azimuthal angles is done by the rejection method. Variance reduction devices such as Russian Roulette are used. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - The albedo data and the subroutines for sampling the reflected polar and azimuthal angles are specific for concrete ducts. The maximum number of legs (as specified by dimension statements) is 5 and the maximum number of dose points is 50. The dose points considered are only in the last leg of the multi-legged duct

  3. Multi-Robot, Multi-Target Particle Swarm Optimization Search in Noisy Wireless Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2009-05-01

    Multiple small robots (swarms) can work together using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for a single robot to accomplish. The problem considered in this paper is exploration of an unknown environment with the goal of finding a target(s) at an unknown location(s) using multiple small mobile robots. This work demonstrates the use of a distributed PSO algorithm with a novel adaptive RSS weighting factor to guide robots for locating target(s) in high risk environments. The approach was developed and analyzed on multiple robot single and multiple target search. The approach was further enhanced by the multi-robot-multi-target search in noisy environments. The experimental results demonstrated how the availability of radio frequency signal can significantly affect robot search time to reach a target.

  4. Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  5. Modeling and optimization of the single-leg multi-fare class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a static overbooking model for a single-leg multi-fare class flight. A realistic distribution of no-show data in modeling the cost function was considered using data collected from the Ethiopian airlines. The overbooking model developed considers the interaction (i.e. the transfer of an extra passenger in a ...

  6. Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Ahmed; Adel, Mohamed; Bakr, Mohamed; Shehata, Omar M; Khamis, Alaa

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions

  7. Example of Synthesis of Control Actions for Six-Legged Walking Robot when Moving on ‎Rough Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Karginov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control actions are provided on the basis of inverse kinematic problem. Now there is a set of methods to solve this task.This article considers an example of the author’s approach application to the inverse kinematic problem.The main idea of approach is as follows:1. The limited set of the joints necessary to implement the chosen gait is selected from all joints of the robot. For these joints a strict sequence of the movement within each step and restriction of changing generalized coordinates are specified. 2. The joints non-involved in implementing the chosen gait are disabled, with no calculations performed for them.Thus, the sources of basic data for the inverse kinematic problem are the kinematic scheme of the executive mechanism of the walking robot and the chosen gait.To use the offered approach it is necessary:1. To number the legs and their joints.2. To choose joints to be involved in realization of the chosen gait.3. To appoint a sequence of the change of supporting legs when moving by the chosen gait.4. To specify a motion sequence of the chosen joints within a step for each leg.5. To specify restrictions of changes of the generalized coordinates in the chosen joints.The inverse kinematic problem process consists in gradual approach to the solution by change (increase or decrease of the generalized coordinates in the same order in which the joints of a leg corresponding to these coordinates move within a step by the chosen gait when walking.Criterion of completing calculations is the limits reached or the fact that a leg is fixed on a supporting plane by a contact sensor (or a condition in the modeling program. Changes of generalized coordinates are within a cycle; each generalized coordinate changes by a certain value at each of iterations of a cycle. The total time of a cycle corresponds to the estimated time of a step to be done.Advantages of the approach are following: unambiguity of the received solution, possibility to

  8. Distributed consensus with visual perception in multi-robot systems

    CERN Document Server

    Montijano, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This monograph introduces novel responses to the different problems that arise when multiple robots need to execute a task in cooperation, each robot in the team having a monocular camera as its primary input sensor. Its central proposition is that a consistent perception of the world is crucial for the good development of any multi-robot application. The text focuses on the high-level problem of cooperative perception by a multi-robot system: the idea that, depending on what each robot sees and its current situation, it will need to communicate these things to its fellows whenever possible to share what it has found and keep updated by them in its turn. However, in any realistic scenario, distributed solutions to this problem are not trivial and need to be addressed from as many angles as possible. Distributed Consensus with Visual Perception in Multi-Robot Systems covers a variety of related topics such as: ·         distributed consensus algorithms; ·         data association and robustne...

  9. Multi-Robot Remote Interaction with FS-MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce bandwidth, improve productivity, autonomy and the scalability in multi-robot teleoperation has been recognized for a long time. In this article we propose a novel finite state machine mobile agent based on the network interaction service model, namely FS-MAS. This model consists of three finite state machines, namely the Finite State Mobile Agent (FS-Agent, which is the basic service module. The Service Content Finite State Machine (Content-FS, using the XML language to define workflow, to describe service content and service computation process. The Mobile Agent computation model Finite State Machine (MACM-FS, used to describe the service implementation. Finally, we apply this service model to the multi-robot system, the initial realization completing complex tasks in the form of multi-robot scheduling. This demonstrates that the robot has greatly improved intelligence, and provides a wide solution space for critical issues such as task division, rational and efficient use of resource and multi-robot collaboration.

  10. Effect of Multi-layer Compression Bandage Systems on Leg Ulcers Associated with Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kuplay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Venous leg ulcer is a major health problem in terms of high prevalence and high cost for treatment. Multi-layer compression bandage systems for venous leg ulcers are supposed to be the gold standard for the treatment of venous ulcers. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effectiveness of multi-layer compression bandage systems for the treatment of venous leg ulcers.Patients and Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients diagnosed to have leg ulcers were evaluated and four patients were excluded from the study due to the peripheral arterial disease. Fifteen patients, enrolled in the study, were classified according to CEAP classification and belonged to the same class. Betaven® multi-layer compression bandage was applied to patients. Patients were followed-up in terms of wound healing and reduction in wound diameter.Results: Twelve male and three female patients underwent multi-layer bandage system. Mean age of patients was 38.2 ± 4.2 years. Ulcer size was measured planimetrically and baseline ulcer size was 4-10 cm². The location of ulcer was on medial malloelus in seven patients, lateral malleolus in three patients, anterior surface of the leg in four patients and lateral side of the leg in one patient. Patients had chronic venous insuuficiency for a mean of 5.1 ± 2.1 years. CEAP classifications were C6, Ep, As2,3-p18, Pr2,3, 18. Each bandage was changed five days after application along with wound care. Mean duration of treatment was 6 ± 2 weeks. Complete healing of the venous ulcers occurred in all patients except for one. This patient was referred to plastic surgery clinic for reconstruction.Conclusion: Multi-layer compression bandage system is an effective method of treatment for venous leg ulcers associated with chronic venous insufficiency by reducing venous return and increasing intertitial tissue pressure. This effect occurred in the shortrun as well as with a low cost and prevented loss of labor.

  11. A Multi-Sensorial Hybrid Control for Robotic Manipulation in Human-Robot Workspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Corrales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous manipulation in semi-structured environments where human operators can interact is an increasingly common task in robotic applications. This paper describes an intelligent multi-sensorial approach that solves this issue by providing a multi-robotic platform with a high degree of autonomy and the capability to perform complex tasks. The proposed sensorial system is composed of a hybrid visual servo control to efficiently guide the robot towards the object to be manipulated, an inertial motion capture system and an indoor localization system to avoid possible collisions between human operators and robots working in the same workspace, and a tactile sensor algorithm to correctly manipulate the object. The proposed controller employs the whole multi-sensorial system and combines the measurements of each one of the used sensors during two different phases considered in the robot task: a first phase where the robot approaches the object to be grasped, and a second phase of manipulation of the object. In both phases, the unexpected presence of humans is taken into account. This paper also presents the successful results obtained in several experimental setups which verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  12. A proposal toward a possibilistic multi-robot task allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, J.

    2017-07-01

    One of the main problems to solve in multi-agent (or multi-robot) systems is to select the best robot or group of robots to carry out a specific task. This problem, referenced as Multi-Agent (robot) task allocation (MRTA), is still an open issue in real environments. Swarm intelligence methods provide very simple solutions for the MRTA problem. One of the most widely used swarm methods are the so-called Response Threshold algorithms, where the behavior of the systems is modeled as a Markov chain and the robots in each time step select the next task to execute according to a transition probability function. Among other factors, this probability depends on a stimulus (for example the distance between the robot and the task). This classical probabilistic approach presents a lot of disadvantages:the transition function must meet constraints of a probabilistic distribution, the system only convergences to a stationary asymptotically, and so on. In order to overcome these problems, a new theoretical framework based on fuzzy (possibilistic) Markov chains was proposed [2]. As was proved, the possibilistic Markov chains outperform the classical probabilistic when a Max-Min algebra is considered for matrix composition. For example, fuzzy Markov chains convergence to a stable state in a finite number of steps 10 times faster than its probability counter part. Moreover, they improve the predictions of the system under imprecise information. Firstly, this paper will review relevant work in MRTA, from theoretical and experimental point of view. Then it will be summarized the aforementioned recent advances given toward a new possibilistic swarm multi-robot task allocation framework. It will be seen how the possibilistic Markov chains behave when other algebras are considered for matrix composition [1] and how the possibility transition function impacts on the system's performance [3]. Finally, it will be proposed new future works in this field. (Author)

  13. A proposal toward a possibilistic multi-robot task allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main problems to solve in multi-agent (or multi-robot) systems is to select the best robot or group of robots to carry out a specific task. This problem, referenced as Multi-Agent (robot) task allocation (MRTA), is still an open issue in real environments. Swarm intelligence methods provide very simple solutions for the MRTA problem. One of the most widely used swarm methods are the so-called Response Threshold algorithms, where the behavior of the systems is modeled as a Markov chain and the robots in each time step select the next task to execute according to a transition probability function. Among other factors, this probability depends on a stimulus (for example the distance between the robot and the task). This classical probabilistic approach presents a lot of disadvantages:the transition function must meet constraints of a probabilistic distribution, the system only convergences to a stationary asymptotically, and so on. In order to overcome these problems, a new theoretical framework based on fuzzy (possibilistic) Markov chains was proposed [2]. As was proved, the possibilistic Markov chains outperform the classical probabilistic when a Max-Min algebra is considered for matrix composition. For example, fuzzy Markov chains convergence to a stable state in a finite number of steps 10 times faster than its probability counter part. Moreover, they improve the predictions of the system under imprecise information. Firstly, this paper will review relevant work in MRTA, from theoretical and experimental point of view. Then it will be summarized the aforementioned recent advances given toward a new possibilistic swarm multi-robot task allocation framework. It will be seen how the possibilistic Markov chains behave when other algebras are considered for matrix composition [1] and how the possibility transition function impacts on the system's performance [3]. Finally, it will be proposed new future works in this field. (Author)

  14. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demšar, Ivan; Duhovnik, Jože; Lešnik, Blaž; Supej, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW), various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA) and Range of Motion (RoM) in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1°) was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8°) and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°). In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2°) was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°). The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing. Key points The RoM in the ski boot on the side of the prosthetic leg was smaller than the RoM of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the ankle joint of prosthetic leg was comparable to that of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the prosthetic knee joint was greater than the RoM in the knee joint of the

  15. Cooperative multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.; Emmons, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring, or observing, the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications of this type, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the sue of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to maximize the collective tie during which each object is being observed by at least one robot in the area of interest. The initial efforts in this problem address the aspects of distributed control in homogeneous robot teams with equivalent sensing and movement capabilities working in an uncluttered, bounded area. This paper first formalizes the problem, discusses related work, and then shows that this problem is NP-hard. They then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level control

  16. Multi-robot team design for real-world applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-10-01

    Many of these applications are in dynamic environments requiring capabilities distributed in functionality, space, or time, and therefore often require teams of robots to work together. While much research has been done in recent years, current robotics technology is still far from achieving many of the real world applications. Two primary reasons for this technology gap are that (1) previous work has not adequately addressed the issues of fault tolerance and adaptivity in multi-robot teams, and (2) existing robotics research is often geared at specific applications and is not easily generalized to different, but related, applications. This paper addresses these issues by first describing the design issues of key importance in these real-world cooperative robotics applications: fault tolerance, reliability, adaptivity, and coherence. We then present a general architecture addressing these design issues (called ALLIANCE) that facilities multi-robot cooperation of small- to medium-sized teams in dynamic environments, performing missions composed of loosely coupled subtasks. We illustrate an implementation of ALLIANCE in a real-world application, called Bounding Overwatch, and then discuss how this architecture addresses our key design issues.

  17. IMPERA: Integrated Mission Planning for Multi-Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the project IMPERA (Integrated Mission Planning for Distributed Robot Systems. The goal of IMPERA was to realize an extraterrestrial exploration scenario using a heterogeneous multi-robot system. The main challenge was the development of a multi-robot planning and plan execution architecture. The robot team consists of three heterogeneous robots, which have to explore an unknown environment and collect lunar drill samples. The team activities are described using the language ALICA (A Language for Interactive Agents. Furthermore, we use the mission planning system pRoPhEt MAS (Reactive Planning Engine for Multi-Agent Systems to provide an intuitive interface to generate team activities. Therefore, we define the basic skills of our team with ALICA and define the desired goal states by using a logic description. Based on the skills, pRoPhEt MAS creates a valid ALICA plan, which will be executed by the team. The paper describes the basic components for communication, coordinated exploration, perception and object transportation. Finally, we evaluate the planning engine pRoPhEt MAS in the IMPERA scenario. In addition, we present further evaluation of pRoPhEt MAS in more dynamic environments.

  18. Multi-Robot Item Delivery and Foraging: Two Sides of a Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchaya Liemhetcharat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-robot foraging has been widely studied in the literature, and the general assumption is that the robots are simple, i.e., with limited processing and carrying capacity. We previously studied continuous foraging with slightly more capable robots, and in this article, we are interested in using similar robots for item delivery. Interestingly, item delivery and foraging are two sides of the same coin: foraging an item from a location is similar to satisfying a demand. We formally define the multi-robot item delivery problem and show that the continuous foraging problem is a special case of it. We contribute distributed multi-robot algorithms that solve the item delivery and foraging problems and describe how our shared world model is synchronized across the multi-robot team. We performed extensive experiments on simulated robots using a Java simulator, and we present our results to demonstrate that we outperform benchmark algorithms from multi-robot foraging.

  19. Multi-leg Seat Inventory Control Based on EMSU and Virtual Bucket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Expected marginal seat revenue (EMSR is a well-known method for airline seat inventory control airlines. However, this method employs a static model to study the dynamic reservation process, and does not take into account the risk tolerance of policy makers. Expected marginal seat utility (EMSU replaces revenue by utility, which addresses the real situation of seat inventory control. However, there is still a lack of multi-leg seat control algorithms based on EMSU. Therefore, using EMSU and bucket algorithms, this paper applies the Markov decision-making process to simulate the flight reservation process and builds a dynamic multi-leg seat inventory control model. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Scalable Task Assignment for Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula García

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a dynamic task assignment strategy for heterogeneous multi-robot teams in typical real world scenarios. The strategy must be efficiently scalable to support problems of increasing complexity with minimum designer intervention. To this end, we have selected a very simple auction-based strategy, which has been implemented and analysed in a multi-robot cleaning problem that requires strong coordination and dynamic complex subtask organization. We will show that the selection of a simple auction strategy provides a linear computational cost increase with the number of robots that make up the team and allows the solving of highly complex assignment problems in dynamic conditions by means of a hierarchical sub-auction policy. To coordinate and control the team, a layered behaviour-based architecture has been applied that allows the reusing of the auction-based strategy to achieve different coordination levels.

  1. Research on Multi-leg Inventory Control Based on Passenger Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei; Su, Qiubo; Ip, Wai Hung

    2014-01-01

    To remedy the lack of mathematical programming and the Expected Marginal Seat Revenue (EMSR) model for multi-leg seat inventory control, this paper proposes a method based on passenger choice. Except for data about which seats passengers decide to opt for, there is no need to obtain distributions of passengers’ demands or other “a priori” information. The proposed method can discover the real factors that affect passengers’ choices, and then estimate the probabilities of seat choices and the ...

  2. Multi-physics modelling of a compliant humanoid robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zobova, Alexandra A., E-mail: azobova@mech.math.msu.su [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics (Russian Federation); Habra, Timothée, E-mail: timothee.habra@uclouvain.be [Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Center for Research in Mechatronics, Institute of Mechanics, Materials, and Civil Engineering (Belgium); Van der Noot, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.vandernoot@uclouvain.be, E-mail: nicolas.vandernoot@epfl.ch [EPFL STI IBI BIOROB, Biorobotics Laboratory, Institute of Bioengineering, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland); Dallali, Houman, E-mail: houman.dallali@iit.it; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos G., E-mail: nikos.tsagarakis@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Advanced Robotics (Italy); Fisette, Paul, E-mail: paul.fisette@uclouvain.be; Ronsse, Renaud, E-mail: renaud.ronsse@uclouvain.be [Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Center for Research in Mechatronics, Institute of Mechanics, Materials, and Civil Engineering (Belgium)

    2017-01-15

    We present a multibody simulator being used for compliant humanoid robot modelling and report our reasoning for choosing the settings of the simulator’s key features. First, we provide a study on how the numerical integration speed and accuracy depend on the coordinate representation of the multibody system. This choice is particularly critical for mechanisms with long serial chains (e.g. legs and arms). Our second contribution is a full electromechanical model of the inner dynamics of the compliant actuators embedded in the COMAN robot, since joints’ compliance is needed for the robot safety and energy efficiency. Third, we discuss the different approaches for modelling contacts and selecting an appropriate contact library. The recommended solution is to couple our simulator with an open-source contact library offering both accurate and fast contact modelling. The simulator performances are assessed by two different tasks involving contacts: a bimanual manipulation task and a squatting tasks. The former shows reliability of the simulator. For the latter, we report a comparison between the robot behaviour as predicted by our simulation environment, and the real one.

  3. Multi-physics modelling of a compliant humanoid robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zobova, Alexandra A.; Habra, Timothée; Van der Noot, Nicolas; Dallali, Houman; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos G.; Fisette, Paul; Ronsse, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We present a multibody simulator being used for compliant humanoid robot modelling and report our reasoning for choosing the settings of the simulator’s key features. First, we provide a study on how the numerical integration speed and accuracy depend on the coordinate representation of the multibody system. This choice is particularly critical for mechanisms with long serial chains (e.g. legs and arms). Our second contribution is a full electromechanical model of the inner dynamics of the compliant actuators embedded in the COMAN robot, since joints’ compliance is needed for the robot safety and energy efficiency. Third, we discuss the different approaches for modelling contacts and selecting an appropriate contact library. The recommended solution is to couple our simulator with an open-source contact library offering both accurate and fast contact modelling. The simulator performances are assessed by two different tasks involving contacts: a bimanual manipulation task and a squatting tasks. The former shows reliability of the simulator. For the latter, we report a comparison between the robot behaviour as predicted by our simulation environment, and the real one.

  4. Multi-robots to micro-surgery: Selected robotic applications at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    1996-11-01

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program organization, pursuing research, development and applications in a wide range of field. Activities range from large-scale applications such as nuclear facility dismantlement for the US Department of Energy (DOE), to aircraft inspection and refurbishment, to automated script and program generation for robotic manufacturing and assembly, to miniature robotic devices and sensors for remote sensing and micro-surgery. This paper describes six activities in the large and small scale that are underway and either nearing technology transfer stage or seeking industrial partners to continue application development. The topics of the applications include multiple arm coordination for intuitively maneuvering large, ungainly work pieces; simulation, analysis and graphical training capability for CP-5 research reactor dismantlement; miniature robots with volumes of 16 cubic centimeters and less developed for inspection and sensor deployment; and biomedical sensors to enhance automated prosthetic device production and fill laparoscopic surgery information gap.

  5. Interacting with Multi-Robot Systems Using BML

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    presented to the operator. 1. Introduction There are many operations in which a multi-robot system (MRS) can be deployed to support the human forces...within the MRS easily. © Fraunhofer FKIE Communication Architecture ~ ~ Fraunhofer FKIE © Fraunhofer FKIE Battle Mangement Language BML...Fraunhofer FKIE Battle Mangement Language Orders Orders move patrol observe distribute guard recce imagery intelligence gathering

  6. Comparison of kinematic and dynamic leg trajectory optimization techniques for biped robot locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusainov, R.; Klimchik, A.; Magid, E.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents comparison analysis of two approaches in defining leg trajectories for biped locomotion. The first one operates only with kinematic limitations of leg joints and finds the maximum possible locomotion speed for given limits. The second approach defines leg trajectories from the dynamic stability point of view and utilizes ZMP criteria. We show that two methods give different trajectories and demonstrate that trajectories based on pure dynamic optimization cannot be realized due to joint limits. Kinematic optimization provides unstable solution which can be balanced by upper body movement.

  7. Research status of multi - robot systems task allocation and uncertainty treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dahui; Fan, Qi; Dai, Xuefeng

    2017-08-01

    The multi-robot coordination algorithm has become a hot research topic in the field of robotics in recent years. It has a wide range of applications and good application prospects. This paper analyzes and summarizes the current research status of multi-robot coordination algorithms at home and abroad. From task allocation and dealing with uncertainty, this paper discusses the multi-robot coordination algorithm and presents the advantages and disadvantages of each method commonly used.

  8. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Demšar, Jože Duhovnik, Blaž Lešnik, Matej Supej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW, various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA and Range of Motion (RoM in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1° was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8° and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°. In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2° was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°. The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing.

  9. The Emergence of Multi-Cellular Robot Organisms through On-line On-board Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, B.P.M.; Haasdijk, E.W.; Eiben, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether a swarm of robots can evolve controllers that cause aggregation into 'multi-cellular' robot organisms without a specific reward to do so. To this end, we create a world where aggregated robots receive more energy than individual ones and enable robots to evolve their

  10. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation During Head-up Tilt

    OpenAIRE

    Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi; Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi; Robert Riener; Robert Riener; Verena Klamroth-Marganska; Verena Klamroth-Marganska

    2016-01-01

    Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE) that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES) to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influe...

  11. Phase controlled metal–insulator transition in multi-leg quasiperiodic optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Santanu K.; Sil, Shreekantha; Chakrabarti, Arunava

    2017-01-01

    A tight-binding model of a multi-leg ladder network with a continuous quasiperiodic modulation in both the site potential and the inter-arm hopping integral is considered. The model mimics optical lattices where ultra-cold fermionic or bosonic atoms are trapped in double well potentials. It is observed that, the relative phase difference between the on-site potential and the inter-arm hopping integral, which can be controlled by the tuning of the interfering laser beams trapping the cold atoms, can result in a mixed spectrum of one or more absolutely continuous subband(s) and point like spectral measures. This opens up the possibility of a re-entrant metal–insulator transition. The subtle role played by the relative phase difference mentioned above is revealed, and we corroborate it numerically by working out the multi-channel electronic transmission for finite two-, and three-leg ladder networks. The extension of the calculation beyond the two-leg case is trivial, and is discussed in the work. - Graphical abstract: ▪ - Highlights: • Phase controlled metal–insulator transition is discussed. • An analytical prescription is given to understand MI transition. • Our work provides a way of designing experiments involving laser beams.

  12. Computer program SCAP-BR for gamma-ray streaming through multi-legged ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byoun, T.Y.; Babel, P.J.; Dajani, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program, SCAP-BR, has been developed at Burns and Roe for the gamma-ray streaming analysis through multi-legged ducts. SCAP-BR is a modified version of the single scattering code, SCAP, incorporating capabilities of handling multiple scattering and volumetric source geometries. It utilizes the point kernel integration method to calculate both the line-of-sight and scattered gamma dose rates by employing the ray tracing technique through complex shield geometries. The multiple scattering is handled by a repeated process of the single scatter method through each successive scatter region and collapsed pseudo source meshes constructed on the relative coordinate systems. The SCAP-BR results have been compared with experimental data for a Z-type (three-legged) concrete duct with a Co-60 source placed at the duct entrance point. The SCAP-BR dose rate predictions along the duct axis demonstrate an excellent agreement with the measured values

  13. Muecas: A Multi-Sensor Robotic Head for Affective Human Robot Interaction and Imitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-sensor humanoid robotic head for human robot interaction. The design of the robotic head, Muecas, is based on ongoing research on the mechanisms of perception and imitation of human expressions and emotions. These mechanisms allow direct interaction between the robot and its human companion through the different natural language modalities: speech, body language and facial expressions. The robotic head has 12 degrees of freedom, in a human-like configuration, including eyes, eyebrows, mouth and neck, and has been designed and built entirely by IADeX (Engineering, Automation and Design of Extremadura and RoboLab. A detailed description of its kinematics is provided along with the design of the most complex controllers. Muecas can be directly controlled by FACS (Facial Action Coding System, the de facto standard for facial expression recognition and synthesis. This feature facilitates its use by third party platforms and encourages the development of imitation and of goal-based systems. Imitation systems learn from the user, while goal-based ones use planning techniques to drive the user towards a final desired state. To show the flexibility and reliability of the robotic head, the paper presents a software architecture that is able to detect, recognize, classify and generate facial expressions in real time using FACS. This system has been implemented using the robotics framework, RoboComp, which provides hardware-independent access to the sensors in the head. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the real-time functioning of the whole system, including recognition and imitation of human facial expressions.

  14. Mathematical Modelling to Solve Tasks of Profiled Cross of Robot Systems with a Wheel-Legged Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Diakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main trends for development of promising military equipment is to create transport robot systems (TRS.To conduct a theoretical study of the potential properties of TRS mobility was used a software package for invariant simulation of multibody dynamics system "Euler", which allows us to solve problems regarding the "large displacements", typical for TRS.The modelling results of TRS motion dynamics when overcoming the single-stage and two stages, which are higher than the roller diameter of propeller are obtained.Analysis of modelling results of the TRS motion dynamics to overcome obstacles commensurate with its dimensions allows us to conclude that the use of wheel-legged three-roller propulsion can provide the required level of permeability and, as a result, increasing TRS mobility.

  15. Multi-agent robotic systems and applications for satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel A.

    A revolution in the space sector is happening. It is expected that in the next decade there will be more satellites launched than in the previous sixty years of space exploration. Major challenges are associated with this growth of space assets such as the autonomy and management of large groups of satellites, in particular with small satellites. There are two main objectives for this work. First, a flexible and distributed software architecture is presented to expand the possibilities of spacecraft autonomy and in particular autonomous motion in attitude and position. The approach taken is based on the concept of distributed software agents, also referred to as multi-agent robotic system. Agents are defined as software programs that are social, reactive and proactive to autonomously maximize the chances of achieving the set goals. Part of the work is to demonstrate that a multi-agent robotic system is a feasible approach for different problems of autonomy such as satellite attitude determination and control and autonomous rendezvous and docking. The second main objective is to develop a method to optimize multi-satellite configurations in space, also known as satellite constellations. This automated method generates new optimal mega-constellations designs for Earth observations and fast revisit times on large ground areas. The optimal satellite constellation can be used by researchers as the baseline for new missions. The first contribution of this work is the development of a new multi-agent robotic system for distributing the attitude determination and control subsystem for HiakaSat. The multi-agent robotic system is implemented and tested on the satellite hardware-in-the-loop testbed that simulates a representative space environment. The results show that the newly proposed system for this particular case achieves an equivalent control performance when compared to the monolithic implementation. In terms on computational efficiency it is found that the multi

  16. Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakiotakis, M; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P

    2015-05-13

    The outstanding locomotor and manipulation characteristics of the octopus have recently inspired the development, by our group, of multi-functional robotic swimmers, featuring both manipulation and locomotion capabilities, which could be of significant engineering interest in underwater applications. During its little-studied arm-swimming behavior, as opposed to the better known jetting via the siphon, the animal appears to generate considerable propulsive thrust and rapid acceleration, predominantly employing movements of its arms. In this work, we capture the fundamental characteristics of the corresponding complex pattern of arm motion by a sculling profile, involving a fast power stroke and a slow recovery stroke. We investigate the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning. A lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer, which considers arm compliance and the interaction with the aquatic environment, was used to study the characteristics of these gaits, the effect of various kinematic parameters on propulsion, and the generation of complex trajectories. This investigation focuses on relatively high-stiffness arms. Experiments employing a compliant-body robotic prototype swimmer with eight compliant arms, all made of polyurethane, inside a water tank, successfully demonstrated this novel mode of underwater propulsion. Speeds of up to 0.26 body lengths per second (approximately 100 mm s(-1)), and propulsive forces of up to 3.5 N were achieved, with a non-dimensional cost of transport of 1.42 with all eight arms and of 0.9 with only two active arms. The experiments confirmed the computational results and verified the multi-arm maneuverability and simultaneous object grasping capability of such systems.

  17. Multi-robot motion control for cooperative observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring (or observing) the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications involving limited-range sensors, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the use of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for the observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to minimize the total time in which targets escape observation by some robot team member in the area of interest. This paper first formalizes the problem and discusses related work. The authors then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level reasoning control based on the ALLIANCE formalism. They analyze the effectiveness of the approach by comparing it to 3 other feasible algorithms for cooperative control, showing the superiority of the approach for a large class of problems

  18. Multi-robot motion control for cooperative observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research

    1997-06-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring (or observing) the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications involving limited-range sensors, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the use of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for the observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to minimize the total time in which targets escape observation by some robot team member in the area of interest. This paper first formalizes the problem and discusses related work. The authors then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level reasoning control based on the ALLIANCE formalism. They analyze the effectiveness of the approach by comparing it to 3 other feasible algorithms for cooperative control, showing the superiority of the approach for a large class of problems.

  19. Control system for a multi-joint inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, K.

    1984-01-01

    Remote systems, in which a human operator in a safe zone determines pertinent circumstances and makes decisions on work procedures, while a robot does direct work in hazardous environments, have been becoming more and more important in accordance with the increase in nuclear facilities. In such remote systems, to perform tasks which are merely ambiguously defined beforehand, it is very important that the systems have the ability to execute desired tasks easily and immediately without any programming or teaching work on the spot. A control system, named Self Approach System (SAS), for a multi-joint inspection robot has been developed as a key component in a remote inspection system for use in physically difficult or dangerous environments. It has 8 joints and 17 degrees-of-freedom and was designed taking many of the above points into account. This paper describes SAS details

  20. An Adaptive Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Multi-Robot Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Hadi Abbas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an optimal path planning algorithm based on an Adaptive Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (AMOPSO for two case studies. First case, single robot wants to reach a goal in the static environment that contain two obstacles and two danger source. The second one, is improving the ability for five robots to reach the shortest way. The proposed algorithm solves the optimization problems for the first case by finding the minimum distance from initial to goal position and also ensuring that the generated path has a maximum distance from the danger zones. And for the second case, finding the shortest path for every robot and without any collision between them with the shortest time. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm in term of finding the best solution, six benchmark test functions are used to make a comparison between AMOPSO and the standard MOPSO. The results show that the AMOPSO has a better ability to get away from local optimums with a quickest convergence than the MOPSO. The simulation results using Matlab 2014a, indicate that this methodology is extremely valuable for every robot in multi-robot framework to discover its own particular proper pa‌th from the start to the destination position with minimum distance and time.

  1. Reference trajectory tracking for a multi-DOF robot arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasňanský Róbert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of tracking the generated reference trajectory by the simulation model of a multi-DOF robot arm. The kinematic transformation between task space and joint configuration coordinates is nonlinear and configuration dependent. To obtain the solution of the forward kinematics problem, the homogeneous transformation matrix is used. A solution to the inverse kinematics is a vector of joint configuration coordinates calculated using of pseudoinverse Jacobian technique. These coordinates correspond to a set of task space coordinates. The algorithm is presented which uses iterative solution and is simplified by considering stepper motors in robot arm joints. The reference trajectory in Cartesian coordinate system is generated on-line by the signal generator previously developed in MS Excel. Dynamic Data Exchange communication protocol allows sharing data with Matlab-Simulink. These data represent the reference tracking trajectory of the end effector. Matlab-Simulink software is used to calculate the representative joint rotations. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated experimentally on the model of 7-DOF robot arm system.

  2. Development of a Survivable Cloud Multi-Robot Framework for Heterogeneous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Osunmakinde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a paradigm that allows for robots to offload computationally intensive and data storage requirements into the cloud by providing a secure and customizable environment. The challenge for cloud robotics is the inherent problem of cloud disconnection. A major assumption made in the development of the current cloud robotics frameworks is that the connection between the cloud and the robot is always available. However, for multi-robots working in heterogeneous environments, the connection between the cloud and the robots cannot always be guaranteed. This work serves to assist with the challenge of disconnection in cloud robotics by proposing a survivable cloud multi-robotics (SCMR framework for heterogeneous environments. The SCMR framework leverages the combination of a virtual ad hoc network formed by robot-to-robot communication and a physical cloud infrastructure formed by robot-to-cloud communications. The quality of service (QoS on the SCMR framework was tested and validated by determining the optimal energy utilization and time of response (ToR on drivability analysis with and without cloud connection. The design trade-off, including the result, is between the computation energy for the robot execution and the offloading energy for the cloud execution.

  3. A crawling robot driven by multi-stable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Alexander; Yan, Tongxi; Chien, Brian; Wissa, A.; Tawfick, S.

    2017-09-01

    Using origami folding to construct and actuate mechanisms and machines offers attractive opportunities from small, scalable, and cheap robots to deployable adaptive structures. This paper presents the design of a bio-inspired origami crawling robot constructed by folding sheets of paper. The origami building block structure is based on the Kresling crease pattern (CP), a chiral tower with a polygonal base, which expands and contracts through coupled longitudinal and rotational motion similar to a screw. We design the origami to have multi-stable structural equilibria which can be tuned by changing the folding CP. Kinematic analysis of these structures based on rigid-plates and hinges at fold lines precludes the shape transformation associated with the bistability of the physical models. To capture the kinematics of the bi-stable origami, the panels’ deformation behavior is modeled utilizing principles of virtual folds. Virtual folds approximate material bending by hinged, rigid panels, which facilitates the development of a kinematic solution via rigid-plate rotation analysis. As such, the kinetics and stability of folded structures are investigated by assigning suitable torsional spring constants to the fold lines. The results presented demonstrate the effect of fold-pattern geometries on the snapping behavior of the bi-stable origami structure based on the Kresling pattern. The crawling robot is presented as a case study for the use of this origami structure to mimic crawling locomotion. The robot is comprised of two origami towers nested inside a paper bellow, and connected by 3D printed end plates. DC motors are used to actuate the expansion and contraction of the internal origami structures to achieve forward locomotion and steering. Beyond locomotion, this simple design can find applications in manipulators, booms, and active structures.

  4. Multi-Axis Force Sensor for Human-Robot Interaction Sensing in a Rehabilitation Robotic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, Victor; Grosu, Svetlana; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Rodriguez-Guerrero, Carlos

    2017-06-05

    Human-robot interaction sensing is a compulsory feature in modern robotic systems where direct contact or close collaboration is desired. Rehabilitation and assistive robotics are fields where interaction forces are required for both safety and increased control performance of the device with a more comfortable experience for the user. In order to provide an efficient interaction feedback between the user and rehabilitation device, high performance sensing units are demanded. This work introduces a novel design of a multi-axis force sensor dedicated for measuring pelvis interaction forces in a rehabilitation exoskeleton device. The sensor is conceived such that it has different sensitivity characteristics for the three axes of interest having also movable parts in order to allow free rotations and limit crosstalk errors. Integrated sensor electronics make it easy to acquire and process data for a real-time distributed system architecture. Two of the developed sensors are integrated and tested in a complex gait rehabilitation device for safe and compliant control.

  5. Multi-robot system using low-cost infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Kakkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed set of the novel technique, methods, and algorithm for simultaneous path planning, area exploration, area retrieval, obstacle avoidance, object detection, and object retrieval   autonomously by a multi-robot system. The proposed methods and algorithms are built considering the use of low cost infrared sensors with the ultimate function of efficiently exploring the given unknown area and simultaneously identifying desired objects by analyzing the physical characteristics of several of the objects that come across during exploration. In this paper, we have explained the scenario by building a coordinative multi-robot system consisting of two autonomously operated robots equipped with low-cost and low-range infrared sensors to perform the assigned task by analyzing some of the sudden changes in their environment. Along with identifying and retrieving the desired object, the proposed methodology also provide an inclusive analysis of the area being explored. The novelties presented in the paper may significantly provide a cost-effective solution to the problem of area exploration and finding a known object in an unknown environment by demonstrating an innovative approach of using the infrared sensors instead of high cost long range sensors and cameras. Additionally, the methodology provides a speedy and uncomplicated method of traversing a complicated arena while performing all the necessary and inter-related tasks of avoiding the obstacles, analyzing the area as well as objects, and reconstructing the area using all these information collected and interpreted for an unknown environment. The methods and algorithms proposed are simulated over a complex arena to depict the operations and manually tested over a physical environment which provided 78% correct results with respect to various complex parameters set randomly.

  6. Fractional-order active fault-tolerant force-position controller design for the legged robots using saturated actuator with unknown bias and gain degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Yousef; Majd, Vahid Johari; Ehsani-Seresht, Abbas

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a novel fault accommodation strategy is proposed for the legged robots subject to the actuator faults including actuation bias and effective gain degradation as well as the actuator saturation. First, the combined dynamics of two coupled subsystems consisting of the dynamics of the legs subsystem and the body subsystem are developed. Then, the interaction of the robot with the environment is formulated as the contact force optimization problem with equality and inequality constraints. The desired force is obtained by a dynamic model. A robust super twisting fault estimator is proposed to precisely estimate the defective torque amplitude of the faulty actuator in finite time. Defining a novel fractional sliding surface, a fractional nonsingular terminal sliding mode control law is developed. Moreover, by introducing a suitable auxiliary system and using its state vector in the designed controller, the proposed fault-tolerant control (FTC) scheme guarantees the finite-time stability of the closed-loop control system. The robustness and finite-time convergence of the proposed control law is established using the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, numerical simulations are performed on a quadruped robot to demonstrate the stable walking of the robot with and without actuator faults, and actuator saturation constraints, and the results are compared to results with an integer order fault-tolerant controller.

  7. A Modular Approach for a Family of Ground Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Quaglia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Epi.q, a family of mobile robots whose main characteristic is a wheel-legged hybrid locomotion. These multi-purpose robots can be successfully exploited for security and surveillance tasks. The document presents state of the art security robotics, the Epi.q mechanical architecture, the concept behind the robot driving unit, three prototypes and the design of a new one.

  8. Modelling cooperation of industrial robots as multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Banas, W.; Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Sekala, A.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, more and more often in a cell is more than one robot, there is also a dual arm robots, because of this cooperation of two robots in the same space becomes more and more important. Programming robotic cell consisting of two or more robots are currently performed separately for each element of the robot and the cell. It is performed only synchronization programs, but no robot movements. In such situations often placed industrial robots so they do not have common space so the robots are operated separately. When industrial robots are a common space this space can occupy only one robot the other one must be outside the common space. It is very difficult to find applications where two robots are in the same workspace. It was tested but one robot did not do of movement when moving the second and waited for permission to move from the second when it sent a permit - stop the move. Such programs are very difficult and require a lot of experience from the programmer and must be tested separately at the beginning and then very slowly under control. Ideally, the operator takes care of exactly one robot during the test and it is very important to take special care.

  9. Experimental Study on New Multi-Column Tension-Leg-Type Floating Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-sheng; She, Xiao-he; He, Yan-ping; Yang, Jian-min; Peng, Tao; Kou, Yu-feng

    2018-04-01

    Deep-water regions often have winds favorable for offshore wind turbines, and floating turbines currently show the greatest potential to exploit such winds. This work established proper scaling laws for model tests, which were then implemented in the construction of a model wind turbine with optimally designed blades. The aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, and elastic characteristics of the proposed new multi-column tension-leg-type floating wind turbine (WindStar TLP system) were explored in the wave tank testing of a 1:50 scale model at the State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Tests were conducted under conditions of still water, white noise waves, irregular waves, and combined wind, wave, and current loads. The results established the natural periods of the motion, damping, motion response amplitude operators, and tendon tensions of the WindStar TLP system under different environmental conditions, and thus could serve as a reference for further research. Key words: floating wind turbine, model test, WindStar TLP, dynamic response

  10. Design and Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Wire-Driven Multi-Section Flexible Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zheng; Du, Ruxu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a bio-inspired wire-driven multi-section flexible robot. It is inspired by the snake skeleton and octopus arm muscle arrangements. The robot consists of three sections and each section is made up of several identical vertebras, which are articulated by both spherical joints and a flexible backbone. Each section is driven by two groups of wires, controlling the bending motion in X and Y directions. This design integrates the serpentine robots' structure and the continuum ro...

  11. Distributed Circumnavigation Control with Dynamic Spacings for a Heterogeneous Multi-robot System

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Weijia; Luo, Sha; Lu, Huimin; Xiao, Junhao

    2018-01-01

    Circumnavigation control is useful in real-world applications such as entrapping a hostile target. In this paper, we consider a heterogeneous multi-robot system where robots have different physical properties, such as maximum movement speeds. Instead of equal-spacings, dynamic spacings according to robots' properties, which are termed utilities in this paper, will be more desirable in a scenario such as target entrapment. A distributed circumnavigation control algorithm based on utilities is ...

  12. A Spatial Queuing-Based Algorithm for Multi-Robot Task Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lenagh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-robot task allocation (MRTA is an important area of research in autonomous multi-robot systems. The main problem in MRTA is to allocate a set of tasks to a set of robots so that the tasks can be completed by the robots while ensuring that a certain metric, such as the time required to complete all tasks, or the distance traveled, or the energy expended by the robots is reduced. We consider a scenario where tasks can appear dynamically and a task needs to be performed by multiple robots to be completed. We propose a new algorithm called SQ-MRTA (Spatial Queueing-MRTA that uses a spatial queue-based model to allocate tasks between robots in a distributed manner. We have implemented the SQ-MRTA algorithm on accurately simulated models of Corobot robots within the Webots simulator for different numbers of robots and tasks and compared its performance with other state-of-the-art MRTA algorithms. Our results show that the SQ-MRTA algorithm is able to scale up with the number of tasks and robots in the environment, and it either outperforms or performs comparably with respect to other distributed MRTA algorithms.

  13. Multi-Robot FastSLAM for Large Domains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koperski, Choyong G

    2007-01-01

    For a robot to build a map of its surrounding area, it must have accurate position information within the area, and to obtain accurate position information within the area, the robot needs to have an...

  14. Intelligent computational control of multi-fingered dexterous robotic hand

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Disi; Li, Gongfa; Jiang, Guozhang; Fang, Yinfeng; Ju, Zhaojie; Liu, Honghai

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the intelligent computational control theory and introduce the hardware structure of HIT/DLR II dexterous robotic hand, which is the typical dexterous robotic hand. We show that how DSP or FPGA controller can be used in the dexterous robotic hand. A popular intelligent dexterous robotic hand control system, which named Electromyography (EMG) control is investigated. We introduced some mathematical algorithms in EMG controlling, such as Gauss mixture model (GMM), artificial neural n...

  15. Scheduling with Group Dynamics: a Multi-Robot Task Allocation Algorithm based on Vacancy Chains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahl, Torbjorn S; Mataric, Maja J; Sukhatme, Gaurav S

    2002-01-01

    .... We present a multi-robot task allocation algorithm that is sensitive to group dynamics. Our algorithm is based on vacancy chains, a resource distribution process common in human and animal societies...

  16. Navigation control of a multi-functional eye robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.A.M.; Hashmi, B.; Younas, A.; Abid, B.

    2016-01-01

    The advancement in robotic field is enhanced rigorously in the past Few decades. Robots are being used in different fields of science as well as warfare. The research shows that in the near future, robots would be able to serve in fighting wars. Different countries and their armies have already deployed several military robots. However, there exist some drawbacks of robots like their inefficiency and inability to work under abnormal conditions. Ascent of artificial intelligence may resolve this issue in the coming future. The main focus of this paper is to provide a low cost and long range most efficient mechanical as well as software design of an Eye Robot. Using a blend of robotics and image processing with an addition of artificial intelligence path navigation techniques, this project is designed and implemented by controlling the robot (including robotic arm and camera) through a 2.4 GHz RF module manually. Autonomous function of the robot includes navigation based on the path assigned to the robot. The path is drawn on a VB based application and then transferred to the robot wirelessly or through serial port. A Wi-Fi based Optical Character Recognition (OCR) implemented video streaming can also be observed at remote devices like laptops. (author)

  17. Stepwise multi-criteria optimization for robotic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaefer, A.; Schweikard, A.

    2008-01-01

    Achieving good conformality and a steep dose gradient around the target volume remains a key aspect of radiosurgery. Clearly, this involves a trade-off between target coverage, conformality of the dose distribution, and sparing of critical structures. Yet, image guidance and robotic beam placement have extended highly conformal dose delivery to extracranial and moving targets. Therefore, the multi-criteria nature of the optimization problem becomes even more apparent, as multiple conflicting clinical goals need to be considered coordinate to obtain an optimal treatment plan. Typically, planning for robotic radiosurgery is based on constrained optimization, namely linear programming. An extension of that approach is presented, such that each of the clinical goals can be addressed separately and in any sequential order. For a set of common clinical goals the mapping to a mathematical objective and a corresponding constraint is defined. The trade-off among the clinical goals is explored by modifying the constraints and optimizing a simple objective, while retaining feasibility of the solution. Moreover, it becomes immediately obvious whether a desired goal can be achieved and where a trade-off is possible. No importance factors or predefined prioritizations of clinical goals are necessary. The presented framework forms the basis for interactive and automated planning procedures. It is demonstrated for a sample case that the linear programming formulation is suitable to search for a clinically optimal treatment, and that the optimization steps can be performed quickly to establish that a Pareto-efficient solution has been found. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how the stepwise approach is preferable compared to modifying importance factors

  18. The Control Based on Internal Average Kinetic Energy in Complex Environment for Multi-robot System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao; Tian, Yantao; Yin, Xianghua

    In this paper, reference trajectory is designed according to minimum energy consumed for multi-robot system, which nonlinear programming and cubic spline interpolation are adopted. The control strategy is composed of two levels, which lower-level is simple PD control and the upper-level is based on the internal average kinetic energy for multi-robot system in the complex environment with velocity damping. Simulation tests verify the effectiveness of this control strategy.

  19. L-ALLIANCE: a mechanism for adaptive action selection in heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    In practical applications of robotics, it is usually quite difficult, if not impossible, for the system designer to fully predict the environmental states in which the robots will operate. The complexity of the problem is further increased when dealing with teams of robots which themselves may be incompletely known and characterized in advance. It is thus highly desirable for robot teams to be able to adapt their performance during the mission due to changes in the environment, or to changes in other robot team members. In previous work, we introduced a behavior-based mechanism called the ALLIANCE architecture -- that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of multi-robot teams. However, this previous work did not address the issue of how to dynamically update the control parameters during a mission to adapt to ongoing changes in the environment or in the robot team, and to ensure the efficiency of the collective team actions. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, which defines an automated method whereby robots can use knowledge learned from previous experience to continually improve their collective action selection when working on missions composed of loosely coupled, discrete subtasks. This ability to dynamically update robotic control parameters provides a number of distinct advantages: it alleviates the need for human tuning of control parameters, it facilitates the use of custom-designed multi-robot teams for any given application, it improves the efficiency of the mission performance, and It allows robots to continually adapt their performance over time due to changes in the robot team and/or the environment. We describe the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, present the results of various alternative update strategies we investigated, present the formal model of the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, and present the results of a simple proof of concept implementation on a small team of heterogeneous mobile robots.

  20. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot`s own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup.

  1. Design of a rotary for an uncontrolled multi-leg intersection in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha Kumar, S.; Gulati, Himanshu; Arora, Shivam

    2017-11-01

    One way to control the traffic at busy intersections is to construct a roundabout or rotary intersection, which is a special type of at-grade intersection, where all converging vehicles are forced to move round a central island in clock-wise direction. The present study aims to design a rotary for an uncontrolled multi leg intersection located in Royapetah in Chennai, India. The intersection has five approach roads with two-way traffic in all the approach roads and there is no signal or traffic police to control the traffic at present and hence experiences traffic chaos during peak hours. In order to design the rotary, it is essential to have the information on traffic volumes coming from the approach roads. For this, a video data collection was carried out for a duration of eight hours from 7.30 am to 11.30 am and from 2.30 pm to 6.30 pm on a typical working day using a handycam from the terrace of an apartment building located near the intersection. During data extraction stage, each 5 min. traffic volume was extracted for all the five classes of vehicles considered and were converted to passenger car units (PCU). The analysis of traffic data showed that during peak hour from 4.45 pm to 5.45 pm, the proportion of weaving traffic, i.e., ratio of sum of crossing streams to the total traffic on the weaving section was found to be 0.81. According to Indian road congress (IRC) guidelines, this proportion can take any value between 0.4 and 1 and in the present study, the calculated value is found to be within the prescribed range. Using the calculated values of average entry width of the rotary and width & length of weaving section, the practical capacity of the rotary was found to be 3020 PCUs which is well above the observed traffic volume of 2665 PCUs.

  2. A Robotic Coach Architecture for Elder Care (ROCARE) Based on Multi-User Engagement Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Bian, Dayi; Zheng, Zhi; Beuscher, Linda; Newhouse, Paul A; Mion, Lorraine C; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2017-08-01

    The aging population with its concomitant medical conditions, physical and cognitive impairments, at a time of strained resources, establishes the urgent need to explore advanced technologies that may enhance function and quality of life. Recently, robotic technology, especially socially assistive robotics has been investigated to address the physical, cognitive, and social needs of older adults. Most system to date have predominantly focused on one-on-one human robot interaction (HRI). In this paper, we present a multi-user engagement-based robotic coach system architecture (ROCARE). ROCARE is capable of administering both one-on-one and multi-user HRI, providing implicit and explicit channels of communication, and individualized activity management for long-term engagement. Two preliminary feasibility studies, a one-on-one interaction and a triadic interaction with two humans and a robot, were conducted and the results indicated potential usefulness and acceptance by older adults, with and without cognitive impairment.

  3. Automatic approach to stabilization and control for multi robot teams by multilayer network operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diveev Askhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a novel methodology for synthesis a high-level control of autonomous multi robot teams. The approach is based on multilayer network operator method that belongs to a symbolic regression class. Synthesis is accomplished in three steps: stabilizing robots about some given position in a state space, finding optimal trajectories of robots’ motion as sets of stabilizing points and then approximating all the points of optimal trajectories by some multi-dimensional function of state variables. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified on simulations of the task of control synthesis for three mobile robots parking in the constrained space.

  4. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot's own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup

  5. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, E. P.; Iurevich, E. I.

    The history and the current status of robotics are reviewed, as are the design, operation, and principal applications of industrial robots. Attention is given to programmable robots, robots with adaptive control and elements of artificial intelligence, and remotely controlled robots. The applications of robots discussed include mechanical engineering, cargo handling during transportation and storage, mining, and metallurgy. The future prospects of robotics are briefly outlined.

  6. Advantages of Task-Specific Multi-Objective Optimisation in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianni, Vito; López-Ibáñez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The application of multi-objective optimisation to evolutionary robotics is receiving increasing attention. A survey of the literature reveals the different possibilities it offers to improve the automatic design of efficient and adaptive robotic systems, and points to the successful demonstrations available for both task-specific and task-agnostic approaches (i.e., with or without reference to the specific design problem to be tackled). However, the advantages of multi-objective approaches over single-objective ones have not been clearly spelled out and experimentally demonstrated. This paper fills this gap for task-specific approaches: starting from well-known results in multi-objective optimisation, we discuss how to tackle commonly recognised problems in evolutionary robotics. In particular, we show that multi-objective optimisation (i) allows evolving a more varied set of behaviours by exploring multiple trade-offs of the objectives to optimise, (ii) supports the evolution of the desired behaviour through the introduction of objectives as proxies, (iii) avoids the premature convergence to local optima possibly introduced by multi-component fitness functions, and (iv) solves the bootstrap problem exploiting ancillary objectives to guide evolution in the early phases. We present an experimental demonstration of these benefits in three different case studies: maze navigation in a single robot domain, flocking in a swarm robotics context, and a strictly collaborative task in collective robotics.

  7. Advantages of Task-Specific Multi-Objective Optimisation in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Trianni

    Full Text Available The application of multi-objective optimisation to evolutionary robotics is receiving increasing attention. A survey of the literature reveals the different possibilities it offers to improve the automatic design of efficient and adaptive robotic systems, and points to the successful demonstrations available for both task-specific and task-agnostic approaches (i.e., with or without reference to the specific design problem to be tackled. However, the advantages of multi-objective approaches over single-objective ones have not been clearly spelled out and experimentally demonstrated. This paper fills this gap for task-specific approaches: starting from well-known results in multi-objective optimisation, we discuss how to tackle commonly recognised problems in evolutionary robotics. In particular, we show that multi-objective optimisation (i allows evolving a more varied set of behaviours by exploring multiple trade-offs of the objectives to optimise, (ii supports the evolution of the desired behaviour through the introduction of objectives as proxies, (iii avoids the premature convergence to local optima possibly introduced by multi-component fitness functions, and (iv solves the bootstrap problem exploiting ancillary objectives to guide evolution in the early phases. We present an experimental demonstration of these benefits in three different case studies: maze navigation in a single robot domain, flocking in a swarm robotics context, and a strictly collaborative task in collective robotics.

  8. Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how a network of interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems in a scenario with multiple robotic vehicles. The method presupposes an infra-structure of robots with feed-back controllers obeying simple restriction on a planar grid. The automata formalism merely presents a high-level model of environment, robots and control, but allows composition and formal symbolic reasoning about coordinated solutions. Composition is achi...

  9. A New Cancer Radiotherapy System Using Multi Robotic Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Nam Ho; Lee, Byung Chul; Jeung, Kyung Min; Lee, Seong Uk; Bae, Yeong Geol; Na, Hyun Seok

    2013-01-01

    The CyberKnife system is state-of-the-art cancer treatment equipment that combines an image tracking technique, artificial intelligence software, robot technology, accelerator technology, and treatment simulation technology. The current CyberKnife System has significant shortcomings. The biggest problem is that it takes a longer time to treat a tumor. A long treatment time gives stress to patients. Furthermore it makes the patients uncomfortable with radiation and thus it is difficult to measure the exact radiation dose rate to the tumor in the processing. Linear accelerators for radiation treatment are dependent on imports, and demand high maintenance cost. This also makes the treatment cost higher and prevents the popularization of radiation. To solve the disadvantages of the existing CyberKnife, a radiation treatment robot system applied to several articulated robots is suggested. Essential element techniques for new radiotherapy robot system are investigated and some problems of similar existing systems are analyzed. This paper presents a general configuration of a new radiation robot treatment system including with a quantitative goal of the requirement techniques. This paper described a new radiotherapy robot system to track the tumor using multiple articulated robots in real time. The existing CyberKnife system using a single robot arm has disadvantages of a long radiotherapy time, high medical fee, and inaccurate measurement of the radiotherapy dose. So a new radiotherapy robot system for tumors has been proposed to solve the above problems of conventional CyberKnife systems. Necessary technologies to configure new the radiotherapy robot system have been identified. Quantitative targets of each technology have been established. Multiple robot arms are adopted to decrease the radiotherapy time. The results of this research are provided as a requisite technology for a domestic radiotherapy system and are expected to be the foundation of new technology. The

  10. A New Cancer Radiotherapy System Using Multi Robotic Manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Nam Ho; Lee, Byung Chul; Jeung, Kyung Min; Lee, Seong Uk; Bae, Yeong Geol; Na, Hyun Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The CyberKnife system is state-of-the-art cancer treatment equipment that combines an image tracking technique, artificial intelligence software, robot technology, accelerator technology, and treatment simulation technology. The current CyberKnife System has significant shortcomings. The biggest problem is that it takes a longer time to treat a tumor. A long treatment time gives stress to patients. Furthermore it makes the patients uncomfortable with radiation and thus it is difficult to measure the exact radiation dose rate to the tumor in the processing. Linear accelerators for radiation treatment are dependent on imports, and demand high maintenance cost. This also makes the treatment cost higher and prevents the popularization of radiation. To solve the disadvantages of the existing CyberKnife, a radiation treatment robot system applied to several articulated robots is suggested. Essential element techniques for new radiotherapy robot system are investigated and some problems of similar existing systems are analyzed. This paper presents a general configuration of a new radiation robot treatment system including with a quantitative goal of the requirement techniques. This paper described a new radiotherapy robot system to track the tumor using multiple articulated robots in real time. The existing CyberKnife system using a single robot arm has disadvantages of a long radiotherapy time, high medical fee, and inaccurate measurement of the radiotherapy dose. So a new radiotherapy robot system for tumors has been proposed to solve the above problems of conventional CyberKnife systems. Necessary technologies to configure new the radiotherapy robot system have been identified. Quantitative targets of each technology have been established. Multiple robot arms are adopted to decrease the radiotherapy time. The results of this research are provided as a requisite technology for a domestic radiotherapy system and are expected to be the foundation of new technology. The

  11. Discrete Cosserat Approach for Multi-Section Soft Robots Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Renda, Federico; Boyer, Frederic; Dias, Jorge; Seneviratne, Lakmal

    2017-01-01

    In spite of recent progress, soft robotics still suffers from a lack of unified modeling framework. Nowadays, the most adopted model for the design and control of soft robots is the piece-wise constant curvature model, with its consolidated benefits and drawbacks. In this work, an alternative model for multisection soft robots dynamics is presented based on a discrete Cosserat approach, which, not only takes into account shear and torsional deformations, essentials to cope with out-of-plane e...

  12. Intelligent manipulation technique for multi-branch robotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alexander Y. K.; Chen, Eugene Y. S.

    1990-01-01

    New analytical development in kinematics planning is reported. The INtelligent KInematics Planner (INKIP) consists of the kinematics spline theory and the adaptive logic annealing process. Also, a novel framework of robot learning mechanism is introduced. The FUzzy LOgic Self Organized Neural Networks (FULOSONN) integrates fuzzy logic in commands, control, searching, and reasoning, the embedded expert system for nominal robotics knowledge implementation, and the self organized neural networks for the dynamic knowledge evolutionary process. Progress on the mechanical construction of SRA Advanced Robotic System (SRAARS) and the real time robot vision system is also reported. A decision was made to incorporate the Local Area Network (LAN) technology in the overall communication system.

  13. Integrated multi-sensory control of space robot hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Kan, E. P.; Killion, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation of a robot hand requires the use of multiple sensors integrated into the mechanical hand under distributed microcomputer control. Where space applications such as construction, assembly, servicing and repair tasks are desired of smart robot arms and robot hands, several critical drives influence the design, engineering and integration of such an electromechanical hand. This paper describes a smart robot hand developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for experimental use and evaluation with the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  14. Interdependence of torque, joint angle, angular velocity and muscle action during human multi-joint leg extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel; Herzog, Walter; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2014-08-01

    Force and torque production of human muscles depends upon their lengths and contraction velocity. However, these factors are widely assumed to be independent of each other and the few studies that dealt with interactions of torque, angle and angular velocity are based on isolated single-joint movements. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine force/torque-angle and force/torque-angular velocity properties for multi-joint leg extensions. Human leg extension was investigated (n = 18) on a motor-driven leg press dynamometer while measuring external reaction forces at the feet. Extensor torque in the knee joint was calculated using inverse dynamics. Isometric contractions were performed at eight joint angle configurations of the lower limb corresponding to increments of 10° at the knee from 30 to 100° of knee flexion. Concentric and eccentric contractions were performed over the same range of motion at mean angular velocities of the knee from 30 to 240° s(-1). For contractions of increasing velocity, optimum knee angle shifted from 52 ± 7 to 64 ± 4° knee flexion. Furthermore, the curvature of the concentric force/torque-angular velocity relations varied with joint angles and maximum angular velocities increased from 866 ± 79 to 1,238 ± 132° s(-1) for 90-50° knee flexion. Normalised eccentric forces/torques ranged from 0.85 ± 0.12 to 1.32 ± 0.16 of their isometric reference, only showing significant increases above isometric and an effect of angular velocity for joint angles greater than optimum knee angle. The findings reveal that force/torque production during multi-joint leg extension depends on the combined effects of angle and angular velocity. This finding should be accounted for in modelling and optimisation of human movement.

  15. TRUST MODEL FOR INFORMATION SECURITY OF MULTI-AGENT ROBOTIC SYSTEMS WITH A DECENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues on protection of multi-agent robotic systems against attacks by robots-saboteurs. The operation analysis of such systems with decentralized control is carried out. Concept of harmful information impact (attack from a robot-saboteur to the multi-agent robotic system is given. The class of attacks is considered using interception of messages, formation and transfer of misinformation to group of robots, and also carrying out other actions with vulnerabilities of multiagent algorithms without obviously identified signs of invasion of robots-saboteurs. The model of information security is developed, in which robots-agents work out trust levels to each other analyzing the events occurring in the system. The idea of trust model consists in the analysis of transferred information by each robot and the executed actions of other members in a group, comparison of chosen decision on iteration step k with objective function of the group. Distinctive feature of the trust model in comparison with the closest analogue - Buddy Security Model in which the exchange between the agents security tokens is done — is involvement of the time factor during which agents have to "prove" by their actions the usefulness in achievement of a common goal to members of the group. Variants of this model realization and ways of an assessment of trust levels for agents in view of the security policy accepted in the group are proposed.

  16. Dynamics of a novel robotic leg based on the Peaucellier–Lipkin mechanism on linear paths during the transfer phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alfredo Núñez-Altamirano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the kinematics and dynamics of a novel leg based on the Peaucellier–Lipkin mechanism, which is better known as the straight path tracer. The basic Peaucellier–Lipkin linkage with 1 degree of freedom was transformed into a more skillful mechanism, through the addition of 4 more degrees of freedom. The resulting 5-degree-of-freedom leg enables the walking machine to move along paths that are straight lines and/or concave or convex curves. Three degrees of freedom transform the leg in relation to a reachable center of rotation that the machine walks around. Once the leg is transformed, the remaining 2 degrees of freedom position the foot at a desirable Cartesian point during the transfer or support phase. We analyzed the direct and inverse kinematics developed for the leg when the foot describes a straight line and found some interesting relationships among the motion parameters. The dynamic model equations of motion for the leg were derived from the Lagrangian dynamic formulation to calculate the required torques during a particular transfer phase.

  17. Multi-Robot FastSLAM for Large Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Derr, D. Fox, A.B. Cremers , Integrating global position estimation and position tracking for mobile robots: The dynamic markov localization approach...Intelligence (AAAI), 2000. 53. Andrew J. Davison and David W. Murray. Simultaneous Localization and Map- Building Using Active Vision. IEEE...Wyeth, Michael Milford and David Prasser. A Modified Particle Filter for Simultaneous Robot Localization and Landmark Tracking in an Indoor

  18. Design and Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Wire-Driven Multi-Section Flexible Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bio-inspired wire-driven multi-section flexible robot. It is inspired by the snake skeleton and octopus arm muscle arrangements. The robot consists of three sections and each section is made up of several identical vertebras, which are articulated by both spherical joints and a flexible backbone. Each section is driven by two groups of wires, controlling the bending motion in X and Y directions. This design integrates the serpentine robots' structure and the continuum robots' actuation. As a result, it is more compact than traditional serpentine robots and has a higher positioning accuracy than typical continuum soft robots, such as OctArm V. A Kinematics model and a workspace model of the robot are developed based on the piece wise constant curvature assumption. To evaluate the design, a prototype is built and experiments are carried out. The average distal end positioning error is less than 4%. Characteristics of the wire-driven robot are also discussed, including the leverage effect and the manipulability under constraint. These features makes the proposed robot well suited to confined spaces, especially for working in minimally invasive surgery, nuclear reactor pipelines, disaster debris, etc.

  19. Recent advances in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, G.; Hackwood, S.

    1984-01-01

    Featuring 10 contributions, this volume offers a state-of-the-art report on robotic science and technology. It covers robots in modern industry, robotic control to help the disabled, kinematics and dynamics, six-legged walking robots, a vector analysis of robot manipulators, tactile sensing in robots, and more

  20. A multi-perspective evaluation of a service robot for seniors: the voice of different stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaf, Sandra; Marti, Patrizia; Amirabdollahian, Farshid; de Witte, Luc

    2017-07-31

    The potential of service robots for seniors is given increasing attention as the ageing population in Western countries will continue to grow as well as the demand for home care. In order to capture the experience of living with a robot at home, a multi-perspective evaluation was conducted. Older adults (n = 10) were invited to execute an actual interaction scenario with the Care-O-bot ® robot in a home-like environment and were questioned about their experiences. Additionally, interviews were conducted with the elderly participants, informal carers (n = 7) and professional caregivers (n = 11). Seniors showed to be more keen to accept the robot than their caregivers and relatives. However, the robot in its current form was found to be too limited and participants wished the robot could perform more complex tasks. In order to be acceptable a future robot should execute these complex tasks based on the personal preferences of the user which would require the robot to be flexible and extremely smart, comparable to the care that is delivered by a human carer. Developing the functional features to perform activities is not the only challenge in robot development that deserves the attention of robot developers. The development of social behaviour and skills should be addressed as well. This is possible adopting a person-centred design approach, which relies on validation activities with actual users in realistic environments, similar to those described in this paper. Implications for rehabilitation Attitude of older adults towards service robots Potential of service robots for older adults.

  1. COMPARISON OF CLASSICAL AND INTERACTIVE MULTI-ROBOT EXPLORATION STRATEGIES IN POPULATED ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Kalde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-robot exploration consists in coordinating robots for mapping an unknown environment. It raises several issues concerning task allocation, robot control, path planning and communication. We study exploration in populated environments, in which pedestrian flows can severely impact performances. However, humans have adaptive skills for taking advantage of these flows while moving. Therefore, in order to exploit these human abilities, we propose a novel exploration strategy that explicitly allows for human-robot interactions. Our model for exploration in populated environments combines the classical frontier-based strategy with our interactive approach. We implement interactions where robots can locally choose a human guide to follow and define a parametric heuristic to balance interaction and frontier assignments. Finally, we evaluate to which extent human presence impacts our exploration model in terms of coverage ratio, travelled distance and elapsed time to completion.

  2. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  3. Dynamical Behavior of Multi-Robot Systems Using Lattice Gas Automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Robinett, R.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1999-03-11

    Recent attention has been given to the deployment of an adaptable sensor array realized by multi-robotic systems. Our group has been studying the collective behavior of autonomous, multi-agent systems and their applications in the area of remote-sensing and emerging threats. To accomplish such tasks, an interdisciplinary research effort at Sandia National Laboratories are conducting tests in the fields of sensor technology, robotics, and multi-robotic and multi-agents architectures. Our goal is to coordinate a constellation of point sensors that optimizes spatial coverage and multivariate signal analysis using unmanned robotic vehicles (e.g., RATLERs, Robotic All-ten-sin Lunar Exploration Rover-class vehicles). Overall design methodology is to evolve complex collective behaviors realized through simple interaction (kinetic) physics and artificial intelligence to enable real-time operational responses to emerging threats. This paper focuses on our recent work understanding the dynamics of many-body systems using the physics-based hydrodynamic model of lattice gas automata. Three design features are investigated. One, for single-speed robots, a hexagonal nearest-neighbor interaction topology is necessary to preserve standard hydrodynamic flow. Two, adaptability, defined by the swarm's deformation rate, can be controlled through the hydrodynamic viscosity term, which, in turn, is defined by the local robotic interaction rules. Three, due to the inherent non-linearity of the dynamical equations describing large ensembles, development of stability criteria ensuring convergence to equilibrium states is developed by scaling information flow rates relative to a swarm's hydrodynamic flow rate. An initial test case simulates a swarm of twenty-five robots that maneuvers past an obstacle while following a moving target. A genetic algorithm optimizes applied nearest-neighbor forces in each of five spatial regions distributed over the simulation domain. Armed with

  4. Multi-Robot Search for a Moving Target: Integrating World Modeling, Task Assignment and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Gemignani1, Daniele Nardi1 Abstract— In this paper, we address coordination within a team of cooperative autonomous robots that need to accomplish a common... cooperate to achieve a common goal. During the last years, the approaches to Multi-Robot Systems have been noticed and categorized in different survey...the environment). To highlight how our contribution compares to existing approaches, we categorize existing works on Fig. 2 by con - sidering their

  5. Multi-function robots with speech interaction and emotion feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Lou, Guanting; Ma, Mengchao

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the service robots have been applied in many public circumstances; however, most of them still don’t have the function of speech interaction, especially the function of speech-emotion interaction feedback. To make the robot more humanoid, Arduino microcontroller was used in this study for the speech recognition module and servo motor control module to achieve the functions of the robot’s speech interaction and emotion feedback. In addition, W5100 was adopted for network connection to achieve information transmission via Internet, providing broad application prospects for the robot in the area of Internet of Things (IoT).

  6. Multi-Sensor SLAM Approach for Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid Ahmed BERRABAH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available o be able to operate and act successfully, the robot needs to know at any time where it is. This means the robot has to find out its location relative to the environment. This contribution introduces the increase of accuracy of mobile robot positioning in large outdoor environments based on data fusion from different sensors: camera, GPS, inertial navigation system (INS, and wheel encoders. The fusion is done in a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM approach. The paper gives an overview on the proposed algorithm and discusses the obtained results.

  7. Robotic tool positioning process using a multi-line off-axis laser triangulation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, T. C.; Matos, G.

    2018-03-01

    Proper positioning of a friction stir welding head for pin insertion, driven by a closed chain robot, is important to ensure quality repair of cracks. A multi-line off-axis laser triangulation sensor was designed to be integrated to the robot, allowing relative measurements of the surface to be repaired. This work describes the sensor characteristics, its evaluation and the measurement process for tool positioning to a surface point of interest. The developed process uses a point of interest image and a measured point cloud to define the translation and rotation for tool positioning. Sensor evaluation and tests are described. Keywords: laser triangulation, 3D measurement, tool positioning, robotics.

  8. Multi-objective Design Optimization of a Parallel Schönflies-motion Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Bai, Shaoping; Hjørnet, Preben

    2016-01-01

    . The dynamic performance is concerned mainly the capability of force transmission in the parallel kinematic chain, for which transmission indices are defined. The Pareto-front is obtained to investigate the influence of the design variables to the robot performance. Dynamic characteristics for three Pareto......This paper introduces a parallel Schoenflies-motion robot with rectangular workspace, which is suitable for pick-and-place operations. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated to optimize the robot's geometric parameters with consideration of kinematic and dynamic performances...

  9. An Intelligent Space for Mobile Robot Localization Using a Multi-Camera System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rampinelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an intelligent space, whose objective is to localize and control robots or robotic wheelchairs to help people. Such an intelligent space has 11 cameras distributed in two laboratories and a corridor. The cameras are fixed in the environment, and image capturing is done synchronously. The system was programmed as a client/server with TCP/IP connections, and a communication protocol was defined. The client coordinates the activities inside the intelligent space, and the servers provide the information needed for that. Once the cameras are used for localization, they have to be properly calibrated. Therefore, a calibration method for a multi-camera network is also proposed in this paper. A robot is used to move a calibration pattern throughout the field of view of the cameras. Then, the captured images and the robot odometry are used for calibration. As a result, the proposed algorithm provides a solution for multi-camera calibration and robot localization at the same time. The intelligent space and the calibration method were evaluated under different scenarios using computer simulations and real experiments. The results demonstrate the proper functioning of the intelligent space and validate the multi-camera calibration method, which also improves robot localization.

  10. An intelligent space for mobile robot localization using a multi-camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampinelli, Mariana; Covre, Vitor Buback; de Queiroz, Felippe Mendonça; Vassallo, Raquel Frizera; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano Freire; Mazo, Manuel

    2014-08-15

    This paper describes an intelligent space, whose objective is to localize and control robots or robotic wheelchairs to help people. Such an intelligent space has 11 cameras distributed in two laboratories and a corridor. The cameras are fixed in the environment, and image capturing is done synchronously. The system was programmed as a client/server with TCP/IP connections, and a communication protocol was defined. The client coordinates the activities inside the intelligent space, and the servers provide the information needed for that. Once the cameras are used for localization, they have to be properly calibrated. Therefore, a calibration method for a multi-camera network is also proposed in this paper. A robot is used to move a calibration pattern throughout the field of view of the cameras. Then, the captured images and the robot odometry are used for calibration. As a result, the proposed algorithm provides a solution for multi-camera calibration and robot localization at the same time. The intelligent space and the calibration method were evaluated under different scenarios using computer simulations and real experiments. The results demonstrate the proper functioning of the intelligent space and validate the multi-camera calibration method, which also improves robot localization.

  11. Motion Planning in Multi-robot Systems using Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael. S.; Jensen, Rune S.; Bak, Thomas

    This paper dscribes how interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems for systems with multiple mobile robots. The method assumes an infra-structure of simple unicycle type robots, moving om a planar grid. The motion of the robots, including simple...... kinematics, is captured in an automata formalism that allows formal composition and symbolic reasoning. The verification software UppAal is used to verify specification requirements formulated in computational tree logic (CTL), generating all feasible trajectories that satisfy specifications. The results...... of the planning are demonstrateted in a testbed that allows execution of the planned paths and motion primitives by synchronizing the planning results from UppAal with actual robotic vehicles. The planning problem may be modified online by moving obstacles in the physical environment, which causes a re...

  12. Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how a network of interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems in a scenario with multiple robotic vehicles. The method presupposes an infra-structure of robots with feed-back controllers obeying simple restriction on a planar...... grid. The automata formalism merely presents a high-level model of environment, robots and control, but allows composition and formal symbolic reasoning about coordinated solutions. Composition is achieved through synchronization, and the verification software UPPAAL is used for a symbolic verification...... then subsequently be used as a high-level motion plan for the robots. This paper reports on the timed automata framework, results of two verification experiments, promise of the approach, and gives a perspective for future research....

  13. Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    This paper describes how a network of interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems in a scenario with multiple robotic vehicles. The method presupposes an infra-structure of robots with feed-back controllers obeying simple restriction on a planar...... grid. The automata formalism merely presents a high-level model of environment, robots and control, but allows composition and formal symbolic reasoning about coordinated solutions. Composition is achieved through synchronization, and the verification software UPPAAL is used for a symbolic verification...... then subsequently be used as a high-level motion plan for the robots. This paper reports on the timed automata framework, results of two verification experiments, promise of the approach, and gives a perspective for future research....

  14. A formation control strategy with coupling weights for the multi-robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xudong; Wang, Siming; Li, Weijie

    2017-12-01

    The distributed formation problem of the multi-robot system with general linear dynamic characteristics and directed communication topology is discussed. In order to avoid that the multi-robot system can not maintain the desired formation in the complex communication environment, the distributed cooperative algorithm with coupling weights based on zipf distribution is designed. The asymptotic stability condition for the formation of the multi-robot system is given, and the theory of the graph and the Lyapunov theory are used to prove that the formation can converge to the desired geometry formation and the desired motion rules of the virtual leader under this condition. Nontrivial simulations are performed to validate the effectiveness of the distributed cooperative algorithm with coupling weights.

  15. Optimum Design of Multi-Function Robot Arm Gripper for Varying Shape Green Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Zol Bahri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The project focuses on thorough experimentally studies of the optimum design of Multi-function Robot Arm Gripper for varying shape green product. The purpose of this project is to design a few of robot arm gripper for multi-functionally grip a green product with varying shape. The main character of the gripper is that it can automated adjust its finger to suit with the shape of the product. An optimum design of multi-function robot arm gripper is verified through experimental study. The expected result is a series of analytical results on the proposal of gripper design and material that will be selected for the gripper. The analysis of the gripper design proposal by using ANSYS and CATIA software is described in detail in this paper.

  16. Using Multi-Robot Systems for Engineering Education: Teaching and Outreach with Large Numbers of an Advanced, Low-Cost Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLurkin, J.; Rykowski, J.; John, M.; Kaseman, Q.; Lynch, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of using an advanced, low-cost robot in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. It presents three innovations: It is a powerful, cheap, robust, and small advanced personal robot; it forms the foundation of a problem-based learning curriculum; and it enables a novel multi-robot…

  17. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation during Head-Up Tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani Tafreshi, Amirehsan; Riener, Robert; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE) that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES) to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influence of PE on the cardiovascular system during verticalization (i.e., head-up tilt) depends on the verticalization angle, and FES strengthens the PE influence. To test our hypotheses, we investigated the PE effects on the cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR), and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP) at different angles of verticalization in a healthy population. Methods: Ten healthy subjects on a robot-assisted tilt table underwent four different study protocols while HR, sBP, and dBP were measured: (1) head-up tilt to 60° and 71° without PE; (2) PE at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (3) PE while constant FES intensity was applied to the leg muscles, at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (4) PE with variation of the applied FES intensity at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt. Linear mixed models were used to model changes in HR, sBP, and dBP responses. Results: The models show that: (1) head-up tilt alone resulted in statistically significant increases in HR and dBP, but no change in sBP. (2) PE during head-up tilt resulted in statistically significant changes in HR, sBP, and dBP, but not at each angle and not always in the same direction (i.e., increase or decrease of cardiovascular parameters). Neither adding (3) FES at constant intensity to PE nor (4) variation of FES intensity during PE had any statistically significant effects on the cardiovascular parameters. Conclusion: The effect of PE on the cardiovascular system during

  18. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly is developed for CPV system. • Single set of concentrator, concentrates sunlight on 4 MJCs with 1° acceptance angle. • The system performance is analyzed through experiment and ray tracing simulation. • Mini two axis solar tracker, with high tracking accuracy, is developed and tested. • Electrical rating analysis accurately estimates CPV system performance in any region. - Abstract: Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region.

  19. Human-Robot Teaming in a Multi-Agent Space Assembly Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Currie, Nancy; Ambrose, Robert O.; Culbert, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower. An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of humans with the survivability and physical capabilities of robots is proposed and illustrated by example. Such teams are useful for large-scale, complex missions requiring dispersed manipulation, locomotion and sensing capabilities. To study collaboration modalities within a multi-agent EVA team, a 1-g test is conducted with humans and robots working together in various supporting roles.

  20. The Creation of a Multi-Human, Multi-Robot Interactive Jam Session

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Gil; Blosser, Brian; Mallikarjuna, Trishul; Raman, Aparna

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive and improvisational jam session, including human players and two robotic musicians. The project was developed in an effort to create novel and inspiring music through human-robot collaboration. The jam session incorporates Shimon, a newly-developed socially-interactive robotic marimba player, and Haile, a perceptual robotic percussionist developed in previous work. The paper gives an overview of the musical perception modules, adaptive improvisation modes an...

  1. Accurate multi-robot targeting for keyhole neurosurgery based on external sensor monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparetti, Mirko Daniele; Vaccarella, Alberto; Dyagilev, Ilya; Shoham, Moshe; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; De Momi, Elena

    2012-05-01

    Robotics has recently been introduced in surgery to improve intervention accuracy, to reduce invasiveness and to allow new surgical procedures. In this framework, the ROBOCAST system is an optically surveyed multi-robot chain aimed at enhancing the accuracy of surgical probe insertion during keyhole neurosurgery procedures. The system encompasses three robots, connected as a multiple kinematic chain (serial and parallel), totalling 13 degrees of freedom, and it is used to automatically align the probe onto a desired planned trajectory. The probe is then inserted in the brain, towards the planned target, by means of a haptic interface. This paper presents a new iterative targeting approach to be used in surgical robotic navigation, where the multi-robot chain is used to align the surgical probe to the planned pose, and an external sensor is used to decrease the alignment errors. The iterative targeting was tested in an operating room environment using a skull phantom, and the targets were selected on magnetic resonance images. The proposed targeting procedure allows about 0.3 mm to be obtained as the residual median Euclidean distance between the planned and the desired targets, thus satisfying the surgical accuracy requirements (1 mm), due to the resolution of the diffused medical images. The performances proved to be independent of the robot optical sensor calibration accuracy.

  2. Modelling and Control of the Multi-Stage Cable Pulley-Driven Flexible-Joint Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsaen Pitakwatchara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the task space impedance control of a robot driven through a multi-stage nonlinear flexible transmission system. Specifically, a two degrees-of-freedom cable pulley-driven flexible-joint robot is considered. Realistic modelling of the system is developed within the bond graph modelling framework. The model captures the nonlinear compliance behaviour of the multi-stage cable pulley transmission system, the spring effect of the augmented counterbalancing mechanism, the major loss throughout the system elements, and the typical inertial dynamics of the robot. Next, a task space impedance controller based on limited information about the angle and the current of the motors is designed. The motor current is used to infer the transmitted torque, by which the motor inertia may be modulated. The motor angle is employed to estimate the stationary distal robot link angle and the robot joint velocity. They are used in the controller to generate the desired damping force and to shape the potential energy of the flexible joint robot system to the desired configuration. Simulation and experimental results of the controlled system signify the competency of the proposed control law.

  3. Modified bug-1 algorithm based strategy for obstacle avoidance in multi robot system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandathil Jom J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary ability of an intelligent mobile robot system is obstacle avoidance. BUG algorithms are classic examples of the algorithms used for achieving obstacle avoidance. Unlike many other planning algorithms based on global knowledge, BUG algorithms assume only local knowledge of the environment and a global goal. Among the variations of the BUG algorithms that prevail, BUG-0, BUG-1 and BUG-2 are the more prominent versions. The exhaustive search algorithm present in BUG-1 makes it more reliable and safer for practical applications. Overall, this provides a more predictable and dependable performance. Hence, the essential focus in this paper is on implementing the BUG-1 algorithm across a group of robots to move them from a start location to a target location. The results are compared with the results from BUG-1 algorithm implemented on a single robot. The strategy developed in this work reduces the time involved in moving the robots from starting location to the target location. Further, the paper shows that the total distance covered by each robot in a multi robot-system is always lesser than or equal to that travelled by a single robot executing the same problem.

  4. TRUST AND REPUTATION MODEL DESIGN FOR OBJECTS OF MULTI-AGENT ROBOTICS SYSTEMS WITH DECENTRALIZED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mechanisms design for protection of multi-agent robotics systems from attacks of robots-saboteurs is considered. Functioning analysis of these systems with decentralized control is carried out. The type of the so-called soft attacks using interception of messages, misinformation formation and transmission to group of robots which are also realizing other actions without identified signs of invasion of robots-saboteurs. Analysis of existing information security models of the system based on the trust level computation, calculated in the process of agents’ interaction is carried out. Information security model is offered in which robots-agents produce the trust levels to each other on the basis of situation analysis emerging on a certain step of iterative algorithm with usage of onboard sensor devices. On the basis of calculated trust levels, recognition of “saboteur” objects in the group of legitimate robots-agents is done. For measure of likeness (adjacency increase for objects from the same category (“saboteur” or “legitimate agent”, calculation algorithm for agents reputation is offered as a measure of public opinion about qualities of this or that agent-subject. Implementation alternatives of the algorithms for detection of saboteurs on the example of the basic algorithm for distribution of purposes in the group of robots are considered.

  5. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Tapia, Elena; Martín-Barrio, Andrés; Olivares-Méndez, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation. PMID:28749407

  6. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot System for Mapping Environmental Variables of Greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Garcia-Aunon, Pablo; Garzón, Mario; de León, Jorge; Del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The productivity of greenhouses highly depends on the environmental conditions of crops, such as temperature and humidity. The control and monitoring might need large sensor networks, and as a consequence, mobile sensory systems might be a more suitable solution. This paper describes the application of a heterogeneous robot team to monitor environmental variables of greenhouses. The multi-robot system includes both ground and aerial vehicles, looking to provide flexibility and improve performance. The multi-robot sensory system measures the temperature, humidity, luminosity and carbon dioxide concentration in the ground and at different heights. Nevertheless, these measurements can be complemented with other ones (e.g., the concentration of various gases or images of crops) without a considerable effort. Additionally, this work addresses some relevant challenges of multi-robot sensory systems, such as the mission planning and task allocation, the guidance, navigation and control of robots in greenhouses and the coordination among ground and aerial vehicles. This work has an eminently practical approach, and therefore, the system has been extensively tested both in simulations and field experiments.

  7. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot System for Mapping Environmental Variables of Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Roldán

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of greenhouses highly depends on the environmental conditions of crops, such as temperature and humidity. The control and monitoring might need large sensor networks, and as a consequence, mobile sensory systems might be a more suitable solution. This paper describes the application of a heterogeneous robot team to monitor environmental variables of greenhouses. The multi-robot system includes both ground and aerial vehicles, looking to provide flexibility and improve performance. The multi-robot sensory system measures the temperature, humidity, luminosity and carbon dioxide concentration in the ground and at different heights. Nevertheless, these measurements can be complemented with other ones (e.g., the concentration of various gases or images of crops without a considerable effort. Additionally, this work addresses some relevant challenges of multi-robot sensory systems, such as the mission planning and task allocation, the guidance, navigation and control of robots in greenhouses and the coordination among ground and aerial vehicles. This work has an eminently practical approach, and therefore, the system has been extensively tested both in simulations and field experiments.

  8. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Peña-Tapia, Elena; Martín-Barrio, Andrés; Olivares-Méndez, Miguel A; Del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2017-07-27

    Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation.

  9. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Roldán

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation.

  10. Multi-sensor integration for autonomous robots in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.C.; Jones, J.P.; Beckerman, M.; Glover, C.W.; Farkas, L.; Bilbro, G.L.; Snyder, W.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a concerted RandD program in advanced robotics for hazardous environments, scientists and engineers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are performing research in the areas of systems integration, range-sensor-based 3-D world modeling, and multi-sensor integration. This program features a unique teaming arrangement that involves the universities of Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas; Odetics Corporation; and ORNL. This paper summarizes work directed at integrating information extracted from data collected with range sensors and CCD cameras on-board a mobile robot, in order to produce reliable descriptions of the robot's environment. Specifically, the paper describes the integration of two-dimensional vision and sonar range information, and an approach to integrate registered luminance and laser range images. All operations are carried out on-board the mobile robot using a 16-processor hypercube computer. 14 refs., 4 figs

  11. FRAMEWORK FOR AD HOC NETWORK COMMUNICATION IN MULTI-ROBOT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilda Slyusar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assume a team of mobile robots operating in environments where no communication infrastructure like routers or access points is available. The robots have to create a mobile ad hoc network, in that case, it provides communication on peer-to-peer basis. The paper gives an overview of existing solutions how to route messages in such ad hoc networks between robots that are not directly connected and introduces a design of a software framework for realization of such communication. Feasibility of the proposed framework is shown on the example of distributed multi-robot exploration of an a priori unknown environment. Testing of developed functionality in an exploration scenario is based on results of several experiments with various input conditions of the exploration process and various sizes of a team and is described herein.

  12. Distributed Fault Detection and Isolation for Flocking in a Multi-robot System with Imperfect Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Shiliang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on distributed fault detection and isolation (FDI for a multi-robot system where multiple robots execute a flocking task. Firstly, we propose a fault detection method based on the local-information-exchange and sensor-measurement technologies to cover cases of both perfect communication and imperfect communication. The two detection technologies can be adaptively selected according to the packet loss rate (PLR. Secondly, we design a fault isolation method, considering a situation in which faulty robots still influence the behaviours of other robots. Finally, a complete FDI scheme, based on the proposed detection and isolation methods, is simulated in various scenarios. The results demonstrate that our FDI scheme is effective.

  13. Animal and robot experiments to discover principles behind the evolution of a minimal locomotor apparatus for robust legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInroe, Benjamin; Astley, Henry; Kawano, Sandy; Blob, Richard; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    In the evolutionary transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial environment, early walkers adapted to the challenges of locomotion on complex, flowable substrates (e.g. sand and mud). Our previous biological and robotic studies have demonstrated that locomotion on such substrates is sensitive to both limb morphology and kinematics. Although reconstructions of early vertebrate skeletal morphologies exist, the kinematic strategies required for successful locomotion by these organisms have not yet been explored. To gain insight into how early walkers contended with complex substrates, we developed a robotic model with appendage morphology inspired by a model analog organism, the mudskipper. We tested mudskippers and the robot on different substrates, including rigid ground and dry granular media, varying incline angle. The mudskippers moved effectively on all level substrates using a fin-driven gait. But as incline angle increased, the animals used their tails in concert with their fins to generate propulsion. Adding an actuated tail to the robot improved robustness, making possible locomotion on otherwise inaccessible inclines. With these discoveries, we are elucidating a minimal template that may have allowed the early walkers to adapt to locomotion on land. This work was supported by NSF PoLS.

  14. Towards Real-Time Distributed Planning in Multi-Robot Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in robotics related to multi-robot applications. Such systems can be involved in several tasks such as collaborative search and rescue, aerial transportation, surveillance, and monitoring, to name a few. There are two possible architectures for the autonomous control of multi-robot systems. In the centralized architecture, a master controller communicates with all the robots to collect information. It uses this information to make decisions for the entire system and then sends commands to each robot. In contrast, in the distributed architecture, each robot makes its own decision independent from a central authority. While distributed architecture is a more portable solution, it comes at the expense of extensive information exchange (communication). The extensive communication between robots can result in decision delays because of which distributed architecture is often impractical for systems with strict real-time constraints, e.g. when decisions have to be taken in the order of milliseconds. In this thesis, we propose a distributed framework that strikes a balance between limited communicated information and reasonable system-wide performance while running in real-time. We implement the proposed approach in a game setting of two competing teams of drones, defenders and attackers. Defending drones execute a proposed linear program algorithm (using only onboard computing modules) to obstruct attackers from infiltrating a defense zone while having minimal local message passing. Another main contribution is that we developed a realistic simulation environment as well as lab and outdoor hardware setups of customized drones for testing the system in realistic scenarios. Our software is completely open-source and fully integrated with the well-known Robot Operating System (ROS) in hopes to make our work easily reproducible and for rapid future improvements.

  15. Control system of the inspection robots group applying auctions and multi-criteria analysis for task allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfil, Wawrzyniec; Moczulski, Wojciech

    2017-10-01

    In the paper presented is a control system of a mobile robots group intended for carrying out inspection missions. The main research problem was to define such a control system in order to facilitate a cooperation of the robots resulting in realization of the committed inspection tasks. Many of the well-known control systems use auctions for tasks allocation, where a subject of an auction is a task to be allocated. It seems that in the case of missions characterized by much larger number of tasks than number of robots it will be better if robots (instead of tasks) are subjects of auctions. The second identified problem concerns the one-sided robot-to-task fitness evaluation. Simultaneous assessment of the robot-to-task fitness and task attractiveness for robot should affect positively for the overall effectiveness of the multi-robot system performance. The elaborated system allows to assign tasks to robots using various methods for evaluation of fitness between robots and tasks, and using some tasks allocation methods. There is proposed the method for multi-criteria analysis, which is composed of two assessments, i.e. robot's concurrency position for task among other robots and task's attractiveness for robot among other tasks. Furthermore, there are proposed methods for tasks allocation applying the mentioned multi-criteria analysis method. The verification of both the elaborated system and the proposed tasks' allocation methods was carried out with the help of simulated experiments. The object under test was a group of inspection mobile robots being a virtual counterpart of the real mobile-robot group.

  16. CRUX: A compliant robotic upper-extremity exosuit for lightweight, portable, multi-joint muscular augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Steven; Pansodtee, Pattawong; Robbins, Ash; Baltaxe-Admony, Leya Breanna; Trombadore, James M; Teodorescu, Mircea; Agogino, Adrian; Kurniawan, Sri

    2017-07-01

    Wearable robots can potentially offer their users enhanced stability and strength. These augmentations are ideally designed to actuate harmoniously with the user's movements and provide extra force as needed. The creation of such robots, however, is particularly challenging due to the underlying complexity of the human body. In this paper, we present a compliant, robotic exosuit for upper extremities called CRUX. This exosuit, inspired by tensegrity models of the human arm, features a lightweight (1.3 kg), flexible multi-joint design for portable augmentation. We also illustrate how CRUX maintains the full range of motion of the upper-extremities for its users while providing multi-DoF strength amplification to the major muscles of the arm, as evident by tracking the heart rate of an individual exercising said arm. Exosuits such as CRUX may be useful in physical therapy and in extreme environments where users are expected to exert their bodies to the fullest extent.

  17. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation During Head-up Tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influence of PE on the cardiovascular system during verticalization depends on the verticalization angle, and FES strengthens the PE influence. To test our hypotheses, we investigated the PE effects on the cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP at different angles of verticalization in a healthy population. Ten healthy subjects on a robot-assisted tilt table underwent four different study protocols while HR, sBP and dBP were measured: (1 head-up tilt to 60° and 71° without PE; (2 PE at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (3 PE while constant FES intensity was applied to the leg muscles, at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (4 PE with variation of the applied FES intensity at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt. Linear mixed models were used to model changes in HR, sBP, and dBP responses. The models show that: (1 head-up tilt alone resulted in statistically significant increases in HR and dBP, but no change in sBP. (2 PE during head-up tilt resulted in statistically significant changes in HR, sBP, and dBP, but not at each angle and not always in the same direction (i.e., increase or decrease of cardiovascular parameters. Neither adding (3 FES at constant intensity to PE nor (4 variation of FES intensity during PE had any statistically significant effects on the cardiovascular parameters.The effect of PE on the cardiovascular system during head-up tilt is strongly dependent on the verticalization

  18. Design of a Multi Agent Architecture for Robot Soccer. A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Seesink, R.A.; Schoute, Albert L.; Dierssen, W.; Kooij, N.

    A Multi Agent System (MAS) for the FIRA Mirosot League is presented. This MAS allows a general number of players and is used in the 5 against 5 and 7 against 7 competition. In the MAS there is coach agent and n (the number of robots in the team) player agents. There is a one to one correspondence

  19. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-03-09

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulation and development of a multi-leg homogeniser concentrating assembly for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system with electrical rating analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system utilizing multi-junction solar cells, is the main focus for current research, offering highest efficiency among all photovoltaic systems. The main aspect of CPV system is the design and performance of concentrating assembly, as it determines the performance of whole CPV system. However, the conventional design of CPV concentrating assembly dedicates one concentrator for each solar cell, in which single concentrator is capable to concentrate solar radiation onto single solar cell. This paper proposes a novel concentrating assembly for CPV system, which is designed to concentrate solar radiation onto four multi-junction solar cells with a single set of concentrators. The proposed design not only can reduce the number of concentrators and assembly efforts for CPV systems, but also achieved an acceptance angle of 1°. In this paper, the proposed multi-leg homogeniser CPV concentrating assembly is designed, developed, experimentally tested and verified through ray tracing simulation. The paper also discuss the development of mini, precise and accurate but cost effective two axis solar tracker for CPV system, which can be installed at any location even at rooftop of residential buildings, unlike conventional large scale CPV systems. Moreover, through the electrical rating analysis of the developed CPV system, its performance can be accurately estimated in any region. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheide, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews some of the technical areas and history associated with robotics, provides information relative to the formation of a Robotics Industry Committee within the Industry Applications Society (IAS), and describes how all activities relating to robotics will be coordinated within the IEEE. Industrial robots are being used for material handling, processes such as coating and arc welding, and some mechanical and electronics assembly. An industrial robot is defined as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for a variety of tasks. The initial focus of the Robotics Industry Committee will be on the application of robotics systems to the various industries that are represented within the IAS

  2. Multi-sensors multi-baseline mapping system for mobile robot using stereovision camera and laser-range device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faisal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Countless applications today are using mobile robots, including autonomous navigation, security patrolling, housework, search-and-rescue operations, material handling, manufacturing, and automated transportation systems. Regardless of the application, a mobile robot must use a robust autonomous navigation system. Autonomous navigation remains one of the primary challenges in the mobile-robot industry; many control algorithms and techniques have been recently developed that aim to overcome this challenge. Among autonomous navigation methods, vision-based systems have been growing in recent years due to rapid gains in computational power and the reliability of visual sensors. The primary focus of research into vision-based navigation is to allow a mobile robot to navigate in an unstructured environment without collision. In recent years, several researchers have looked at methods for setting up autonomous mobile robots for navigational tasks. Among these methods, stereovision-based navigation is a promising approach for reliable and efficient navigation. In this article, we create and develop a novel mapping system for a robust autonomous navigation system. The main contribution of this article is the fuse of the multi-baseline stereovision (narrow and wide baselines and laser-range reading data to enhance the accuracy of the point cloud, to reduce the ambiguity of correspondence matching, and to extend the field of view of the proposed mapping system to 180°. Another contribution is the pruning the region of interest of the three-dimensional point clouds to reduce the computational burden involved in the stereo process. Therefore, we called the proposed system multi-sensors multi-baseline mapping system. The experimental results illustrate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed system.

  3. Towards Human-Friendly Efficient Control of Multi-Robot Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Theodoridis, Theodoros; Barrero, David F.; Hu, Huosheng; McDonald-Maiers, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores means to increase efficiency in performing tasks with multi-robot teams, in the context of natural Human-Multi-Robot Interfaces (HMRI) for command and control. The motivating scenario is an emergency evacuation by a transport convoy of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) that have to traverse, in shortest time, an unknown terrain. In the experiments the operator commands, in minimal time, a group of rovers through a maze. The efficiency of performing such tasks depends on both, the levels of robots' autonomy, and the ability of the operator to command and control the team. The paper extends the classic framework of levels of autonomy (LOA), to levels/hierarchy of autonomy characteristic of Groups (G-LOA), and uses it to determine new strategies for control. An UGVoriented command language (UGVL) is defined, and a mapping is performed from the human-friendly gesture-based HMRI into the UGVL. The UGVL is used to control a team of 3 robots, exploring the efficiency of different G-LOA; specifically, by (a) controlling each robot individually through the maze, (b) controlling a leader and cloning its controls to followers, and (c) controlling the entire group. Not surprisingly, commands at increased G-LOA lead to a faster traverse, yet a number of aspects are worth discussing in this context.

  4. Rendezvous with connectivity preservation for multi-robot systems with an unknown leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the leader-following rendezvous problem with connectivity preservation for multi-agent systems composed of uncertain multi-robot systems subject to external disturbances and an unknown leader, both of which are generated by a so-called exosystem with parametric uncertainty. By combining internal model design, potential function technique and adaptive control, two distributed control strategies are proposed to maintain the connectivity of the communication network, to achieve the asymptotic tracking of all the followers to the output of the unknown leader system, as well as to reject unknown external disturbances. It is also worth to mention that the uncertain parameters in the multi-robot systems and exosystem are further allowed to belong to unknown and unbounded sets when applying the second fully distributed control law containing a dynamic gain inspired by high-gain adaptive control or self-tuning regulator.

  5. Robots, multi-user virtual environments and healthcare: synergies for future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ajung; Grajales, Francisco J; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of technology in healthcare over the last twenty years has steadily increased, particularly as it relates to medical robotics and Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) such as Second Life. Both disciplines have been shown to improve the quality of care and have evolved, for the most part, in isolation from each other. In this paper, we present four synergies between medical robotics and MUVEs that have the potential to decrease resource utilization and improve the quality of healthcare delivery. We conclude with some foreseeable barriers and future research directions for researchers in these fields.

  6. Robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorino, P; Altwegg, J M

    1985-05-01

    This article, which is aimed at the general reader, examines latest developments in, and the role of, modern robotics. The 7 main sections are sub-divided into 27 papers presented by 30 authors. The sections are as follows: 1) The role of robotics, 2) Robotics in the business world and what it can offer, 3) Study and development, 4) Utilisation, 5) Wages, 6) Conditions for success, and 7) Technological dynamics.

  7. Proposed Methodology for Application of Human-like gradual Multi-Agent Q-Learning (HuMAQ) for Multi-robot Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Dip Narayan; Majumder, Somajyoti

    2014-01-01

    Several attempts have been made by the researchers around the world to develop a number of autonomous exploration techniques for robots. But it has been always an important issue for developing the algorithm for unstructured and unknown environments. Human-like gradual Multi-agent Q-leaming (HuMAQ) is a technique developed for autonomous robotic exploration in unknown (and even unimaginable) environments. It has been successfully implemented in multi-agent single robotic system. HuMAQ uses the concept of Subsumption architecture, a well-known Behaviour-based architecture for prioritizing the agents of the multi-agent system and executes only the most common action out of all the different actions recommended by different agents. Instead of using new state-action table (Q-table) each time, HuMAQ uses the immediate past table for efficient and faster exploration. The proof of learning has also been established both theoretically and practically. HuMAQ has the potential to be used in different and difficult situations as well as applications. The same architecture has been modified to use for multi-robot exploration in an environment. Apart from all other existing agents used in the single robotic system, agents for inter-robot communication and coordination/ co-operation with the other similar robots have been introduced in the present research. Current work uses a series of indigenously developed identical autonomous robotic systems, communicating with each other through ZigBee protocol

  8. Development and human factors analysis of an augmented reality interface for multi-robot tele-operation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Lucas, Nathan P.; Ellis, R. Darin; Pandya, Abhilash

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a seamlessly controlled human multi-robot system comprised of ground and aerial robots of semiautonomous nature for source localization tasks. The system combines augmented reality interfaces capabilities with human supervisor's ability to control multiple robots. The role of this human multi-robot interface is to allow an operator to control groups of heterogeneous robots in real time in a collaborative manner. It used advanced path planning algorithms to ensure obstacles are avoided and that the operators are free for higher-level tasks. Each robot knows the environment and obstacles and can automatically generate a collision-free path to any user-selected target. It displayed sensor information from each individual robot directly on the robot in the video view. In addition, a sensor data fused AR view is displayed which helped the users pin point source information or help the operator with the goals of the mission. The paper studies a preliminary Human Factors evaluation of this system in which several interface conditions are tested for source detection tasks. Results show that the novel Augmented Reality multi-robot control (Point-and-Go and Path Planning) reduced mission completion times compared to the traditional joystick control for target detection missions. Usability tests and operator workload analysis are also investigated.

  9. Kinematics modeling and experimentation of the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot for full denture manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-de; Jiang, Jin-gang; Liang, Ting; Hu, Wei-ping

    2011-12-01

    Artificial teeth are very complicated in shape, and not easy to be grasped and manipulated accurately by a single robot. The method of tooth-arrangement by multi-manipulator for complete denture manufacturing proposed in this paper. A novel complete denture manufacturing mechanism is designed based on multi-manipulator and dental arch generator. Kinematics model of the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot is built by analytical method based on tooth-arrangement principle for full denture. Preliminary experiments on tooth-arrangement are performed using the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot prototype system. The multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot prototype system can automatically design and manufacture a set of complete denture that is suitable for a patient according to the jaw arch parameters. The experimental results verified the validity of kinematics model of the multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot and the feasibility of the manufacture strategy of complete denture fulfilled by multi-manipulator tooth-arrangement robot.

  10. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  11. Inverse biomimetics: how robots can help to verify concepts concerning sensorimotor control of human arm and leg movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Karl Theodor; Seyfarth, André

    2009-01-01

    Simulation test, hardware test and behavioral comparison test are proposed to experimentally verify whether a technical control concept for limb movements is logically precise, physically sound, and biologically relevant. Thereby, robot test-beds may play an integral part by mimicking functional limb movements. The procedure is exemplarily demonstrated for human aiming movements with the forearm: when comparing competitive control concepts, these movements are described best by a spring-like operating muscular-skeletal device which is assisted by feedforward control through an inverse internal model of the limb--without regress to a forward model of the limb. In a perspective on hopping, the concept of exploitive control is addressed, and its comparison to concepts derived from classical control theory advised.

  12. Design and characterization of a multi-articulated robotic bat wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2013-01-01

    There are many challenges to measuring power input and force output from a flapping vertebrate. Animals can vary a multitude of kinematic parameters simultaneously, and methods for measuring power and force are either not possible in a flying vertebrate or are very time and equipment intensive. To circumvent these challenges, we constructed a robotic, multi-articulated bat wing that allows us to measure power input and force output simultaneously, across a range of kinematic parameters. The robot is modeled after the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, and contains seven joints powered by three servo motors. Collectively, this joint and motor arrangement allows the robot to vary wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. We describe the design, construction, programing, instrumentation, characterization, and analysis of the robot. We show that the kinematics, inputs, and outputs demonstrate good repeatability both within and among trials. Finally, we describe lessons about the structure of living bats learned from trying to mimic their flight in a robotic wing. (paper)

  13. Multi-robot task allocation based on two dimensional artificial fish swarm algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Taixiong; Li, Xueqin; Yang, Liangyi

    2007-12-01

    The problem of task allocation for multiple robots is to allocate more relative-tasks to less relative-robots so as to minimize the processing time of these tasks. In order to get optimal multi-robot task allocation scheme, a twodimensional artificial swarm algorithm based approach is proposed in this paper. In this approach, the normal artificial fish is extended to be two dimension artificial fish. In the two dimension artificial fish, each vector of primary artificial fish is extended to be an m-dimensional vector. Thus, each vector can express a group of tasks. By redefining the distance between artificial fish and the center of artificial fish, the behavior of two dimension fish is designed and the task allocation algorithm based on two dimension artificial swarm algorithm is put forward. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the problem of multi-robot task allocation and comparer with GA and SA based algorithm is done. Simulation and compare result shows the proposed algorithm is effective.

  14. Probabilistic Verification of Multi-Robot Missions in Uncertain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    has been used to measure the environment, including any dynamic obstacles. However, no matter how the model originates, this approach is based on...modeled as bivariate Gaussian distributions and estimated by calibration measurements . The Robot process model is described in prior work [13...sn〉 (pR,pE)(obR) = In〈pR〉〈p〉 ; In〈pE〉〈e〉 ; ( Gtr〈 d(p,e), sr〉〈p1〉 ; Out〈obR,p1〉 | Lte 〈 d(p,e), sr〉〈p2〉 ; Out〈obR, sn+p2 〉 ) ; Sensors

  15. A New Approach of Multi-robot Cooperative Pursuit Based on Association Rule Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An approach of cooperative hunting for multiple mobile targets by multi-robot is presented, which divides the pursuit process into forming the pursuit teams and capturing the targets. The data sets of attribute relationship is built by consulting all of factors about capturing evaders, then the interesting rules can be found by data mining from the data sets to build the pursuit teams. Through doping out the positions of targets, the pursuit game can be transformed into multi-robot path planning. Reinforcement learning is used to find the best path. The simulation results show that the mobile evaders can be captured effectively and efficiently, and prove the feasibility and validity of the given algorithm under a dynamic environment.

  16. A New Approach of Multi-Robot Cooperative Pursuit Based on Association Rule Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach of cooperative hunting for multiple mobile targets by multi-robot is presented, which divides the pursuit process into forming the pursuit teams and capturing the targets. The data sets of attribute relationship is built by consulting all of factors about capturing evaders, then the interesting rules can be found by data mining from the data sets to build the pursuit teams. Through doping out the positions of targets, the pursuit game can be transformed into multi-robot path planning. Reinforcement learning is used to find the best path. The simulation results show that the mobile evaders can be captured effectively and efficiently, and prove the feasibility and validity of the given algorithm under a dynamic environment.

  17. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise during Head-Up Tilt: A Pilot Study in Neurological Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Robot-assisted tilt table therapy was proposed for early rehabilitation and mobilization of patients after diseases such as stroke. A robot-assisted tilt table with integrated passive robotic leg exercise (PE mechanism has the potential to prevent orthostatic hypotension usually provoked by verticalization. In a previous study with rather young healthy subjects [average age: 25.1 ± 2.6 years (standard deviation], we found that PE effect on the cardiovascular system depends on the verticalization angle of the robot-assisted tilt table. In the current study, we investigated in an older population of neurological patients (a whether they show the same PE effects as younger healthy population on the cardiovascular system at different tilt angles, (b whether changing the PE frequency (i.e., stepping speed influences the PE effect on the cardiovascular system, (c whether PE could prevent orthostatic hypotension, and finally, (d whether PE effect is consistent from day to day.Methods: Heart rate (HR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP in response to PE at two different tilt angles (α = 20°, 60° with three different PE frequencies (i.e., 0, 24, and 48 steps per minute of 10 neurological patients [average age: 68.4 ± 13.5 years (standard deviation] were measured on 2 consecutive days. Linear mixed models were used to develop statistical models and analyze the repeated measurements.Results: The models show that: PE significantly increased sBP and dBP but had no significant effect on HR. (a Similar to healthy subjects the effect of PE on sBP was dependent on the tilt angle with higher tilt angles resulting in a higher increase. Head-up tilting alone significantly increased HR and dBP but resulted in a non-significant drop in sBP. PE, in general, had a more additive effect on increasing BP. (b The effect of PE was not influenced by its speed. (c Neither during head-up tilt alone nor in combination with PE did

  18. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise during Head-Up Tilt: A Pilot Study in Neurological Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani Tafreshi, Amirehsan; Riener, Robert; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Robot-assisted tilt table therapy was proposed for early rehabilitation and mobilization of patients after diseases such as stroke. A robot-assisted tilt table with integrated passive robotic leg exercise (PE) mechanism has the potential to prevent orthostatic hypotension usually provoked by verticalization. In a previous study with rather young healthy subjects [average age: 25.1 ± 2.6 years (standard deviation)], we found that PE effect on the cardiovascular system depends on the verticalization angle of the robot-assisted tilt table. In the current study, we investigated in an older population of neurological patients (a) whether they show the same PE effects as younger healthy population on the cardiovascular system at different tilt angles, (b) whether changing the PE frequency (i.e., stepping speed) influences the PE effect on the cardiovascular system, (c) whether PE could prevent orthostatic hypotension, and finally, (d) whether PE effect is consistent from day to day. Methods: Heart rate (HR), and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP) in response to PE at two different tilt angles (α = 20°, 60°) with three different PE frequencies (i.e., 0, 24, and 48 steps per minute) of 10 neurological patients [average age: 68.4 ± 13.5 years (standard deviation)] were measured on 2 consecutive days. Linear mixed models were used to develop statistical models and analyze the repeated measurements. Results: The models show that: PE significantly increased sBP and dBP but had no significant effect on HR. (a) Similar to healthy subjects the effect of PE on sBP was dependent on the tilt angle with higher tilt angles resulting in a higher increase. Head-up tilting alone significantly increased HR and dBP but resulted in a non-significant drop in sBP. PE, in general, had a more additive effect on increasing BP. (b) The effect of PE was not influenced by its speed. (c) Neither during head-up tilt alone nor in combination with PE did participants

  19. Multi-Objective Constraint Satisfaction for Mobile Robot Area Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    David A. Van Veldhuizen . Evo- lutionary Algorithms for Solving Multi-Objective Problems. Springer, New York, NY, 2nd edition, 2007. [9] Dean, Thomas...J.I. van Hemert, E. Marchiori, and A. G. Steenbeek. “Solving Binary Constraint Satisfaction Problems using Evolutionary Algorithms with an Adaptive

  20. Service orientation in holonic and multi agent manufacturing and robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Andre; Trentesaux, Damien

    2013-01-01

    The book covers four research domains representing a trend for modern manufacturing control: Holonic and Multi-agent technologies for industrial systems; Intelligent Product and Product-driven Automation; Service Orientation of Enterprise’s strategic and technical processes; and Distributed Intelligent Automation Systems. These evolution lines have in common concepts related to service orientation derived from the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) paradigm.     The service-oriented multi-agent systems approach discussed in the book is characterized by the use of a set of distributed autonomous and cooperative agents, embedded in smart components that use the SOA principles, being oriented by offer and request of services, in order to fulfil production systems and value chain goals.   A new integrated vision combining emergent technologies is offered, to create control structures with distributed intelligence supporting the vertical and horizontal enterprise integration and running in truly distributed ...

  1. MÓDULO CONDUCTUAL INMERSO EN UNA ARQUITECTURA DE CONTROL PARA SISTEMAS MULTI-ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Eduardo Gil Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe el diseño de un módulo conductual para robots de propósito general, implementado en el marco de una arquitectura de control para sistemas multi-robots.El mismo está estructurado en cuatro capas: reactiva, cognitiva, social, y una capa transversal que gestiona un conjunto de emociones básicas, que afectan de forma directael comportamiento del robot y su disposición hacia la ejecución de las tareas y hacia la interrelación con los otros individuos del sistema (es decir, a las otras capas. El objetivo de la arquitectura es brindar una plataforma que facilite los procesos de auto-organización y emergencia del sistema.Se propone un modelo emocional, que toma en consideración cuatro emociones básicas y un estado neutro; esto con el fin de dotar a los robots de un factor adicional que influya en su funcionamiento, que puede ser determinante cuando estos enfrentan situaciones donde la incertidumbre se hace presente. De esta forma, se busca mejorar su proceso de toma de decisión y su adaptación a las dinámicas presentes en el entorno, en particular analizando la influencia de las emociones en sistemas de este tipo.

  2. Robot Control Using UML and Multi-agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavliska

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased industrialization and new markets have led to an accumulation of used technical consumer goods, which results in greater exploitation of raw materials, energy and landfill sites. In order to reduce the use of natural resources conserve precious energy and limit the increase in waste volume. The application of disassembly techniques is the first step towards this prevention of waste. These techniques form a reliable and clean approach: "noble" or high-graded recycling. This paper presents a multi agent system for disassembly process, which is implemented in a computer-aided application for supervising of the disassembling system: the Interactive Intelligent Interface for Disassembling System. Unified modeling language diagrams are used for an internal and external definition of the disassembling system.

  3. Estimation of Human Hip and Knee Multi-Joint Dynamics Using the LOPES Gait Trainer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present and evaluate a novel method to estimate multi-joint leg impedance, using a robotic gait training device. The method is based on multi-input–multi-output system identification techniques and is designed for continuous torque perturbations at the hip and knee joint

  4. Brain-state dependent robotic reaching movement with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton: combining brain-machine interfacing and robotic rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBrauchle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While robot-assisted arm and hand training after stroke allows for intensive task-oriented practice, it has provided only limited additional benefit over dose-matched physiotherapy up to now. These rehabilitation devices are possibly too supportive during the exercises. Neurophysiological signals might be one way of avoiding slacking and providing robotic support only when the brain is particularly responsive to peripheral input.We tested the feasibility of three-dimensional robotic assistance for reach-to-grasp movements with a multi-joint exoskeleton during motor imagery-related desynchronization of sensorimotor oscillations in the β-band only. We also registered task-related network changes of cortical functional connectivity by electroencephalography via the imaginary part of the coherence function.Healthy subjects and stroke survivors showed similar patterns – but different aptitudes – of controlling the robotic movement. All participants in this pilot study with nine healthy subjects and two stroke patients achieved their maximum performance during the early stages of the task. Robotic control was significantly higher and less variable when proprioceptive feedback was provided in addition to visual feedback, i.e. when the orthosis was actually attached to the subject’s arm during the task. A distributed cortical network of task-related coherent activity in the θ-band showed significant differences between healthy subjects and stroke patients as well as between early and late periods of the task.Brain-robot interfaces may successfully link three-dimensional robotic training to the participants’ efforts and allow for task-oriented practice of activities of daily living with a physiologically controlled multi-joint exoskeleton. Changes of cortical physiology during the task might also help to make subject-specific adjustments of task difficulty and guide adjunct interventions to facilitate motor learning for functional restoration.

  5. Robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    netic induction to detect an object. The development of ... end effector, inclination of object, magnetic and electric fields, etc. The sensors described ... In the case of a robot, the various actuators and motors have to be modelled. The major ...

  6. ON TRAVERSABILITY COST EVALUATION FROM PROPRIOCEPTIVE SENSING FOR A CRAWLING ROBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Mrva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traversability characteristics of the robot working environment are crucial in planning an efficient path for a robot operating in rough unstructured areas. In the literature, approaches to wheeled or tracked robots can be found, but a relatively little attention is given to walking multi-legged robots. Moreover, the existing approaches for terrain traversability assessment seem to be focused on gathering key features from a terrain model acquired from range data or camera image and only occasionally supplemented with proprioceptive sensing that expresses the interaction of the robot with the terrain. This paper addresses the problem of traversability cost evaluation based on proprioceptive sensing for a hexapod walking robot while optimizing different criteria. We present several methods of evaluating the robot-terrain interaction that can be used as a cost function for an assessment of the robot motion that can be utilized in high-level path-planning algorithms.

  7. Monitored retrievable storage and multi-purpose canister robotic applications: Feasibility, dose savings and cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic automation is examined as a possible alternative to manual spent nuclear fuel, transport cask and Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) handling at a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, and as an alternative to current MPC closure and welding methods at commercial nuclear reactor sites. Automation of key operational aspects is analyzed to determine equipment requirements, through-put times and equipment costs. The economic analysis approach is described, and economic and radiation dose impacts resulting from this automation are compared to manual handling methods. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Mobile robot multi-sensor unit for unsupervised gas discrimination in uncontrolled environments

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Yuxin; Vincent, Timothy A.; Cole, Marina; Gardner, Julian W.; Fan, Han; Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Schaffernicht, Erik; Lilienthal, Achim

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present a novel multi-sensor unit to detect and discriminate unknown gases in uncontrolled environments. The unit includes three metal oxide (MOX) sensors with CMOS micro heaters, a plasmonic enhanced non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) sensor, a commercial temperature humidity sensor, and a flow sensor. The proposed sensing unit was evaluated with plumes of gases (propanol, ethanol and acetone) in both, a laboratory setup on a gas testing bench and on-board a mobile robot operati...

  9. Self-Organized Multi-Camera Network for a Fast and Easy Deployment of Ubiquitous Robots in Unknown Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo-Rodriguez, Adrián; Iglesias, Roberto; Regueiro, Carlos V.; Alvarez-Santos, Victor; Pardo, Xose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    To bring cutting edge robotics from research centres to social environments, the robotics community must start providing affordable solutions: the costs must be reduced and the quality and usefulness of the robot services must be enhanced. Unfortunately, nowadays the deployment of robots and the adaptation of their services to new environments are tasks that usually require several days of expert work. With this in view, we present a multi-agent system made up of intelligent cameras and autonomous robots, which is easy and fast to deploy in different environments. The cameras will enhance the robot perceptions and allow them to react to situations that require their services. Additionally, the cameras will support the movement of the robots. This will enable our robots to navigate even when there are not maps available. The deployment of our system does not require expertise and can be done in a short period of time, since neither software nor hardware tuning is needed. Every system task is automatic, distributed and based on self-organization processes. Our system is scalable, robust, and flexible to the environment. We carried out several real world experiments, which show the good performance of our proposal. PMID:23271604

  10. Self-organized multi-camera network for a fast and easy deployment of ubiquitous robots in unknown environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo-Rodriguez, Adrián; Iglesias, Roberto; Regueiro, Carlos V; Alvarez-Santos, Victor; Pardo, Xose Manuel

    2012-12-27

    To bring cutting edge robotics from research centres to social environments, the robotics community must start providing affordable solutions: the costs must be reduced and the quality and usefulness of the robot services must be enhanced. Unfortunately, nowadays the deployment of robots and the adaptation of their services to new environments are tasks that usually require several days of expert work. With this in view, we present a multi-agent system made up of intelligent cameras and autonomous robots, which is easy and fast to deploy in different environments. The cameras will enhance the robot perceptions and allow them to react to situations that require their services. Additionally, the cameras will support the movement of the robots. This will enable our robots to navigate even when there are not maps available. The deployment of our system does not require expertise and can be done in a short period of time, since neither software nor hardware tuning is needed. Every system task is automatic, distributed and based on self-organization processes. Our system is scalable, robust, and flexible to the environment. We carried out several real world experiments, which show the good performance of our proposal.

  11. Design of an Embedded Multi-Camera Vision System—A Case Study in Mobile Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Costa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to explore the design principles for a Real-Time Robotic Multi Camera Vision System, in a case study involving a real world competition of autonomous driving. Design practices from vision and real-time research areas are applied into a Real-Time Robotic Vision application, thus exemplifying good algorithm design practices, the advantages of employing the “zero copy one pass” methodology and associated trade-offs leading to the selection of a controller platform. The vision tasks under study are: (i recognition of a “flat” signal; and (ii track following, requiring 3D reconstruction. This research firstly improves the used algorithms for the mentioned tasks and finally selects the controller hardware. Optimization for the shown algorithms yielded from 1.5 times to 190 times improvements, always with acceptable quality for the target application, with algorithm optimization being more important on lower computing power platforms. Results also include a 3-cm and five-degree accuracy for lane tracking and 100% accuracy for signalling panel recognition, which are better than most results found in the literature for this application. Clear results comparing different PC platforms for the mentioned Robotic Vision tasks are also shown, demonstrating trade-offs between accuracy and computing power, leading to the proper choice of control platform. The presented design principles are portable to other applications, where Real-Time constraints exist.

  12. Integrating Multi-Purpose Natural Language Understanding, Robot's Memory, and Symbolic Planning for Task Execution in Humanoid Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wächter, Mirko; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina; Wittenbeck, Valerij

    2017-01-01

    We propose an approach for instructing a robot using natural language to solve complex tasks in a dynamic environment. In this study, we elaborate on a framework that allows a humanoid robot to understand natural language, derive symbolic representations of its sensorimotor experience, generate....... The framework is implemented within the robot development environment ArmarX. We evaluate the framework on the humanoid robot ARMAR-III in the context of two experiments: a demonstration of the real execution of a complex task in the kitchen environment on ARMAR-III and an experiment with untrained users...

  13. Robotic multi-well planar patch-clamp for native and primary mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Carol J; Li, Jing; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Majeed, Yasser; Dallas, Mark L; English, Anne; Emery, Paul; Porter, Karen E; Smith, Andrew M; McFadzean, Ian; Beccano-Kelly, Dayne; Bahnasi, Yahya; Cheong, Alex; Naylor, Jacqueline; Zeng, Fanning; Liu, Xing; Gamper, Nikita; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Pearson, Hugh A; Peers, Chris; Robertson, Brian; Beech, David J

    2009-01-01

    Multi-well robotic planar patch-clamp has become common in drug development and safety programmes because it enables efficient and systematic testing of compounds against ion channels during voltage-clamp. It has not, however, been adopted significantly in other important areas of ion channel research, where conventional patch-clamp remains the favoured method. Here we show the wider potential of the multi-well approach with the capability for efficient intracellular solution exchange, describing protocols and success rates for recording from a range of native and primary mammalian cells derived from blood vessels, arthritic joints, and the immune and central nervous systems. The protocol involves preparing a suspension of single cells to be dispensed robotically into 4-8 microfluidic chambers each containing a glass chip with a small aperture. Under automated control, giga-seals and whole-cell access are achieved followed by pre-programmed routines of voltage paradigms and fast extracellular or intracellular solution exchange. Recording from 48 chambers usually takes 1-6 hr depending on the experimental design and yields 16-33 cell recordings. PMID:19197268

  14. Development and anti-swing control of an automated measurement robot system for multi-stud tensioning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haoyuan; Li Meng; Duan Xingguang; Gao Liang; Cui Tengfei; Guo Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    During nuclear power plant maintenance, the multi-stud tensioning machine is used to perform opening/sealing the cap of the reactor pressure vessel. This process incorporates elongations of 58 studs, whose extension values are monitored in real time by measurement meters. Conventionally, the placements of the meters are performed by human labor, which is time consuming and radioactively hazardous. In this paper, we introduce an automated measurement robot system, consisting of 58 node robots and multiple field bus based distributed control devices, to complete meter placement and data acquisition tasks without human involvement in the hazardous working site. In order to eliminate the swing phenomenon of the wire-driven meter adaptor on the robot distal end, extra-insensitive input shaper is employed for robot motion control, thus saving the overall operation time from traditionally over 10 minutes to less than 22 s. (author)

  15. The Effectiveness of Simulated Robots for Supporting the Learning of Introductory Programming: A Multi-Case Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Louis; Kyriacou, Theocharis; Brereton, Pearl

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the effectiveness of simulated robots as tools to support the learning of programming. After the completion of a systematic review and exploratory research, a multi-case case study was undertaken. A simulator, named Kebot, was developed and used to run four 10-hour programming workshops. Twenty-three student participants…

  16. Stair Climbing in a Quadruped Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Shen-Chiang Chen; Chih-Chung Ko; Cheng-Hsin Li; Pei-Chun Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the algorithm of trajectory planning and the strategy of four-leg coordination for quasi-static stair climbing in a quadruped robot. This development is based on the geometrical interactions between robot legs and the stair, starting from single-leg analysis, followed by two-leg collaboration, and then four-leg coordination. In addition, a brief study on the robot’s locomotion stability is also included. Finally, simulation and experimental testing were executed to evaluate...

  17. Selection of rendezvous points for multi-robot exploration in dynamic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, J.; Cameron, S.; Visser, A.; Visser, U.; Asadi, S.; Laue, T.; Mayer, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    For many robotics applications (such as robotic search and rescue), information about the environment must be gathered by a team of robots and returned to a single, specific location. Coordination of robots and sharing of information is vital, and when environments have severe communication

  18. HyPro: A Multi-DoF Hybrid-Powered Transradial Robotic Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Semasinghe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-DoF hybrid-powered transradial robotic prosthesis, named HyPro. The HyPro consists of two prosthetic units: hand and wrist that can achieve five grasping patterns such as power grasp, tip grasp, lateral grasp, hook grasp, and index point. It is an underactuated device with 15 degrees of freedom. A hybrid powering concept is proposed and implemented on hand unit of HyPro where the key focus is on restoration of grasp functions of biological hand. A novel underactuated mechanism is introduced to achieve the required hand preshaping for a given grasping pattern using electric power in the pregrasp stage and body power is used in grasp stage to execute the final grasping action with the selected fingers. Unlike existing hybrid prostheses where each of the joints is separately controlled by either electric or body power, the proposed prosthesis is capable of delivering grasping power in combination. The wrist unit of HyPro is designed and developed to achieve flexion-extension and supination-pronation using electric power. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the functionality and performance of the proposed hybrid-powered robotic prosthesis. The results verified the potential of HyPro to perform intended grasping patterns effectively and efficiently.

  19. Continuum limbed robots for locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Alper

    This thesis focuses on continuum robots based on pneumatic muscle technology. We introduce a novel approach to use these muscles as limbs of lightweight legged robots. The flexibility of the continuum legs of these robots offers the potential to perform some duties that are not possible with classical rigid-link robots. Potential applications are as space robots in low gravity, and as cave explorer robots. The thesis covers the fabrication process of continuum pneumatic muscles and limbs. It also provides some new experimental data on this technology. Afterwards, the designs of two different novel continuum robots - one tripod, one quadruped - are introduced. Experimental data from tests using the robots is provided. The experimental results are the first published example of locomotion with tripod and quadruped continuum legged robots. Finally, discussion of the results and how far this technology can go forward is presented.

  20. Building a ROS-Based Testbed for Realistic Multi-Robot Simulation: Taking the Exploration as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While the robotics community agrees that the benchmarking is of high importance to objectively compare different solutions, there are only few and limited tools to support it. To address this issue in the context of multi-robot systems, we have defined a benchmarking process based on experimental designs, which aimed at improving the reproducibility of experiments by making explicit all elements of a benchmark such as parameters, measurements and metrics. We have also developed a ROS (Robot Operating System-based testbed with the goal of making it easy for users to validate, benchmark, and compare different algorithms including coordination strategies. Our testbed uses the MORSE (Modular OpenRobots Simulation Engine simulator for realistic simulation and a computer cluster for decentralized computation. In this paper, we present our testbed in details with the architecture and infrastructure, the issues encountered in implementing the infrastructure, and the automation of the deployment. We also report a series of experiments on multi-robot exploration, in order to demonstrate the capabilities of our testbed.

  1. Towards Sociable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    This thesis studies aspects of self-sufficient energy (energy autonomy) for truly autonomous robots and towards sociable robots. Over sixty years of history of robotics through three developmental ages containing single robot, multi-robot systems, and social (sociable) robots, the main objective...... of roboticists mostly focuses on how to make a robotic system function autonomously and further, socially. However, such approaches mostly emphasize behavioural autonomy, rather than energy autonomy which is the key factor for not only any living machine, but for life on the earth. Consequently, self......-sufficient energy is one of the challenges for not only single robot or multi-robot systems, but also social and sociable robots. This thesis is to deal with energy autonomy for multi-robot systems through energy sharing (trophallaxis) in which each robot is equipped with two capabilities: self-refueling energy...

  2. In vivo kinematics of a robot-assisted uni- and multi-compartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshifumi; Abbasi, Ali Z; Conditt, Michael A; Christopher, Jennifer; Kreuzer, Stefan; Otto, Jason K; Banks, Scott A

    2014-07-01

    There is great interest in providing reliable and durable treatments for one- and two-compartment arthritic degeneration of the cruciate-ligament intact knee. One approach is to resurface only the diseased compartments with discrete unicompartmental components, retaining the undamaged compartment(s). However, placing multiple small implants into the knee presents a greater surgical challenge than total knee arthroplasty, so it is not certain that the natural knee mechanics can be maintained or restored. The goal of this study was to determine whether near-normal knee kinematics can be obtained with a robot-assisted multi-compartmental knee arthroplasty. Thirteen patients with 15 multi-compartmental knee arthroplasties using haptic robotic-assisted bone preparation were involved in this study. Nine subjects received a medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), three subjects received a medial UKA and patellofemoral (PF) arthroplasty, and three subjects received medial and lateral bi-unicondylar arthroplasty. Knee motions were recorded using video-fluoroscopy an average of 13 months (6-29 months) after surgery during stair and kneeling activities. The three-dimensional position and orientation of the implant components were determined using model-image registration techniques. Knee kinematics during maximum flexion kneeling showed femoral external rotation and posterior lateral condylar translation. All knees showed femoral external rotation and posterior condylar translation with flexion during the step activity. Knees with medial UKA and PF arthroplasty showed the most femoral external rotation and posterior translation, and knees with bicondylar UKA showed the least. Knees with accurately placed uni- or bi-compartmental arthroplasty exhibited stable knee kinematics consistent with intact and functioning cruciate ligaments. The patterns of tibiofemoral motion were more similar to natural knees than commonly has been observed in knees with total knee

  3. Performance impact of mutation operators of a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm for multi-robot task allocation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Kroll, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Multi-robot task allocation determines the task sequence and distribution for a group of robots in multi-robot systems, which is one of constrained combinatorial optimization problems and more complex in case of cooperative tasks because they introduce additional spatial and temporal constraints. To solve multi-robot task allocation problems with cooperative tasks efficiently, a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm, a crossover-free genetic algorithm employing mutation operators and elitism selection in each subpopulation, is developed in this paper. Moreover, the impact of mutation operators (swap, insertion, inversion, displacement, and their various combinations) is analyzed when solving several industrial plant inspection problems. The experimental results show that: (1) the proposed genetic algorithm can obtain better solutions than the tested binary tournament genetic algorithm with partially mapped crossover; (2) inversion mutation performs better than other tested mutation operators when solving problems without cooperative tasks, and the swap-inversion combination performs better than other tested mutation operators/combinations when solving problems with cooperative tasks. As it is difficult to produce all desired effects with a single mutation operator, using multiple mutation operators (including both inversion and swap) is suggested when solving similar combinatorial optimization problems.

  4. Bioinspired template-based control of legged locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Sharbafi, Maziar

    2018-01-01

    cient and robust locomotion is a crucial condition for the more extensive use of legged robots in real world applications. In that respect, robots can learn from animals, if the principles underlying locomotion in biological legged systems can be transferred to their artificial counterparts. However, legged locomotion in biological systems is a complex and not fully understood problem. A great progress to simplify understanding locomotion dynamics and control was made by introducing simple mo...

  5. A Robotic Guide for Blind People. Part 1. A Multi-National Survey of the Attitudes, Requirements and Preferences of Potential End-Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion A. Hersh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a multi-national survey in several different countries on the attitudes, requirements and preferences of blind and visually impaired people for a robotic guide. The survey is introduced by a brief overview of existing work on robotic travel aids and other mobile robotic devices. The questionnaire comprises three sections on personal information about respondents, existing use of mobility and navigation devices and the functions and other features of a robotic guide. The survey found that respondents were very interested in the robotic guide having a number of different functions and being useful in a wide range of circumstances. They considered the robot's appearance to be very important but did not like any of the proposed designs. From their comments, respondents wanted the robot to be discreet and inconspicuous, small, light weight and portable, easy to use, robust to damage, require minimal maintenance, have a long life and a long battery life.

  6. Software protocol design: Communication and control in a multi-task robot machine for ITER vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki; Yang, Guangyou; Wang, Yongbo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A high-level protocol is proposed for the data inter-transmission. • The protocol design is task-oriented for the robot control in the software system. • The protocol functions as a role of middleware in the software. • The protocol running stand-alone as an independent process in the software provides greater security. • Providing a reference design protocol for the multi-task robot machine in the industry. - Abstract: A specific communication and control protocol for software design of a multi-task robot machine is proposed. In order to fulfill the requirements on the complicated multi machining functions and the high performance motion control, the software design of robot is divided into two main parts accordingly, which consists of the user-oriented HMI part and robot control-oriented real-time control system. The two parts of software are deployed in the different hardware for the consideration of run-time performance, which forms a client–server-control architecture. Therefore a high-level task-oriented protocol is designed for the data inter-communication between the HMI part and the control system part, in which all the transmitting data related to a machining task is divided into three categories: trajectory-oriented data, task control-oriented data and status monitoring-oriented data. The protocol consists of three sub-protocols accordingly – a trajectory protocol, task control protocol and status protocol – which are deployed over the Ethernet and run as independent processes in both the client and server computers. The protocols are able to manage the vast amounts of data streaming due to the multi machining functions in a more efficient way. Since the protocol is functioning in the software as a role of middleware, and providing the data interface standards for the developing groups of two parts of software, it also permits greater focus of both software parts developers on their own requirements-oriented design. By

  7. Software protocol design: Communication and control in a multi-task robot machine for ITER vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming, E-mail: ming.li@lut.fi [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Yang, Guangyou [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Yongbo [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A high-level protocol is proposed for the data inter-transmission. • The protocol design is task-oriented for the robot control in the software system. • The protocol functions as a role of middleware in the software. • The protocol running stand-alone as an independent process in the software provides greater security. • Providing a reference design protocol for the multi-task robot machine in the industry. - Abstract: A specific communication and control protocol for software design of a multi-task robot machine is proposed. In order to fulfill the requirements on the complicated multi machining functions and the high performance motion control, the software design of robot is divided into two main parts accordingly, which consists of the user-oriented HMI part and robot control-oriented real-time control system. The two parts of software are deployed in the different hardware for the consideration of run-time performance, which forms a client–server-control architecture. Therefore a high-level task-oriented protocol is designed for the data inter-communication between the HMI part and the control system part, in which all the transmitting data related to a machining task is divided into three categories: trajectory-oriented data, task control-oriented data and status monitoring-oriented data. The protocol consists of three sub-protocols accordingly – a trajectory protocol, task control protocol and status protocol – which are deployed over the Ethernet and run as independent processes in both the client and server computers. The protocols are able to manage the vast amounts of data streaming due to the multi machining functions in a more efficient way. Since the protocol is functioning in the software as a role of middleware, and providing the data interface standards for the developing groups of two parts of software, it also permits greater focus of both software parts developers on their own requirements-oriented design. By

  8. R3D3 in the Wild: Using A Robot for Turn Management in Multi-Party Interaction with a Virtual Human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; Wiltenburg, Daan; Bode, Max; Linssen, Jeroen

    R3D3 is a combination of a virtual human with a non-speaking robot capable of head gestures and emotive gaze behaviour. We use the robot to implement various turn management functions for use in multi-party interaction with R3D3, and present the results of a field study investigating their effects

  9. A Multi-Agent Approach to the Simulation of Robotized Manufacturing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.

    2016-08-01

    The recent years of eventful industry development, brought many competing products, addressed to the same market segment. The shortening of a development cycle became a necessity if the company would like to be competitive. Because of switching to the Intelligent Manufacturing model the industry search for new scheduling algorithms, while the traditional ones do not meet the current requirements. The agent-based approach has been considered by many researchers as an important way of evolution of modern manufacturing systems. Due to the properties of the multi-agent systems, this methodology is very helpful during creation of the model of production system, allowing depicting both processing and informational part. The complexity of such approach makes the analysis impossible without the computer assistance. Computer simulation still uses a mathematical model to recreate a real situation, but nowadays the 2D or 3D virtual environments or even virtual reality have been used for realistic illustration of the considered systems. This paper will focus on robotized manufacturing system and will present the one of possible approaches to the simulation of such systems. The selection of multi-agent approach is motivated by the flexibility of this solution that offers the modularity, robustness and autonomy.

  10. Robot-assisted laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction: a multi-institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Ananthakrishnan; Leveillee, Raymond J; Patel, Manoj B; Chauhan, Sanket; Bracho, Jorge E; Moore, Charles R; Coelho, Rafael F; Palmer, Kenneth J; Schatloff, Oscar; Bird, Vincent G; Munver, Ravi; Patel, Vipul R

    2012-02-01

    To report a 6-year multi-institutional experience and outcomes with robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RLP) for the repair of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Between June 2002 and October 2008, 168 adult patients from 3 institutions underwent RLP for UPJO. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data were performed after institutional review board approval. Diagnosis was by intravenous urogram or computed tomography scan and diuretic renogram. All patients underwent RLP through a 4-port laparoscopic technique. Demographic, preoperative, operative, and postoperative endpoints for primary and secondary repair of UPJO were measured. Success was defined as a T½ of <20 minutes on diuretic renogram and symptom resolution. Pain resolution was assessed by subjective patient reports. Of 168 patients, 147 (87.5%) had primary repairs and 21 (12.5%) had secondary repairs. Of the secondary repairs, 57% had a crossing vessel etiology. Mean operative time was 134.9 minutes, estimated blood loss was 49 mL, and length of stay was 1.5 days. Mean follow-up was 39 months. Overall, 97.6% of patients had a successful outcome, with a 6.6% overall complication rate. To our knowledge, this review represents the largest multi-institutional experience of RLP with intermediate-term follow-up. RLP is a safe, efficacious, and viable option for either primary or secondary repair of UPJO with reproducible outcomes, a high success rate, and a low incidence of complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multi-staged robotic stereotactic radiosurgery for large cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Chuxiong; Solberg, Timothy D.; Hrycushko, Brian; Medin, Paul; Whitworth, Louis; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a multi-staged robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) delivery technique for the treatment of large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The treatment planning process and strategies to optimize both individual and composite dosimetry are discussed. Methods: Eleven patients with large (30.7 ± 19.2 cm 3 ) AVMs were selected for this study. A fiducial system was designed for fusion of targets between planar angiograms and simulation CT scans. AVMs were contoured based on single contrast CT, MRI and orthogonal angiogram images. AVMs were divided into 3–8 sub-target volumes (3–7 cm 3 ) for sequential treatment at 1–4 week intervals to a prescription dose of 16–20 Gy. Forward and inversely developed treatment plans were optimized for 95% coverage of the total AVM volume by dose summation from each sub-volume, while minimizing dose to surrounding tissues. Dose-volume analysis was used to evaluate the PTV coverage, dose conformality (CI), and R 50 and V 12Gy parameters. Results: The treatment workflow was commissioned and able to localize within 1 mm. Inverse optimization outperformed forward planning for most patients for each index considered. Dose conformality was shown comparable to staged Gamma Knife treatments. Conclusion: The CyberKnife system is shown to be a practical delivery platform for multi-staged treatments of large AVMs using forward or inverse planning techniques

  12. Hand-held multi-DOF robotic forceps for neurosurgery designed for dexterous manipulation in deep and narrow space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Takuro; Harada, Kanako; Fujii, Masahiro; Tanaka, Shinichi; Ishimaru, Tetsuya; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Nakatomi, Hirohumi; Sora, Sigeo; Morita, Akio; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise and dexterous manipulation of a surgical suture in narrow and deep spaces in the brain. This is necessary for surgical tasks such as the anastomosis of microscopic blood vessels and dura mater suturing. A hand-held multi-degree of freedom (DOF) robotic forceps was developed to aid the performance of such difficult tasks. The diameter of the developed robotic forceps is 3.5 mm, and its tip has three DOFs, namely, bending, rotation, and grip. Experimental results showed that the robotic forceps had an average needle insertion force of 1.7 N. Therefore, an increase in the needle insertion force is necessary for practical application of the developed device.

  13. Design of a Single Motor Based Leg Structure with the Consideration of Inherent Mechanical Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha Manzoor, Muhammad; Sohail, Umer; Noor-e-Mustafa; Nizami, Muhammad Hamza Asif; Ayaz, Yasar

    2017-07-01

    The fundamental aspect of designing a legged robot is constructing a leg design that is robust and presents a simple control problem. In this paper, we have successfully designed a robotic leg based on a unique four bar mechanism with only one motor per leg. The leg design parameters used in our platform are extracted from design principles used in biological systems, multiple iterations and previous research findings. These principles guide a robotic leg to have minimal mechanical passive impedance, low leg mass and inertia, a suitable foot trajectory utilizing a practical balance between leg kinematics and robot usage, and the resultant inherent mechanical stability. The designed platform also exhibits the key feature of self-locking. Theoretical tools and software iterations were used to derive these practical features and yield an intuitive sense of the required leg design parameters.

  14. Real-Time Motion Planning and Safe Navigation in Dynamic Multi-Robot Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruce, James R

    2006-01-01

    .... While motion planning has been used for high level robot navigation, or limited to semi-static or single-robot domains, it has often been dismissed for the real-time low-level control of agents due...

  15. Hybrid System Design for the Coordination of Multi-Modal Aerial Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koo, T. John; Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Clifton, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we provide a framework for the coordination of a network of heterogeneous aerial robots by using temporal logic to formulate mission speci¯cations for the network of robots. The full dynamics of the aerial robots are considered, and multiple controllers that can cope with various......¯ed. These robots are coordinated by communicating through a single occupancy table. By using the model checker Uppaal, a discrete plan that satis¯es a given temporal logic formula, speci¯ed in CTL, is generated for the robot to execute. Finally, the discrete plan for each robot is re¯ned into a discrete control...... constraints are designed to ensure that desired reachability properties can be preserved by properly switching among the controllers. A timed automaton is then constructed for preserving the temporal properties of a given robot. For di®erent types of robots, unique temporal properties can be speci...

  16. Market-Based Coordination and Auditing Mechanisms for Self-Interested Multi-Robot Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, MyungJoo

    2009-01-01

    We propose market-based coordinated task allocation mechanisms, which allocate complex tasks that require synchronized and collaborated services of multiple robot agents to robot agents, and an auditing mechanism, which ensures proper behaviors of robot agents by verifying inter-agent activities, for self-interested, fully-distributed, and…

  17. Multi-user identification and efficient user approaching by fusing robot and ambient sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, N.; Bormann, R.; Zwölfer, T.; Kröse, B.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel framework that combines an overhead camera and a robot RGB-D sensor for real-time people finding. Finding people is one of the most fundamental tasks in robot home care scenarios and it consists of many components, e.g. people detection, people tracking, face recognition, robot

  18. Study of the Navigation Method for a Snake Robot Based on the Kinematics Model with MEMS IMU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Dou, Lihua; Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning

    2018-03-16

    A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot's motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU). First, it studies the snake robot's motion characteristics, builds the kinematics model, and then analyses the motion constraint characteristics and motion error propagation properties. Second, it explores the snake robot's navigation layout, proposes a constraint criterion and the fixed relationship, and makes zero-state constraints based on the motion features and control modes of a snake robot. Finally, it realizes autonomous navigation positioning based on the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF) position estimation method under the constraints of its motion characteristics. With the self-developed snake robot, the test verifies the proposed method, and the position error is less than 5% of Total-Traveled-Distance (TDD). In a short-distance environment, this method is able to meet the requirements of a snake robot in order to perform autonomous navigation and positioning in traditional applications and can be extended to other familiar multi-link robots.

  19. Leg pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the blood Medicines (such as diuretics and statins) Muscle fatigue or strain from overuse, too much exercise, or holding a muscle in the same position for a long time An injury can also cause leg pain from: A torn or overstretched muscle ( strain ) Hairline ...

  20. Broken Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the leg, which can result in a fracture. Stress fractures outside of sport situations are more common in people who have: ... shoes. Choose the appropriate shoe for your favorite sports or activities. And ... can prevent stress fractures. Rotate running with swimming or biking. If ...

  1. Seamless Control of Multi-Fingered Robot Hands Based on Grasp Polyhedrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Kenji; Shirai, Satoshi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi

    This paper is concerned with a new feedback control design methodology for multi-fingered robot hands applicable to multiple contact situations. As a first step, we especially consider the situations where all the fingers are in contact or not in contact with an object, considering the tasks of catching and releasing the object preceding to or followed by grasping/manipulating the object. Main features of the proposed method are: (1) the direction of the fingertip motion in the non-contact situation is selected to be directly linked to the direction of the object motion and the internal force in the contact situation; (2) by introducing a unified system description for multiple contact situations, a linearizing compensator applicable to multiple contact situations is designed. The controller can handle the tasks with the multiple contact situations by choosing appropriate desired trajectories for the linearizing compensator without switching control architecture. In addition, owing to the selection of the motion in the non-contact situation, all the fingers can approach to the object synchronously along the directions of the object motion and the internal force in the contact situation. A numerical example is shown to prove effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. SETIBURST: A Robotic, Commensal, Realtime Multi-science Backend for the Arecibo Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chennamangalam, Jayanth; Karastergiou, Aris; Williams, Christopher [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); MacMahon, David; Cobb, Jeff; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Gajjar, Vishal; Werthimer, Dan [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rajwade, Kaustubh; Lorimer, Duncan R.; McLaughlin, Maura A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Armour, Wes, E-mail: jayanth@astro.ox.ac.uk [Oxford e-Research Centre, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3QG (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    Radio astronomy has traditionally depended on observatories allocating time to observers for exclusive use of their telescopes. The disadvantage of this scheme is that the data thus collected is rarely used for other astronomy applications, and in many cases, is unsuitable. For example, properly calibrated pulsar search data can, with some reduction, be used for spectral line surveys. A backend that supports plugging in multiple applications to a telescope to perform commensal data analysis will vastly increase the science throughput of the facility. In this paper, we present “SETIBURST,” a robotic, commensal, realtime multi-science backend for the 305 m Arecibo Telescope. The system uses the 1.4 GHz, seven-beam Arecibo L -band Feed Array (ALFA) receiver whenever it is operated. SETIBURST currently supports two applications: SERENDIP VI, a SETI spectrometer that is conducting a search for signs of technological life, and ALFABURST, a fast transient search system that is conducting a survey of fast radio bursts (FRBs). Based on the FRB event rate and the expected usage of ALFA, we expect 0–5 FRB detections over the coming year. SETIBURST also provides the option of plugging in more applications. We outline the motivation for our instrumentation scheme and the scientific motivation of the two surveys, along with their descriptions and related discussions.

  3. SETIBURST: A Robotic, Commensal, Realtime Multi-science Backend for the Arecibo Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennamangalam, Jayanth; MacMahon, David; Cobb, Jeff; Karastergiou, Aris; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Rajwade, Kaustubh; Armour, Wes; Gajjar, Vishal; Lorimer, Duncan R.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Werthimer, Dan; Williams, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Radio astronomy has traditionally depended on observatories allocating time to observers for exclusive use of their telescopes. The disadvantage of this scheme is that the data thus collected is rarely used for other astronomy applications, and in many cases, is unsuitable. For example, properly calibrated pulsar search data can, with some reduction, be used for spectral line surveys. A backend that supports plugging in multiple applications to a telescope to perform commensal data analysis will vastly increase the science throughput of the facility. In this paper, we present “SETIBURST,” a robotic, commensal, realtime multi-science backend for the 305 m Arecibo Telescope. The system uses the 1.4 GHz, seven-beam Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) receiver whenever it is operated. SETIBURST currently supports two applications: SERENDIP VI, a SETI spectrometer that is conducting a search for signs of technological life, and ALFABURST, a fast transient search system that is conducting a survey of fast radio bursts (FRBs). Based on the FRB event rate and the expected usage of ALFA, we expect 0-5 FRB detections over the coming year. SETIBURST also provides the option of plugging in more applications. We outline the motivation for our instrumentation scheme and the scientific motivation of the two surveys, along with their descriptions and related discussions.

  4. SETIBURST: A Robotic, Commensal, Realtime Multi-science Backend for the Arecibo Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chennamangalam, Jayanth; Karastergiou, Aris; Williams, Christopher; MacMahon, David; Cobb, Jeff; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Gajjar, Vishal; Werthimer, Dan; Rajwade, Kaustubh; Lorimer, Duncan R.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Armour, Wes

    2017-01-01

    Radio astronomy has traditionally depended on observatories allocating time to observers for exclusive use of their telescopes. The disadvantage of this scheme is that the data thus collected is rarely used for other astronomy applications, and in many cases, is unsuitable. For example, properly calibrated pulsar search data can, with some reduction, be used for spectral line surveys. A backend that supports plugging in multiple applications to a telescope to perform commensal data analysis will vastly increase the science throughput of the facility. In this paper, we present “SETIBURST,” a robotic, commensal, realtime multi-science backend for the 305 m Arecibo Telescope. The system uses the 1.4 GHz, seven-beam Arecibo L -band Feed Array (ALFA) receiver whenever it is operated. SETIBURST currently supports two applications: SERENDIP VI, a SETI spectrometer that is conducting a search for signs of technological life, and ALFABURST, a fast transient search system that is conducting a survey of fast radio bursts (FRBs). Based on the FRB event rate and the expected usage of ALFA, we expect 0–5 FRB detections over the coming year. SETIBURST also provides the option of plugging in more applications. We outline the motivation for our instrumentation scheme and the scientific motivation of the two surveys, along with their descriptions and related discussions.

  5. Successful Multi-Leg Completion of KS-13 ML-1 & Increased Power Generation of Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV), Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, P. S.; Spielman, P.; Peters, B.

    2017-12-01

    Located in the Puna district on the Big Island in Hawaii, Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) is the only geothermal power plant in the state. PGV is comprised of two air-cooled power plants with a total generating capacity of 38 MW. Commercial operation commenced in 1993 and the project was acquired by Ormat in June 2004. Over the years, generation has increased by upgrading the plant through resource development and with the addition of a bottoming OEC (Ormat Energy Converter) in 2011. The geothermal reservoir at PGV is hosted within a step-over along the axis of the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ). Subsurface permeability at PGV is controlled by sub-vertical and rift-parallel fractures/faults and dike swarms which are the result of active tectonic dilation across the rift and shallow volcanic activity related to Kilauea. At PGV, the location and attitude of these fractures are well constrained at depth by drilling to be orientated at N63°E and dipping at 5° NW. These fractures are aligned en-echelon and form a major left-step along the rift axis which results in a localized zone of enhanced dilation. In 2016, a program was initiated to increase injection capacity and enthalpy in the PGV wellfield. Existing injection well KS-13 was selected as a candidate for re-drill based on a comprehensive resource model and reservoir modeling predictions. KS-13 ML1 was designed as a multi-leg completion from the existing KS-13 well, whereby the final completion is a forked well composed of the original wellbore and the newly completed second wellbore. The target area for the new multi-leg (ML) were large aperture, steeply dipping fractures associated with the 1955 eruptive fissure. Well KS-13 ML1 was drilled using PGV's Rig and a retrievable whipstock to mill a casing exit window. With the original wellbore temporarily plugged, a multi-rate water loss test was performed and an injectivity of 6 gpm/psi was measured. Following the removal of the whipstock ramp and packer from

  6. Fused Smart Sensor Network for Multi-Axis Forward Kinematics Estimation in Industrial Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Rivera-Guillen, Jesus Rooney; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Flexible manipulator robots have a wide industrial application. Robot performance requires sensing its position and orientation adequately, known as forward kinematics. Commercially available, motion controllers use high-resolution optical encoders to sense the position of each joint which cannot detect some mechanical deformations that decrease the accuracy of the robot position and orientation. To overcome those problems, several sensor fusion methods have been proposed but at expenses of h...

  7. Inverse Kinematic Analysis Of A Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Arif Sen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an inverse kinematics program of a quadruped robot. The kinematics analysis is main problem in the manipulators and robots. Dynamic and kinematic structures of quadruped robots are very complex compared to industrial and wheeled robots. In this study inverse kinematics solutions for a quadruped robot with 3 degrees of freedom on each leg are presented. Denavit-Hartenberg D-H method are used for the forward kinematic. The inverse kinematic equations obtained by the geometrical and mathematical methods are coded in MATLAB. And thus a program is obtained that calculate the legs joint angles corresponding to desired various orientations of robot and endpoints of legs. Also the program provides the body orientations of robot in graphical form. The angular positions of joints obtained corresponding to desired different orientations of robot and endpoints of legs are given in this study.

  8. Structural brain changes after traditional and robot-assisted multi-domain cognitive training in community-dwelling healthy elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Ha Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate if multi-domain cognitive training, especially robot-assisted training, alters cortical thickness in the brains of elderly participants. A controlled trial was conducted with 85 volunteers without cognitive impairment who were 60 years old or older. Participants were first randomized into two groups. One group consisted of 48 participants who would receive cognitive training and 37 who would not receive training. The cognitive training group was randomly divided into two groups, 24 who received traditional cognitive training and 24 who received robot-assisted cognitive training. The training for both groups consisted of daily 90-min-session, five days a week for a total of 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the changes in cortical thickness. When compared to the control group, both groups who underwent cognitive training demonstrated attenuation of age related cortical thinning in the frontotemporal association cortices. When the robot and the traditional interventions were directly compared, the robot group showed less cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortices. Our results suggest that cognitive training can mitigate age-associated structural brain changes in the elderly.ClnicalTrials.gov NCT01596205.

  9. Multi-Sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, L.; Johnston, A.; Howard, R.; Mitchell, J.; Cryan, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success of the Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-loop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of"pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL

  10. Study on control schemes of flexible steering system of a multi-axle all-wheel-steering robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxia Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a multi-axle wheeled robot possesses larger load capability and also higher drive performance. However, its steering flexibility is degraded due to the large number of wheels. In order to solve this problem, in this article, we proposed three control schemes based on the center of rotation or the steering angles of both the first- and last-axle wheels. To release these control schemes, steering mode selection and also the left wheel’s steering angle in a specific axle are added approaching a practical application. Thereafter, the remaining wheels’ steering angles can be calculated with the Ackerman steering theorem. In order to verify the control effects, a five-axle all-wheel-steering wheeled robot has been developed with the Bluetooth wireless monitor system. Based on the newly designed robot, validation experiments are carried out, such as lateral movement, situ rotation, and multi-mode steering within a narrow space. The results indicate that the proposed design in this article can ensure a more flexible and faster movement within a narrow space. It shows large potential in obstacle avoidance compared with the conventional partial-wheel steering mode.

  11. Open middleware for robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namoshe, M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available and their technologies within the field of multi-robot systems to ease the difficulty of realizing robot applications. And lastly, an example of algorithm development for multi-robot co-operation using one of the discussed software architecture is presented...

  12. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Hydraulically actuated hexapod robots design, implementation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Nonami, Kenzo; Irawan, Addie; Daud, Mohd Razali

    2014-01-01

    Legged robots are a promising locomotion system, capable of performing tasks that conventional vehicles cannot. Even more exciting is the fact that this is a rapidly developing field of study for researchers from a variety of disciplines. However, only a few books have been published on the subject of multi-legged robots. The main objective of this book is to describe some of the major control issues concerning walking robots that the authors have faced over the past 10 years. A second objective is to focus especially on very large hydraulically driven hexapod robot locomotion weighing more than 2,000 kg, making this the first specialized book on this topic. The 10 chapters of the book touch on diverse relevant topics such as design aspects, implementation issues, modeling for control, navigation and control, force and impedance control-based walking, fully autonomous walking, walking and working tasks of hexapod robots, and the future of walking robots. The construction machines of the future will very likel...

  14. Multi-objective Mobile Robot Scheduling Problem with Dynamic Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of scheduling feeding tasks of a single mobile robot which has capability of supplying parts to feeders on pro-duction lines. The performance criterion is to minimize the total traveling time of the robot and the total tardiness of the feeding tasks being scheduled...

  15. Including communication success in the estimation of information gain for multi-robot exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Slamet, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of incorporating knowledge about the communication possibilities in an exploration algorithm used to map an unknown environment. The mission is to explore a hypothetical disaster site with a small team of robots. The challenge faced by the robot team is to

  16. Multi-agent System for Off-line Coordinated Motion Planning of Multiple Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S. Chiddarwar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an agent based framework for coordinated motion planning of multiple robots. The emerging paradigm of agent based systems is implemented to address various issues related to safe and fast task execution when multiple robots share a common workspace. In the proposed agent based framework, each issue vital for coordinated motion planning of multiple robots and every robot participating in coordinated task is considered as an agent. The identified agents are interfaced with each other in order to incorporate the desired flexibility in the developed framework. This framework gives a complete strategy for determination of optimal trajectories of robots working in coordination with due consideration to their kinematic, dynamic and payload constraint. The complete architecture of the proposed framework and the detailed discussion on various modules are covered in this paper.

  17. SITUATION ASSESSMENT THROUGH MULTI-MODAL SENSING OF DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS TO SUPPORT COGNITIVE ROBOT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Badii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of emerging situations in a dynamic operational environment of a robotic assistive device is an essential capability of such a cognitive system, based on its effective and efficient assessment of the prevailing situation. This allows the system to interact with the environment in a sensible (semiautonomous / pro-active manner without the need for frequent interventions from a supervisor.  In this paper, we report a novel generic Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems directly assisting humans as developed in the CORBYS project. This paper presents the overall architecture for situation assessment and its application in proof-of-concept Demonstrators as developed and validated within the CORBYS project. These include a robotic human follower and a mobile gait rehabilitation robotic system. We present an overview of the structure and functionality of the Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems with results and observations as collected from initial validation on the two CORBYS Demonstrators.

  18. Low Cost Multi-Sensor Robot Laser Scanning System and its Accuracy Investigations for Indoor Mapping Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Zou, X.; Tian, M.; Li, J.; Wu, W.; Song, Y.; Dai, W.; Yang, B.

    2017-11-01

    In order to solve the automation of 3D indoor mapping task, a low cost multi-sensor robot laser scanning system is proposed in this paper. The multiple-sensor robot laser scanning system includes a panorama camera, a laser scanner, and an inertial measurement unit and etc., which are calibrated and synchronized together to achieve simultaneously collection of 3D indoor data. Experiments are undertaken in a typical indoor scene and the data generated by the proposed system are compared with ground truth data collected by a TLS scanner showing an accuracy of 99.2% below 0.25 meter, which explains the applicability and precision of the system in indoor mapping applications.

  19. A design philosophy for multi-layer neural networks with applications to robot control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiee, Nader; Jamshidi, MO

    1989-01-01

    A system is proposed which receives input information from many sensors that may have diverse scaling, dimension, and data representations. The proposed system tolerates sensory information with faults. The proposed self-adaptive processing technique has great promise in integrating the techniques of artificial intelligence and neural networks in an attempt to build a more intelligent computing environment. The proposed architecture can provide a detailed decision tree based on the input information, information stored in a long-term memory, and the adapted rule-based knowledge. A mathematical model for analysis will be obtained to validate the cited hypotheses. An extensive software program will be developed to simulate a typical example of pattern recognition problem. It is shown that the proposed model displays attention, expectation, spatio-temporal, and predictory behavior which are specific to the human brain. The anticipated results of this research project are: (1) creation of a new dynamic neural network structure, and (2) applications to and comparison with conventional multi-layer neural network structures. The anticipated benefits from this research are vast. The model can be used in a neuro-computer architecture as a building block which can perform complicated, nonlinear, time-varying mapping from a multitude of input excitory classes to an output or decision environment. It can be used for coordinating different sensory inputs and past experience of a dynamic system and actuating signals. The commercial applications of this project can be the creation of a special-purpose neuro-computer hardware which can be used in spatio-temporal pattern recognitions in such areas as air defense systems, e.g., target tracking, and recognition. Potential robotics-related applications are trajectory planning, inverse dynamics computations, hierarchical control, task-oriented control, and collision avoidance.

  20. Multi-Sensor Testing for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor Testing at the Flight Robotics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Linda L.; Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, A. S.; Carrington, Connie; Mitchell, Jennifer D.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Architecture defines missions that require rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) of two spacecraft both in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Uncrewed spacecraft must perform automated and/or autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations and docking operations (commonly known as AR&D). The crewed missions may also perform rendezvous and docking operations and may require different levels of automation and/or autonomy, and must provide the crew with relative navigation information for manual piloting. The capabilities of the RPOD sensors are critical to the success ofthe Exploration Program. NASA has the responsibility to determine whether the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) contractor-proposed relative navigation sensor suite will meet the requirements. The relatively low technology readiness level of AR&D relative navigation sensors has been carried as one of the CEV Project's top risks. The AR&D Sensor Technology Project seeks to reduce the risk by the testing and analysis of selected relative navigation sensor technologies through hardware-in-the-Ioop testing and simulation. These activities will provide the CEV Project information to assess the relative navigation sensors maturity as well as demonstrate test methods and capabilities. The first year of this project focused on a series of "pathfinder" testing tasks to develop the test plans, test facility requirements, trajectories, math model architecture, simulation platform, and processes that will be used to evaluate the Contractor-proposed sensors. Four candidate sensors were used in the first phase of the testing. The second phase of testing used four sensors simultaneously: two Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Video Guidance Sensors (AVGS), a laser-based video sensor that uses retroreflectors attached to the target vehicle, and two commercial laser range finders. The multi-sensor testing was conducted at MSFC's Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL

  1. Sistema multi-robot para localización e identificación de vehículos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sagues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se presenta un sistema multi-robot para localización e identificación de vehículos que están estacionados en un recinto abierto o cerrado. El sistema realiza una planificación a priori y una asignación de tareas a los miembros del equipo optimizando el tiempo de la misión. El equipo de robots está dotado de sensores de visión que permiten la localización de los vehículos y la identificación de su matrícula. El controlador de movimiento de cada robot utiliza un sensor láser para el posicionamiento frente al vehículo a identificar y un sistema de control basado en visión realiza el posicionamiento preciso para la adquisición de la imagen de la matrícula que permita su posterior identificación. El sistema multi-robot dispone de capacidad de comunicaciones entre ellos y con una estación central de mando, con la que se intercambian comandos e incidencias y eventualmente datos, con restricciones de tiempo real. Los sensores utilizados están comercialmente disponibles y los algoritmos han sido desarrollados por el grupo Robótica, Percepción y Tiempo Real de la Universidad de Zaragoza en el marco de proyectos financiados por el Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación. Integra diversas tecnologías de planificación, navegación, percepción y comunicaciones, adaptadas en el proyecto a la aplicación concreta. Palabras clave: Sistemas multi-robot, Robótica móvil, Navegación, Planificación y asignación de tareas, Protocolos de comunicación, Visión porcomputador, Tiempo real

  2. Magnetic fish-robot based on multi-motion control of a flexible magnetic actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Shin, Kyoosik; Hashi, Shuichiro; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a biologically inspired fish-robot driven by a single flexible magnetic actuator with a rotating magnetic field in a three-axis Helmholtz coil. Generally, magnetic fish-robots are powered by alternating and gradient magnetic fields, which provide a single motion such as bending the fish-robot's fins. On the other hand, a flexible magnetic actuator driven by an external rotating magnetic field can create several gaits such as the bending vibration, the twisting vibration, and their combination. Most magnetic fish-like micro-robots do not have pectoral fins on the side and are simply propelled by the tail fin. The proposed robot can swim and perform a variety of maneuvers with the addition of pectoral fins and control of the magnetic torque direction. In this paper, we find that the robot's dynamic actuation correlates with the magnetic actuator and the rotating magnetic field. The proposed robot is also equipped with new features, such as a total of six degrees of freedom, a new control method that stabilizes posture, three-dimensional swimming, a new velocity control, and new turning abilities.

  3. Magnetic fish-robot based on multi-motion control of a flexible magnetic actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Hashi, Shuichiro; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Shin, Kyoosik

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a biologically inspired fish-robot driven by a single flexible magnetic actuator with a rotating magnetic field in a three-axis Helmholtz coil. Generally, magnetic fish-robots are powered by alternating and gradient magnetic fields, which provide a single motion such as bending the fish-robot's fins. On the other hand, a flexible magnetic actuator driven by an external rotating magnetic field can create several gaits such as the bending vibration, the twisting vibration, and their combination. Most magnetic fish-like micro-robots do not have pectoral fins on the side and are simply propelled by the tail fin. The proposed robot can swim and perform a variety of maneuvers with the addition of pectoral fins and control of the magnetic torque direction. In this paper, we find that the robot's dynamic actuation correlates with the magnetic actuator and the rotating magnetic field. The proposed robot is also equipped with new features, such as a total of six degrees of freedom, a new control method that stabilizes posture, three-dimensional swimming, a new velocity control, and new turning abilities. (paper)

  4. Evolution of Signaling in a Multi-Robot System: Categorization and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampatzis, Christos; Tuci, Elio; Trianni, Vito; Dorigo, Marco

    We use Evolutionary Robotics to design robot controllers in which decision-making mechanisms to switch from solitary to social behavior are integrated with the mechanisms that underpin the sensory-motor repertoire of the robots. In particular, we study the evolution of behavioral and communicative skills in a categorization task. The individual decision-making structures are based on the integration over time of sensory information. The mechanisms for switching from solitary to social behavior and the ways in which the robots can affect each other's behavior are not predetermined by the experimenter, but are aspects of our model designed by artificial evolution. Our results show that evolved robots manage to cooperate and collectively discriminate between different environments by developing a simple communication protocol based on sound signaling. Communication emerges in the absence of explicit selective pressure coded in the fitness function. The evolution of communication is neither trivial nor obvious; for a meaningful signaling system to evolve, evolution must produce both appropriate signals and appropriate reactions to signals. The use of communication proves to be adaptive for the group, even if, in principle, non-cooperating robots can be equally successful with cooperating robots.

  5. Robust and efficient walking with spring-like legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, J; Blum, Y; Seyfarth, A, E-mail: juergen.rummel@uni-jena.d, E-mail: andre.seyfarth@uni-jena.d [Lauflabor Locomotion Laboratory, University of Jena, Dornburger Strasse 23, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The development of bipedal walking robots is inspired by human walking. A way of implementing walking could be performed by mimicking human leg dynamics. A fundamental model, representing human leg dynamics during walking and running, is the bipedal spring-mass model which is the basis for this paper. The aim of this study is the identification of leg parameters leading to a compromise between robustness and energy efficiency in walking. It is found that, compared to asymmetric walking, symmetric walking with flatter angles of attack reveals such a compromise. With increasing leg stiffness, energy efficiency increases continuously. However, robustness is the maximum at moderate leg stiffness and decreases slightly with increasing stiffness. Hence, an adjustable leg compliance would be preferred, which is adaptable to the environment. If the ground is even, a high leg stiffness leads to energy efficient walking. However, if external perturbations are expected, e.g. when the robot walks on uneven terrain, the leg should be softer and the angle of attack flatter. In the case of underactuated robots with constant physical springs, the leg stiffness should be larger than k-tilde = 14 in order to use the most robust gait. Soft legs, however, lack in both robustness and efficiency.

  6. Robust and efficient walking with spring-like legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, J; Blum, Y; Seyfarth, A

    2010-01-01

    The development of bipedal walking robots is inspired by human walking. A way of implementing walking could be performed by mimicking human leg dynamics. A fundamental model, representing human leg dynamics during walking and running, is the bipedal spring-mass model which is the basis for this paper. The aim of this study is the identification of leg parameters leading to a compromise between robustness and energy efficiency in walking. It is found that, compared to asymmetric walking, symmetric walking with flatter angles of attack reveals such a compromise. With increasing leg stiffness, energy efficiency increases continuously. However, robustness is the maximum at moderate leg stiffness and decreases slightly with increasing stiffness. Hence, an adjustable leg compliance would be preferred, which is adaptable to the environment. If the ground is even, a high leg stiffness leads to energy efficient walking. However, if external perturbations are expected, e.g. when the robot walks on uneven terrain, the leg should be softer and the angle of attack flatter. In the case of underactuated robots with constant physical springs, the leg stiffness should be larger than k-tilde = 14 in order to use the most robust gait. Soft legs, however, lack in both robustness and efficiency.

  7. Cooperative Multi-robot Patrolling: A study of distributed approaches based on mathematical models of game theory to protect infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez Serrato, Erik

    2015-01-01

    El principio de Teoría de Juegos permite desarrollar modelos estocásticos de patrullaje multi-robot para proteger infraestructuras criticas. La protección de infraestructuras criticas representa un gran reto para los países al rededor del mundo, principalmente después de los ataques terroristas llevados a cabo la década pasada. En este documento el termino infraestructura hace referencia a aeropuertos, plantas nucleares u otros instalaciones. El problema de patrullaje se define como la activi...

  8. The multi-criteria optimization for the formation of the multiple-valued logic model of a robotic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykovsky, A Yu; Sherbakov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The C-valued Allen-Givone algebra is the attractive tool for modeling of a robotic agent, but it requires the consensus method of minimization for the simplification of logic expressions. This procedure substitutes some undefined states of the function for the maximal truth value, thus extending the initially given truth table. This further creates the problem of different formal representations for the same initially given function. The multi-criteria optimization is proposed for the deliberate choice of undefined states and model formation. (paper)

  9. Autonomous Navigation, Dynamic Path and Work Flow Planning in Multi-Agent Robotic Swarms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Kennedy Space Center has teamed up with the Biological Computation Lab at the University of New Mexico to create a swarm of small, low-cost, autonomous robots,...

  10. An Application-oriented Open Software Platform for Multi-purpose Field Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld

    that solve simple tasks such as mowing, and automatic tractor steering that navigates through a planned route under the supervision of an operator. The outdoor environment in which the robot operates is often very complex. This places great demands on the robot's ability to perceive the environment and based...... on this behave in a way that is appropriate and productive with respect to the given task while being safe for nearby people, animals and objects. Researchers are challenged by the considerable resources required to develop robot software capable of supporting experiments in such a complex perception...... and behavior. The lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem, the scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little software for field robots are released and documented for use by others. The hypothesis of this work is that an application oriented...

  11. Towards Real-Time Distributed Planning in Multi-Robot Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    of extensive information exchange (communication). The extensive communication between robots can result in decision delays because of which distributed architecture is often impractical for systems with strict real-time constraints, e.g. when decisions have

  12. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Francois G.

    2002-01-01

    Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number and

  13. Human-Agent Teaming for Multi-Robot Control: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    advent of the Goggle driverless car , autonomous farm equipment, and unmanned commercial aircraft (Mosher, 2012). The inexorable trend towards...because a robot cannot be automated to navigate in difficult terrain. However, this high ratio will not be sustainable if large numbers of autonomous ...Parasuraman et al., 2007). 3.5 RoboLeader Past research indicates that autonomous cooperation between robots can improve the performance of the human

  14. Experiments Toward the Application of Multi-Robot Systems to Disaster-Relief Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    EW LiDAR15 with a Dynamixel servo . This Hokuyo LiDAR has a 270◦ field of view, 30-m range, and 1-mm resolution. Accurate state information is achieved...in disaster-relief scenarios. 28 8. References 1. Murphy RR. Disaster robotics. MIT Press ; 2014. 2. Guizzo E. Fukushima robot operator writes tell-all...Control Conference; 28. LaValle SM. Planning algorithms. Cambridge university press ; 2006. 29. Likhachev M. Search-Based Planning Library. https

  15. Towards the Emergence of Procedural Memories from Lifelong Multi-Modal Streaming Memories for Cognitive Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, M; Fischer, T; Demiris, Y

    2016-01-01

    Various research topics are emerging as the demand for intelligent lifelong interactions between robot and humans increases. Among them, we can find the examination of persistent storage, the continuous unsupervised annotation of memories and the usage of data at high-frequency over long periods of time. We recently proposed a lifelong autobiographical memory architecture tackling some of these challenges, allowing the iCub humanoid robot to 1) create new memories for both actions that are se...

  16. Fuzzy Logic Based The Application of Multi-Microcontroller in Mobile Robot Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryono Satya Widodo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a fuzzy logic based mobile robot as implemented in a multimicrocontroller system. Fuzzy logic controller was developed based on a behavior based approach. The Controller inputs were obtained from seven sonar sensor and three tactile switches. Behavior based approach was implemented in different level priority of behaviors. The behaviors were: obstacle avoidance, wall following and escaping as the emergency behavior. The results show that robot was able to navigate autonomously and avoid the entire obstacle.

  17. Distributed control of multi-robot teams: Cooperative baton passing task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, they describe the implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative baton passing task. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes during the task.

  18. Multi-Functional Sensing for Swarm Robots Using Time Sequence Classification: HoverBot, an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Nemitz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up robot swarms to collectives of hundreds or even thousands without sacrificing sensing, processing, and locomotion capabilities is a challenging problem. Low-cost robots are potentially scalable, but the majority of existing systems have limited capabilities, and these limitations substantially constrain the type of experiments that could be performed by robotics researchers. Instead of adding functionality by adding more components and therefore increasing the cost, we demonstrate how low-cost hardware can be used beyond its standard functionality. We systematically review 15 swarm robotic systems and analyse their sensing capabilities by applying a general sensor model from the sensing and measurement community. This work is based on the HoverBot system. A HoverBot is a levitating circuit board that manoeuvres by pulling itself towards magnetic anchors that are embedded into the robot arena. We show that HoverBot’s magnetic field readouts from its Hall-effect sensor can be associated to successful movement, robot rotation and collision measurands. We build a time series classifier based on these magnetic field readouts. We modify and apply signal processing techniques to enable the online classification of the time-variant magnetic field measurements on HoverBot’s low-cost microcontroller. We enabled HoverBot with successful movement, rotation, and collision sensing capabilities by utilising its single Hall-effect sensor. We discuss how our classification method could be applied to other sensors to increase a robot’s functionality while retaining its cost.

  19. Distributed multi-robot sensing and tracking: a behavior-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many large-scale surveillance and reconnaissance tasks is that of tracking the movements of (or maintaining passive contact with) objects navigating in a bounded area of interest. Oftentimes in these problems, the area to be monitored will move over time or will not permit fixed sensors, thus requiring a team of mobile sensors -- or robots -- to monitor the area collectively. In these situations, the robots must not only have mechanisms for determining how to track objects and how to fuse information from neighboring robots, but they must also have distributed control strategies for ensuring that the entire area of interest is continually covered to the greatest extent possible. This paper focuses on the distributed control issue by describing a proposed decentralized control mechanism that allows a team of robots to collectively track and monitor objects in an uncluttered area of interest. The approach is based upon an extension to the ALLIANCE behavior-based architecture that generalizes from the domain of loosely-coupled, independent applications to the domain of strongly cooperative applications, in which the action selection of a robot is dependent upon the actions selected by its teammates. We conclude the paper by describing our ongoing implementation of the proposed approach on a team of four mobile robots

  20. Distributed multi-robot sensing and tracking: a behavior-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many large-scale surveillance and reconnaissance tasks is that of tracking the movements of (or maintaining passive contact with) objects navigating in a bounded area of interest. Oftentimes in these problems, the area to be monitored will move over time or will not permit fixed sensors, thus requiring a team of mobile sensors -- or robots -- to monitor the area collectively. In these situations, the robots must not only have mechanisms for determining how to track objects and how to fuse information from neighboring robots, but they must also have distributed control strategies for ensuring that the entire area of interest is continually covered to the greatest extent possible. This paper focuses on the distributed control issue by describing a proposed decentralized control mechanism that allows a team of robots to collectively track and monitor objects in an uncluttered area of interest. The approach is based upon an extension to the ALLIANCE behavior-based architecture that generalizes from the domain of loosely-coupled, independent applications to the domain of strongly cooperative applications, in which the action selection of a robot is dependent upon the actions selected by its teammates. We conclude the paper by describing our ongoing implementation of the proposed approach on a team of four mobile robots.

  1. A Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) and robot hybrid system for multi-joint coordinated upper limb rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Li, Waiming; Pang, Mankit; Hu, Junyan; Wei, Xijun; Yang, Bibo; Wai, Honwah; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xiaoling

    2017-04-26

    It is a challenge to reduce the muscular discoordination in the paretic upper limb after stroke in the traditional rehabilitation programs. In this study, a neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and robot hybrid system was developed for multi-joint coordinated upper limb physical training. The system could assist the elbow, wrist and fingers to conduct arm reaching out, hand opening/grasping and arm withdrawing by tracking an indicative moving cursor on the screen of a computer, with the support from the joint motors and electrical stimulations on target muscles, under the voluntary intention control by electromyography (EMG). Subjects with chronic stroke (n = 11) were recruited for the investigation on the assistive capability of the NMES-robot and the evaluation of the rehabilitation effectiveness through a 20-session device assisted upper limb training. In the evaluation, the movement accuracy measured by the root mean squared error (RMSE) during the tracking was significantly improved with the support from both the robot and NMES, in comparison with those without the assistance from the system (P joint and inter-joint muscular co-contractions measured by EMG were significantly released when the NMES was applied to the agonist muscles in the different phases of the limb motion (P < 0.05). After the physical training, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were captured by the clinical scores, i.e., Modified Ashworth Score (MAS, the elbow and the wrist), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). The EMG-driven NMES-robotic system could improve the muscular coordination at the elbow, wrist and fingers. ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT02117089 ; date of registration: April 10, 2014.

  2. Diseño de modelo de patrullaje multi-robot basado en Teoría de Juegos para la protección de grandes infraestructuras

    OpenAIRE

    Alberte Rey, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Los sistemas multi-robot han sido objeto de numerosos estudios en los últimos años debido, entre otras razones, a su potencial aplicación en diferentes escenarios o misiones. Una de estas misiones, donde el uso de los sistemas multi-robot es de especial interés, es el desarrollo de tareas de seguridad y vigilancia en las denominadas “grandes infraestructuras críticas exteriores” que, entre otras necesidades, precisan tener bajo vigilancia áreas o puntos sensibles (accesos, zonas de mando, aco...

  3. Robotic intelligence kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  4. Developing a multi-joint upper limb exoskeleton robot for diagnosis, therapy, and outcome evaluation in neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yupeng; Kang, Sang Hoon; Park, Hyung-Soon; Wu, Yi-Ning; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2013-05-01

    Arm impairments in patients post stroke involve the shoulder, elbow and wrist simultaneously. It is not very clear how patients develop spasticity and reduced range of motion (ROM) at the multiple joints and the abnormal couplings among the multiple joints and the multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOF) during passive movement. It is also not clear how they lose independent control of individual joints/DOFs and coordination among the joints/DOFs during voluntary movement. An upper limb exoskeleton robot, the IntelliArm, which can control the shoulder, elbow, and wrist, was developed, aiming to support clinicians and patients with the following integrated capabilities: 1) quantitative, objective, and comprehensive multi-joint neuromechanical pre-evaluation capabilities aiding multi-joint/DOF diagnosis for individual patients; 2) strenuous and safe passive stretching of hypertonic/deformed arm for loosening up muscles/joints based on the robot-aided diagnosis; 3) (assistive/resistive) active reaching training after passive stretching for regaining/improving motor control ability; and 4) quantitative, objective, and comprehensive neuromechanical outcome evaluation at the level of individual joints/DOFs, multiple joints, and whole arm. Feasibility of the integrated capabilities was demonstrated through experiments with stroke survivors and healthy subjects.

  5. Fused Smart Sensor Network for Multi-Axis Forward Kinematics Estimation in Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene de Jesus Romero-Troncoso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible manipulator robots have a wide industrial application. Robot performance requires sensing its position and orientation adequately, known as forward kinematics. Commercially available, motion controllers use high-resolution optical encoders to sense the position of each joint which cannot detect some mechanical deformations that decrease the accuracy of the robot position and orientation. To overcome those problems, several sensor fusion methods have been proposed but at expenses of high-computational load, which avoids the online measurement of the joint’s angular position and the online forward kinematics estimation. The contribution of this work is to propose a fused smart sensor network to estimate the forward kinematics of an industrial robot. The developed smart processor uses Kalman filters to filter and to fuse the information of the sensor network. Two primary sensors are used: an optical encoder, and a 3-axis accelerometer. In order to obtain the position and orientation of each joint online a field-programmable gate array (FPGA is used in the hardware implementation taking advantage of the parallel computation capabilities and reconfigurability of this device. With the aim of evaluating the smart sensor network performance, three real-operation-oriented paths are executed and monitored in a 6-degree of freedom robot.

  6. Fused smart sensor network for multi-axis forward kinematics estimation in industrial robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Rivera-Guillen, Jesus Rooney; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Flexible manipulator robots have a wide industrial application. Robot performance requires sensing its position and orientation adequately, known as forward kinematics. Commercially available, motion controllers use high-resolution optical encoders to sense the position of each joint which cannot detect some mechanical deformations that decrease the accuracy of the robot position and orientation. To overcome those problems, several sensor fusion methods have been proposed but at expenses of high-computational load, which avoids the online measurement of the joint's angular position and the online forward kinematics estimation. The contribution of this work is to propose a fused smart sensor network to estimate the forward kinematics of an industrial robot. The developed smart processor uses Kalman filters to filter and to fuse the information of the sensor network. Two primary sensors are used: an optical encoder, and a 3-axis accelerometer. In order to obtain the position and orientation of each joint online a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used in the hardware implementation taking advantage of the parallel computation capabilities and reconfigurability of this device. With the aim of evaluating the smart sensor network performance, three real-operation-oriented paths are executed and monitored in a 6-degree of freedom robot.

  7. Study of the Navigation Method for a Snake Robot Based on the Kinematics Model with MEMS IMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot’s motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU. First, it studies the snake robot’s motion characteristics, builds the kinematics model, and then analyses the motion constraint characteristics and motion error propagation properties. Second, it explores the snake robot’s navigation layout, proposes a constraint criterion and the fixed relationship, and makes zero-state constraints based on the motion features and control modes of a snake robot. Finally, it realizes autonomous navigation positioning based on the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF position estimation method under the constraints of its motion characteristics. With the self-developed snake robot, the test verifies the proposed method, and the position error is less than 5% of Total-Traveled-Distance (TDD. In a short-distance environment, this method is able to meet the requirements of a snake robot in order to perform autonomous navigation and positioning in traditional applications and can be extended to other familiar multi-link robots.

  8. Study of the Navigation Method for a Snake Robot Based on the Kinematics Model with MEMS IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Lihua; Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning

    2018-01-01

    A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot’s motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU). First, it studies the snake robot’s motion characteristics, builds the kinematics model, and then analyses the motion constraint characteristics and motion error propagation properties. Second, it explores the snake robot’s navigation layout, proposes a constraint criterion and the fixed relationship, and makes zero-state constraints based on the motion features and control modes of a snake robot. Finally, it realizes autonomous navigation positioning based on the Extended-Kalman-Filter (EKF) position estimation method under the constraints of its motion characteristics. With the self-developed snake robot, the test verifies the proposed method, and the position error is less than 5% of Total-Traveled-Distance (TDD). In a short-distance environment, this method is able to meet the requirements of a snake robot in order to perform autonomous navigation and positioning in traditional applications and can be extended to other familiar multi-link robots. PMID:29547515

  9. Technology of disaster response robot and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The needs, function structure , ability of disaster response robot are stated. Robots are classified by move mode such as Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV), Legged Robots, Exoskeleton, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Wall Climbing Robots, robots for narrow space. Quince, disaster response robot, collected at first information in the building of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Functions of rescue robots and technical problems under disaster conditions, shape and characteristics of robots and TRL, PackBot, Pelican, Quince, scope camera, and three-dimensional map made by Quince are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  10. Validation of multi-body modelling methodology for reconfigurable underwater robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.C.; Eidsvik, O. A.; Blanke, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of employing reconfigurable robots in an underwater setting. The main results presented is the experimental validation of a modelling methodology for a system consisting of N dynamically connected robots with heterogeneous dynamics. Two distinct types...... of experiments are performed, a series of hydrostatic free-decay tests and a series of open-loop trajectory tests. The results are compared to a simulation based on the modelling methodology. The modelling methodology shows promising results for usage with systems composed of reconfigurable underwater modules...

  11. A Framework for Multi-Robot Motion Planning from Temporal Logic Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koo, T. John; Li, Rongqing; Quottrup, Michael Melholt

    2012-01-01

    -time Temporal Logic, Computation Tree Logic, and -calculus can be preserved. Motion planning can then be performed at a discrete level by considering the parallel composition of discrete abstractions of the robots with a requirement specification given in a suitable temporal logic. The bisimilarity ensures...

  12. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Francois G.

    2003-01-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives and modular configuration

  13. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Grancois G.

    2004-01-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives, and modular configuration

  14. Advanced robot locomotion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  15. The research of autonomous obstacle avoidance of mobile robot based on multi-sensor integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Han, Baoling

    2016-11-01

    The object of this study is the bionic quadruped mobile robot. The study has proposed a system design plan for mobile robot obstacle avoidance with the binocular stereo visual sensor and the self-control 3D Lidar integrated with modified ant colony optimization path planning to realize the reconstruction of the environmental map. Because the working condition of a mobile robot is complex, the result of the 3D reconstruction with a single binocular sensor is undesirable when feature points are few and the light condition is poor. Therefore, this system integrates the stereo vision sensor blumblebee2 and the Lidar sensor together to detect the cloud information of 3D points of environmental obstacles. This paper proposes the sensor information fusion technology to rebuild the environment map. Firstly, according to the Lidar data and visual data on obstacle detection respectively, and then consider two methods respectively to detect the distribution of obstacles. Finally fusing the data to get the more complete, more accurate distribution of obstacles in the scene. Then the thesis introduces ant colony algorithm. It has analyzed advantages and disadvantages of the ant colony optimization and its formation cause deeply, and then improved the system with the help of the ant colony optimization to increase the rate of convergence and precision of the algorithm in robot path planning. Such improvements and integrations overcome the shortcomings of the ant colony optimization like involving into the local optimal solution easily, slow search speed and poor search results. This experiment deals with images and programs the motor drive under the compiling environment of Matlab and Visual Studio and establishes the visual 2.5D grid map. Finally it plans a global path for the mobile robot according to the ant colony algorithm. The feasibility and effectiveness of the system are confirmed by ROS and simulation platform of Linux.

  16. Task driven optimal leg trajectories in insect-scale legged microrobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Neel; Goldberg, Benjamin; Jayaram, Kaushik; Wood, Robert

    Origami inspired layered manufacturing techniques and 3D-printing have enabled the development of highly articulated legged robots at the insect-scale, including the 1.43g Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR). Research on these platforms has expanded its focus from manufacturing aspects to include design optimization and control for application-driven tasks. Consequently, the choice of gait selection, body morphology, leg trajectory, foot design, etc. have become areas of active research. HAMR has two controlled degrees-of-freedom per leg, making it an ideal candidate for exploring leg trajectory. We will discuss our work towards optimizing HAMR's leg trajectories for two different tasks: climbing using electroadhesives and level ground running (5-10 BL/s). These tasks demonstrate the ability of single platform to adapt to vastly different locomotive scenarios: quasi-static climbing with controlled ground contact, and dynamic running with un-controlled ground contact. We will utilize trajectory optimization methods informed by existing models and experimental studies to determine leg trajectories for each task. We also plan to discuss how task specifications and choice of objective function have contributed to the shape of these optimal leg trajectories.

  17. Constrained Multi-Body Dynamics for Modular Underwater Robots — Theory and Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Eidsvik, Ole Alexander; Blanke, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of modelling a system of interconnected underwater robots with highly coupled dynamics. The objective is to develop a mathematical description of the system that captures its most significant dynamics. The proposed modelling method is based on active constraint...... on a BlueROV vehicle to determine the model parameters. The applicability of the modelling approach is assessed by comparing experimental data to simulations of an equivalent model synthesised using the proposed theory....

  18. Multi-Destination Beaming: Apparently Being in Three Places at Once Through Robotic and Virtual Embodiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Kishore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that an illusion of ownership over an artificial limb or even an entire body can be induced in people through multisensory stimulation providing evidence that the surrogate body is the person’s actual body. Such body ownership illusions have been shown to occur with virtual bodies, mannequins, as well as humanoid robots. In this study, we show the possibility of eliciting a full body ownership illusion over not one, but multiple artificial bodies concurrently. We demonstrate this by describing a system that allowed a participant to inhabit and fully control two different humanoid robots located in two distinct places and a virtual body in immersive virtual reality, using real-time full-body tracking and two-way audio communication, thereby giving them the illusion of ownership over each of them. We implemented this by allowing the participant be embodied in any one surrogate body at a given moment, and letting them instantaneously switch between them. While the participant was embodied in one of the bodies, a proxy system would track the locations currently unoccupied, and would control their remote representation in order to continue performing the tasks in those locations in a logical fashion. To test the efficacy of this system, an exploratory study was carried out with a fully functioning setup with three destinations and a simplified version of the proxy for use in a social interaction. The results indicate that the system was physically and psychologically comfortable, and was rated highly by participants in terms of usability. Additionally, feelings of body ownership illusion and agency were reported, which were not influenced by the robot type. The results provide us with clues regarding body ownership illusion with humanoid robots of different dimensions, along with insight about self-localization and multilocation.

  19. Design and Experimental Validation of a Simple Controller for a Multi-Segment Magnetic Crawler Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Burmeisterb, Kurt A. Talkeb, Narek Pezeshkianb, Amin Rahimib, Abraham B. Hartb, Hoa G. Nguyenb aMassachusetts Institute of Technology , 77 Massachusetts...magnetic wheels that provides ______________________ * lckelley@mit.edu ** saam.ostovari@navy.mil SPIE Proc. 9468: Unmanned Systems Technology XVII...X., "Development of a wall climbing robot for ship rust removal," Int. Conf. on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA), 4610-4615 (2009). [6] Leon

  20. Robust Behavior-Based Control for Distributed Multi-Robot Collection Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    for proximity detection, a color sensor in the gripper, a radio transmit- ter/receiver for communication and data gathering, and an ultrasound /radio...infrared or ultrasound sensors) to the algorithmic (the goals of one robot undoing the work of another, competing goals, etc.). Here we fo- cus on physical...Press: Cambridge, Mas- sachusetts. [17] Richard T. Vaughan, Kasper Sty, Gaurav S. Sukhatme, and Maja J Mataric, \\ Whistling in the dark: Cooperative

  1. Evaluation of different frontier-based multi-robot exploration strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benkrid Abdenour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the problem of exploring an unknown environment by a team of mobile robots. The main objective is to compare four different coordination strategies based on frontier concept (boundaries between unexplored and explored open areas and analyze their performance in term of assignment quality, overall exploration time and computational complexity. In order to provide a suitable qualitative study we used three optimization criteria. Each strategy has been implemented and tested extensively in computerized simulation.

  2. A multi-stage oil-water-separating process design for the sea oil spill recovery robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-ge; Wu, Jian-guo; Lin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiao-ming

    2018-03-01

    Oil spill have the most common pollution to the marine ecological environment. In the late stage of physical method recovery, because of the thin oil and the strong sea breeze, the recovery vessels has low efficiency and high energy consumption. This paper develops a multi-stage oil-water-separating process carried by the sea oil spill recovery robot in severe conditions. This design consists of three separation process, among which both the first and third process adopt corrugated sheets horizontal oil-water separator, while the second is hydraulic rotary breaker. This design also equiptment with rectifier and cyclone separator and other important components. This process has high flexibility and high recovery efficiency. The implement effect is significant.

  3. A Multi-purpose Rescue Vehicle and a human–robot interface architecture for remote assistance in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, João; Vale, Alberto; Ventura, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of an omnidirectional vehicle equipped with cameras and laser range finders. • Two robotic manipulators that slide over the vehicle's body to perform independent tasks. • Architecture to connect the control system, communication, power, navigation and HMI. • An immersive interface HMI with augmented reality features with head mounted display. - Abstract: The remote handling (RH) plays an important role in nuclear test facilities, such as in ITER, for in-vessel and ex-vessel maintenance operations. Unexpected situations may occur when RH devices fail. Since no human being is allowed during the RH operations, a Multi-purpose Rescue Vehicle (MPRV) must be required for providing support in site. This paper proposes a design of a MPRV, i.e., a mobile platform equipped with different sensors and two manipulators with different sets of end-effectors. A human–machine interface is also proposed to remotely operate the MPRV and to carry out rescue and recovery operations.

  4. A novel method of range measuring for a mobile robot based on multi-sensor information fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi; Luo Yuan; Wang Jifeng

    2005-01-01

    The traditional measuring range for a mobile robot is based on a sonar sensor. Because of different working environments, it is very difficult to obtain high precision by using just one single method of range measurement. So, a hybrid sonar sensor and laser scanner method is put forward to overcome these shortcomings. A novel fusion model is proposed based on basic theory and a method of information fusion. An optimal measurement result has been obtained with information fusion from different sensors. After large numbers of experiments and performance analysis, a conclusion can be drawn that the laser scanner and sonar sensor method with multi-sensor information fusion have a higher precision than the single method of sonar. It can also be the same with different environments

  5. Development of the multi-function robot for the containment vessel of the nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmichi, Takeo; Hosaka, Shigetaka; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Ibe, Tomoyoshi; Okino, Akihisa; Nakayama, Junji; Miida, Toshiro; Ishida, Michiyasu

    1985-01-01

    A mobile manipulator has been developed and consummated on an experimental basis to perform various maintenance and repair work in places where it is not accessible to workers during operation of the nuclear power plant. This manipulator provided with legs is capable of climbing stairs, clearing obstacles and adequately moving over flat surfaces, and has an arm to handle various tools with the sensibility and strength beyond the average of men and eyes that have a three dimensional vision. Its feature of size is as small as a man and it can be operated by autonomic and manual control under the severe environment. 5 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 table

  6. A Method for Improving the Pose Accuracy of a Robot Manipulator Based on Multi-Sensor Combined Measurement and Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    An improvement method for the pose accuracy of a robot manipulator by using a multiple-sensor combination measuring system (MCMS) is presented. It is composed of a visual sensor, an angle sensor and a series robot. The visual sensor is utilized to measure the position of the manipulator in real time, and the angle sensor is rigidly attached to the manipulator to obtain its orientation. Due to the higher accuracy of the multi-sensor, two efficient data fusion approaches, the Kalman filter (KF) and multi-sensor optimal information fusion algorithm (MOIFA), are used to fuse the position and orientation of the manipulator. The simulation and experimental results show that the pose accuracy of the robot manipulator is improved dramatically by 38%∼78% with the multi-sensor data fusion. Comparing with reported pose accuracy improvement methods, the primary advantage of this method is that it does not require the complex solution of the kinematics parameter equations, increase of the motion constraints and the complicated procedures of the traditional vision-based methods. It makes the robot processing more autonomous and accurate. To improve the reliability and accuracy of the pose measurements of MCMS, the visual sensor repeatability is experimentally studied. An optimal range of 1 × 0.8 × 1 ∼ 2 × 0.8 × 1 m in the field of view (FOV) is indicated by the experimental results. PMID:25850067

  7. Bio-Inspired Design and Kinematic Analysis of Dung Beetle-Like Legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aditya, Sai Krishna Venkata; Ignasov, Jevgeni; Filonenko, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    The African dung beetle Scarabaeus galenus can use its front legs to walk and manipulate or form a dung ball. The interesting multifunctional legs have not been fully investigated or even used as inspiration for robot leg design. Thus, in this paper, we present the development of real dung beetle......-like front legs based on biological investigation. As a result, each leg consists of three main segments which were built using 3D printing. The segments were combined with in total four active DOFs in order to mimic locomotion and object manipulation of the beetle. Kinematics analysis of the leg was also...... performed to identify its workspace as well as to design its trajectory. To this end, the study contributes not only novel multifunctional robotic legs but also the methodology of the bio-inspired leg design....

  8. Modelling Engagement in Multi-Party Conversations : Data-Driven Approaches to Understanding Human-Human Communication Patterns for Use in Human-Robot Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Oertel, Catharine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study human-human interaction in order to provide virtual agents and robots with the capability to engage into multi-party-conversations in a human-like-manner. The focus lies with the modelling of conversational dynamics and the appropriate realization of multi-modal feedback behaviour. For such an undertaking, it is important to understand how human-human communication unfolds in varying contexts and constellations over time. To this end, multi-modal human-human...

  9. Energy Efficiency of Robot Locomotion Increases Proportional to Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    The task of producing steady, stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in un- known terrain have for many years been a big challenge in robotics. This work is focusing on how different robots build from the modular robotic system, LocoKit by Larsen et. la [3...

  10. Energy Efficiency of Robot Locomotion Increases Proportional to Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J. C.; Stoy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The task of producing steady, stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in unknown terrain have for many years been a big challenge in robotics. This work is focusing on how different robots build from the modular robotic system, LocoKit by Larsen et al. [1...

  11. Evolved Design, Integration, and Test of a Modular, Multi-Link, Spacecraft-Based Robotic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Input 6 Config,0 80,0,Amp Model Number,DEP-090-09 86,0, Servo Period,4 8a,0,Voltage Sense,2262 92,0,Amp Name,Current 98,0,Function Generator Config...Los Angeles, CA, 2008, pp. 25–29. [3] M. J. Mataric, The Robotics Primer, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press , 2007. [4] K. Shamaei, Y. Che, A. Murali, S...Online]. Available: http://www.harmonicdrive.net/products/ servo -drives/dc-bus/dep. Accessed Apr. 21, 2016. [38] All About Circuits. “Wiring color

  12. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

  13. Robot Motion and Control 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Robot Motion Control 2011 presents very recent results in robot motion and control. Forty short papers have been chosen from those presented at the sixth International Workshop on Robot Motion and Control held in Poland in June 2011. The authors of these papers have been carefully selected and represent leading institutions in this field. The following recent developments are discussed: • Design of trajectory planning schemes for holonomic and nonholonomic systems with optimization of energy, torque limitations and other factors. • New control algorithms for industrial robots, nonholonomic systems and legged robots. • Different applications of robotic systems in industry and everyday life, like medicine, education, entertainment and others. • Multiagent systems consisting of mobile and flying robots with their applications The book is suitable for graduate students of automation and robotics, informatics and management, mechatronics, electronics and production engineering systems as well as scientists...

  14. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Martin, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection.

  15. Stable Formation Control of Multi-Robot System with Communication Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Jiang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a distributed formation control algorithm with delayed information exchange is discussed. The algorithm, which is derived from the flocking behaviour of birds and consensus theory, enables robots to move in formation at a desired velocity. After a series of orthogonal transformations to the original formation system, the upper bound tolerable delay is obtained by using matrix theory and the Nyquist criterion. According to the results, the upper bound tolerable delay depends on the control parameters and eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix. Therefore, the effect of the parameters on the maximum tolerable delay is analysed, obtaining the following conclusions: the upper bound tolerable delay is proportional to the parameters associated with the velocity, inversely proportional to the parameters associated with the position, and inversely proportional to the difference between the eigenvalue of Laplacian matrix and 1. The simulation results of a four-robot formation system with different communication delays verify the effectiveness of the formation control algorithm and the correctness of the theoretical analysis.

  16. Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a...

  17. Surgical outcomes of robot-assisted rectal cancer surgery using the da Vinci Surgical System: a multi-center pilot Phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Shunsuke; Nishizawa, Yuji; Ochiai, Hiroki; Tsukada, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Shida, Dai; Ito, Masaaki; Kanemitsu, Yukihide

    2017-12-01

    We conducted a multi-center pilot Phase II study to examine the safety of robotic rectal cancer surgery performed using the da Vinci Surgical System during the introduction period of robotic rectal surgery at two institutes based on surgical outcomes. This study was conducted with a prospective, multi-center, single-arm, open-label design to assess the safety and feasibility of robotic surgery for rectal cancer (da Vinci Surgical System). The primary endpoint was the rate of adverse events during and after robotic surgery. The secondary endpoint was the completion rate of robotic surgery. Between April 2014 and July 2016, 50 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 10 (20%) had rectosigmoid cancer, 17 (34%) had upper rectal cancer, and 23 (46%) had lower rectal cancer; six underwent high anterior resection, 32 underwent low anterior resection, 11 underwent intersphincteric resection, and one underwent abdominoperineal resection. Pathological stages were Stage 0 in 1 patient, Stage I in 28 patients, Stage II in 7 patients and Stage III in 14 patients. Pathologically complete resection was achieved in all patients. There was no intraoperative organ damage or postoperative mortality. Eight (16%) patients developed complications of all grades, of which 2 (4%) were Grade 3 or higher, including anastomotic leakage (2%) and conversion to open surgery (2%). The present study demonstrates the feasibility and safety of robotic rectal cancer surgery, as reflected by low morbidity and low conversion rates, during the introduction period. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Trajectory Correction and Locomotion Analysis of a Hexapod Walking Robot with Semi-Round Rigid Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaguang; Jin, Bo; Wu, Yongsheng; Guo, Tong; Zhao, Xiangmo

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at solving the misplaced body trajectory problem caused by the rolling of semi-round rigid feet when a robot is walking, a legged kinematic trajectory correction methodology based on the Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) is proposed. The concept of ideal foothold is put forward for the three-dimensional kinematic model modification of a robot leg, and the deviation value between the ideal foothold and real foothold is analyzed. The forward/inverse kinematic solutions between the ideal foothold and joint angular vectors are formulated and the problem of direct/inverse kinematic nonlinear mapping is solved by using the LS-SVM. Compared with the previous approximation method, this correction methodology has better accuracy and faster calculation speed with regards to inverse kinematics solutions. Experiments on a leg platform and a hexapod walking robot are conducted with multi-sensors for the analysis of foot tip trajectory, base joint vibration, contact force impact, direction deviation, and power consumption, respectively. The comparative analysis shows that the trajectory correction methodology can effectively correct the joint trajectory, thus eliminating the contact force influence of semi-round rigid feet, significantly improving the locomotion of the walking robot and reducing the total power consumption of the system. PMID:27589766

  19. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  20. A multi-DOF robotic exoskeleton interface for hand motion assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Jamshed; Tsagarakis, Nikos G; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the design and development of a robotic exoskeleton based rehabilitation system. A portable direct-driven optimized hand exoskeleton system has been proposed. The optimization procedure primarily based on matching the exoskeleton and finger workspaces guided the system design. The selection of actuators for the proposed system has emerged as a result of experiments with users of different hand sizes. Using commercial sensors, various hand parameters, e.g. maximum and average force levels have been measured. The results of these experiments have been mapped directly to the mechanical design of the system. An under-actuated optimum mechanism has been analysed followed by the design and realization of the first prototype. The system provides both position and force feedback sensory information which can improve the outcomes of a professional rehabilitation exercise.

  1. Design and research of intelligent mobile robot environment detection system based on multi-sensor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Wen Xinling

    2007-01-01

    The intelligent mobile robot environment detection system is researched based on SCM MC68HC908GP3 as core of control system. The four groups of detection systems constituted by ultrasonic sensors and infrared sensors gather information of forward, behind, left and right different directions, solve the problem of blind spot, and make up each other shortage. The distance measurement precision is improved rapidly and the detection precision is less than ±1% through using the way of the pulse shooting, the signal chooses circuit, and the temperature compensation. The system design method and the hardware circuit are introduced in detail. Simultaneity, the system adopts the single chip control technology, it makes the system possess favorable expansibility and gains the practicability in engineering field. (authors)

  2. Integration of Fiber-Optic Sensor Arrays into a Multi-Modal Tactile Sensor Processing System for Robotic End-Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kampmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing complexity of robotic missions and the development towards long-term autonomous systems, the need for multi-modal sensing of the environment increases. Until now, the use of tactile sensor systems has been mostly based on sensing one modality of forces in the robotic end-effector. The use of a multi-modal tactile sensory system is motivated, which combines static and dynamic force sensor arrays together with an absolute force measurement system. This publication is focused on the development of a compact sensor interface for a fiber-optic sensor array, as optic measurement principles tend to have a bulky interface. Mechanical, electrical and software approaches are combined to realize an integrated structure that provides decentralized data pre-processing of the tactile measurements. Local behaviors are implemented using this setup to show the effectiveness of this approach.

  3. Rail-Guided Multi-Robot System for 3D Cellular Hydrogel Assembly with Coordinated Nanomanipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The 3D assembly of micro-/nano-building blocks with multi-nanomanipulator coordinated manipulation is one of the central elements of nanomanipulation. A novel rail-guided nanomanipulation system was proposed for the assembly of a cellular vascular-like hydrogel microchannel. The system was equipped with three nanomanipulators and was restricted on the rail in order to realize the arbitrary change of the end-effectors during the assembly. It was set up with hybrid motors to achieve both a large operating space and a 30 nm positional resolution. The 2D components such as the assembly units were fabricated through the encapsulation of cells in the hydrogel. The coordinated manipulation strategies among the multi-nanomanipulators were designed with vision feedback and were demonstrated through the bottom-up assembly of the vascular-like microtube. As a result, the multi-layered microchannel was assembled through the cooperation of the nanomanipulation system.

  4. Robotics for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Akira; Nakayama, Ryoichi; Kubo, Katsumi

    1988-01-01

    It is highly desirable that automatic or remotely controlled machines perform inspection and maintenance tasks in nuclear facilities. Toshiba has been working to develop multi-functional robots, with one typical example being a master-slave manipulator for use in reprocessing facilities. At the same time, the company is also working on the development of multi-purpose intelligent robots. One such device, an automatic inspection robot, to be deployed along a monorail, performs inspection by means of image processing technology, while and advanced intelligent maintenance robot is equipped with a special wheel-locomotion mechanism and manipulator and is designed to perform maintenance tasks. (author)

  5. Fall detection in walking robots by multi-way principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.; Wisse, M.

    2008-01-01

    Large disturbances can cause a biped to fall. If an upcoming fall can be detected, damage can be minimized or the fall can be prevented. We introduce the multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) method for the detection of upcoming falls. We study the detection capability of the MPCA method in

  6. A scalable hybrid multi-robot SLAM method for highly detailed maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfingsthorn, M.; Slamet, B.; Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent successful SLAM methods employ hybrid map representations combining the strengths of topological maps and occupancy grids. Such representations often facilitate multi-agent mapping. In this paper, a successful SLAM method is presented, which is inspired by the manifold data structure by

  7. Development of a Multi-Arm Mobile Robot for Nuclear Decommissioning Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed J. Bakari

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the design of a two-arm mobile delivery platform for application within nuclear decommissioning tasks. The adoption of the human arm as a model of manoeuvrability, scale and dexterity is the starting point for operation of two seven-function arms within the context of nuclear decommissioning tasks, the selection of hardware and its integration, and the development of suitable control methods. The forward and inverse kinematics for the manipulators are derived and the proposed software architecture identified to control the movements of the arm joints and the performance of selected decommissioning tasks. We discuss the adoption of a BROKK demolition machine as a mobile platform and the integration with its hydraulic system to operate the two seven-function manipulators separately. The paper examines the modelling and development of a real-time control method using Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID and Proportional-Integral-Plus (PIP control algorithms in the host computer with National Instruments functions and tools to control the manipulators and obtain feedback through wireless communication. Finally we consider the application of a third party device, such as a personal mobile phone, and its interface with LabVIEW software in order to operate the robot arms remotely.

  8. Investigation, sensitivity analysis, and multi-objective optimization of effective parameters on temperature and force in robotic drilling cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Vahid; Ghoreishi, Majid; Zolfaghari, Mojtaba

    2017-11-01

    The bone drilling process is very prominent in orthopedic surgeries and in the repair of bone fractures. It is also very common in dentistry and bone sampling operations. Due to the complexity of bone and the sensitivity of the process, bone drilling is one of the most important and sensitive processes in biomedical engineering. Orthopedic surgeries can be improved using robotic systems and mechatronic tools. The most crucial problem during drilling is an unwanted increase in process temperature (higher than 47 °C), which causes thermal osteonecrosis or cell death and local burning of the bone tissue. Moreover, imposing higher forces to the bone may lead to breaking or cracking and consequently cause serious damage. In this study, a mathematical second-order linear regression model as a function of tool drilling speed, feed rate, tool diameter, and their effective interactions is introduced to predict temperature and force during the bone drilling process. This model can determine the maximum speed of surgery that remains within an acceptable temperature range. Moreover, for the first time, using designed experiments, the bone drilling process was modeled, and the drilling speed, feed rate, and tool diameter were optimized. Then, using response surface methodology and applying a multi-objective optimization, drilling force was minimized to sustain an acceptable temperature range without damaging the bone or the surrounding tissue. In addition, for the first time, Sobol statistical sensitivity analysis is used to ascertain the effect of process input parameters on process temperature and force. The results show that among all effective input parameters, tool rotational speed, feed rate, and tool diameter have the highest influence on process temperature and force, respectively. The behavior of each output parameters with variation in each input parameter is further investigated. Finally, a multi-objective optimization has been performed considering all the

  9. VigilAgent for the development of agent-based multi-robot surveillance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gascueña Noheda, José Manuel; Navarro Martínez, Elena María; Fernández Caballero, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Usually, surveillance applications are developed following an ad-hoc approach instead of using a methodology to guide stakeholders in achieving quality standards expected from commercial software. To solve this gap, our conjecture is that surveillance applications can be fully developed from their initial design stages by means of agent-based methodologies. Specifically, this paper describes the experience and the results of using a multi-agent systems approach according to the process provid...

  10. Use of the Satinsky clamp for hilar clamping during robotic partial nephrectomy: indications, technique, and multi-center outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Newaj; Rahbar, Haider; Barod, Ravi; Dalela, Deepansh; Larson, Jeff; Johnson, Michael; Mass, Alon; Zargar, Homayoun; Kaouk, Jihad; Allaf, Mohamad; Bhayani, Sam; Stifelman, Michael; Rogers, Craig

    2017-03-01

    A Satinsky clamp may be a backup option for hilar clamping during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) if there are challenges with application of bulldog clamps, but there are potential safety concerns. We evaluate outcomes of RPN using Satinsky vs. bulldog clamps, and provide tips for safe use of the Satinsky as a backup option. Using a multi-center database, we identified 1073 patients who underwent RPN between 2006 and 2013, and had information available about method of hilar clamping (bulldog clamp vs. Satinsky clamp). Patient baseline characteristics, tumor features, and perioperative outcomes were compared between the Satinsky and bulldog clamp groups. A Satinsky clamp was used for hilar clamping in 94 (8.8 %) RPN cases, and bulldog clamps were used in 979 (91.2 %) cases. The use of a Satinsky clamp was associated with greater operative time (198 vs. 175 min, p hilar clamping during challenging RPN cases, but requires careful technique, and was rarely necessary.

  11. A Multi-purpose Rescue Vehicle and a human–robot interface architecture for remote assistance in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, João [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vale, Alberto, E-mail: avale@ipfn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto SuperiorTécnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ventura, Rodrigo, E-mail: rodrigo.ventura@isr.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Laboratório de Robótica e Sistemas em Engenharia eCiência, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Design of an omnidirectional vehicle equipped with cameras and laser range finders. • Two robotic manipulators that slide over the vehicle's body to perform independent tasks. • Architecture to connect the control system, communication, power, navigation and HMI. • An immersive interface HMI with augmented reality features with head mounted display. - Abstract: The remote handling (RH) plays an important role in nuclear test facilities, such as in ITER, for in-vessel and ex-vessel maintenance operations. Unexpected situations may occur when RH devices fail. Since no human being is allowed during the RH operations, a Multi-purpose Rescue Vehicle (MPRV) must be required for providing support in site. This paper proposes a design of a MPRV, i.e., a mobile platform equipped with different sensors and two manipulators with different sets of end-effectors. A human–machine interface is also proposed to remotely operate the MPRV and to carry out rescue and recovery operations.

  12. Exploratorium: Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  13. Cam Drive Step Mechanism of a Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bionic quadruped robots received considerable worldwide research attention. For a quadruped robot walking with steady paces on a flat terrain, using a cam drive control mechanism instead of servomotors provides theoretical and practical benefits as it reduces the system weight, cost, and control complexities; thus it may be more cost beneficial for some recreational or household applications. This study explores the robot step mechanism including the leg and cam drive control systems based on studying the bone structure and the kinematic step sequences of dog. The design requirements for the cam drive robot legs have been raised, and the mechanical principles of the leg operating mechanism as well as the control parameters have been analyzed. A cam drive control system was constructed using three cams to control each leg. Finally, a four-leg demo robot was manufactured for experiments and it showed stable walking patterns on a flat floor.

  14. Locomotor Sub-functions for Control of Assistive Wearable Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Sharbafi, Maziar A.; Seyfarth, Andre; Zhao, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal of comparative biomechanics is to understand the fundamental physics of locomotion within an evolutionary context. Such an understanding of legged locomotion results in a transition from copying nature to borrowing strategies for interacting with the physical world regarding design and control of bio-inspired legged robots or robotic assistive devices. Inspired from nature, legged locomotion can be composed of three locomotor sub-functions, which are intrinsically interrelated:...

  15. Advanced real-time multi-display educational system (ARMES): An innovative real-time audiovisual mentoring tool for complex robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong Ho; Tanaka, Eiji; Woo, Yanghee; Ali, Güner; Son, Taeil; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2017-12-01

    The recent scientific and technologic advances have profoundly affected the training of surgeons worldwide. We describe a novel intraoperative real-time training module, the Advanced Robotic Multi-display Educational System (ARMES). We created a real-time training module, which can provide a standardized step by step guidance to robotic distal subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy procedures, ARMES. The short video clips of 20 key steps in the standardized procedure for robotic gastrectomy were created and integrated with TilePro™ software to delivery on da Vinci Surgical Systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). We successfully performed the robotic distal subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for patient with gastric cancer employing this new teaching method without any transfer errors or system failures. Using this technique, the total operative time was 197 min and blood loss was 50 mL and there were no intra- or post-operative complications. Our innovative real-time mentoring module, ARMES, enables standardized, systematic guidance during surgical procedures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Adaptive leg coordination with a biologically inspired neurocontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braught, Grant; Thomopoulos, Stelios C.

    1996-10-01

    Natural selection is responsible for the creation of robust and adaptive control systems. Nature's control systems are created only from primitive building blocks. Using insect neurophysiology as a guide, a neural architecture for leg coordination in a hexapod robot has been developed. Reflex chains and sensory feedback mechanisms from various insects and crustacea form the basis of a pattern generator for intra-leg coordination. The pattern generator contains neural oscillators which learn from sensory feedback to produce stepping patterns. Using sensory feedback as the source of learning information allows the pattern generator to adapt to changes in the leg dynamics due to internal or external causes. A coupling between six of the single leg pattern generators is used to produce the inter-leg coordination necessary to establish stable gaits.

  17. Construction of multi-agent mobile robots control system in the problem of persecution with using a modified reinforcement learning method based on neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkin, M. L.; Rogachev, G. N.

    2018-02-01

    A method for constructing a multi-agent control system for mobile robots based on training with reinforcement using deep neural networks is considered. Synthesis of the management system is proposed to be carried out with reinforcement training and the modified Actor-Critic method, in which the Actor module is divided into Action Actor and Communication Actor in order to simultaneously manage mobile robots and communicate with partners. Communication is carried out by sending partners at each step a vector of real numbers that are added to the observation vector and affect the behaviour. Functions of Actors and Critic are approximated by deep neural networks. The Critics value function is trained by using the TD-error method and the Actor’s function by using DDPG. The Communication Actor’s neural network is trained through gradients received from partner agents. An environment in which a cooperative multi-agent interaction is present was developed, computer simulation of the application of this method in the control problem of two robots pursuing two goals was carried out.

  18. Integrated multi-sensor fusion for mapping and localization in outdoor environments for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Thomas; Petereit, Janko

    2014-05-01

    An integrated multi-sensor fusion framework for localization and mapping for autonomous navigation in unstructured outdoor environments based on extended Kalman filters (EKF) is presented. The sensors for localization include an inertial measurement unit, a GPS, a fiber optic gyroscope, and wheel odometry. Additionally a 3D LIDAR is used for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). A 3D map is built while concurrently a localization in a so far established 2D map is estimated with the current scan of the LIDAR. Despite of longer run-time of the SLAM algorithm compared to the EKF update, a high update rate is still guaranteed by sophisticatedly joining and synchronizing two parallel localization estimators.

  19. Optimization-based motion generation for multiped robots in contact scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Herzog, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of legged robots into society has the potential to impact many aspects of our lives. The versatile morphology of robots with arms and legs, or multipeds, allows them to operate in a broad spectrum of environments. For example, legged robots could assist at construction sites or locomote in rocky terrain under persistent interaction with the environment through contact. These behaviors require algorithms that translate high level operator commands into movement and contact int...

  20. Feedback Control Design for a Walking Athlete Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Vu Trien Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, authors generalized the dynamic model of an athlete robot with elastic legs through Lagrange method. Then, a feed-back controller was designed to control the robot through a step-walking. The research just focused on stance phase – the period that robot just touched one leg on the ground. The simulation results showed that system worked well with the designed controller.

  1. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  2. Development of an amphibious robot for visual inspection of APR1400 Npp IRWST strainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, You Hyun; Kim, Jong Seog

    2014-01-01

    An amphibious inspection robot system (hereafter AIROS) is being developed to visually inspect the in-containment refueling storage water tank (hereafter IRWST) strainer in APR1400 instead of a human diver. Four IRWST strainers are located in the IRWST, which is filled with boric acid water. Each strainer has 108 sub-assembly strainer fin modules that should be inspected with the VT-3 method according to Reg. guide 1.82 and the operation manual. AIROS has 6 thrusters for submarine voyage and 4 legs for walking on the top of the strainer. An inverse kinematic algorithm was implemented in the robot controller for exact walking on the top of the IRWST strainer. The IRWST strainer has several top cross braces that are extruded on the top of the strainer, which can be obstacles of walking on the strainer, to maintain the frame of the strainer. Therefore, a robot leg should arrive at the position beside the top cross brace. For this reason, we used an image processing technique to find the top cross brace in the sole camera image. The sole camera image is processed to find the existence of the top cross brace using the cross edge detection algorithm in real time. A 5-DOF robot arm that has multiple camera modules for simultaneous inspection of both sides can penetrate narrow gaps. For intuitive presentation of inspection results and for management of inspection data, inspection images are stored in the control PC with camera angles and positions to synthesize and merge the images. The synthesized images are then mapped in a 3D CAD model of the IRWST strainer with the location information. An IRWST strainer mock-up was fabricated to teach the robot arm scanning and gaiting. It is important to arrive at the designated position for inserting the robot arm into all of the gaps. Exact position control without anchor under the water is not easy. Therefore, we designed the multi leg robot for the role of anchoring and positioning. Quadruped robot design of installing sole

  3. Development of an amphibious robot for visual inspection of APR1400 Npp IRWST strainer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, You Hyun; Kim, Jong Seog [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    An amphibious inspection robot system (hereafter AIROS) is being developed to visually inspect the in-containment refueling storage water tank (hereafter IRWST) strainer in APR1400 instead of a human diver. Four IRWST strainers are located in the IRWST, which is filled with boric acid water. Each strainer has 108 sub-assembly strainer fin modules that should be inspected with the VT-3 method according to Reg. guide 1.82 and the operation manual. AIROS has 6 thrusters for submarine voyage and 4 legs for walking on the top of the strainer. An inverse kinematic algorithm was implemented in the robot controller for exact walking on the top of the IRWST strainer. The IRWST strainer has several top cross braces that are extruded on the top of the strainer, which can be obstacles of walking on the strainer, to maintain the frame of the strainer. Therefore, a robot leg should arrive at the position beside the top cross brace. For this reason, we used an image processing technique to find the top cross brace in the sole camera image. The sole camera image is processed to find the existence of the top cross brace using the cross edge detection algorithm in real time. A 5-DOF robot arm that has multiple camera modules for simultaneous inspection of both sides can penetrate narrow gaps. For intuitive presentation of inspection results and for management of inspection data, inspection images are stored in the control PC with camera angles and positions to synthesize and merge the images. The synthesized images are then mapped in a 3D CAD model of the IRWST strainer with the location information. An IRWST strainer mock-up was fabricated to teach the robot arm scanning and gaiting. It is important to arrive at the designated position for inserting the robot arm into all of the gaps. Exact position control without anchor under the water is not easy. Therefore, we designed the multi leg robot for the role of anchoring and positioning. Quadruped robot design of installing sole

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIOUS ROBOT FOR VISUAL INSPECTION OF APR1400 NPP IRWST STRAINER ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU HYUN JANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An amphibious inspection robot system (hereafter AIROS is being developed to visually inspect the in-containment refueling storage water tank (hereafter IRWST strainer in APR1400 instead of a human diver. Four IRWST strainers are located in the IRWST, which is filled with boric acid water. Each strainer has 108 sub-assembly strainer fin modules that should be inspected with the VT-3 method according to Reg. guide 1.82 and the operation manual. AIROS has 6 thrusters for submarine voyage and 4 legs for walking on the top of the strainer. An inverse kinematic algorithm was implemented in the robot controller for exact walking on the top of the IRWST strainer. The IRWST strainer has several top cross braces that are extruded on the top of the strainer, which can be obstacles of walking on the strainer, to maintain the frame of the strainer. Therefore, a robot leg should arrive at the position beside the top cross brace. For this reason, we used an image processing technique to find the top cross brace in the sole camera image. The sole camera image is processed to find the existence of the top cross brace using the cross edge detection algorithm in real time. A 5-DOF robot arm that has multiple camera modules for simultaneous inspection of both sides can penetrate narrow gaps. For intuitive presentation of inspection results and for management of inspection data, inspection images are stored in the control PC with camera angles and positions to synthesize and merge the images. The synthesized images are then mapped in a 3D CAD model of the IRWST strainer with the location information. An IRWST strainer mock-up was fabricated to teach the robot arm scanning and gaiting. It is important to arrive at the designated position for inserting the robot arm into all of the gaps. Exact position control without anchor under the water is not easy. Therefore, we designed the multi leg robot for the role of anchoring and positioning. Quadruped robot design of

  5. Walk-Startup of a Two-Legged Walking Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babković, Kalman; Nagy, László; Krklješ, Damir; Borovac, Branislav

    There is a growing interest towards humanoid robots. One of their most important characteristic is the two-legged motion - walk. Starting and stopping of humanoid robots introduce substantial delays. In this paper, the goal is to explore the possibility of using a short unbalanced state of the biped robot to quickly gain speed and achieve the steady state velocity during a period shorter than half of the single support phase. The proposed method is verified by simulation. Maintainig a steady state, balanced gait is not considered in this paper.

  6. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  7. Evolutionary Developmental Robotics: Improving Morphology and Control of Physical Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujovic, Vuk; Rosendo, Andre; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms have previously been applied to the design of morphology and control of robots. The design space for such tasks can be very complex, which can prevent evolution from efficiently discovering fit solutions. In this article we introduce an evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) experiment with real-world robots. It allows robots to grow their leg size to simulate ontogenetic morphological changes, and this is the first time that such an experiment has been performed in the physical world. To test diverse robot morphologies, robot legs of variable shapes were generated during the evolutionary process and autonomously built using additive fabrication. We present two cases with evo-devo experiments and one with evolution, and we hypothesize that the addition of a developmental stage can be used within robotics to improve performance. Moreover, our results show that a nonlinear system-environment interaction exists, which explains the nontrivial locomotion patterns observed. In the future, robots will be present in our daily lives, and this work introduces for the first time physical robots that evolve and grow while interacting with the environment.

  8. Modular robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs

  9. Soft computing in advanced robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kim, Euntai

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent system and robotics are inevitably bound up; intelligent robots makes embodiment of system integration by using the intelligent systems. We can figure out that intelligent systems are to cell units, while intelligent robots are to body components. The two technologies have been synchronized in progress. Making leverage of the robotics and intelligent systems, applications cover boundlessly the range from our daily life to space station; manufacturing, healthcare, environment, energy, education, personal assistance, logistics. This book aims at presenting the research results in relevance with intelligent robotics technology. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply them to advanced robotics technology. This book consists of 10 contributions that feature mobile robots, robot emotion, electric power steering, multi-agent, fuzzy visual navigation, adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system, swarm EKF localization and inspection robot. Th...

  10. Robot Actors, Robot Dramaturgies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth

    This paper considers the use of tele-operated robots in live performance. Robots and performance have long been linked, from the working androids and automata staged in popular exhibitions during the nineteenth century and the robots featured at Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) and the World Expo...

  11. Modeling humanoid swarm robots with petri nets

    OpenAIRE

    Maharjan, Bikee

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Computer science Robots have become a hot topic in today‟s electronic world. There are many definitions for it. One of the definition in Oxford dictionary states “a robot is a machine capable for carrying out a complex series of action automatically especially one programmable by a computer”. This paper deals with a special kind of robot, which is also known as humanoid robot. These robots are replication of human beings with head, torso, arms and legs. A model of hum...

  12. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  13. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  14. Development and Physical Control Research on Prototype Artificial Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To provide an ideal platform for research on intelligent bionic leg (IBL, this paper proposes a model of a biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL. A prototype of an artificial leg is developed based on biological structure and motion principle analysis of human lower extremities. With regard to the driving sources, servomotors are chosen for the hip joint and ankle joint, while pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs are chosen for the knee joint. The control system of the bionic artificial leg is designed and a physical experimental platform is established. The physical control experiments are done based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID control strategy. The experimental results show that such a system can realize the expected goals.

  15. Development of a Multi-functional Soft Robot (SNUMAX and Performance in RoboSoft Grand Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Young Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces SNUMAX, the grand winner of the RoboSoft Grand Challenge. SNUMAX was built to complete all the tasks of the challenge. Completing these tasks required robotic compliant components that could adapt to variable situations and environments and generate enough stiffness to maintain performance. SNUMAX has three key components: transformable origami wheels, a polymer-based variable stiffness manipulator, and an adaptive caging gripper. This paper describes the design of these components and how they worked together to allow the robot to perform the contest’s navigation and manipulation tasks.

  16. Colias: An Autonomous Micro Robot for Swarm Robotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Arvin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Robotic swarms that take inspiration from nature are becoming a fascinating topic for multi-robot researchers. The aim is to control a large number of simple robots in order to solve common complex tasks. Due to the hardware complexities and cost of robot platforms, current research in swarm robotics is mostly performed by simulation software. The simulation of large numbers of these robots in robotic swarm applications is extremely complex and often inaccurate due to the poor modelling of external conditions. In this paper, we present the design of a low-cost, open-platform, autonomous micro-robot (Colias for robotic swarm applications. Colias employs a circular platform with a diameter of 4 cm. It has a maximum speed of 35 cm/s which enables it to be used in swarm scenarios very quickly over large arenas. Long-range infrared modules with an adjustable output power allow the robot to communicate with its direct neighbours at a range of 0.5 cm to 2 m. Colias has been designed as a complete platform with supporting software development tools for robotics education and research. It has been tested in both individual and swarm scenarios, and the observed results demonstrate its feasibility for use as a micro-sized mobile robot and as a low-cost platform for robot swarm applications.

  17. A layers-overlapping strategy for robotic wire and arc additive manufacturing of multi-layer multi-bead components with homogeneous layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Han, Qinglin; Zhang, Guangjun; Horvath, I.

    2018-01-01

    Robotic wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) systems are required to provide predictable and efficient operations to fabricate solid metallic parts with high morphological fidelity and geometric accuracy. Since the metallic parts are fabricated based on a layer-by-layer principle, the

  18. Robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  19. Robot engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-15

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  20. Approach to leg edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Pomero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Edema is defined as a palpable swelling caused by an increase in interstitial fluid volume. Leg edema is a common problem with a wide range of possible causes and is the result of an imbalance in the filtration system between the capillary and interstitial spaces. Major causes of edema include venous obstruction, increased capillary permeability and increased plasma volume secondary to sodium and water retention. In both hospital and general practice, the patient with a swollen leg presents a common dilemma in diagnosis and treatment. The cause may be trivial or life-threatening and it is often difficult to determine the clinical pathway. The diagnosis can be narrowed by categorizing the edema according to its duration, distribution (unilateral or bilateral and accompanying symptoms. This work provides clinically oriented recommendations for the management of leg edema in adults.

  1. Leg som ustyrlig deltagelseskultur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    2017-01-01

    - og spilteoretikere Johan Huizinga og Roger Caillois. Deres teorier og begrebsdannelser har været brugt til at påpege leg dels som et æstetisk baseret betydningssystem, dels som et affektivt og stemningsbaseret oplevelsessystem samt endelig som et socialt baseret relationssystem. I artiklen vælger vi...... at fokusere på leg som et socialt baseret relationssystem og yderligere zoome ind på et af legens systemiske væsenstræk, nemlig brugen af regulerbare regelsæt, som legerne uden ’politi’ forhandler sig frem til før, under og efter legen. Fælles for Huizinga og Caillois er, at de knytter leg uløseligt sammen...

  2. Leg og dannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2017-01-01

    lederen i det pædagogiske tidskrift Asterisk: ”Leg i skolen, leg i klasserummet, ja legende læring i skolen udgør derimod en enorm, seriøs og ubrugt læringsressource – ikke alene med effekter på kreativiteten, men også på den faglige læring” (Holm, 2015, p. 2). Legens værdi gøres altså først og fremmest...

  3. Venous leg ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri

  4. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  5. Robotic and artificial intelligence for keyhole neurosurgery: the ROBOCAST project, a multi-modal autonomous path planner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Momi, E; Ferrigno, G

    2010-01-01

    The robot and sensors integration for computer-assisted surgery and therapy (ROBOCAST) project (FP7-ICT-2007-215190) is co-funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme in the field of information and communication technologies. The ROBOCAST project focuses on robot- and artificial-intelligence-assisted keyhole neurosurgery (tumour biopsy and local drug delivery along straight or turning paths). The goal of this project is to assist surgeons with a robotic system controlled by an intelligent high-level controller (HLC) able to gather and integrate information from the surgeon, from diagnostic images, and from an array of on-field sensors. The HLC integrates pre-operative and intra-operative diagnostics data and measurements, intelligence augmentation, multiple-robot dexterity, and multiple sensory inputs in a closed-loop cooperating scheme including a smart interface for improved haptic immersion and integration. This paper, after the overall architecture description, focuses on the intelligent trajectory planner based on risk estimation and human criticism. The current status of development is reported, and first tests on the planner are shown by using a real image stack and risk descriptor phantom. The advantages of using a fuzzy risk description are given by the possibility of upgrading the knowledge on-field without the intervention of a knowledge engineer.

  6. Influence of “J”-Curve Spring Stiffness on Running Speeds of Segmented Legs during High-Speed Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runxiao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the linear leg spring model and the two-segment leg model with constant spring stiffness have been broadly used as template models to investigate bouncing gaits for legged robots with compliant legs. In addition to these two models, the other stiffness leg spring models developed using inspiration from biological characteristic have the potential to improve high-speed running capacity of spring-legged robots. In this paper, we investigate the effects of “J”-curve spring stiffness inspired by biological materials on running speeds of segmented legs during high-speed locomotion. Mathematical formulation of the relationship between the virtual leg force and the virtual leg compression is established. When the SLIP model and the two-segment leg model with constant spring stiffness and with “J”-curve spring stiffness have the same dimensionless reference stiffness, the two-segment leg model with “J”-curve spring stiffness reveals that (1 both the largest tolerated range of running speeds and the tolerated maximum running speed are found and (2 at fast running speed from 25 to 40/92 m s−1 both the tolerated range of landing angle and the stability region are the largest. It is suggested that the two-segment leg model with “J”-curve spring stiffness is more advantageous for high-speed running compared with the SLIP model and with constant spring stiffness.

  7. Introduction to humanoid robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Kajita, Shuuji; Harada, Kensuke; Yokoi, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    This book is for researchers, engineers, and students who are willing to understand how humanoid robots move and be controlled. The book starts with an overview of the humanoid robotics research history and state of the art. Then it explains the required mathematics and physics such as kinematics of multi-body system, Zero-Moment Point (ZMP) and its relationship with body motion. Biped walking control is discussed in depth, since it is one of the main interests of humanoid robotics. Various topics of the whole body motion generation are also discussed. Finally multi-body dynamics is presented to simulate the complete dynamic behavior of a humanoid robot. Throughout the book, Matlab codes are shown to test the algorithms and to help the reader´s understanding.

  8. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A working group (WG) study was conducted aiming at realizing human type robots. The following six working groups in the basement field were organized to study in terms mostly of items of technical development and final technical targets: platform, and remote attendance control in the basement field, maintenance of plant, etc., home service, disaster/construction, and entertainment in the application field. In the platform WG, a robot of human like form is planning which walks with two legs and works with two arms, and the following were discussed: a length of 160cm, weight of 110kg, built-in LAN, actuator specifications, modulated structure, intelligent driver, etc. In the remote attendance control WG, remote control using working function, stabilized movement, stabilized control, and network is made possible. Studied were made on the decision on a remote control cockpit by open architecture added with function and reformable, problems on the development of the standard language, etc. 77 ref., 82 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder, particularly if they experience onset at an early age; many years may pass before symptoms occur regularly. top What causes restless legs syndrome? In most cases, the cause of RLS is unknown (called primary RLS). However, RLS has a genetic component and ...

  10. The mangled lower leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Jochem Maarten

    2002-01-01

    A surgeon faced with a patient presenting with an open tibial/fibular fracture in combination with severe damage of the surrounding soft tissues, has to make the difficult decision whether to attempt salvage or to perform an immediate amputation of the leg. Until late in the nineteenth century the

  11. Extension and customization of self-stability control in compliant legged systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, M; Blickhan, R; Geyer, H

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies on the control of legged locomotion in animal and robot running focus on the influence of different leg parameters on gait stability. In a preceding investigation self-stability controls showing deadbeat behavior could be obtained by studying the dynamics of the system in dependence of the leg orientation carefully adjusted during the flight phase. Such controls allow to accommodate disturbances of the ground level without having to detect them. Here we further this method in two ways. Besides the leg orientation, we allow changes in leg stiffness during flight and show that this extension substantially improves the rejection of ground disturbances. In a human like example the tolerance of random variation in ground level over many steps increased from 3.5% to 35% of leg length. In single steps changes of about 70% leg length (either up or down) could be negotiated. The variable leg stiffness not only allows to start with flat leg orientations maximizing step tolerances but also increase the control subspace. This allows to customize self-stability controls and to consider physical and technical limitations found in animals and robots. (paper)

  12. You Can Leave Your Head On: Attention Management and Turn-Taking in Multi-party Interaction with a Virtual Human/Robot Duo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, Jeroen; Berkhoff, Meike; Bode, Max; Rens, Eduard; Theune, Mariet; Wiltenburg, Daan; Beskow, Jonas; Peters, Christopher; Castellano, Ginevra; O'Sullivan, Carol; Leite, Iolanda; Kopp, Stefan

    In two small studies, we investigated how a virtual human/ robot duo can complement each other in joint interaction with one or more users. The robot takes care of turn management while the virtual human draws attention to the robot. Our results show that having the virtual human address the robot,

  13. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot-crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so-called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four-legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot-crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  14. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  15. Implementation of a Multi-Robot Coverage Algorithm on a Two-Dimensional, Grid-Based Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    different approaches is based on “ behavior -based” versus “system theory based” approaches to the problem. 1. Behavior –Based Approach Most behavior -based...otherwise, it performs the behavior of IG. This kind of algorithm could be classified as a system theory based approach since the change in the...systems, robot agents are likely to take over mine countermeasure (MCM) missions one day. The path planning coverage algorithm is an essential topic for

  16. Multi-modal low cost mobile indoor surveillance system on the Robust Artificial Intelligence-based Defense Electro Robot (RAIDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Binu M.; Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-10-01

    We present an autonomous system capable of performing security check routines. The surveillance machine, the Clearpath Husky robotic platform, is equipped with three IP cameras with different orientations for the surveillance tasks of face recognition, human activity recognition, autonomous navigation and 3D reconstruction of its environment. Combining the computer vision algorithms onto a robotic machine has given birth to the Robust Artificial Intelligencebased Defense Electro-Robot (RAIDER). The end purpose of the RAIDER is to conduct a patrolling routine on a single floor of a building several times a day. As the RAIDER travels down the corridors off-line algorithms use two of the RAIDER's side mounted cameras to perform a 3D reconstruction from monocular vision technique that updates a 3D model to the most current state of the indoor environment. Using frames from the front mounted camera, positioned at the human eye level, the system performs face recognition with real time training of unknown subjects. Human activity recognition algorithm will also be implemented in which each detected person is assigned to a set of action classes picked to classify ordinary and harmful student activities in a hallway setting.The system is designed to detect changes and irregularities within an environment as well as familiarize with regular faces and actions to distinguish potentially dangerous behavior. In this paper, we present the various algorithms and their modifications which when implemented on the RAIDER serves the purpose of indoor surveillance.

  17. Multi-source micro-friction identification for a class of cable-driven robots with passive backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjowidodo, Tegoeh; Zhu, Ke; Dailey, Wayne; Burdet, Etienne; Campolo, Domenico

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyses the dynamics of cable-driven robots with a passive backbone and develops techniques for their dynamic identification, which are tested on the H-Man, a planar cabled differential transmission robot for haptic interaction. The mechanism is optimized for human-robot interaction by accounting for the cost-benefit-ratio of the system, specifically by eliminating the necessity of an external force sensor to reduce the overall cost. As a consequence, this requires an effective dynamic model for accurate force feedback applications which include friction behavior in the system. We first consider the significance of friction in both the actuator and backbone spaces. Subsequently, we study the required complexity of the stiction model for the application. Different models representing different levels of complexity are investigated, ranging from the conventional approach of Coulomb to an advanced model which includes hysteresis. The results demonstrate each model's ability to capture the dynamic behavior of the system. In general, it is concluded that there is a trade-off between model accuracy and the model cost.

  18. Modelling and simulation of multi spindle drilling redundant SCARA robot using SolidWorks and MATLAB/SimMechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Mohan Mariappan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los robots son sistemas electromecánicos que necesitan enfoque mecatrónico antes de fabricarlos, esto con el fin de reducir el costo de desarrollo. En este trabajo se presenta un nuevo intento de modelado PRRP (prismáticos-revoluto-revoluto-prismático, una configuración redundante SCARA (Brazo robótico articulado de respuesta selectiva, herramienta de perforación milti-eje (MSDT usando el software CAD de SolidWorks y el estudio dinámico con la ayuda de MATLAB/SimMechanics de perforación. Un SCARA con MSDT se utiliza para perforar varios agujeros en las placas de circuito impreso (PCB y la chapa metálica. En este trabajo, el modelo de CAD 3D del robot propuesto se convierte en un diagrama de bloque SimMechanics exportando a MATLAB/SimMechanics segunda generación de tecnología de modelado y simulación. Entonces se realiza una simulación SimMechanics y utilizando su capacidad de detección de movimiento la velocidad de parámetros dinámicos y la torsión del manipulador se observa la estructura del robot variable modificado. Los resultados de la simulación indican un cambio considerable en el rendimiento dinámico para diferentes parámetros de diseño.

  19. A neuro-inspired spike-based PID motor controller for multi-motor robots with low cost FPGAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Dominguez-Morales, Manuel J; Paz-Vicente, Rafael; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control.

  20. A Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based PID Motor Controller for Multi-Motor Robots with Low Cost FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Civit-Balcells

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN, which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control.

  1. A new biarticular actuator design facilitates control of leg function in BioBiped3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbafi, Maziar Ahmad; Rode, Christian; Kurowski, Stefan; Scholz, Dorian; Möckel, Rico; Radkhah, Katayon; Zhao, Guoping; Rashty, Aida Mohammadinejad; Stryk, Oskar von; Seyfarth, Andre

    2016-07-01

    Bioinspired legged locomotion comprises different aspects, such as (i) benefiting from reduced complexity control approaches as observed in humans/animals, (ii) combining embodiment with the controllers and (iii) reflecting neural control mechanisms. One of the most important lessons learned from nature is the significant role of compliance in simplifying control, enhancing energy efficiency and robustness against perturbations for legged locomotion. In this research, we investigate how body morphology in combination with actuator design may facilitate motor control of leg function. Inspired by the human leg muscular system, we show that biarticular muscles have a key role in balancing the upper body, joint coordination and swing leg control. Appropriate adjustment of biarticular spring rest length and stiffness can simplify the control and also reduce energy consumption. In order to test these findings, the BioBiped3 robot was developed as a new version of BioBiped series of biologically inspired, compliant musculoskeletal robots. In this robot, three-segmented legs actuated by mono- and biarticular series elastic actuators mimic the nine major human leg muscle groups. With the new biarticular actuators in BioBiped3, novel simplified control concepts for postural balance and for joint coordination in rebounding movements (drop jumps) were demonstrated and approved.

  2. Hexapod Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  3. [Design and application of medical electric leg-raising machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jintang; Chen, Jinyuan; Zhao, Zixian; Lin, Jinfeng; Li, Juanhong; Zhong, Jingliang

    2017-08-01

    Passive leg raising is widely used in clinic, but it lacks of specialized mechanical raise equipment. It requires medical staff to raise leg by hand or requires a multi-functional bed to raise leg, which takes time and effort. Therefore we have developed a new medical electric leg-raising machine. The equipment has the following characteristics: simple structure, stable performance, easy operation, fast and effective, safe and comfortable. The height range of the lifter is 50-120 cm, the range of the angle of raising leg is 10degree angle-80degree angle, the maximum supporting weight is 40 kg. Because of raising the height of the lower limbs and making precise angle, this equipment can completely replace the traditional manner of lifting leg by hand with multi-functional bed to lift patients' leg and can reduce the physical exhaustion and time consumption of medical staff. It can change the settings at any time to meet the needs of the patient; can be applied to the testing of PLR and dynamically assessing the hemodynamics; can prevent deep vein thrombosis and some related complications of staying in bed; and the machine is easy to be cleaned and disinfected, which can effectively avoid hospital acquired infection and cross infection; and can also be applied to emergency rescue of various disasters and emergencies.

  4. Cervical cord compression presenting with sciatica-like leg pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Chee Keong; Lee, Ho-Yeon; Choi, Won-Chul; Cho, Ji Young; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Sciatica-like leg pain can be the main presenting symptom in patients with cervical cord compression. It is a false localizing presentation, which may lead to missed or delayed diagnosis, resulting in the wrong plan of management, especially in the presence of concurrent lumbar lesions. Medical history, physical findings and the results of imaging studies were reviewed in two cases of cervical cord compressions, which presented with sciatica-like leg pain. There was multi-level cervical spond...

  5. Modeling posture-dependent leg actuation in sagittal plane locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J; Clark, J

    2009-01-01

    The spring loaded inverted pendulum template has been shown to accurately model the steady locomotion dynamics of a variety of running animals, and has served as the inspiration for an entire class of dynamic running robots. While the template models the leg dynamics by an energy-conserving spring, insects and animals have structures that dissipate, store and produce energy during a stance phase. Recent investigations into the spring-like properties of limbs, as well as animal response to drop-step perturbations, suggest that animals use their legs to manage energy storage and dissipation, and that this management is important for gait stability. In this paper, we extend our previous analysis of control of the spring loaded inverted pendulum template via changes in the leg touch-down angle to include energy variations during the stance phase. Energy variations are incorporated through leg actuation that varies the force-free leg length during the stance phase, yet maintains qualitatively correct force and velocity profiles. In contrast to the partially asymptotically stable gaits identified in previous analyses, incorporating energy and leg angle variations in this manner produces complete asymptotic stability. Drop-step perturbation simulations reveal that the control strategy is rather robust, with gaits recovering from drops of up to 30% of the nominal hip height.

  6. Hierarchical coordination control of mobile robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adinandra, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, robotic systems have penetrated human life more than human can imagine. In particular, the multi-mobile robotic systems have faced a fast growing due to the fact that by deploying a large collection of mobile robots the overall system has a high redundancy and offers the

  7. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-27

    digitai~y thro)ugh a ribbon cable. lhe dcsign effort required to mount power sources and computing u(m board would hive distracted us fiorn our main...angular momentum. "The model used in this paper, shown in Fig. 6-1, has 3 single springy leg that articular •s ,ith respect to a body about a simple hince

  8. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    the laboratory. Harry Asada, Wayne Book, Nancy Cornelius, Sesh Murthy and Ivan Sutherland read various drafts of this report, for which we are...particularly helpful in providing an atmosphere where things could get started. Craig Fields and Clint Kelly deserve special credit for letting the idea of...legged technology capture their imaginations, even before we could show them tangible results. We are especially indebted to Ivan Sutherland for his

  9. Robot Control Overview: An Industrial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Brogårdh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One key competence for robot manufacturers is robot control, defined as all the technologies needed to control the electromechanical system of an industrial robot. By means of modeling, identification, optimization, and model-based control it is possible to reduce robot cost, increase robot performance, and solve requirements from new automation concepts and new application processes. Model-based control, including kinematics error compensation, optimal servo reference- and feed-forward generation, and servo design, tuning, and scheduling, has meant a breakthrough for the use of robots in industry. Relying on this breakthrough, new automation concepts such as high performance multi robot collaboration and human robot collaboration can be introduced. Robot manufacturers can build robots with more compliant components and mechanical structures without loosing performance and robots can be used also in applications with very high performance requirements, e.g., in assembly, machining, and laser cutting. In the future it is expected that the importance of sensor control will increase, both with respect to sensors in the robot structure to increase the control performance of the robot itself and sensors outside the robot related to the applications and the automation systems. In this connection sensor fusion and learning functionalities will be needed together with the robot control for easy and intuitive installation, programming, and maintenance of industrial robots.

  10. Legāti

    OpenAIRE

    Segliņa, Aiga

    2010-01-01

    Autore teorētiski analizē legāta jēdzienu testamentārās mantošanas ietvaros un atspoguļo praktiska pētījuma rezultātus. Teorētiskā daļa apskata legāta nodibināšanas formu un spēkā esamību, tā iegūšanu un atraidīšanu, izpildi un zaudēšanu, novēlējuma robežas un aprobežojumus. Pētījums veikts aptaujas veidā ar mērķi noskaidrot, cik liela Latvijas iedzīvotāju daļa apzinās legāta nodrošinātās priekšrocības testamentārajā mantošanā. Apskatīts notāra neitralitātes jautājums attiecībā pret mantošana...

  11. Ambler: Performance of a six-legged planetary rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, E. P.; Simmons, R. G.; Whittaker, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we quantify several performance metrics for the Ambler, a six-legged robot configured for autonomous traversal of Mars-like terrain. We present power consumption measures for walking on sandy terrain and for vertical lifts at different velocities. We document the performance of a novel dead-reckoning approach, and analyze its accuracy. We describe the results of autonomous walking experiments in terms of terrain traversed, walking speed and endurance.

  12. Ambler - Performance of a six-legged planetary rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, E. P.; Simmons, R. G.; Whittaker, W. L.

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, several performance metrics are quantified for the Ambler, a six-legged robot configured for autonomous traversal of Mars-like terrain. Power consumption measures are presented for walking on sandy terrain and for vertical lifts at different velocities. The performance of a novel dead reckoning approach is documented, and its accuracy is analyzed. The results of autonomous walking experiments are described in terms of terrain traversed, walking speed, and endurance.

  13. Robotic-Assisted Fluorescence Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping Using Multi-Modal Image-Guidance in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Michael A.; Stroup, Sean P.; Cand, Zhengtao Qin; Hoh, Carl; Hall, David J.; Vera, David R.; Kane, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate PET/CT pre-operative imaging and intraoperative detection of a fluorescent-labeled receptor-targeted radiopharmaceutical in a prostate cancer animal model. Methods Three male Beagle dogs underwent an intra-prostatic injection of fluorescent-tagged tilmanocept radio-labeled with both gallium-68 and technetium-99m. One hour after injection a pelvic PET/CT scan was performed for pre-operative sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping. Definition of SLN was a standardized uptake value (SUV) that exceeded 5% of the lymph node with the highest SUV. Thirty-six hours later we performed robotic-assisted SLN dissection using a fluorescence-capable camera system. Fluorescent lymph nodes were clipped, the abdomen was opened, and the pelvic and retroperitoneal nodes were excised. All excised nodal packets were assayed by in vitro nuclear counting and reported as percent-of-injected dose. Results Pre-operative PET/CT imaging identified a median of three sentinel lymph nodes per animal. All sentinel lymph nodes (100%) identified by the PET/CT were fluorescent during robotic-assisted lymph node dissection. Of all fluorescent nodes visualized by the camera system, 83% (10/12) satisfied the 5%-rule defined by the PET/CT scan. The two lymph nodes that did not qualify accumulated less than 0.002% of the injected dose. Conclusions Fluorescent-labeled tilmanocept has optimal logistical properties to obtain pre-operative PET/CT and subsequent real-time intraoperative confirmation during robotic-assisted sentinel lymph node dissection. PMID:25139676

  14. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  15. A Biological Micro Actuator: Graded and Closed-Loop Control of Insect Leg Motion by Electrical Stimulation of Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Li, Yao; Sangi, Daniyal Haider; Koh, Jie Sheng; Huynh, Ngoc Anh; Aziz, Mohamed Fareez Bin; Choo, Hao Yu; Ikeda, Kazuo; Abbeel, Pieter; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Sato, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage) required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closed-loop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle) and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 µW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect–machine hybrid legged robot). PMID:25140875

  16. A biological micro actuator: graded and closed-loop control of insect leg motion by electrical stimulation of muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cao

    Full Text Available In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closed-loop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 µW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect-machine hybrid legged robot.

  17. Evolutionary robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to ...

  18. Robot Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    This paper considers art-based research practice in robotics through a discussion of our course and relevant research projects in autonomous art. The undergraduate course integrates basic concepts of computer science, robotic art, live performance and aesthetic theory. Through practice...... in robotics research (such as aesthetics, culture and perception), we believe robot aesthetics is an important area for research in contemporary aesthetics....

  19. Filigree Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture.......Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture....

  20. Design and modeling of an autonomous multi-link snake robot, capable of 3D-motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkallah Rabel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design of an autonomous, wheeless, mechanical snake robot that was modeled and built at Notre Dame University – Louaize. The robot is also capable of 3D motion with an ability to climb in the z-direction. The snake is made of a series links, each containing one to three high torque DC motors and a gearing system. They are connected to each other through Aluminum hollow rods that can be rotated through a 180° span. This allows the snake to move in various environments including unfriendly and cluttered ones. The front link has a proximity sensor used to map the environment. This mapping is sent to a microcontroller which controls and adapts the motion pattern of the snake. The snake can therefore choose to avoid obstacles, or climb over them if their height is within its range. The presented model is made of five links, but this number can be increased as their role is repetitive. The novel design is meant to overcome previous limitations by allowing 3D motion through electric actuators and low energy consumption.

  1. Dynamic walking stability of the TUlip robot by means of the extrapolated center of mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, W.M.; van Oort, Gijs; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Broenink, Johannes F.; Carloni, Raffaella

    The TUlip robot was created to participate in the teensize league of Robocup. The TUlip robot is a bipedal robot intended for dynamic walking. It has six degrees of freedom for each leg: three for the hip, one for the knee and two for the ankle. This paper elaborates on the algorithm for the

  2. High-speed Dynamic Gait Generation Based on Asymmetrization of Impact Posture Using Telescopic Legs

    OpenAIRE

    浅野, 文彦

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for generating a dynamic gait based on anterior-posterior asymmetric impact posture tilting the robo's center of mass forward. The primary purpose of this method is to asymmetrize the impact posture by actuating the robot's telescopic-legs to make overcoming the potential barrier at mid-stance easy, and the mechanical energy is accordingly restored. First, we introduce a planar rimless wheel model with telescopic legs, and investigate the validity of the sta...

  3. Rugged Walking Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed walking-beam robot simpler and more rugged than articulated-leg walkers. Requires less data processing, and uses power more efficiently. Includes pair of tripods, one nested in other. Inner tripod holds power supplies, communication equipment, computers, instrumentation, sampling arms, and articulated sensor turrets. Outer tripod holds mast on which antennas for communication with remote control site and video cameras for viewing local and distant terrain mounted. Propels itself by raising, translating, and lowering tripods in alternation. Steers itself by rotating raised tripod on turntable.

  4. LEGS data acquisition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVine, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The data acquisition facility for the LEGS medium energy photonuclear beam line is composed of an auxiliary crate controller (ACC) acting as a front-end processor, loosely coupled to a time-sharing host computer based on a UNIX-like environment. The ACC services all real-time demands in the CAMAC crate: it responds to LAMs generated by data acquisition modules, to keyboard commands, and it refreshes the graphics display at frequent intervals. The host processor is needed only for printing histograms and recording event buffers on magnetic tape. The host also provides the environment for software development. The CAMAC crate is interfaced by a VERSAbus CAMAC branch driver

  5. Robots that can adapt like animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-28

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot 'think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  6. Multi-institutional analysis of robotic partial nephrectomy for hilar versus nonhilar lesions in 446 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulabon, Lori M; Kaouk, Jihad H; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Berkman, Douglas S; Rogers, Craig G; Petros, Firas; Bhayani, Sam B; Stifelman, Michael D

    2011-03-01

    Minimally invasive approaches to partial nephrectomy have been rapidly gaining popularity but require advanced laparoscopic surgical skills. Renal hilar tumors, due to their anatomic location, pose additional technical challenges to the operating surgeon. We compared the outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN) for hilar and nonhilar tumors in our large multicenter contemporary series of patients. We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data on 446 consecutive patients who underwent RPN by renal surgeons experienced in minimally invasive techniques at four academic institutions from June 2006 to March 2010. Patients were stratified into two groups: those with hilar lesions and those with nonhilar lesions. Patient demographics, operative outcomes, and postoperative outcomes, including oncologic outcomes, were recorded. Forty-one patients (9%) had hilar renal masses; 405 patients (91%) had nonhilar masses. There was no statistical differences in patient demographics except for larger median tumor size in the hilar cohort (3.2 cm vs 2.6 cm; p=0.001). The only significant difference in operative outcomes was an increase in warm ischemia times for the hilar group versus the nonhilar group (26.3±7.4 min vs 19.6±10.0 min; p=<0.0001). There were no differences in postoperative outcomes; however, there was a trend for increased risk of malignancy and higher stage tumors in the hilar lesion group. Final pathologic margin status was similar in both groups. Only one patient in the nonhilar group had evidence of recurrence at 21 mo. The study was limited by the lack of standard anatomic classification of renal tumors and the potential influence of the surgeons' prior robotic experience. The data represent the largest series of its kind and strongly suggest that RPN is a safe, effective, and feasible option for the minimally invasive approach to renal hilar tumors with no increased risk of adverse outcomes compared with nonhilar tumors in the hands of

  7. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Ryoichi; Kimura, Motohiko; Abe, Akira

    1993-01-01

    A continuing need exists for automatic or remote-controlled machines or robots which can perform inspection and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants. Toshiba has developed several types of monofunctional and multi- functional robots for such purposes over the past 20 years, some of which have already been used in actual plants. This paper describes new multifunctional robots for inspection and maintenance. An inspection robot has been applied in an actual plant for two years for performance testing. Maintenance robots for grinding tasks have also been developed, which can be easily teleoperated by the operator using automatic control. These new robots are expected to be applied to actual inspection and maintenance work in nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Towards a Unified Representation of Mechanisms for Robotic Control Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Diaz-Calderon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the Mechanism Model paradigm. The mechanism model paradigm provides a framework to modeling mechanisms for robotic control. The emphasis is on the unification of mathematical models of kinematics/dynamics, geometric information and control system parameters for a variety of robotic systems (including serial manipulators, wheeled and legged locomotors, with algorithms that are needed for typical robot control applications.

  9. Design Concepts of Emergency Response Robot Platform K-R2D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sun Young; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    From the analysis for various mobile robots competed in DARPA Robotics Challenge, there are some drawbacks in using two or four legs because bipedal locomotion is not yet suitable for maintaining stability and quadrupedal locomotion is difficult to go through narrow aisles. Motivated by the above observations, we propose a K-R2D2 robot platform with three legs arranged in the form of a triangle like as R2-D2 robot which is a fictional robot character in the Star Wars movies. This robot has 3 legs with tracks in each sole of the leg. It is statically stable since there are three contact points to ground. In addition, three legs are also possible to design a structure walking stairs that can expand and contract in the vertical direction. This paper has presented the conceptual design, it is developed on the purpose of quick response instead of emergent workers to the extreme conditions disasters. This robot is emergency response robot platform KR2D2 with three legs, which is statically stable to walk or wheel depending on the terrains and move quickly as possible as on uneven terrain or stairs.

  10. Design Concepts of Emergency Response Robot Platform K-R2D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sun Young; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2016-01-01

    From the analysis for various mobile robots competed in DARPA Robotics Challenge, there are some drawbacks in using two or four legs because bipedal locomotion is not yet suitable for maintaining stability and quadrupedal locomotion is difficult to go through narrow aisles. Motivated by the above observations, we propose a K-R2D2 robot platform with three legs arranged in the form of a triangle like as R2-D2 robot which is a fictional robot character in the Star Wars movies. This robot has 3 legs with tracks in each sole of the leg. It is statically stable since there are three contact points to ground. In addition, three legs are also possible to design a structure walking stairs that can expand and contract in the vertical direction. This paper has presented the conceptual design, it is developed on the purpose of quick response instead of emergent workers to the extreme conditions disasters. This robot is emergency response robot platform KR2D2 with three legs, which is statically stable to walk or wheel depending on the terrains and move quickly as possible as on uneven terrain or stairs

  11. Grasp Algorithms For Optotactile Robotic Sample Acquisition, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robotic sample acquisition is basically grasping. Multi-finger robot sample grasping devices are controlled to securely pick up samples. While optimal grasps for...

  12. Augmented-reality-based skills training for robot-assisted urethrovesical anastomosis: a multi-institutional randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowriappa, Ashirwad; Raza, Syed Johar; Fazili, Anees; Field, Erinn; Malito, Chelsea; Samarasekera, Dinesh; Shi, Yi; Ahmed, Kamran; Wilding, Gregory; Kaouk, Jihad; Eun, Daniel D; Ghazi, Ahmed; Peabody, James O; Kesavadas, Thenkurussi; Mohler, James L; Guru, Khurshid A

    2015-02-01

    To validate robot-assisted surgery skills acquisition using an augmented reality (AR)-based module for urethrovesical anastomosis (UVA). Participants at three institutions were randomised to a Hands-on Surgical Training (HoST) technology group or a control group. The HoST group was given procedure-based training for UVA within the haptic-enabled AR-based HoST environment. The control group did not receive any training. After completing the task, the control group was offered to cross over to the HoST group (cross-over group). A questionnaire administered after HoST determined the feasibility and acceptability of the technology. Performance of UVA using an inanimate model on the daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) was assessed using a UVA evaluation score and a Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS) score. Participants completed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA TLX) questionnaire for cognitive assessment, as outcome measures. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare outcomes among the groups (HoST group vs control group and control group vs cross-over group). A total of 52 individuals participated in the study. UVA evaluation scores showed significant differences in needle driving (3.0 vs 2.3; P = 0.042), needle positioning (3.0 vs 2.4; P = 0.033) and suture placement (3.4 vs 2.6; P = 0.014) in the HoST vs the control group. The HoST group obtained significantly higher scores (14.4 vs 11.9; P 0.012) on the GEARS. The NASA TLX indicated lower temporal demand and effort in the HoST group (5.9 vs 9.3; P = 0.001 and 5.8 vs 11.9; P = 0.035, respectively). In all, 70% of participants found that HoST was similar to the real surgical procedure, and 75% believed that HoST could improve confidence for carrying out the real intervention. Training in UVA in an AR environment improves technical skill acquisition with minimal cognitive demand. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International

  13. Near infrared spectroscopy for controlling the quality of distal leg perfusion in remote access cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Bonatti, Johannes; Kolbitsch, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The prevention of leg ischemia is necessary in all patients undergoing femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal circulation. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an established non-invasive method for measuring tissue oxygen saturation. Ten patients underwent robotically assisted endoscopic coronary surgery or ASD repair on the arrested heart using aortic endo-occlusion catheters. They were monitored by transcutaneous NIRS (placed on both lower legs) for quality control of distal leg perfusion during femoral access cardiopulmonary bypass. The baseline NIRS values were 61 (52-80) on the cannulated side versus 70 (53-80) on the contralateral leg (p=n.s.). During clamping of the femoral artery for installation of the remote access perfusion system the tissue oxygen saturation dropped to 38 (18-58) (p=0.001 vs baseline) while it remained stable on the contralateral leg. After successful implantation of the distal leg perfusion the NIRS values normalized to similar amounts on both legs. We conclude that transcutaneous NIRS of the lower legs might be a useful non-invasive tool for monitoring leg perfusion in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation via the femoral vessels.

  14. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating

  15. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  16. Analysis, Control and Design of Walking Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Gijs

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis five research questions are discussed that are related to the development of two-legged (bipedal) walking robots. The research questions are categorized in three main topics: analysis, control and actuation and design. The research questions are: - How can we analyze the behavior of a

  17. Healthcare Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Riek, Laurel D.

    2017-01-01

    Robots have the potential to be a game changer in healthcare: improving health and well-being, filling care gaps, supporting care givers, and aiding health care workers. However, before robots are able to be widely deployed, it is crucial that both the research and industrial communities work together to establish a strong evidence-base for healthcare robotics, and surmount likely adoption barriers. This article presents a broad contextualization of robots in healthcare by identifying key sta...

  18. Analysis and Development of Walking Algorithm Kinematic Model for 5-Degree of Freedom Bipedal Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wahyudi Setiono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A design of walking diagram and the calculation of a bipedal robot have been developed. The bipedal robot was designed and constructed with several kinds of servo bracket for the legs, two feet and a hip. Each of the bipedal robot leg was 5-degrees of freedom, three pitches (hip joint, knee joint and ankle joint and two rolls (hip joint and ankle joint. The walking algorithm of this bipedal robot was based on the triangle formulation of cosine law to get the angle value at each joint. The hip height, height of the swinging leg and the step distance are derived based on linear equation. This paper discussed the kinematic model analysis and the development of the walking diagram of the bipedal robot. Kinematics equations were derived, the joint angles were simulated and coded into Arduino board to be executed to the robot.

  19. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  20. Human - Robot Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    The media and political/managerial levels focus on the opportunities to re-perform Denmark through digitization. Feeding assistive robotics is a welfare technology, relevant to citizens with low or no function in their arms. Despite national dissemination strategies, it proves difficult to recruit...... the study that took place as multi-sited ethnography at different locations in Denmark and Sweden. Based on desk research, observation of meals and interviews I examine socio-technological imaginaries and their practical implications. Human - robotics interaction demands engagement and understanding...

  1. Automatic Modeling and Simulation of Modular Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Wei, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The ability of reconfiguration makes modular robots have the ability of adaptable, low-cost, self-healing and fault-tolerant. It can also be applied to a variety of mission situations. In this manuscript, a robot platform which relied on the module library was designed, based on the screw theory and module theory. Then, the configuration design method of the modular robot was proposed. And the different configurations of modular robot system have been built, including industrial mechanical arms, the mobile platform, six-legged robot and 3D exoskeleton manipulator. Finally, the simulation and verification of one system among them have been made, using the analyses of screw kinematics and polynomial planning. The results of experiments demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of this modular system.

  2. Mobility Systems For Robotic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Wendell

    1987-02-01

    The majority of existing robotic systems can be decomposed into five distinct subsystems: locomotion, control/man-machine interface (MMI), sensors, power source, and manipulator. When designing robotic vehicles, there are two main requirements: first, to design for the environment and second, for the task. The environment can be correlated with known missions. This can be seen by analyzing existing mobile robots. Ground mobile systems are generally wheeled, tracked, or legged. More recently, underwater vehicles have gained greater attention. For example, Jason Jr. made history by surveying the sunken luxury liner, the Titanic. The next big surge of robotic vehicles will be in space. This will evolve as a result of NASA's commitment to the Space Station. The foreseeable robots will interface with current systems as well as standalone, free-flying systems. A space robotic vehicle is similar to its underwater counterpart with very few differences. Their commonality includes missions and degrees-of-freedom. The issues of stability and communication are inherent in both systems and environment.

  3. Robotic, laparoscopic and open surgery for gastric cancer compared on surgical, clinical and oncological outcomes: a multi-institutional chart review. A study protocol of the International study group on Minimally Invasive surgery for GASTRIc Cancer—IMIGASTRIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiderio, Jacopo; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Nguyen, Ninh T; Zhang, Shu; Reim, Daniel; Alimoglu, Orhan; Azagra, Juan-Santiago; Yu, Pei-Wu; Coburn, Natalie G; Qi, Feng; Jackson, Patrick G; Zang, Lu; Brower, Steven T; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Facy, Olivier; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Coratti, Andrea; Annecchiarico, Mario; Bazzocchi, Francesca; Avanzolini, Andrea; Gagniere, Johan; Pezet, Denis; Cianchi, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta; Novotny, Alexander; Eren, Tunc; Leblebici, Metin; Goergen, Martine; Zhang, Ben; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong; Al-Refaie, Waddah; Ma, Junjun; Takiguchi, Shuji; Lequeu, Jean-Baptiste; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer represents a great challenge for healthcare providers and requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach in which surgery plays a major role. Minimally invasive surgery has been progressively developed, first with the advent of laparoscopy and recently with the spread of robotic surgery, but a number of issues are currently being debated, including the limitations in performing an effective extended lymph node dissection, the real advantages of robotic systems, the role of laparoscopy for Advanced Gastric Cancer, the reproducibility of a total intracorporeal technique and the oncological results achievable during long-term follow-up. Methods and analysis A multi-institutional international database will be established to evaluate the role of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches in gastric cancer, comprising of information regarding surgical, clinical and oncological features. A chart review will be conducted to enter data of participants with gastric cancer, previously treated at the participating institutions. The database is the first of its kind, through an international electronic submission system and a HIPPA protected real time data repository from high volume gastric cancer centres. Ethics and dissemination This study is conducted in compliance with ethical principles originating from the Helsinki Declaration, within the guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and relevant laws/regulations. A multicentre study with a large number of patients will permit further investigation of the safety and efficacy as well as the long-term outcomes of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches for the management of gastric cancer. Trial registration number NCT02325453; Pre-results. PMID:26482769

  4. Robot Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanišić, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of robot mechanisms, primarily considering industrial manipulators and humanoid arms. The book is intended for both teaching and self-study. Emphasis is given to the fundamentals of kinematic analysis and the design of robot mechanisms. The coverage of topics is untypical. The focus is on robot kinematics. The book creates a balance between theoretical and practical aspects in the development and application of robot mechanisms, and includes the latest achievements and trends in robot science and technology.

  5. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGoldschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS, both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  6. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  7. Robotics education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, O.

    1984-01-01

    Robotics education courses are rapidly spreading throughout the nation's colleges and universities. Engineering schools are offering robotics courses as part of their mechanical or manufacturing engineering degree program. Two year colleges are developing an Associate Degree in robotics. In addition to regular courses, colleges are offering seminars in robotics and related fields. These seminars draw excellent participation at costs running up to $200 per day for each participant. The last one drew 275 people from Texas to Virginia. Seminars are also offered by trade associations, private consulting firms, and robot vendors. IBM, for example, has the Robotic Assembly Institute in Boca Raton and charges about $1,000 per week for course. This is basically for owners of IBM robots. Education (and training) can be as short as one day or as long as two years. Here is the educational pattern that is developing now

  8. Robonaut 2 - Building a Robot on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron; Badger, Julia; Joyce, Charles; Potter, Elliott; Pike, Leah

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Robonaut Project embarked on a multi-phase mission to perform technology demonstrations on-board the International Space Station (ISS), showcasing state of the art robotics technologies through the use of Robonaut 2 (R2). This phased approach implements a strategy that allows for the use of ISS as a test bed during early development to both demonstrate capability and test technology while still making advancements in the earth based laboratories for future testing and operations in space. While R2 was performing experimental trials onboard the ISS during the first phase, engineers were actively designing for Phase 2, Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) Mobility, that utilizes a set of zero-g climbing legs outfitted with grippers to grasp handrails and seat tracks. In addition to affixing the new climbing legs to the existing R2 torso, it became clear that upgrades to the torso to both physically accommodate the climbing legs and to expand processing power and capabilities of the robot were required. In addition to these upgrades, a new safety architecture was also implemented in order to account for the expanded capabilities of the robot. The IVA climbing legs not only needed to attach structurally to the R2 torso on ISS, but also required power and data connections that did not exist in the upper body. The climbing legs were outfitted with a blind mate adapter and coarse alignment guides for easy installation, but the upper body required extensive rewiring to accommodate the power and data connections. This was achieved by mounting a custom adapter plate to the torso and routing the additional wiring through the waist joint to connect to the new set of processors. In addition to the power and data channels, the integrated unit also required updated electronics boards, additional sensors and updated processors to accommodate a new operating system, software platform, and custom control system. In order to perform the unprecedented task of building a robot

  9. A multi-modality tracking, navigation and calibration for a flexible robotic drill system for total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Fuad, Ahmad Nazmi Bin; Deep, Kamal; Yao, Wei

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a novel multi-modality tracking and navigation system that provides a unique capability to guild a flexible drill tip inside the bone with accurate curved tunnelling. As the flexible drill tip cannot be tracked optically inside the bone, this research focuses on developing a hybrid tracking and navigation system for tracking a flexible drill tip by using both optical and kinematic tracking. The tracking information is used to guide the THA (total hip arthroplasty) procedure, providing a real-time virtual model of the flexible drill. The flexible and steerable drill tip system is then tested on total hip arthroplasty followed by evaluation of the positioning and orientation of femoral stem placement by femoral milling. Based on this study, we conclude that the tracking and navigation system is able to guide the flexible drill to mill inside femoral canal. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. HUMAN FOLLOWING ON ROS FRAMEWORK A MOBILE ROBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigih Priyandoko

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Service mobile robot is playing a more critical role in today's society as more people such as a disabled person or the elderly are in need of mobile robot assistance. An autonomous person following ability shows great importance to the overall role of service mobile robot in assisting human. The objective of this paper focuses on developing a robot follow a person. The robot is equipped with the necessary sensors such as a Microsoft Kinect sensor and a Hokuyo laser sensor. Four suitable tracking methods are introduced in this project which is implemented and tested on the person following algorithm. The tracking methods implemented are face detection, leg detection, color detection and person blob detection. All of the algorithms implementations in this project is performed using Robot Operating System (ROS. The result showed that the mobile robot could track and follow the target person based on the person movement.

  11. Assessing Children's Legs and Feet

    OpenAIRE

    Wedge, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Shoes are necessary for protection and warmth. Normal children do not require shoes for support. There is no scientific evidence that shoes—‘orthopedic’ or otherwise—influence or alter the growth or shape of the normal child's foot except, perhaps, adversely if they fit poorly. Family physicians must understand common variations of normal foot and leg development if they are to effectively advise and reassure parents about appropriate footwear. Flat feet, knock knees, bow legs, in-toeing, and...

  12. Improving venous leg ulcer management

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Carolina Dragica

    2017-01-01

    This thesis reports several different methods to develop and evaluate complex interventions designed to improve venous leg ulcer management. Chronic venous leg ulcers (VLU) are the most common chronic wound problem in the community. Its health and economic burden is predicted to increase due to ageing of the community and increase in prevalence of diabetes and obesity. Although many patients seek health care for VLU, most do not receive the most effective management. Patients with this condi...

  13. A multi-mode real-time terrain parameter estimation method for wheeled motion control of mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuankai; Ding, Liang; Zheng, Zhizhong; Yang, Qizhi; Zhao, Xingang; Liu, Guangjun

    2018-05-01

    For motion control of wheeled planetary rovers traversing on deformable terrain, real-time terrain parameter estimation is critical in modeling the wheel-terrain interaction and compensating the effect of wheel slipping. A multi-mode real-time estimation method is proposed in this paper to achieve accurate terrain parameter estimation. The proposed method is composed of an inner layer for real-time filtering and an outer layer for online update. In the inner layer, sinkage exponent and internal frictional angle, which have higher sensitivity than that of the other terrain parameters to wheel-terrain interaction forces, are estimated in real time by using an adaptive robust extended Kalman filter (AREKF), whereas the other parameters are fixed with nominal values. The inner layer result can help synthesize the current wheel-terrain contact forces with adequate precision, but has limited prediction capability for time-variable wheel slipping. To improve estimation accuracy of the result from the inner layer, an outer layer based on recursive Gauss-Newton (RGN) algorithm is introduced to refine the result of real-time filtering according to the innovation contained in the history data. With the two-layer structure, the proposed method can work in three fundamental estimation modes: EKF, REKF and RGN, making the method applicable for flat, rough and non-uniform terrains. Simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method under three terrain types, showing the advantages of introducing the two-layer structure.

  14. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically

  15. Modeling of the bony pelvis from MRI using a multi-atlas AE-SDM for registration and tracking in image-guided robotic prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qinquan; Chang, Ping-Lin; Rueckert, Daniel; Ali, S Mohammed; Cohen, Daniel; Pratt, Philip; Mayer, Erik; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Edwards, Philip Eddie

    2013-03-01

    A fundamental challenge in the development of image-guided surgical systems is alignment of the preoperative model to the operative view of the patient. This is achieved by finding corresponding structures in the preoperative scans and on the live surgical scene. In robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), the most readily visible structure is the bone of the pelvic rim. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for prostate cancer detection and staging, but extraction of bone from MRI is difficult and very time consuming to achieve manually. We present a robust and fully automated multi-atlas pipeline for bony pelvis segmentation from MRI, using a MRI appearance embedding statistical deformation model (AE-SDM). The statistical deformation model is built using the node positions of deformations obtained from hierarchical registrations of full pelvis CT images. For datasets with corresponding CT and MRI images, we can transform the MRI into CT SDM space. MRI appearance can then be used to improve the combined MRI/CT atlas to MRI registration using SDM constraints. We can use this model to segment the bony pelvis in a new MRI image where there is no CT available. A multi-atlas segmentation algorithm is introduced which incorporates MRI AE-SDMs guidance. We evaluated the method on 19 subjects with corresponding MRI and manually segmented CT datasets by performing a leave-one-out study. Several metrics are used to quantify the overlap between the automatic and manual segmentations. Compared to the manual gold standard segmentations, our robust segmentation method produced an average surface distance 1.24±0.27mm, which outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for MRI bony pelvis segmentation. We also show that the resulting surface can be tracked in the endoscopic view in near real time using dense visual tracking methods. Results are presented on a simulation and a real clinical RALP case. Tracking is accurate to 0.13mm over 700 frames

  16. Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M

    2018-04-09

    This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics. It will also suggest how and why soft robotics is more than simply a minor technical "tweak" on hard robotics and propose a unique role for chemistry, and materials science, in this field. Soft robotics is, at its core, intellectually and technologically different from hard robotics, both because it has different objectives and uses and because it relies on the properties of materials to assume many of the roles played by sensors, actuators, and controllers in hard robotics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. SU-E-T-11: A Dosimetric Comparison of Robotic Prostatic Radiosugery Using Multi- Leaf Collimation Vs Circular Collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J; Yang, J; Lamond, J; Lavere, N; Laciano, R; Ding, W; Arrigo, S; Brady, L [Philadelphia Cyberknife, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The study compared the dosimetry plans of Stereotatic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) prostate cancer patients using the M6 Cyberknife with Multi-leaf Collimation (MLC) compared with the plans using G4 Cyberknife with circular collimators. Methods: Eight previously treated prostate cancer patients' SBRT plans using circular collimators, designed with Multiplan v3.5.3, were used as a benchmark. The CT, contours and the optimization scripts were imported into Multiplan v5.0 system and replanned with MLC. The same planning objectives were used: more than 95% of PTV received 36.25Gy, 90% of prostate received 40Gy and maximum dose <45Gy, in five fractions. For organs at risk, less than 1cc of rectum received 36Gy and less than 10cc of bladder received 37Gy. Plans were evaluated on parameters derived from dose volume. The beam number, MU and delivery time were recorded to compare the treatment efficiency. Results: The mean CTV volume was 41.3cc (27.5∼57.6cc) and mean PTV volume was 76.77cc (59.1∼99.7cc). The mean PTV coverage was comparable between MLC (98.87%) and cone (98.74%). MLC plans had a slightly more favorable homogeneity index (1.22) and conformity index (1.17), than the cone (1.24 and 1.15). The mean rectum volume of 36 Gy (0.52cc) of MLC plans was slightly larger than cone (0.38cc) and the mean bladder volume of 37 Gy was smaller in MLC (1.82cc) than in cone plans (3.09cc). The mean number of nodes and beams were 65.9 and 80.5 in MLC vs 65.9 and 203.6 in cone. The mean MUs were significantly less for MLC plans (24,228MUs) than cone (32,347MUs). The total delivery time (which included 5 minutes for setup) was less, 29.6min (26∼32min) for MLC vs 45min (35∼55min) for cone. Conclusion: While the differences in the dosimetry between the MLC and circular collimator plans were rather minor, the MLC plans were much more efficient and required significantly less treatment time.

  18. Multiple Chaotic Central Pattern Generators with Learning for Legged Locomotion and Malfunction Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Guanjiao; Chen, Weihai; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha

    2015-01-01

    on a simulated annealing algorithm. In a normal situation, the CPGs synchronize and their dynamics are identical. With leg malfunction or disability, the CPGs lose synchronization leading to independent dynamics. In this case, the learning mechanism is applied to automatically adjust the remaining legs...... in a physical simulation of a quadruped as well as a hexapod robot and finally in a real six-legged walking machine called AMOSII. The experimental results presented here reveal that using multiple CPGs with learning is an effective approach for adaptive locomotion generation where, for instance, different body...... chaotic CPG controller has difficulties dealing with leg malfunction. Specifically, in the scenarios presented here, its movement permanently deviates from the desired trajectory. To address this problem, we extend the single chaotic CPG to multiple CPGs with learning. The learning mechanism is based...

  19. On the static structural design of climbing robots: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ausama Hadi; Menon, Carlo

    This manuscript is the second of two parts of a work investigating optimal configurations of legged climbing robots while loitering on vertical surfaces. In this Part 2, a structural analysis based on the finite element method, specifically the stiffness method, is performed to address the problem. Parameters that are investigated in this Part 2 include the inclination of both the body and the legs of the robot. Outcomes of the performed study are validated by analyzing the posture of 150 ants when loitering on vertical surfaces. The obtained validation ensures the predictions of the developed structural model are correct and can be used to identify optimal configurations of legged robots when loitering on vertical surfaces.

  20. Dynamic Locomotion With Four and Six-Legged Robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buehler, M; Saranli, U; Papadopoulos, D; Koditschek, D

    2000-01-01

    .... The Scout II quadruped runs on flat ground in a bounding gait, and was motivated by an effort to understand the minimal mechanical design and control complexity for dynamically stable locomotion...

  1. Multi-Purpose Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand Design for Extra-Vehicular Activity Manipulation Tasks using Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IFOS proposes to design and build fiber-optically sensorized robotic fingers that can sense force and, objects using only tactile feedback, similar to the skin on a...

  2. Numerical and experimental study of the virtual quadrupedal walking robot-semiquad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoustin, Yannick; Chevallereau, Christine; Formal'sky, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    SemiQuad is a prototyped walking robot with a platform and two double-link legs. Thus, it is a five-link mechanism. The front leg models identical motions of two quadruped's front legs, the back leg models identical motions of two quadruped's back legs. The legs have passive (uncontrolled) feet that extend in the frontal plane. Due to this the robot is stable in the frontal plane. This robot can be viewed as a 'virtual' quadruped. Four DC motors drive the mechanism. Its control system comprises a computer, hardware servo-systems and power amplifiers. The locomotion of the prototype is planar curvet gait. In the double support our prototype is statically stable and over actuated. In the single support it is unstable and under actuated system. There is no flight phase. We describe here the scheme of the mechanism, the characteristics of the drives and the control strategy. The dynamic model of the planar walking is recalled for the double, single support phases and for the impact instant. An intuitive control strategy is detailed. The designed control strategy overcomes the difficulties appeared due to unstable and under actuated motion in the single support. Due to the control algorithm the walking regime consists of the alternating different phases. The sequence of these phases is the following. A double support phase begins. A fast bend and unbend of the front leg allows a lift-off of the front leg. During the single support on the back leg the distance between the two leg tips increases. Then an impact occurs and a new double support phase begins. A fast bend and unbend of the back leg allows the lift-off of the back leg. During the single support on the front leg the distance between the two leg tips decreases to form a cyclic walking gait. The experiments give results that are close to those of the simulation

  3. Cooperative robots and sensor networks 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Dios, JRamiro

    2015-01-01

    This book compiles some of the latest research in cooperation between robots and sensor networks. Structured in twelve chapters, this book addresses fundamental, theoretical, implementation and experimentation issues. The chapters are organized into four parts namely multi-robots systems, data fusion and localization, security and dependability, and mobility.

  4. Biologically-Inspired Microrobots. Volume 3. Micro-Robot Based on Abstracted Biological Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, Roger D; Ritzmann, Roy E; Morrey, Jeremy; Horchler, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    .... Mini-Whegs use four wheel-legs to run in an alternating diagonal gait. These approximately 3-inch-long robots can move at sustained speeds of over 10 body lengths per second and can run over obstacles that are taller than their leg length...

  5. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs

  6. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  7. Robotics 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  8. Vitruvian Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    future. A real version of Ava would not last long in a human world because she is basically a solipsist, who does not really care about humans. She cannot co-create the line humans walk along. The robots created as ‘perfect women’ (sex robots) today are very far from the ideal image of Ava...

  9. Hierarchical Kinematic Modelling and Optimal Design of a Novel Hexapod Robot with Integrated Limb Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyang Xin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hexapod robot, hereafter named PH-Robot, with three degrees of freedom (3-DOF parallel leg mechanisms based on the concept of an integrated limb mechanism (ILM for the integration of legged locomotion and arm manipulation. The kinematic model plays an important role in the parametric optimal design and motion planning of robots. However, models of parallel mechanisms are often difficult to obtain because of the implicit relationship between the motions of actuated joints and the motion of a moving platform. In order to derive the kinematic equations of the proposed hexapod robot, an extended hierarchical kinematic modelling method is proposed. According to the kinematic model, the geometrical parameters of the leg are optimized utilizing a comprehensive objective function that considers both dexterity and payload. PH-Robot has distinct advantages in accuracy and load ability over a robot with serial leg mechanisms through the former's comparison of performance indices. The reachable workspace of the leg verifies its ability to walk and manipulate. The results of the trajectory tracking experiment demonstrate the correctness of the kinematic model of the hexapod robot.

  10. Continuous free-crab gaits for hexapod robots on a natural terrain with forbidden zones: An application to humanitarian demining

    OpenAIRE

    Estremera, Joaquín; Cobano, José A.; González de Santos, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous robots are leaving the laboratories to master new outdoor applications, and walking robots in particular have already shown their potential advantages in these environments, especially on a natural terrain. Gait generation is the key to success in the negotiation of natural terrain with legged robots; however, most of the algorithms devised for hexapods have been tested under laboratory conditions. This paper presents the development of crab and turning gaits for hexapod robots on ...

  11. Robot Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Ess, Charles Melvin; Bhroin, Niamh Ni

    The world's first robot teacher, Saya, was introduced to a classroom in Japan in 2009. Saya, had the appearance of a young female teacher. She could express six basic emotions, take the register and shout orders like 'be quiet' (The Guardian, 2009). Since 2009, humanoid robot technologies have...... developed. It is now suggested that robot teachers may become regular features in educational settings, and may even 'take over' from human teachers in ten to fifteen years (cf. Amundsen, 2017 online; Gohd, 2017 online). Designed to look and act like a particular kind of human; robot teachers mediate human...... existence and roles, while also aiming to support education through sophisticated, automated, human-like interaction. Our paper explores the design and existential implications of ARTIE, a robot teacher at Oxford Brookes University (2017, online). Drawing on an initial empirical exploration we propose...

  12. Robot vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Almost all industrial robots use internal sensors such as shaft encoders which measure rotary position, or tachometers which measure velocity, to control their motions. Most controllers also provide interface capabilities so that signals from conveyors, machine tools, and the robot itself may be used to accomplish a task. However, advanced external sensors, such as visual sensors, can provide a much greater degree of adaptability for robot control as well as add automatic inspection capabilities to the industrial robot. Visual and other sensors are now being used in fundamental operations such as material processing with immediate inspection, material handling with adaption, arc welding, and complex assembly tasks. A new industry of robot vision has emerged. The application of these systems is an area of great potential

  13. Social Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us as indiv......Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us...... as individuals seems to be limited by our technical limitations and phantasy alone. This collection contributes to the field of social robotics by exploring its boundaries from a philosophically informed standpoint. It constructively outlines central potentials and challenges and thereby also provides a stable...

  14. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  15. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  16. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  17. Design and simulation for a hydraulic actuated quadruped robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Xuewen; Li, Yibin; Li, Bin; Ruan, Jiuhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical configuration of a quadruped robot firstly. Each of the four legs consists of three rotary joints. All joints of the robot are actuated by linear hydraulic servo cylinders. Then it deduces the forward and inverse kinematic equations for four legs with D-H transformation matrices. Furthermore, it gives a composite foot trajectory composed of cubic curve and straight line, which greatly reduces the velocity and acceleration fluctuations of the torso along forward and vertical directions. Finally, dynamics cosimulation is given with MSC.ADAMS and MATLAB. The results of co-simulation provide important guidance to mechanism design and parameters preference for the linear hydraulic servo cylinders

  18. Mission Reliability Estimation for Repairable Robot Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Dolan, John; Stancliff, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A mission reliability estimation method has been designed to translate mission requirements into choices of robot modules in order to configure a multi-robot team to have high reliability at minimal cost. In order to build cost-effective robot teams for long-term missions, one must be able to compare alternative design paradigms in a principled way by comparing the reliability of different robot models and robot team configurations. Core modules have been created including: a probabilistic module with reliability-cost characteristics, a method for combining the characteristics of multiple modules to determine an overall reliability-cost characteristic, and a method for the generation of legitimate module combinations based on mission specifications and the selection of the best of the resulting combinations from a cost-reliability standpoint. The developed methodology can be used to predict the probability of a mission being completed, given information about the components used to build the robots, as well as information about the mission tasks. In the research for this innovation, sample robot missions were examined and compared to the performance of robot teams with different numbers of robots and different numbers of spare components. Data that a mission designer would need was factored in, such as whether it would be better to have a spare robot versus an equivalent number of spare parts, or if mission cost can be reduced while maintaining reliability using spares. This analytical model was applied to an example robot mission, examining the cost-reliability tradeoffs among different team configurations. Particularly scrutinized were teams using either redundancy (spare robots) or repairability (spare components). Using conservative estimates of the cost-reliability relationship, results show that it is possible to significantly reduce the cost of a robotic mission by using cheaper, lower-reliability components and providing spares. This suggests that the

  19. Micro intelligence robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yon Ho

    1991-07-01

    This book gives descriptions of micro robot about conception of robots and micro robot, match rules of conference of micro robots, search methods of mazes, and future and prospect of robots. It also explains making and design of 8 beat robot like making technique, software, sensor board circuit, and stepping motor catalog, speedy 3, Mr. Black and Mr. White, making and design of 16 beat robot, such as micro robot artist, Jerry 2 and magic art of shortening distances algorithm of robot simulation.

  20. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  1. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  2. Multiprocessor development for robot control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Seung Ho; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Sohn, Surg Won; Kim, Byung Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Woong Ki

    1988-12-01

    The object of this project is to develop a multiprocessor system which is essential to robot technology. A multiprocessor system interconnecting many single board computer is much faster and flexible than a single processor. The developed multiprocessor will be used to control nuclear mobile robot, so a loosely coupled system is adopted as a robot controller. A total configuration of controller is divided into three main parts in related with its function. It is consisted of supervisory control part, functional control part, remote control part. The designed control system is to be expanded easily for further use with a modular architecture, so the functional independency within sub-systems can be obtained throughout the system structure. Electromagnetic interference affecting to the control system is minimized by using optical fiber as communication media between robot and control system. System performances is enhanced not only by using distributed architecture in hardware, but by adopting real-time, multi-tasking operating system in software. The iRMX86 OS is used and reconfigured for real-time, multi-tasking operation. RS-485 serial communication protocol is used between functional control part and remote control part. Since the developed multiprocessor control system is an essential and fundamental technology for artificial intelligent robot, the result of this project can be applied directly to nuclear mobile robot. (Author)

  3. Locomotor Sub-functions for Control of Assistive Wearable Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar A. Sharbafi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of comparative biomechanics is to understand the fundamental physics of locomotion within an evolutionary context. Such an understanding of legged locomotion results in a transition from copying nature to borrowing strategies for interacting with the physical world regarding design and control of bio-inspired legged robots or robotic assistive devices. Inspired from nature, legged locomotion can be composed of three locomotor sub-functions, which are intrinsically interrelated: Stance: redirecting the center of mass by exerting forces on the ground. Swing: cycling the legs between ground contacts. Balance: maintaining body posture. With these three sub-functions, one can understand, design and control legged locomotory systems with formulating them in simpler separated tasks. Coordination between locomotor sub-functions in a harmonized manner appears then as an additional problem when considering legged locomotion. However, biological locomotion shows that appropriate design and control of each sub-function simplifies coordination. It means that only limited exchange of sensory information between the different locomotor sub-function controllers is required enabling the envisioned modular architecture of the locomotion control system. In this paper, we present different studies on implementing different locomotor sub-function controllers on models, robots, and an exoskeleton in addition to demonstrating their abilities in explaining humans' control strategies.

  4. Locomotor Sub-functions for Control of Assistive Wearable Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbafi, Maziar A; Seyfarth, Andre; Zhao, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal of comparative biomechanics is to understand the fundamental physics of locomotion within an evolutionary context. Such an understanding of legged locomotion results in a transition from copying nature to borrowing strategies for interacting with the physical world regarding design and control of bio-inspired legged robots or robotic assistive devices. Inspired from nature, legged locomotion can be composed of three locomotor sub-functions, which are intrinsically interrelated: Stance : redirecting the center of mass by exerting forces on the ground. Swing : cycling the legs between ground contacts. Balance : maintaining body posture. With these three sub-functions, one can understand, design and control legged locomotory systems with formulating them in simpler separated tasks. Coordination between locomotor sub-functions in a harmonized manner appears then as an additional problem when considering legged locomotion. However, biological locomotion shows that appropriate design and control of each sub-function simplifies coordination. It means that only limited exchange of sensory information between the different locomotor sub-function controllers is required enabling the envisioned modular architecture of the locomotion control system. In this paper, we present different studies on implementing different locomotor sub-function controllers on models, robots, and an exoskeleton in addition to demonstrating their abilities in explaining humans' control strategies.

  5. On the static structural design of climbing robots: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ausama Hadi; Menon, Carlo

    This manuscript is the first of two parts of a work investigating optimal configurations of legged climbing robots while loitering on vertical surfaces. In this part 1, a mathematical model of a climbing robot based on the finite element method (FEM), specifically the stiffness method, is generated. A number of parameters, namely the height of the robot, the length of its body and the position of its legs, are investigated to assess their effect on the adhesion requirements needed for the robot to stay attached to a wall. Predictions of the developed mathematical model are validated using FEM commercial software. The body and the legs are assumed to be perpendicular to each other in this part 1. The effect of their inclination is investigated in the subsequent part 2 of our work. In part 2, the model is also used to predict postures that ants have while standing on vertical surfaces. The model is validated by comparing the predicted results to images of loitering ants. The parameters investigated provide guidelines to design legged climbing robots.

  6. Hand-held medical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  7. Tactile surface classification for limbed robots using a pressure sensitive robot skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shill, Jacob J; Collins Jr, Emmanuel G; Coyle, Eric; Clark, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to terrain identification based on pressure images generated through direct surface contact using a robot skin constructed around a high-resolution pressure sensing array. Terrain signatures for classification are formulated from the magnitude frequency responses of the pressure images. The initial experimental results for statically obtained images show that the approach yields classification accuracies >98%. The methodology is extended to accommodate the dynamic pressure images anticipated when a robot is walking or running. Experiments with a one-legged hopping robot yield similar identification accuracies ≈99%. In addition, the accuracies are independent with respect to changing robot dynamics (i.e., when using different leg gaits). The paper further shows that the high-resolution capabilities of the sensor enables similarly textured surfaces to be distinguished. A correcting filter is developed to accommodate for failures or faults that inevitably occur within the sensing array with continued use. Experimental results show using the correcting filter can extend the effective operational lifespan of a high-resolution sensing array over 6x in the presence of sensor damage. The results presented suggest this methodology can be extended to autonomous field robots, providing a robot with crucial information about the environment that can be used to aid stable and efficient mobility over rough and varying terrains. (paper)

  8. Handling uncertainty and networked structure in robot control

    CERN Document Server

    Tamás, Levente

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on two challenges posed in robot control by the increasing adoption of robots in the everyday human environment: uncertainty and networked communication. Part I of the book describes learning control to address environmental uncertainty. Part II discusses state estimation, active sensing, and complex scenario perception to tackle sensing uncertainty. Part III completes the book with control of networked robots and multi-robot teams. Each chapter features in-depth technical coverage and case studies highlighting the applicability of the techniques, with real robots or in simulation. Platforms include mobile ground, aerial, and underwater robots, as well as humanoid robots and robot arms. Source code and experimental data are available at http://extras.springer.com. The text gathers contributions from academic and industry experts, and offers a valuable resource for researchers or graduate students in robot control and perception. It also benefits researchers in related areas, such as computer...

  9. D2 Delta Robot Structural Design and Kinematics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xudong; wang, Song; Dong, Yu; Yang, Hai

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new type of Delta robot with only two degrees of freedom is proposed on the basis of multi - degree - of - freedom delta robot. In order to meet our application requirements, we have carried out structural design and analysis of the robot. Through SolidWorks modeling, combined with 3D printing technology to determine the final robot structure. In order to achieve the precise control of the robot, the kinematics analysis of the robot was carried out. The SimMechanics toolbox of MATLAB is used to establish the mechanism model, and the kinematics mathematical model is used to simulate the robot motion control in Matlab environment. Finally, according to the design mechanism, the working space of the robot is drawn by the graphic method, which lays the foundation for the motion control of the subsequent robot.

  10. Stability Study of Anthropomorphic Robot Antares under External Load Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodyakov, A. S.; Pavlyuk, N. A.; Budkov, V. Yu; Prakapovich, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the study of the behavior of the major structural elements of the lower limbs of anthropomorphic robot Antares under the influence of different types of loads (torsion, fracture). We have determined the required values for actuators torques for motion of the robot in space. The maximum values of torques are 5 Nm and 5.2 Nm respectively, and are able to withstand the upper and lower leg structures.

  11. Mina: A Sensorimotor Robotic Orthosis for Mobility Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, Anil K.; Neuhaus, Peter D.; Moucheboeuf, Adrien M.; Noorden, Jerryll H.; Lecoutre, David V.

    2011-01-01

    While most mobility options for persons with paraplegia or paraparesis employ wheeled solutions, significant adverse health, psychological, and social consequences result from wheelchair confinement. Modern robotic exoskeleton devices for gait assistance and rehabilitation, however, can support legged locomotion systems for those with lower extremity weakness or paralysis. The Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) has developed the Mina, a prototype sensorimotor robotic ort...

  12. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  13. Modelling of dynamically stable AR-601M robot locomotion in Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusainov Ramil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanoid robots will gradually play an important role in our daily lives. Currently, research on anthropomorphic robots and biped locomotion is one of the most important problems in the field of mobile robotics, and the development of reliable control algorithms for them is a challenging task. In this research two algorithms for stable walking of Russian anthropomorphic robot AR-601M with 41 Degrees of Freedom (DoF are investigated. To achieve a human-like dynamically stable locomotion 6 DoF in each robot leg are controlled with Virtual Height Inverted Pendulum and Preview control methods.

  14. Localization of Wheeled Mobile Robot Based on Extended Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guangxu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile robot localization method which combines relative positioning with absolute orientation is presented. The code salver and gyroscope are used for relative positioning, and the laser radar is used to detect absolute orientation. In this paper, we established environmental map, multi-sensor information fusion model, sensors and robot motion model. The Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF is adopted as multi-sensor data fusion technology to realize the precise localization of wheeled mobile robot.

  15. A legged anchoring mechanism for capsule endoscopes using micropatterned adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Paul; Cheung, Eugene; Sitti, Metin

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a new concept for an anchoring mechanism to enhance existing capsule endoscopes. The mechanism consists of three actuated legs with compliant feet lined with micropillar adhesives to be pressed into the intestine wall to anchor the device at a fixed location. These adhesive systems are inspired by gecko and beetle foot hairs. Single-leg and full capsule mathematical models of the forces generated by the legs are analyzed to understand capsule performance. Empirical friction models for the interaction of the adhesives with an intestinal substrate were experimentally determined in vitro using dry and oil-coated elastomer micropillar arrays with 140 microm pillar diameter, 105 microm spacing between pillars, and an aspect ratio of 1:1 on fresh porcine small intestine specimens. Capsule prototypes were also tested in a simulated intestine environment and compared with predicted peristaltic loads to assess the viability of the proposed design. The experimental results showed that a deployed 10 gr capsule robot can withstand axial peristaltic loads and anchor reliably when actuation forces are greater than 0.27 N using dry micropillars. Required actuation forces may be reduced significantly by using micropillars coated with a thin silicone oil layer.

  16. Motion and operation planning of robotic systems background and practical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Barvo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the broad multi-disciplinary topic of robotics, and presents the basic techniques for motion and operation planning in robotics systems. Gathering contributions from experts in diverse and wide ranging fields, it offers an overview of the most recent and cutting-edge practical applications of these methodologies. It covers both theoretical and practical approaches, and elucidates the transition from theory to implementation. An extensive analysis is provided, including humanoids, manipulators, aerial robots and ground mobile robots. ‘Motion and Operation Planning of Robotic Systems’ addresses the following topics: *The theoretical background of robotics. *Application of motion planning techniques to manipulators, such as serial and parallel manipulators. *Mobile robots planning, including robotic applications related to aerial robots, large scale robots and traditional wheeled robots. *Motion planning for humanoid robots. An invaluable reference text for graduate students and researche...

  17. A Quadruped Micro-Robot Based on Piezoelectric Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by a way of rowing, a new piezoelectric driving quadruped micro-robot operating in bending-bending hybrid vibration modes was proposed and tested in this work. The robot consisted of a steel base, four steel connecting pins and four similar driving legs, and all legs were bonded by four piezoelectric ceramic plates. The driving principle is discussed, which is based on the hybrid of first order vertical bending and first order horizontal bending vibrations. The bending-bending hybrid vibration modes motivated the driving foot to form an elliptical trajectory in space. The vibrations of four legs were used to provide the driving forces for robot motion. The proposed robot was fabricated and tested according to driving principle. The vibration characteristics and elliptical movements of the driving feet were simulated by FEM method. Experimental tests of vibration characteristics and mechanical output abilities were carried out. The tested resonance frequencies and vibration amplitudes agreed well with the FEM calculated results. The size of robot is 36 mm × 98 mm × 14 mm, its weight is only 49.8 g, but its maximum load capacity achieves 200 g. Furthermore, the robot can achieve a maximum speed of 33.45 mm/s.

  18. A cargo-sorting DNA robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thubagere, Anupama J; Li, Wei; Johnson, Robert F; Chen, Zibo; Doroudi, Shayan; Lee, Yae Lim; Izatt, Gregory; Wittman, Sarah; Srinivas, Niranjan; Woods, Damien; Winfree, Erik; Qian, Lulu

    2017-09-15

    Two critical challenges in the design and synthesis of molecular robots are modularity and algorithm simplicity. We demonstrate three modular building blocks for a DNA robot that performs cargo sorting at the molecular level. A simple algorithm encoding recognition between cargos and their destinations allows for a simple robot design: a single-stranded DNA with one leg and two foot domains for walking, and one arm and one hand domain for picking up and dropping off cargos. The robot explores a two-dimensional testing ground on the surface of DNA origami, picks up multiple cargos of two types that are initially at unordered locations, and delivers them to specified destinations until all molecules are sorted into two distinct piles. The robot is designed to perform a random walk without any energy supply. Exploiting this feature, a single robot can repeatedly sort multiple cargos. Localization on DNA origami allows for distinct cargo-sorting tasks to take place simultaneously in one test tube or for multiple robots to collectively perform the same task. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Control of multiple robots using vision sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, Miguel; Sagüés, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This monograph introduces novel methods for the control and navigation of mobile robots using multiple-1-d-view models obtained from omni-directional cameras. This approach overcomes field-of-view and robustness limitations, simultaneously enhancing accuracy and simplifying application on real platforms. The authors also address coordinated motion tasks for multiple robots, exploring different system architectures, particularly the use of multiple aerial cameras in driving robot formations on the ground. Again, this has benefits of simplicity, scalability and flexibility. Coverage includes details of: a method for visual robot homing based on a memory of omni-directional images a novel vision-based pose stabilization methodology for non-holonomic ground robots based on sinusoidal-varying control inputs an algorithm to recover a generic motion between two 1-d views and which does not require a third view a novel multi-robot setup where multiple camera-carrying unmanned aerial vehicles are used to observe and c...

  20. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease - Doppler; PVD - Doppler; PAD - Doppler; Blockage of leg arteries - Doppler; Intermittent claudication - Doppler; Arterial insufficiency of the legs - Doppler; Leg pain and ...