WorldWideScience

Sample records for mudstones

  1. Whitby Mudstone, flow from matrix to fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Maartje; Hardebol, Nico; Barnhoorn, Auke; Boersma, Quinten; Peach, Colin; Bertotti, Giovanni; Drury, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    Fluid flow from matrix to well in shales would be faster if we account for the duality of the permeable medium considering a high permeable fracture network together with a tight matrix. To investigate how long and how far a gas molecule would have to travel through the matrix until it reaches an open connected fracture we investigated the permeability of the Whitby Mudstone (UK) matrix in combination with mapping the fracture network present in the current outcrops of the Whitby Mudstone at the Yorkshire coast. Matrix permeability was measured perpendicular to the bedding using a pressure step decay method on core samples and permeability values are in the microdarcy range. The natural fracture network present in the pavement shows a connected network with dominant NS and EW strikes, where the NS fractures are the main fracture set with an orthogonal fracture set EW. Fracture spacing relations in the pavements show that the average distance to the nearest fracture varies between 7 cm (EW) and 14 cm (NS), where 90% of the matrix is 30 cm away from the nearest fracture. By making some assumptions like; fracture network at depth is similar to what is exposed in the current pavements and open to flow, fracture network is at hydrostatic pressure at 3 km depth, overpressure between matrix and fractures is 10% and a matrix permeability perpendicular to the bedding of 0.1 microdarcy, we have calculated the time it takes for a gas molecule to travel to the nearest fracture. These input values give travel times up to 8 days for a distance of 14 cm. If the permeability is changed to 1 nanodarcy or 10 microdarcy travel times change to 2.2 years or 2 hours respectively.

  2. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  3. A pretreatment method for grain size analysis of red mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zaixing; Liu, Li'an

    2011-11-01

    Traditional sediment disaggregation methods work well for loose mud sediments, but not for tightly cemented mudstones by ferric oxide minerals. In this paper, a new pretreatment method for analyzing the grain size of red mudstones is presented. The experimental samples are Eocene red mudstones from the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin. The red mudstones are composed mainly of clay minerals, clastic sediments and ferric oxides that make the mudstones red and tightly compacted. The procedure of the method is as follows. Firstly, samples of the red mudstones were crushed into fragments with a diameter of 0.6-0.8 mm in size; secondly, the CBD (citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite) treatment was used to remove ferric oxides so that the cementation of intra-aggregates and inter-aggregates became weakened, and then 5% dilute hydrochloric acid was added to further remove the cements; thirdly, the fragments were further ground with a rubber pestle; lastly, an ultrasonicator was used to disaggregate the samples. After the treatment, the samples could then be used for grain size analysis or for other geological analyses of sedimentary grains. Compared with other pretreatment methods for size analysis of mudstones, this proposed method is more effective and has higher repeatability.

  4. Experimental investigation and constitutive model for lime mudstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junbao; Liu, Xinrong; Zhao, Baoyun; Song, Zhanping; Lai, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanical properties of lime mudstone, conventional triaxial compression tests under different confining pressures (0, 5, 15 and 20 MPa) are performed on lime mudstone samples. The test results show that, from the overall perspective of variation law, the axial peak stress, axial peak strain and elastic modulus of lime mudstone tend to gradually increase with increasing confining pressure. In the range of tested confining pressure, the variations in axial peak stress and elastic modulus with confining pressure can be described with linear functions; while the variation in axial peak strain with confining pressure can be reflected with a power function. To describe the axial stress-strain behavior in failure process of lime mudstone, a new constitutive model is proposed, with the model characteristics analyzed and the parameter determination method put forward. Compared with Wang' model, only one parameter n is added to the new model. The comparison of predicted curves from the model and test data indicates that the new model can preferably simulate the strain softening property of lime mudstone and the axial stress-strain response in rock failure process.

  5. Mineralogy of a Mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Bristow, T. F.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morrison, S. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Rampe, E. B.; Rice, M.; Achilles, C. N.; Grotzinger, J. P.; McLennan, S. M.; Williams, J.; Bell, J. F.; Newsom, H. E.; Downs, R. T.; Maurice, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A. S.; Morookian, J. M.; Farmer, J. D.; Stack, K.; Milliken, R. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Sumner, D. Y.; Berger, G.; Crisp, J. A.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Anderson, R.; Des Marais, D. J.; Stolper, E. M.; Edgett, K. S.; Gupta, S.; Spanovich, N.; Agard, Christophe; Alves Verdasca, José Alexandre; Anderson, Ryan; Archer, Doug; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Arvidson, Ray; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Atreya, Sushil; Aubrey, Andrew; Baker, Burt; Baker, Michael; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Baratoux, David; Baroukh, Julien; Barraclough, Bruce; Bean, Keri; Beegle, Luther; Behar, Alberto; Bender, Steve; Benna, Mehdi; Bentz, Jennifer; Berger, Jeff; Berman, Daniel; Blanco Avalos, Juan J.; Blaney, Diana; Blank, Jen; Blau, Hannah; Bleacher, Lora; Boehm, Eckart; Botta, Oliver; Böttcher, Stephan; Boucher, Thomas; Bower, Hannah; Boyd, Nick; Boynton, Bill; Breves, Elly; Bridges, John; Bridges, Nathan; Brinckerhoff, William; Brinza, David; Brunet, Claude; Brunner, Anna; Brunner, Will; Buch, Arnaud; Bullock, Mark; Burmeister, Sönke; Cabane, Michel; Calef, Fred; Cameron, James; Campbell, John “Iain”; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Caride Rodríguez, Javier; Carmosino, Marco; Carrasco Blázquez, Isaías; Charpentier, Antoine; Choi, David; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Sam; Cleghorn, Timothy; Cloutis, Ed; Cody, George; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela; Coscia, David; Cousin, Agnès; Cremers, David; Cros, Alain; Cucinotta, Frank; d'Uston, Claude; Davis, Scott; Day, Mackenzie “Kenzie”; de la Torre Juarez, Manuel; DeFlores, Lauren; DeLapp, Dorothea; DeMarines, Julia; Dietrich, William; Dingler, Robert; Donny, Christophe; Drake, Darrell; Dromart, Gilles; Dupont, Audrey; Duston, Brian; Dworkin, Jason; Dyar, M. Darby; Edgar, Lauren; Edwards, Christopher; Edwards, Laurence; Ehresmann, Bent; Eigenbrode, Jen; Elliott, Beverley; Elliott, Harvey; Ewing, Ryan; Fabre, Cécile; Fairén, Alberto; Farley, Ken; Fassett, Caleb; Favot, Laurent; Fay, Donald; Fedosov, Fedor; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Fisk, Marty; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Flesch, Greg; Floyd, Melissa; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Forni, Olivier; Fraeman, Abby; Francis, Raymond; François, Pascaline; Franz, Heather; Freissinet, Caroline; French, Katherine Louise; Frydenvang, Jens; Gaboriaud, Alain; Gailhanou, Marc; Garvin, James; Gasnault, Olivier; Geffroy, Claude; Gellert, Ralf; Genzer, Maria; Glavin, Daniel; Godber, Austin; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Golovin, Dmitry; Gómez Gómez, Felipe; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Gondet, Brigitte; Gordon, Suzanne; Gorevan, Stephen; Grant, John; Griffes, Jennifer; Grinspoon, David; Guillemot, Philippe; Guo, Jingnan; Guzewich, Scott; Haberle, Robert; Halleaux, Douglas; Hallet, Bernard; Hamilton, Vicky; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Harpold, Daniel; Harri, Ari-Matti; Harshman, Karl; Hassler, Donald; Haukka, Harri; Hayes, Alex; Herkenhoff, Ken; Herrera, Paul; Hettrich, Sebastian; Heydari, Ezat; Hipkin, Victoria; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Hudgins, Judy; Huntress, Wesley; Hviid, Stubbe; Iagnemma, Karl; Indyk, Steve; Israël, Guy; Jackson, Ryan; Jacob, Samantha; Jakosky, Bruce; Jensen, Elsa; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Johnson, Jeffrey; Johnson, Micah; Johnstone, Steve; Jones, Andrea; Jones, John; Joseph, Jonathan; Jun, Insoo; Kah, Linda; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kahre, Melinda; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kasprzak, Wayne; Kauhanen, Janne; Keely, Leslie; Kemppinen, Osku; Keymeulen, Didier; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kinch, Kjartan; King, Penny; Kirkland, Laurel; Kocurek, Gary; Koefoed, Asmus; Köhler, Jan; Kortmann, Onno; Kozyrev, Alexander; Krezoski, Jill; Krysak, Daniel; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Lacour, Jean Luc; Lafaille, Vivian; Langevin, Yves; Lanza, Nina; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Lee, Ella Mae; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Lees, David; Lefavor, Matthew; Lemmon, Mark; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Leshin, Laurie; Léveillé, Richard; Lewin-Carpintier, Éric; Lewis, Kevin; Li, Shuai; Lipkaman, Leslie; Little, Cynthia; Litvak, Maxim; Lorigny, Eric; Lugmair, Guenter; Lundberg, Angela; Lyness, Eric; Madsen, Morten; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Malakhov, Alexey; Malespin, Charles; Malin, Michael; Mangold, Nicolas; Manhes, Gérard; Manning, Heidi; Marchand, Geneviève; Marín Jiménez, Mercedes; Martín García, César; Martin, Dave; Martin, Mildred; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Mauchien, Patrick; McAdam, Amy; McCartney, Elaina; McConnochie, Timothy; McCullough, Emily; McEwan, Ian; McKay, Christopher; McNair, Sean; Melikechi, Noureddine; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Meyer, Michael; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Miller, Hayden; Miller, Kristen; Minitti, Michelle; Mischna, Michael; Mitrofanov, Igor; Moersch, Jeff; Mokrousov, Maxim; Molina Jurado, Antonio; Moores, John; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Muller, Jan-Peter; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo; Nachon, Marion; Navarro López, Sara; Navarro-González, Rafael; Nealson, Kenneth; Nefian, Ara; Nelson, Tony; Newcombe, Megan; Newman, Claire; Nikiforov, Sergey; Niles, Paul; Nixon, Brian; Noe Dobrea, Eldar; Nolan, Thomas; Oehler, Dorothy; Ollila, Ann; Olson, Timothy; Owen, Tobias; de Pablo Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Paillet, Alexis; Pallier, Etienne; Palucis, Marisa; Parker, Timothy; Parot, Yann; Patel, Kiran; Paton, Mark; Paulsen, Gale; Pavlov, Alex; Pavri, Betina; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pepin, Robert; Peret, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Perrett, Glynis; Peterson, Joe; Pilorget, Cedric; Pinet, Patrick; Pla-García, Jorge; Plante, Ianik; Poitrasson, Franck; Polkko, Jouni; Popa, Radu; Posiolova, Liliya; Posner, Arik; Pradler, Irina; Prats, Benito; Prokhorov, Vasily; Purdy, Sharon Wilson; Raaen, Eric; Radziemski, Leon; Rafkin, Scot; Ramos, Miguel; Raulin, François; Ravine, Michael; Reitz, Günther; Rennó, Nilton; Richardson, Mark; Robert, François; Robertson, Kevin; Rodriguez Manfredi, José Antonio; Romeral-Planelló, Julio J.; Rowland, Scott; Rubin, David; Saccoccio, Muriel; Salamon, Andrew; Sandoval, Jennifer; Sanin, Anton; Sans Fuentes, Sara Alejandra; Saper, Lee; Sautter, Violaine; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schieber, Juergen; Schmidt, Mariek; Schmidt, Walter; Scholes, Daniel “Dan”; Schoppers, Marcel; Schröder, Susanne; Schwenzer, Susanne; Sebastian Martinez, Eduardo; Sengstacken, Aaron; Shterts, Ruslan; Siebach, Kirsten; Siili, Tero; Simmonds, Jeff; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Slavney, Susie; Sletten, Ronald; Smith, Michael; Sobrón Sánchez, Pablo; Spray, John; Squyres, Steven; Stalport, Fabien; Steele, Andrew; Stein, Thomas; Stern, Jennifer; Stewart, Noel; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Stoiber, Kevin; Sucharski, Bob; Sullivan, Rob; Summons, Roger; Sun, Vivian; Supulver, Kimberley; Sutter, Brad; Szopa, Cyril; Tan, Florence; Tate, Christopher; Teinturier, Samuel; ten Kate, Inge; Thomas, Peter; Thompson, Lucy; Tokar, Robert; Toplis, Mike; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Trainer, Melissa; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; VanBommel, Scott; Varenikov, Alexey; Vasavada, Ashwin; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Vicenzi, Edward; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Voytek, Mary; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Ward, Jennifer; Webster, Chris; Weigle, Eddie; Wellington, Danika; Westall, Frances; Wiens, Roger Craig; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Williams, Amy; Williams, Rebecca; Williams, Richard B. “Mouser”; Wilson, Mike; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Wolff, Mike; Wong, Mike; Wray, James; Wu, Megan; Yana, Charles; Yingst, Aileen; Zeitlin, Cary; Zimdar, Robert; Zorzano Mier, María-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John Klein smectite has basal spacing of ~10 angstroms, indicating little interlayer hydration. The Cumberland smectite has basal spacing at both ~13.2 and ~10 angstroms. The larger spacing suggests a partially chloritized interlayer or interlayer magnesium or calcium facilitating H2O retention. Basaltic minerals in the mudstone are similar to those in nearby eolian deposits. However, the mudstone has far less Fe-forsterite, possibly lost with formation of smectite plus magnetite. Late Noachian/Early Hesperian or younger age indicates that clay mineral formation on Mars extended beyond Noachian time.

  6. Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D T; Bish, D L; Ming, D W; Bristow, T F; Morris, R V; Blake, D F; Chipera, S J; Morrison, S M; Treiman, A H; Rampe, E B; Rice, M; Achilles, C N; Grotzinger, J P; McLennan, S M; Williams, J; Bell, J F; Newsom, H E; Downs, R T; Maurice, S; Sarrazin, P; Yen, A S; Morookian, J M; Farmer, J D; Stack, K; Milliken, R E; Ehlmann, B L; Sumner, D Y; Berger, G; Crisp, J A; Hurowitz, J A; Anderson, R; Des Marais, D J; Stolper, E M; Edgett, K S; Gupta, S; Spanovich, N

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John Klein smectite has basal spacing of ~10 angstroms, indicating little interlayer hydration. The Cumberland smectite has basal spacing at both ~13.2 and ~10 angstroms. The larger spacing suggests a partially chloritized interlayer or interlayer magnesium or calcium facilitating H2O retention. Basaltic minerals in the mudstone are similar to those in nearby eolian deposits. However, the mudstone has far less Fe-forsterite, possibly lost with formation of smectite plus magnetite. Late Noachian/Early Hesperian or younger age indicates that clay mineral formation on Mars extended beyond Noachian time.

  7. Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Bish, D.L.; Ming, D.W.; Bristow, T.F.; Morris, R.V.; Blake, D.F.; Chipera, S.J.; Morrison, S.M.; Treiman, A.H.; Rampe, E.B.; Rice, M.; Achilles, C.N.; Grotzinger, J.P.; McLennan, S.M.; Williams, J.; Bell III, J.F.; Newsom, H.E.; Downs, R.T.; Maurice, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A.S.; Morookian, J.M.; Farmer, J.D.; Stack, K.; Milliken, R.E.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Sumner, D.Y.; Berger, G.; Crisp, J.A.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Anderson, R.; Des Marais, D.J.; Stolper, E.M.; Edgett, K.S.; Gupta, S.; Spanovich, N.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John

  8. Strength and impermeability recovery of siliceous mudstone from complete failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Sanada, Masanori; Fujita, Tomoo; Hashiba, Kimihiro; Fukui, Katsunori; Okubo, Seisuke

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide migration can be undesirably increased by weakening the mechanical properties of a rock mass in the excavated disturbed zone (EDZ) around the tunnels of a geological disposal facility for high level radioactive waste. Laboratory testing of loading stress and loading time on failed siliceous mudstone specimens has identified the potential for the long-term recovery of the strength and impermeability of the rock mass in the EDZ. (author)

  9. Porosity, petrophysics and permeability of the Whitby Mudstone (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, M.; Barnhoorn, A.; Hardebol, N.; Ifada, M.; Boersma, Q.; Douma, L.; Peach, C. J.; Bertotti, G.; Drury, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Typically pore diameters in shales range from the µm down to the nm scale and the effective permeability of shale reservoirs is a function of the interconnectivity between the pore space and the natural fracture network present. The length and spacing of mechanical induced and natural fractures is one of the factors controlling gas produtivity from unconventional reservoirs. Permeability of the Whitby Mudstone measured on 1 inch cores was linked to microstructure and combined with natural fracture spacing present in outcrops along the Yorkshire coast (UK) to get insight into possible fluid pathways from reservoir to well. We used a combination of different techniques to characterize the porosity (gas adsorption, Scanning Electron Microscopy), mineralogy (X-Ray Fluorescence, X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy) and permeability (pressure step decay) of the Whitby Mudstone. In addition, we mapped the natural fracture network as present in outcrops along the Yorkshire coast (UK) at the 10-2-101m scale. Mineralogically we are dealing with a rock that is high in clay content and has an average organic matter content of about 10%. Results show a low porosity (max. 7%) as well as low permeability for the Whitby Mudstone. The permeability, measured parallel to bedding, depends on the confining pressure and is 86 nanodarcy at 10 MPa effective confining pressure and decreases to 16 nanodarcy at 40 MPa effective confining pressure. At the scale of observation the average distance to nearest natural fracture is in the order of 0.13 meter and 90 percent of all matrix elements are spaced within 0.4 meter to the nearest fracture. By assuming darcy flow, a permeability of 100 nanodarcy and 10% of overpressure we calculated that for the Whitby mudstone most of the gas resides in the matrix for less than 60 days until it reaches the fracture network.

  10. Laboratory Testing of Silica Sol Grout in Coal Measure Mudstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Pan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of silica sol grout on mudstones is reported in this paper. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD, the study investigates how the silica sol grout modifies mudstone mineralogy. Micropore sizes and mechanical properties of the mudstone before and after grouting with four different materials were determined with a surface area/porosity analyser and by uniaxial compression. Tests show that, after grouting, up to 50% of the mesopore volumes can be filled with grout, the dominant pore diameter decreases from 100 nm to 10 nm, and the sealing capacity is increased. Uniaxial compression tests of silica sol grouted samples shows that their elastic modulus is 21%–38% and their uniaxial compressive strength is 16%–54% of the non-grouted samples. Peak strain, however, is greater by 150%–270%. After grouting, the sample failure mode changes from brittle to ductile. This paper provides an experimental test of anti-seepage and strengthening properties of silica sol.

  11. Profundal sideritic mudstone from an Eocene lake in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sideritic lacustrine mudstone was found in drill core from a uranium deposit in the Death Valley area in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The precursor sediments for this rock were deposited in an unusual iron-meromictic Eocene lake, herein named Lake Tubutulik, which occupied part of the Boulder Creek basin, a graben that is probably a southern extension of the larger Death Valley basin. The Boulder Creek basin is bounded on the west by granite of the Upper Cretaceous Darby pluton and on the east by Precambrian to Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The lake basin was formed by basaltic flows that dammed the valley of the ancestral Tubutulik River in early Eocene time. The lake sediments included a nearshore facies of fine-grained organic mud and an offshore facies of laminated sideritic mud. The offshore (profundal) laminated mudstone consists of alternating layers of authigenic siderite and detrital grains, mostly quartz and clay minerals. Both lacustrine facies contain turbidites. The lacustrine rocks graded laterally into an onshore facies of colluvial and fluvial sandstone, paludal mudstone, and coal. The ancient lake occupied a small, deep basin in a tectonically active area of high relief. Meromixis was apparently stabilized by reduced iron and bicarbonate dissolved in the monimolimnion. The intensity of meromixis decreased as the lake became shallower from sediment filling. The source of the dissolved iron in the monoimolimnion was probably the Eocene basalt. Carbon isotope analysis of the siderite suggests that the dissolved bicarbonate in the profundal facies was largely inorganic. Sideritic carbon in one sample from the onshore paludal facies has an isotopic signature (δ 13 C = +16.9) consistent with residual carbonate formed during methanogenic fermentation

  12. X-ray diffraction analysis of mudstone from nw sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Suad Z.Elabdeen

    1997-03-01

    This study deals with the theoretical and experimental aspects of the x-ray diffraction technique (XRD). The XRD technique is used to investigate fine structure of matter, and it is most efficient method for the determination of the mineralogical composition of rocks. The XRD technique is used also to investigate the clay mineralogical of mud-stones of the Nubian sandstones of north western Sudan. The XRD results revealed that the mud-stone samples are composed, in decreasing abundance's of kaolinite, smectite, chlorite and illite. Non-clay minerals reported include quartz, feldspars and geothite. Kaolinite dominates in most of samples with percentages ranging between 78-96%. Smectite comes second in abundance and ranges between 10-24%, followed by chlorite and illite which showed the lowest abundance's. The dominance of kaolinite over smectite indicates that intense chemical weathering and leaching occurred under warm humid climate interrupted by dry periods. Most probably these clay minerals were produced by inheritance and partly by neo formation. The variation of the chemical composition of these mud stones is due basically to differences in clay mineralogy which was controlled by source rock geology, weathering physicochemical behavior of elements, local environment and climatic condition in the past. (Author)

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Analcime from Kutingkeng Formation Mudstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yin-Hsiu; Chen, Kuan-Ting; Ray, Dah-Tong

    2015-04-01

    In southwest of Taiwan, the foothill located in Tainan-Kaohsiung city is the exposed area of Pliocene strata to early Pleistocene strata. The strata are about a depth of five thousand, named as Kutigkeng Formation. The outcrop of Kutigkeng Formation is typical badlands, specifically called 'Moon World.' It is commonly known as no important economic applications of agricultural land. The mineral compositions of Kutingkeng Formation are quartz, clay minerals and feldspar. The clay minerals consist of illite, clinochlore and swelling clays. To study how the phase and morphology of analcime formed by hydrothermal synthesis were affected, analcime was synthesized from the mudstone of Kutinkeng Formation with microwave hydrothermal reaction was investigated. The parameters of the experiment were the reaction temperature, the concentration of mineralizer, solids/liquid ratio and time. The sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) were used as mineralizer. The results showed that the analcime could be synthesized by hydrothermal reaction above 180° from Kutinkeng Formation mudstone samples. At the highest temperature (240°) of this study, the high purity analcime could be produced. When the concentration of Na2SiO3=3~6M, analcime could be synthesized at 240°. The best solids/liquid ratio was approximate 1 to 5. The hydrothermal reaction almost was completed after 4 hours.

  14. Microbiological influences on fracture surfaces of intact mud-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.; Harrison, H.; Wragg, J.; Wagner, D.; Milodowski, A.E.; Turner, G.; Lacinska, A.; Holyoake, S.; Harrington, J.; Coombs, P.; Bateman, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Aoki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. It is well recognised that microbes live in a wide range of subsurface environments including potential geological repository host rocks; and their presence can have an impact on transport processes. Microbial activity in any environment is located on chemical or physical interfaces, usually within bio-films. Their impact on transport can be physical (e.g. altering porosity) and/or chemical (e.g. changing redox conditions or altering pH) often resulting in intracellular or extracellular mineral formation or degradation. Consequently, the significance of microbial activity on the transport properties of potential host rocks for geological repositories is now being investigated. This pilot study investigates changes in transport properties that are because of microbial activity in sedimentary mud-stone rock environments at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Horonobe underground research laboratory (URL) in northern Japan. The geological setting of the URL is summarised elsewhere. Geo-microbiological assessments of ground waters, from boreholes, previously drilled at Horonobe, have revealed the presence of a diverse indigenous microbiological ecosystem. The impacts of the presence of these microbes on the performance of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository, using geo-microbiological data from Horonobe, has shown that denitrifying bacteria is likely to be the group of organisms with the greatest activity. Consequently, the impact of this group of organisms, specifically Pseudomonas denitrificans, on Horonobe rock transport properties, is the focus of this study. In brief, two experiments, one biotic and a 'control', were carried out using a flow-through column operated at a constant rate of fluid flow and under pressurised conditions. Changes in biological and chemical parameters were monitored throughout the experiment together with changes in confining pressure and temperature. The experiments were

  15. Synthetic Rock Analogue for Permeability Studies of Rock Salt with Mudstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwu Yin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the permeability of surrounding rock (salt rock and mudstone interlayer is an important topic, which acts as a key parameter to characterize the tightness of gas storage. The goal of experiments that test the permeability of gas storage facilities in rock salt is to develop a synthetic analogue to use as a permeability model. To address the permeability of a mudstone/salt layered and mixed rock mass in Jintan, Jiangsu Province, synthetic mixed and layered specimens using the mudstone and the salt were fabricated for permeability testing. Because of the gas “slippage effect”, test results are corrected by the Klinkenberg method, and the permeability of specimens is obtained by regression fitting. The results show that the permeability of synthetic pure rock salt is 6.9 × 10−20 m2, and its porosity is 3.8%. The permeability of synthetic mudstone rock is 2.97 × 10−18 m2, with a porosity 17.8%. These results are close to those obtained from intact natural specimens. We also find that with the same mudstone content, the permeability of mixed specimens is about 40% higher than for the layered specimens, and with an increase in the mudstone content, the Klinkenberg permeability increases for both types of specimens. The permeability and mudstone content have a strong exponential relationship. When the mudstone content is below 40%, the permeability increases only slightly with mudstone content, whereas above this threshold, the permeability increases rapidly with mudstone content. The results of the study are of use in the assessment of the tightness of natural gas storage facilities in mudstone-rich rock salt formations in China.

  16. Effect of Organic Material on Mechanical, Hydrological, and Microstructural Properties of Mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, M. A.; Reece, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    In this research we analyze the influence of organic material on the mechanical and flow properties of mudstones. We uniformly mix peat, milled and harvested by Bord na Móna from the surface of bogs in Ireland, with natural mudstone from Site C0011 in the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan, obtained during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 322. The mudstone had previously been disaggregated into a homogeneous dry powder of clay- and silt-sized particles. The peat is ground and dry-sieved to achieve a similar particle size distribution as the mudstone (mechanical and hydrological processes affected by peat, we prepare dry peat-mudstone mixtures with three different peat concentrations: 0 wt%, 5 wt%, and 10 wt%. Then, these peat - mudstone mixtures are saturated with deionized water at a water content of 109%, formed into stable slurries, and uniaxially compressed to an axial stress of 100 kPa using resedimentation, a method that simulates the natural behavior of deposition and burial in the laboratory under controlled conditions. How the organic material interacts with the mudstone matrix and pore fluid under compression influences the physical properties of the mudstones such as porosity, compressibility, and permeability; all of which are measured in the resedimentation experiments. We will also analyze the microstructural changes as a function of peat concentration using a petrographic microscope and scanning electron microscope. Due to the fibrous and absorbent nature of peat, we anticipate the peat to force tightly packed clay particles in the mudstone apart resulting in a looser microstructure and increased porosity, and thus, a higher compressibility and permeability. Understanding the controls on the mechanical and flow properties of hydrocarbon-bearing, fine-grained formations is crucial for exploration and successful production from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Additionally, this study has large implications for soil water storage and soil amendment to

  17. Application of log interpretation methods to evaluate heterogeneity in diatomaceous mudstone at Horonobe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi; Nishimura, Mizue

    2005-01-01

    Borehole log interpretation methods, which are usually used by petroleum exploration companies, are applied for evaluating heterogeneity of deep underground diatomaceous mudstones in the Horonobe area. Natural gamma ray log and electrical micro image (EMI) log data were used for the log interpretation. Five sedimentary facies, A to E, were established from the EMI log interpretation. Significant correlations between the sedimentary facies, the chemical contents, the natural gamma ray level, and the electric conductivity in the diatomaceous mudstone were seen. Spatial distribution of the diatomaceous mudstone, in lithology and thickness, was recognized through borehole correlation, which seems to reflect the sedimentary environment change. (author)

  18. Potential use of calcareous mudstones in low hydraulic conductivity earthen barriers for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, T B; Francisca, F M; Musso, T B; Musso, T B

    2013-01-01

    Earthen layers play a significant role in isolating contaminants in the subsurface, controlling the migration of contaminant plumes, and as landfill liners and covers. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of three calcareous mudstones from the Jagüel and Roca formations in North Patagonia, Argentina, are evaluated to determine their potential for the construction of liners. These mudstones were deposited in a marine environment in the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene. The tested specimens mainly comprise silt and clay-sized particles, and their mineralogy is dominated by a smectite/illite mixed layer (70-90% Sm) and calcite in smaller proportion. Powdered mudstone samples have little viscosity and swelling potential when suspended in water. The hydraulic conductivity of compacted mudstones and sand-mudstone mixtures is very low (around 1-3 x 10(-10) m/s) and in good agreement with the expected hydraulic behaviour of compacted earthen layers. This behaviour can be attributed to the large amount of fine particles, high specific surface and the close packing of particles as confirmed by scanning electron microscope analysis. The tested materials also show a high cation exchange capacity (50-70 cmol/kg), indicating a high contaminant retardation capability. The calcareous mudstones show satisfactory mineralogical and chemical properties as well as an adequate hydraulic behaviour, demonstrating the potential use of these materials for the construction of compacted liners for the containment of leachate or as covers in landfills. These findings confirm the potential usage of marine calcareous mudstones as a low-cost geomaterial in environmental engineering projects.

  19. X-ray diffraction of mineralogical composition of mudstones from eastern Gadaref area, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimeldin, Yassin Ahmed A.

    1996-09-01

    This study reviews the theoretical and experimental aspects of X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Moreover, the mineralogical composition of some mudstones from Gadarif region has been investigated using DIFFRAC-AT software package, by means of searching and matching procedure in the standard XRD patterns edited by International Center for Diffraction Data (ICDD). The X-ray diffraction analysis of the Gadarif mudstones revealed that quartz, kaolinite and tridymite are the major mineral constitutes of these rocks. Whereas other minerals like alunite, coalingate, cristabolite, gutsvechite, hematite, meta-alungen, minamite, monteponite, samarskite, chlorie, illite and smectite represent minor constituents in some samples. Most of the mudstone samples investigated have kaolinite content between 71-100%. This most properly indicates that these rocks were subjected to intense weathering and leaching under warm humid climate. These conditions seems to be less favourable for the formation of clay minerals chlorite, illite and smectite. Generally, the clay mineral types, abundances and distribution appear to be influenced mainly by source rock geology, local environment and climate. Moreover, the high silica content of mudstones reflects the influence of both hydrothermal and weathering process. The high haolinite of these mudstone might suggest a good potential for economic exploitation of the kaoline deposits. Further studies, however, might be needed to investigate other technical properties. Suggestions for further work by XRD are given, and include further additions to the refinement procedures and the purchasing of new computer facilities.(Author)

  20. Shear Resistance Variations in Experimentally Sheared Mudstone Granules: A Possible Shear-Thinning and Thixotropic Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Gonghui; Scaringi, Gianvito; Mcsaveney, Mauri; Hicher, Pierre-Yves

    2017-11-01

    We present results of ring shear frictional resistance for mudstone granules of different size obtained from a landslide shear zone. Little rate dependency of shear resistance was observed in sand-sized granules in any wet or dry test, while saturated gravel-sized granules exhibited significant and abrupt reversible rate-weakening (from μ = 0.6 to 0.05) at about 2 mm/s. Repeating resistance variations occurred also under constant shear displacement rate. Mudstone granules generate mud as they are crushed and softened. Shear-thinning and thixotropic behavior of the mud can explain the observed behavior: with the viscosity decreasing, the mud can flow through the coarser soil pores and migrate out from the shear zone. This brings new granules into contact which produces new mud. Thus, the process can start over. Similarities between experimental shear zones and those of some landslides in mudstone suggest that the observed behavior may play a role in some landslide kinematics.

  1. Mineral Trends in Early Hesperian Lacustrine Mudstone at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.; Morrison, S. M.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover landed in Gale crater in August 2012 to study the layered sediments of lower Aeolis Mons (i.e., Mount Sharp), which have signatures of phyllosilicates, hydrated sulfates, and iron oxides in orbital visible/near-infrared observations. The observed mineralogy within the stratigraphy, from phyllosilicates in lower units to sulfates in higher units, suggests an evolution in the environments in which these secondary phases formed. Curiosity is currently investigating the sedimentary structures, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the Murray formation, the lowest exposed unit of Mount Sharp. The Murray formation is dominated by laminated lacustrine mudstone and is approx.200 m thick. Curiosity previously investigated lacustrine mudstone early in the mission at Yellowknife Bay, which represents the lowest studied stratigraphic unit. Here, we present the minerals identified in lacus-trine mudstone from Yellowknife Bay and the Murray formation. We discuss trends in mineralogy within the stratigraphy and the implications for ancient lacustrine environments, diagenesis, and sediment sources.

  2. Compositional controls on early diagenetic pathways in fine-grained sedimentary rocks: Implications for predicting unconventional reservoir attributes of mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Margaret A.; Macquaker, Joe H.S.; Taylor, Kevin G.; Polya, David

    2014-01-01

    Diagenesis significantly impacts mudstone lithofacies. Processes operating to control diagenetic pathways in mudstones are poorly known compared to analogous processes occurring in other sedimentary rocks. Selected organic-carbon-rich mudstones, from the Kimmeridge Clay and Monterey Formations, have been investigated to determine how varying starting compositions influence diagenesis.The sampled Kimmeridge Clay Formation mudstones are organized into thin homogenous beds, composed mainly of siliciclastic detritus, with some constituents derived from water-column production (e.g., coccoliths, S-depleted type-II kerogen, as much as 52.6% total organic carbon [TOC]) and others from diagenesis (e.g., pyrite, carbonate, and kaolinite). The sampled Monterey Formation mudstones are organized into thin beds that exhibit pelleted wavy lamination, and are predominantly composed of production-derived components including diatoms, coccoliths, and foraminifera, in addition to type-IIS kerogen (as much as 16.5% TOC), and apatite and silica cements.During early burial of the studied Kimmeridge Clay Formation mudstones, the availability of detrital Fe(III) and reactive clay minerals caused carbonate- and silicate-buffering reactions to operate effectively and the pore waters to be Fe(II) rich. These conditions led to pyrite, iron-poor carbonates, and kaolinite cements precipitating, preserved organic carbon being S-depleted, and sweet hydrocarbons being generated. In contrast, during the diagenesis of the sampled Monterey Formation mudstones, sulfide oxidation, coupled with opal dissolution and the reduced availability of both Fe(III) and reactive siliciclastic detritus, meant that the pore waters were poorly buffered and locally acidic. These conditions resulted in local carbonate dissolution, apatite and silica cements precipitation, natural kerogen sulfurization, and sour hydrocarbons generation.Differences in mud composition at deposition significantly influence subsequent

  3. Various causes behind the desorption hysteresis of carboxylic acids on mudstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamimanana, S; Lefèvre, G; Dagnelie, R V H

    2017-02-01

    Adsorption desorption is a key factor for leaching, migration and (bio)degradation of organic pollutants in soils and sediments. Desorption hysteresis of apolar organic compounds is known to be correlated with adsorption/diffusion into soil organic matter. This work focuses on the desorption hysteresis of polar organic compounds on a natural mudstone sample. Acetic, citric and ortho-phthalic acids displayed adsorption-desorption hysteresis on Callovo-Oxfordian mudstone. The non-reversible behaviours resulted from three different mechanisms. Adsorption and desorption kinetics were evaluated using 14C- and 3H-labelled tracers and an isotopic exchange method. The solid-liquid distribution ratio of acetate decreased using a NaN 3 bactericide, indicating a rapid bacterial consumption compared with negligible adsorption. The desorption hysteresis of phthalate was apparent and suppressed by the equilibration of renewal pore water with mudstone. This confirms the significant and reversible adsorption of phthalate. Finally, persistent desorption hysteresis was evidenced for citrate. In this case, a third mechanism should be considered, such as the incorporation of citrate in the solid or a chemical perturbation, leading to strong desorption resilience. The results highlighted the different pathways that polar organic pollutants might encounter in a similar environment. Data on phthalic acid is useful to predict the retarded transport of phthalate esters and amines degradation products in sediments. The behaviour of citric acid is representative of polydentate chelating agents used in ore and remediation industries. The impact of irreversible adsorption on solid/solution partitioning and transport deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Unmanned Aerial System-based Photogrammetry to Monitor Landforms Evolution of Mudstone Badlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichin

    2017-04-01

    Mudstone badlands are the area characteristized by its rapid erosion and steep, fractured, and barren landforms. Monitoring the topography changes in badland help improve our knowledge of the hillslope and river processing on landforms and develop susceptibility model for surface erosion hazards. Recently, advances in unmanned aerial system (UAS) and close-range photogrammetry technology have opened up the possibility of effectively measuring topography changes with high spatiotemporal resolutions. In this study, we used the UAS and close-range photogrammetry technology to monitor the topography changes in a rapidly eroded badland, south-western Taiwan. A small mudstone hillslope with area of 0.2 ha approximately and with slope gradient of 37 degrees was selected as the study site. A widely used and commercial quadcopter equipped non-metric camera was used to take images with ground sampling distance (GSD) 5 mm approximately. The Pix4DMapper, a commercial close-range photogrammetry software, was used to perform stereo matching, extract point clouds, generate digital surface models (DSMs) and orthoimage. To control model accuracy, a set of ground control points was surveyed by using eGPS. The monitoring was carried out after every significant rainfall event that may induced observable erosion in the badland site. The results show that DSMs have the GSDs of 4.0 5.4 mm and vertical accuracy of 61 116 mm. The accuracy largely depends on the quality of ground control points. The spatial averaged erosion rate during six months of monitoring was 328 mm, which is higher in the gully sides than in the ridges. The erosion rate is positively correlated with the slope gradient and drainage contributing area that implies the important role of surface gully erosion in mudstone badland erosion. This study shows that UAS and close-range photogrammetry technology can be used to monitor the topography change in badland areas effectively and can provide high spatiotemporal

  5. Rill erosion of mudstone slope-a case study of southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ci-Jian; Lin, Jiun-chuan; Cheng, Yuan-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion has been studied by many scientists for decades (Zingg, 1940; Meyer & Wischmeier, 1969; Foster, 1982; Luk, 1988) and many soil erosion prediction equations have already been developed, such as USLE, RUSLE. In spite of WEEP is based on hydrological physical model, all of the above models are restricted to predict concentrate flow. On the other hand, rill erosion is not understood completely. The amounts of rill erosion are always underestimated. Rill Erosion correlate closely to gradient (Cerda & Garcia-Fayos, 1997; Fox & Bryan, 1999; Fu,et al., 2011; Clarke & Rendell, 2006), slope length (Gabriel, 1999; Yair, 2004), particle distribution (Gabriel, 1999), proportion of clay (Luk,1977; Bryan2000), rainfall intensity (Römkens et al. 2001), and land use (Dotterweich, 2008). However, the effect of micromorphology of mud rock surface, such as mud-cracks, could be studied in more details. This research aims to simulate rill development by hydraulic flume to observe the morphological change caused by rill/erosion process. Mudstone specimens sampled from the mudstone area of Long-Chi, southern Taiwan. The results show that: (1) The erosion pattern of mudstone slope can be divided into four steps: (a) inter-rill erosion, ( b) rill erosion, (c) rill development, (d) slope failure. (2) Slopes with mud-cracks caused 125% soil loss than smooth slopes. (3) Mud-cracks affect spatial distribution of rill development (4) The sediment concentration decreased sharply in the beginning of experiments, however increased due to rill development. This paper demonstrated such a rill development. 1: Department of Geography, National Taiwan University. E-mail:maxpossibilism0929@gmail.com

  6. Experimental Investigation on Hydraulic Properties of Granular Sandstone and Mudstone Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The caved zone during longwall mining has high permeability, resulting in a mass of groundwater storage which causes a threat of groundwater inrush hazard to the safe mining. To investigate the hazard mechanism of granular sandstone and mudstone mixture (SMM in caved zone, this paper presents an experimental study on the effect of sandstone particle (SP and mudstone particle (MP weight ratio on the non-Darcy hydraulic properties evolution. A self-designed granular rock seepage experimental equipment has been applied to conduct the experiments. The variation of particle size distribution was induced by loading and water seepage during the test, which indicated that the particle crushing and erosion properties of mudstone were higher than those of sandstone. Porosity evolution of SMM was strongly influenced by loading (sample height and SP/MP weight ratio. The sample with higher sample height and higher weight ratio of SP achieved higher porosity value. In particular, a non-Darcy equation, for hydraulic properties (permeability κ and non-Darcy coefficient ζ calculation, was sufficient to fit the relation between the hydraulic gradient and seepage velocity. The test results indicated that, due to the absence and narrowing of fracture and void during loading, the permeability κ decreases and the non-Darcy coefficient ζ increases. The variation of the hydraulic properties of the sample within the same particle size and SP/MP weight ratio indicated that groundwater inrush hazard showed a higher probability of occurrence in sandstone strata and crushed zone (e.g., faults. Moreover, isolated fractures and voids were able to achieve the changeover from self-extension to interconnection at the last loading stage, which caused the fluctuation tendency of κ and ζ. Fluctuation ability in mudstone was higher than that in sandstone. The performance of an empirical model was also investigated for the non-Darcy hydraulic properties evolution prediction of

  7. Initial characterization of mudstone nanoporosity with small angle neutron scattering using caprocks from carbon sequestration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, John; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Mouzakis, Katherine; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rother, Gernot

    2010-01-01

    Geological carbon sequestration relies on the principle that CO 2 injected deep into the subsurface is unable to leak to the atmosphere. Structural trapping by a relatively impermeable caprock (often mudstone such as a shale) is the main trapping mechanism that is currently relied on for the first hundreds of years. Many of the pores of the caprock are of micrometer to nanometer scale. However, the distribution, geometry and volume of porosity at these scales are poorly characterized. Differences in pore shape and size can cause variation in capillary properties and fluid transport resulting in fluid pathways with different capillary entry pressures in the same sample. Prediction of pore network properties for distinct geologic environments would result in significant advancement in our ability to model subsurface fluid flow. Specifically, prediction of fluid flow through caprocks of geologic CO 2 sequestration reservoirs is a critical step in evaluating the risk of leakage to overlying aquifers. The micro- and nanoporosity was analyzed in four mudstones using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). These mudstones are caprocks of formations that are currently under study or being used for carbon sequestration projects and include the Marine Tuscaloosa Group, the Lower Tuscaloosa Group, the upper and lower shale members of the Kirtland Formation, and the Pennsylvanian Gothic shale. Total organic carbon varies from <0.3% to 4% by weight. Expandable clay contents range from 10% to ∼40% in the Gothic shale and Kirtland Formation, respectively. Neutrons effectively scatter from interfaces between materials with differing scattering length density (i.e. minerals and pores). The intensity of scattered neutrons, I(Q), where Q is the scattering vector, gives information about the volume of pores and their arrangement in the sample. The slope of the scattering data when plotted as log I(Q) vs. log Q provides information about the fractality or geometry of the pore network

  8. Initial characterization of mudstone nanoporosity with small angle neutron scattering using caprocks from carbon sequestration sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCray, John (Colorado School of Mines); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis (Colorado School of Mines); Mouzakis, Katherine (Colorado School of Mines); Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rother, Gernot (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2010-11-01

    Geological carbon sequestration relies on the principle that CO{sub 2} injected deep into the subsurface is unable to leak to the atmosphere. Structural trapping by a relatively impermeable caprock (often mudstone such as a shale) is the main trapping mechanism that is currently relied on for the first hundreds of years. Many of the pores of the caprock are of micrometer to nanometer scale. However, the distribution, geometry and volume of porosity at these scales are poorly characterized. Differences in pore shape and size can cause variation in capillary properties and fluid transport resulting in fluid pathways with different capillary entry pressures in the same sample. Prediction of pore network properties for distinct geologic environments would result in significant advancement in our ability to model subsurface fluid flow. Specifically, prediction of fluid flow through caprocks of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration reservoirs is a critical step in evaluating the risk of leakage to overlying aquifers. The micro- and nanoporosity was analyzed in four mudstones using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). These mudstones are caprocks of formations that are currently under study or being used for carbon sequestration projects and include the Marine Tuscaloosa Group, the Lower Tuscaloosa Group, the upper and lower shale members of the Kirtland Formation, and the Pennsylvanian Gothic shale. Total organic carbon varies from <0.3% to 4% by weight. Expandable clay contents range from 10% to {approx}40% in the Gothic shale and Kirtland Formation, respectively. Neutrons effectively scatter from interfaces between materials with differing scattering length density (i.e. minerals and pores). The intensity of scattered neutrons, I(Q), where Q is the scattering vector, gives information about the volume of pores and their arrangement in the sample. The slope of the scattering data when plotted as log I(Q) vs. log Q provides information about the fractality or geometry of

  9. Grain Size Distribution in Mudstones: A Question of Nature vs. Nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, J.

    2011-12-01

    Grain size distribution in mudstones is affected by the composition of the source material, the processes of transport and deposition, and post-depositional diagenetic modification. With regard to source, it does make a difference whether for example a slate belt is eroded vs a stable craton. The former setting tends to provide a broad range of detrital quartz in the sub 62 micron size range in addition to clays and greenschist grade rock fragments, whereas the latter may be biased towards coarser quartz silt (30-60 microns), in addition to clays and mica flakes. In flume experiments, when fine grained materials are transported in turbulent flows at velocities that allow floccules to transfer to bedload, a systematic shift of grain size distribution towards an increasingly finer grained suspended load is observed as velocity is lowered. This implies that the bedload floccules are initially constructed of only the coarsest clay particles at high velocities, and that finer clay particles become incorporated into floccules as velocity is lowered. Implications for the rock record are that clay beds deposited from decelerating flows should show subtle internal grading of coarser clay particles; and that clay beds deposited from continuous fast flows should show a uniform distribution of coarse clays. Still water settled clays should show a well developed lower (coarser) and upper (finer) subdivision. A final complication arises when diagenetic processes, such as the dissolution of biogenic silica, give rise to diagenetic quartz grains in the silt to sand size range. This diagenetic silica precipitates in fossil cavities and pore spaces of uncompacted muds, and on casual inspection can be mistaken for detrital quartz. In distal mudstone successions close to 100 % of "apparent" quartz silt can be of that origin, and reworking by bottom currents can further enhance a detrital perception by producing rippled and laminated silt beds. Although understanding how size

  10. Evidence for Smectite Clays from MSL SAM Analyses of Mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Brunner, Anna; Archer, Paul Douglas; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    2013-01-01

    Drilled samples of mudstone from the Sheepbed unit at Yellowknife Bay were analyzed by MSL instruments including the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instruments in MSL's Analytical Laboratory. CheMin analyses revealed the first in situ X-ray diffraction based evidence of clay minerals on Mars, which are likely trioctahedral smectites (e.g., saponite) and comprise approx 20% of the mudstone sample (e.g., Bristow et al., this meeting). SAM analyses, which heated the mudstone samples to 1000 C and monitored volatiles evolved to perform in situ evolved gas analysis mass spectrometry (EGA-MS), resulted in a H2O trace exhibiting a wide evolution at temperatures smectite interlayer H2O, and structural H2O/OH from bassanite and akaganeite (identified by CheMin) and H2O/OH from amorphous phases in the sample. The high temperature H2O is consistent with the evolution of H2O from the dehydroxylation of the smectite clay mineral. Comparison to EGA-MS data collected under SAM-like conditions on a variety of clay mineral reference materials indicate that a trioctahedral smectite, such as saponite, is most consistent with the high temperature H2O evolution observed. There may also be SAM EGA-MS evidence for a small high temperature H2O evolution from scoop samples from the Yellowknife Bay Rocknest sand shadow bedform. As in the mudstone samples, this evolution may indicate the detection of smectite clays, and the idea that minor clays may be present in Rocknest materials that could be expected to be at least partially derived from local sources is reasonable. But, because smectite clays were not definitively observed in CheMin analyses of Rocknest materials, they must be present at much lower abundances than the approx 20% observed in the mudstone samples. This potential detection underscores the complementary nature of the MSL CheMin and SAM instruments for investigations of martian sample mineralogy. Information on the nature of Yellowknife

  11. JOINTS AND SYN-SEDIMENTARY FAULTS NETWORKS IN MARINE CLAYS AND MUDSTONES. Importance for Radwaste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.

    2009-12-01

    There is a number of marine clays, mudstones, marls, 100 to 200 m thick, showing smectites, mixed layers illite/smectite, with a small percentage of organic matter and sulphides with a variable clay, silt, and carbonate content. I published (Arnould , 2006) examples from Lower Cambrian to Miocene in age and from the Baltic shore to Spain in Europe. Observations were made mostly in quarries and pits down to more than 40 m and in underground research laboratories (URL). Only visible on fresh cuts amongst a variety of fissures there is always a network of joints. Schematically one family is the bedding (horizontal) the two others are normal to the bedding and orthogonal between them. The orientations of vertical joints are different from the orientations of pits and quarries’s walls. The networks are intrinsic. It was first well described by Skempton & al (1969) in Eocene London Clay. Joints are matt in texture, clean, without filling or cement. The order of magnitude of their linear dimensions is decimeter to meter. It is necessary to start from the original sediment: mud. Deposited in flakes mud has a bee’s nest microscopic structure. Each nest is full of water. Hence mud may have a water content up to 300%, reported to its dry weight. Paradoxically mud is impervious. As proposed by Cosgrove (2001) progressive but discontinuous hydraulic fracturing could be the origin of vertical joints, with drainage upwards and compaction of the sediment. Geological observations show that ioints are formed during the sedimentation process. There is also a world literature concluding at the necessary early fracturing of mudstones and marls hosts of sand dykes. Very few faults are identified in field observations and on exploration logs. But it is obvious that drainage and compaction of mud over thousands square kilometers induced differential settlements with many syn-sedimentary non tectonic faults constituting another discontinuity network. These faults inside the same

  12. Variations in petrophysical properties of shales along a stratigraphic section in the Whitby mudstone (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Houben, Maartje; Lie-A-Fat, Joella; Ravestein, Thomas; Drury, Martyn

    2015-04-01

    In unconventional tough gas reservoirs (e.g. tight sandstones or shales) the presence of fractures, either naturally formed or hydraulically induced, is almost always a prerequisite for hydrocarbon productivity to be economically viable. One of the formations classified so far as a potential interesting formation for shale gas exploration in the Netherlands is the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale Formation (PSF). However data of the Posidonia Shale Formation is scarce so far and samples are hard to come by, especially on the variability and heterogeneity of the petrophysical parameters of this shale little is known. Therefore research and sample collection is conducted on a time and depositional analogue of the PSF: the Whitby Mudstone Formation (WMF) in the United Kingdom. A large number of samples along a ~7m stratigraphic section of the Whitby Mudstone Formation have been collected and analysed. Standard petrophysical properties such as porosity and matrix densities are quantified for a number of samples throughout the section, as well as mineral composition analysis based on XRD/XRF and SEM analyses. Seismic velocity measurements are also conducted at multiple heights in the section and in multiple directions to elaborate on anisotropy of the material. Attenuation anisotropy is incorporated as well as Thomsen's parameters combined with elastic parameters, e.g. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, to quantify the elastic anisotropy. Furthermore rock mechanical experiments are conducted to determine the elastic constants, rock strength, fracture characteristics, brittleness index, fraccability and rock mechanical anisotropy across the stratigraphic section of the Whitby mudstone formation. Results show that the WMF is highly anisotropic and it exhibits an anisotropy on the large limit of anisotropy reported for US gas shales. The high anisotropy of the Whitby shales has an even larger control on the formation of the fracture network. Furthermore, most petrophysical

  13. The Impact of Climate Change in Rainfall Erosivity Index on Humid Mudstone Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ci-Jian; Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2017-04-01

    It has been quite often pointed out in many relevant studies that climate change may result in negative impacts on soil erosion. Then, humid mudstone area is highly susceptible to climate change. Taiwan has extreme erosion in badland area, with annual precipitation over 2000 mm/y which is a considerably 3 times higher than other badland areas around the world, and with around 9-13 cm/y in denudation rate. This is the reason why the Erren River, a badland dominated basin has the highest mean sediment yield in the world, over 105 t km2 y. This study aims to know how the climate change would affect soil erosion from the source in the Erren River catchment. Firstly, the data of hourly precipitation from 1992 to 2016 are used to establish the regression between rainfall erosivity index (R, one of component for USLE) and precipitation. Secondly, using the 10 climate change models (provide form IPCC AR5) simulates the changes of monthly precipitation in different scenario from 2017 to 2216, and then over 200 years prediction R values can be use to describe the tendency of soil erosion in the future. The results show that (1) the relationship between rainfall erosion index and precipitation has high correction (>0.85) during 1992-2016. (2) From 2017 to 2216, 7 scenarios show that annual rainfall erosion index will increase over 2-18%. In contrast, the others will decrease over 7-14%. Overall, the variations of annual rainfall erosion index fall in the range of -14 to 18%, but it is important to pay attention to the variation of annual rainfall erosion index in extreme years. These fall in the range of -34 to 239%. This explains the extremity of soil erosion will occur easily in the future. Keywords: Climate Change, Mudstone, Rainfall Erosivity Index, IPCC AR5

  14. Effect of pore structure on chemico-osmotic, diffusion and hydraulic properties of mud-stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, M.; Manaka, M.; Ito, K.; Miyoshi, S.; Tokunaga, T.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ experiment by Neuzil (2000) has obtained the substantial proof of chemical osmosis in natural clayey formation. Chemical osmosis in clayey formations has thus received attention in recent years in the context of geological disposal of radioactive waste. Chemical osmosis is the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane driven by the difference of chemical potentials between solutions to compensate the difference of water potentials, increasing the other potential differences, such as the pressure difference. Accordingly, the chemical osmosis could generate localized, abnormal fluid pressures in geological formations where formation media act as semi-permeable membranes and groundwater salinity is not uniform. Without taking account of the chemical osmosis, groundwater flow modeling may mislead the prediction of the groundwater flow direction. Therefore the possibility of chemical osmosis needs to be identified for potential host formations for radioactive waste repositories. The chemico-osmotic property of formation media is an essential parameter to identify the possibility of chemical osmosis in the formation; however, the diffusion and hydraulic properties are also fundamental parameters to estimate the duration of chemical osmosis since they control the spatial variation of salinity and the dissipation of osmotically induced pressures. In order to obtain the chemico-osmotic, diffusion and hydraulic parameters from a rock sample, this study developed a laboratory experimental system capable of performing chemical osmosis and permeability experiments. A series of experiments were performed on mud-stones. The chemico-osmotic parameter of each rock sample was further interpreted by the osmotic efficiency model proposed by Bresler (1973) to examine the pore structure inherent in rocks. Diatomaceous and siliceous mud-stone samples were obtained from drill cores taken from the Koetoi and Wakkanai

  15. Making synthetic mudstone: Parametric resedimentation studies at high effective stress to determine controls on breakthrough pressure and permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Cockrell, L.; Espinoza, N.

    2017-12-01

    The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. As CO2 rises buoyantly within a reservoir it pools beneath a caprock and a pressure is exerted upon the pores of the caprock proportionally to the height of the pool. The breakthrough pressure is the point at which CO2 begins to flow freely across the caprock. Understanding the mineralogical and grain size controls on breakthrough pressure is important for screening the security of CO2 sequestration sites. However, breakthrough pressure and permeability measurements on caprocks are difficult to conduct in a systematic manner given the variability in and heterogeneity of naturally occurring mudstones and shales causing significant noise and scatter in the literature. Recent work has even revealed the ability for CO2 to pass through thin shale beds at relatively low pressures. To broaden the understanding of shale breakthrough and permeability, we developed an approach that allows for the creation of resedimented mudstones at high effective stresses. Resedimented samples also include calcium carbonate cement. Using this technique, we explore the controls on entry pressure, breakthrough pressure, and permeability of synthetic mudstones. Understanding the effect of mineralogy and grain size on the permeability and breakthrough pressure of mudstones at reservoir stresses will help in the selection and uncertainty quantification of secure CO2 storage sites.

  16. Possible effects of two-phase flow pattern on the mechanical behavior of mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, H.; Tokunaga, T.; Aichi, M.

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the influence of two-phase flow pattern on the mechanical behavior of mudstones, laboratory experiments were conducted. In the experiment, air was injected from the bottom of the water-saturated Quaternary Umegase mudstone sample under hydrostatic external stress condition. Both axial and circumferential strains at half the height of the sample and volumetric discharge of water at the outlet were monitored during the experiment. Numerical simulation of the experiment was tried by using a simulator which can solve coupled two-phase flow and poroelastic deformation assuming the extended-Darcian flow with relative permeability and capillary pressure as functions of the wetting-phase fluid saturation. In the numerical simulation, the volumetric discharge of water was reproduced well while both strains were not. Three dimensionless numbers, i.e., the viscosity ratio, the Capillary number, and the Bond number, which characterize the two-phase flow pattern (Lenormand et al., 1988; Ewing and Berkowitz, 1998) were calculated to be 2×10-2, 2×10-11, and 7×10-11, respectively, in the experiment. Because the Bond number was quite small, it was possible to apply Lenormand et al. (1988)'s diagram to evaluate the flow regime, and the flow regime was considered to be capillary fingering. While, in the numerical simulation, air moved uniformly upward with quite low non-wetting phase saturation conditions because the fluid flow obeyed the two-phase Darcy's law. These different displacement patterns developed in the experiment and assumed in the numerical simulation were considered to be the reason why the deformation behavior observed in the experiment could not be reproduced by numerical simulation, suggesting that the two-phase flow pattern could affect the changes of internal fluid pressure patterns during displacement processes. For further studies, quantitative analysis of the experimental results by using a numerical simulator which can solve the coupled

  17. Impacts of Biochar on Physical Properties and Erosion Potential of a Mudstone Slopeland Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yei Hseu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food demand and soil sustainability have become urgent issues recently because of the global climate changes. This study aims to evaluate the application of a biochar produced by rice hull, on changes of physiochemical characteristics and erosion potential of a degraded slopeland soil. Rice hull biochar pyrolized at 400°C was incorporated into the soil at rates of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (w/w and was incubated for 168 d in this study. The results indicated that biochar application reduced the Bd by 12% to 25% and the PR by 57% to 92% after incubation, compared with the control. Besides, porosity and aggregate size increased by 16% to 22% and by 0.59 to 0.94 mm, respectively. The results presented that available water contents significantly increased in the amended soils by 18% to 89% because of the obvious increase of micropores. The water conductivity of the biochar-amended soils was only found in 10% biochar treatment, which might result from significant increase of macropores and reduction of soil strength (Bd and PR. During a simulated rainfall event, soil loss contents significantly decreased by 35% to 90% in the biochar-amended soils. In conclusion, biochar application could availably raise soil quality and physical properties for tilth increasing in the degraded mudstone soil.

  18. Impacts of Biochar on Physical Properties and Erosion Potential of a Mudstone Slopeland Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wei-Hsin; Liou, Ruei-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Food demand and soil sustainability have become urgent issues recently because of the global climate changes. This study aims to evaluate the application of a biochar produced by rice hull, on changes of physiochemical characteristics and erosion potential of a degraded slopeland soil. Rice hull biochar pyrolized at 400°C was incorporated into the soil at rates of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (w/w) and was incubated for 168 d in this study. The results indicated that biochar application reduced the Bd by 12% to 25% and the PR by 57% to 92% after incubation, compared with the control. Besides, porosity and aggregate size increased by 16% to 22% and by 0.59 to 0.94 mm, respectively. The results presented that available water contents significantly increased in the amended soils by 18% to 89% because of the obvious increase of micropores. The water conductivity of the biochar-amended soils was only found in 10% biochar treatment, which might result from significant increase of macropores and reduction of soil strength (Bd and PR). During a simulated rainfall event, soil loss contents significantly decreased by 35% to 90% in the biochar-amended soils. In conclusion, biochar application could availably raise soil quality and physical properties for tilth increasing in the degraded mudstone soil. PMID:25548787

  19. Origin of Chlorobenzene Detected by the Curiosity Rover in Yellowknife Bay: Evidence for Martian Organics in the Sheepbed Mudstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D.; Freissnet, C.; Eigenbrode, J.; Miller, K.; Martin, M.; Summons, R. E.; Steele, A.; Archer, D.; Brunner, A.; Buch, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Curiosity rover is designed to determine the inventory of organic and inorganic volatiles thermally evolved from solid samples using a combination of evolved gas analysis (EGA), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS), and tunable laser spectroscopy. Here we discuss the SAM EGA and GCMS measurements of volatiles released from the Sheepbed mudstone. We focus primarily on the elevated CBZ detections at CB and laboratory analog experiments conducted to help determine if CBZ is derived from primarily terrestrial, martian, or a combination of sources. Here we discuss the SAM EGA and GCMS measurements of volatiles released from the Sheepbed mudstone. We focus primarily on the elevated CBZ detections at CB and laboratory analog experiments conducted to help determine if CBZ is derived from primarily terrestrial, martian, or a combination of sources.

  20. Uranium and diagenesis in evaporitic lacustrine mudstone of the Oligocene White River Group, Dawes County, Nebraska. Bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Oligocene White River Group consists of the Chadron and the overlying Brule Formations in northwestern Nebraska. The Chadron Formation consists of alluvial and colluvial vitric mudstone beds, but in addition contains white persistent layers (purplish-white layers) that probably resulted from soil formation on vitric parent material. West of the current study area a basal sandstone facies of the Chadron is host rock for the Crow Butte uranium deposit. The Brule, which consists mostly of pedogenically altered alluvial and fluvial vitric mudstone deposits, contains a uraniferous lacustrine facies northwest of Chadron, Nebraska. Detrital minerals in rocks of the White River Group include quartz, feldspar, volcanic glass, smectite, and illite. Chemical precipitate minerals in the lacustrine facies are calcite, dolomite, and gypsum. Authigenic minerals include calcite, dolomite, gypsum, smectite, opal, chalcedony, together with oxidized uranium minerals

  1. Native copper in Permian Mudstones from South Devon: A natural analogue of copper canisters for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Styles, M.T.; Werme, L.; Oversby, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    Native copper (>99.9% Cu) sheets associated with complex uraniferous and vanadiferous concretions in Upper Permian Mudstones from south Devon (United Kingdom) have been studied as a 'natural analogue' for copper canisters designed to be used in the isolation of spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) for deep geological disposal. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the copper formed before the mudstones were compacted. The copper displays complex corrosion and alteration. The earliest alteration was to copper oxides, followed sequentially by the formation of copper arsenides, nickel arsenide and copper sulphide, and finally nickel arsenide accompanied by nickel-copper arsenide, copper arsenide and uranium silicates. Petrographic observations demonstrate that these alteration products also formed prior to compaction. Consideration of the published history for the region indicates that maximum compaction of the rocks will have occurred by at least the Lower Jurassic (i.e. over 176 Ma ago). Since that time the copper sheets have remained isolated by the compacted mudstones and were unaffected by further corrosion until uplift and exposure to present-day surface weathering

  2. Microstructure and permeability of the Whitby Mudstone (UK) as an analogue for the Posidonia shale (NL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Maartje; Barnhoorn, Auke; Drury, Martyn; Peach, Colin; Spiers, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    In order to make gas productivity from a shale economically interesting we should find ways to better connect the in-situ pore network to the natural occurring and mechanical induced fractures in the rock. When trying to improve gas productivity a first aim is to understand gas storage and gas flow potential through the rock by investigating the microstructure and measure the matrix porosity and permeability of the unfractured shales. Using a combination of methods we have characterized the porosity and permeability of the Jet Dogger section of the Whitby Mudstone Formation (UK), which we use as an analogue for the Posidonia Shale (NL). The Posidonia shale is a possible unconventional source for gas in Northern Europe. A combination of Precision Ion Polishing (PIPS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has been used to investigate the microstructure and the pores. Microstructurally the circa 8 meter thick Jet section of the Whitby Mudstone Formation can be subdivided into a fossil rich (>15 %) top half with an organic matter content of 7-10% and a sub-mm laminated (alternating clay-rich, carbonate-rich, not necessarily fossils, layers) lower half were the organic matter content varies from 0.3-16%. In addition, any possible flow in the rock has to go through the fine-grained clay matrix (all grains 100 nm) is in the order of 0.5-2.5% and is not connected in 2D. Furthermore, overall more than 40% of the visible porosity is present within the clay matrix (sometimes even up to 80%). Porosity and pore size distributions for pores with smaller diameters (2 < diameter < 100 nm) were determined using Ar and N2 gas adsorption. The adsorption porosity was in the order of 1-5%, were we found 1-2.5% porosity for the top half of the section and 2-5% porosity for the bottom half. Ar gas permeability of the samples was measured on 1-inch diameter cores using Ar-gas-permeametry with a pressure step of 0.2 MPa. The permeability measured was in the order of 2•10-19 - 1•10

  3. Rock Formation and Cosmic Radiation Exposure Ages in Gale Crater Mudstones from the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Farley, Ken; Malespin, Charles; Gellert, Ralph; Grotzinger, John

    2014-05-01

    The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been utilized to secure abundances of 3He, 21Ne, 36Ar, and 40Ar thermally evolved from the mudstone in the stratified Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale Crater. As reported by Farley et al. [1] these measurements of cosmogenic and radiogenic noble gases together with Cl and K abundances measured by MSL's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer enable a K-Ar rock formation age of 4.21+0.35 Ga to be established as well as a surface exposure age to cosmic radiation of 78+30 Ma. Understanding surface exposures to cosmic radiation is relevant to the MSL search for organic compounds since even the limited set of studies carried out, to date, indicate that even 10's to 100's of millions of years of near surface (1-3 meter) exposure may transform a significant fraction of the organic compounds exposed to this radiation [2,3,4]. Transformation of potential biosignatures and even loss of molecular structural information in compounds that could point to exogenous or endogenous sources suggests a new paradigm in the search for near surface organics that incorporates a search for the most recently exposed outcrops through erosional processes. The K-Ar rock formation age determination shows promise for more precise in situ measurements that may help calibrate the martian cratering record that currently relies on extrapolation from the lunar record with its ground truth chronology with returned samples. We will discuss the protocol for the in situ noble gas measurements secured with SAM and ongoing studies to optimize these measurements using the SAM testbed. References: [1] Farley, K.A.M Science Magazine, 342, (2013). [2] G. Kminek et al., Earth Planet Sc Lett 245, 1 (2006). [3] Dartnell, L.R., Biogeosciences 4, 545 (2007). [4] Pavlov, A. A., et al. Geophys Res Lett 39, 13202 (2012).

  4. Geomorphic Drainage Capture Recorded by Oxygen Isotopes of Green River Formation Lacustrine Mudstone, Eocene, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebbert, A. C.; Booth, A. L.; Carroll, A.; Chamberlain, C.; Rhodes, M.

    2005-12-01

    The isotopic composition of cement and other meteoric precipitates are increasingly being used to interpret orogenic uplift histories, based on the relationship between altitude and rainwater δ18O. However, other variables such as changing regional drainage patterns may also affect the downstream composition of surface waters, especially when multiple drainages commingle in a lake. The Green River Formation contains some of the best documented lacustrine deposits in the world, making it ideal for examining such issues. Carbonate mudstone in balanced-fill facies of the lower LaClede Bed averages 3.41‰ (PDB), and records a deep, saline to brackish lake that fluctuated near its sill. In contrast, overfilled facies of the upper LaClede Bed record a freshwater lake, and δ18O reaches values as low as -9.72‰. This transition occurred shortly after deposition of the Analcite Tuff at 48.94 ± 0.12 Ma (Smith et al., 2003), and was geologically abrupt. Based on 40Ar/39Ar-calibrated sediment accumulation rates it required no more than 200-300 ky. An almost identical transition occurs in two cores separated by about 30 km, making local diagenesis an unlikely cause. The magnitude of δ18O change is similar to that in some uplift studies, but its rapidity virtually excludes uplift as a controlling mechanism. Instead, we propose that both the change in sedimentation and the sharp decrease in δ18O are the result of a drainage capture event. The addition of a new drainage to the basin may have adjusted isotopic values in two ways: by introducing runoff with relatively low δ18O, and by decreasing residence time (and therefore evaporation) of lake water. Decreasing 87Sr/86Sr across the same transition suggests that the newly added waters may have been sourced from rising volcanic topography to the north in the Absaroka province. Although this rising topography allows for the possibility of some uplift component, the rate of change in lacustrine δ18O is consistent with

  5. Origin of Chlorobenzene Detected by the Curiosity Rover in Yellowknife Bay: Evidence for Martian Organics in the Sheepbed Mudstone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Eigenbrode, J.; Miller, K.; Martin, M.; Summons, R.; Steele, A.; Franz, H.; Archer, D.; Brinkerhoff, W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Curiosity rover is designed to determine the inventory of organic and inorganic volatiles thermally evolved from solid samples using a combination of evolved gas analysis (EGA), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS), and tunable laser spectroscopy. The first solid samples analyzed by SAM, a scoop of windblown dust and sand at Rocknest (RN), revealed chlorinated hydrocarbons derived primarily from reactions between a martian oxychlorine phase (e.g. perchlorate) and terrestrial carbon from N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) vapor present in the SAM instrument background. Chlorobenzene (CBZ) was also identified by SAM GCMS at RN at trace levels (approx.0.007 nmol) and was attributed to the reaction of chlorine with the Tenax polymers used in the hydrocarbon traps. After the RN analyses, Curiosity traveled to Yellowknife Bay and drilled two separate holes designated John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB). Analyses of JK and CB by both SAM and the CheMin x-ray diffraction instrument revealed a mudstone consisting of approx.20 wt% smectite clays, which on Earth are known to aid the concentration and preservation of organic matter. In addition, higher abundances and a more diverse suite of chlorinated hydrocarbons in CB compared to RN suggests that martian or meteoritic organic sources may be preserved in the mudstone. Here we discuss the SAM EGA and GCMS measurements of volatiles released from the Sheepbed mudstone. We focus primarily on the elevated CBZ detections at CB and laboratory analog experiments conducted to help determine if CBZ is derived from primarily terrestrial, martian, or a combination of sources.

  6. Martian Chlorobenzene Identified by Curiosity in Yellowknife Bay: Evidence for the Preservation of Organics in a Mudstone on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Mahaffy, P.; Miller, K.; Eigenbrode, J.; Summons, R.; Martin, M.; Franz, H.; Steele, A.; Archer, D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Curiosity rover is designed to determine the inventory of organic and inorganic volatiles thermally evolved from solid samples using a combination of evolved gas analysis (EGA), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS), and tunable laser spectroscopy. The first sample analyzed by SAM at the Rocknest (RN) aeolian deposit revealed chlorohydrocarbons derived primarily from reactions between a martian oxychlorine phase (e.g. perchlorate) and terrestrial carbon from N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) vapor present in the SAM instrument background. No conclusive evidence for martian chlorohydrocarbons in the RN sand was found. After RN, Curiosity traveled to Yellowknife Bay and drilled two holes separated by 2.75 m designated John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB). Analyses of JK and CB by both SAM and the CheMin x-ray diffraction instrument revealed a mudstone (called Sheepbed) consisting of approx.20 wt% smectite clays, which on Earth are known to aid the concentration and preservation of organic matter. Last year at LPSC we reported elevated abundances of chlorobenzene (CBZ) and a more diverse suite of chlorinated hydrocarbons including dichloroalkanes in CB compared to RN, suggesting that martian or meteoritic organic compounds may be preserved in the mudstone. Here we present SAM data from additional analyses of the CB sample and of Confidence Hills (CH), another drill sample collected at the base of Mt. Sharp. This new SAM data along with supporting laboratory analog experiments indicate that most of the chlorobenzene detected in CB is derived from martian organic matter preserved in the mudstone.

  7. Diagenetic evolution and chemical changes of deep-water mudstones of Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Sag, Jiyang Depression, Eastern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tian; Cao, Yingchang; Friis, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    ), which were formed in a lacustrine basin during 43.7-38.2 Ma. Optical microscopy and XRD analysis show that the mudstones are dominated by clay minerals (56.8%) followed by carbonate (18.2 %), quartz (14.9 %), feldspar (8.4 %), pyrite (0.9 %), anhydrite (0.8 %), and total organic carbon (TOC: 2...

  8. The connectivity of pore space in mudstones: insights from high-pressure Wood's metal injection, BIB-SEM imaging, and mercury intrusion porosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, J.; Hemes, S.; Houben, M.; Desbois, G.; Radi, Z.; Urai, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Study of the pore space in mudstones by mercury intrusion porosimetry is a common but indirect technique and it is not clear which part of the pore space is actually filled with mercury. We studied samples from the Opalinus Clay, Boom Clay, Haynesville Shale, and Bossier Shale Formations using

  9. Detailed facies analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Tununk Shale Member, Henry Mountains Region, Utah: Implications for mudstone depositional models in epicontinental seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyang; Schieber, Juergen

    2018-02-01

    Lower-Middle Turonian strata of the Tununk Shale Member of the greater Mancos Shale were deposited along the western margin of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway during the Greenhorn second-order sea level cycle. In order to examine depositional controls on facies development in this mudstone-rich succession, this study delineates temporal and spatial relationships in a process-sedimentologic-based approach. The 3-dimensional expression of mudstone facies associations and their stratal architecture is assessed through a fully integrative physical and biologic characterization as exposed in outcrops in south-central Utah. Sedimentologic characteristics from the millimeter- to kilometer-scale are documented in order to fully address the complex nature of sediment transport mechanisms observed in this shelf muddy environment. The resulting facies model developed from this characterization consists of a stack of four lithofacies packages including: 1) carbonate-bearing, silty and sandy mudstone (CSSM), 2) silt-bearing, calcareous mudstone (SCM), 3) carbonate-bearing, silty mudstone to muddy siltstone (CMS), and 4) non-calcareous, silty and sandy mudstone (SSM). Spatial and temporal variations in lithofacies type and sedimentary facies characteristics indicate that the depositional environments of the Tununk Shale shifted in response to the 2nd-order Greenhorn transgressive-regressive sea-level cycle. During this eustatic event, the Tununk shows a characteristic vertical shift from distal middle shelf to outer shelf (CSSM to SCM facies), then from outer shelf to inner shelf environment (SCM to CMS, and to SSM facies). Shifting depositional environments, as well as changes in dominant paleocurrent direction throughout this succession, indicate multiple source areas and transport mechanisms (i.e. longshore currents, offshore-directed underflows, storm reworking). This study provides a rare documentation of the Greenhorn cycle as exposed across the entire shelf setting

  10. Geology and lithogeochemistry of hydrothermal mudstones from the upper block near the Duck Pond volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit, Newfoundland, Canada: evidence for low-temperature venting into oxygenated mid-Cambrian seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey, Stephen J.; Squires, Gerry; Brace, Terry

    2018-02-01

    Pyrite- and pyrrhotite-rich mudstones are spatially associated with Cambrian ( 512-509 Ma) volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits throughout the Tally Pond group, central Newfoundland, Canada. At the Duck Pond mine, sulfide-rich mudstones are hosted within a weakly mineralized upper block that structurally overlies the deposit but is older ( 513 versus 509 Ma). The mudstones are laminated, 10-30-cm thick, and pyrite- and pyrrhotite-rich and occur along pillow lava selvages, or in between pillow lavas, rhyolite flows, and volcaniclastic rocks. The mudstones are laterally extensive and proximal to the mudstone host rocks are hydrothermally altered to epidote-quartz-chlorite (basalt host) and sericite-quartz (rhyolite host). Lithogeochemical data for the sulfide-rich mudstones reflect the varying contributions of elements from sedimentary detritus, hydrothermal discharge, and hydrogenous scavenging from middle Cambrian seawater. The mudstones have minor detrital element abundances and significant hydrothermal element enrichments (i.e., elevated Fe2O3, S, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ba concentrations, high Fe/Al ratios). The hydrothermal mudstones are also enriched in oxyanions (i.e., P2O5, U, V, Cr, Ni, Co, and Hg), interpreted to have been enriched via oxidative scavenging from seawater by Fe-oxide/oxyhydroxide particles. The mudstones also have REE-Y signatures similar to modern oxygenated seawater with high Y/Ho and negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* = 0.40-0.86; average = 0.58), which correlate with adsorbed oxyanion concentrations. The low Eu/Eu* (1.02-1.86; average = 1.22) in the mudstones suggest that they were deposited from low-temperature (residence time to scavenge oxyanions from seawater and inherit a middle Cambrian seawater signature. The predominant seawater REE-Y-oxyanion signature in the Duck Pond upper block sulfide-rich mudstones suggests that they are distal hydrothermal sedimentary rocks that could have formed up to 10 km from their original vent sources

  11. The Paleo-environmental significance of the iron-formations and iron-rich mudstones of the Mesoarchean Witwatersrand-Mozaan Basin, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.Sc. The Mesoarchean Witwatersrand and Pongola Supergroups of South Africa are the oldest, well preserved supracratonic successions worldwide. Various banded iron formation (BIF) and iron-rich mudstone units occur within the West Rand Group of the Witwatersrand Supergroup and the Mozaan Group of the Pongola Supergroup. A granular iron formation (GIF) occurs in a single unit in the Nconga Formation of the Mozaan Group. The Witwatersrand Supergroup and Mozaan Group have been lithostratigrap...

  12. Distribution of discontinuous mudstone beds within wave-dominated shallow-marine deposits: Star Point Sandstone and Blackhawk Formation, Eastern Utah, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Christian; Buckley, Simon; Howell, John

    2017-01-01

    Deposits of wave-dominated shorelines are typically considered to act as relatively simple hydrocarbon reservoirs and are commonly modeled as “tanks of sand”. However, important heterogeneities that can act as barriers to fluid flow occur at the parasequence, bedset and bed scales, especially in viscous oil or low permeability oil fields. Heterogeneities at the parasequence and bedset scale have been well-studied, but discontinuous mudstone-beds occurring within the shoreface have received li...

  13. Analysis of the saturated hydrocarbon in coal, carbonaceous mudstone and oils from the lower Jurassic coal measures in the Turpan Basin by GC/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xuan; Meng Qianxiang; Sun Minzhuo; Du Li; Ding Wanren

    2005-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbon of coal, carbonaceous mudstone and oils from the Lower Jurassic coal measures in the Turpan basin were studied, and biomarker characteristics and coal thermal maturity analyzed to draw the following conclusions. T here are many similar biomarker characteristics between oil from middle-lower Jurassic of Turpan Basin and coal and carbonaceous mudstone in the same strata. They all contain specific r-lupane, I-norbietane, C 24 -tetracyclic and high content of C 29 -steranes. These characteristics suggest that they have similar matter source of the organic matter derived from matter with abundant high plants. Meanwhile, biomarkers often used to indicate depositional environments characterized by high Pr/Ph ratio, little or no gammacerane and high abundance dibenzofurans, such biomarker distributions are indicative of suboxic and freshwater environment. Although coal and carbonaceous mudstone remain in lower thermal maturity (Ro=0.47-0.53), but C 29 -ββ/(αα+ββ) sterane ratio (0.294-0.489) and bezohopane are detected. Because these ferture are related to bacterial activity, bacterial degradation of organic matter maybe take an important role in coal-derived oil. (authors)

  14. The origin of native selenium microparticles during the oxidation of sideritic mudstones in the Veřovice Formation (Outer Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matýsek Dalibor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles of native selenium were detected in weathered sideritic mudstones of the Veřovice Formation (Aptian of the Silesian Unit (Outer Western Carpatians, NE part of the Czech Republic. This mineral forms small needle-like crystals with lengths of up to 20 μm, and is confined to fissures in sideritic mudstones covered by goethite or rarely also by hydrated Mn-oxide minerals. The oxidized sideritic mudstones show zonal structure and resemble the initial stage of the formation of the so-called rattle stones. From the superposition of phase diagrams of selenium and Fe-oxyhydroxides, Fe apparently occupies a large field in which Se(0 and FeOOH and/or Fe(OH3 can co-exist. The reduction of selenites or selenates by pyrite or by any other phase, capable of charge transfer, is likely to have been responsible for the formation of microparticles of native selenium. The crucial factor controlling the origin of these particles is the extremely low solubility of Se(0. The source of Se is not obvious. It can be released in trace concentrations during the weathering of pyrite. Sediments of the Veřovice Formation correspond to the anoxic event OAE1b and accumulation of siderophile elements in similar sediments is very probable. A probable mechanism for the origin of Se microcrystals is gradual crystallization from solution.

  15. Dawsonite and other carbonate veins in the Cretaceous Izumi Group, SW Japan: a natural support for fracture self-sealing in mud-stone cap-rock in CGS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Yasuko; Funatsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Takashi [Institute for Geo-Resources and environment, GSJ, AISI, 1-1-1 Higashi, Central 7, Tsukuba, ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Take, Shuji [Kishiwada Nature Club, c/o Kishiwada City Natural History Museum, Sakai-Machi 5-6, Kishiwada, Osaka 596-0072 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Dawsonite-bearing carbonate veins are abundant in a compact mud-stone layer of the lower part of the Izumi Group, SW Japan. The mode of occurrence of the veins probably indicates fracturing and mineral sealing associated with upwelling of CO{sub 2}-rich fluid evolved in the reservoir beneath. The carbonate veins studied here can be a natural support to fracturing and healing of mud-stone cap-rock in the CO{sub 2} geological storage. (authors)

  16. The nature of porosity in organic-rich mudstones of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, North Sea, offshore United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Neil S.; Hackley, Paul C.; Lowers, Heather; Hill, Ronald J.; Egenhoff, Sven O.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of organic-rich mudstones from wells that penetrated the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, offshore United Kingdom, were performed to evaluate the nature of both organic and inorganic rock constituents and their relation to porosity in this world-class source rock. The formation is at varying levels of thermal maturity, ranging from immature in the shallowest core samples to mature in the deepest core samples. The intent of this study was to evaluate porosity as a function of both organic macerals and thermal maturity. At least four distinct types of organic macerals were observed in petrographic and SEM analyses and they all were present across the study area. The macerals include, in decreasing abundance: 1) bituminite admixed with clays; 2) elongate lamellar masses (alginite or bituminite) with small quartz, feldspar, and clay entrained within it; 3) terrestrial (vitrinite, fusinite, semifusinite) grains; and 4) Tasmanites microfossils. Although pores in all maceral types were observed on ion-milled surfaces of all samples, the pores (largely nanopores with some micropores) vary as a function of maceral type. Importantly, pores in the macerals do not vary systematically as a function of thermal maturity, insofar as organic pores are of similar size and shape in both the immature and mature Kimmeridge rocks. If any organic pores developed during the generation of hydrocarbons, they were apparently not preserved, possibly because of the highly ductile nature of much of the rock constituents of Kimmeridge mudstones (clays and organic material). Inorganic pores (largely micropores with some nanopores) have been observed in all Kimmeridge mudstones. These pores, particularly interparticle (i.e., between clay platelets), and intraparticle (i.e., in framboidal pyrite, in partially dissolved detrital K-feldspar, and in both detrital and authigenic dolomite) are noteworthy because they compose much of the observable porosity in the shales in both

  17. Characterizing the Phyllosilicate Component of the Sheepbed Mudstone in Gale Crater, Mars Using Laboratory XRD and EGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Archer, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Sutter, B.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Curiosity rover investigated the mineralogy of the Sheepbed mudstone member of the Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale crater. Data from the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffractometer (XRD) helped identify phyllosilicates in the two drilled samples, John Klein and Cumberland. These patterns showed peaks at low angles, consistent with (001) peaks in 2:1 swelling phyllosilicates [1]. Evolved gas analyses (EGA) by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument of these samples confirmed the presence of phyllosilicates through the release of H2O at high temperatures, consistent with dehydroxylation of octahedral OH in phyllosilicates [2]. CheMin data for the phyllosilicates at John Klein and Cumberland show that they are structurally similar in that their (02l) peaks are near 22.5 deg 2theta, suggesting both samples contain trioctahedral 2:1 phyllosilicates [1]. However, the positions of the (001) peaks differ: the phyllosilicate at John Klein has its (001) peak at 10 Angstroms, whereas the phyllosilicate at Cumberland has an (001) peak at 14 Angstroms. Such differences in (001) dspacings can be ascribed to the type of cation in the interlayer site [3]. For example, large monovalent cations (e.g., K(+)) have low hydration energies and readily lose their H2O of hydration, whereas small divalent cations (e.g., Mg(2+)) have high energies of hydration and retain H2O in the phyllosilicate interlayers [3,4]. The goal of this study is to determine whether differences in the interlayer cation composition can explain the CheMin data from John Klein and Cumberland and to use this knowledge to better understand phyllosilicate formation mechanisms.

  18. Effects of smectite to illite transformation on the frictional strength and sliding stability of intact marine mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Demian M.; Lockner, David A.; McKiernan, Alex

    2012-01-01

    At subduction zones, earthquake nucleation and coseismic slip occur only within a limited depth range, known as the “seismogenic zone”. One leading hypothesis for the upper aseismic-seismic transition is that transformation of smectite to illite at ∼100–150°C triggers a change from rate-strengthening frictional behavior that allows only stable sliding, to rate weakening behavior considered a prerequisite for unstable slip. Previous studies on powdered gouges have shown that changes in clay mineralogy alone are unlikely to control this transition, but associated fabric and cementation developed during diagenesis remain possible candidates. We conducted shearing experiments designed specifically to evaluate this hypothesis, by using intact wafers of mudstone from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1174, offshore SW Japan, which have undergone progressive smectite transformation in situ. We sheared specimens along a sawcut in a triaxial configuration, oriented parallel to bedding, at normal stresses of ∼20–150 MPa and a pore pressure of 1 MPa. During shearing, we conducted velocity-stepping tests to measure the friction rate parameter (a-b). Friction coefficient ranges from 0.28–0.40 and values of (a-b) are uniformly positive; both are independent of clay transformation progress. Our work represents the most direct and comprehensive test of the clay transformation hypothesis to date, and suggests that neither illitization, nor accompanying fabric development and cementation, trigger a transition to unstable frictional behavior. We suggest that strain localization, in combination with precipitation of calcite and quartz, is a viable alternative that is consistent with both field observations and recent conceptual models of a heterogeneous seismogenic zone.

  19. Comparative organic petrology of interlayered sandstones, siltstones, mudstones and coals in the Upper Carboniferous Ruhr basin, northwest Germany, and their thermal history and methane generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidt, G.; Littke, R. (Harress Geotechnik GmbH, Floersheim (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    In the coal-mining Ruhr-area, Upper Carboniferous rocks consist of interlayered sandstones, siltstones, mudstones and coals. They were deposited in a tropical, paralic environment where alternating fluvial sedimentation, occasional marine ingressions, and swamp growth resulted in an irregular cyclic succession. The total sedimentary package contains on an average 6 Vol.% of organic manner. About 70 Vol. % of the organic matter occurs in coal seams, the rest as dispersed organic matter in clastic rocks. The organic matter is autochthonous in the coals and allochthonous in associated sandstones and siltstones. It consists of about 70% vitrinite, 20% inertinite, and 10% liptinite. The overall maceral group composition is the same for coals and dispersed organic matter. This surprising similarity is caused by a nearly exclusive input of land-plant derived organic matter to swamps and fluvial systems and a similar degree of preservation. Highest average liptinite contents were found in unrooted mudstones, highest average inertinite contents in coarse-grained siltstones and highest average vitrinite percentages in sandstones. Maturities of the sediments studied are well within the hydrocarbon generation window, e.g. vitrinite reflectivities range from 0.6% to 1.6%. Reflectivities measured on dispersed particles in clastic rocks are similar to those measured in coal seams. Calculations of the amount of methane generated indicate that coal seams contributed more to the total hydrocarbon generation than dispersed organic matter. 51 refs., 13 figs.

  20. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: An offshore transgressive–regressive mudstone-dominated succession from the Sinemurian of Skåne, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A Sinemurian mudstone-dominated succession was exposed until recently in the Gantofta quarry in Skåne, southern Sweden. The deposits are placed in the Döshult and Pankarp Members of the Sinemurian–Aalenian Rya Formation. Similar facies of the same age are widespread in the Danish Basin where they constitute the F-Ib unit (F-I member of the Fjerritslev Formation. The Gantofta succession thus represents the easternmost extension of the environment characteristic of the Fjerritslev Formation and is essentially the only locality where it has been possible tostudy the facies of this formation in outcrop. Sedimentation seems to have taken place under relatively quiet tectonic conditions except for the possible fault-control of the basin margin. Thelower part of the Gantofta section is of Early and early Late Sinemurian age. It represents the upper part of the Döshult Member and consists of muddy, lower shoreface sandstones, abruptlyoverlain by dark, bioturbated, fossiliferous mudstones with thin storm siltstones and sandstones. They are overlain by the Upper Sinemurian Pankarp Member which comprises red-brown, restricted marine calcareous mudstones with an upwards increasing number of storm siltstones and sandstones reflecting general shallowing and shoreline progradation.The succession spans the greater part of two simple sequences with a distal sequence boundary located at the boundary between the Döshult Member and the Pankarp Member. The exposed part of the lower sequence includes a thick transgressive systems tract and a very thin highstand systems tract. The upper sequence is represented by an undifferentiated transgressive and highstand systems tract. An Early Sinemurian sea-level rise, a late Early Sinemurian highstand, an early Late Sinemurian fall and a Late Sinemurian minor rise and a major fall are recognised. Nearby boreholes show evidence for an end-Sinemurian – Early Pliensbachian major rise. This evolution corresponds well with

  1. High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: depth- and strata-dependent spatial variability from rock-core sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently

  2. The occurrence, origin and stratigraphic significance of bone-bearing mudstone pellet conglomerates from the Beaufort group in the Jansenville district, Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    The lack of useful lithostratigraphic markers in the Beaufort Group in the southern Karoo Basin has focused attention on the biostratigraphy of the sediments. As a result a more refined scheme of biostratigraphic classification is now possible which may prove useful in fixing the stratigraphic position of the uranium mineralized horizons. The most important mineralized horizon in the Beaufort West area (contains about 90 per cent of all known uranium occurrences) is associated with the Pristerognathus/Diictodon assemblage zone, but the way in which this relates to the important uranium occurrences farther east, between Graaff-Reinet and Jansenville, is uncertain because of the lack of biostratigraphic control. Vertebrate remains have recently been found in mudstone pellet conglomerates in Beaufort channel sandstones along the Bullrivier in the Jansenville District, in an area that is extensively mineralized. The sandstones were deposited as point bar sands within a meandering river system flowing towards the north-east. The rivers drained a dry, arid to semi-arid alluvial plain and were characterized by fluctuating discharge and periods of low or negligible flow. These conditions promoted flood scour and fill activity and the deposition of internal mudstone pellet conglomerates. Hydrodynamic considerations suggest that estimates of bone transport velocity from their hydrodynamically equivalent quartz sphere is of limited value and can seldom, if ever, be applied to fossil bone accumulations. Identification of the bones from the conglomerates indicates that they belong to the Dino-cephalia biozone and not the overlying Pristerognathus/Diictodon zone. This suggests that the lower part of the Beaufort succession (formerly the Tapinocephalus zone) extends farther east than previously thought, and that the main mineralized horizon in this area occurs lower down in the succession than that around Beaufort West

  3. 欠压实泥岩顶底板形成机理及其对油气运移的影响%Formation Mechanism of the Undercompacting Mudstone's Roof and Floor and Their Influence on Hydrocarbon Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冲; 邹华耀; 汪斌

    2012-01-01

    欠压实泥岩顶底板是指比中部欠压实泥岩较致密的泥岩表层,是趋于正常压实的泥岩层,发育于低渗透率的厚层泥岩的上、下部位.以低速渗流定律为理论基础,从微观机理上分析欠压实泥岩顶底板的形成过程,提出穿过欠压实泥岩顶底板流体运移阻力的计算公式.当含顶底板泥岩作为盖层时,分为连续沉积型、抬升型和压裂型3种.压裂型泥岩盖层的封闭能力等于底板排替压力与达到顶板破裂的剩余压力之和,其他两种盖层的封闭能力就等于盖层顶底板的排替压力之和.当含顶底板泥岩作为源岩时,在连续型源岩中,油气排放的方向主要取决于泥岩顶底板渗透性地层的发育程度;在压裂型源岩中,大量油气沿裂缝向上排烃.此外,源岩的排烃方向还受断层的控制.通过欠压实泥岩顶底板形成机理的研究,有助于评价泥岩盖层的封烃能力,了解泥质烃源岩油气初次运移的方向.%Undercompacting mudstone's roof and floor (UMRF) are the mudstone surface layers that are tighter than the central undercompaction, and are close to the normal compacting mudstone. UMRF develops in upper and lower parts of thick-layered mudstone with low permeability. This paper, by the Laws of Low-speed Flow, analyzed formation process of the UMRF from the microscopic mechanism, and proposed the resistance force formula of the fluid passing UMRF. The mudstone with the UMRF as a cap rock, can be divided into three types; the continuous sedimentary type, the uplift type and the fracture type. The sealing ability of the fracture type mudstone cap rock is equal to the floor's displacement pressure plus the roofs overpressure when it breaks down. The other two types of mudstone cap rocks' sealing abilities are equal to the floor's displacement pressure plus the roofs displacement pressure. When the mudstone with the UMRF as a source rock, in the continuous type, the expulsion direction

  4. Orbital- to Sub-Orbital-Scale Cyclicity in Seismic Reflections and Sediment Character in Early to Middle Pleistocene Mudstone, Santa Barbara Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. D.; Behl, R. J.; Nicholson, C.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Sorlien, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection records and well logs from the Santa Barbara Channel suggest that large parts of the Pleistocene succession records climate variability on orbital to sub-orbital scales with remarkable sensitivity, much like the well-studied sediments of the last glacial cycle (ODP Site 893). Spectral analysis of seismic reflection data and gamma ray logs from stratigraphically similar Pleistocene sections finds similar cyclic character and shifts through the section. This correlation suggests that acoustic impedance and physical properties of sediment are linked by basin-scale, likely climatically-driven, oscillations in lithologic composition and fabric during deposition, and that seismic profiling can provide a method for remote identification and correlation of orbital- and sub-orbital-scale sedimentary cyclicity. Where it crops out along the northern shelf of the central Santa Barbara Channel, the early to middle Pleistocene succession (~1.8-1.2 Ma) is a bathyal hemipelagic mudstone with remarkably rhythmic planar bedding, finely laminated fabric, and well-preserved foraminifera, none of which have been significantly altered, or obscured by post-depositional diagenesis or tectonic deformation. Unlike the coarser, turbiditic successions in the central Ventura and Los Angeles basins, this sequence has the potential to record Quaternary global climate change at high resolution. Seismic reflection data (towed chirp) collected on the R/V Melville 2008 Cruise (MV08) penetrate 10's of meters below seafloor into a ~1 km-long sequence of south-dipping seismic reflectors. Sampling parallel to the seafloor permits acquisition of consistent signal amplitude for similar reflectors without spreading loss. Based on established age ranges for this section, sedimentation rates may range from 0.4 to 1.4 meters/kyr, therefore suggesting that the most powerful cycles are orbital- to sub-orbital-scale. Discrete sets of cycles with high power show an abrupt shift

  5. Age and speciation of iodine in groundwater and mudstones of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for the origin and migration of iodine during basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Yoko S.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Amano, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Terada, Yasuko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ito, Kazumasa; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the concentration, speciation and isotope ratio (129I/127I) of iodine from both groundwater and host rocks in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, to clarify the origin and migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks. Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary rocks deposited nearly horizontally in Tenpoku Basin and in the Horonobe area were uplifted above sea level during active tectonics to form folds and faults in the Quaternary. Samples were collected from the Pliocene Koetoi and late Miocene Wakkanai formations (Fms), which include diatomaceous and siliceous mudstones. The iodine concentration in groundwater, up to 270 μmol/L, is significantly higher than that of seawater, with the iodine enrichment factor relative to seawater reaching 800-1500. The iodine concentration in the rocks decreases from the Koetoi to Wakkanai Fms, suggesting that iodine was released into the water from the rocks of deeper formations. The iodine concentration in the rocks is sufficiently high for forming iodine-rich groundwater as found in this area. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis shows that iodine exists as organic iodine and iodide (I-) in host rocks, whereas it exists mainly as I- in groundwater. The isotope ratio is nearly constant for iodine in the groundwater, at [0.11-0.23] × 10-12, and it is higher for iodine in rocks, at [0.29-1.1] × 10-12, giving iodine ages of 42-60 Ma and 7-38 Ma, respectively. Some iodine in groundwater must have originated from Paleogene and even late Cretaceous Fms, which are also considered as possible sources of oil and gas, in view of the old iodine ages of the groundwater. The iodine ages of the rocks are older than the depositional ages, implying that the rocks adsorbed some iodine from groundwater, which was sourced from greater depths. The iodine concentration in groundwater decreases with decreasing chlorine concentration due to mixing of iodine-rich connate water and meteoric water. A likely scenario

  6. Estudo de fundente e argilito com potencial para uso em formulações de porcelanato Study of flux and mudstone with potential for using in porcelainized stoneware tile compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Hoffmann

    2012-06-01

    baixas. Composições com ambas as matérias-primas apresentaram baixos valores de absorção de água ( 45 MPa, apesar de maior deformação piroplástica a 1150 ºC.The porcelain tile is distinguished in the current market for ceramic tiles, with excellent technical and esthetic characteristics. In the present study traditional ceramic raw materials were selected and a standard formulation conventionally reported in the literature was adopted aiming to replace the melting phase (feldspar of the composition for a raw material that forms liquid phase at high temperature, and replacement of the clay fraction by a mudstone of lower refractoriness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these materials as alternative techniques and lower cost, since, in a mass of porcelain tile, the amount of flux is very large (representing approximately 50% of total raw materials used. The nepheline syenite was the natural raw material selected to replace the feldspar due to the fact that it belongs to the family of feldspathoids, and has similar physicochemical characteristics, therefore, a high fluxing efficiency. To replace the clay fraction was chosen a mudstone naturally occurring, abundant in the region of Santa Gertrudes, SP. Substitutions to the feldspar and clay fraction were completely and/or partially by means of combinations between the flux and mudstones. The masses were processed from the mixing of powders, wet milling, drying, disagglomeration, compaction and firing. In addition to the vitrification curves, techniques such as dilatometry, measurements of porosity, flexure strength test, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the material after firing at various temperatures. The results showed that, in principle, it is possible the combination of raw materials such as nepheline and mudstone to replace potassium feldspar and S. Simão clay, as they provide the vitrification at lower temperatures. Compositions with both materials showed

  7. Organic molecules in the Sheepbed Mudstone, Gale Crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Miller, K. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Summons, R. E.; Brunner, A. E.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Archer, P. D.; Franz, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Conrad, P. G.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dworkin, J. P.; Fairén, A. G.; François, P.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Kashyap, S.; ten Kate, I. L.; Leshin, L. A.; Malespin, C. A.; Martin, M. G.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Mcadam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A. A.; Prats, B. D.; Squyres, S. W.; Steele, A.; Stern, J. C.; Sumner, D. Y.; Sutter, B.; Zorzano, M. P.

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover is designed to conduct inorganic and organic chemical analyses of the atmosphere and the surface regolith and rocks to help evaluate the past and present habitability potential of Mars at Gale Crater.

  8. Consolidation properties of the mudstones from the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.J.; Hobbs, P.; Horseman, S.T.

    1983-03-01

    Long term high stress consolidation tests have been performed on samples of Oxford Clay, Gault clay, Kimmeridge clay and Lower Lias clay from beneath the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Oxfordshire. In addition to calculating the modulus of volume change and the coefficient of consolidation for each sample, reconstruction of the true one-dimensional consolidation behaviour has been attempted. One dimensional vertical permeabilities have been calculated for samples of Oxford Clay and are compared with those measured by hydraulic testing. Tests were performed in a specially modified oedometer cell using an adapted Denison dead weight loading system in order to produce the required high consolidation stresses. Only one sample, that of Kimmeridge Clay, gave a classical and easily interpretable, consolidation curve, and because of this the OCR (Overconsolidation Ratio) values from other curves have been corrected with respect to this one. This discrepancy between laboratory derived OCRs (OCRLAB) and those calculated from geological information (OCRGEOL) is interesting and is ascribed in this report to apparent overconsolidation caused by secondary compression. Hydraulic conductivities calculated from the oedometer tests at the in situ stresses expected in the Oxford Clay at 273 m depth lie in the range from 4.6 to 5.4 x 10 -12 ms -1 . (author)

  9. Fracture-fault network characterization of pavement imagery of the Whitby Mudstone, Yorkshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Quinten; Hardebol, Nico; Houben, Maartje; Barnhoorn, Auke; Drury, Martyn

    2015-04-01

    Natural fractures play an important role in the hydrocarbon production from tight reservoirs. The need for fracture network pathways by fraccing matters particularly for shale gas prospects, due to their micro- to nano-darcies matrix permeabilities. The study of natural fractures from outcrops helps to better understand network connectivity and possibility of reactivating pre-existing planes of weakness, induced by hydraulic stimulation. Microseismicity also show that natural fractures are reactivated during fraccing in tight gas reservoirs and influence the success of the stimulation. An accurate understanding of natural fracture networks can help in predicting the development of fracture networks. In this research we analyze an outcrop analogue, the Whitby Mustone Formation (WMF), in terms of its horizontal fracture network. The WMF is the time equivalent of the Posidonia Shale Formation (PSF), which on itself is the main shale gas prospect in the Dutch subsurface. The fracture network of the WMF is characterized by a system of steep dipping joints with two dominant directions with N-S and E-W strike. The network was digitized from bird-view imagery of the pavement with a spatial extent of ~100 m at sub-cm resolution. The imagery is interpreted in terms of orientation and length distributions, intensity and fractal dimensions. Samples from the field were analyzed for rock strength and sample mineralogy. The results indicate that the fracture networks greatly differ per bed. Observed differences are for example; the geometry of the fracture network, its cumulative length distribution law, the fracture intensity, the fracture length vs its orientation and the fractal dimension. All these parameters greatly influence fracture network connectivity, the probability that longer fractures exist within the pavement and whether the network is more prone to clustering or scattering. Apart from the differences, the networks display a fairly similar orthogonal arrangement with dominant large (> 5-10 m) N-S striking fractures and smaller E-W striking cross-joints (< 2-3 m). A nested network arrangement is indicated by some smaller-scale N-S fractures abutting against the E-W striking ones. Furthermore, abutment relations provide some constraints on relative time. Timing indications with respect to burial-exhumation are difficult to establish. Some joints are cemented and measurable from the high-resolution imagery. The vein measurements helped establishing a first order relation between the fracture aperture with respect to their length and confirm that longer fractures have a wider aperture. The above stated parameters and results all prove to be very valuable information which can help predict the geometries of the different fracture networks present within the PSF. It is important to understand the possible mechanisms which can cause these differences in fracture network characteristics. Bulk lithological variations between beds are minor, mainly consisting of clay minerals. Furthermore, some quartz and pyrite is present in all samples and TOC is present in variable amounts. However, the occurrence of concretions up to 0.5m in size correlates with notable differences in distinct network arrangement. Therefore it appears that the presence of these concretions greatly alters the overall strength of the rock, hence the fracture network geometry.

  10. Spatial Variability of Organic Carbon in a Fractured Mudstone and Its Effect on the Retention and Release of Trichloroethene (TCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole-Mari, G.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.

    2016-12-01

    Random Walk Particle Tracking (RWPT) coupled with Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) has been recently proposed to simulate reactive transport in porous media. KDE provides an optimal estimation of the area of influence of particles which is a key element to simulate nonlinear chemical reactions. However, several important drawbacks can be identified: (1) the optimal KDE method is computationally intensive and thereby cannot be used at each time step of the simulation; (2) it does not take advantage of the prior information about the physical system and the previous history of the solute plume; (3) even if the kernel is optimal, the relative error in RWPT simulations typically increases over time as the particle density diminishes by dilution. To overcome these problems, we propose an adaptive branching random walk methodology that incorporates the physics, the particle history and maintains accuracy with time. The method allows particles to efficiently split and merge when necessary as well as to optimally adapt their local kernel shape without having to recalculate the kernel size. We illustrate the advantage of the method by simulating complex reactive transport problems in randomly heterogeneous porous media.

  11. Development of high sensitivity gamma and beta sensors for in situ diffusion tests in the mudstone in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    The precise monitoring of radiotracers, for example used for medical imaging, for the storage of ultimate waste, or for certain industrial applications can be a very complex subject. The development of low-noise sensors with long-term stability and high geometric flexibility were engaged by the AXINT company. (Hautefeuille, et al., 2006). My PhD thesis was focused on experiments in the diffusion of radiotracers, typically to monitor the possible leakage of radioactive products from the geological repositories. We focuses on the study of the "2"2Na and "3"6Cl ion diffusion, which is one of the highest cation and anions diffusion rate in geological medium, as well as actinides, which represent the majority of the radioactive elements of Stored nuclear waste. This thesis is in continuity with the research carried out by ANDRA (National Agency for Radioactive Waste), under contract with the laboratory ILM (Institute Light Matter), of which AXINT is the main subcontractor. The present project describes the research work that foreseen the radiation impact on the environment for the coming years during the deep disposal of nuclear waste. Our work focus on the investigation and quantification of the radionuclide diffusion through the geological clay barriers. A new in situ experiment was considered by Andra for the study of the radionuclide migration. Compared to previous experiments, this new in situ diffusion test required longer distance (hundreds of mm), longer time-scale (over 10 years), and real time in situ monitoring of radionuclides migration. To fulfill these conditions, the work was organized as following: 1: Conception and dimensional design of the Diffusion of Radio Nuclide (DRN) experiments in solving emission of beta and gamma radiations 2: Development of corresponding beta and gamma monitoring systems by means of sensors located in peripheral boreholes. (author) [fr

  12. The Deuterium to Hydrogen Ratio in the Water that Formed the Yellowknife Bay Mudstones in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Brunner, Anna E.; Webster, Chris R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Mcadam, Amy Catherine; Stern, Jennifer Claire; Leshin, Laurie Ann; Navarro-Gonzales, Rafael; Jones, J.; Kashyap, Srishti

    2014-01-01

    A suite of isotope ratios of light elements in the present martian atmosphere (13C/12C, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, 38Ar/36Ar, and D/H) are all substantially enriched in the heavy element suggesting atmospheric loss to space over the past billions of years with preferential loss of the lighter isotope from each pair. In situ measurements from MSL's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument [e.g. 1,2,3] have considerably refined previous measurements from the Viking mass spectrometers [e.g. 4], from remote spectroscopic observations [e.g. 5,6], and from martian meteorite studies [e.g. 7,8]. The persistence of habitable environments such as the ancient Yellowknife Bay lake recently revealed by measurements from the Curiosity rover [9] depends on the surface temperatures and the duration of an atmosphere thicker than that at present. Current and planned measurements from orbit with the Mars Express and MAVEN missions respectively intend to study the processes of atmospheric escape including solar wind interaction, sputtering, thermal escape, and dissociative recombination, and determine or refine the current rate of atmospheric loss caused by these and other mechanisms. The goal of these programs is to understand the physical processes sufficiently well so that robust extrapolations over the past billions of years can be made D/H is measured by both the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) and the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) of the SAM suite. to predict the atmospheric and surface conditions on early Mars. However, the study of the history of martian atmospheric evolution will be greatly facilitated if we are able to also directly measure the isotopic composition of volatiles captured in rocks that are representative of the ancient atmosphere. To date, D/H is one of the most promising candidates for this study since water is the most abundant volatile thermally released from the Yellowknife Bay phylosilicates discovered by the SAM and CheMin experiments of MSL and its

  13. Active silica sources in the Sele formation and quartz cementation in mudstone-Examples from the Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan B.

    shale to document the diagenetic steps which releases silica and to evaluate the possible timing of the silica export from the shale into neighbouring sandstones. The major silica mobilization occur at shallow depths, related to the transformation of biogenic opal and volcanic ash, and at intermediate...... depths, related to the dissolution of opal-CT and zeolite.  At these processes, the shale may have been active silica exported.  Reported sandstone cementation patterns indicate the earlier phase is related to major export of silica, whereas the shale itself was the major consumer during the intermediate...

  14. Update on the Chemical Composition Of Crystalline, Smectite, and Amorphous Components for Rocknest Soil and John Klein and Cumberland Mudstone Drill Fines at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Rampe, E. B.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We have previously calculated the chemical compositions of the X-ray-diffraction (XRD) amorphous component of three solid samples (Rocknest (RN) soil, John Klein (JK) drill fines, and Cumberland (CB) drill fines) using major-element chemistry (APXS), volatile-element chemistry (SAM), and crystalline- phase mineralogy (CheMin) obtained by the Curiosity rover as a part of the ongoing Mars Science Laboratory mission in Gale Crater. According to CheMin analysis, the RN and the JK and CB samples are mineralogically distinct in that RN has no detectable clay minerals and both JK and CB have significant concentrations of high-Fe saponite. The chemical composition of the XRD amorphous component is the composition remaining after mathematical removal of the compositions of crystalline components, including phyllosilicates if present. Subsequent to, we have improved the unit cell parameters for Fe-forsterite, augite, and pigeonite, resulting in revised chemical compositions for the XRD-derived crystalline component (excluding clay minerals). We update here the calculated compositions of amorphous components using these revised mineral compositions.

  15. The validity of generic trends on multiple scales in rock-physical and rock-mechanical properties of the Whitby Mudstone, United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, L.A.N.R.; Primarini, M.I.W.; Houben, M.E.; Barnhoorn, A.

    Finding generic trends in mechanical and physical rock properties will help to make predictions of the rock-mechanical behaviour of shales. Understanding the rock-mechanical behaviour of shales is important for the successful development of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. This paper presents

  16. Configuration of the mudstones, gray- and coffee-colored shale lithologic units, zones of silica and epidote, and their relation to the tectonics of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobo R, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Based on well cuttings, five lithological units have been recognized within the area of what is now the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. These five units are described. Differences in origin, mineralogy, grading, color, compaction, etc., are shown.

  17. Study on U-Ra equilibrium coefficient of the in-situ leaching sandstone-type uranium deposits: A case study of Qianjiadian uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Xiu Qunye; Han Jun; Li Linqiang; Zheng Jiwei

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the U-Ra equilibrium coefficient (K-p) of mineralized sandstone and mudstone, and unmineralized sandstone and mudstone for the in-situ leaching sandstone-type uranium deposits. It is surprised that all of the mineralized sandstone and mudstone are both relatively to be partial to uranium, but all of the unmineralized sandstone and mudstone are both relatively to be partial to radium. Meanwhile the uranium in mineralized mudstone is relatively richer than that in mineralized sandstone, and the radium in unmineralized mudstone is relatively richer than that in unmineralized sandstone. It is suggested that mudstones were permeable at the uranium mineralized phase and the unmineralized mudstone and sandstone could serve as important mineralized uranium source. (authors)

  18. Numerical Simulation on Open Wellbore Shrinkage and Casing Equivalent Stress in Bedded Salt Rock Stratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most salt rock has interbed of mudstone in China. Owing to the enormous difference of mechanical properties between the mudstone interbed and salt rock, the stress-strain and creep behaviors of salt rock are significantly influenced by neighboring mudstone interbed. In order to identify the rules of wellbore shrinkage and casings equivalent stress in bedded salt rock stratum, three-dimensional finite difference models were established. The effects of thickness and elasticity modulus of mudstone interbed on the open wellbore shrinkage and equivalent stress of casing after cementing operation were studied, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of open wellbore and equivalent stress of casings decreases with the increase of mudstone interbed thickness. The increasing of elasticity modulus will reduce the shrinkage of open wellbore and casing equivalent stress. Research results can provide the scientific basis for the design of mud density and casing strength.

  19. Late Miocene radiolarian biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of Sawai Bay formation, Neill Island, Andamans, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Srinivasan, M.S.

    Late Miocene radiolarian zones are encountered from mudstone strata of Sawai Bay Formation, Neill Island, Andamans. Percentage data of forty-five coarser taxonomic groups of radiolarians were subjected to Q-mode cluster analysis. Based...

  20. comparison of authigenic minerals in sandstones and interbedded

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Mechanically compacted mudstones, siltstones and shales expelled large ... quartz, and (16) hydrocarbon migration; pyrite and apatite precipitation [1, 7, 12]. ... relationship of the authigenic minerals, burial history and fluid inclusions studies.

  1. Traces in the dark: sedimentary processes and facies gradients in the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenhoff, Sven O.; Fishman, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Black, organic-rich rocks of the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, a world-class petroleum source rock in the Williston Basin of the United States and Canada, contain a diverse suite of mudstone lithofacies that were deposited in distinct facies belts. The succession consists of three discrete facies associations (FAs). These comprise: 1) siliceous mudstones; 2) quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones; and 3) macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones. These FAs were deposited in three facies belts that reflect proximal to distal relationships in this mudstone system. The macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones (FA 3) occur in the proximal facies belt and contain erosion surfaces, some with overlying conodont and phosphate–lithoclast lag deposits, mudstones with abundant millimeter-scale siltstone laminae showing irregular lateral thickness changes, and shell debris. In the medial facies belt, quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate, exhibiting sub-millimeter-thick siltstone layers with variable lateral thicknesses and localized mudstone ripples. In the distal siliceous mudstone facies belt, radiolarites, radiolarian-bearing mudstones, and quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate. Overall, total organic carbon (TOC) contents range between about 3 and 10 wt %, with a general proximal to distal decrease in TOC content. Abundant evidence of bioturbation exists in all FAs, and the lithological and TOC variations are paralleled by changes in burrowing style and trace-fossil abundance. While two horizontal traces and two types of fecal strings are recognized in the proximal facies belt, only a single horizontal trace fossil and one type of fecal string characterize mudstones in the distal facies belt. Radiolarites intercalated into the most distal mudstones are devoid of traces and fecal strings. Bedload transport processes, likely caused by storm-induced turbidity

  2. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    , and the best reservoir properties are typically found in mudstone intervals. Chalk mudstones vary a lot though. The best mudstones are purely calcitic, well sorted and may have been redeposited by traction currents. Other mudstones are rich in very fine grained silica, which takes up pore space and thus...... basin, so stylolite formation in the chalk is controlled by effective burial stress. The stylolites are zones of calcite dissolution and probably are the source of calcite for porefilling cementation which is typical in water zone chalk and also affect the reservoirs to different extent. The relatively...... have hardly any stylolites and can have porosity above 40% or even 50% and thus also have relatively high permeability. Such intervals have the problem though, that increasing effective stress caused by hydrocarbon production results in mechanical compaction and overall subsidence. Most other chalk...

  3. Hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary rock, Newark Basin, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Burton, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary bedrock at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Trenton, New Jersey, a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated site in the Newark Basin, is developed using an understanding of the geologic history of the strata, gamma-ray logs, and rock cores. NAWC is the newest field research site established as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, and DoD Environmental Security Technology Certification Program to investigate contaminant remediation in fractured rock. Sedimentary bedrock at the NAWC research site comprises the Skunk Hollow, Byram, and Ewing Creek Members of the Lockatong Formation and Raven Rock Member of the Stockton Formation. Muds of the Lockatong Formation that were deposited in Van Houten cycles during the Triassic have lithified to form the bedrock that is typical of much of the Newark Basin. Four lithotypes formed from the sediments include black, carbon-rich laminated mudstone, dark-gray laminated mudstone, light-gray massive mudstone, and red massive mudstone. Diagenesis, tectonic compression, off-loading, and weathering have altered the rocks to give some strata greater hydraulic conductivity than other strata. Each stratum in the Lockatong Formation is 0.3 to 8 m thick, strikes N65 degrees E, and dips 25 degrees to 70 degrees NW. The black, carbon-rich laminated mudstone tends to fracture easily, has a relatively high hydraulic conductivity and is associated with high natural gamma-ray count rates. The dark-gray laminated mudstone is less fractured and has a lower hydraulic conductivity than the black carbon-rich laminated mudstone. The light-gray and the red massive mudstones are highly indurated and tend to have the least fractures and a low hydraulic conductivity. The differences in gamma-ray count rates for different mudstones allow gamma-ray logs to be used to correlate and

  4. Geomechanical and petrophysical properties of mudrocks: introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Rutter, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Mudstones (shales) are of particular importance as the source rocks for oil and gas, and increasingly so as the reservoirs for unconventional hydrocarbons. They are also the most common sedimentary rocks on Earth, and, hence, are frequently encountered in excavations and foundations for buildings. These factors point to a pressing need to develop an increased fundamental understanding of their geomechanical and petrophysical properties. The mineral content of mudstones has a dominant effect o...

  5. Stratigraphy of Eocene Sediments in the Soutwest Thrace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin SÜMENGEN

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The area concerned is situated in the Gelibolu peninsula, north of the Saros Bay and northwest of the Marmara sea sediments of Upper Cretaceous to Miocene age, having a variety of fades crop out SW of Thrace. During the present survey, the goal was to examine the stratigraphic features of the Eocene sediments in the region. The Tertiary basin is underlain by an ophiolitic complex emplaced prior to Maastrichtian and limestone of Maastrichtian to Palaeocene age. The base of the limestone is not exposed within the region. The Tertiary transgression began in the Early Eocene in the Gelibolu peninsula. Massive mudstones, sandstone sequences that become thicker and coarser upward, and channel fill sediments are the first products of this transgression (Karaağaç limanı formation. This sequence is overlain by deltaic sediments beginning with massive mudstones and becoming thicker and coarser upward (Koyun limanı formation. These sediments are conformably and transitionally overlain by interbedded mudstone and sandstone, cut by channel fill deposits (Rcitepe formation. This formation was formed by meandering rivers. The sea that progressed inward to the Gelibolu peninsula during the Early Eocene began to become shallower again at the beginning of Lutetian and as a result, the region as a whole became a positive area during the Middle Lutetian. During the Late Lutetian, a new transgression occurred in the entire region. The first product of this transgression was a limestone (Soğucak formation. This limestone which was deposited in a shallow sea environment is locally intercalated with sandstone and conglomerate. The sea became deeper from the beginning of Upper Eocene. Firstly, turbiditic sandstone, and mudstone interbedded hemipelagic mudstone (Gaziköy formation with tuff, and carbonate mudstone and massive mudstone (Burgaz formation were deposited. These units are products of flat basins. These are, in turn, overlain by sequences consisting of

  6. Geochemical evidences for palaeoclimatic fluctuations at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: southwestern margin of the Neotethys in the Salt Range, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Wagreich, Michael; Jan, Irfanullah; Kürschner, Wolfram Michael; Gier, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval reveals a change from warm-arid to a warm and humid climate in the Tethyan domain. Sea-level reconstruction records across the European basins during this interval reveal an end-Triassic global regression event and is linked to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) activity and Pangaea breakup. In the Tethyan Salt Range of Pakistan a succession of Upper Triassic dolomites/green-black mudstones (Kingriali Formation), overlying quartzose sandstone, mudstones, laterites and Lower Jurassic conglomerates/pebbly sandstones (Datta Formation) provides information on the palaeoclimatic evolution of the area. Preliminary palynological results from the mudstones indicate a Rhaetian age for the Kingriali Formation and a Hettangian age for the Datta Formation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the mudstones (upper part of the Kingriali Formation) indicates the presence of mainly illite while kaolinite is a minor component. The kaolinite content, a reflection of the advanced stage of chemical weathering and hence warm-humid conditions, increases up-section in the overlying sandstone-mudstone succession. The overlying laterite-bauxite horizons lack illite/smectite and are entirely composed of kaolinite, boehmite and haematite. At places these kaolinite rich horizons are mined in the area (Western Salt Range). The bulk rock geochemistry of the succession confirms a similar trend. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) displays an increasing trend from the Upper Triassic shales (CIA 75-80) through the overlying sandstones/mudstones-laterites to the overlying quartz rich sandstones and mudstones (CIA 90-97). The overall results for the succession reveal an increasing chemical maturity trend (increase in the intensity of chemical weathering) from Rhaetian to Hettangian thereby supporting a change from warm-arid to a warm-humid palaeoclimate, probably extreme greenhouse conditions.

  7. Karoo airborne geophysical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.J.; Stettler, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty four uranium anomalies were selected for ground follow-up from the analogue spectrometer records of Block 4 of the Karoo Airborne Geophysical Survey. The anomalies were plotted on 1:50 000 scale topographic maps and to 1:250 000 scale maps which are included in this report. The anomaly co-ordinates are tabulated together with the farms on which they occur. Results of the ground follow-up of the aerial anomalies are described. Twenty two anomalies are related to uranium mineralisation of which seventeen occur over baked mudstone adjacent to a dolerite intrusion. Five are located over fluvial channel sandstone of the Beaufort Group and subsurface mineralised sandstone may be present. The other twelve anomalies are spurious. Of the anomalies located over baked mudstone, fifteen emanate from ferruginous mudstone of the Whitehill Formation west of longitude 21 degrees 15 minutes. One of the two remaining anomalies over baked mudstone occurs over the Prince Albert Formation and the other anomaly is over baked mudstone and calcareous nodules of the Beaufort Group. The general low uranium values (less than 355 ppm eU3O8) render the occurrences uneconomic

  8. Sedimentology of SPICE (Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion): A high-resolution trace fossil and microfabric analysis of the middle to late Cambrian Alum Shale Formation, southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenhoff, Sven; Fishman, Neil; Ahlberg, Per; Maletz, Jorg; Jackson, Allison; Kolte, Ketki; Lowers, Heather; Mackie, James; Newby, Warren; Petrowsky, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The Cambrian Alum Shale Formation in the Andrarum-3 core from Scania, southern Sweden, consists of black siliciclastic mudstone with minor carbonate intercalations. Four facies comprise three siliciclastic mudstones and one fine-grained carbonate. The facies reflect deposition along a transect from deep ramp to basin on a Cambrian shelf. The three mudstone facies contain abundant clay clasts and laterally variable siltstone laminae. Bed-load transport processes seem to have dominated deposition on this deep shelf. These sedimentary rocks record mainly event deposition, and only relatively few, thin laminae probably resulted from suspension settling. The Alum Shale Formation deep shelf did not show a bioturbation gradient, but fecal strings are common and Planolites burrows are rare in all mudstone facies. Evidence for biotic colonization indicates that this mudstone environment was not persistently anoxic, but rather was most likely intermittently dysoxic. The Alum Shale Formation in the Andrarum-3 core shows an overall decrease of grain size, preserved energy indicators, and carbonate content upsection interpreted to reflect a deepening upward. The succession can also be divided into four small-scale fining-upward cycles that represent deepening, and four overlying coarsening-upward cycles that represent upward shallowing.

  9. Possible Significance of Early Paleozoic Fluctuations in Bottom Current Intensity, Northwest Iapetus Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Gary G.

    1986-06-01

    Sedimentologic and geochemical characteristics of red and green deep water mudstone exposed in the central Appalachian orogen define climatically-induced fluctuations in bottom current intensity along the northwest flank of the Iapetus Ocean in Early and Middle Ordovician time. Red mudstone accumulated under the influence of moderate to vigorous bottom current velocities in oxygenated bottom water produced during climatically cool periods. Interbedded green mudstone accumulated at greater sedimentation rates, probably from turbidity currents, under the influence of reduced thermohaline circulation during global warming periods. The close association of green mudstone and carbonate turbidites of Early Ordovician (late Tremadocian to early Arenigian) age suggests that a major warming phase occurred at this time. Increasing temperatures reduced bottom current velocities and resulted in increased production of carbonate sediment and organic carbon on the carbonate platform of eastern North America. Much of the excess carbonate sediment and organic carbon was transported into deep water by turbidity currents. Although conclusive evidence is lacking, this eustatic event may reflect a climatic warming phase that followed the postulated glacio-eustatic Black Mountain event. Subsequent Middle Ordovician fluctuations in bottom current intensity recorded by thin red-green mudstone couplets probably reflect periodic growth and shrinkage of an ice cap rather than major glacial episodes.

  10. Volatile and Organic Compositions of Sedimentary Rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Archer, P. D.; Glavin, D. P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Sutter, B.; Brunner, A. E.; Stern, J. C.; Freissinet, C.; McAdam, A. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Campbell, J. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Niles, P. B.; Bell, J. F.; Bish, D. L.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Buch, A.; Conrad, P. G.; Des Marais, D. J.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fairén, A. G.; Farley, K.; Flesch, G. J.; Francois, P.; Gellert, R.; Grant, J. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Lewis, K. W.; McLennan, S. M.; Miller, K. E.; Moersch, J.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A. A.; Perrett, G. M.; Pradler, I.; Squyres, S. W.; Summons, R. E.; Steele, A.; Stolper, E. M.; Sumner, D. Y.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.; Trainer, M. G.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Vasavada, A. R.; Webster, C. R.; Wray, J. J.; Yingst, R. A.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Griffes, Jennifer; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Stalport, Fabien; Raulin, François; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Choi, David; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Garvin, James; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Martin, David K.; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Tan, Florence; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Yen, Albert; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Bower, Hannah; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbonates and combustion of organic materials are candidate sources for the CO2. Concurrent evolution of O2 and chlorinated hydrocarbons suggests the presence of oxychlorine phase(s). Sulfides are likely sources for sulfur-bearing species. Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinated hydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.

  11. Concepts for backfilling and sealing of shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierau, B.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal site is situated at a depth of 1000 to 1200 meters. It is covered by very thick cretatious mudstone layers forming the main barrier against the spread of radioactively contaminated water into the biosphere. Because of the excavation works and the resulting stress redistributions, the material surrounding the shafts is probably broken up, which leads to increased permeability in comparison with the intact rock. It is planned to backfill the shafts with an insoluble mineral mixture including a fine fraction necessary to achieve the sealing required. The joints and cracks in the brocken-up surrounding material are believed to be sealed by themselves due to swelling of the mudstone. Some strata of the mudstone contain more than 20% of smektite, a swelling clay mineral. Those regions, where the broken-up zone cannot be considered sure to self-seal due to swelling, are planned to be sealed by pressure grouting using clay suspension. (orig./HP) [de

  12. In Situ Radiometric and Exposure Age Dating of the Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, K. A.; Malespin, C.; Mahaffy, P.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Vasconcelos, P. M.; Milliken, R. E.; Malin, M.; Edgett, K. S.; Pavlov, A. A.; Hurowitz, J. A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar age of 4.21 +/- 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced 3He, 21Ne, and 36Ar yield concordant surface exposure ages of 78 T 30 million years. Surface exposure occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent exposure by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation.

  13. Volatile and organic compositions of sedimentary rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Archer, P.D.; Glavin, D.P.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Franz, H.B.; Sutter, B.; Brunner, A.E.; Stern, J.C.; Freissinet, C.; McAdam, A.C.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Campbell, J.L.; Atreya, S.K.; Niles, P.B.; Bell, J.F.; Bish, D.L.; Brinckerhoff, W.B.; Buch, A.; Conrad, P.G.; Des Marais, D.J.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Fairén, A.G.; Farley, K.; Flesch, G.J.; Francois, P.; Gellert, Ralf; Grant, J. A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gupta, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Leshin, L.A.; Lewis, K.W.; McLennan, S.M.; Miller, Karl E.; Moersch, J.; Morris, R.V.; Navarro- González, R.; Pavlov, A.A.; Perrett, G.M.; Pradler, I.; Squyres, S. W.; Summons, Roger E.; Steele, A.; Stolper, E.M.; Sumner, D.Y.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.; Trainer, M.G.; Treiman, A.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Vasavada, A.R.; Webster, C.R.; Wray, J.J.; Yingst, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbonates and combustion of organic materials are candidate sources for the CO2. Concurrent evolution of O2 and chlorinated hydrocarbons suggests the presence of oxychlorine phase(s). Sulfides are likely sources for sulfur-bearing species. Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinated hydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.

  14. Volatile and organic compositions of sedimentary rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D W; Archer, P D; Glavin, D P; Eigenbrode, J L; Franz, H B; Sutter, B; Brunner, A E; Stern, J C; Freissinet, C; McAdam, A C; Mahaffy, P R; Cabane, M; Coll, P; Campbell, J L; Atreya, S K; Niles, P B; Bell, J F; Bish, D L; Brinckerhoff, W B; Buch, A; Conrad, P G; Des Marais, D J; Ehlmann, B L; Fairén, A G; Farley, K; Flesch, G J; Francois, P; Gellert, R; Grant, J A; Grotzinger, J P; Gupta, S; Herkenhoff, K E; Hurowitz, J A; Leshin, L A; Lewis, K W; McLennan, S M; Miller, K E; Moersch, J; Morris, R V; Navarro-González, R; Pavlov, A A; Perrett, G M; Pradler, I; Squyres, S W; Summons, R E; Steele, A; Stolper, E M; Sumner, D Y; Szopa, C; Teinturier, S; Trainer, M G; Treiman, A H; Vaniman, D T; Vasavada, A R; Webster, C R; Wray, J J; Yingst, R A

    2014-01-24

    H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbonates and combustion of organic materials are candidate sources for the CO2. Concurrent evolution of O2 and chlorinated hydrocarbons suggests the presence of oxychlorine phase(s). Sulfides are likely sources for sulfur-bearing species. Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinated hydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.

  15. Application of self-balanced loading test to socketed pile in weak rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ye; Gong, Weiming; Dai, Guoliang; Wu, JingKun

    2008-11-01

    Method of self-balanced loading test differs from the traditional methods of pile test. The key equipment of the test is a cell. The cell specially designed is used to exert load which is placed in pile body. During the test, displacement values of the top plate and the bottom plate of the cell are recorded according to every level of load. So Q-S curves can be obtained. In terms of test results, the bearing capacity of pile can be judged. Equipments of the test are simply and cost of it is low. Under some special conditions, the method will take a great advantage. In Guangxi Province, tertiary mudstone distributes widely which is typical weak rock. It is usually chosen as the bearing stratum of pile foundation. In order to make full use of its high bearing capacity, pile is generally designed as belled pile. Foundations of two high-rise buildings which are close to each other are made up of belled socketed piles in weak rock. To obtain the bearing capacity of the belled socketed pile in weak rock, loading test in situ should be taken since it is not reasonable that experimental compression strength of the mudstone is used for design. The self-balanced loading test was applied to eight piles of two buildings. To get the best test effect, the assembly of cell should be taken different modes in terms of the depth that pile socketed in rock and the dimension of the enlarged toe. The assembly of cells had been taken three modes, and tests were carried on successfully. By the self-balanced loading test, the large bearing capacities of belled socketed piles were obtained. Several key parameters required in design were achieved from the tests. For the data of tests had been analyzed, the bearing performance of pile tip, pile side and whole pile was revealed. It is further realized that the bearing capacity of belled socketed pile in the mudstone will decrease after the mudstone it socketed in has been immerged. Among kinds of mineral ingredient in the mudstone

  16. The Mineralogical and Chemical Case for Habitability at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David Frederick; Vaniman, David; Grotzinger, John P.; Conrad, Pamela Gales; Ming, Douglas W.; Bish, David L.; Farmer, Jack D.; Bristow, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Sediments of the Yellowknife Bay formation (Gale crater) include the Sheepbed member, a mudstone cut by light-toned veins. Two drill samples, John Klein and Cumberland, were collected and analyzed by the CheMin XRD/XRF instrument and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) evolved gas and isotopic analysis suite of instruments. Drill cuttings were also analyzed by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) for bulk composition. The CheMin XRD analysis shows that the mudstone contains basaltic minerals (Fe-forsterite, augite, pigeonite, plagioclase), as well as Fe-oxide/hydroxides, Fe-sulfides, amorphous materials, and trioctahedral phyllosilicates. SAM evolved gas analysis of higher-temperature OH matches the CheMin XRD estimate of 20% clay minerals in the mudstone. The light-toned veins contain Ca-sulfates; anhydrite and bassanite are detected by XRD but gypsum is also indicated from Mastcam spectral mapping. These sulfates appear to be almost entirely restricted to late-diagenetic veins. The sulfate content of the mudstone matrix itself is lower than other sediments analyzed on Mars. The presence of phyllosilicates indicates that the activity of water was high during their formation and/or transport and deposition (should they have been detrital). Lack of chlorite places limits on the maximum temperature of alteration (likely habitable environment: Aqueous deposition at clement conditions of P, T, pH, Eh and ionic strength, plus the availability of sources of chemical energy.

  17. Use of geophysical methods for determination of physico-mechanical properties of coal-bearing rocks in wells of the Vorkutskoye field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechukhin, V.V.; Iokhin, S.B.; Baklanov, V.G.; Chernikov, A.G.

    1974-01-01

    The total porosity (P), electric resistivity (Er), density, bulk density, water content, velocity of longitudinal elastic waves (Vl), intensity of natural γ-radiation, and polarization self-potential (Ps) are determined of the lithol. different interlayered sandstones, argillites, mudstones, siltstones, and concretions. A direct linear correlation exists between these parameters and the mineralogical composition, coefficient of sorting, and sedimentation conditions

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The presence of rill marks, flat-topped ripples, wrinkle marks, desiccation cracks and adhesion warts point to intertidal conditions with intermittent exposure. The high energy sandstone bars overlie a thick mudstone-dominated shelf sequence across a sharp interface indicating rapid change in the sea-level, provenance, rate ...

  19. Development of swelling strain in smectite clays through exposure to carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.M.; Spiers, C.J.; Busch, A.

    2014-01-01

    Smectites are common constituents of claystones, mudstones and shales and are often present in the caprocks and faults that seal potential CO2 storage reservoirs at depths up to 2 or even 3 km. Whilst the marked swelling behaviour of smectites caused by hydration through interlayer sorption of water

  20. Probable late Messinian tsunamiites near Monte Dei Corvi, Italy, and the Nijar Basin, Spain: expected architecture of offshore tsunami deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Laffra, C.; Meulenaars, K.; Montanari, A.

    2011-01-01

    Three distinct, 30- to 80-cm-thick, graded, multilayered, coarse-grained sandstone layers, intercalated in the late Messinian mudstones of the Colombacci formation in Lago Mare facies of the Trave section are interpreted as tsunamiites (Ts1-Ts3). Each of these layers is sheet-like and could be

  1. A preliminary report on coprolites from the Late Triassic part of the Kap Stewart Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper; Clemmensen, Lars B; Adolphsen, Jan Schulz

    2012-01-01

    The basal part of the Triassic-Jurassic (Rhaetian-Sinemurian) Kap Stewart Formation, exposed at Jameson Land, East Greenland, yields an extensive coprolite collection from black, parallel-laminated mudstone (“paper shale”), representing an open lacustrine system. Preliminary investigations show t...

  2. Evidence of lacustrine sedimentation in the Upper Permian Bijori

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Upper Permian Bijori Formation of the Satpura Gondwana basin comprising fine- to coarsegrained sandstone, carbonaceous shale/mudstone and thin coal bands was previously interpreted as the deposits of meandering rivers. The present study documents abundance of wave ripples, hummocky and swaley ...

  3. Laboratory measurements of the solute transport properties of samples from the Bradwell, Elstow, Fulbeck and Killingholme site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilling, D.; Jefferies, N.L.; Lineham, T.R.

    1987-12-01

    The diffusivity and hydraulic conductivity of geological samples collected during the site investigations at Bradwell, Elstow, Fulbeck and Killingholme have been determined. Comparison between laboratory permeability measurements and in-situ permeability measurements for the mudstone units may give some indication of the importance of fissure flow at the sites. (author)

  4. Volatile and organic compositions of sedimentary rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ming, D.W.; Archer Jr., P.D.; Glavin, D.P.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Franz, H.B.; Sutter, B.; Brunner, A.E.; Stern, J.C.; Freissinet, C.; McAdam, A.C.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Campbell, J.L.; Atreya, S.K.; Niles, P.B.; Bell III, J.F.; Bish, D.L.; Brinckerhoff, W.B.; Buch, A.; Conrad, P.G.; Des Marais, D.J.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Fairén, A.G.; Farley, K.; Flesch, G.J.; Francois, P.; Gellert, R.; Grant, J.A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gupta, S.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Leshin, L.A.; Lewis, K.W.; McLennan, S.M.; Miller, K.E.; Moersch, J.; Morris, R.V.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A.A.; Perrett, G.M.; Pradler, I.; Squyres, S.W.; Summons, R.E.; Steele, A.; Stolper, E.M.; Sumner, D.Y.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.; Trainer, M.G.; Treiman, A.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Vasavada, A.R.; Webster, C.R.; Wray, J.J.; Yingst, R.A.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and

  5. Analysis of Deformation Characteristics and Stability Mechanisms of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    21

    analysis of landslide mass under the similar engineering geological ... The bedrock mainly consists of the green-gray marlite of the thin layer, the interbedded dolomitic limestone and the purple-red mudstone of the Badong Formation from the ...

  6. Petrology and geochemistry of the Miocene-Pliocene fluvial succession, Katawaz Basin, Western Pakistan: Implications on provenance and source area weathering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal K.; Kassi, Aktar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik

    Petrology and geochemistry of sandstones and mudstones of the Miocene Dasht Murgha Group (DMG) and Pliocene Malthanai Formation (MF) of the Pishin Belt (Katawaz Basin), northwestern Pakistan have been carried out to find out their provenance and source area weathering. Sandstones of the Dasht...

  7. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a ... extraordinary wide and long region along the north–northeast edge of the Arabian plate. ..... within muddy carbonate sediments or as surface crusts on supratidal flats. ... Interbedded lime mudstones and layers with anhydrite or gypsum ...

  8. Origin of allochthonous limestone bodies of the miocene Megami formation, Kakegawa district, Shizuoka prefecture. Shizuokaken Kakegawa chiiki no chushinto megamiso ni fukumareru ichisei sekkaigan gantai no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, T; Iryu, Y; Mori, K [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science; Sasazawa, K [The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sendai (Japan). Tohoku General Bureau

    1991-12-15

    The Tertiary limestone bodies represented by Megami Hill and Ogami Hill are distributed in the Kakegawa district in the central portion of Shizuoka Prefecture, these limestone bodies are those originated from coral reefs and are contained in the Megami formation composed of sandstone, mudstone and tuff. However, concerning the limestone bodies of the Megami formation, there are, inter alia, the opinion that they are coral reef sediments on the spot and the opinion that they are foreign rocks, but neither has any firm concrete supporting evidence. In this paper, the sedimentation ages and the sedimentary locations of limestone and sandstone {center dot} mudstone composing the Megami formation were classified and the process, through which limestone was transformed up to its state now observed, was studied. The above study was done by a detailed survey of local rock facies, comparison of age of each rock facies through detection of reference fossils and other measures. A part of the conclusion is shown below: The limestone bodies of the Megami formation is discontinuous with the surrounding sandstone {center dot} mudstone and their strike dip is not harmonious. These limestone bodies are allochthonous rock blocks which collapsed after their sedimentation and mixed with the deep sea sediments (sandstone and mudstone). 37 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. The salt that wasn't there: Mudflat facies equivalents to halite of the Permian Rustler Formation, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.W.; Holt, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Four halite beds of the Permian Restler Formation in southeastern New Mexico thin dramatically over horst lateral distances to correlative classic (mudstone) beds. The mudstones have long been considered residues after post-burial dissolution (subrosion) of halite, assumed to have been deposited continuously across the area. Hydraulic properties of the Culebra Dolomite Member have often been related to Rustler subrosion. In cores and three shafts at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), however, these mudstones display flat bedding, graded bedding, cross-bedding, erosional contacts, and channels filled with intraformational conglomerates. Cutans indicate early stages of soil development during subaerial exposure. Smeared intraclasts developed locally as halite was removed syndepositionally during subaerial exposure. The authors interpret these beds as facies formed in salt-pan or hypersaline-lagoon, transitional, and mudflat environments. Halite is distributed approximately as it was deposited. Breccia in limited areas along one halite margin indicates post-burial dissolution, and these breccials are key to identifying areas of subrosion. A depositional model accounts for observed sedimentary features of Restler mudstones. Marked facies and thickness changes are consistent with influence by subsidence boundaries, as found in some modern continental evaporites. A subrosion model accounts for limited brecciated zones along (depositional)halite margins, but bedding observed in the mudstones would not survive 90% reduction in rock volume. Depositional margins for these halite beds will be useful in reconstructing detailed subsidence history of the Late Permian in the northern Delaware Basin, It also no longer is tenable to attribute large variations in Culebra transmissivity to Rustler subrosion

  10. Facies architecture of basin-margin units in time and space: Lower to Middle Miocene Sivas Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiner, A.; Kosun, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Miocene Sivas Basin is located within a collision zone, forming one of the largest basins in Central Turkey that developed unconformably on a foundered Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement and Eocene-Oligocene deposits. The time and space relationships of sedimentary environments and depositional evolution of Lower to Middle Miocene rocks exposed between Zara and Hafik towns is studied. A 4 km thick continuous section is subdivided into the Agilkaya and Egribucak Formations. Each formation shows an overall fining upward trend and contains three members. Although a complete section is present at the western part (near Hafik) of the basin, to the east the uppermost two members (near Zara) are absent. The lower members of both formations are composed of fluvial sheet-sandstone and red mudstone that migrate laterally on a flood basin within a semi-arid fan system. In the Agilkaya Formation that crops out near Zara, alluvial fans composed of red-pink volcanic pebbles are also present. The middle members are composed of bedded to massive gypsum and red-green mudstone of a coastal and/or continental sabkha environment. While the massive gypsum beds reach several 10’s of m in Hafik area, near Zara, they are only few m thick and alternate with green mudstones. In Hafik, bedded gypsums are intercalated with lagoonal dolomitic limestone and bituminous shale in the Agilkaya Formation and with fluvial red-pink sandstone-red mudstone in the Egribucak Formation. The upper members are made up of fossiliferous mudstone and discontinuous sandy limestone beds with gutter casts, HCS, and 3-D ripples. They indicate storm-induced sedimentation in a shallow marine setting. The disorganized accumulations of ostreid and cerithiid shells, interpreted as coquina bars, are the products of storm generated reworking processes in brackish environments. Rapid vertical and horizontal facies changes and the facies associations in both formations reflect the locally subsiding nature of this molassic

  11. Mineral composition and geochemistry of the Upper Cretaceous siliciclastics (Nubia Group), Aswan District, south Egypt: Implications for provenance and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdallah M.

    2017-11-01

    The Upper-Cretaceous clastic succession (Nubia Group) in the area northeast of Aswan includes three rock units, from base upwards: Abu Aggag Formation (Turonian), Timsah Formation (Coniacian -Santonian) and Um Barmil Formation (Santonian - Campanian). Quartz and clay minerals are the predominant phases throughout the whole succession while feldspars are very rare. Kaolinite is overwhelming among the clay minerals, in addition to less important amounts of illite and illite/smectite. The ultrastable heavy minerals are the prevailing non- opaque phases and they significantly change in relative abundance upsection. SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 are the dominant chemical components. The statistical examination had revealed that the chemical constituents are loaded on three main geochemical trends; the siliceous, the argillaceous and the ferruginous. The enrichment factor shows that the geochemical behavior of the major and trace elements is uniform throughout the sandstones and mudstones of the Abu Aggag Formation. A significant geochemical contrast is documented between the sandstones and mudstones of both the Timsah and the Um Barmil formations. The provenance - critical elemental ratios Ti/Nb and Ti/Y are nearly constant throughout the sandstones and mudstones of the Abu Aggag Formation, and they fall within the range of granitic-granodioritic composition. The Timsah sandstones have Ti/Nb and Ti/Y ratios that are consistent with those of the Abu Aggag rocks, suggesting a similar provenance. These elemental ratios are extremely higher in the Timsah mudstones, reflecting a great influx of mafic material. The Um Barmil sandstones exhibit exceedingly dispersed values of Ti/Nb and Ti/Y, reflecting their derivation from large catchment's areas of different rock types with the eroded products being mixed in various relative proportions. The Ti/Nb and Ti/Y of the Um Barmil mudstones are closely akin to those of the Timsah mudstones suggesting analogous source. The chemical index of

  12. Water extraction of coals - potential for estimating low molecular weight organic acids as carbon feedstock for the deep terrestrial biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, A.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Sykes, R.; Horsfield, B. [Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    With the recent increasing interest in the deep biosphere, the question arises as to where the carbon sources that support deep microbial communities are derived from. Our research was focussed on the water-soluble, low molecular weight (LMW) organic acids that are potentially available from different sedimentary lithologies to serve as a carbon source to feed the deep biosphere. A series of Eocene-Pleistocene coals, mudstones and sandstones of varying rank (maturity) and total organic carbon (TOC) content from the Waikato Basin, New Zealand, has been Soxhlet-extracted using water. The combined concentration of recovered formate, acetate and oxalate range from 366 to 2499 {mu} g/g sediment and appear to be dependent on rank, organofacies and TOC. The yields indicate the potential of carbonaceous sediments to feed the local deep terrestrial biosphere over geological periods of time. The existence of living microbial organisms in the mudstones and sandstones was proved by the identification of intact phospholipids (PLs).

  13. Demonstration of a Fractured Rock Geophysical Toolbox (FRGT) for Characterization and Monitoring of DNAPL Biodegradation in Fractured Rock Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-29

    is characterized by dark gray slate or phyllite, alternating with thin layers of light gray siltstone or sandstone . Table 1 summarizes the primary...sedimentary rocks of the Newark Basin. Competent rocks are primarily mudstones and sandstones of the Lockatong and Stockton Formations. Fill, weathered silt... sandstone , and characterized by water bearing bedding plane fractures. An array of open boreholes in the source area that were drilled for the 2002

  14. Petrography and geochemistry of iron formations of the Paleoproterozoic Koegas Subgroup, Transvaal Supergroup, Griqualand West, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Sc. (Geology) Nel, B.P. (2013). Petrography and geochemistry of iron formations of the Paleoproterozoic Koegas Subgroup, Transvaal Supergroup, Griqualand West, South Africa. MSc thesis (unpublished), University of Johannesburg, Aucklandpark, pp. 133. The Early Paleoproterozoic Koegas Subgroup comprises a succession of siltstone, mudstone, iron-­‐formation, chert and carbonate rocks that overlies the iron-­‐formations of the Asbestos Hills Subgroup with sharp contact. It is overlain with ...

  15. Cavola experiment site: geophysical investigations and deployment of a dense seismic array on a landslide

    OpenAIRE

    L. Martelli; M. Cercato; P. Augliera; G. Di Giulio; G. Milana; J. Haines; P. Bordoni; F. Cara; undefined Cavola Experiment Team

    2007-01-01

    Geophysical site investigations have been performed in association with deployment of a dense array of 95 3-component seismometers on the Cavola landslide in the Northern Apennines. The aim of the array is to study propagation of seismic waves in the heterogeneous medium through comparison of observation and modelling. The small-aperture array (130 m×56 m) operated continuously for three months in 2004. Cavola landslide consists of a clay body sliding over mudstone-shale b...

  16. Geology of the Carnegie museum dinosaur quarry site of Diplodocus carnegii, Sheep Creek, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, D.K.; Kollar, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The holotype of Diplodocus carnegii Hatcher, 1901, consists of a partial skeleton (CM 84) that was recovered, along with a second partial skeleton of the same species (CM 94), from the upper 10 m of the Talking Rock facies of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation exposed along Bone Quarry Draw, a tributary of Sheep Creek in Albany County, Wyoming. A composite measured section of the stratigraphic interval exposed adjacent to the quarry indicates that the Brushy Basin Member in this area is a stacked succession of lithofacies consisting of hackly, greenish gray, calcareous mudstone and greenish brown, dense, fine-grained limestone. The more erosion resistant limestone layers can be traced over many hundreds of meters. Thus, these strata do not appear to represent a highly localized deposit such as a stream channel, oxbow lake, or backwater pond. The Sheep Creek succession is interpreted as representing a clastic-dominated lake where high turbidity and sediment influx produced deposition of calcareous mudstone. During drier periods the lake's turbidity decreased and limestone and dolomite precipitation replaced mud deposition. Microkarsting at the top of some limestone/ dolomite layers suggests subaerial deposition may have prevailed during these dry episodes. The quarry of D. carnegii was excavated within the top strata of one of the numerous intervals of hackly, greenish gray, calcareous mudstone that represent an ephemeral freshwater lake. The quarry strata are directly overlain by 0.3 m of dolomite-capped limestone that was deposited shortly after interment of D. carnegii in the lake mudstones. The close vertical proximity of the overlying limestone to the skeleton's stratigraphic: level suggests that the animal's carcass may have been buried beneath the drying lake deposits during a period of decreased rainfall.

  17. Paleomagnetic results from Late Pennsylvanian marls and Early Permian red paleosols of the Dunkard group, Ohio and West Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrajevitch, A.; Oliva, B.; Peters, S.; Beehr, A.; van der Voo, R.

    2006-12-01

    Sediments of the Dunkard Gr. were deposited in the Appalachian foreland basin during the Pennsylvanian and Early Permian, an interval encompassing the long reverse polarity Kiaman chron. Lithofacies in the Dunkard Gr. in eastern Ohio and western West Virginia include lenticular and sheet-form cross-bedded micaceous sandstones, coal, mottled red and purple mudstones, gray laminated mudstones and argillaceous lime mudstones. They are indicative of deposition on a low-gradient, tropical wet-dry fluvial plain. Few lithofacies are laterally persistent over sufficiently long distances, so that correlation schemes are based largely on coal horizons, partly for historical economic reasons and partly because coal beds appear to be more laterally persistent than most other lithofacies. Magnetostratigraphy would therefore provide a powerful additional correlation tool in the Dunkard Gr, A short normal polarity interval has been reported in the Dunkard Gr. (Helsley, 1965), but to date such a change in magnetic field polarity has not been confirmed by later studies. To confirm the presence of the normal polarity subchron and to explore the possibility of using it as a correlation tool in the Dunkard Gr., we sampled 5 sections thought to straddle the Late Pennyslvanian-Early Permian boundary. Sampled lithofacies include red and mottled red-purple paleosols, grey mudstones containing siderite concretions, micaceous sandstones, and dark gray argillaceous limestones. Samples were demagnetized thermally and by AF. The remanent magnetic directions agree with those expected for the Early Permian. A change in polarity was detected in three of the studied sections. Magnetization is carried by several different magnetic minerals, mostly hematite in paleosols and iron sulfides in combination with magnetite in sandstones, marls and limestones. Although we have found good evidence for the normal polarity interval within Kiaman age rocks of the Dunkard Gr., additional magnetostratigraphic

  18. Deposition and diagenesis of the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Brushy Basin Member and the upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation in northwest New Mexico are nonmarine sedimentary rocks of Late Jurassic age. This stratigraphic interval consists of as many as four lithofacies deposited in fluvial and playa-lake environments. Lithofacies A is composed of crossbed feldspathic sandstone and was deposited by braided streams on an alluvial plain. Lithofacies B is composed of crossbedded feldspathic sandstone and tuffaceous mudstone, and was deposited by braided and anastomosing streams at the distal end of the alluvial plain. Lithofacies C is composed of calcareous, tuffaceous mudstone and was deposited on a mudflat between the alluvial plain and a playa lake. Lithofacies D is composed of zeolitic, tuffaceous mudstone and was deposited in a playa lake. The distribution of diagenetic facies in mudstones and tuffs in the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member reflects the pH and salinity gradients common to fluvial/playa-lake systems. The abundant vitric ash in the sediments reacted to form montmorillonite in the fluvial facies. Calcite and montmorillonite were the reaction products where the fluvial and outermost playa facies met. Vitric ash reacted to form clinoptilolite and heulandite along the playa margins. In the center of the playa facies, analcime replaced clinoptilolite, an early zeolite. These early diagenetic minerals were replaced by albite, quartz, and mixed-layer illitemontmorillonite where the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member have been deeply buried in the San Juan basin

  19. 砒素を溶出する泥岩のモエジマシダによるファイトレメディエーションに関するポット実験

    OpenAIRE

    渡邉, 彩; 榊原, 正幸; 佐野, 栄; 近藤, 敏仁; 井上, 雅裕; 堀, 利栄; 鈴木, 哲也; 竹花, 大介

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants for the in situ cleanup of contaminated soils, sediments, and ground water. Pot-scale experiment evaluated phytoremediation by Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake fern) for mudstone containing arsenic (12.3 mg/kg-DW) of the Hakobuchi Group in the Yubari City, central Hokkaido, Japan. In this experiment, fronds of Pteris vittata L. were taken after 18 weeks growth in soil. The following properties became clear after examining the experimental results. (1) The...

  20. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Carboniferous and Permian in the Qinshui Basin, Shanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Yi Shao

    2015-10-01

    The Xiashihezi, Shangshihezi, and Shiqianfeng Formations consist mainly of red mudstones with thick-interbedded sandstones. During the deposition of these formations, most areas of the basin were occupied by a fluvial channel, resulting in palaeogeographic units that include fluvial channel zones and flood basins. The fluvial channel deposits consist mainly of relatively-thick sandstones, which could have potential for exploration of tight sandstone gas.

  1. Water resources (Chapter 5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available and relationships that inform the association between geology, shale gas and groundwater that is discussed in this Chapter. The mudstones and sandstones of the Adelaide Subgroup at the base of the Beaufort Group succession of sedimentary strata represent... migration to surface. The sedimentary rocks of the Ecca Group cover a further ~6% of the study area. In agreement with Rosewarne et al. (2013), who recognise a western, a central and an eastern subarea; this study recognises an additional southern subarea...

  2. Examining Local Climate Variability in the Late Pennsylvanian Through Paleosols: An Example from the Lower Conemaugh Group of Southeastern Ohio, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Dzenowski, Nicole; Hembree, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Three temporally close stratigraphic sections were excavated in Glenshaw Formation of Athens County, Ohio. The described units are Upper Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian, 305–302 Ma) and located in the distal portion of the Appalachian foreland basin. Mudstone units interpreted as paleosols were identified across all three sections. Detailed field and micromorphological studies lead to the recognition of two separate paleosols within the profile. The profile consists of a composite paleosol composed o...

  3. Lithologic Controls on Structure Highlight the Role of Fluids in Failure of a Franciscan Complex Accretionary Prism Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, H.; Tobin, H. J.; Goodwin, L. B.

    2015-12-01

    Plate-bounding subduction zone thrust systems are the source of major earthquakes and tsunamis, but their mechanics and internal structure remain poorly understood and relatively little-studied compared to faults in continental crust. Exposures in exhumed accretionary wedges present an opportunity to study seismogenic subduction thrusts in detail. In the Marin Headlands, a series of thrusts imbricates mechanically distinct lithologic units of the Mesozoic Franciscan Complex including pillow basalt, radiolarian chert, black mudstone, and turbidites. We examine variations in distribution and character of structure and vein occurrence in two exposures of the Rodeo Cove thrust, a fossil plate boundary exposed in the Marin Headlands. We observe a lithologic control on the degree and nature of fault localization. At Black Sand Beach, deformation is localized in broad fault cores of sheared black mudstone. Altered basalts, thrust over greywacke, mudstone, and chert, retain their coherence and pillow structures. Veins are only locally present. In contrast, mudstone is virtually absent from the exposure 2 km away at Rodeo Beach. At this location, deformation is concentrated in the altered basalts, which display evidence of extensive vein-rock interaction. Altered basalts exhibit a pervasive foliation, which is locally disrupted by both foliation-parallel and cross-cutting carbonate-filled veins and carbonate cemented breccia. Veins are voluminous (~50%) at this location. All the structures are cut by anastomosing brittle shear zones of foliated cataclasite or gouge. Analyses of vein chemistry will allow us to compare the sources of fluids that precipitated the common vein sets at Rodeo Beach to the locally developed veins at Black Sand Beach. These observations lead us to hypothesize that in the absence of a mechanically weak lithology, elevated pore fluid pressure is required for shear failure. If so, the vein-rich altered basalt at Rodeo Beach may record failure of an

  4. Archaeological Test Excavations at CA-LAn-105, -291, and -1269, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    averages 51 percent. The average yearly temperature in the hills is approximately 67 degrees (Woodring et al. k 1946:8-9). In general, the native...as early as 1835, and, because of the soil and climatic conditions, may not have been present in any quantity in the hills even during late prehistoric...and upper parts, labeled the Valmonte Diatomite and the Malaga Mudstone members, respectively, consist of organic siliceous shale, silty shale, chert

  5. Mineralogical Results from the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David Frederick.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's CheMin instrument, the first X-ray Diffractometer flown in space, has been operating on Mars for nearly five years. CheMin was first to establish the quantitative mineralogy of the Mars global soil (1). The instrument was next used to determine the mineralogy of a 3.7 billion year old lacustrine mudstone, a result that, together with findings from other instruments on the MSL Curiosity rover, documented the first habitable environment found on another planet (2). The mineralogy of this mudstone from an ancient playa lake was also used to derive the maximum concentration of CO2 in the early Mars atmosphere, a surprisingly low value that calls into question the current theory that CO2 greenhouse warming was responsible for the warm and wet environment of early Mars. CheMin later identified the mineral tridymite, indicative of silica-rich volcanism, in mudstones of the Murray formation on Mt. Sharp. This discovery challenges the paradigm of Mars as a basaltic planet and ushers in a new chapter of comparative terrestrial planetology (3). CheMin is now being used to systematically sample the sedimentary layers that comprise the lower strata of Mt. Sharp, a 5,000 meter sequence of sedimentary rock laid down in what was once a crater lake, characterizing isochemical sediments that through their changing mineralogy, document the oxidation and drying out of the Mars in early Hesperian time.

  6. Chemical variations in Yellowknife Bay formation sedimentary rocks analyzed by ChemCam on board the Curiosity rover on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Dromart, G.; Stack, K.M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Gasnault, Olivier; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Nachon, Marion; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Anderson, Ryan B.; Barraclough, Bruce; Bell, J.F.; Berger, G.; Blaney, D.L.; Bridges, J.C.; Calef, F.; Clark, Brian R.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Cousin, Agnes; Edgar, L.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Fabre, Cecile; Fisk, M.; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, S.C.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Johnson, J. R.; Kah, Linda C.; Lanza, Nina L.; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, S.; Lewin, Eric; Malin, Michael; McLennan, Scott M.; Maurice, S.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Milliken, Ralph E.; Newsome, H.L.; Ollila, A.; Rowland, Scott K.; Sautter, Violaine; Schmidt, M.E.; Schroder, S.; D'Uston, C.; Vaniman, Dave; Williams, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Yellowknife Bay formation represents a ~5 m thick stratigraphic section of lithified fluvial and lacustrine sediments analyzed by the Curiosity rover in Gale crater, Mars. Previous works have mainly focused on the mudstones that were drilled by the rover at two locations. The present study focuses on the sedimentary rocks stratigraphically above the mudstones by studying their chemical variations in parallel with rock textures. Results show that differences in composition correlate with textures and both manifest subtle but significant variations through the stratigraphic column. Though the chemistry of the sediments does not vary much in the lower part of the stratigraphy, the variations in alkali elements indicate variations in the source material and/or physical sorting, as shown by the identification of alkali feldspars. The sandstones contain similar relative proportions of hydrogen to the mudstones below, suggesting the presence of hydrous minerals that may have contributed to their cementation. Slight variations in magnesium correlate with changes in textures suggesting that diagenesis through cementation and dissolution modified the initial rock composition and texture simultaneously. The upper part of the stratigraphy (~1 m thick) displays rocks with different compositions suggesting a strong change in the depositional system. The presence of float rocks with similar compositions found along the rover traverse suggests that some of these outcrops extend further away in the nearby hummocky plains.

  7. Amount and nature of occluded water in bedded salt, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quantity and types of fluids within bedded salt cores from the Permian San Andres Formation, Palo Duro, Texas, were evaluated at the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Bedded halite from the San Andres Formation and other salt-bearing units were selected to represent the variety of salt types present, and were then analyzed. The mean water content of ''pure'' samples (more than 90% halite) is 0.4 weight percent, with none observed greater than 1.0 weight percent. Samples that contain more than 10 weight percent clay or mudstone display a trend of increasing water content with increasing clastic material. Chaotic mudstone-halite samples have as much as 5 weight percent water; halite-cemented mudstone interlayers, common throughout the bedded salts, may have water content values as high as 10 to 15 weight percent based on extrapolation of existing data that range from 0 to about 6%. No significant difference exists between the mean water content values of ''pure salt'' from the upper San Andres, lower San Andres Cycle 5, and lower San Andres Cycle 4 salt units. The fraction of total water present as mobile intergranular water is highly variable and not readily predicted from observed properties of the salt sample. The amount of water that would be affected by a high-level nuclear waste repository can be estimated if the volume of halite, the volume of clastic interlayers, and the amount and type of impurity in halite are known. Appendix contains seven vugraphs

  8. Application of integrated vitrinite reflectance and FAMM analyses for thermal maturity assessment of the northeastern Malay Basin, offshore Vietnam: Implications for petroleum prospectivity evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H. I.; Sherwood, N.; Mathiesen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Several exploration wells have intersected a Cenozoic coal-bearing, fluvial-deltaic mudstone and sandstone succession in the northeastern Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin, and have successfully tested seismically identified direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs). The oil and gas/condensate discov......Several exploration wells have intersected a Cenozoic coal-bearing, fluvial-deltaic mudstone and sandstone succession in the northeastern Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin, and have successfully tested seismically identified direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs). The oil and gas...... for the uppermost Oligocene source rocks between 2Ma and present-day, which post-dates trap formation. Seismic facies patterns suggest that lacustrine oil-prone units are in he oil window in the same graben complex a few km NW of the investigated well, and these rocks are likely to be the source of the hydrocarbons....../condensate discovery ell 46-CN-1x encountered a _55m thick section of lacustrine mudstones having considerable potential as an oil source. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) measurements from these alginite-bearing rocks introduce several problems in thermal maturity evaluation, including associated VR suppression...

  9. Geology of the Cannonball Formation (Paleocene) in the Williston basin, with reference to uranium potential. Report of investigation No. 57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvancara, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Paleocene Cannonball Formation is a marine, non-lignitic-bearing clastic sequence in the lower part of the Fort Union Group. It is overlain by the lignite-bearing Tongue River Formation in places and both overlain and underlain by the lignite-bearing Ludlow Formation in places. The Cannonball crops out primarily in southwest-central North Dakota and probably occurs throughout the western one-half of the state. It occurs also in northwestern South Dakota and may extend into parts of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Poorly consolidated, very fine- to fine-grained, light to medium brownish yellow-weathering sandstone and light gray-weathering, sandy mudstone are the principal types of lithology. Mudstone generally predominates in North Dakota whereas sandstone seems to predominate in South Dakota. Although uranium in the Williston basin has been found almost entirely in lignite and nonmarine carbonaceous rocks, its occurrence in the marine Cannonball Formation is possible. If the Cannonball, Ludlow, Tongue River, and Sentinel Butte Formations are at least partly penecontemporaneous, a variety of depositional environments were in areal juxtaposition during the Paleocene. Streams originating or passing through coastal plain bogs could have carried uranium ions (derived from volcanic materials) to the Cannonball sea where they were deposited syngenetically. Epigenetic uranium may occur in Cannonball mudstones or sandstones that directly underlie the Ludlow Formation, which is known to contain volcanic materials

  10. Hydrocarbon Source Rock Potential of the Sinamar Formation, Muara Bungo, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Heri Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i1.175The Oligocene Sinamar Formation consists of shale, claystone, mudstone, sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and intercalation of coal seams. The objective of study was to identify the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Sinamar Formation based on geochemichal characteristics. The analyses were focused on fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation comprising shale, claystone, and mudstone. Primary data collected from the Sinamar Formation well and outcrops were analyzed according to TOC, pyrolisis analysis, and gas chromatography - mass spectometry of normal alkanes that include isoprenoids and sterane. The TOC value indicates a very well category. Based on TOC versus Pyrolysis Yields (PY diagram, the shales of Sinamar Formation are included into oil prone source rock potential with good to excellent categories. Fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation tend to produce oil and gas originated from kerogen types I and III. The shales tend to generate oil than claystone and mudstone and therefore they are included into a potential source rock. 

  11. Morphology of channels and channel-sand bodies in the Glauconitic sandstone member (Upper Mannville), Little Bow area, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, J.C.; Hermanson, S.W.; Lawton, D.C.

    1982-12-01

    Large channels in the Glauconitic sandstone member of southern Alberta have proved to be difficult exploration targets because of an irregular distribution of reservoir sands within the channels. In the Little Bow area, two channels are present in the lower part of the Glauconitic member and have cut into the underlying Calcareous member. The channels can be recognized where they truncate regional markers of the Calcareous member -- the Bantry shale and Ostracod limestone, and where channel-fill deposits exhibit uniform geophysical log characters, indicating sandstone- or mudstone-filled reaches. Sediments of the Glauconitic member adjacent to the channels comprise a series of splay sandstones and mudstones that prograded into interdistributary bays of the lower delta plain. The two channels associated with these deposits are interpreted as distributary channels. Sand bodies within the channels formed as lateral bars and are isolated by mudstones which mark the abandoned stream course. Geological exploration for these discontinuous channel sandstones is difficult, and high-resolutio seismic data integrated with sound geologic modelling are critical for successful prospect delineation.

  12. Thermal conductivity of sedimentary rocks - selected methodological, mineralogical and textural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttoemme, Kirsti

    1997-12-31

    The thermal conductivity of sedimentary rocks is an important parameter in basin modelling as the main parameter controlling the temperature within a sedimentary basin. This thesis presents measured thermal conductivities, mainly on clay- and mudstone. The measured values are compared with values obtained by using thermal conductivity models. Some new thermal conductivity models are developed based on the measured values. The values obtained are less than most previously published values. In a study of unconsolidated sediments a constant deviation was found between thermal conductivities measured with a needle probe and a divided bas apparatus. Accepted thermal conductivity models based on the geometric mean model fail to predict the thermal conductivity of clay- and mudstone. Despite this, models based on the geometric mean model, where the effect of porosity is taken account of by the geometric mean equation, seem to be the best. Existing models underestimate the textural influence on the thermal conductivity of clay- and mudstone. The grain size was found to influence the thermal conductivity of artificial quartz samples. The clay mineral content seems to be a point of uncertainty in both measuring and modelling thermal conductivity. A good universal thermal conductivity model must include many mineralogical and textural factors. Since this is difficult, different models restricted to specific sediment types and textures are suggested to be the best solution to obtain realistic estimates applicable in basin modelling. 243 refs., 64 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Salina Quadrangle, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupe, R.D.; Campbell, J.A.; Franczyk, K.J.; Luft, S.J.; Peterson, F.; Robinson, K.

    1982-09-01

    Two stratigraphic units, the Late Jurassic Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation and the Triassic Chinle Formation, were determined to be favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the US Department of Energy in the Salina 1 x 2 0 Quadrangle, Utah. Three areas judged favorable for the Salt Wash Member are the Tidwell and Notom districts, and the Henry Mountains mineral belt. The criteria used to establish favorability were the presence of: (1) fluvial sandstone beds deposited by low-energy streams; (2) actively moving major and minor structures such as the Paradox basin and the many folds within it; (3) paleostream transport directions approximately perpendicular to the trend of many of the paleofolds; (4) presence of favorable gray lacustrine mudstone beds; and (5) known uranium occurrences associated with the favorable gray mudstones. Four favorable areas have been outlined for the Chinle Formation. These are the San Rafael Swell, Inter River, and the Orange Cliffs subareas and the Capitol Reef area. The criteria used to establish these areas are: the sandstone-to-mudstone ratios and the geographic distribution of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation which is considered as the probable source for the uranium

  14. Upper Silurian reef mounds on a shallowing carbonate ramp, Devon Island, Arctic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, O A [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada); Graf, G C [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1992-03-01

    Near Gascoyne Inlet, the topmost Douro and lowermost Barlow Inlet formations record overall upward shallowing from ramp to shallow shelf conditions. This transitional sequence contains bioherms of various sizes, from small isolated reef mounds 1-2 m across to larger, compound reef mounds over 50 m thick and 60 m across, as well as distictive inter- and pre-reef mound facies. The larger reef mounds show stages intermediate in character between those in sponge-dominated reef mounds of the Douro Formation and in larger stromatoporoid-crinoid dominated reefs in the Barlow Inlet Formation. Three principal reef mounds developed in turn. An initial partly lithified lime mudstone, containing scattered corals and apparently relict sponge-cryptomicrobial fabrics, developed on sheets of oncolitic storm debris in mainly low energy conditions between storm and fairweather wave bases. With gradual shallowing and progressively higher energy conditions above fairweather wave base, a middle facies of coral- and crinoid-rich mudstone developed. An abrupt deepening restored conditions of low energy, and the ensuing upper facies of the reef mounds is more varied, comprising sparsely fossiliferous and locally fenestral lime mudstones, patchy coral bafflestone and bindstone, coarse encrinites and substantially culminating stromatoporoid bindstone. 36 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of crude oil from a tight oil reservoir in the Lucaogou Formation, Jimusar Sag, Junggar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Jimusar Sag, which lies in the Junggar Basin,is one of the most typical tight oil study areas in China. However, the properties and origin of the crude oil and the geochemical characteristics of the tight oil from the Lucaogou Formation have not yet been studied. In the present study, 23 crude oilsfrom the Lucaogou Formation were collected for analysis, such as physical properties, bulk composition, saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the calculation of various biomarker parameters. In addition,source rock evaluation and porosity permeability analysis were applied to the mudstones and siltstones. Biomarkers of suitable source rocks (TOC>1, S1+S2>6mg/g, 0.7%mudstones within the Lucaogou Formation contributed to oil accumulation.Crude oil from the upper and lower sections originated from thin-bedded mudstones interbedded within sweet spot sand bodies. A good coincidence of filling history and hydrocarbon generation history indicated that the Lucaogou reservoir is a typical in situ reservoir. The mudstones over or beneath the sweet spot bodies consisted of natural caprocks and prevented the vertical movement of oil by capillary forces. Despite being thicker, the thick-bedded mudstone between the upper and lower sweet spots had no obvious contribution to

  16. Mechanical behavior in the Nankai inner accretionary prism, IODP Site C0002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R. D., II; Saffer, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control seismogenesis and stress state at subduction zones requires knowledge of fault zone and sediment physical and mechanical properties. As part of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE), Expedition 348 drilled into the Kumano forearc basin and underlying inner accretionary prism at Site C0002, located 35 km landward of the trench. One primary objective was to sample and characterize the mechanical behavior of the inner accretionary prism. Here we report on the frictional and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of mudstone samples and a clay-rich shear zone recovered from 2182-2209 meters below sea floor (mbsf), determined from triaxial deformation tests at confining pressures from 1 to 7 MPa (UCS measurements on mudstones) and 36 MPa (strength of fault zone). Our results show that at a confining pressure of 1 MPa, the wall rock sediments fail at a peak differential stress of 9.1 MPa with a residual stress of 2.8 MPa. A clear peak and evolution to residual strength remains present at 7 MPa, and both the peak and residual strengths of the mudstones increases systematically with confining pressure. At a confining pressure of 36 MPa, the shear zone sediment yields at a differential stress of 25.2 MPa followed by strain-hardening to a maximum stress of 33.1 MPa. The shear zone is frictionally weaker than the surrounding mudstones, with a friction coefficient (μ) of 0.26-0.31, versus µ = 0.45 for the wall rock. The suite of tests defines a UCS for the mudstone of 7.9 MPa. Our friction data suggest that the inner wedge may be weaker than commonly assumed in applications of critical wedge theory to estimate the properties and conditions in accretionary prisms. One key implication is that for a given basal detachment friction coefficient, higher basal pore pressures (or lower wedge pore pressures) would be required to sustain observed taper angles. Additionally, the

  17. Mineralogy of Rocks and Sediments at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, Cherie; Downs, Robert; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Ming, Doug; Rampe, Elizabeth; Morris, Dick; Morrison, Shaunna; Treiman, Allan; Chipera, Steve; Yen, Albert; Bristow, Thomas; Craig, Patricia; Hazen, Robert; Crisp, Joy; Grotzinger, John; Des Marias, David; Farmer, Jack; Sarrazin, Philippe; Morookian, John Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is providing in situ mineralogical, geochemical, and sedimentological assessments of rocks and soils in Gale crater. Since landing in 2012, Curiosity has traveled over 15 km, providing analyses of mudstones and sandstones to build a stratigraphic history of the region. The CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument is the first instrument on Mars to provide quantitative mineralogical analyses of drilled powders and scooped sediment based on X-ray crystallography. CheMin identifies and determines mineral abundances and unit-cell parameters of major crystalline phases, and identifies minor phases at abundances >1 wt%. In conjunction with elemental analyses, CheMin-derived crystal chemistry allows for the first calculations of crystalline and amorphous material compositions. These mineralogy, crystal chemistry, and amorphous chemistry datasets are playing central roles in the characterization of Gale crater paleoenvironments. CheMin has analyzed 17 rock and sediment samples. In the first phase of the mission, Curiosity explored the sedimentary units of Aeolis Palus (Bradbury group), including two mudstones from Yellowknife Bay. CheMin analyses of the Yellowknife Bay mudstones identified clay minerals among an overall basaltic mineral assemblage. These mineralogical results, along with imaging and geochemical analyses, were used to characterize an ancient lacustrine setting that is thought to have once been a habitable environment. Following the investigations of the Bradbury group, Curiosity arrived at the lower reaches of Aeolis Mons, commonly called Mt. Sharp. A strategic sample campaign was initiated, drilling bedrock at X-ray amorphous phases. Adjacent to fractures, light-toned, halo-like zones are thought to result from significant aqueous alteration of the primary sandstone and show decreased abundances of feldspar and pyroxene, and an increase in the amorphous component, specifically high-silica phases. The Murray

  18. Gas storage in the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Woodford Shale, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma: how much of a role do the cherts play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Neil S.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Boehlke, Adam

    2010-01-01

    How gas is stored in shale-gas systems is a critical element in characterizing these potentially prolific, low-porosity/permeability reservoirs. An integrated mineralogic, geochemical, and porosity/permeability study is of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Woodford Shale, Arbuckle Mountains, southern Oklahoma, at locations previously described through detailed stratigraphic and spectral gamma surveys, was undertaken to provide insights into possible mechanisms by which natural gas might be stored in Woodford reservoirs in the adjacent Anadarko Basin. The outcrops in the Arbuckle Mountains are an ideal location to study the Woodford because here the formation is immature or marginally mature for oil generation (Comer and Hinch, 1987; Lewan, 1987), so deep burial and thermal maturation are much less pronounced than is the case for the Woodford in the basin, and as such the samples we studied are not overprinted by possible alterations resulting from deep burial and heating. Rock types studied in the Woodford Shale are broadly divided into chert (n = 8) and mudstone (n = 10) lithologies that display different characteristics from the outcrop to thin section scales. Woodford cherts, based on quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), contain >85 weight (wt) % quartz, green algae). Quartz in mudstones is both detrital and authigenic, with unequivocal authigenic quartz occurring as monocrystalline “grains” that can partly or even completely infill Tasmanites; as in the case of the cherts, authigenic quartz in mudstones must have precipitated soon after deposition before significant burial and collapse of the soft, delicate Tasmanites cysts. MICP analyses (at 50% Hg saturation) reveal that, with one exception, mudstones have (1) porosities ranging from 1.97-6.31%, (2) low calculated permeabilities (0.011-0.089 D), and (3) small mean pore apertures (6.2-17.8 nm). Porosity in the mudstones occurs as (1) “slots” between clay mineral grains or plates, (2) micropores

  19. Mechanical-Stratigraphic Characterization of the Eagle Ford Formation in Outcrop and Core, McMullen and Terrell Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Chester, J. S.; Chester, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this project is to characterize the geomechanical properties of individual and composite lithologic units over length scales of decimeter to tens of meters. We have characterized the stratigraphy and lithology of the Eagle Ford Formation in outcrops at Lozier and Antonio Canyons of West TX, and in core taken at 3.2 km depth in McMullen County, TX. Dominant lithologies examined include reworked ash layers, argillaceous mudstone, organic-rich mudstone, foraminifera wackestone, packstone, pyritic packstone, and foraminifera/dolomitic packstone-grainstone. Samples of these units are deformed in triaxial compression at 1- 40 MPa confining pressure (Pc), and room temperature and humidity. The elastic properties, pre-fracture yielding (ductility), and fracture strength are primarily a function of particle size, texture (degree of mud versus grain support), and composition. Young's Modulus (YM) and Poison's Ratio (PR) increase similarly with an increase in grain-support and carbonate content, and a decrease in organic matter and clay. The greatest change occurs at the transition from mud-supported to grain-supported textures where YM and PR increase by a factor of 3 and 1.5, respectively. Both YM and PR can display anisotropy with directional variation of 30%, most notably in micro-laminated units, but also in the more massive pyritic packstones. Overall, pre-fracture ductility decreases with an increase in carbonate content; ductile strain in the argillaceous- and organic-rich-mudstones is 1.4%, 3-4 times greater than that in the packstone/grainstone. Fracture strength increases with an increase in carbonate content and a decrease in clay content. The organic rich mudstone fails at 130 MPa, is nearly 2 times stronger than argillaceous mudstones, and 50% weaker than packstone/grainstones at 1 MPa Pc. The angle of internal friction is 45 degrees for all lithologies, consistent with a transition in fracture from opening- to shear-mode between 1 to 15 MPa Pc

  20. The Tournemire industrial analogue: reactive-transport modelling of cement-clay interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.; Wilson, J.; Benbow, S.; Savage, D.; Walker, C.; Norris, S.

    2012-01-01

    , which remained in contact with the natural mud-stone for 15-20 years. Subsequently the boreholes have been over-cored, extracted and mineralogical characterisation has been performed. A reactive transport model of the Tournemire system has been set up using the general-purpose modelling tool QPAC (developed by Quintessa). Both the cement and mud-stone regions were represented in the model, which included aqueous speciation, kinetic models of mineral precipitation and dissolution and full coupling between porosity changes and transport of aqueous species. A solid solution model was used to represent the C-S-H gel in the cement section, with (tobermorite-like and jennite-like) C-S-H phases allowed to precipitate in the mud-stone. Full details can be found in Watson et al. (NDA RWMD Report QRS-1523A-1 v1.1, 2011). The main features observed at Tournemire were replicated by the model, including porosity variations and precipitation of carbonates, K-feldspar, ettringite and calcite. It was found that ion exchange needed to be included in order for C-S-H minerals to precipitate in the mud-stone, providing a better match with the mineralogical investigations. The inclusion of surface complexation processes on the montmorillonite present in the mud-stone, however, led to limited calcite growth at the cement-mud-stone interface; unlike samples taken from the Tournemire site that have a visible line of crusty carbonates along the interface. This perhaps indicates that surface complexation has not played an important role in the mineralogical evolution to date at Tournemire. This may be due to smectite (montmorillonite) not being the principal clay mineral in the mud-stone. This study was carried out as part of the Long-Term Cement Studies (LCS) project, an international collaboration between Posiva (Finland), JAEA (Japan), NDA (UK), SKB (Sweden) and Nagra (Switzerland) aimed at furthering the understanding of cement-rock interactions. (authors)

  1. The organic carbon isotope of lacustrine sediments of the Upper Shahejie formation in Huanghua Depression: a record of sedimentary environment and productivity of an ancient lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Weiwei; Huang, Xiaoyan; Dai, Na; Zhong, Ningning

    2013-01-01

    Huanghua depression was one of the largest Paleogene rift lakes in Bohai Bay basin, eastern China. The lake had broad area and deep water in the period of development peak—Oligocene 36~38Ma B.C., when organic-rich mudstones of upper Shahejie Formation formed. Twenty eight distal lake facie samples of the upper Shahejie Formation from Well GS35 were analyzed for organic carbon isotope, TOC, hydrogen index and trace elements in order to investigate the controls of organic carbon accumulation in the lake. The results show that lacustrine mudstones in the middile member of the upper Shahejie Formation have a heavy organic carbon isotope (-28.6 ‰ to -21.1 ‰) and a intense fractionation which is more than 7‰. In addition, it shows a good positive correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC) (Figure 1). Organic petrographic and organic geochemical analysis indicate that the biological inputs of the mudstone is dominated by algae and other aquatic organisms, and a low content of gammacerane prove the water is freshwater-brackish, so terrigenous organic matter and water salinity have little effect on its organic carbon isotope composition (δ"1"3C_o_r_g). It has well been documented that the climate in Bohai Bay basin was warm and humid during deposition of the upper Shahejie Formation, and the temperature did not change dramatically at that time (TaoZ et al., 2005). Ultimately, the heavy carbon isotope values of lacustrine organic matter may indicate the high productivity of ancient lakes. The good correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) and organic carbon isotope (δ"1"3C_o_r_g) as well as the widely existed organic-rich lamellae of the mudstone are the strong evidence for high paleoproductivity of the upper Shahejie Formation in Huanghua Depression during the deposition period. (1) Organic-rich lamellae of the mudstone formed in anoxia and stable environment have been recognized as the best evidence of high paleoproductivity. The presence of organic

  2. Mechanical Aqueous Alteration Dominates Textures of Gale Crater Rocks: Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Minitti, Michelle; Edgett, Kenneth; McBride, Marie; Stack, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) acquired sub-mm/pixel scale color images of over 70 individual rocks and outcrops during Curiosity's first year on Mars, permitting the study of textures down to the distinction between silt and very fine sand. We group imaged rock textures into classes based on their grain size, sorting, matrix characteristics, and abundance of pores. Because the recent campaign at Pahrump Hills acquired many more MAHLI images than elsewhere along the rover traverse [6], textural analysis there is more detailed and thus types observed there are sub-divided. Mudstones: These rocks contain framework grains smaller than the highest resolution MAHLI images (16 μm/pixel), and thus are interpreted to consist of grains that are silt-sized or smaller. Some rocks contain nodules, sulfate veins, and Mg-enriched erosionally-resistant ridges. The Pahrump Hills region contains mudstones of at least four different sub-textures: recessive massive, recessive parallel-laminated, resistant laminated-to-massive, and resistant cross-stratified. Recessive mudstones are slope-forming; parallel-laminated recessive mudstones display mm-scale parallel (and in some cases rhythmic) lamination that extends laterally for many meters, and are interbedded with recessive massive mudstones. Coarse cm- to mm-scale laminae appear within resistant mudstones though some portions are more massive; laminae tend to be traceable for cm to meters. Well-sorted sandstones: Rocks in this class are made of gray, fine-to-medium sand and exhibit little to no porosity. Two examples of this class show fine lineations with sub-mm spacing. Aillik, a target in the Shaler outcrop, shows abundant cross-lamination. The Pahrump Hills region contains a sub-texture of well-sorted, very fine to fine-grained cross-stratified sandstone at the dune and ripple-scale. Poorly-sorted sandstones. This class is subdivided into two sub-classes: rounded, coarse-to-very coarse sand grains of variable colors and

  3. Lithostratigraphy of Upper Ordovician strata exposed in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Gordon Whitney; Peterson, Warren Lee; Swadley, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Creek Limestone in the western and central parts. In east-central Kentucky, the Grant Lake is classified as a member of the Ashlock Formation, an assemblage of lithologically distinct units that were combined to facilitate mapping in the southeastern and southern part of the region. The Ashlock consists of the following members, in ascending order: The Tate (calcitic and dolomitic mudstone), the Grant Lake, the Gilbert (micrograined limestone and shale), the Stingy Creek (nodular-bedded mudstone and limestone), the Terrill (dolomitic and calcitic mudstone), the Sunset (micrograined limestone), and the Reba (nodular-bedded limestone and shale). The Bull Fork Formation, which overlies the Grant Lake Limestone, is made up of subequal amounts of thin-bedded highly fossiliferous limestone and shale; limestone makes up about 80 percent of the basal part of the formation and decreases in abundance irregularly upward to only 20 percent of the top part. On the east side of the Blue Grass region, the Bull Fork grades into the Reba Member of the Ashlock Formation; on the west side, it grades into the Grant Lake. The uppermost formation in the region is the Drakes Formation, which in east-central Kentucky consists of the Rowland Member (calcitic to dolomitic mudstone) overlain by the Preachersville Member (dolomitic to calcitic mudstone and dolomite and dolomitic siltstone). In northeast Kentucky, the Drakes is represented by only the Preachersville Member. In most of central and north-central Kentucky, the formation consists of three members: the Rowland at the base (dolomitic mudstone to muddy limestone), the Bardstown (fossiliferous limestone and shale), and the Saluda Dolomite (dolomite, in part calcitic and muddy). In northern north-central Kentucky, the Drakes is represented by only the Saluda Dolomite Member. The top of the Ordovician sequence in the Blue Grass region is generally formed by members of the Drakes Formation, which are overlain by str

  4. Mineralogy of Fluvio-Lacustrine Sediments Investigated by Curiosity During the Prime Mission: Implications for Diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Blake, D. F.; Ming, D. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Morrison, S. M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity investigated sedimentary rocks that were deposited in a diversity of fluvio-lacustrine settings. The entire science payload was employed to characterize the mineralogy and chemistry of the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay and the Windjana sandstone at the Kimberley. Data from the CheMin instrument, a transmission Xray diffractometer, were used to determine the quantitative mineralogy of both samples. The Sheepbed mudstone contains detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxides or hydroxides, iron sulfides, trioctahedral smectite, and amorphous material. The mineral assemblage and chemical data from APXS suggest that the trioctahedral smectite and magnetite formed authigenically as a result of alteration of olivine. The apparent lack of higher-grade phyllosilicates (e.g., illite and chlorite) and the presence of anhydrite indicate diagenesis at 50- 80 ºC. The mineralogy of the Windjana sandstone is different than the Sheepbed mudstone. Windjana contains significant abundances of K-feldspar, low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, magnetite, phyllosilicates, and amorphous material. At least two distinct phyllosilicate phases exist: a 10 Å phase and a component that is expanded with a peak at 11.8 Å. The identity of the expanded phase is currently unknown, but could be a smectite with interlayer H2O, and the 10 Å phase could be illite or collapsed smectite. Further work is necessary to characterize the phyllosilicates, but the presence of illite could suggest that Windjana experienced burial diagenesis. Candidates for the cementing agents include fine-grained phyllosilicates, Fe-oxides, and/or amorphous material. Interpretations of CheMin data from the Windjana sandstone are ongoing at the time of writing, but we will present an estimate of the composition of the amorphous material from mass balance calculations using the APXS bulk chemistry and quantitative mineralogy from CheMin.

  5. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Cortez quadrangle, Colorado and Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    Six stratigraphic units are recognized as favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy in the Cortez 1 0 x 2 0 Quadrangle, Utah and Colorado. These units include the Jurassic Salt Wash, Recapture, and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation and the Entrada Sandstone, the Late Triassic Chinle Formation, and the Permian Cutler Formation. Four areas are judged favorable for the Morrison members which include the Slick Rock, Montezuma Canyon, Cottonwood Wash and Hatch districts. The criteria used to determine favorability include the presence of the following (1) fluvial sandstone beds deposited by low-energy streams; (2) actively moving major and minor structures such as the Paradox Basin and the many folds within it; (3) paleostream transport directions approximately perpendicular to the trend of many of the paleofolds; (4) presence of favorable gray lacustrine mudstone beds; and (5) known uranium occurrences associated with the favorable gray mudstones. Two areas of favorability are recognized for the Chinle Formation. These areas include the Abajo Mountain and Aneth-Ute Mountain areas. The criteria used to determine favorability include the sandstone-to-mudstone ratio for the Chinle Formation and the geographic distribution of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Two favorable areas are recognized for the Cutler Formation. Both of these areas are along the northern border of the quadrangle between the Abajo Mountains and the Dolores River Canyon area. Two areas are judged favorable for the Entrada Sandstone. One area is in the northeast corner of the quadrangle in the Placerville district and the second is along the eastern border of the quadrangle on the southeast flank of the La Plata Mountains

  6. Study of flux and mud stone with potential for using in porcelainized stoneware tile compositions; Estudo de fundente e argilito com potencial para uso em formulacoes de porcelanato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, F.S.; Santos, G. dos; Morelli, M.R., E-mail: felipesh@gmail.com [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de S. Carlos - UFSCar, S. Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    The porcelain tile is distinguished in the current market for ceramic tiles, with excellent technical and esthetic characteristics. In the present study traditional ceramic raw materials were selected and a standard formulation conventionally reported in the literature was adopted aiming to replace the melting phase (feldspar) of the composition for a raw material that forms liquid phase at high temperature, and replacement of the clay fraction by a mudstone of lower refractoriness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these materials as alternative techniques and lower cost, since, in a mass of porcelain tile, the amount of flux is very large (representing approximately 50% of total raw materials used). The nepheline syenite was the natural raw material selected to replace the feldspar due to the fact that it belongs to the family of feldspathoids, and has similar physicochemical characteristics, therefore, a high fluxing efficiency. To replace the clay fraction was chosen a mudstone naturally occurring, abundant in the region of Santa Gertrudes, SP. Substitutions to the feldspar and clay fraction were completely and/or partially by means of combinations between the flux and mud stones. The masses were processed from the mixing of powders, wet milling, drying, disagglomeration, compaction and firing. In addition to the vitrification curves, techniques such as dilatometry, measurements of porosity, flexure strength test, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the material after firing at various temperatures. The results showed that, in principle, it is possible the combination of raw materials such as nepheline and mudstone to replace potassium feldspar and S. Simao clay, as they provide the vitrification at lower temperatures. Compositions with both materials showed lower values of water absorption (<0.1%) and high mechanical strength (> 45 MPa), despite higher pyroplastic strain at 1150 deg C (author)

  7. Sedimentology and uranium prospecting of the Siwaliks in Western Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Terumasa

    1982-01-01

    The Siwaliks (Miocene to Pleistocene) distributed along the southern side of the Main Boundary Thrust in Nepal are composed of conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones and lignites. The lower and Middle Siwaliks show various kinds of cyclic repetition in their lithofacies and sedimentary structures. A generalized unit of the cycles consists of sandstones, mudstones and lignites from bottom to top. The sandstones are well-stratified and frequently cross-bedded while the mudstones exhibit massive aspect occasionally with lenticular bedding. In the unit, each lithofacies gradually change into overlying one whereas the boundaries between units are mostly discontinuous and erosional. These cyclic sedimentation, sedimentary structures and fossil evidence suggest the Siwaliks to have been deposited in coastal environments of a fresh water basin. The conglomerates of the Middle and Upper Siwaliks of the investigated area do not contain any High Himalayan rocks such as gneisses and granites. The composition of the conglomerates combined with the palaeocurrent data reveals the sediments to be derived mainly from the Lesser Himalayas just north of the Main Boundary Thrust. As in Pakistan, uranium deposits are expected to occur in the Siwalik sandstones in Nepal. In most places, however, the Siwaliks would have less possibility of uranium occurrence because the Lesser Himalayas do not contain big granite bodies from which uranium minerals are supposed to be originated. In the High Himalayas, granitic rocks are widely distributed, and three big rivers of Nepal have percolated through them and transported the sediments into the Siwalik basin from the ancient time. It seems to be more effective to concentrate our uranium prospecting to the area where these rivers have descended into the Siwalik basin. (author)

  8. An analysis of natural gas exploration potential in the Qiongdongnan Basin by use of the theory of “joint control of source rocks and geothermal heat”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Gongcheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Oligocene Yacheng Fm contains the most important source rocks that have been confirmed by exploratory wells in the Qiongdongnan Basin. The efficiency of these source rocks is the key to the breakthrough in natural gas exploration in the study area. This paper analyzes the hydrocarbon potential of each sag in this basin from the perspective of control of both source rocks and geothermal heat. Two types of source rocks occur in the Yacheng Fm, namely mudstone of transitional facies and mudstone of neritic facies. Both of them are dominated by a kerogen of type-III, followed by type-II. Their organic matter abundances are controlled by the amount of continental clastic input. The mudstone of transitional facies is commonly higher in organic matter abundance, while that of neritic facies is lower. The coal-measure source rocks of transitional facies were mainly formed in such environments as delta plains, coastal plains and barrier tidal flat-marshes. Due to the control of Cenozoic lithosphere extension and influence of neotectonism, the geothermal gradient, terrestrial heat flow value (HFV and level of thermal evolution are generally high in deep water. The hot setting not only determines the predominance of gas generation in the deep-water sags, but can promote the shallow-buried source rocks in shallow water into oil window to generate oil. In addition to promoting the hydrocarbon generation of source rocks, the high geothermal and high heat flow value can also speed up the cracking of residual hydrocarbons, thus enhancing hydrocarbon generation efficiency and capacity. According to the theory of joint control of source quality and geothermal heat on hydrocarbon generation, we comprehensively evaluate and rank the exploration potentials of major sags in the Qiongdongnan Basin. These sags are divided into 3 types, of which type-I sags including Yanan, Lingshui, Baodao, Ledong and Huaguang are the highest in hydrocarbon exploration potential.

  9. Characterization and quantification of suspended sediment sources to the Manawatu River, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, S S; Fuller, I C; Procter, J N; Basher, L R; Smith, I E

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of sediment movement throughout a catchment environment is essential due to its influence on the character and form of our landscape relating to agricultural productivity and ecological health. Sediment fingerprinting is a well-used tool for evaluating sediment sources within a fluvial catchment but still faces areas of uncertainty for applications to large catchments that have a complex arrangement of sources. Sediment fingerprinting was applied to the Manawatu River Catchment to differentiate 8 geological and geomorphological sources. The source categories were Mudstone, Hill Subsurface, Hill Surface, Channel Bank, Mountain Range, Gravel Terrace, Loess and Limestone. Geochemical analysis was conducted using XRF and LA-ICP-MS. Geochemical concentrations were analysed using Discriminant Function Analysis and sediment un-mixing models. Two mixing models were used in conjunction with GRG non-linear and Evolutionary optimization methods for comparison. Discriminant Function Analysis required 16 variables to correctly classify 92.6% of sediment sources. Geological explanations were achieved for some of the variables selected, although there is a need for mineralogical information to confirm causes for the geochemical signatures. Consistent source estimates were achieved between models with optimization techniques providing globally optimal solutions for sediment quantification. Sediment sources was attributed primarily to Mudstone, ≈38-46%; followed by the Mountain Range, ≈15-18%; Hill Surface, ≈12-16%; Hill Subsurface, ≈9-11%; Loess, ≈9-15%; Gravel Terrace, ≈0-4%; Channel Bank, ≈0-5%; and Limestone, ≈0%. Sediment source apportionment fits with the conceptual understanding of the catchment which has recognized soft sedimentary mudstone to be highly susceptible to erosion. Inference of the processes responsible for sediment generation can be made for processes where there is a clear relationship with the geomorphology, but is problematic for

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Cortez quadrangle, Colorado and Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J A

    1982-09-01

    Six stratigraphic units are recognized as favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy in the Cortez 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Utah and Colorado. These units include the Jurassic Salt Wash, Recapture, and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation and the Entrada Sandstone, the Late Triassic Chinle Formation, and the Permian Cutler Formation. Four areas are judged favorable for the Morrison members which include the Slick Rock, Montezuma Canyon, Cottonwood Wash and Hatch districts. The criteria used to determine favorability include the presence of the following (1) fluvial sandstone beds deposited by low-energy streams; (2) actively moving major and minor structures such as the Paradox Basin and the many folds within it; (3) paleostream transport directions approximately perpendicular to the trend of many of the paleofolds; (4) presence of favorable gray lacustrine mudstone beds; and (5) known uranium occurrences associated with the favorable gray mudstones. Two areas of favorability are recognized for the Chinle Formation. These areas include the Abajo Mountain and Aneth-Ute Mountain areas. The criteria used to determine favorability include the sandstone-to-mudstone ratio for the Chinle Formation and the geographic distribution of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Two favorable areas are recognized for the Cutler Formation. Both of these areas are along the northern border of the quadrangle between the Abajo Mountains and the Dolores River Canyon area. Two areas are judged favorable for the Entrada Sandstone. One area is in the northeast corner of the quadrangle in the Placerville district and the second is along the eastern border of the quadrangle on the southeast flank of the La Plata Mountains.

  11. Th and U in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic systems of Kitakami range (preliminary report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, Masato; Kanaya, Hiroshi; Sato, Choji.

    1984-01-01

    The research of Th and U in Kitakami range was commenced during the period of late 1950s and early 1960s. Following the exploration, the studies on Th and U in sedimentary rocks in Kitakami have been continued systematically. The data of Th and U covered whole Kitakami range by the addition of the newly obtained analytical data of northern part. The behaviors of Th and U during deposition and their contents in source rocks were studied by the analytical data. 75 samples of mudstone, sandstone, the matrix of conglomerate and limestone from south Kitakami, and 180 samples of mudstone, cherty clay stone, limestone, chert and green rock from northern part of Kitakami were analyzed. U/K 2 O ratio was constant regardless of the stratigraphy in the samples of southern Kitakami. This suggests that the major portion of U was initially dissolved in seawater, adsorbed by sericite, which is the only K 2 O -bearing mineral of sediment, and deposited. The values of Th and U in the sedimentary rocks in southern Kitakami were nearly the same as those of common sedimentary rocks in the world. It is supposed that the formation of K 2 O-bearing mineral was small, and the contents in source rocks affected. On the contrary, the Th values of sedimentary rocks in northern Kitakami, were higher than those of south, and it is supposed that this is attributable to the felsitic nature of source rocks. The mudstone of Matsumae, Hokkaido, differed from that of Kitakami, which means that they were not in same sedimentary basin. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  12. A lithology identification method for continental shale oil reservoir based on BP neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Luo; Fuqiang, Lai; Zheng, Dong; Weixu, Xia

    2018-06-01

    The Dongying Depression and Jiyang Depression of the Bohai Bay Basin consist of continental sedimentary facies with a variable sedimentary environment and the shale layer system has a variety of lithologies and strong heterogeneity. It is difficult to accurately identify the lithologies with traditional lithology identification methods. The back propagation (BP) neural network was used to predict the lithology of continental shale oil reservoirs. Based on the rock slice identification, x-ray diffraction bulk rock mineral analysis, scanning electron microscope analysis, and the data of well logging and logging, the lithology was divided with carbonate, clay and felsic as end-member minerals. According to the core-electrical relationship, the frequency histogram was then used to calculate the logging response range of each lithology. The lithology-sensitive curves selected from 23 logging curves (GR, AC, CNL, DEN, etc) were chosen as the input variables. Finally, the BP neural network training model was established to predict the lithology. The lithology in the study area can be divided into four types: mudstone, lime mudstone, lime oil-mudstone, and lime argillaceous oil-shale. The logging responses of lithology were complicated and characterized by the low values of four indicators and medium values of two indicators. By comparing the number of hidden nodes and the number of training times, we found that the number of 15 hidden nodes and 1000 times of training yielded the best training results. The optimal neural network training model was established based on the above results. The lithology prediction results of BP neural network of well XX-1 showed that the accuracy rate was over 80%, indicating that the method was suitable for lithology identification of continental shale stratigraphy. The study provided the basis for the reservoir quality and oily evaluation of continental shale reservoirs and was of great significance to shale oil and gas exploration.

  13. Sedimentology and ichnology of Neogene Coastal Swamp deposits in the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeh Sunny C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Often analyses of depositional environments from sparse data result in poor interpretation, especially in multipartite depositional settings such as the Niger Delta. For instance, differentiating channel sandstones, heteroliths and mudstones within proximal environments from those of distal facies is difficult if interpretations rely solely on well log signatures. Therefore, in order to achieve an effective and efficient interpretation of the depositional conditions of a given unit, integrated tools must be applied such as matching core descriptions with wireline log signature. In the present paper cores of three wells from the Coastal Swamp depositional belt of the Niger Delta are examined in order to achieve full understanding of the depositional environments. The well sections comprise cross-bedded sandstones, heteroliths (coastal and lower shoreface and mudstones that were laid down in wave, river and tidal processes. Interpretations were made from each data set comprising gamma ray logs, described sedimentological cores showing sedimentary features and ichnological characteristics; these were integrated to define the depositional settings. Some portions from one of the well sections reveal a blocky gamma ray well log signature instead of a coarsening-upward trend that characterises a shoreface setting while in other wells the signatures for heteroliths at some sections are bell blocky in shaped rather than serrated. Besides, heteroliths and mudstones within the proximal facies and those of distal facies were difficult to distinguish solely on well log signatures. However, interpretation based on sedimentology and ichnology of cores from these facies was used to correct these inconsistencies. It follows that depositional environment interpretation (especially in multifarious depositional environments such as the Niger Delta should ideally be made together with other raw data for accuracy and those based solely on well log signatures should

  14. Sedimentology of Hirnantian glaciomarine deposits in the Balkan Terrane, western Bulgaria: Fixing a piece of the north peri-Gondwana jigsaw puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatalov, Athanas

    2017-04-01

    Glaciomarine deposits of late Hirnantian age in the western part of the Palaeozoic Balkan Terrane have persistent thickness ( 7 m) and lateral uniformity in rock colour, bedding pattern, lithology, and sedimentary structures. Four lithofacies are distinguished from base to top: lonestone-bearing diamictites, interbedded structureless mudstones, crudely laminated diamictites, and finely laminated mudstones. The diamictites are clast-poor to clast-rich comprising muddy to sandy varieties. Their compositional maturity is evidenced by the very high amount of detrital quartz compared to the paucity of feldspar and unstable lithic grains. Other textural components include extraclasts derived from the local Ordovician basement, mudstone intraclasts, and sediment aggregates. Turbate structures, grain lineations, and soft sediment deformation of the matrix below larger grains are locally observed. Sedimentological analysis reveals that deposition occurred in an ice-intermediate to ice-distal, poorly agitated shelf environment by material supplied from meltwater buoyant plumes and rain-out from ice-rafted debris. Remobilization by mass-flow processes (cohesive debris flows and slumps) was an important mechanism particularly for the formation of massive diamictites. The glaciomarine deposits represent a typical deglaciation sequence reflecting retreat of the ice front (grounded or floating ice sheet), relative sea-level rise and gradually reduced sedimentation rate with increasing contribution from suspension fallout. This sequence was deposited on the non-glaciated shelf of the intracratonic North Gondwana platform along the southern margin of the Rheic Ocean. The Hirnantian strata of the Balkan Terrane can be correlated with similar glaciomarine deposits known from peri-Gondwana terranes elsewhere in Europe showing clear 'Armorican affinity'. Several lines of evidence suggest that the provenance of siliciclastic material was associated mainly with sedimentary recycling of

  15. Radiostratigraphy and heavy mineral content of the Weches Formation (Eocene), Nacogdoches County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, K.; Ledger, E.B.; Sharp, P.; Crocker, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Weches Formation of eastern Texas is a mudstone containing green sand-size clay aggregates. A vertical sequence of 43 samples was analyzed along an excavated cliff to determine radionuclide content. Samples average 5 ppm uranium and range from 2 to about 7 ppm. Thorium averages 20 ppm and ranges from 13 to almost 36 ppm. the gamma-ray spectrometer employed exhibits a certainty of about ±10% (one standard deviation) at the levels measured. Heavy mineral studies of mudstones are few, so one sample of the Weches mudstone was selected for heavy mineral separation and point counting of grain mounts. A total of 2606 grains were counted giving mineral percentages of zircon (28.8%), garnet (17.9%), tourmaline (10.5%), titanite (8.7%), apatite (7.6%), staurolite (6.4%), green hornblende (5.2%), epidote (5.1%), sillimanite (2.8%), monatite (2.2%), kyanite (1.9%), basaltic hornblende (1.5%), and biotite (1.3%). In addition, actinolite, spinel, rutile, and collophane were observed but not counted. Previous studies found a similar heavy mineral suite in the underlying Queen City Formation, but in different proportions. Differences in heavy mineral percentages probably reflect different water-flow regimes at the time of deposition. Heavy minerals in the Weches and Queen City formations are from the same general source area Measured radionuclide ratios are similar to granitic ratios and suggest that detrital heavy minerals, particularly zircon and monazite, are the main site of uranium and thorium and their decay products in the Weches Formation

  16. The Shale Gas potential of Lower Carboniferous Sediments in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschke, D.; Mihailovic, A.; Schulz, H., -M.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Organic-rich Carboniferous sediments are proven source rocks for conventional gas systems in NW Europe and are likely gas shale candidates. Within the framework of GeoEnergie, an initiative to strengthen scientific excellence, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the influence of palaeogeography and basin dynamics on sedimentology and diagenesis is being investigated. Our aim is to unravel the evolution of shale gas-relevant properties which control gas prospectivity and production parameters like porosity, brittleness, etc. for the Lower Carboniferous in Germany. Northern Germany is underlain by thick, mudstone-bearing Carboniferous successions with a wide range of thermal maturities. Some of these mudstone horizons are rich in organic carbon which is either of marine and/or terrigenous origin. During the Carboniferous deposition of fine-grained, TOC-rich basinal sediments changed into shallow marine to paralic siliciclastic sediments (carbonates during the Lower Carboniferous) in the north, and grade into coarse-grained sediments close to the uprising Variscan mountains in the south. As a result different architectural elements including TOC-rich fine-grained sediments like basinal shales, fine-grained parts of turbidites, and shallow marine mudstones occur in both the Lower and the Upper Carboniferous section. A high shale gas potential occurs in basinal shales of Namurian age with marine organic material and TOC contents of up to 8 % (Rhenish Alum Shales). Such sediments with thermal maturities between 1.3 to 3.0 % vitrinite reflectance and sufficient quartz contents occur in wide areas of present-day Central European Basins System (CEBS), and are at favourable depth for shale gas exploration predominantly along the southern CEBS margin.

  17. The Search for Organic Compounds of Martian Origin in Gale Crater by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument on Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel; Freissinet, Caroline; Mahaffy, Paul; Miller, Kristen; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Summons, Roger; Archer, Douglas, Jr.; Brunner, Anna; Martin, Mildred; Buch, Arrnaud; hide

    2014-01-01

    One of the key objectives of the Mars Science Laboratory rover and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite is to determine the inventory of organic and inorganic volatiles in the atmosphere and surface regolith and rocks to help assess the habitability potential of Gale Crater. The SAM instrument on the Curiosity rover can detect volatile organic compounds thermally evolved from solid samples using a combination of evolved gas analysis (EGA) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) (Mahaffy et al. 2012). The first solid samples analyzed by SAM, a scoop of windblown dust and sand at Rocknest, revealed several chloromethanes and a C4-chlorinated hydrocarbon derived primarily from reactions between a martian oxychlorine phase (e.g. perchlorate) and terrestrial carbon from N-methyl-N-(tertbutyldimethylsilyl)- trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) vapor present in the SAM instrument background (Glavin et al. 2013). After the analyses at Rocknest, Curiosity traveled to Yellowknife Bay and drilled two separate holes in a fluvio-lacustrine sediment (the Sheepbed unit) designated John Klein and Cumberland. Analyses of the drilled materials by both SAM and the CheMin X-Ray Diffraction instrument revealed a mudstone consisting of 20 wt% smectite clays (Ming et al. 2013; Vaniman et al. 2013), which on Earth are known to aid the concentration and preservation of organic matter. Oxychlorine compounds were also detected in the Sheepbed mudstone during pyrolysis; however, in contrast to Rocknest, much higher levels of chloromethanes were released from the Sheepbed materials, suggesting an additional, possibly martian source of organic carbon (Ming et al. 2013). In addition, elevated abundances of chlorobenzene and a more diverse suite of chlorinated alkanes including dichloropropane and dichlorobutane detected in Cumberland compared to Rocknest suggest that martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone (Freissinet et al. 2013

  18. Evolved Gas Analyses of the Murray Formation in Gale Crater, Mars: Results of the Curiosity Rover's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; McAdam, A. C.; Rampe, E. B.; Thompson, L. M.; Ming, D. W.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Archer, P. D.

    2017-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover has analyzed 13 samples from Gale Crater. All SAM-evolved gas analyses have yielded a multitude of volatiles (e.g., H2O, SO2, H2S, CO2, CO, NO, O2, HCl) [1- 6]. The objectives of this work are to 1) Characterize recent evolved SO2, CO2, O2, and NO gas traces of the Murray formation mudstone, 2) Constrain sediment mineralogy/composition based on SAM evolved gas analysis (SAM-EGA), and 3) Discuss the implications of these results relative to understanding the geological history of Gale Crater.

  19. Diffusion and retention of organic anions in Callovian-Oxfordian clay rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasamimanana, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The Callovo-Oxfordian mud-stone (CO_x) is studied as a possible host rock for a deep disposal of radioactive waste (Cigeo project). Indeed, besides being very weakly permeable, it presents a high content of clayey minerals, capable of retaining radionuclides under cationic form and to delay strongly their transport. Nevertheless, some waste packages may release a significant amount of organic molecules, capable of complexing these radionuclides and drastically increase their mobility. So, the objective of this work was to better understand the diffusive behavior of several organic molecules of interest in this mudstone, by investigating at first their affinity with the host rock. The retention of organic molecules under anionic form (acetate, phthalate, adipate, benzoate, and citrate) was quantified on to the dispersed CO_x mudstone using adsorption/desorption batch experiments. Experiments on de-carbonated rock and clay fraction only (≤ 2μm) were also performed to identify solid phases and chemical functions responsible for the retention. a correlation of the intensity of retention, R_d, was pointed out whit the dipole moment μ(Orga.), providing a qualitative estimate of retention capacity for polar hydrophilic organic molecules. So, phthalate, slightly polar, displays a reversible retention (R_d ≅1,6 L.kg"-"1), mainly on clayey phases. Citrate, very polar and strongly adsorbed (R_d ≅ 40 L.kg"-"1), displays a persistent desorption hysteresis and an affinity to different solid phases (clayey minerals and minor oxides). Lastly, acetate, adipate and benzoate, weakly polar, display a lower affinity with rock (R_d ≤ 0,2 L.kg"-"1). The diffusive behavior in compact rock of these organic anions was then studied. The effective diffusion coefficient and retardation factor values were quantified. The low diffusivity, [D_e/D_0](Organic Anions) ≅ 0,1 a0,25 * [D_e/D_0](Water) evidences an effect of anionic exclusion, with a same intensity as that observed for

  20. The geology of Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lambert, Richard A.; White, William B.; Lucas, Philip C.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Burnsville Cove is a karst region in Bath and Highland Counties of Virginia. A new geologic map of the area reveals various units of limestone, sandstone, and siliciclastic mudstone (shale) of Silurian through Devonian age, as well as structural features such as northeast-trending anticlines and synclines, minor thrust faults, and prominent joints. Quaternary features include erosional (strath) terraces and accumulations of mud, sand, and gravel. The caves of Burnsville Cove are located within predominantly carbonate strata above the Silurian Williamsport Sandstone and below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Most of the caves are located within the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, rather than the Silurian-Devonian Keyser Limestone as reported previously.

  1. The genesis of Kurišková U-Mo ore deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demko, R.; Biroň, A.; Novotný, L.; Bartalský, B.

    2014-01-01

    The U-Mo ores of the known uranium deposit Kurišková located in the Huta volcano-sedimentary complex (HVC) of lower Permian age belongs to the Petrova Hora Formation of the North-Gemeric tectonic unit (Western Carpathians). The HVC is built up by volcanic rocks of bimodal basalt-rhyolite association, intercalated with sandstones, mudstones and claystones. Based on the sedimentary facies reconstruction, it is supposed paleoenvironment of seasonally flooded shallow lakes of continental fluvial plain with transition to estuaries and shallow marine facies of continental shelf in the upper part of HVC.

  2. Self-healing of Fractures in Argillaceous Media from the Geomechanical Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Presently, there is no established theory describing fracture self-healing and self-sealing processes in mud-rocks (clays, mud-stones and shales) and no methodology to assess the conditions under which these processes might be important. The author suggests that the modified Cam-Clay approach provides a useful conceptual and theoretical framework for the analysis of the largely hydro-mechanical process of self-sealing. Three basic hypotheses are proposed and applied to the problem of fracture self-sealing in the repository EDZ and to the more general question of fault sealing. (author)

  3. Sedimentary features of the Mercedes formation (upper Cretaceous ) between Mercedes and Fray Bentos cities, Rca. O del Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofalo, O.; Pazos, P.

    1998-01-01

    A new locality by the Mercedes formation is analyzed close to route 2, near at the Mercedes City. The stratigraphic assignment is proposed after the examination of the sedimentary features that include geometry, composition and sedimentary structures. The section that reach 10 meters in thickness contains conglomerates, pebbly sandstones, sandstones and scare mudstones with a finning upward arrangement. All of features are indicative of a alluvial origin. This locality is the first mention of the Mercedes formation in the south section of the Department Rio Negro. (author)

  4. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Glad, Aslaug Clemmensen; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup

    2017-01-01

    -preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal....... During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well...

  5. Source-to-Sink System Evolution as Recorded in Clastic Facies in Two New Zealand Examples: the Bounty System of South Island and the Waipaoa System of North Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.

    2010-12-01

    New Zealand river sources and their submarine sinks are excellent examples for modeling source-to-sink systems. In particular, the sand fractions of these systems can be used as tracers to document links and/or disconnects between fluvial, shelf, slope, and bathyal components. Within any given system, the ability to use sand as a tracer depends on the nature of the rocks exposed in source river drainage basins. In evolving systems, the potential for erosional unroofing, change of outcrop lithology through time, can be important. Additionally, the ability of a given lithology to generate sediment of a certain size may also vary. For example in the New Zealand examples, Cenozoic mudstones generate mostly mud but can liberate recycled sand grains (if present), as well as a smaller proportion of mudstone lithic fragments depending on degree of mudstone induration; schist generates copious sand and quartz-vein pebbles; and thin-bedded sandy turbidites can generate significant gravel, as well as mud and sand. Sediment production mode also comes into play with glacial processes (South Island) generating rock flour, as well as coarser debris. The major outcropping unit across both islands is a sedimentary to metasedimentary forearc succession, the Torlesse Terrane. It served as the protolith of the Otago schist (South Island) and the source of detritus for Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary units on both islands. Local magmatism also supplied sand-sized material: intraplate (South Island) volcanism produced intrabasinal epiclastic debris and magmatic arc (North Island) volcanism produced extrabasinal pyroclastic debris. Various lithologies have characteristic detrital signatures. For example, in the Cenozoic units of the Waipaoa system, Pliocene calcareous mudstone fragments are key lithic components in tracing sediment transport from source-to sink, whereas the major fingerprint of Otago schist input into the Bounty System of South Island is mica. Critical to defining

  6. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng; Debao, He [CNNC Key Laboratory of Uranium Resources Exploration and Evaluation Technology, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology (China)

    2012-03-15

    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  7. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue; He Debao

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  8. Development of early diagenetic silica and quartz morphologies — Examples from the Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, Rikke; Friis, Henrik; Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari

    2010-01-01

    in the following way: 1. Opal rims; characteristic of the initial phase of the silica diagenesis in most sandstone units in the Siri Canyon. Thick opal rims characterise the sandstone parts adjacent to the mudstone units in the Stine segment of the Siri Field. 2. Microquartz (quartz crystals with a size of 1–5 μm......); seen as coatings on the opal rims, both ordered and random. 3. Cavity overgrowth; found as quartz outgrowths in circular and angular cavities formed by dissolution of early authigenic phases. Angular cavities in the microquartz coatings origin from dissolution of clinoptilolite, possibly with a source...

  9. Clay minerals assemblage in the Neogene fluvial succession of the Pishin Belt, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    indicate derivation of material from the Pre-Miocene sedimentary and meta-sedimentary terrains of the Pishin Belt. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that clay minerals in various mudstones and sandstone samples are identical and detrital in nature and include smectite, chlorite, illite, serpentine...... and kaolinite. Smectite and chlorite are most probably derived from the metavolcanic and mafic volcanic rocks, respectively. Presence of serpentine in samples of the Bostan Formation indicates altered ultramafic rocks as one of the source terrains. Illite is probably recycled from the older sedimentary...

  10. Brushy Basin drilling project, Cedar Mountain, Emergy County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiloh, K.D.; McNeil, M.; Vizcaino, H.

    1980-03-01

    A 12-hole drilling program was conducted on the northwestern flank of the San Rafael swell of eastern Utah to obtain subsurface geologic data to evaluate the uranium resource potential of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic). In the Cedar Mountain-Castle Valley area, the Brushy Basin Member consists primarily of tuffaceous and carbonaceous mudstones. Known uranium mineralization is thin, spotty, very low grade, and occurs in small lenticular pods. Four of the 12 drill holes penetrated thin intervals of intermediate-grade uranium mineralization in the Brushy Basin. The study confirmed that the unit does not contain significant deposits of intermediate-grade uranium

  11. The effect of sedimentation background of depression target stratum containing mineral in Erlian basin, Ulanqab to uranium mineralization type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Shihu; Jiao Yangquan; Men Hong; Kuang Wenzhan

    2012-01-01

    The ore bearing stratum in depression of Ulanqab contains target stratum of lower cretaceous Saihan formation, upper cretaceous Erlian formation, paleogene system etc. The uranium mineralization type which have found by now contains sandstone type, mudstone type and coal petrography. The genetic type of mineral deposit contains paleovalley-type, reformed type after superposition with sedimentation and diagenesis by sedimentation. Uranium mineralization of both the natural type and genetic type have close relationship with its ore bearing stratum. Different geological background forms different sedimentary system combination, and different sedimentary system combination forms different uranium mineralization type. (authors)

  12. Alteration of uraniferous and native copper concretions in the Permian mudrocks of south Devon, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Styles, M.T.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Kemp, S.J.

    2002-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the mineralogy and alteration characteristics of unusual concretions containing sheets of native copper, and uranium-vanadium mineralised concretions, in mudstones and siltstones of the Pennian Littleham Mudstone Formation, at Littleham Cove, south Devon, England. The main objectives of the study were: 1. To investigate the corrosion characteristics of the native copper as a natural analogue for the long-term behaviour of copper canisters, sealed in a compacted clay (bentonite) backfill, that will be used for the deep geological disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This study developed from an earlier pilot study, which demonstrated that the alteration of the native copper in the concretions from Littleham Cove was mineralogically and chemically complex. 2. To investigate the alteration and oxidation of minerals containing reduced species (e.g. ferrous iron) within the uranium-rich concretions as a natural analogue for the potential effects of oxidation induced by alpha-radiolysis of water in a HLW repository environment. Native copper-bearing concretions in the Littleham Mudstone Formation are very rare. They occur, as thin lenticular disks developed largely along bedding lamina and thin low-angle fractures cutting the bedding laminae the upper part of the formation, about 10 m below the top of the formation. This part of the sequence comprises laterally discontinuous, fine-grained sheet-flood and channel sandstones and siltstones. Some of these sandstones, are more extensively-cemented by copper sulphides (mainly chalcocite), copper arsenides, cobalt-nickel arsenides, and uranium silicate. The thin permeable sandstones and siltstones, and fractures zones around small faults appear to have acted as the conduits for the movement of mineralising fluids through the mudstones. The native copper sheets all show a similar pattern of corrosion and alteration. However, the intensity of alteration is

  13. Hydrogeology of an ancient arid closed basin: Implications for tabular sandstone-hosted uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogeologic modeling shows that tabular-type uranium deposits in the grants uranium region of the San Juan basin, New Mexico, formed in zones of ascending and discharging regional ground-water flow. The association of either lacustrine mudstone or actively subsiding structures and uranium deposits can best be explained by the occurrence of lakes at topographic depressions where ground water having different sources and compositions is likely to converge, mix, and discharge. Ascending and discharging flow also explains the association of uranium deposits with underlying evaporites and suggests a brine interface. The simulations contradict previous suggestions that ground water moved downward in the mudflat

  14. Rare earth phosphate occurrence in Resende formation, paleogene of continental rift in Southeast Brazil; Ocorrencia de fosfato de terras raras na formacao Resende, paleogeno do rift continental do Sudeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Anna, Lucy Gomes; Riccomini, Claudio; Valarelli, Jose Vicente [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: lsantann@hotmail.com; comin@usp.br

    1999-12-01

    Petrographic studies and SEM/EDS and XRD analyses revealed the presence of a phosphate with Ca and REE (La, Nd) in a mudstone deposit of the Resende Formation, located on the northern border of the Resende Basin. The morphological characteristics (prismatic hexagonal habit) and chemical composition of the phosphate allow including this mineral in the rhabdophane group. This phosphate is authigenic and its origin is related to the dissolution of detritic apatite grains, probably by alkaline hydrothermal solutions. These solutions also provided some of the elements involved in the rhabdophane crystallization. (author)

  15. Palynology and stratigraphy preliminary study and the perforation 313/1, lower Permian. Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beri, A; Daners, G.; Spoturno, J.

    1998-01-01

    The palynomorphs in the bore 313/1 of the Direccion Nacional de Mineria y Geologia are analyzed. Twenty three samples were processed, and only 9 were fertile. The lithologies correspond to sandstones of variable grain size, to mudstone and to diamictite, all of them assigned to the San Gregorio and Tres Islas Fms. The most abundant genera of sporare are essentially represented by monosaccate grains. Bisaccate and striated grains are very scare. The palynoflora is comparable with those studied in Brazil in the Fm Rio Bonito. Therefore, it is proposed that the sediments studied were deposited in the early Permian. (author)

  16. ChemCam at Gale Crater: Highlights and Discoveries from Three Years of Chemical Measurements on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, John; Bridges, Nathan; Clegg, Samuel; Clark, Benton; Ehlmann, Bethany; Dyar, Melinda D.; Fisk, Martin; Francis, Raymond; Fabre, Cecile; Forni, Olivier; Frydenvang, Jens; Johnson, Jeffery; Lanza, Nina; Leveille, Richard; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Deit, Laetitia; Mangold, Nicholas; Melikechi, Noureddine; Nachon, Marion; Newsom, Horton; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Sautter, Violane; Vaniman, David; Grotzinger, John; Vasavad, Ashwin; Crisp, Joy

    2015-11-01

    ChemCam has undertaken a detailed chemical investigation of the rocks and soils at Gale crater over the last three years with over six thousand separate geochemical measurements. Recent recalibration of the ChemCam data using a new library of >350 geochemical standards has enabled increased elemental accuracies over a wider compositional range. The increased accuracy combined with ChemCam’s small spot size allows for the chemistry of mineral end members including feldspars, high silica, oxide rich grains to be identified. ChemCam has observed both sedimentary and igneous compositions. Igneous compositions are generally present in conglomerates and in float rocks. Compositions show a wide range of igneous chemistry ranging from basaltic to feldspar rich assemblages.Sedimentary rocks have a wide range of compositions reflecting both differences in chemical source regions and in depositional and diagenetic histories. The “Sheepbed” mudstones cluster around Martian average crustal compositions. The “Kimberley” outcrop showed enhanced potassium reaching concentrations up to ~6 wt% K2O. More recent observations in the Murray Formation at the base of Mt. Sharp reveal mudstones that are lower in magnesium and higher in silica and aluminum than the more basaltic mudstones previously investigated. Extremely high silica (75-85 wt%) deposits have also been identified. The high silica observations were associated with increased TiO2, While the Murray mudstones are generally low in magnesium, local enhancements in magnesium have also been noted associated with resistant facies in the outcrop. Chemical trends also indicate that iron oxide phases may also be present as cements. Sandstone facies with a mafic composition are also present. Veins in the unit also show a wide range of compositions indicating fluid chemistries rich in calcium sulfate, fluorine, magnesium and iron were present. Vein chemistry could be the result of distinct fluids migrating through from a

  17. Sampling and treatment of rock cores and groundwater under reducing environments of deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebashi, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Tadao

    2005-01-01

    A method of sampling and treatment of undisturbed rock cores and groundwater under maintained reducing environments of deep underground was developed and demonstrated in a Neogene's sandy mudstone layer at depth of GL-100 to -200 m. Undisturbed rock cores and groundwater were sampled and transferred into an Ar gas atmospheric glove box with minimized exposure to the atmosphere. The reducing conditions of the sampled groundwater and rock cores were examined in the Ar atmospheric glove box by measuring pH and Eh of the sampled groundwater and sampled groundwater contacting with disk type rock samples, respectively. (author)

  18. Compaction of microfossil and clay-rich chalk sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of microfossils and clay in the compaction of chalk facies sediments. To meet this aim, chalk sediments with varying micro texture were studied. The sediments have been tested uniaxially confined in a stainless-steel compaction cell. The sediments are......: 1) Pure carbonate chalk with mudstone texture from Stevns Klint (Denmark), 2) Relatively pure chalk sediments with varying content of microfossils from the Ontong Java Plateau (Western Pacific), 3) Clay-rich chalk and mixed sediments from the Caribbean. The tested samples were characterised...

  19. Soft-sediment deformation structures from an ice-marginal storm-tide interactive system, Permo-Carboniferous Talchir Formation, Talchir Coalbasin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, H. N.; Bhattacharya, Biplab

    2010-01-01

    Permo-Carboniferous Talchir Formation, Talchir Coalbasin, India, records sedimentation during a phase of climatic amelioration in an ice-marginal storm-affected shelf. Evidences of subtidal processes are preserved only under thick mud drapes deposited during waning storm phases. Various soft-sediment deformation structures in some sandstone/siltstone-mudstone interbeds, like syn-sedimentary faults, deformed laminations, sand-silt flows, convolute laminations and various flame structures, suggest liquefaction and fluidization of the beds due to passage of syn-depositional seismic shocks. In the Late Paleozoic ice-marginal shelf, such earthquake tremors could be generated by crustal movements in response to glacioisostatic adjustments of the basin floor.

  20. Humic acid provenance influence to the adsorption capacity in uranium and thorium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, E.

    2018-01-01

    It is common knowledge that humic acid is organic compound without certain chemical composition since it is derived from different organic materials. Further this raises question whether the different humic acid sample used could lead to different adsorbent properties e.g. adsorption capacity. To address the problem, this paper is aimed to clarify the relation between the provenances of humic acid and synthesized adsorbent properties especially adsorption capacities by quantitative and qualitative functional groups determination including discussion on their effect to the metal ion adsorption mechanism using three humic acid samples. Two commercial samples were derived from recent compost while the other extracted from tertiary carbonaceous mudstone strata.

  1. Study of Sedimentary Outcrop of Semanggol Formation with the Correlation of Geology, Geotechnical and Geophysics Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiana, A. N.; Nordiana, M. M.; Jia, Teoh Ying; Hisham, Hazrul; Sulaiman, Nabila; Maslinda, Umi; Taqiuddin, Z. M.; Nur Amalina, M. K. A.; Afiq Saharudin, Muhamad

    2017-04-01

    The study location was at Bukit Kukus, Kuala Ketil, Kedah, Malaysia where the geological outcrop of this Semanggol Formation comprises of chert, mudstone, and volcanic tuff. The study was conducted using two geophysical methods, which are 2-D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The objectives of the study are to correlate both of the geophysical methods through the value of conductivity and to identify the physical properties of rocks through the value of porosity and permeability. The data acquisition for both methods was conducted on the same line. For 2-D Resistivity method, the length of the line is 60 m with 1.5 m electrode spacing and the array used was Wenner-Schlumberger. For GPR method, the survey line was on top of the resistivity line, and the frequency of the antenna used is 250 MHz. A good correlation exists between both of the GPR signature and contour maps for resistivity from the surfer 10 software with the outcrop feature. Conductivity value from both GPR and Resistivity method was compared and the range value of conductivity obtained from GPR method almost equivalent with Resistivity method based on derivation and calculation for the sedimentary rocks, which are 0.037 to 0.574 miliSiemens per metre (mS/m) for chert and 0.186 to 10.142 miliSiemens per metre (mS/m) for mudstone. Two types of rock samples were taken, and several geotechnical tests were conducted, but only the value of permeability, K and porosity, ɸ of chert can be calculated, which are 1.95E-22 m2 (original condition) and 2.27E-22 m2 (dry condition) and 3 percent respectively as the sample of mudstone was damaged. The parameter of the 2-D resistivity method derived from Archie’s law was used to calculate the porosity, ɸf value using the Formation Factor equation. The range values of porosity, ɸf for chert mostly in the range of 5 to 25 percent, which is 6.26 to 13.36 percent but slightly out of range for mudstone, which is 14.12 to 36.02 percent.

  2. Marine Jurassic lithostratigraphy of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesook, A.; Grant-Mackie, J. A.

    Marine Jurassic rocks of Thailand are well-exposed in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas and less extensively near Mae Hong Son, Kanchanaburi, Chumphon and Nakhon Si Thammarat, in the north, west, and south respectively. They are generally underlain unconformably by Triassic and overlain by Quaternary strata. Based mainly on five measured sections, fourteen new lithostratigraphic units are established: (in ascending order) Pa Lan, Mai Hung and Kong Mu Formations of the Huai Pong Group in the Mae Hong Son area; Khun Huai, Doi Yot and Pha De Formations of the Hua Fai Group in the Mae Sot area; Klo Tho, Ta Sue Kho, Pu Khloe Khi and Lu Kloc Tu Formations of the Umphang Group in the Umphang area; and the Khao Lak Formation in the Chumphon area. Mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, limestone and marl are the dominant lithologies. Mudstones, siltstones and sandstones are widespread; limestones are confined to the Mae Sot, Umphang, Kanchanaburi and Mae Hong Son areas; marls are found only in Mae Sot. The sequences are approximately 900 m thick in Mae Sot and 450 m thick in Umphang and are rather thinner in the other areas, particularly in the south. Based on ammonites, with additional data from bivalves and foraminifera, the marine Jurassic is largely Toarcian-Aalenian plus some Bajocian. Late Jurassic ages given previously for strata in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas have not been confirmed.

  3. Armoured mud balls as a result of ephemeral fluvial flood in a humid climate: Modern example from Guizhou Province, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard H. Bachmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Armoured mud balls were observed after rainfall and a short flood in the otherwise dry Xiaohe (small river valley of Guanling County, Guizhou Province, South China, approximately 30 km southwest of Guanling City. Armoured mud balls are most common in semiarid climates, but rather unusual in a humid climate as in Guizhou. A number of well-rounded mud balls, 2–20 cm in diameter, were found lying on the gravel of the Xiaohe gully floor. The mud balls consist of sticky, light brown and slightly mottled clay without carbonate content. The surfaces of the mud balls were studded with rims of sand- or gravel-size limestone clasts, collected during bedload transport, as is typical for armoured mud balls. The mud balls originated from alluvial mudstone deposits of the valley floor and cliff that are most likely derived from the weathering and karstification of bedrock limestones. Such mudstones with high clay content seem to be especially well suited for forming armoured mud balls. As flood events are rather common in the area, the formation of armoured mud balls should be very frequent in the Xiaohe valley and similar valleys nearby, giving the possibility for further and more detailed studies. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of armoured mud balls in China.

  4. A geological reconnaissance study of the Dyfi Valley region, Gwynedd/Powys, Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.A.; Howells, M.F.; Reedman, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A collation of existing maps and data backed up by localised checking, reinterpretation and modification, employing sampling, structural measurements and aerial photograph interpretation, have updated the geological information available on the Dyfi Valley region. The region comprises an argillaceous-dominated Ordovician and Silurian sedimentary pile of approximately 4 km thickness. Thick formations of mudstones and silty mudstones with thin intercalations of silty sandstone and fine-grained sandstone predominate and exhibit fewer variations in thickness and extent than the subordinate formations with a higher proportion of sand-grade material. Three periods of deformation (D 1 -D 3 ) are distinguished, with the D 1 phase dominating the structure of the region by forming upright, asymmetrical, large (km) scale folds (F 1 ) of a NNE-SSW to NE-SW trend and producing an almost ubiquitous slaty cleavage (S 1 ). The succeeding deformations produced localised crenulation cleavages, kink bands and box folds. Data on the faulting and jointing associated with this deformation history are also presented. (author)

  5. On the Validity of the “Thin” and “Thick” Double-Layer Assumptions When Calculating Streaming Currents in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We find that the thin double layer assumption, in which the thickness of the electrical diffuse layer is assumed small compared to the radius of curvature of a pore or throat, is valid in a capillary tubes model so long as the capillary radius is >200 times the double layer thickness, while the thick double layer assumption, in which the diffuse layer is assumed to extend across the entire pore or throat, is valid so long as the capillary radius is >6 times smaller than the double layer thickness. At low surface charge density (0.5 M the validity criteria are less stringent. Our results suggest that the thin double layer assumption is valid in sandstones at low specific surface charge (<10 mC⋅m−2, but may not be valid in sandstones of moderate- to small pore-throat size at higher surface charge if the brine concentration is low (<0.001 M. The thick double layer assumption is likely to be valid in mudstones at low brine concentration (<0.1 M and surface charge (<10 mC⋅m−2, but at higher surface charge, it is likely to be valid only at low brine concentration (<0.003 M. Consequently, neither assumption may be valid in mudstones saturated with natural brines.

  6. Fasies dan lingkungan pengendapan Formasi Bobong berumur Jura sebagai pembawa lapisan batubara di Taliabu, Kepulauan Sanana-Sula, Maluku Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnama Kusnama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no3.20085The Bobong Formation is a coarse clastic sedimentary rock succession. In the lower part, it consists of breccia and conglomerate facies, then followed by quartz sandstone with intercalations of claystone facies. Upwards, the rock succession is gradually changed to become alternating shale, claystone and mudstone. In the upper section the rock unit is well exposed in the western and northern parts of the Taliabu Island. The formation is Jurassic in age and it was deposited within a fluvial-transition to shallow marine environ- ment. The coal bed found within quartz sandstone and shale and claystone-mudstone facies ocupies the upper part succession of the Bobong Formation. The coal in the Taliabu Island has two seams having a thickness of 30 - 40 cm and 100 - 120 cm, respectively. The geochemical analysis result indicates that the calorific value ranges from 6,186 to 7,350 cal/g, the sulphur content is from 3% to 4.65% , fixed carbon ranges from 45.69 to 53,96%, and ash content from 7.86 - 16.37%. On the basis of those parameter, the coal within the Bobong Formation is categorized as subbituminous to high volatile bituminous rank.    

  7. Fluvial sedimentology of a major uranium-bearing sandstone - A study of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner-Peterson, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation, the main ore-bearing sandstone in the San Juan basin, consists of a sequence of vertically stacked braided stream deposits. Three fluvial units within the sequence can be delineated in the basin. Volcanic pebbles are abundant in the middle fluvial unit, in a zone that forms a crude time line. A pronounced thickening of sandstone in the Westwater Canyon Member north of Gallup, once believed to be the apex of a large alluvial fan, is now thought to merely reflect a greater accumulation of sediment in response to downwarping of the basin in that area. Provenance studies suggest that highlands that contributed detritus to Westwater Canyon streams were located several hundred kilometers to the west and southwest of the San Juan basin, and thus fan apices would also have been several hundred kilometers upstream. The fluvial units recognized in the basin may well be coalesced distal fan deposits, but are probably best interpreted as vertically stacked braided steam sequences. Facies changes in fine-grained interbeds of the Westwater Canyon probably have greater significance in terms of localizing ore than any special attribute of the fluvial sandstones themselves. Uranium ore generally occurs in sandstones that are interbedded with greenish-gray lacustrine mudstones. Pore waters that were expelled from these mudstones are thought to have been the source of the pore-filling organic matter (humate) associated with primary uranium ore in nearby sandstones

  8. Lithology and uranium potential of Jurassic formations in the San Ysidro--Cuba and majors ranch areas, northwestern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.S.

    1975-01-01

    The aggregate thickness of sedimentary rocks of Jurassic age near the eastern and southeastern margin of the San Juan Basin in Sandoval County, N. Mex., is about 1150 feet (350 metres). The Entrada Sandstone is the base. The Entrada Sandstone, 97 to 227 feet (30 to 69 m) thick, consists of red and brown siltstone and fine-grained sandstone and brown and white sandstone. The Todilto Formation, 5 to 125 feet (1.5 to 38 m) thick, consists of a limestone unit and a massive white gypsum unit. The Summerville Formation, 0 to 50 feet (0 to 15 m) thick, consists of variegated, interstratified mudstone, claystone, siltstone, and sandstone. The Morrison Formation, 750 to 870 feet (229 to 265 m) thick, is divided into three members. The Recapture Member consists mainly of red and white color-banded fine-grained sandstone. The Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin Members consist mainly of red and green mudstone interstratified with grayish-orange arkosic sandstone. The upper unit of the Brushy Basin Member is called the Jackpile sandstone, a name of economic usage. Most of the sandstone in the Morrison Formation above the Recapture Member in the area studied is considered to be a potential host for uranium ore deposits. (auth)

  9. Reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senlin Yin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discuss shape, scale and superimposed types of sandy gravel bodies in sandy-gravel braided distributary channel. Lithofacies analysis, hierarchy bounding surface analysis and subsurface dense well pattern combining with outcrops method were used to examine reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channel based on cores, well logging, and outcrops data, and the reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channels in different grades have been established. The study shows: (1 The main reservoir architecture elements for sandy gravel braided channel delta are distributary channel and overbank sand, while reservoir flow barrier elements are interchannel and lacustrine mudstone. (2 The compound sand bodies in the sandy gravel braided delta distributary channel take on three shapes: sheet-like distributary channel sand body, interweave strip distributary channel sand body, single strip distributary channel sand body. (3 Identification marks of single distributary channel include: elevation of sand body top, lateral overlaying, “thick-thin-thick” feature of sand bodies, interchannel mudstone and overbank sand between distributary channels and the differences in well log curve shape of sand bodies. (4 Nine lithofacies types were distinguished in distributary channel unit interior, different channel units have different lithofacies association sequence.

  10. Growth, Failure, and Erosion of Submarine Channel Levees on the Upper Mississippi Fan, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D. E.; Flemings, P. B.; Nikolinakou, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Late Pleistocene channel levees on the Mississippi Fan failed repeatedly along deep-seated listric faults. These growth faults begin at the top of the levee, as much as a kilometer away from the channel axis. They plunge 150-200 meters downward reaching their deepest point halfway towards the channel axis (0.5 km) along the base of a regional sand unit. They then rise toward the channel axis where they emerge. The erosion of toe-thrust material coupled with levee growth, promoted a dynamic equilibrium: turbidity currents flushed the channel axis and deposited new levee on the margins, which induced further displacement into the channel. With a geomechanical model we show that deep-seated failure occurred by undrained loading of an underlying low permeability mudstone. Excess pore pressure formed a low-strength layer that localized the detachment at the base of a regional sand. Our results show that deep-seated failure is expected when levee systems form above regional sand bodies that were deposited rapidly above low permeability mudstone. Furthermore, the presence of this failure style in channel-levee systems is a strong indicator that overpressures and low effective stresses were present during formation and thus record paleo-pressures. Understanding these systems is critical for the design of safe well penetrations, predicting hydraulic connectivity of deepwater channel sands, and the growth of submarine channel-levee systems. This study illuminates the linkages between sedimentation, erosion, and the mechanical stability of levees in submarine channel systems.

  11. Frasnian-Famennian boundary near Jasper, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldsetzer, H.; Goodfellow, W.D.; McLaren, D.; Orchard, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The extinction event at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary cannot be associated with a first-order event, whether impact, volcanic or other. However, data from Alberta and western Australia suggest a sudden flooding of cratonic areas by anoxic water as the immediate or second-order cause. In the Rocky Mountains near Jasper, Alberta abrupt sedimentological, geochemical and faunal changes occur between bioturbated dolomitic siltstones below and thinly laminated, very pyritic, argillaceous lime mudstones above. The siltstones which overlie thick subtidal sediments that infilled Middle Frasnian reef topography, were deposited in shallow, well oxygenated water and contain a Frasnian gigas Zone conodont fauna. In contrast, the overlying lime mudstones which pass upward into beds with Famennian triangularis Zone conodonts, represent deposition under strongly anoxic conditions; the contained pyrite has anomalously high delta/sup 34/S values suggesting prolonged bacterial reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The abrupt change to anoxic conditions could have been triggered by an ocean turn-over event as a result of which cratonic areas were flooded with anoxic water. This in turn would have caused a sharp reduction of the biomass and large-scale faunal extinctions.

  12. Evidence for indigenous nitrogen in sedimentary and aeolian deposits from the Curiosity rover investigations at Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Sutter, Brad; Freissinet, Caroline; Navarro-González, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P.; Archer, P. Douglas; Buch, Arnaud; Brunner, Anna E.; Coll, Patrice; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Fairen, Alberto G.; Franz, Heather B.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Kashyap, Srishti; McAdam, Amy C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Steele, Andrew; Szopa, Cyril; Wray, James J.; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; Conrad, Pamela G.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Grotzinger, John; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; - Torres, F. Javier Martín; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d’Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has detected oxidized nitrogen-bearing compounds during pyrolysis of scooped aeolian sediments and drilled sedimentary deposits within Gale crater. Total N concentrations ranged from 20 to 250 nmol N per sample. After subtraction of known N sources in SAM, our results support the equivalent of 110–300 ppm of nitrate in the Rocknest (RN) aeolian samples, and 70–260 and 330–1,100 ppm nitrate in John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB) mudstone deposits, respectively. Discovery of indigenous martian nitrogen in Mars surface materials has important implications for habitability and, specifically, for the potential evolution of a nitrogen cycle at some point in martian history. The detection of nitrate in both wind-drifted fines (RN) and in mudstone (JK, CB) is likely a result of N2 fixation to nitrate generated by thermal shock from impact or volcanic plume lightning on ancient Mars. Fixed nitrogen could have facilitated the development of a primitive nitrogen cycle on the surface of ancient Mars, potentially providing a biochemically accessible source of nitrogen. PMID:25831544

  13. Development of artificial soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kiyoshi

    1995-01-01

    When foundation base rocks are deeper than the level of installing structures or there exist weathered rocks and crushed rocks in a part of base rocks, often sound artificial base rocks are made by substituting the part with concrete. But in the construction of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the foundation base rocks consist of mudstone, and the stiffness of concrete is large as compared with the surrounding base rocks. As the quality of the substituting material, the nearly same stiffness as that of the surrounding soft rocks and long term stability are suitable, and the excellent workability and economical efficiency are required, therefore, artificial soft rocks were developed. As the substituting material, the soil mortar that can obtain the physical property values in stable form, which are similar to those of Nishiyama mudstone, was selected. The mechanism of its hardening and the long term stability, and the manufacturing plant are reported. As for its application to the base rocks of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the verification test at the site and the application to the base rocks for No. 7 plant reactor building and other places are described. (K.I.)

  14. Natural radiogenic heat production in the northeastern part of the North German Basin; Natuerliche radiogene Waermeproduktion im Nordostdeutschen Becken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullner, H A [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The radiogenic heat-production rate is a parameter that affects the thermal structure in the sedimentary cover. The parameter is important to warrant an extensive study. The first results gained in the northeastern part of the North German Basin show values in the range between 2.2 and 2.6 {mu}W/m{sup 3} in Permian mudstones in the Peckensen borehole and in the Bonese borehole (Altmark area). Comparable results were obtained in mudstones from a {gamma}-ray log measured in the Rheinsberg borehole (Brandenburg area). (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung der thermischen Struktur des nordostdeutschen Beckens erfordert Kenntnisse ueber die radiogene Waermeproduktion der in zahlreichen Bohrungen aufgeschlossenen Sedimente. Die erste Ergebnisse eines am GFZ Postdam begonnenen Messprogrammes zeigen Waermeproduktionsraten im Bereich 2,2 bis 2,6 {mu}W/m{sup 3} in Tonsteinen des Perm in den Bohrungen Peckensen und Bonese (Altmark). Eine vergleichbare Waermeproduktion wurde anhand eines {gamma}-ray-Logs in Tonsteinen in der Bohrung Rheinsberg (Brandenburg) ermittelt. (orig.)

  15. Development of artificial soft rock. Jinko nangan zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, K.; Nishioka, T. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Nojiri, Y.; Kurihara, H.; Fukazawa, E. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-09-15

    When a part of the ground is replaced with artificial materials in the construction of important structures on soft rock foundations, it is desirable for the artificial materials to have the rigidity equivalent to that of the surrounding ground and to be stable in the long term. The article reports a success in the development and utilization of artificial soft rocks satisfying the above conditions by using a raw material produced locally at the construction site. The soft rock aimed at was mudstone belonging to the Neocene period, and the artificial material of soil-mortal system is selected as the equivalent having the same physical properties. Improvements in selection of solidification agents and cohesive soil were especially contrived: taht is, a new material for solidification was developed by mixing blast-furnace cement and gypsum; and the mudstone on the site was used as the cohesive soil by slurrying it to adjust its grain size to homogeneous composition. The artificial soft rock resulting from the above contrivance showed excellent flow, self-leveling, and filling properties at the stage of fresh mortar, and the physical properties after hardning was very similar to those of the natural ground. The long-term stability was also confirmed by the tests on hydration reaction and environmental factors. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Applying and improving a sedimentary facies model for exploration of stratigraphic traps in the Austrian Molasse basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinsch, R.; Kofler, N. [Rohoel-Aufsuchungs AG (RAG), Vienna (Austria); Hubbard, S. [Calgary Univ., Calgary (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2007-09-13

    In the Molasse foreland basin of Upper Austria gas is produced from deep-water sandstones and conglomerates of the Puchkirchen and basal Hall formations (Oligocene-Lower Miocene). The basin is mature, with >750 wells drilled by RAG to date. An extensive 3-D seismic reflection dataset that covers much of the paleo-basin foredeep has been acquired in the study area over the last 15 years. Seismic stratigraphic analysis has revealed that deepwater sedimentation in the basin was dominated by a channel belt up to 5 km wide that transported sediment derived from the Central and Eastern Alps eastward along the basin axis (Linzer, 2001; de Ruig, 2003). Based on these findings, a detailed sedimentary facies model has been developed, outlining several distinct depositional elements that reveal numerous possible stratigraphic trap types (de Ruig and Hubbard, 2006). This depositional model is currently being applied and tested in exploration and refined by ongoing research. Channel abandonment and migration are important processes that resulted in stratigraphic configurations consisting of coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates overlain by channel and overbank mudstones. This represents ideal reservoir architecture, including porous reservoir facies sealed by impermeable deposits. Additional stratigraphic trapping conditions can result from special spatial arrangements of depositional elements, for example a sandstone-filled tributary channel that is sealed by an overlying mudstone-filled abandonment channel. Recognizing and further improving such stratigraphic trapping configurations are important for future exploration in Upper Austria, where most of the structural traps have been drilled. (orig.)

  17. Facies architecture of the Bluejacket Sandstone in the Eufaula Lake area, Oklahoma: Implications for the reservoir characterization of the Bartlesville Sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liangmiao; Yang, Kexian [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Outcrop studies of the Bluejacket Sandstone (Middle Pennsylvanian) provide significant insights to reservoir architecture of the subsurface equivalent Bartlesville Sandstone. Quarry walls and road cuts in the Lake Eufaula area offer excellent exposures for detailed facies architectural investigations using high-precision surveying, photo mosaics. Directional minipermeameter measurements are being conducted. Subsurface studies include conventional logs, borehole image log, and core data. Reservoir architectures are reconstructed in four hierarchical levels: multi-storey sandstone, i.e. discrete genetic intervals; individual discrete genetic interval; facies within a discrete genetic interval; and lateral accretion bar deposits. In both outcrop and subsurface, the Bluejacket (Bartlesville) Sandstone comprises two distinctive architectures: a lower braided fluvial and an upper meandering fluvial. Braided fluvial deposits are typically 30 to 80 ft thick, and are laterally persistent filling an incised valley wider than the largest producing fields. The lower contact is irregular with local relief of 50 ft. The braided-fluvial deposits consist of 100-400-ft wide, 5-15-ft thick channel-fill elements. Each channel-fill interval is limited laterally by an erosional contact or overbank deposits, and is separated vertically by discontinuous mudstones or highly concentrated mudstone interclast lag conglomerates. Low-angle parallel-stratified or trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones volumetrically dominate. This section has a blocky well log profile. Meandering fluvial deposits are typically 100 to 150 ft thick and comprise multiple discrete genetic intervals.

  18. Lacustrine-humate model for primary uranium ore deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner-Peterson, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Two generations of uranium ore, primary and redistributed, occur in fluvial sandstones of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the San Juan basin; the two stages of ore formation can be related to the hydrologic history of the basin. Primary ore formed soon after Morrison deposition, in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, and a model, the lacustrine-humate model, is offered that views primary mineralization as a diagenetic event related to early pore fluid evolution. The basic premise is that the humate, a pore-filling organic material closely associated with primary ore, originated as humic acids dissolved in pore waters of greenish-gray lacustrine mudstones deposited in the mud-flat facies of the Brushy Basin Member and similar K shale beds in the Westwater Canyon Member. During compaction associated with early burial, formation water expelled from lacustrine mudstone units carried these humic acids into adjacent sandstone beds where the organics precipitated, forming the humate deposits that concentrated uranium. During the Tertiary, much later in the hydrologic history of the basin, when Jurassic sediments were largely compacted, oxygenated ground water flowed basinward from uplifted basin margins. This invasion of Morrison sandstone beds by oxidizing ground waters redistributed uranium from primary ores along redox boundaries, forming ore deposits that resemble roll-front-type uranium ores. 11 figures

  19. Fossil Scenedesmus (Chlorococcales) from the Raton Formation, Colorado and New Mexico, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Fleming R.

    1989-01-01

    Fossilized coenobia of the alga Scenedesmus (Chlorococcales) were recovered in palynomorph assemblages from a lower Paleocene mudstone in the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Raton Formation of Colorado and New Mexico. This is the first description of fossil Scenedesmus from Tertiary rocks. Two species, Scenedesmus tschudyi sp. nov. and Scenedesmus hanleyi sp. nov., are present in the assemblages. Coenobia of S. tschudyi sp. nov. are characterized by lunate terminal cells and fusiform median cells. As in species of modern Scenedesmus, coenobia of S. tschudyi sp. nov. occur with four or eight cells. Coenobia of S. hanleyi sp. nov. have four oval cells and are smaller than coenobia of S. tschudyi sp. nov. Fossil coenobia of Scenedesmus co-occur with the fossil alga Pediastrum in Raton Formation mudstones. Because these genera co-occur in modern lakes and ponds, the co-occurrence of fossil Scenedesmus and Pediastrum in ancient nonmarine rocks is interpreted to indicate deposition of sediment in freshwater lakes and ponds. ?? 1989.

  20. Influence of lithological characters of coal bearing formation on stability of roof of coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Zhao-ping; Peng Su-ping; Li Guo-qing; Huang Wei; Lu Jun; Lei Zhi-yong [CUMT, Beijing (China). School of Resources and Safety Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Lithology is one of the important factors influencing the stability of roof of coal seams. In order to investigate this, the phenomenon of underground pressure and distribution of pressure were studied by using the local observation and simulation test with similar materials. The observation results show that the distance of initial weighting and periodic weighting of the mudstone roof is shorter than that of sandstone roofs. The sandstone roof with a high strength has a longer distance of initial weighting and periodic weighting, the abutment stress on the working face is big and the height of caving and fracture zone is high. The peak point of abutment stress in the sandstone roof is near to the working face and the pressure bump is inclined to occur. The result is contrary to that in case of the mudstone roof with a low strength. While in the transition zone of nipped sandstone, roof rock-mass is broken and is poor in stability, therefore, it is difficult to hold the roof.

  1. Electric and VLF-MT survey of Tegatayama tunnel; Tegatayama tunnel no denki tansa oyobi VLF tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1997-05-27

    To survey the structure at the depth between 20 and 30 m, field tests were conducted by means of vertical electric and VFL-MT (magnetotelluric) survey. Tegatayama tunnel has a total length of 276 m, width of 7.5 m, and height of 4.7 m, and the depth from the surface is about 28 m near the top of mountain. Near the tunnel, the thickness of surface soil is about 60 cm, which consists of clay soil including soft mudstone gravel. It was found that terrace deposit is distributed up to the depth of 8 m, and that mudstone is distributed below the depth of 8 m. Weighted four-electrode method was adopted for the vertical electrical survey. Measurements were conducted at the immediately above the tunnel, 10 m apart from the center of tunnel in the right and left, and 20 m apart from the center in the east. For the VLF-MT method, component of frequency 22.2 kHz was used. As a result of the tests, it was difficult to illustrate the existence of tunnel from the vertical electrical survey only at one point. Feature of the tunnel could be well illustrated by means of the VLF-MT method. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Application of base-level cycles to sandstone-type uranium deposit: taking Dongsheng uranium deposits as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Renchao; Han Zuozhen; Fan Aiping; Chang Xiangchun

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution sequence stratigraphy taking base-level cycles as interface of reference was developed rapidly in recent years. Its greatest predominance lies in that it can be applied to multi-controled continental sedimentary basins and can effectively improve accuracy and distinguishability of sequence stratigraphy analysis. Principles of base-level cycles can also be applied to the research and practice of the exploration and exploitation of sandstone-type uranium deposits as they control the spatial distribution, porosity, the permeability and the sealing ability of sandstone and mudstone, and stacking patterns of strata configuration. Taking Dongsheng uranium deposits as an example, the application of base-level cycles to exploration and exploitation of sandstone uranium deposits was analyzed. It is suggested that favorable strata framework of sandstone and mudstone was developed very well in the fluctuation of base-level cycles. Sand bodies were provided with good connectedness, coarse granularity, high debris content, low matrix content and good porosity-permeability becoming the most important uranium hosted strata. (authors)

  3. Imaging pathways in fractured rock using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Judith; Slater, Lee; Johnson, Timothy B.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Tiedeman, Claire; Ntlargiannis, Dimitrios; Johnson, Carole D.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Lacombe, Pierre; Imbrigiotta, Thomas; Lane, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Major challenges exist in delineating bedrock fracture zones because these cause abrupt changes in geological and hydrogeological properties over small distances. Borehole observations cannot sufficiently capture heterogeneity in these systems. Geophysical techniques offer the potential to image properties and processes in between boreholes. We used three-dimensional cross borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in a 9 m (diameter) × 15 m well field to capture high-resolution flow and transport processes in a fractured mudstone contaminated by chlorinated solvents, primarily trichloroethylene. Conductive (sodium bromide) and resistive (deionized water) injections were monitored in seven boreholes. Electrode arrays with isolation packers and fluid sampling ports were designed to enable acquisition of ERT measurements during pulsed tracer injections. Fracture zone locations and hydraulic pathways inferred from hydraulic head drawdown data were compared with electrical conductivity distributions from ERT measurements. Static ERT imaging has limited resolution to decipher individual fractures; however, these images showed alternating conductive and resistive zones, consistent with alternating laminated and massive mudstone units at the site. Tracer evolution and migration was clearly revealed in time-lapse ERT images and supported by in situ borehole vertical apparent conductivity profiles collected during the pulsed tracer test. While water samples provided important local information at the extraction borehole, ERT delineated tracer migration over spatial scales capturing the primary hydrogeological heterogeneity controlling flow and transport. The fate of these tracer injections at this scale could not have been quantified using borehole logging and/or borehole sampling methods alone.

  4. Synthesis of Akaganeite in the Presence of Sulfate: Implications for Akaganeite Formation in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyazhko, T. S.; Fox, A.; Sutter, B.; Niles, P. B.; Adams, M.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Akaganeite (beta-FeOOH) is an Fe(III) (hydr)oxide with a tunnel structure usually occupied by chloride. Akaganeite has been recently discovered in a mudstone on the surface of Mars by the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instruments onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover in Gale crater [1, 2]. Akaganeite was detected together with sulfate minerals [anhydrite (CaSO4) and basanite (2CaSO4·2H2O)] in the drilled Cumberland and John Clein mudstone samples at Yellowknife Bay [2]. Discovery of akaganeite and sulfates in the same samples suggests that sulfate ions could be present in aqueous solution during akaganeite formation. However, mechanism and aqueous environmental conditions of akaganeite formation (e.g., pH and range of sulfate concentration) in Yellowknife Bay remain unknown. The objective of our work was to perform synthesis of akaganeite without or with sulfate addition at variable pHs in order to constrain formation conditions of akaganeite in Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater on Mars.

  5. Continental Environment of Triassic Alluvial Beds in the Northern North Sea Area: Core Examples from the Lunde Formation, Snorre Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystuen, Johan Petter; Bergan, Morten

    1999-07-01

    Alluvial processes transport and deposit gravel, sand and mud in a series of depositional systems such as alluvial fans, fluvial channels, floodplain and lacustrine basins. In the northernmost part of the North Sea alluvial sandstones form major reservoir rocks in several oil fields in the Tampen Spur area. In the Snorre Field, the Norian- Early Rhaetian Lunde Formation has given a great database from exploration and production wells, seismic studies, reservoir modelling, production experience and comparative analogue studies on facies distribution, alluvial architecture, heterogeneities and reservoir properties of alluvial successions. The Lunde Formation is subdivided in three members, the lower, middle and upper Lunde members, with the upper member being the main part of the Lunde reservoir rocks. The scope of presenting core samples from the upper Lunde member is to demonstrate main alluvial facies and facies associations, how facies analysis proceeds into construction of conceptual fluvial models that in turn are fundamental in evaluation of reservoir heterogeneities and reservoir modelling. The upper Lunde member consists of repeated units of red and grey sandstone and mudstone. Sandstones are dominantly medium-grained with common range from coarse- to very fine-grained. A basic building stone of the alluvial succession consists of a thick single- or multi-storey sandstone body overlain by a thick mudstone unit. Such couplets form allostratigraphic units and define the main reservoir zones.

  6. Evidence for indigenous nitrogen in sedimentary and aeolian deposits from the Curiosity rover investigations at Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jennifer C; Sutter, Brad; Freissinet, Caroline; Navarro-González, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P; Archer, P Douglas; Buch, Arnaud; Brunner, Anna E; Coll, Patrice; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Fairen, Alberto G; Franz, Heather B; Glavin, Daniel P; Kashyap, Srishti; McAdam, Amy C; Ming, Douglas W; Steele, Andrew; Szopa, Cyril; Wray, James J; Martín-Torres, F Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; Conrad, Pamela G; Mahaffy, Paul R

    2015-04-07

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has detected oxidized nitrogen-bearing compounds during pyrolysis of scooped aeolian sediments and drilled sedimentary deposits within Gale crater. Total N concentrations ranged from 20 to 250 nmol N per sample. After subtraction of known N sources in SAM, our results support the equivalent of 110-300 ppm of nitrate in the Rocknest (RN) aeolian samples, and 70-260 and 330-1,100 ppm nitrate in John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB) mudstone deposits, respectively. Discovery of indigenous martian nitrogen in Mars surface materials has important implications for habitability and, specifically, for the potential evolution of a nitrogen cycle at some point in martian history. The detection of nitrate in both wind-drifted fines (RN) and in mudstone (JK, CB) is likely a result of N2 fixation to nitrate generated by thermal shock from impact or volcanic plume lightning on ancient Mars. Fixed nitrogen could have facilitated the development of a primitive nitrogen cycle on the surface of ancient Mars, potentially providing a biochemically accessible source of nitrogen.

  7. Selected trace elements in Stockton, New Zealand, waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon Leon, E.; Anstiss, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Ni, Mn, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Se, Al, Zn, Fe, SO 4 2- , hardness (calc.) in addition to pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured at 18 (11 surface and 7 subsurface) sampling sites (which were each assigned a semi-quantitative Mudstone Index (MI)) from 20 days over 9 months in the waters which drain the Stockton coal mine area on the Stockton Plateau, New Zealand. Trace element, TDS and TSS concentrations were found to be elevated and pH depressed consistent with acid mine drainage (AMD) and were characterised by significant variability due to environmental processes. Frequent concentration spikes in surface and subsurface waters occurred which sometimes exceeded maximum acceptable values (MAV) and/or aesthetic guideline values (GV) including a number of toxic trace elements. Mean concentrations of Ni and Mn in both surface and subsurface waters and As and Cd in subsurface waters exceeded MAVs. Mean concentrations of Mn, Al, Fe, SO 4 2- , and pH in both surface and subsurface waters exceeded GVs. There tends to be higher trace element and TDS concentrations where there are more mudstones (higher MI) with lower pHs. It is recommended that any further studies focus on geographic distribution, concentration fluctuation factors, movement, and possible exposure issues. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  8. Anatomy of biocalcarenitic units in the Plio-Pleistocene record of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Simone; Roveri, Marco; Taviani, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The Castell'Arquato Basin (CAB) in the foothills of the thrust-belt Northern Apennines is a foreland basin infilled by Plio-Quaternary sediments and a reference area for Plio-Pleistocene biostratigraphy. The CAB exposes plurimetric biodetrital carbonate units at discrete temporal intervals. Such shell-rich units are at places lithified, turning into conspicuous biodetritral carbonate rocks (biocalcarenites) that display a cyclical stacking motif highlighted by the regular alternation with finer-grained marine deposits. The cyclical nature of thick biocalcarenites has been hypothesized to be orbitally-controlled by obliquity and/or precession cyclicity. Furthermore, biocalcarenite-mudstone couplets form distinct clusters governed by 100-400 ka eccentricity maxima starting from 3.1 Ma at the inception of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. They correlate with sapropels cycles formed at times of maximum insolation (precession minima). The CAB calcarenites are poorly known with respect to their environmental genetic context what motivated a detailed paleoecological analysis to unravel at best their formative context. Five distinct biofacies arranged in stacking patterns are identified through two-way cluster analysis based on the macrofossil content. Our quantitative and qualitative results suggest that these polytaxic shell concentrations and their bracketing marine mudstones developed in middle shelf settings being sensitive to climatically-driven changes.

  9. Block Slides on Extremely Weak Tectonic Clay Seams in Openly Folded Tertiary Mud-Rocks at Auckland and the Rangitikei Valley, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, Warwick M.; Williams, Ann L.

    2016-06-01

    Block slides have developed on extremely weak, thin clay seams of tectonic origin, parallel to bedding in gently dipping sandstones and mudstones of Tertiary age. Two areas of noted instability are investigated at Auckland and the Rangitikei valley. Dimensions range from 100 m across × 100 m long for short displacement block slides up to 4 km across × 3 km long for large landslide complexes in which block slides are a major component. Displacements of blocks range from incipient (cm) through short (30 m) to 2 or 3 km for large slides. Many of the Auckland slides are dormant but likely to move in a 2000 year return period earthquake or 100 year high intensity rain storm. At Rangitikei there are many active, younger slides. Sliding rates for active failures vary from a few cm/year to 50 m in 30 min. Host rocks are weak to very weak clayey sandstones and sandy mudstones. The seams are rich in smectite. They have polished and crushed walls, may have slickensides and some contain rounded rock fragments. Laboratory shear strength of the seams is 13 kPa cohesion and 13° friction, with a lower bound of 8° at zero cohesion. Strength is increased at the field scale by waviness, steps and splays. Continuity can be demonstrated over distances of hundreds of metres. Key investigation methods were mapping, shafts and trenches. Tectonic uplift, folding and faulting of the weak Tertiary strata and river down-cutting are perpetuating block slide development.

  10. Preliminary study on features of mineralogical zoning of epigenetic alteration at sandstone-type uranium deposit, Dongsheng area, Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xinjian; Li Ziying; Chen Anping

    2004-01-01

    Sandstone-type uranium deposits located in Dongsheng area, northern Ordos basin, occur in Zhiluo Formation, Middle Jurassic. The Zhiluo Formation is divided into two members. The lower member is further divided into two submembers. The lower submember is dominantly composed of grey sandstone being the ore-hosting horizon; the upper submember consists of grey-green sandstone and mudstone. The upper member of Zhiluo Formation is made of mottled medium-fine grained sandstone and mudstone. Through the microscopic observation and study on sandstones of Zhiluo Formation, authors have established a vertical zonation of epigenetic alteration (from the top to the bottom): the limonitization + clayization + carbonation in the mottled fine-grained sandstone of the upper member of Zhiluo Formation; the green alteration (II) (mainly the chloritization of biotite, as well as the chloritization and epidotization of feldspar) + clayization + carbonation in the grey-green sandstone of the upper submember of the lower member of Zhiluo Formation; and the green alteration (I) (mainly the epidotization of feldspar) + carbonation in grey, grey-white sandstone of the lower submember. The epigenetic alteration basically occurs in grey-green sandstone. The sandstone shows grey-green color because it contains much green biotite (not chlorite). The epigenetic alteration in sandstone layer is closely associated with the uranium ore-formation

  11. The sedimentology of uranium-bearing sandstones on the Waterval portion of the farm Brandewyns Gat 214, Beaufort West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.

    1980-08-01

    The sedimentology of two uranium-bearing sandstones on the Waterval portion of the farm Brandewyns Gat 214 was studied by means of 36 vertical profiles measured across, through and adjacent to 4 mineralised deposits. The vertical profiles basically consist of a succession of sedimentary facies. A total of 19 facies was recognised within the fluvial sandstone sequence according to the criteria of grain-size and sedimentary structure. Transitions between the facies were subjected to a Markov chain analysis in order to delineate Markov-dependent transitions. Uranium mineralisation occurs mostly within the lower half of the fluvial sandstone sequence and is confined to the coarser-grained sedimentary facies. These facies probably acted as suitable aquifers for the transport of uraniferous solutions and permeability differences between the sandstone and the underlying mudstone and siltstone must have restricted these solutions to the lower half of the channel sandstone. The massive mudstone facies contains 13 per cent of the total cumulative thickness of mineralisation. This mineralisation probably originated from synchronously deposited tuffaceous material. Subsequent migration of uraniferous solutions may have concentrated the uranium

  12. Geologic-seismic models, prediction of shallow-water lacustrine delta sandbody and hydrocarbon potential in the Late Miocene, Huanghekou Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Huanghekou Sag is located at the southeast part of the Bohai Bay Basin, northern China. Large-scale shallow lake delta developed in the Neogene provided suitable geological conditions for the formation of a subtle oil-gas reservoir in this area. The key for analyzing sandstone reservoir and sedimentary facies is by using seismic attributes (amplitude to establish the relationship between lithology combination and seismic attributes. The lower unit of Late Miocene Minghuazhen Formation at the BZ34 block in the Huanghekou Sag was subdivided into 10 parasequence sets (PSS. Thicker sandstones mainly occurred in PSS1 and PSS10, whereas thin sandstones are mostly observed within other parasequence sets. This study presents statistics and analyses of lithology, i.e., statistics of root-mean-square (RMS amplitude and lithology of well locations in different parasequence sets of the study area, as well as 1-D forward seismic models of 7 types of lithology combinations, the establishment of a spatial distribution of 2-D sandbody, forward seismic models etc. Our study indicates that high amplitude peaks correspond to thicker sandbodies, while low amplitude indicates non-development of sandbodies (generally less than 2 m, and medium amplitude agrees well with large sets of mudstones interbedded with medium and thinner sandstones. Different sand–mudstone combinations genetically reflect a combination of multiple micro-facies, therefore, amplitude features can predict sandbodies as well as facies characteristics.

  13. A study on a instability slope in Taiwan subjected to rainfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, D. H.; Hsieh, C. S.; Yeh, L. C.; Lin, D. Y.; T-A Phan, V.

    2018-04-01

    After the long-term monitoring on the Chaishan area in Taiwan from 2005 to 2012 by Kaohsiung City Government, the obtained results showed that annual lateral displacements in the region are about 7-8cm to the Taiwan Strait. The geological surface profiles of Chaishan area are in sequence weathered limestone, clay layer, limestone and mudstone layer, respectively. Thus the frictional resistance between weathered soils and rock layer could decrease after infiltration of rainwater due to impervious to water of the lowest mudstone layer. Typhoon invades often Taiwan each year, resulting in rainfall infiltration and rising groundwater level, as well as increased pore water pressure within the soil mass, causing the earth movements in some parts of Chaishan, especially in the Temple A (Shan Hai Temple) accompanied with cracking phenomenon. In this paper, limit equilibrium (LE) and finite element method (FEM) are used for slope analysis, in which the slope is considered as unsaturated soil. Results showed groundwater amounts are easy to accumulate and increasing pore water pressure give resulting in decreased safety factor. Both of groundwater level and rain durations were also considered in this study.

  14. Integrated ground-based hyperspectral imaging and geochemical study of the Eagle Ford Group in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Khan, Shuhab; Godet, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    This study used ground-based hyperspectral imaging to map an outcrop of the Eagle Ford Group in west Texas. The Eagle Ford Group consists of alternating layers of mudstone - wackestone, grainstone - packstone facies and volcanic ash deposits with high total organic content deposited during the Cenomanian - Turonian time period. It is one of the few unconventional source rock and reservoirs that have surface representations. Ground-based hyperspectral imaging scanned an outcrop and hand samples at close ranges with very fine spatial resolution (centimeter to sub-millimeter). Spectral absorption modeling of clay minerals and calcite with the modified Gaussian model (MGM) allowed quantification of variations of mineral abundances. Petrographic analysis confirmed mineral identifications and shed light on sedimentary textures, and major element geochemistry supported the mineral quantification. Mineral quantification resulted in mapping of mudstone - wackestone, grainstone - packstone facies and bentonites (volcanic ash beds). The lack of spatial associations between the grainstones and bentonites on the outcrop calls into question the hypothesis that the primary productivity is controlled by iron availability from volcanic ash beds. Enrichment of molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) indicated "unrestricted marine" paleo-hydrogeology and anoxic to euxinic paleo-redox bottom water conditions. Hyperspectral remote sensing data also helped in creating a virtual outcrop model with detailed mineralogical compositions, and provided reservoir analog to extract compositional and geo-mechanical characteristics and variations. The utilization of these new techniques in geo-statistical analysis provides a workflow for employing remote sensing in resource exploration and exploitation.

  15. Expressway construction in landslide areas. ; Construction work between Fujioka interchange and Saku interchange of Joshin'etsu expressway. Ugoku yama wo tsuranuku. ; Joshin'etsu Jidoshado Fujioka IC/Saku IC kan kensetsu koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, Y [Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-03-15

    The Joshin'etsu motorway is a 204km expressway. Various technological studies have been made for the remediation work for the 69.5km section which is opened to traffic this spring, because not only a series of tunnels, bridges, long cut and fill soil particular to mountain roads are included but also the section has many landslide areas. The length of the Higureyama tunnel is 2,314m. Although strong andesite is prevailing as the nature of the soil, the central area of the tunnel is consisted of brittle mudstone and self-crushing andesite with faults because the tunnel runs through the lower portion of a landslide zone. The mudstone is a squeezing ground, and buckling of H supporting, breakage of lock bolts, and damage of sprayed concrete occurred in many places. 2 years and 10 months are required for the construction of the tunnel. The average monthly drilling is only 10m/month which is an unprecedented case in tunnel excavation. Even limited to large-scale landslides, 13 occurrences are experienced. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Characterization of Rock Mechanical Properties Using Lab Tests and Numerical Interpretation Model of Well Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tight gas reservoir in the fifth member of the Xujiahe formation contains heterogeneous interlayers of sandstone and shale that are low in both porosity and permeability. Elastic characteristics of sandstone and shale are analyzed in this study based on petrophysics tests. The tests indicate that sandstone and mudstone samples have different stress-strain relationships. The rock tends to exhibit elastic-plastic deformation. The compressive strength correlates with confinement pressure and elastic modulus. The results based on thin-bed log interpretation match dynamic Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio predicted by theory. The compressive strength is calculated from density, elastic impedance, and clay contents. The tensile strength is calibrated using compressive strength. Shear strength is calculated with an empirical formula. Finally, log interpretation of rock mechanical properties is performed on the fifth member of the Xujiahe formation. Natural fractures in downhole cores and rock microscopic failure in the samples in the cross section demonstrate that tensile fractures were primarily observed in sandstone, and shear fractures can be observed in both mudstone and sandstone. Based on different elasticity and plasticity of different rocks, as well as the characteristics of natural fractures, a fracture propagation model was built.

  17. Lower Cretaceous paleo-Vertisols and sedimentary interrelationships in stacked alluvial sequences, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Ludvigson, G. A.; Kirkland, J. I.

    2017-11-01

    The Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation in Poison Strip, Utah, USA, consists of stacked, erosionally bounded alluvial sequences dominated by massive mudstones (lithofacies Fm) with paleo-Vertisols. Sediment bodies within these sequences grade vertically and laterally into each other at pedogenic boundaries, across which color, texture, and structures (sedimentary vs. pedogenic) change. Slickensides, unfilled (sealed) cracks, carbonate-filled cracks, and deeper cracks filled with sandstone; the latter features suggest thorough desiccation during aridification. Thin sandstones (Sms) in some sequences, typically as well as laminated to massive mudstones (Flm) with which they are interbedded in some cases, are interpreted as avulsion deposits. The termini of many beds of these lithofacies curve upward, parallel to nearby pedogenic slickensides, as the features we call ;turnups.; Turnups are overlain or surrounded by paleosols, but strata sheltered underneath beds with turnups retain primary sedimentary fabrics. Turnups were produced by movement along slickensides during pedogenesis, by differential compaction alongside pre-existing gilgai microhighs, or by a combination of both. Palustrine carbonates (lithofacies C) appear only in the highest or next-highest alluvial sequences, along with a deep paleo-Vertisol that exhibits partially preserved microrelief at the base of the overlying Poison Strip Member. The attributes of the Yellow Cat Member suggest comparatively low accommodation, slow accumulation, long hiatuses in clastic sedimentation, and substantial time intervals of subaerial exposure and pedogenesis; it appears to be distinct among the members of the Cedar Mountain Formation in these respects.

  18. Analysis of cyclical sedimentation in the lower Permian Mchuchuma coalfield (South-West-Tanzania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casshyap, S M; Kreuser, T; Wopfner, H

    1987-01-01

    A statistical approach by a modified Markov process model was used to prove that the lower Permian coal measures of the Tanzanian Mchuchuma basin developed distinct cyclicities during deposition. From results the transition path of lithologic states typical for this coal sequence is as follows: (A) coarse sandstone, (B) medium sandstone, (C) fine-very fine sandstone, (D) shale, (E) mudstone, (F) coal or (E+F) and again (A) coarse sandstone. The majority of cycles is asymmetric (ABCDEF-ABC..) but symmetrical cycles are present as well (ABCDEFED). The statistical results concur with observed sedimentological evidence of depositional environment. Fining upward cycles correspond to the development of basal channel bars, changing into levees, then into back swamps which are topped by coal swamps. Frequent interbedding of coal and mudstone in the upper part of the coal measures calls for periodic flooding and flushing of fine clastics into coal-forming swamps causing interruption of peat formation. Cyclical deposition is explained by wandering channels in response to varying discharge and rate of deposition, their lateral frequent shifting caused the formation of asymmetrical cycles in this fluviodeltaic depositional model. 33 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  20. Underground openings in clay formations - Technical requirements on drifting technology and support systems for underground openings and their impact on retreat systems for the installation of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischo, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Several countries are currently investigating the possibility of long-term storage of nuclear waste in clay formations, with a special focus on mud-stone formations. During the last decades extensive research has been conducted on the suitability of mud-stone as repository and the related special requirements of the clay matrix - with significant success. The knowledge base on the behaviour of the host formations during the mining phase of the excavations on the other hand is relatively limited compared to that of other investigated host rock formations, e.g. salt. With the low value of mud-stone and its relatively limited industrial application range, there have not been any large scale commercial underground mining activities in recent years to provide a significant and independent database on the behaviour of the selected mud-stone formations or their geological analogue during mining activities. Most information currently used for the assessment of this type of sediment and the planning of the mining activities has been gathered either during the execution of logistics and tunneling projects or during the excavation of today's underground laboratories. There is, however, a database on a vast variety of clay deposit types and morphologies available from commercial underground clay mining activities worldwide. The data available on commercial clay mining shows significant differences for each and every technological stage of clay mining as compared to the stages of any other mining operation. This is, amongst other things, due to the high and partly extreme ductility and creeping properties of typical clay formations, especially when considering their sensitiveness to a changing water content. In general the technical and technological differences include the applicable mining technology for the excavation of underground openings, the need for an advancement of any available technology to waterless variants as

  1. Braidplain, floodplain and playa lake, alluvial-fan, aeolian and palaeosol facies composing a diversified lithogenetical sequence in the permian and triassic of South Devon (England)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Detlef

    The Permian and Triassic of South Devon (England) are a continental red bed sequence of very diversified lithogenetical composition. Within the thick series, the distribution of the main depositional environments being fluvial braidplain, fluvial floodplain and playa lake, alluvial fan, aeolian dune and calcrete palaeosol changes repeatedly in both horizontal and vertical direction. Significant sedimentary milieus such as aeolian dunes and calcrete palaeosols occur repeatedly within the succession, but are also lacking in several parts of the sequence. Fluvial braidplain deposits comprise conglomerates, sandstones, intraformational reworking horizons and mudstones and originate in channels and overbank plains of a braided river system. Conglomerates and sandstones are formed by migration of bars and spreading out of sheets during infilling of streams and aggradation of flats. Gravel is often enriched as lag pockets or veneers within steeper scour holes and kolk pots or on the plane floor of the watercourse. Finer-grained sandstones and mudstones are laid down by suspension settling in stagnant water bodies such as small lakes in the overbank area and residual pools in interbar depressions during low-stage or waning-flow in active channels or in abandoned streams. Spectacular bioturbation features in some sandstones with both horizontal tubes and vertical burrows testify to the colonization of the sediments at the bottom of the rivers with declining discharge and transport capacity. Intraformational reworking horizons with ghost-like remnants of degraded sandstones, mudstones and pedogenic carbonates document partially severe condensation of the sequence by removal of some facies elements from the depositional record. The occasionally occurring gravel-bearing mudstones or silty-clayey sandstones represent products of high-energy water surges overspilling the channel banks and transporting sandy and gravelly bed-load in limited amounts beyond the levee wall. The

  2. A natural analogue for copper waste canisters: The copper-uranium mineralised concretions in the Permian mudrocks of south Devon, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Styles, M.T.; Hards, V.L. [Natural Environment Research Council (United Kingdom). British Geological Survey

    2000-08-01

    This report presents the results of a small-scale pilot study of the mineralogy and alteration characteristics of unusual sheet-like native copper occurring together with uraniferous and vanadiferous concretions in mudstones and siltstones of the Permian Littleham Mudstone Formation, at Littleham Cove, south Devon, England. The host mudstones and siltstones are smectitic and have been compacted through deep Mesozoic burial. The occurrence of native copper within these rocks represents a natural analogue for the long-term behaviour of copper canisters, sealed in a compacted clay (bentonite) backfill, that will be used for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste by the SKB. The study was undertaken by the British Geological Survey (BGS) on behalf of SKB between November 1999 and June 2000. The study was based primarily on archived reference material collected by the BGS during regional geological and mineralogical surveys of the area in the 1970's and 1980's. However, a brief visit was made to Littleham Cove in January 2000 to try to examine the native copper in situ and to collect additional material. Unfortunately, recent landslips and mudflows obscured much of the outcrop, and only one new sample of native copper could be collected. The native copper occurs as thin plates, up to 160 mm in diameter, which occur parallel to bedding in the Permian Littleham Mudstone Formation at Littleham Cove (near Budleigh Salterton) in south Devon. Each plate is made up of composite stacks of individual thin copper sheets each 1-2 mm thick. The copper is very pure (>99.4% Cu) but is accompanied by minor amounts of native silver (also pure - >99%) which occurs as small inclusions within the native copper. Detailed mineralogical and petrological studies of the native copper sheets, using optical petrography, backscattered scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe microanalytical techniques, reveal a complex history of

  3. Alteration of uraniferous and native copper concretions in the Permian mudrocks of south Devon, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Styles, M.T.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Kemp, S.J. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the mineralogy and alteration characteristics of unusual concretions containing sheets of native copper, and uranium-vanadium mineralised concretions, in mudstones and siltstones of the Pennian Littleham Mudstone Formation, at Littleham Cove, south Devon, England. The main objectives of the study were: 1. To investigate the corrosion characteristics of the native copper as a natural analogue for the long-term behaviour of copper canisters, sealed in a compacted clay (bentonite) backfill, that will be used for the deep geological disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This study developed from an earlier pilot study, which demonstrated that the alteration of the native copper in the concretions from Littleham Cove was mineralogically and chemically complex. 2. To investigate the alteration and oxidation of minerals containing reduced species (e.g. ferrous iron) within the uranium-rich concretions as a natural analogue for the potential effects of oxidation induced by alpha-radiolysis of water in a HLW repository environment. Native copper-bearing concretions in the Littleham Mudstone Formation are very rare. They occur, as thin lenticular disks developed largely along bedding lamina and thin low-angle fractures cutting the bedding laminae the upper part of the formation, about 10 m below the top of the formation. This part of the sequence comprises laterally discontinuous, fine-grained sheet-flood and channel sandstones and siltstones. Some of these sandstones, are more extensively-cemented by copper sulphides (mainly chalcocite), copper arsenides, cobalt-nickel arsenides, and uranium silicate. The thin permeable sandstones and siltstones, and fractures zones around small faults appear to have acted as the conduits for the movement of mineralising fluids through the mudstones. The native copper sheets all show a similar pattern of corrosion and alteration. However, the intensity of alteration is

  4. A natural analogue for copper waste canisters: The copper-uranium mineralised concretions in the Permian mudrocks of south Devon, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Styles, M.T.; Hards, V.L.

    2000-08-01

    This report presents the results of a small-scale pilot study of the mineralogy and alteration characteristics of unusual sheet-like native copper occurring together with uraniferous and vanadiferous concretions in mudstones and siltstones of the Permian Littleham Mudstone Formation, at Littleham Cove, south Devon, England. The host mudstones and siltstones are smectitic and have been compacted through deep Mesozoic burial. The occurrence of native copper within these rocks represents a natural analogue for the long-term behaviour of copper canisters, sealed in a compacted clay (bentonite) backfill, that will be used for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste by the SKB. The study was undertaken by the British Geological Survey (BGS) on behalf of SKB between November 1999 and June 2000. The study was based primarily on archived reference material collected by the BGS during regional geological and mineralogical surveys of the area in the 1970's and 1980's. However, a brief visit was made to Littleham Cove in January 2000 to try to examine the native copper in situ and to collect additional material. Unfortunately, recent landslips and mudflows obscured much of the outcrop, and only one new sample of native copper could be collected. The native copper occurs as thin plates, up to 160 mm in diameter, which occur parallel to bedding in the Permian Littleham Mudstone Formation at Littleham Cove (near Budleigh Salterton) in south Devon. Each plate is made up of composite stacks of individual thin copper sheets each 1-2 mm thick. The copper is very pure (>99.4% Cu) but is accompanied by minor amounts of native silver (also pure - >99%) which occurs as small inclusions within the native copper. Detailed mineralogical and petrological studies of the native copper sheets, using optical petrography, backscattered scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe microanalytical techniques, reveal a complex history of

  5. Eocene bituminous coal deposits of the Claiborne group, Webb County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    Two bituminous coal zones, the San Pedro and the Santo Tomas, in the middle Eocene Claiborne Group of Webb County, south Texas (Figure 1), are among the coal resources that are not evaluated quantitatively as part of the current Gulf Coastal Plain coal resource assessment. Coal beds within these zones were mined by underground methods northwest of Laredo until 1939 and have been intermittently mined at the surface since 1979. These coals have long been regarded as unique within the Gulf Coast Tertiary coal-bearing section because they are high-volatile C bituminous in rank and because their physical characteristics resemble upper Carboniferous cannel coals of the Appalachians and Europe.Discontinuous exposures of the Santo Tomas and the underlying San Pedro coal zone extend northwestward from Dolores for approximately 15 to 21 mi along the breaks of the Rio Grande and its tributaries in Webb County (Figure 1). This part of south Texas lies along the southwestern flank of the Rio Grande Embayment, which extends south and southeastwardly through the Mexican States of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas (Figure 1). Within the embayment, the lower to middle part of the Claiborne Group consists of marine mudstones (Reklaw Formation) in the east and northeast and sandstones and mudstones (Bigford Formation) in the south and southwest (Figure 2). The marine mudstones coarsen upward into fluvial-deltaic sandstones (Queen City Sand) that prograded gulfward across eastern and central Texas (Guevara and Garcia, 1972). To the west and southwest, the interval overlying the Bigford Formation becomes less sandy, and claystones (El Pico Clay) predominate. Although the San Pedro coal zone has been placed traditionally near the top of the Bigford Formation and the Santo Tomas coal zone near the base of the El Pico Clay, recent work has failed to validate a mappable contact between these formations (Warwick and Hook, 1995). The coal beds dip northeast at less than 2 degrees towards

  6. Study on characteristics of sedimentary rock at the Horonobe site (2). Report of collaboration research between CRIEPI and JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Takahiro; Kiho, Kenzo; Suzuki, Koichi; Nakata, Eiji; Tanaka, Shiro; Hasegawa, Takuma; Nakata, Kotaro; Nagaoka, Toru; Nakamura, Takamichi; Fukushima, Tatsuo; Ishii, Eiichi; Kunimaru; Takanori; Hama, Katsuhiro; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Sugita, Yutaka; Yabuuchi, Satoshi; Miyahara, Shigenori; Takahashi, Kazuharu

    2010-01-01

    CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) have been conducting a collaboration research to develop methodology for the characterization of geological environment since FY 2002. This report describes the results of the collaboration research in mainly from FY 2004 to FY 2008. As the collaboration research, the following research results were obtained. (1) Study on the slaking property. We discovered the spherical silica (amorphous silica) in siliceous rock (Opalin chert) between the Koetoi and Wakkanai Formation. The permeability of this chert (10 -12 m/sec) decreases to compare with near depth diatomaceous mudstone (10 -10 m/sec). This diatomaceous mudstone dose not rapidly slakes. Excavated disturbed zone(EdZ) at -140 m tunnel was estimated with drilled cores and gas flows from the tunnel wall. (2) Study on the chemical weathering of the sedimentary rock. The weathering property was investigated of mudstone at an outcrop and east shaft. Weathering profile was divided oxidized, dissolved, transition and fresh zone. Oxidation was limited to the vicinity of surface. (3) Study on the pore water extraction methodology. Sample preparation under N 2 condition before porewater squeezing to prevent oxidation showed that the squeezed porewater chemistry was affected by the sample storage period before squeezing. (4) Study on exploration method considering the physical property of the rock. The depth profile of the mechanical and permeability properties can be estimated by the results of physical logging in the borehole and laboratory measurements of core samples. (5) Study on the applicability of the controlled drilling system to the Horonobe site. The controlled drilling system was applied to the Hokushin site and the Kami-horonobe site in the Horonobe town. At the Kami-horonobe site, the system was applied to drill the Omagari fault and characterize the hydro-geology around the fault. The controlled drilling was

  7. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  8. Evolution of the east-central San Jose del Cabo basin, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTeague, M. S.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Schwennicke, T.; Ingle, J. C.; Cortes Martinez, M.

    2006-12-01

    The San Jose del Cabo basin at the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula records the early tectonic evolution of the west side of the Gulf of California. This study focused on the east central margin of the basin. The basal La Calera Formation unconformably overlies Cretaceous granite and consists of conglomerate, pebbly sandstone and conglomerate, and sandstone deposited in alluvial fans and fan-deltas. Deposition of the La Calera Formation was from ca. 9-14 Ma. The lower member of the Trinidad Formation was deposited beginning ca. 9-13 Ma and consists of sandstone, mudstone, and shelly mudstone deposited in nearshore and estuarine environments. These age estimates are based on sedimentation rates and foraminifera and coccoliths from the NN 11A nannozone (7.4 8.6 Ma, GTS 2004). The middle member of the Trinidad Formation consists of deeper water mudstones deposited by turbidity currents and suspension settling in a shelf to slope and conglomerates deposited by submarine debris flows on the shelf. The basin began earlier than previously thought. The oldest marine rocks are ca.9-13 Ma, while sedimentation on the east side began at ca. 9-14 Ma, synchronous with estimates of initiation of offset on the San Jose del Cabo fault. The Zapote fault is a down-to-the-east normal and sinistral-oblique fault that exposes a wedge of granite and older strata in the footwall to the west. The fault was active during sedimentation in the late Miocene and possibly later. The fault divides the study area into an eastern hanging wall subbasin and western footwall subbasin. The eastern subbasin formed an embayment in the eastern margin of the Cabo basin. A regional flooding surface (ca. 8 Ma) can be correlated across the fault that marks a major marine incursion. Depositional systems evolved rapidly from coarse-grained terrestrial systems to fine-grained marine and estuarine systems. The Cabo basin provides an excellent analogue for comparison with offshore basins, which are

  9. Sedimentation in a Submarine Seamount Apron at Site U1431, International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadd, K. A.; Clift, P. D.; Hyun, S.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 Site U1431 is located near the relict spreading ridge in the East Subbasin of the South China Sea. Holes at this site were drilled close to seamounts and intersected the volcaniclastic apron. Volcaniclastic breccia and sandstone at Site U1431 are dated as late middle Miocene to early late Miocene (~8-13 Ma), suggesting a 5 m.y. duration of seamount volcanism. The apron is approximately 200 m thick and is sandwiched between non-volcaniclastic units that represent the background sedimentation. These comprise dark greenish gray clay, silt, and nannofossil ooze interpreted as turbidite and hemipelagic deposits that accumulated at abyssal water depths. At its base, the seamount sequence begins with dark greenish gray sandstone, siltstone, and claystone in upward fining sequences interpreted as turbidites intercalated with minor intervals of volcaniclastic breccia. Upsection the number and thickness of breccia layers increases with some beds up to 4.8 m and possibly 14.5 m thick. The breccia is typically massive, ungraded, and poorly sorted with angular to subangular basaltic clasts, as well as minor reworked subrounded calcareous mudstone, mudstone, and sandstone clasts. Basaltic clasts include nonvesicular aphyric basalt, sparsely vesicular aphyric basalt, highly vesicular aphyric basalt, and nonvesicular glassy basalt. Mudstone clasts are clay rich and contain foraminifer fossils. The matrix comprises up to 40% of the breccia beds and is a mix of clay, finer grained altered basalt clasts, and mafic vitroclasts with rare foraminifer fossils. Some layers have calcite cement between clasts. Volcaniclastic sandstone and claystone cycles interbedded with the breccia layers have current ripples and parallel laminations indicative of high-energy flow conditions during sedimentation. The breccia beds were most likely deposited as a series of debris flows or grain flows. This interpretation is supported by their

  10. The XRD Amorphous Component in John Klein Drill Fines at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Ming,, Douglas W.; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Bish, David L; Chipera, Steve; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Gellert, Ralf; Campbell, Iain; hide

    2013-01-01

    Drill fines of mudstone (targets John Klein and Cumberland) from the Sheepbed unit at Yel-lowknife Bay were analyzed by MSL payload elements including the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin), APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer), and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instruments. CheMin XRD results show a variety of crystalline phases including feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, oxides, oxyhydroxides, sulfates, sulfides, a tri-octahedral smectite, and XRD amorphous material. The drill fines are distinctly different from corresponding analyses of the global soil (target Rocknest) in that the mudstone samples contained detectable phyllosilicate. Here we focus on John Klein and combine CheMin and APXS data to calculate the chemical composition and concentration of the amorphous component. The chemical composition of the amorphous plus smectite component for John Klein was calculated by subtracting the abundance-weighted chemical composition of the individual XRD crystalline components from the bulk composition of John Kline as measured by APXS. The chemical composition of individual crystalline components was determined either by stoichiometry (e.g., hematite and magnetite) or from their unit cell parameters (e.g., feldspar, olivine, and pyroxene). The chemical composition of the amorphous + smectite component (approx 71 wt.% of bulk sample) and bulk chemical composition are similar. In order to calculate the chemical composition of the amorphous component, a chemical composition for the tri-octahedral smectite must be assumed. We selected two tri-octahedral smectites with very different MgO/(FeO + Fe2O3) ratios (34 and 1.3 for SapCa1 and Griffithite, respectively). Relative to bulk sample, the concentration of amorphous and smectite components are 40 and 29 wt.% for SapCa1 and 33 and 36 wt.% for Griffithite. The amount of smectite was calculated by requiring the MgO concentration to be approx 0 wt.% in the amorphous component. Griffithite is the preferred smectite because

  11. Physical Property Changes During CO2 Injection into Sandstone from Pukpyeong Formation, South Korea: Pore-scale Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Keehm, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is believed to be responsible for global warming and climate change, and Korea government puts a great effort in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage). The geological sequestration is regarded as one viable option and we are looking for prospecting formations for carbon storage. In this paper, we present a new approach to determine physical property changes during CO2 injection and preliminary results from applying the method to one of prospective Tertiary formation in South Korea. The so-called computational rock physics method is composed of three steps: 1) acquisition of high-resolution pore microstructures by X-ray micro-tomography; 2) CO2 injection simulation using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) two-phase flow simulation; and 3) FEM property simulations (electrical and elastic) at different CO2 saturations during the injection. We have been shown the viability of the method last year. This year we applied this method to one of CS (carbon storage) target area, Pukpyeong formation located in north-eastern part of South Korea. From thin section analysis, we found that the formation is composed of mudstone, sandstone and conglomerate, and most of them are poorly consolidated. The mudstone and poorly-sorted conglomerate are believed to have very low permeability, and the effect of CO2 injection would be significant. Thus we focus on sandstone units and get pore microstructure of those units. We then performed the computational rock physics analysis, and present the relations of Vp - CO2 saturation, and electrical conductivity - CO2 saturation for a few sand units. We also present the preliminary upscaling results by putting combined sandstone and mudstone units into FEM modeling. The modeling results implies that the new computational approach can be very useful to characterizing the CS sites especially in early stage. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP

  12. Depositional controls on coal distribution and quality in the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures, Buller Coalfield, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R.M.; Sykes, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Buller Coalfield on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand, contains the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures. The coal measures unconformably overlie Paleozoic-Cretaceous basement rocks and are conformably overlain by, and laterally interfinger with, the Eocene marine Kaiata Formation. This study examines the lithofacies frameworks of the coal measures in order to interpret their depositional environments. The lower part of the coal measures is dominated by conglomeratic lithofacies that rest on a basal erosional surface and thicken in paleovalleys incised into an undulating peneplain surface. These lithofacies are overlain by sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies of the upper part of the coal measures. The main coal seam of the organic-rich lithofacies is thick (10-20 m), extensive, locally split, and locally absent. This seam and associated coal seams in the Buller Coalfield are of low- to high-volatile bituminous rank (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65% and 1.75%). The main seam contains a variable percentage of ash and sulphur. These values are related to the thickening and areal distribution of the seam, which in turn, were controlled by the nature of clastic deposition and peat-forming mire systems, marine transgression and local tidal incursion. The conglomeratic lithofacies represent deposits of trunk and tributary braided streams that rapidly aggraded incised paleovalleys during sea-level stillstands. The main seam represents a deposit of raised mires that initially developed as topogenous mires on abandoned margins of inactive braidbelts. Peat accumulated in mires as a response to a rise in the water table, probably initially due to gradual sea-level rise and climate, and the resulting raised topography served as protection from floods. The upper part of the coal measures consists of sandstone lithofacies of flu vial origin and bioturbated sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies, which represent deposits of paralic (deltaic

  13. Subaqueous early eruptive phase of the late Aptian Rajmahal volcanism, India: Evidence from volcaniclastic rocks, bentonite, black shales, and oolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh C. Ghose

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The late Aptian (118–115 Ma continental flood basalts of the Rajmahal Volcanic Province (RVP are part of the Kerguelen Large Igneous Province, and constitute the uppermost part of the Gondwana Supergroup on the eastern Indian shield margin. The lower one-third of the Rajmahal volcanic succession contains thin layers of plant fossil-rich inter-trappean sedimentary rocks with pyroclasts, bentonite, grey and black shale/mudstone and oolite, whereas the upper two-thirds consist of sub-aerial fine-grained aphyric basalts with no inter-trappean material. At the eastern margin and the north-central sector of the RVP, the volcanics in the lower part include rhyolites and dacites overlain by enstatite-bearing basalts and enstatite-andesites. The pyroclastic rocks are largely felsic in composition, and comprise ignimbrite as well as coarse-grained tuff with lithic clasts, and tuff breccia with bombs, lapilli and ash that indicate explosive eruption of viscous rhyolitic magma. The rhyolites/dacites (>68 wt.% are separated from the andesites (<60 wt.% by a gap in silica content indicating their formation through upper crustal anatexis with only heat supplied by the basaltic magma. On the other hand, partially melted siltstone xenoliths in enstatite-bearing basalts suggest that the enstatite-andesites originated through mixing of the upper crust with basaltic magma, crystallizing orthopyroxene at a pressure-temperature of ∼3 kb/1150 °C. In contrast, the northwestern sector of the RVP is devoid of felsic-intermediate rocks, and the volcaniclastic rocks are predominantly mafic (basaltic in composition. Here, the presence of fine-grained tuffs, tuff breccia containing sideromelane shards and quenched texture, welded tuff breccia, peperite, shale/mudstone and oolite substantiates a subaqueous environment. Based on these observations, we conclude that the early phase of Rajmahal volcanism occurred under predominantly subaqueous conditions. The presence

  14. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Bryne and Lulu Formations, Middle Jurassic, northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andsbjerg, Jan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Bryne and Lulu Formations of the Søgne Basin (northern part of the Danish Central Graben consist of fluvially-dominated coastal plain deposits, overlain by interfingering shoreface and back-barrier deposits. Laterally continuous, mainly fining-upwards fluvial channel sandstones that locally show evidence for tidal influence dominate the alluvial/coastal plain deposits of the lower Bryne Formation. The sandstones are separated by units of fine-grained floodplain sediments that show a fining-upwards - coarsening-upwards pattern and locally grade into lacustrine mudstones. A regional unconformity that separates the lower Bryne Formation from the mainly estuarine upper Bryne Formation is defined by the strongly erosional base of a succession of stacked channel sandstones, interpreted as the fill of a system of incised valleys. Most of the stacked channel sandstones show abundant mud laminae and flasers, and rare herringbone structures, suggesting that they were deposited in a tidal environment, probably an estuary. Several tens of metres of the lower Bryne Formation may have been removed by erosion at this unconformity. The estuarine channel sandstone succession is capped by coal beds that attain a thickness of several metres in the western part of the Søgne Basin, but are thin and poorly developed in the central part of the basin. Above the coal beds, the Lulu Formation is dominated by various types of tidally influenced paralic deposits in the western part of the basin and by coarsening-upwards shoreface and beach deposits in central parts. Westwards-thickening wedges of paralic deposits interfinger with eastwards-thickening wedges of shallow marine deposits. The Middle Jurassic succession is subdivided into nine sequences. In the lower Bryne Formation, sequence boundaries are situated at the base of laterally continuous fluvial channel sandstones whereas maximum flooding surfaces are placed in laterally extensive floodplain

  15. Depositional environments and porosity distribution in regressive limestone reservoirs of the Mishrif Formation, Southern Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlDabbas, Moutaz; AlJassim Jassim; AlJumaily Saad

    2010-01-01

    Eight subsurface sections and a large number of thin sections of the Mishrif Limestone were studied to unravel the depositional facies and environments. The allochems in the Mishrif Formation are dominated by bioclasts, whereas peloids, ooids, and intraclasts are less abundant. The sedimentary microfacies of the Mishrif Formation includes mudstone, wackestone, packstone, grainstone, floatstone, and rudstone, which have been deposited in basinal, outer shelf, slop followed by shoal reef and lagoonal environments. The formation displays various extents of dolomitization and is cemented by calcite and dolomite. The formation has gradational contact with the underlying Rumaila Formation but is unconformably overlain by the Khasib Formation. The unconformity is recognized because the skeletal grains are dominated by Chaophyta (algae), which denotes the change of environment from fully marine to lacustrine environment. Thus, the vertical bioclast analysis indicates that the Mishrif Formation is characterized by two regressive cycles, which control the distribution of reservoir quality as well as the patterns of calcite and dolomite cement distribution. Mishrif Formation gradationally overlies Rumaila Formation. This was indicated by the presence of the green parts of Chaophyta (algae) as main skeletal grains at the uppermost part of well Zb-47, which refer to lacustrine or fresh water environment. Petrographical study shows that the fossils, peloids, oolitis, and intraclasts represent the main allochem. Calcite and dolomite (as diagenetic products) are the predominant mineral components of Mishrif Formation. Fossils were studied as an environmental age and facial boundaries indicators, which are located in a chart using personal computer programs depending on their distributions on the first appearance of species. Fifteen principal sedimentary microfacies have been identified in the Mishrif Formation, which includes lime mudstone, mudstone-wackestone, wackestone

  16. Textural evidence for jamming and dewatering of a sub-surface, fluid-saturated granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, T. J.; Rowe, C. D.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Sand injectites are spectacular examples of large-scale granular flows involving migration of hundreds of cubic meters of sand slurry over hundreds of meters to kilometers in the sub-surface. By studying the macro- and microstructural textures of a kilometer-scale sand injectite, we interpret the fluid flow regimes during emplacement and define the timing of formation of specific textures in the injected material. Fluidized sand sourced from the Santa Margarita Fm., was injected upward into the Santa Cruz Mudstone, Santa Cruz County, California. The sand injectite exposed at Yellow Bank Beach records emplacement of both hydrocarbon and aqueous sand slurries. Elongate, angular mudstone clasts were ripped from the wall rock during sand migration, providing evidence for high velocity, turbid flow. However, clast long axis orientations are consistently sub-horizontal suggesting the slurry transitioned to a laminar flow as the flow velocity decreased in the sill-like intrusion. Millimeter to centimeter scale laminations are ubiquitous throughout the sand body and are locally parallel to the mudstone clast long axes. The laminations are distinct in exposure because alternating layers are preferentially cemented with limonite sourced from later groundwater infiltration. Quantitative microstructural analyses show that the laminations are defined by subtle oscillations in grain alignment between limonite and non-limonite stained layers. Grain packing, size and shape distributions do not vary. The presence of limonite in alternating layers results from differential infiltration of groundwater, indicating permeability changes between the layers despite minimal grain scale differences. Convolute dewatering structures deform the laminations. Dolomite-cemented sand, a signature of hydrocarbon saturation, forms irregular bodies that cross-cut the laminations and dewatering structures. Laminations are not formed in the dolomite-cemented sand. The relative viscosity difference

  17. Five Years of Analyses of Volatiles, Isotopes and Organics in Gale Crater Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Andrejkovicova, S. C.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Atreya, S. K.; Buch, A.; Coll, P. J.; Conrad, P. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Farley, K. A.; Flesch, G.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Hogancamp, J. V.; House, C. H.; Knudson, C. A.; Lewis, J. M.; Malespin, C.; Martin, P. M.; Millan, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Stern, J. C.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.; Trainer, M. G.; Webster, C. R.; Wong, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last five years, the Curiosity rover has explored a variety of fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian sedimentary rocks, and soils. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument has analysed 3 soil and 12 rock samples, which exhibit significant chemical and mineralogical diversity in over 200 meters of vertical section. Here we will highlight several key insights enabled by recent measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of inorganic volatiles and organic compounds detected in Gale Crater materials. Until recently samples have evolved O2 during SAM evolved gas analyses (EGA), attributed to the thermal decomposition of oxychlorine phases. A lack of O2 evolution from recent mudstone samples may indicate a difference in the composition of depositional or diagenetic fluids, and can also have implications for the detection of organic compounds since O2 can combust organics to CO2 in the SAM ovens. Recent mudstone samples have also shown little or no evolution of NO attributable to nitrate salts, possibly also as a result of changes in the chemical composition of fluids [1]. Measurements of the isotopic composition of sulfur, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, and carbon in methane evolved during SAM pyrolysis are providing constraints on the conditions of possible paleoenvironments [e.g., 2, 3]. There is evidence of organic C from both EGA and GCMS measurements of Gale samples [e.g., 4, 5]. Organic sulfur volatiles have been detected in several samples, and the first opportunistic derivatization experiment produced a rich dataset indicating the presence of several organic compounds [6, 7]. A K-Ar age has been obtained from the Mojave mudstone, and the age of secondary materials formed by aqueous alteration is likely history and habitability. [1] Sutter et al. (2017) LPSC 3009. [2] Franz et al., this mtg. [3] Stern et al., this mtg. [4] Ming et al. (2014) Science 343. [5] Freissinet et al. (2015) JGR 120. [6] Eigenbrode et al. (2016) AGU P21D-08. [7] Freissinet

  18. Slope-apron deposition in an ordovician arc-related setting: The Vuelta de Las Tolas Member (Suri Formation), Famatina Basin, northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Ordovician Suri Formation is part of the infill of the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina, which formed in an active setting along the western margin of early Paleozoic Gondwana. The lower part of this formation, the Vuelta de Las Tolas Member, records sedimentation on a slope apron formed in an intra-arc basin situated on a flooded continental arc platform. The coincidence of a thick Arenig-Llanvirn sedimentary succession and volcanic-plutonic arc rocks suggests an extensional or transtensional arc setting, and is consistent with evidence of an extensional regime within the volcanic arc in the northern Puna region. The studied stratigraphic sections consist of volcanic rocks and six sedimentary facies. The facies can be clustered into four facies associations. Association 1, composed of facies A (laminated siltstones and mudstones) and B (massive mudstones and siltstones), is interpreted to have accumulated from silty-muddy high-and low-density turbidity currents and highly fluid, silty debris flows, with subsequent reworking by bottom currents, and to a lesser extent, hemipelagic suspension in an open-slope setting. Facies association 2 is dominated by facies C (current-rippled siltstones) strata. These deposits are interpreted to record overbank sedimentation from fine-grained turbidity currents. Facies E (matrix-supported volcanic breccias) interbedded with andesitic lava units comprises facies association 3. Deposition was contemporaneous with subaqueous volcanic activity, and accumulated from cohesive debris flows in a coarse-grained wedge at the base of slope. Facies association 4 is typified by facies D (vitric fine-grained sandstones and siltstones) and F (channelized and graded volcanic conglomerates and breccias) deposits. These strata commonly display thinning-and fining-upward trends, indicating sedimentation from highly-concentrated volcaniclastic turbidity currents in a channelized system. The general characteristics of these deposits of fresh

  19. Petrological-geochemical characteristics of coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rocks of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Songliao basin and their geological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gan; Zhang Bangtong

    2005-01-01

    Clastic sedimentary rocks of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Qing-an area, Songliao basin are mainly composed of sandstone, mudstone and siltstone. The petrological-chemical analysis of clastic sedimentary rocks from Quantou Formation, Cretaceous indicates that their lithology mainly consists of arkose, shale and minor rock debris sandstone and greywacke by chemical classification of bulk elements. REE distribution pattern displays the apparent enrichment of LREE and negative anomaly of Eu and is similar to that of NASC and PAAS. The ratio of trace-element in sedimentary rocks to that of upper crust shows gentle character. All the above features indicate that these sedimentary rocks were slowly deposited under weakly active tectonic setting. They are sediments typical for passive continental margin and active continental margin. It is suggested that material source of clastic sediments of Quantou Formation, Cretaceous in Qing-an area, Songliao basin was originated from Hercynian granite of Zhangguangchai Mountain, and the granite was originated from upper crust. (authors)

  20. Métallogénie du gîte à PB-ZN-AG de Nicholas-Denys, Nouveau-Brunswick

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Michelle Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Le gîte à Pb–Zn–Ag de Nicholas-Denys, dans le camp minier de Bathurst (Nouveau-Brunswick), est constitué de plusieurs lentilles à pyrrhotite–sphalérite–galène, encaissées par le mudstone de la Formation de Millstream du Groupe de Fournier, déposé dans un bassin d’arrière-arc ordovicien. Les lentilles de sulfures sont concordantes avec la foliation régional S1, et sont boudinées parallèlement à la faille de Rocky-Brook Millstream, indiquant que les sulfures prédatent la déformation décrochante...

  1. The Imprint of Atmospheric Evolution in the D/H of Hesperian Clay Minerals on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Webster, C. R.; Stern, J. C.; Brunner, A. E.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Flesch, G. J.; Christensen, L. E.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio in strongly bound water or hydroxyl groups in ancient Martian clays retains the imprint of the water of formation of these minerals. Curiosity's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment measured thermally evolved water and hydrogen gas released between 550 degrees Centigrade and 950 degrees Centigrade from samples of Hesperian-era Gale crater smectite to determine this isotope ratio. The D/H value is 3.0 (plus or minus 0.2) times the ratio in standard mean ocean water. The D/H ratio in this approximately 3-billion-year-old mudstone, which is half that of the present Martian atmosphere but substantially higher than that expected in very early Mars, indicates an extended history of hydrogen escape and desiccation of the planet.

  2. Death in Guizhou — Late Triassic drowning of the Yangtze carbonate platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enos, Paul; Wei Jiayong; Lehrmann, Daniel J.

    1998-06-01

    The Yangtze platform in south China formed a stable palaeogeographic element from the Late Proterozoic to the end of the Middle Triassic with deposition of shallow-water carbonates during much of this time. A portion of the Yangtze platform in south-central Guizhou drowned at the transition from Permian to Triassic, as the south-adjacent Nanpanjiang basin encroached about 100 km northward, but a new, stable platform margin was established that persisted through the Early and Middle Triassic. This long history as a stable carbonate platform ended at the transition from the Ladinian to the Carnian. The latest Ladinian rocks, the Yangliujing Formation, are 490 m of shoaling-upward carbonate cycles of grapestone and bioclastic grainstone, fenestral limestone, and stromatolitic dolomudstone, commonly overprinted by extensive subaerial diagenesis. The beginning of the Carnian is marked by a rapid transition to medium-dark-grey, nodular lime mudstones containing ammonoids, conodonts and thin-shelled bivalves, the Zhuganpo Formation. The upper part of this thin pelagic limestone contains many muddy intraclasts, some slightly bored and encrusted, indicating incipient cementation. The overlying Wayao Formation is a condensed black shale with thin interbeds of dark-grey, manganiferous lime mudstone near the base. Ammonoids, conodonts, thin-shelled bivalves, and articulated crinoid stems are abundant. Fine-grained greywacke with sole marks forms prominent bundles within grey, calcareous shale in the overlying Laishike Formation. Ammonoids and thin-shelled bivalves occur sporadically in this 810-m-thick unit. Calcareous shale with thicker-shelled bivalves and packages of cleaner, coarser-grained sandstone characterize the Banan Formation, 460 m thick. The sandstone units generally coarsen and thicken upward, with ripples, medium-scale trough cross-beds, and rare U-tube burrows. Quartzose, coal-bearing siliciclastics 690 m thick form the overlying Huobachong Formation. Thick

  3. The Nitrate/Perchlorate Ratio on Mars as an Indicator for Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Sutter, B.; McKay, C. P.; Navarro-Gonzalex, R.; Freissinet, C.; Conrad, P. G.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Ming, D. W.; Niles, P. B.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Discovery of indigenous martian nitrogen in Mars surface materials has important implications for habitability and the potential development of a nitrogen cycle at some point in martian history. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover detected evolved nitric oxide (NO) gas during pyrolysis of scooped aeolian sediments and drilled mudstone acquired in Gale Crater. The detection of NO suggests an indigenous source of fixed N, and may indicate a mineralogical sink for atmospheric N2 in the form of nitrate. The ratio of nitrate to oxychlorine species (e.g. perchlorate) may provide insight into the extent of development of a nitrogen cycle on Mars.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the uranium favorability in the Kaiparowits Plateau Region, Garfield and Kane Counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubyk, W.S.; Young, P.

    1978-05-01

    The basal sandstone of the Chinle Formation (Upper Triassic) and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) in the Kaiparowits Plateau, southcentral Utah, were evaluated in terms of uranium potential. Both surface and subsurface data were utilized. Favorability of the basal Chinle sandstone was based on (1) presence of intermediate-size sandstone-filled channels cut into the Moenkopi; (2) presence of carbonaceous material; (3) an adequate source of uranium; and (4) gamma-ray anomalies from test-hole logs. Favorability of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation was based on (1) sandstone-mudstone ratios that approach equality, and (2) presence of thick sandstone lenses, carbonaceous material, and halos of light-tan to brown limonite staining. Although the basal Chinle sandstone and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison contain sizable uranium deposits throughout much of the Colorado Plateau, both units lack characteristics that are favorable for significant uranium deposits in the Kaiparowits Plateau

  5. Subsurface-controlled geological maps for the Y-12 plant and adjacent areas of Bear Creek Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.L.; Haase, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant is underlain by Middle to Late Cambrian strata of the Conasauga Group. The group consists of interbedded limestones, shales, mudstones, and siltstones, and it can be divided into six discrete formations. Bear Creek Valley is bordered on the north by Pine Ridge, which is underlain by sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Rome Formation, and on the south by Chestnut Ridge, which is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group. Subsurface-controlled geological maps illustrating stratigraphic data and formational contacts for the formations within the Conasauga Group have been prepared for the Y-12 Plant vicinity and selected areas in Bear Creek Valley westward from the plant. The maps are consistent with all available surface and subsurface data for areas where sufficient data exist to make map construction feasible. 13 refs

  6. Long-term migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks based on iodine speciation and 129I/127I ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Amano, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] 129I is one of the available indexes of long-term migration of groundwater solutes, because of its long half-life (15.7 million years) and low sorption characteristics. The Horonobe underground research center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), at which are conducted research and development of fundamental techniques on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is an appropriate site for natural analogue studies, because iodine concentration in groundwater is high in this area. To predict iodine behavior in natural systems, speciation of iodine is essential because of different mobility among each species. In this study, we determined iodine speciation and129I/127I isotope ratios of rock and groundwater samples to investigate long term migration of iodine. [Methods] All rock and groundwater samples were collected at Horonobe underground research center. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, the Wakkanai Formation (Wk Fm, siliceous mudstones), and the overlying Koetoi Formation (Kt Fm, diatomaceous mudstones). Iodine species in rock samples were determined by iodine K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (SPring-8 BL01B1). Thin sections of rock samples were prepared, and iodine mapping were obtained by micro-XRF analysis (SPring-8 BL37XU). Iodine species (IO3-, I-, and organic I) in groundwater were separately detected by high performance liquid chromatography connected to ICP-MS. The 129I/127I ratios in groundwater and rock samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (MALT, Univ. of Tokyo). Iodine in rock samples were separated by pyrohydrolysis and water extraction. [Results and discussion] Concentration of iodine in groundwater varied widely and was much higher than that of seawater showing a high correlation with that of chlorine (R2 = 0.90). Species of iodine in groundwater was mainly I-. Iodine in rock samples decreased near the boundary between Wk and Kt Fms. Iodine K-edge XANES

  7. Differential early diagenetic low-Mg calcite cementation and rhythmic hardground development in Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenaar, Nicolaas; J.J.P., Zijlstra

    1997-01-01

    and differences in the degree of early diagenesis. Cemented layers and hardgrounds are the result of differential early marine calcite cementation. In these limestones early calcite cementation cannot be explained by the supply of cementing materials from saturated seawater, An alternative model for early marine......The Campanian-Maastrichtian limestones in the south of the Netherlands are well-sorted fine-grained mudstones and silt- to fine sand-sized bioclastic grainstones. These limestones show a distinct lithological cyclicity manifested by fining-upward grain-size cycles with calcite-cemented layers...... calcite cementation is proposed, in which early calcite cementation occurred within the sediment at some distance below the seafloor as a result of organic matter degradation and internal redistribution of bioclastic carbonate. Bacterial organic matter degradation caused dissolution of relatively unstable...

  8. Characterization of a lime-pozzolan plaster containing phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Černý, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A PCM (Phase Change Material) modified lime-pozzolan plaster for improvement of thermal energy storage of building envelopes is studied in the paper. The investigated plaster is composed of lime hydrate, pozzolan admixture based on metakaolin and mudstone, silica sand, water and paraffin wax encapsulated in polymer capsule. The reference plaster without PCM application is studied as well. The analyzed materials are characterized by bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, compressive strength and pore size distribution. The temperature of phase change, heat of fusion and crystallization are studied using DSC (Difference Scanning Calorimetry) analysis performed in air atmosphere. In order to get information on materials hygrothermal performance, determination of thermal and hygric properties is done in laboratory conditions. Experimental data reveal a substantial improvement of heat storage capacity of PCM-modified plaster as compared to the reference material without PCM

  9. Preliminary environmental analysis of Gondwana in Candiota Region, Rio Grande do Sul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Fontes, L.C. da; Cava, L.T.

    1980-10-01

    The geological results obtained in the Candiota Region by NUCLEBRAS, during the evaluation of the uranium economic potential from basal Gondwana Sequence - Itarare Group and Rio Bonito Formation - at South-East of the Parana Sedimentary Basin, are studied. The analysis of 18 geologic sections (scales 1:5.000 x 1:500), 21 drill holes and fotogeologic interpretation in the scale 1:50.000, are included. The Itarare Group sedimentation was conditioned by paleo - relief with valleys formed from differential erosion on 'horst - graben' structures. The deposition of its rhythmites, diamictites and siltstones was made in periglacial and marine environments. The sedimentation of the Rio Bonito Formation is related to the main Itarare Group depositional axes. The typical lithologies are: sandstones, siltstones, mudstones and coals, representing progradational fluvial sediments over coastal - plain areas. (Author) [pt

  10. The volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the Lousal deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos; Rosa, Diogo; Matos, Joao; Relvas, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a massive sulfide province that is located in the south of Portugal and Spain, and hosts more than 90 massive sulfide deposits that amount to more than 1850 million metric tonnes of sulfide ore (Tornos, 2006). The ore deposits size, vary from ~1Mt to >100Mt (e.g. Neves Corvo and Aljustrel in Portugal, and Rio Tinto and Tharsis in Spain). The ore deposits are hosted by a submarine sedimentary and volcanic, felsic dominated, succession that constitutes the Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous Volcanic and Sedimentary Complex (VSC). The VSC ranges in thickness from approximately 600 to 1300 m (Tornos 2006). The VSC overlies the Phyllite-Quartzite Group (PQ) (Upper Devonian, base unknown) and is overlain by the Baixo Alentejo Flysch Group (Lower to Upper Carboniferous). The Lousal massive sulfide deposit is located in the western part of the IPB and occurs mostly interbedded with black mudstone. The VSC sequence at Lousal mine consists of a mudstone and quartzite sequence (PQ Group) in the lower part of the succession, over which a thick sequence of rhyolitic lavas (>300 m) occurs. Above the rhyolitic lavas there is a thick sequence of black and grey mudstone that hosts the massive sulfide ore bodies, and a rhyolitic sill. The upper part of the VSC sequence consists of a thick mudstone interval that hosts two thick basaltic units, locally with pillows. The rhyolites have small coherent cores, locally with flow bands, that grade to surrounding massive clastic intervals, with large lateral extent. The clasts show jigsaw-fit arrangement in many places and have planar or curviplanar margins and locally are perlitic at the margin. The top contact of these units is in most locations not exposed, which makes difficult to interpret the mode of emplacement. However, the thick clastic intervals, above described, are in accordance with quenching of volcanic glass with abundant water and therefore indicate that quenching of the rhyolites was the

  11. Detrital mode and whole-rock geochemistry of the fluvial succession, Pishin Belt, Pakistan: Implications on provenance and source area weathering in periferal foreland basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Detrital mode and geochemical composition of sandstones and mudstones of the Miocene Dasht Murgha Group (DMG) and Pliocene Malthanai Formation (MF) of the Pishin Belt, north-western Pakistan have been examined to identify their provenance and source area weathering. Sandstones of the Dasht Murgha...... Group and Malthanai Formation are lithic to sublith- arenites, rich in quartz, and metamorphic and sedimentary lithic fragments, indicating a recycled orogenic source. LmLvLs plots show that the Dasht Murgha Group is rich in sedimentary and metamorphic lithic fragments (Lm35Lv18Ls47), while samples...... of the Malthanai Formation are overwhelmingly rich in sedimentary fragments (Lm14Lv10Ls76). Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation within the Pishin Belt were mainly providing the sedimentary/metasedimentary detritus. High content of monocrystalline quartz (DMG: 28.21%; MF: 30.7), and higher SiO2/Al...

  12. Uranium in the Bunter sediments of the Polish area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldan, M.; Strzelecki, R.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium mineralization occurring in the Triassic sediments in the Polish area is discussed. Systematic work conducted for over ten years revealed the presence of uranium mineralization in the following geological units: Peribaltic syneclize, Fore-Sudetic monocline, Zary pericline and Pomerania trough. Out of three uranium-bearing horizons which can be correlated with each other two (the lower and the middle) are connected with the Middle Bunter, while the upper horizon is related to the Upper Bunter. Mineralization was found in sandstones, conglomerates, mudstones and claystones and, in the Fore-Sudetic monocline, also in carbonates. Among uranium minerals uranium black and coffinite were identified. In addition to uranium, increased vanadium, selenium and molybdenum contents were found in the sandstones. Some of the uranium-bearing horizons are of economic value. (author)

  13. Correlation of basement rocks from Waka Nui-1 and Awhitu-1, and the Jurassic regional geology of Zealandia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.; Raine, J.I.; Cook, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Core and cuttings of sandstone and mudstone from Waka Nui-1, an offshore oil exploration well west of Northland, and from Awhitu-1, a water bore in western Auckland, add to the growing number of samples retrieved from otherwise inaccessible basement of the Zealandia continent. On the basis of pollen and spores, the sedimentary rocks at the bottom of Waka Nui-1 are dated as Early-Middle Jurassic, and rocks from Awhitu-1 are Late Jurassic. On the basis of age, sandstone petrology, and geographic position, a correlation of rocks in both wells with Murihiku Terrane is probable. In New Zealand, Jurassic sedimentary rocks have usually been interpreted in a tectonostratigraphic terrane context. An alternative way to look at the New Zealand Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks is as potentially interconnected forearc, intra-arc, back-arc, and intracontinental basins that evolved adjacent to an active margin. (author). 47 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Controls on upper Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk deposition in the eastern Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2017-01-01

    % of the sediment. Sedimentation took place in deep water, below the photic zone and storm-wave base, and is characterized by decimetre to metre-scale variations in facies and trace fossil assemblages indicating repeated shifts in depositional environment. Integration of facies with published data on sea...... of accumulation rates and sea temperatures and is interpreted to represent a very broad set of deep water environmental conditions with an ample supply of calcareous nannofossil debris and intense bioturbation. Longer term shifts in deposition are best expressed by distribution of clay, flint and bioturbated...... micro-wackestone, bioturbated wackestone and laminated mudstone chalk facies, whereas the trace fossil assemblages appear less useful. The data set indicates overall shallowing over time with two distinctive events of clay influx to the basin during the late Campanian-earliest Maastrichtian and late...

  15. Organic geochemistry and petrology of oil source rocks, Carpathian Overthrust region, southeastern Poland - Implications for petroleum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Solecki, A.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The organic mailer rich Oligocene Menilite black shales and mudstones are widely distributed in the Carpathian Overthrust region of southeastern Poland and have excellent hydrocarbon generation potential, according to TOC, Rock-Eval, and petrographic data. Extractable organic matter was characterized by an equable distribution of steranes by carbon number, by varying amounts of 28,30-dinor-hopane, 18??(H)-oleanane and by a distinctive group of C24 ring-A degraded triterpanes. The Menilite samples ranged in maturity from pre-generative to mid-oil window levels, with the most mature in the southeastern portion of the study area. Carpathian petroleum samples from Campanian Oligocene sandstone reservoirs were similar in biomarker composition to the Menilite rock extracts. Similarities in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions between petroleum asphaltene and source rock pyrolyzates provided further evidence genetically linking Menilite kerogens with Carpathian oils.

  16. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements.

  17. Kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. Insights from experimental modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Physical experiments were performed to gain a better understanding on the kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. The present study focuses on deformation of sedimentary cover caused by thrust and reverse movements along the basement fault. Our physical models comprise dry quartz sand representing brittle sedimentary rock and viscous silicone polymer representing overpressured mudstone. Computerized X-ray tomography was applied to the experiments to analyze the kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. In the sand models, the width of deformation zone above thrust was wider than that above reverse fault, because back thrust developed on the hanging wall of reverse fault. Within the physical models composed of dry sand and silicone polymer, minor folds and thrusts with minor displacement developed on the footwall of the major monoclinal flexure. These results compare well with the geometry and kinematic evolution of the fold and thrust belts in Japan. (author)

  18. The Stability of Metasedimentary Rock in Ranau, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Abd Rahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.5.1.23-31The aim of this paper is to determine the stability of slopes and to propose preliminary rock cut slope protection and stabilization measures for Paleocene to Middle Eocene Trusmadi Formation along Marakau-Kigiok in Ranau, Sabah, Malaysia. The rock of Trusmadi Formation is slightly metamorphosed and dominated by interbeds of sandstone with quartz vein (metagreywacke, metamudstone, shale, slate, sheared sandstone, and mudstone. The rock unit can be divided into four geotechnical units namely arenaceous unit, argillaceous unit, interbedded unit, and sheared unit. Twelve slopes were selected for this study. Geological mapping, discontinuity survey, kinematic analysis, and prescriptive measure were used in this study. Results of this study conclude that the potential modes of failures are planar and wedge. Terrace, surface drainage, weep holes, horizontal drain, vegetation cover, wire mesh, slope reprofiling, and retaining structure were proposed protection and stabilization measures for the slopes in the studied area.

  19. Discussion of “Geology and diamond distribution of the 140/141 kimberlite, Fort à la Corne, central Saskatchewan, Canada”, by A. Berryman, B.H. Scott-Smith and B.C. Jellicoe (Lithos v. 76, p. 99 114)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjarsgaard, Bruce A.; Leckie, Dale A.; Zonneveld, John-Paul

    2007-09-01

    A wide variety of geological data and geological observations by numerous geoscientists do not support a two-stage crater excavation and in-fill model, or a champagne glass-shaped geometry for the 169 or 140/141 kimberlite bodies in the Fort à la Corne kimberlite field, Saskatchewan as described by Berryman, A., Scott Smith, B.H., Jellicoe, B., (2004). Rather, these kimberlite bodies are best described as polygenetic kimberlite tephra cones and tuff rings with associated feeder vents of variable geometry as shown by previous workers for the 169 kimberlite, the 140/141 kimberlite and the Star kimberlite. The domal tephra cone geometry is preserved due to burial by conformable Cretaceous marine mudstones and siltstones and is not an artifact of Quaternary glacial processes.

  20. Investigation of the potential for concealed base-metal mineralization at the Drenchwater Creek Zn-Pb-Ag occurrence, northern Alaska, using geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, and airborne electromagnetic geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Garth E.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Abraham, Jared E.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and State of Alaska cooperated on an investigation of the mineral potential of a southern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, Howard Pass quadrangle, to provide background information for future land-use decisions. The investigation incorporated an airborne electromagnetic (EM) survey covering 1,500 mi2 (~3,900 km2), including flight lines directly over the Drenchwater Creek sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag occurrence, the largest known base-metal occurrence in the survey area. Samples from the mineralized outcrop and rubblecrop contain metal concentrations that can exceed 11 percent Zn+Pb, with appreciable amounts of Ag. Soil samples with anomalous Pb concentrations are distributed near the sulfide-bearing outcrops and along a >2.5 km zone comprising mudstone, shale, and volcanic rocks of the Kuna Formation.

  1. Paleogene Vertebrate Paleontology, Geology and Remote Sensing in the Wind River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, R. K.; Krishtalka, L.

    1985-01-01

    Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies were used to correlate different events in the geologic evolution of the northeastern part of the Wind River Basin and have suggested several conclusions. Laterally equivalent exposures of the Lysite member from Cedar Ridge to Bridger Creek show a gradation in lithology from interbedded boulder conglomerates and sandstones to interbedded lenticular sandstones and mudstones to interbedded carbonaceous shales, coals and tabular sandstones. This gradation suggests a shift from alluvial fan to braided stream to paludal or lacustrine sedimentary environments during the late early Eocene. The Lysite and Lost Cabin members of the Wind River Formation are in fault contact in the Bridger Creek area and may intertongue to the east along Cedar Ridge. Ways in which remote sensing could be used in these studies are discussed.

  2. Formation conditions and prospecting criteria for sandstone uranium deposit of interlayer oxidation type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1994-01-01

    This paper comprehensively analyses the geotectonic setting and favourable conditions, such as structure of the basin, sedimentary facies and paleogeography, geomorphology and climate, hydrodynamics and hydrogeochemistry, the development of interlayered oxidation etc, necessary for the formation of sandstone uranium deposit of interlayered oxidation type. The following prospecting criteria is proposed, namely: abundant uranium source, arid climate, stable big basin, flat-lying sandstone bed, big alluvial fan, little change in sedimentary facies, intercalation of sandstone and mudstone beds, shallow burying of sandstone bed, well-aquiferous sandstone bed, high permeability of sandstone bed, development of interlayered oxidation, and high content of reductant in sandstone. In addition, the 6 in 1 hydrogenic genetic model is proposed

  3. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, D.; Klarik, L.; Bojar, A.-V.

    2002-01-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition

  4. Lower Oligocene non-geniculate coralline red algal (Corallinales, Rhodophyta assemblage from Poljšica pri Podnartu (Upper Carniola, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Gale

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Oligocene Gornji Grad beds from Polj{ica pri Podnartu consist of marly limestone, mudstone, several layers of limestones and two layers of sandstones, and were deposited on a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp.Especially the limestones contain rich fossil fauna and non-geniculate coralline red algae. These were systematicallycollected from four horizons and researched in thin sections under an optical microscope. Genera Lithoporella,Neogoniolithon, Spongites, Lithothamnion, Mesophyllum and Spongites were recognized. Surface area for each genus was calculated and the differences in the coralline assemblages in the four horizons were analysed. Thecorallines originate from two source areas: sandy-muddy bottom of a shallow marine environment, and small coral bioherms with its encrusters.

  5. NON-GENICULATE CORALLINE ALGAE (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA FROM THE LOWER OLIGOCENE OF POLJŠICA PRI PODNARTU (NORTHERN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUKA GALE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their increasing importance in sedimentology and palaeoecology, non-geniculate coralline algae remain virtually overlooked in Slovenia. Though these plants are present or even abundant in the Cretaceous and Cainozoic strata, they have never been studied in detail with notable exception of corallines from the Lower Oligocene beds in the area of Gornji Grad. Poljšica pri Podnartu is another locality where Lower Oligocene beds are exposed, considered as equivalent to the former. The studied profile consists of pebbly limestone, mudstone, sandstone and limestone. Limestones contain abundant non-geniculate coralline algae. Nine species from six genera of these corallines have been identified: Lithoporella melobesioides (Foslie Foslie, 1909, Neogoniolithon contii (Mastrorilli Quaranta et al., 2007, Spongites sp., Lithothamnion sp. 1, Lithothamnion sp. 2, Mesophyllum sp. 1, Mesophyllum sp. 2, Mesophyllum sp. 3 and Sporolithon sp. Some of these species are described from Slovenia for the first time. 

  6. Paleoenvironmental Implications of Clay Minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Thomas F.; Blake, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity spent approx 150 sols at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) studying a section of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks (with potential indications of volcanic influence), informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. YKB lies in a distal region of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, which extends from the northern rim of Gale Crater toward the dune field at the base of Mt Sharp. Sedimentological and stratigraphic observations are consistent with the Yellowknife Bay formation being part of a distal fan deposit, which could be as young as middle Hesperian to even early Amazonian in age (approx. 3.5 to 2.5 Ga). The Yellowknife Bay formation hosts a unit of mudstone called the Sheepbed member. Curiosity obtained powdered rock samples from two drill holes in the Sheepbed Member, named John Klein and Cumberland, and delivered them to instruments in Curiosity. Data from CheMin, a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD)/X-ray fluorescence instrument (XRF), has allowed detailed mineralogical analysis of mudstone powders revealing a clay mineral component of approx. 20 wt.% in each sample. The clay minerals are important indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions and sensitive recorders of post-depositional alteration processes. The XRD pattern of John Klein reveals a 02l band consistent with a trioctahedral phyllosilicate. A broad peak at approx. 10A with a slight inflexion at approx. 12A indicates the presence of 2:1 type clay minerals in the John Klein sample. The trioctahedral nature of the clay minerals, breadth of the basal reflection, and presence of a minor component with larger basal spacing suggests that John Klein contains a trioctahedral smectite (probably saponite), whose interlayer is largely collapsed because of the low-humidity conditions. The XRD patterns show no evidence of corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite/smectite) or chlorite, which are typical diagenetic products of trioctahedral smectites when subjected to burial and

  7. The First X-ray Diffraction Patterns of Clay Minerals from Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Thomas; Blake, David; Bish, David L.; Vaniman, David; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Chipera, Steve; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Farmer, Jack, D.; Treiman, Allan H; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity spent approx 150 sols at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) studying a section of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks (with potential indications of volcanic influence), informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. YKB lies in a distal region of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, which extends from the northern rim of Gale Crater toward the dune field at the base of Mt Sharp. Sedimentological and stratigraphic observations are consistent with the Yellowknife Bay formation being part of a distal fan deposit, which could be as young as middle Hesperian to even early Amazonian in age (approx 3.5 to 2.5 Ga). The Yellowknife Bay formation hosts a unit of mudstone called the Sheepbed member. Curiosity obtained powdered rock samples from two drill holes in the Sheepbed Member, named John Klein and Cumberland, and delivered them to instruments in Curiosity. Data from CheMin, a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD)/X-ray fluorescence instrument (XRF), has allowed detailed mineralogical analysis of mudstone powders revealing a clay mineral component of approx 20 wt.% in each sample. The clay minerals are important indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions and sensitive recorders of post-depositional alteration processes. The XRD pattern of John Klein reveals a 021 band consistent with a trioctahedral phyllosilicate. A broad peak at approx 10A with a slight inflexion at approx 12A indicates the presence of 2:1 type clay minerals in the John Klein sample. The trioctahedral nature of the clay minerals, breadth of the basal reflection, and presence of a minor component with larger basal spacing suggests that John Klein contains a trioctahedral smectite (probably saponite), whose interlayer is largely collapsed because of the low-humidity conditions. The XRD patterns show no evidence of corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite/smectite) or chlorite, which are typical diagenetic products of trioctahedral smectites when subjected to burial and heating

  8. Redox stratification of an ancient lake in Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurowitz, J A; Grotzinger, J P; Fischer, W W; McLennan, S M; Milliken, R E; Stein, N; Vasavada, A R; Blake, D F; Dehouck, E; Eigenbrode, J L; Fairén, A G; Frydenvang, J; Gellert, R; Grant, J A; Gupta, S; Herkenhoff, K E; Ming, D W; Rampe, E B; Schmidt, M E; Siebach, K L; Stack-Morgan, K; Sumner, D Y; Wiens, R C

    2017-06-02

    In 2012, NASA's Curiosity rover landed on Mars to assess its potential as a habitat for past life and investigate the paleoclimate record preserved by sedimentary rocks inside the ~150-kilometer-diameter Gale impact crater. Geological reconstructions from Curiosity rover data have revealed an ancient, habitable lake environment fed by rivers draining into the crater. We synthesize geochemical and mineralogical data from lake-bed mudstones collected during the first 1300 martian solar days of rover operations in Gale. We present evidence for lake redox stratification, established by depth-dependent variations in atmospheric oxidant and dissolved-solute concentrations. Paleoclimate proxy data indicate that a transition from colder to warmer climate conditions is preserved in the stratigraphy. Finally, a late phase of geochemical modification by saline fluids is recognized. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Carbonate microfacies of the San Juan Formation (Ordovician: Oepikodus evae and Oepikodus intermedius conodont zones), Niquivil, Central Precordillera, Province of San Juan (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, T.; Beresi, M.; Mestre, A.; Heredia, S.; Rodríguez, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents the description and interpretation of carbonate microfacies of the San Juan Formation (Ordovician) at the Niquivil section, considering the stratigraphical interval between the Oepikodus evae and Oepikodus intermedius conodont zones. The distribution of the microfacies and the conodonts assemblages allow us to identify different sub-environments within the late Floian carbonate ramp of the Central Precordillera. Five microfacies were recognized from the base to the top: M1 Bioclastic mudstone-wackestone; M2 Bioclastic-peloidal wackestone; M3 Intra-bioclastic wackestone; M4 Intra-bioclastic packstone; M5 Peloidal grainstone. The vertical distribution of these microfacies indicates a shallowing trend of the carbonate ramp in the Niquivil section for this temporal interval, which suggests a middle ramp environment with low energy, without wave action, and that evolved towards the middle-inner ramp environment with more energy by wave action and development of tempestites. [es

  10. Anatomy and origin of carbonate structures in a Miocene cold-seep field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Ivano W.; Garrison, Robert E.; Moore, J. Casey; Kastner, Miriam; Stakes, Debra S.

    2001-12-01

    Miocene calcite concretions resembling modern carbonate structures that form at cold seeps are present in fractured opal- CT porcelanites that are interbedded with mudstones in coastal cliffs at Santa Cruz, California. The morphologies of the carbonate structures differ markedly from conventional concretions and are spatially aligned with orthogonal joints in the porcelanites. The structures contain tubular holes that are identical to fluid and gas conduits in modern carbonate seep structures; the orientations of these tubes suggest that fluid and gas flow was both vertical and horizontal, the latter along extensional joints that formed preferentially in the brittle, silica-rich layers that had enhanced bedding- parallel permeability. Petrographic and isotopic characteristics of the carbonate structures indicate that calcite precipitation occurred in a shallow, subseafloor environment in either the zone of microbial sulfate reduction or of methanogenesis, prior to or possibly simultaneously with the silica phase transformation of opal- A in diatom shells to opal-CT.

  11. Carbonate rock classification applied to brazilian sedimentary basins; Classificacao de rochas carbonaticas aplicavel as bacias sedimentares brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra, Gerson Jose Salamoni [Universidade Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologias de Exploracao e Producao], E-mail: gersonterra@petrobras.com.br; Spadini, Adali Ricardo [Petrobras E e P, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao], E-mail: spadini@petrobras.com.br; Franca, Almerio Barros [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Sedimentologia e Petrologia] (and others)

    2009-11-15

    A new classification of carbonate rocks is proposed seeking to cover the entire spectrum of their occurrence in Brazilian basins. Emphasis is given to those in oil exploration and production locations, especially since the discovery of giant oil fields in the so called Pre-Salt section. This classification is a synergy between the various existing classifications adapting or modifying some terms and introducing new names. The carbonate rocks were divided into four groups according to their depositional texture: 1) elements not bound during deposition (mudstone, wackestone, packstone, grainstone, floatstone, rudstone, bioaccumulated, breccia), 2) elements bound during deposition, or in situ (boundstone, stromatolite, arborescent stromatolite, arbustiform stromatolite, dendriform stromatolite, thrombolite, dendrolite, leiolite, spherulitite, travertine and tufa), 3) elements bound or not bound during deposition (laminite, smooth laminite, crenulated laminite); 4) unrecognized depositional texture (crystalline limestone, dolomite). (author)

  12. Petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and paleo environmental characterization of radioactive anomaly associated to carbonate rocks from Jandaira formation of high cretaceous from Potiguar basin - Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Jandaira Formation (Turonian/Maastrichtian - Potiguar Basin, Brazil) presents an anomalous radioactive marker in the upper part of its carbonatic section. This marker of 3-20 m in thickness, comprises an area of about 3500 Km 2 and shows a radioactivity of 470 UAPI, against a background of 20 UAPI on the Gamma Ray Log. In the effort of characterizing this marker, petrological, mineralogical, geological and paleontological, analyses were made in ditch samples of selected 23 wells. This marker is composed by bioclastics packstones to mudstones, mainly constituted of planktonic and bentonic forams, deposited in relatively deep water. Chemical analysis of the P 205 richest samples, the ones show that they are also enriched on U, F, As, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Se, V, Y, Yb and on all rare-earth elements. The origin of the radioactive anomaly is due to the presence of sedimentary phosphates (phosphorite) made-up of uraniferous coloform apatite. (author)

  13. Geology and ground water in north-central Santa Cruz County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    North-central Santa Cruz County is underlain mainly by folded sedimentary rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age that have been highly fractured by movements in the San Andreas fault system. Ground water is stored in fractures within shale and mudstone formations and in intergranular pore spaces within fine- to very fine-grained sandstone and siltstone formations. Fewer than 10% of the wells yield more than 15 gallons of water per minute. The water in most wells is moderately hard to very hard, is generally of a sodium bicarbonate or calcium bicarbonate type, and commonly has excessive concentrations of iron or manganese. Of the many geologic units in the study area, only the Purisima Formation of Pliocene age has the potential to sustain well yields greater than 100 gallons per minute. (USGS)

  14. Cenozoic evolution of the Vietnamese coastal margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyhn, M.B.W.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Boldreel, L.O. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (DK))

    2007-10-15

    One of the main risk factors regarding petroleum exploration in the Vietnamese offshore basins is the presence of adequate source rock intervals. Onshore data from the ENRECA-1 core through the Song Ba Trough in central Vietnam show, however, that thick intervals of excellent oil- and gas-prone lacustrine mudstone and humic coals may develop even in small basins characterised by high sediment input. Although the Song Ba Trough is an order of magnitude smaller than the Vietnamese offshore basins, seismic data in the latter show apparent depositional similarities suggesting the presence of similar high-quality source rocks in the offshore basins. In addition, seismic facies analysis as well as oil and gas compositions indicate that other source rock types, such as Neogene fluvio-deltaic coals, carbonaceous shales and fore-reef marls are present in some of the basins and thus testify to the great petroleum potential of the Vietnamese margin. (LN)

  15. Clay club catalogue of characteristics of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The OECD/NEA Working Group on the Characterisation, the Understanding and the Performance of Argillaceous Rocks as Repository Host Formations, namely the Clay Club, examines the various argillaceous rocks that are being considered for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, i.e. from plastic, soft, poorly indurated clays to brittle, hard mud-stones or shales. The Clay Club considered it necessary and timely to provide a catalogue to gather in a structured way the key geo-scientific characteristics of the various argillaceous formations that are - or were - studied in NEA member countries with regard to radioactive waste disposal. The present catalogue represents the outcomes of this Clay Club initiative. (author)

  16. Geologic History of Eocene Stonerose Fossil Beds, Republic, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eocene lakebed sediments at Stonerose Interpretive Center in Republic, Washington, USA are one of the most important Cenozoic fossil sites in North America, having gained international attention because of the abundance and diversity of plant, insect, and fish fossils. This report describes the first detailed geologic investigation of this unusual lagerstätten. Strata are gradationally divided into three units: Siliceous shale that originated as diatomite, overlain by laminated mudstone, which is in turn overlain by massive beds of lithic sandstone. The sedimentary sequence records topographic and hydrologic changes that caused a deep lake to become progressively filled with volcaniclastic detritus from earlier volcanic episodes. The location of the ancient lake within an active graben suggests that displacements along the boundary faults were the most likely trigger for changes in depositional processes.

  17. A desk study of surface diffusion and mass transport in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.J.

    1988-09-01

    The concept of a geological barrier to radionuclide migration from theoretical radioactive waste repositories has drawn attention to the physico-chemical properties of clays, which are traditionally regarded as retarding media. This report addresses the different mechanisms of transport of radionuclides through clay and in particular focuses on the surface diffusion movement of sorbed cations. The relative contributory importance of the different transport mechanisms is governed by the pore size distributions and interconnections within the clay fabric. Surface diffusion data in the literature have been from experiments using compacted montmorillonite and biotite gneiss. A possible programme of laboratory work is outlined, based on diffusion experiments, which describes the way of measuring the effect of surface diffusion more accurately in clays, mudstones and shales. (author)

  18. Sedimentary Facies of the West Crocker Formation North Kota Kinabalu-Tuaran Area, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Azfar; Hadi Abd Rahman, Abdul; Suhaili Ismail, Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Newly outcrops exposed in the West Crocker Formation have led to the detail sedimentolgical analysis of the formation. Eight sedimentary facies have been recognised in which it was divided into three main groups: (1) sand-dominated facies (F1-F2), (2) poorly- sorted unit mixed sand and mud-dominated facies (F3), and (3) mud-dominated facies (F4-F5). These are: F1- graded sandstone (massive to planar laminated), F2-ripple-cross laminated, wavy and convolute lamination sandstone, F3-chaotic beds of mixed sandstone and mudstone blocks and clasts, F4-lenticular bedded of sandstone, and F5-shale. The studies of the formation has come out that it was deposited in a sand-rich submarine fan with specific location located at (1) inner fan channel-levee complex; (2) mid-fan channelised lobes, and (3) outer fan.

  19. Grainstones and cementstone mounds: The Trogkofel summit section (Lower Permian, Carnic Alps, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, M.; Sanders, D.; Krainer, K.

    2009-04-01

    In the Carnic Alps, Austria, an Artinskian succession 400 m thick of shallow-water bioclastic limestones and of mounds composed of ?Archaeolithophyllum, Archaeolithoporella and abundant fibrous cementstone (after former aragonite) records deposition along a "grainstone-dominated" platform margin. The section was taken along the route through the east-facing cliff of Trogkofel. The Trogkofel Limestone (Artinskian pro parte) is excellently exposed and preserved the most complete along this route, but no section has hitherto been logged. The total thickness of the Trogkofel Limestone probably is about 550 meters; the summit section comprises its upper 400 meters. The section consists mainly of shallow-water bioclastic limestones (grainstones, packstones, rudstones) intercalated with cementstone mounds. Both the bioclastic limestones and the mounds typically are thick-bedded to, more commonly, unbedded. Throughout the section, intervals a few tens of meters in thickness dominated by bioclastic limestones change vertically with intervals dominated by cementstone mounds. Up-section, no clear-cut trend with respect to prevalent facies, mean depositional water depth, and energy index is obvious. Furthermore, no lime-muddy, meter-scale peritidal cycles, and no teepee structures and no pisolite levels were identified; thin intervals of fenestral lime mudstones and/or of cryptmicrobially-laminated limestones are very rare. The bioclastic limestones commonly weather out unstratified, or show subhorizontal stratification or, more rarely, low-angle cross-stratification. In the upper 100 meters of section, grainstones to fine-grained rudstones rich in keystone vugs are prevalent. The cementstone mounds comprise intervals up to a few meters in thickness; the biogenic component is characterized by foliose crusts pertaining to ?Archaeolithophyllum hidensis and Archaeolithoporella, overgrown by Tubiphytes and fenestrate bryozoans. The ?Archaeolithophyllum-Archaeolithoporella crusts

  20. Iron speciation and mineral characterization of upper Jurassic reservoir rocks in the Minhe Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiangxian; Zheng, Guodong, E-mail: gdzhbj@mail.iggcas.ac.cn; Xu, Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Liang, Minliang [Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Institute of Geomechanics, Key Lab of Shale Oil and Gas Geological Survey (China); Fan, Qiaohui; Wu, Yingzhong; Ye, Conglin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Shozugawa, Katsumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Six samples from a natural outcrop of reservoir rocks with oil seepage and two control samples from surrounding area in the Minhe Basin, northwestern China were selectively collected and analyzed for mineralogical composition as well as iron speciation using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Iron species revealed that: (1) the oil-bearing reservoir rocks were changed by water-rock-oil interactions; (2) even in the same site, there was a different performance between sandstone and mudstone during the oil and gas infusion to the reservoirs; and (3) this was evidence indicating the selective channels of hydrocarbon migration. In addition, these studies showed that the iron speciation by Mössbauer spectroscopy could be useful for the study of oil and gas reservoirs, especially the processes of the water-rock interactions within petroleum reservoirs.

  1. The Paleoecology of Vegetation on Pennsylvanian Basin Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashforth, Arden Roy

    deposits are capped by log accumulations, many of which are overlain by abandoned channel mudstones.  It is proposed that flood sediment buildup and log jam development prompted avulsion and channel abandonment, thus providing some of the earliest evidence for the effects of large woody debris on fluvial...... settings.  Such landscapes were characterized by steep gradients and high-energy regimes due to their proximity to uplands, and the prevalence of coarse-grained sediment enhanced soil drainage and hindered peat accumulation. To help resolve the full spectrum of vegetation cover in tropical Euramerica...... on a fluvial megafan under strongly seasonal conditions, gigantic cordaitalean forests dominated the landscape, particularly alongside ephemeral channels.  Floodplains were largely dry and degraded, although pteridosperms, ferns, and lycopsids persisted around poorly drained depressions.  On the Nýrany Member...

  2. A model for Cryogenian iron formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Grant M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Poirier, André; Le Heron, Daniel; Strauss, Justin V.; Stevenson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Tatonduk (Alaska) and Holowilena (South Australia) iron formations share many characteristics including their broadly coeval (Sturtian) ages, intimate association with glaciogenic sediments, and mineralogy. We show that these shared characteristics extend to their neodymium (εNd) and iron isotope (δ56Fe) systematics. In both regions δ56Fe values display a distinct up-section trend to isotopically heavier values, while εNd values are primitive and similar to non-ferruginous mudstones within these successions. The δ56Fe profiles are consistent with oxidation of ferruginous waters during marine transgression, and the εNd values imply that much of this iron was sourced from the leaching of continental margin sediments largely derived from continental flood basalts. Rare earth element data indicate a secondary hydrothermal source for this iron.

  3. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorescu, D; Klarik, L [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics (Romania); Bojar, A -V [Department of Geology and Paleontology, Graz (Austria)

    2002-10-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition.

  4. The lower Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) at the northern extreme of the Mendoza Precordillera, Argentina: stratigraphic and biostratigraphic implications; El Darriwiliense inferior (Ordovícico Medio) en el extremo norte de la Precordillera de Mendoza, Argentina: implicaciones estratigráficas y bioestratigráficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresi, M.S.; Bordonaro, O.L.; Heredia, S.E.; Mestre, A.; Toro, B.A.

    2017-09-01

    A tectonically affected Middle Ordovician succession crops out at the Los Guanacos quarry in the sierra de Las Higueras, in the Precordillera of Mendoza, western Argentina. This is represented by the San Juan Formation which is transitionally covered by a mixed carbonate-shaly unit of dark colours, 1.5 metres thick (transfacies) which can be interpreted as the base of the Los Azules Formation. A 5-cm thick intra-bioclastic pack/grainstone bed interbedded in the lower part of this unit has been interpreted as a tempestite. It is characterized both by a millimetre-thick erosional boundary, just above the dark mudstone layer and strong mechanical distribution of bioclasts and intraclasts, suggesting sedimentary structures associated with a storm event of high energy possibly occurring in the middle part of the platform. Towards the bottom, a hummocky structure thin interval, under the dark mudstone, is interpreted as the record of another tempestite event. The mudstone represents the post-storm event reflecting the low energy of the marine water environment. The lenticular layer contains predominantly lingulid shells, trilobites and graptolites, all highly fragmented, which suggests they have been reworked and subsequently mixed and quickly redeposited during a storm event that caused the mortality of these faunas. The trilobites Mendolaspis salagastensis and indeterminate species of Matagnostidae, Illaenidae, Leiostegiidae, Encrinuridae, Telephinidae and Trinucleidae have been recorded for the first time at this locality. The conodont fauna allows the identification of the Yangtzeplacognathus crassus Zone, which indicates the lower Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician). Graptolites assignable to evisograptus cf. Levisograptus austrodentatus and Levisograptus sp. are described for the first time in the studied area and biostratigraphic implications validate the early Darriwilian age for the bearing levels. Finally, based on the studied records, correlation with different

  5. Regional paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic settings of wetland/lacustrine depositional systems in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Western Interior, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S.P.; Turner, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    During deposition of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, water that originated as precipitation in uplands to the west of the Western Interior depositional basin infiltrated regional aquifers that underlay the basin. This regional groundwater system delivered water into the otherwise dry continental interior basin where it discharged to form two major wetland/lacustrine successions. A freshwater carbonate wetland/lacustrine succession formed in the distal reaches of the basin, where regional groundwater discharged into the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which was a smaller structural basin within the more extensive Western Interior depositional basin. An alkaline-saline wetland/lacustrine complex (Lake T'oo'dichi') formed farther upstream, where shallower aquifers discharged into the San Juan/Paradox Basin, which was another small structural basin in the Western Interior depositional basin. These were both wetlands in the sense that groundwater was the major source of water. Input from surface and meteoric water was limited. In both basins, lacustrine conditions developed during episodes of increased input of surface water. Inclusion of wetlands in our interpretation of what had previously been considered largely lacustrine systems has important implications for paleohydrology and paleoclimatology. The distal carbonate wetland/lacustrine deposits are well developed in the Morrison Formation of east-central Colorado, occupying a stratigraphic interval that is equivalent to the "lower" Morrison but extends into the "upper" Morrison Formation. Sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic evidence indicate that regional groundwater discharge maintained shallow, hydrologically open, well oxygenated, perennial carbonate wetlands and lakes despite the semi-arid climate. Wetland deposits include charophyte-rich wackestone and green mudstone. Lacustrine episodes, in which surface water input was significant, were times of carbonate and siliciclastic deposition in scarce deltaic

  6. Shallow marine event sedimentation in a volcanic arc-related setting: The Ordovician Suri Formation, Famatina range, northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Loma del Kilome??tro Member of the Lower Ordovician Suri Formation records arc-related shelf sedimentation in the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina. Nine facies, grouped into three facies assemblages, are recognized. Facies assemblage 1 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) locally punctuated by normally graded or parallel-laminated silty sandstones (facies B] records deposition from suspension fall-out and episodic storm-induced turbidity currents in an outer shelf setting. Facies assemblage 2 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) interbedded with rippled-top very fine-grained sandstones (facies D)] is interpreted as the product of background sedimentation alternating with distal storm events in a middle shelf environment. Facies assemblage 3 [normally graded coarse to fine-grained sandstones (facies C); parallel-laminated to low angle cross-stratified sandstones (facies E); hummocky cross-stratified sandstones and siltstones (facies F); interstratified fine-grained sandstones and mudstones (facies G); massive muddy siltstones and sandstones (facies H); tuffaceous sandstones (facies I); and interbedded thin units of massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A)] is thought to represent volcaniclastic mass flow and storm deposition coupled with subordinated suspension fall-out in an inner-shelf to lower-shoreface setting. The Loma del Kilo??metro Member records regressive-transgressive sedimentation in a storm- and mass flow-dominated high-gradient shelf. Volcano-tectonic activity was the important control on shelf morphology, while relative sea-level change influenced sedimentation. The lower part of the succession is attributed to mud blanketing during high stand and volcanic quiescence. Progradation of the inner shelf to lower shoreface facies assemblage in the middle part represents an abrupt basinward shoreline migration. An erosive-based, non-volcaniclastic, turbidite unit at the base of this package suggests a sea

  7. The results of the investigations on rock mechanics in HDB-9-11 boreholes and update of the rock mechanical model around the Horonobe URL construction area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Hiroyuki; Niunoya, Sumio; Matsui, Hiroya

    2008-09-01

    Horonobe URL (Underground Research Laboratory) Project is conducted at Horonobe-cho, Teshio-gun, Hokkaido. This research report shows the result of the rock mechanical investigations which have been carried out from 2004 to 2005 as a part of the project. The objectives of the rock mechanical investigation are as follows: To obtain the data which were necessary for construction design of URL. To confirm the distribution of rock mechanical properties in and around URL construction area. The results of the investigations are summarized as follows: 1) Variation and values of depth direction of physical and mechanical properties in the laboratory construction area corresponded approximately to the results obtained from the rock mechanical investigations of HDB-1-8. 2) The major redesign had been not had about physical and mechanical properties in the laboratory construction area being able to divide into three zones and length of its own zone in updating rock mechanical model. 3) From the results of initial stress measured by hydraulic fracturing, the results that the direction of the maximum principle stress is E-W was no different from results obtained from the investigations of HDB-1-8, but the magnitude correlation among maximum, minimum principle stress and overburden pressure measured around G.L.-927 m showed different trends compared with the results of HDB-1-8. 4) Diatomaceous mudstone was yielded under isotropic compression. Cam-clay model as constitutive law of diatomaceous mudstone should be used for tunnel excavation analysis. 5) Uniaxial compression strength of rock saturated under saline water is larger than that of saturated under freshwater. Poisson's ratio of rock saturated under saline water is smaller than that of saturated under saline water. 6) The effective confining pressure increases with the equivalent opening width and permeability decreases. 7) The value of principle stress obtained from DSCA method is larger than that obtained from hydraulic

  8. Evidence of orbital forcing in lake-level fluctuations in the Middle Eocene oil shale-bearing lacustrine successions in the Mudurnu-Göynük Basin, NW Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocakoğlu, F.; Açıkalın, S.; Yılmaz, İ. Ö.; Şafak, Ü.; Gökçeoğlu, C.

    2012-08-01

    Mudurnu-Göynük basin of the Sakarya Zone in NW Anatolia comprises ca. 1500 m thick Paleocene-Eocene terrestrial to shallow marine succession overlying the Late Cretaceous deeper marine progradational fore-arc sediments. Formed in a foreland setting in relation to southerly situated İzmir-Ankara suture zone, this terrestrial succession (regionally known as Kızılçay group) comprises a thin (nalysis on three correlative measured sections showed that mudstone, oil shale and thinner limestone alternations characterize the relatively deeper part of the Eocene lake with probable marine intervention, while thicker limestone, coal, marl and occasional oil shale alternations typify the southern relatively freshwater shoal areas. These facies are frequently organized as meter-scale symmetric to asymmetric transgressive-regressive cycles. Spectral analysis of the mudstone beds and the cycles within the lacustrine succession strongly indicates the occurrence of full bands of Milankovitch with the shortest precession cycle (19 ka) at ca. 2.30 m. Our observations further revealed quite rhythmic thin couplets with estimated durations of 365-730 yr that might represent abrupt climatic changes during deposition. On the other hand, longer duration (ca. 1 Ma) of shoaling and deepening trends in the studied sections were attributed basically to varying subsidence due to tectonic loading in the southerly suture zone. Lastly, regarding the distribution of depositional environments we propose that the oil shale exploration activities should be carried out within a 20 km wide E-W running belt while the southern limits of this belt is more prolific for coal resources.

  9. Thermophysical Properties Along Curiosity's Traverse in Gale Crater, Mars, Derived from the REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Lewis, Kevin W.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Smith, Michael Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The REMS instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, has measured ground temperature nearly continuously at hourly intervals for two Mars years. Coverage of the entire diurnal cycle at 1 Hz is available every few martian days. We compare these measurements with predictions of surface atmosphere thermal models to derive the apparent thermal inertia and thermally derived albedo along the rovers traverse after accounting for the radiative effects of atmospheric water ice during fall and winter, as is necessary to match the measured seasonal trend. The REMS measurements can distinguish between active sand, other loose materials, mudstone, and sandstone based on their thermophysical properties. However, the apparent thermal inertias of bedrock dominated surfaces [approx. 350-550 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1 s(exp. -1/2 )] are lower than expected. We use rover imagery and the detailed shape of the diurnal ground temperature curve to explore whether lateral or vertical heterogeneity in the surface materials within the sensor footprint might explain the low inertias. We find that the bedrock component of the surface can have a thermal inertia as high as 650-1700 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1) s(exp. -1/2) for mudstone sites and approx. 700 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1) s(exp. - 1/2) for sandstone sites in models runs that include lateral and vertical mixing. Although the results of our forward modeling approach may be non-unique, they demonstrate the potential to extract information about lateral and vertical variations in thermophysical properties from temporally resolved measurements of ground temperature.

  10. Caldera formation and varied eruption styles on North Pacific seamounts: the clastic lithofacies record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, Ryan A.; Clague, Dave A.; Paduan, Jennifer B.

    2014-08-01

    Detailed examination of volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks collected from the Taney (30 Ma), President Jackson (4 Ma), Vance (3 Ma) and Alarcon (2 Ma) near-ridge seamount chains of the North Pacific reveals seven clastic lithofacies that record various modes of eruption, magma fragmentation, and particle dispersal. Lithofacies are distinguished by differences in lithology, bedding habit, compositional heterogeneity, and relationship to volcanic landforms. Breccia lithofacies were produced through mechanical fragmentation during caldera collapse (polymict) or effusive eruptions onto steep slopes (monomict). Rare globular lapilli mudstone lithofacies contain clasts with morphologies formed by magma-sediment mingling processes (peperite). Seamount summit pyroclastic deposits include proximal lapilli tuff with vesicular pyroclasts, and more distal limu o Pele tuff lithofacies. Much finer-grained hydrothermal mudstone/tuff lithofacies occurs around caldera rims and contains greenschist minerals, hydrothermal clays and basaltic ash that record subsurface phreatomagmatic fragmentation processes. Very fine-grained ash is transported to distal regions by oceanic currents and hydrothermal plumes, and is a component of the regional pelagic sediment budget. Pyroclastic lithofacies only occur on seamount summits suggesting formation during the latter stages of seamount evolution. As a seamount drifts away from an adjacent ridge axis and associated heat source, its magma supply is reduced allowing for magmatic gas buildup and mild explosive eruptions. During this stage, the diminished melt supply under the seamount is unable to fully compensate for extension along the ridge axis and vertical seamount growth. Lateral intrusion into spreading-related structures in this stage causes magma withdrawal and caldera formation. Formation of caldera ring faults also promotes seawater ingress into subseafloor hydrothermal cells, which interact with magma conduits causing phreatomagmatic

  11. Sedimentology of middle ordovician carbonates in the Argentine precordillera: evidence of regional relative sea-level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M.; Eberlein, S.; Lehnert, O.

    1993-07-01

    The Las Aguaditas Formation in the Argentine Precordillera of San Juan is the only Ordovician carbonate sequence deposited on a slope. Spiculites, mudstones and calcisiltites represent the autochthonous sediments, characterized by a fine lamination, rare fossils and their dark colour. The pelagic fauna consists of rare radiolarians/calcispheres, trinucleid trilobites, graptolites and conodonts. The latter are typical of an open marine environment and proved a Llanvirn—Llandeilo age for the Las Aguaditas Formation. In the upper part of the succession there are several intercalations of megabreccias. Their thickness decreases from about 20 to 4 m towards the top of the formation, accompanied by an increasing amount of carbonate turbidites. The clasts of the breccias are derived from the slope as well as the platform. Each of the megabreccia horizons represents a system of channels, lobes and interchannel deposits, which together form a slope apron. On top of the lower breccia a small biostrome developed, where bryozoans and crinoids are preserved in an autochthonous position. Sedimentation of the Las Aguaditas Formation started with the drowning of the underlying carbonate platform (San Juan limestones). Near the Arenig-Llanvirn boundary, a rapid ecstatic sea-level rise led to the deposition of graptolitic black shales and mudstones. Upwards, allochthonous carbonates become increasingly abundant. The onset of megabreccia deposition coincides with a major relative sea-level fall, caused by block movements in connection with rifting. The subsequent transition from breccia formation towards turbiditic sedimentation corresponds to an environmental shift from the slope towards the toe of slope and basin and marks a renewed moderate sea-level rise.

  12. Stratigraphic and structural data for the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge, Tennessee: preliminary results from test borehole ORNL-JOY No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Walls, E.C.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-06-01

    To resolve long-standing problems with the stratigraphy of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an 828.5-m-deep test borehole was drilled. Continuous rock core was recovered from the 17.7- to 828.5-m-deep interval; temperature, caliper, neutron, gamma-ray, and acoustic (velocity and televiewer) logs were obtained. The Conasauga Group at the study site is 572.4 m thick and comprises six formations that are - in descending stratigraphic order - Maynardville Limestone (98.8 m), Nolichucky Shale (167.9 m), Maryville Limestone (141.1 m), Rogersville Shale (39.6 m), Rutledge Limestone (30.8 m), and Pumpkin Valley Shale (94.2 m). The formations are lithologically complex, ranging from clastics that consist of shales, mudstones, and siltstones to carbonates that consist of micrites, wackestones, packstones, and conglomerates. The Rome Formation is 188.1 m thick and consists of variably bedded mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones. The Rome Formation thickness represents 88.1 m of relatively undeformed section and 100.0 m of highly deformed, jumbled, and partially repeated section. The bottom of the Rome Formation is marked by a tectonic disconformity that occurs within a 46-m-thick, intensely deformed interval caused by motion along the Copper Creek fault. Results from this study establish the stratigraphy and the lithology of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation near ORNL and, for the first time, allow for the unambiguous correlation of cores and geophysical logs from boreholes elsewhere in the ORNL vicinity. 45 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs

  13. IODP Expedition 351 Lithostratigraphy: Volcaniclastic Record of Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A. P.; Brandl, P. A.; Li, H.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Jiang, F.; Kanayama, K.; Kusano, Y.; Marsaglia, K. M.; McCarthy, A.; Meffre, S.; Savov, I. P.; Tepley, F. J., III; Yogodzinski, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The destruction of lithospheric plates by subduction is a fundamentally important process leading to arc magmatism and the creation of continental crust, yet subduction initiation and early magmatic arc evolution remain poorly understood. For many arc systems, onset of arc volcanism and early evolution are obscured by metamorphism or the record is deeply buried; however, initial products of arc systems may be preserved in forearc and backarc sedimentary records. IODP Expedition 351 recovered this history from the dispersed ash and pyroclast record in the proximal rear-arc of the northern IBM system west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. Drilling at Site U1438 in the Amami Sankaku Basin recovered a thick volcaniclastic record of subduction initiation and the early evolution of the Izu-Bonin Arc. A 160-m thick section of Neogene sediment overlies 1.3 kilometers of Paleogene volcaniclastic rocks with andesitic average composition; this volcaniclastic section was deposited on mafic volcanic basement rocks. The thin upper sediment layer is primarily terrigenous, biogenic and volcaniclastic mud and ooze with interspersed ash layers. The underlying Eocene to Oligocene volcaniclastic rocks are 33% tuffaceous mudstone, 61% tuffaceous sandstone, and 6% conglomerate with volcanic and rare sedimentary clasts commonly up to pebble and rarely to cobble size. The clastic section is characterized by repetitive conglomerate and sandstone-dominated intervals with intervening mudstone-dominated intervals, reflecting waxing and waning of coarse arc-derived sediment inputs through time. Volcanic lithic clasts in sandstones and conglomerates range from basalt to rhyolite in composition and include well-preserved pumice, reflecting a lithologically diverse and compositionally variable arc volcanic source.

  14. Combined tide and storm influence on facies sedimentation of miocene Miri Formation, Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuniarta Ulfa; Nasiman Sapari; Zuhar Zahir Tuan Harith

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted on the sedimentary rocks belonging to the Miri Formation (Middle - Late Miocene). The primary objective of the present study is to provide additional interpretation on the stratigraphy of the Miri Formation in the Miri Field based on the new information gathered from new outcrops in the area. Five outcrops were examined in detail on sedimentology and stratigraphy. Based on lithology, sedimentary structures, bedding geometry and traces fossil, the sediments of the Miri Formation were grouped into fourteen lithofacies. Influence of tide and storm during the depositional processes of the formation were indicated by the group of two main facies associations which are: (i) tide-dominated estuary; and (ii) wave-and-storm dominated facies associations. The tide-dominated estuary system of the Miri Formation are includes variety of sub environments: estuary mouth or tidal channel and sand bars (characterized by trough cross-stratified sandstone with mud drapes facies), estuary channel or upper flow regime of sand flat (characterized by parallel stratified sandstone with mud-laminas facies), mixed-tidal flat (characterized by wavy and flaser bedded sandstone facies), and mud-tidal flat (characterized by rhythmic stratified sandstone-mudstone and lenticular bedding facies). The wave-and-storm dominated varied from lower to middle shore face (characterized by hummocky cross-stratified sandstone and rhythmic parallel stratified sandstone and laminated siltstone facies), upper shore face (characterized by swaley cross-stratified sandstone), lower shore face inter bedded to bioturbated sandstone and siltstone facies), and offshore transitional (characterized by bioturbated sandstone and mudstone inter bedding with parallel to hummocky cross-stratified sandstone facies). (author)

  15. Relationship between Mineral and Organic Matter in Shales: The Case of Shahejie Formation, Dongying Sag, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Types of organic matter and mineral associations and microstructures of shales can reflect the depositional mechanism and sedimentary environment. Therefore, analysis of organic matter and mineral associations is a prerequisite for research on fine-grained sedimentary rocks. Shales from the Eocene Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Sag of China were selected to classify their lithofacies and to investigate the characteristics of their organic matter and mineral associations. This analysis identified six lithofacies (e.g., laminated shales and massive mudstones; in all the lithofacies, clay minerals exhibit a positive correlation with detrital minerals, thus indicating that they were derived from the same source. The comprehensive analysis of mineral and organic matter associations reveals that detrital minerals were deposited with low-hydrogen index (HI OM. The deposition of detrital minerals was mainly a physical process. Clay minerals can undergo deposition in one of two ways due to their surface charge: they can either aggregate with high-HI OM via chemical deposition, thus forming organic-rich laminae, or they can be deposited together with low-HI OM via physical deposition, thus forming clay-rich laminae or a massive matrix. Carbonate minerals, which often coexist with high-HI OM, are biological sediments. The analysis of the sedimentary characteristics of these organic matter and mineral associations indicates that the sedimentary processes differ between various lithofacies: e.g., the discontinuous laminated shale represents the product of biophysical processes. Differences in depositional mechanisms are also present in each sub-member. Therefore, it is important to analyze the properties of minerals and organic matter, as well as their associations, to more deeply understand the classification of lithofacies and the depositional processes of shales and mudstones.

  16. Palynological and bulk geochemical constraints on the paleoceanographic conditions across the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, New Albany Shale, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, Sarah R. de la [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4101 (United States); Rowe, Harold D.; Rimmer, Susan M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Slone Research Building, University of Kentucky, Lexington KY 40506-0053 (United States)

    2007-06-01

    A down-core record of stable isotope and geochemical results is integrated with palynofacies (kerogen) data from the New Albany Shale (Indiana) to reconstruct environmental changes that occurred across the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. Preliminary interpretations are focused on developing several multiproxy linkages that will potentially lead toward a more robust understanding of the occurrence and significance of phytoplankton assemblage variations during the Late Devonian, a time of widespread black shale formation. Development of such linkages will potentially provide a more comprehensive assessment of the various controls on 1) primary production, and 2) carbon sequestration in a large, low-paleolatitude intracratonic basin. An abrupt change in the geochemical and biotic proxies for particulate organic matter across the Frasnian-Famennian boundary coincides with a distinct lithological change, characterized by laminated, brownish-black Famennian mudstones unconformably overlying alternating bioturbated, greenish-gray and non-bioturbated, dark-gray Frasnian mudstones. Elemental and isotopic profiles reflect different patterns of production, degradation, and removal of organic carbon in the two shale facies. A shift from acritarch- to prasinophyte-dominated waters across the boundary indicates the overall importance of bathymetric fluctuations, chemico-physical conditions, and nutrient availability related to eustatic sea-level change. A positive {delta}{sup 13}C{sub V-PDB} shift of 1.1 permille across the boundary is interpreted to be correlative with the global Upper Kellwasser Event. A preliminary model is proposed to explain the sustainable primary production during times of maximum flooding, thereby enhancing organic preservation during black shale formation. (author)

  17. Stratigraphy of the Kapalga Formation north of Pine Creek and its relationship to base metal mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulevitch, J.

    1980-01-01

    The lithology, stratigraphy and mineralization of the Kapalga Formation (South Alligator Group) is described from the Margaret Syncline in the Pine Creek area of the Northern Territory of Australia. An interdigitation of carbonaceous siltstones and mudstones, chert, ashstones and tuffaceous chert, greywacke, siltstone, mudstone and minor banded iron formation (b.i.f.) characterises the Formation. These rocks define a vertical facies transition between low energy sediments of the underlying Koolpin Formation, and high energy sediments of the overlying Burrell Creek Formation. This transition is interlayered with numerous ashstone-tuffaceous chert horizons which were deposited during the waning stage of Gerowie Tuff sedimentation. The boundary between the Kapalga Formation of the South Alligator Group and the Burrell Creek Formation of the Finniss River Group is strictly conformable in this part of the Pine Creek 'Geosyncline'. Relict devitrified shards have been recognised in the Gerowie Tuff in the Margaret Syncline and these observations along with whole-rock chemical analyses conclusively support claims by previous investigators that these rocks are volcanic derivatives. Base metal mineralization at Iron Blow and Mt. Bonnie occurs as massive, stratiform, sulphide-silicate-carbonate lodes. The deposits are at the same stratigraphic level towards the base of the Kapalga Formation and minor stratification parallel with bedding has been observed. These features, and the association of the lodes with mud-flow breccias, lead to the conclusion that the lodes are syngenetic in origin. Thermochemical consideration of the sulphide assemblages together with the temporal relationship between the mineralization and Gerowie Tuff point to diagenetic devitrification of the underlying tuffaceous rocks as the source of the mineralization. Recent publications of experimental data from reaction of seawater and volcanic glass provide information which supports this thesis, and

  18. Mineralogy, geochemistry, and palynology of modern and late Tertiary mangrove deposits in the Barreiras Formation of Mosqueiro Island, northeastern Pará state, eastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; da Costa, Marcondes Lima

    2004-12-01

    A coastal environment has been interpreted from 110 cm thick mudstone deposits found at the base of a 10 m immature laterite profile, which forms the modern coastal cliff on Mosqueiro Island in northeastern Pará state, northern Brazil. The late Tertiary sediment deposits of the Barreiras Formation are studied by multi-element geochemistry and pollen analyses. The mineralogical and geochemical results show that the gray, organic-rich deposits are composed of kaolinite, quartz, and illite/muscovite, as well as pyrite and anatase. They are rich in SiO 2, Al 2O 3, and some FeO. The composition is homogenous, indicating that the detritus source area is formed of lateritic soils derived from acid rock composition. Their chemical composition, including trace elements, is somewhat comparable to continental shale, and the values are below the upper continental Earth crust composition. The pollen analytical data document that the mudstone deposits were formed by an ancient mangrove ecosystem. Mineralogical, geochemical, and pollen analytical data obtained from late Tertiary mangrove deposits are compared with modern mangrove deposits from the Bragança Peninsula of the northeastern coast of Pará state. Although the pollen composition of the deposits is very similar to the modern one, the geochemical and mineralogical composition is different. Smectite was only found in the modern deposit; illite/mica occurs in the ancient deposit, along with Mg, K, and Na. The pollen signature and detrital minerals (kaolinite, quartz and anatase) found in both mangrove deposits show that during the Miocene, a humid tropical climate condition prevailed, similar to modern conditions.

  19. Bioerosion by pit-forming, temperate-reef sea urchins: History, rates and broader implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Russell

    Full Text Available Sea urchins are dominant members of rocky temperate reefs around the world. They often occur in cavities within the rock, and fit so tightly, it is natural to assume they sculpted these "pits." However, there are no experimental data demonstrating they bore pits. If they do, what are the rates and consequences of bioerosion to nearshore systems? We sampled purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, from sites with four rock types, three sedimentary (two sandstones and one mudstone and one metamorphic (granite. A year-long experiment showed urchins excavated depressions on sedimentary rocks in just months. The rate of pit formation varied with rock type and ranged from 100 yr for granite. In the field, there were differences in pit size and shapes of the urchins (height:diameter ratio. The pits were shallow and urchins flatter at the granite site, and the pits were deeper and urchins taller at the sedimentary sites. Although overall pit sizes were larger on mudstone than on sandstone, urchin size accounted for this difference. A second, short-term experiment, showed the primary mechanism for bioerosion was ingestion of the substratum. This experiment eliminated potential confounding factors of the year-long experiment and yielded higher bioerosion rates. Given the high densities of urchins, large amounts of rock can be converted to sediment over short time periods. Urchins on sandstone can excavate as much as 11.4 kg m-2 yr-1. On a broader geographic scale, sediment production can exceed 100 t ha-1 yr-1, and across their range, their combined bioerosion is comparable to the sediment load of many rivers. The phase shift between urchin barrens and kelp bed habitats in the North Pacific is controlled by the trophic cascade of sea otters. By limiting urchin populations, these apex predators also may indirectly control a substantial component of coastal rates of bioerosion.

  20. Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-11-01

    Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

  1. Imaging Pathways in Fractured Rock Using Three-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Judith; Slater, Lee; Johnson, Timothy; Shapiro, Allen; Tiedeman, Claire; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Johnson, Carole; Day-Lewis, Frederick; Lacombe, Pierre; Imbrigiotta, Thomas; Lane, John

    2016-03-01

    Major challenges exist in delineating bedrock fracture zones because these cause abrupt changes in geological and hydrogeological properties over small distances. Borehole observations cannot sufficiently capture heterogeneity in these systems. Geophysical techniques offer the potential to image properties and processes in between boreholes. We used three-dimensional cross borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in a 9 m (diameter) × 15 m well field to capture high-resolution flow and transport processes in a fractured mudstone contaminated by chlorinated solvents, primarily trichloroethylene. Conductive (sodium bromide) and resistive (deionized water) injections were monitored in seven boreholes. Electrode arrays with isolation packers and fluid sampling ports were designed to enable acquisition of ERT measurements during pulsed tracer injections. Fracture zone locations and hydraulic pathways inferred from hydraulic head drawdown data were compared with electrical conductivity distributions from ERT measurements. Static ERT imaging has limited resolution to decipher individual fractures; however, these images showed alternating conductive and resistive zones, consistent with alternating laminated and massive mudstone units at the site. Tracer evolution and migration was clearly revealed in time-lapse ERT images and supported by in situ borehole vertical apparent conductivity profiles collected during the pulsed tracer test. While water samples provided important local information at the extraction borehole, ERT delineated tracer migration over spatial scales capturing the primary hydrogeological heterogeneity controlling flow and transport. The fate of these tracer injections at this scale could not have been quantified using borehole logging and/or borehole sampling methods alone. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Geology of the Golden Gate Highlands National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Groenewald

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available The Golden Gate Highlands National Park is underlain by stratigraphic units belonging to the upper part of the Karoo Sequence. These units include part of the Beaufort Group and the Molteno, Elliot, Clarens and Drakensberg Formations. Dolerite dykes and sills are intruded into the succession while recent alluvium and scree cover the valley floors and mountain slopes. The Beaufort Group is represented by red mudstone and light brown fine-grained feldspathic sandstone of the Tarkastad Subgroup. The Molteno Formation consists of medium- to coarse-grained trough cross-bedded sandstone, while the Elliot Formation comprises a thick succession of red mudstone, siltstone and interlayered fine- to medium-grained, light yellow-brown sandstone. The most characteristic feature of the park is the yellowish sandstone cliffs of the Clarens Formation. Cave formation is caused by exudation, differential weathering due to different degrees of carbonate cementation and undercutting of the sandstone. The highest peaks are capped by numerous layers of amygdaloidal and massive varieties of basaltic lava of the Drakensberg Formation. A possible volcanic pipe occurs in the eastern part of the park. The Elliot and Clarens Formations are rich in vertebrate fossil remains, especially Massospondylus sp. Remains of Notochampsa sp., Pachygenelus monus, Clarencea gracilis, Lanasaurus scalpridens and a cluster of unidentified dinosaur eggs have also been found. The formations underlying the Golden Gate Highlands National Park were formed during the Late Triassic Epoch and the Jurassic Period (roughly 150 to 230 million years ago. The strata in the park show very little structural deformation and the only obvious structures are faults which are intruded by dolerite.

  3. Structural control and correlation of uranium distribution and mineralogy of meta-pelites in Ogcheon terrain, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B.S.; So, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    The rock units of Goesan area in the Ogcheon metamorphic terrain established on the basis of field criteria should be redefined into following sequence. Based on shear senses in secondary small structures which are usually observable in the investigated area, the stratigraphy can be lithologically divided into the lower pelite, pebbly mudstone, upper pelite, quartzite and psammite unit in ascending order. This conclusion is in discordance with a previous opinion; Munjuri formation and Guryongsan formation may be equivalent to upper pelite unit, Iwonri formation and Hwanggangri formation to pebbly mudstone. From this, it may be inferred that isoclinal overtuned folds repeatedly occur in the area. The uranium bearing coaly thin layers in upper pelite unit have relatively broad exposures in Deogpyeongri block of Goesan area along culmination zone in the central part of the investigated area. It is believed that structural feature in the block recognized complexly refolded synform plunging to southwest. Mineralogical and radiometric studies were made on 135 representative samples from the Ogcheon Group of Korea. The mineralogy of all black slate samples is qualitatively similar but quantitatively different. The uranium distribution in the studied area show approximately log normal. Uranium in the black slates of the Ogcheon Group was deposited together under same physico-chemical environmental conditions. The chemical and geological factors that controlled the abundance of organic carbon and iron oxides also controlled the uranium content. The relationship of the major components to uranium can be expressed by the following regression equation: Log(Ux10 4 +1)=1.70999-0.00367(quartz)-0.00512(micas)-0.00930(other silicates)+0.01911(iron oxides)-0.03389(other opaques)+0.02062(organic carbon). (author)

  4. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  5. Permanganate diffusion and reaction in sedimentary rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Towne, Rachael M; Fischer, Timothy B; Schaefer, Charles E

    2014-04-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has frequently been used to treat chlorinated solvents in fractured bedrock aquifers. However, in systems where matrix back-diffusion is an important process, the ability of the oxidant to migrate and treat target contaminants within the rock matrix will likely determine the overall effectiveness of this remedial approach. In this study, a series of diffusion experiments were performed to measure the permanganate diffusion and reaction in four different types of sedimentary rocks (dark gray mudstone, light gray mudstone, red sandstone, and tan sandstone). Results showed that, within the experimental time frame (~2 months), oxidant migration into the rock was limited to distances less than 500 μm. The observed diffusivities for permanganate into the rock matrices ranged from 5.3 × 10(-13) to 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(2)/s. These values were reasonably predicted by accounting for both the rock oxidant demand and the effective diffusivity of the rock. Various Mn minerals formed as surface coatings from reduction of permanganate coupled with oxidation of total organic carbon (TOC), and the nature of the formed Mn minerals was dependent upon the rock type. Post-treatment tracer testing showed that these Mn mineral coatings had a negligible impact on diffusion through the rock. Overall, our results showed that the extent of permanganate diffusion and reaction depended on rock properties, including porosity, mineralogy, and organic carbon. These results have important implications for our understanding of long-term organic contaminant remediation in sedimentary rocks using permanganate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrical Conductive Mechanism of Gas Hydrate-Bearing Reservoirs in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C.; Zou, C.; Tang, Y.; Liu, A.; Hu, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the Qilian Mountain, gas hydrates not only occur in pore spaces of sandstones, but also fill in fractures of mudstones. This leads to the difficulty in identification and evaluation of gas hydrate reservoir from resistivity and velocity logs. Understanding electrical conductive mechanism is the basis for log interpretation. However, the research is insufficient in this area. We have collected well logs from 30 wells in this area. Well logs and rock samples from DK-9, DK-11 and DK-12 wells were used in this study. The experiments including SEM, thin section, NMR, XRD, synthesis of gas hydrate in consolidated rock cores under low temperature and measurement of their resistivity and others were performed for understanding the effects of pore structure, rock composition, temperature and gas hydrate on conductivity. The results show that the porosity of reservoir of pore filling type is less than 10% and its clay mineral content is high. As good conductive passages, fractures can reduce resistivity of water-saturated rock. If fractures in the mudstone are filled by calcite, resistivity increases significantly. The resistivity of water-saturated rock at 2°C is twice of that at 18°C. The gas hydrate formation process in the sandstone was studied by resistivity recorded in real time. In the early stage of gas hydrate formation, the increase of residual water salinity may lead to the decrease of resistivity. In the late stage of gas hydrate formation, the continuity decrease of water leads to continuity increase of resistivity. In summary, fractures, rock composition, temperature and gas hydrate are important factors influencing resistivity of formation. This study is helpful for more accurate evaluation of gas hydrate from resistivity log. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of the National Special Program for Gas Hydrate Exploration and Test-production (GZH201400302).

  7. Genesis of natural hydraulic fractures as an indicator of basin inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingfeng; Hooker, John; Cartwright, Joe

    2017-09-01

    Satin spar (fibrous gypsum) veins, which occur in evaporite basins worldwide, provide significant insights into host rock deformation and fluid flow, although the genetic mechanism remains obscure. Satin spar veins in the red marls of the Triassic Mercia Mudstone of the Bristol Channel Basin were characterized in the context of regional and local setting. The vein network in the Keuper Marl (lower Mercia) exhibits a lack of systematic cross-cutting between three distinct vein sets. Two sets of veins are observed in the overlying Tea Green Marl, with one set clearly crossing the other. The gypsum veins commonly contain a blocky median zone of multiple thin bands of host-rock inclusions and alabastrine gypsum crystals, exhibiting crack-seal patterns. Fibrous zones on either side of the median zone consist of pure parallel-aligned gypsum fibres that are oblique to vein walls, indicating a hybrid shear-extensional mode of vein widening. Veins developed within reverse-reactivated faults contain fibre lineations in the median zones and also on vein surfaces, suggesting a minimum of two phases of fault slip. The veins are interpreted to have formed as a result of overpressure in the low-permeability mudstones by tectonic compression during basin inversion, giving rise to the median zone. Growth of gypsum fibres commenced when the initial fractures were completely sealed. The timing of vein formation is suggested to be Miocene, based on cross-cutting relationships with folds formed during the latest phase of basin inversion. Because the fractures initiated in response to fluid overpressures, they provide a useful analog to subsurface hydraulic fracture systems in low-permeability rocks subjected to tectonic compression. The fibrous widening of the veins post-dates their initiation and led to continued propagation and increased connectivity.

  8. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  9. Stratigraphy and structure of the Miners Mountain area, Wayne County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, Robert G.

    1953-01-01

    The Miners Mountain area includes about 85 square miles in Wayne County, south-central Utah. The area is semiarid and characterized by cliffs and deep canyons. Formations range in age from Permian to Upper Jurassic and have an aggregate thickness of about 3,500 feet. Permian formations are the buff Coconino sandstone and the overlying white, limy, shert-containing Kaibab limestone. Unconformably overlying the Kaihab is the lower Triassic Moenkopi formation of reddish-brown and yellow mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone; it contains the Sinbad limestone member (?) in the lower part. Thin, lenticular Shinarump conglomerate unconformably overlies the Moenkopi, but grades upward into the Upper Triassic Chinle formation of variegated mudstone with some interbedded sandstone and limestone lenses. Uncomformably overlying the Chinle are the Wingate sandstone, Kayenta formation, and Navajo sandstone of the Jurassic (?) Glen Canyon group, which consist of red to white sandstone. Only the lower part of the Carmel formation of the Upper Jurassic San Rafael group is exposed in the area; it consists of variegated siltstone, sandstone, limestone, and gypsum. The conspicuous structural feature in the area is the Teasdale anticline which trends northwest, is about 14 miles long, and is asymmetric with a steeper west flank. Bounding the anticline on the northeast and east is the Capitol Reef monocline, the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold. Strata in the area are broken by steeply-dipping normal faults with small displacements, except for the Teasdale fault which has a maximum displacement of over 1,000 feet. Jointing is prominent in some formations. The major orogenic movement in the area is believed to be late Upper Cretaceous to early Tertiary. Epeirogenic uplift occurred intermittently throughout Tertiary and perhaps Quaternary time.

  10. Searching for Ancient Lakebeds in Ladon Basin, Mars and Implications for Future Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, A. M.; Miranda, C.; Milliken, R.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known from terrestrial studies that clay-rich rocks, and lacustrine mudstones in particular, are efficient at trapping, binding, and preserving organic matter through geologic time. This has also been demonstrated on Mars, where the Curiosity rover has detected organics in ancient mudstones in Gale crater. A number of other potential ancient lake sites have been proposed as landing sties for the Mars 2020 rover, including regions within the Ladon Basin and Valles system. In this study we map of the distribution of clay deposits in the Uzboi-Morava-Ladon (ULM) System, a system thought to have been a series of lakes interconnected by channels, and assess how these hydrous minerals relate to topography, adjacent fluvial networks, and the overall stratigraphy of basin deposits. We use CTX images and near-IR spectral reflectance data from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM instrument to independently map morphological and mineralogical features within Ladon. We find a number of occurrences of stratified, light-toned outcrops within the basin, but individual outcrops are small even at the scale of CTX images and are concentrated in several locations in the basin. Some light-toned outcrops are associated with clay minerals, but in general the light-toned appearance appears to be a poor proxy for clay distribution. CRISM data reveal that some clay-bearing regions are visually indistinct from adjacent clay-poor terrains. Some of the best examples of stratified, clay-bearing rocks are found in Ladon Valles, where they occur in terraces. In general, the stratigraphic, topographic, and morphologic evidence do not preclude a lacustrine origin, but there is no diagnostic evidence to support this interpretation either. The clay-bearing and light-toned deposits within Ladon basin may instead reflect deposition in an alluvial/fluvial system that post-dates the peak period of inferred lacustrine activity in the ULM system.

  11. Organic Geochemistry and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis of Eocene fine Sediments, East Ketungau Basin, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i2.119Indonesia contains many Paleogene and Neogene basins which some of them have been proven to be a very prolific producer of oil and gas. A study on the result of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker undertaken on the Eocene Mandai Group was able to assess hydrocarbon potential of the Paleogene fine sediments in the frontier basin, especially West Kalimantan area. East Ketungau Basin is located in the western Kalimantan, bounded with Melawi Basin by the Semitau High in the south and West Ketungau Basin in the west. The Mandai Group was deposited in the East Ketungau Basin during Eocene, consisting of sandstone and mudstone facies. Mudstone facies comprises shale, claystone, and coal. Seven samples of Eocene fine sediments collected from East Ketungau Basin were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolisis and three samples for biomarker to evaluate their hydrocarbon potential. The Rock-Eval pyrolisis result of Mandai Group shows that TOC value of this facies ranges from 0.34 % to 5.16 %, Potential Yield (PY between 0.06 and 4.78 mg HC/g rock, and Hydrogen Index (HI from 12 to 89. Based on that result, the fine sediments of Mandai Group are included into a gas prone source rock potential with poor to fair categories. Moreover Tmax values vary from 426o C to 451o C. The Eocene fine sediments of Mandai Group fall under kerogen type III. Based on Tmax and biomarker analyses, the maturity of the sediments is situated within immature to mature level. The fine sediments of Mandai Group were deposited in a terrestrial to marine environment under anoxic to sub-oxic condition.

  12. Provenance and tectonic setting of the Neoproterozoic clastic rocks hosting the Banana Zone Cu-Ag mineralisation, northwest Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelepile, Tebogo; Bineli Betsi, Thierry; Franchi, Fulvio; Shemang, Elisha; Suh, Cheo Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical data were combined in order to decipher the petrogenesis of the Neoproterozoic sedimentary succession associated with the Banana Zone Cu-Ag mineralisation (northwest Botswana), in the Kalahari Copperbelt. The investigated Neoproterozoic sedimentary succession is composed of two formations including the Ngwako Pan and the D'kar Formations. The Ngwako Pan Formation is made up of continental siliciclastic sediments, mainly sandstones interbedded with siltstones and mudstones, whereas the D'kar Formation is comprised of shallow marine laminated siltstones, sandstones and mudstones, with subordinate limestone. Copper-Ag mineralisation is essentially confined at the base of the D'kar Formation, which bears reduced organic components, likely to have controlled Cu-Ag precipitation. Sandstones of both the Ngwako Pan and the D'kar Formations are arkoses and subarkoses, composed of quartz (Q), feldspars (F) and lithic fragments (L). Moreover, geochemically the sandstones are considered as potassic and classified as arkoses. On the other hand, mudrocks of the D'kar Formation are finely laminated and are dominated by muscovite, sericite, chlorite and quartz. The modified chemical index of weathering (CIW‧) values indicated an intense chemical weathering of the source rock. The dominance of detrital quartz and feldspar grains coupled with Al2O3/TiO2 ratios (average 29.67 and 24.52 for Ngwako Pan and D'kar Formations, respectively) and Ni and Cr depletion in the sandstones, suggest a dominant felsic source. However, high concentrations of Ni and Cr and a low Al2O3/TiO2 ratio (block and deposited in a continental rift setting (passive margin) in a humid environment. The source rocks might have been the Palaeoproterozoic basement rocks (granitoids and granitic gneiss) and the Mesoproterozoic Kgwebe volcanic rocks exposed north of the study area.

  13. Incipiently drowned platform deposit in cyclic Ordovician shelf sequence: Lower Ordovician Chepultepec Formation, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, J.A.; Read, J.F.

    1983-03-01

    The Chepultepec interval, 145 to 260 m (476 to 853 ft) thick, in Virginia contains the Lower Member up to 150 m (492 ft) thick, and the Upper Member, up to 85 m (279 ft) thick, of peritidal cyclic limestone and dolomite, and a Middle Member, up to 110 m (360 ft) thick, of subtidal limestone and bioherms, passing northwestward into cyclic facies. Calculated long term subsidence rates were 4 to 5 cm/1000 yr (mature passive margin rates), shelf gradients were 6 cm/km, and average duration of cycles was 140,00 years. Peritidal cyclic sequences are upward shallowing sequences of pellet-skeletal limestone, thrombolites, rippled calcisiltites and intraclast grainstone, and laminite caps. They formed by rapid transgression with apparent submergence increments averaging approximately 2 m (6.5 ft) in Lower Member and 3.5 m (11.4 ft), Upper Member. Deposition during Middle Member time was dominated by skeletal limestone-mudstone, calcisiltite with storm generated fining-upward sequences, and burrow-mixed units that were formed near fair-weather wave base, along with thrombolite bioherms. Locally, there are upward shallowing sequences, of basal wackestone/mudstone to calcisiltite to bioherm complexes (locally with erosional scalloped tops). Following each submergence, carbonate sedimentation was able to build to sea level prior to renewed submergence. Large submergence events caused tidal flats to be shifted far to the west, and they were unable to prograde out onto the open shelf because of insufficient time before subsidence was renewed, and because the open shelf setting inhibited tidal flat deposition. The Middle Member represents an incipiently drowned sequence that developed by repeated submergence events.

  14. Preferred-rupture propagation to the hangingwall of the shallow part of the out-of-sequence thrust: Ishido Fault in Boso Peninsula, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Fukuyama, M.; Ujiie, K.; Hirose, T.; Hamada, Y.; Kitamura, M.; Kamiya, N.

    2016-12-01

    Although earthquake ruptures in shallow portion of plate boundary have recently been identified (e.g. Tohoku, Nankai, etc.), their mechanisms why the shallow portion of plate boundary composed mainly of clay minerals can accumulate strain and make seismic slip are under controversial. An ancient out-of-sequence thrust which divided the early and late Miocene accretionary complexes in the Boso Peninsula, central Japan records rupture propagation to the shallow portion of accretionary prism (The fault core is composed of black-colored thin (The former is characterized by homogeneous glassy matrix including fragments of quartz/feldspar, submicron-sized Fe-rich spherules, and vesicles. Based on the mineralogy of the host rock and EDS analyses of matrices, origin of the pseudotachylite was apparently frictional melting of smectite containing Fe. Fe-rich spherules formed by rapid cooling of pseudotachylite. On the other hand, overturned fault-related drag fold developed in the footwall, within about 30 m. Although some Riedel sheared normal faults developed in the overturned footwall, no other brittle deformations were identified. These occurrences imply coexistence of low- and high-speed slips along the same thrust fault. The whole-rock major and trace elemental analyses using XRF and ICP-MS show that mudstone in the hangingwall has similar chemical composition to those of pseudotachylite and fluidized fault gouge with REE enriched patterns, whereas the footwall has different chemical characteristics with relatively flat REE pattern and low LOI. Therefore, the protolith of pseudotachylite and fluidized fault gouge is mudstone in the hangingwall. These data imply that rupture propagation preferably occurred in the hangingwall along the fault zone. The footwall was also deformed apparently during slow-slip deformation leading to formation of the overturn, whereas only the hangingwall, just side of the fault zone, slipped under high-speed shear.

  15. Griffith Saponite as an Analog for Clay Minerals at Yellowknife Bay in Gale Crater, Mars: A Marker for Low-temperature Hydrothermal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R.V.; Treiman, A. H.; Agresti, D. G.; Graff, T. G.; Achilles, C. N.; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in Gale Crater, Mars, discovered smectite in drill fines of the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay (YNB). The mudstone has a basaltic composition, and the XRD powder diffraction pattern shows smectite 02l diffraction bands peaking at 4.59 A for targets John Klein and Cumberland, consistent with tri-octahedral smectites (saponite). From thermal analysis, the saponite abundance is 20 wt. %. Among terrestrial analogues we have studied, ferrian saponite from Griffith Park (Los Angeles, CA) gives the best match to the position of the 02l diffraction band of YNB saponites. Here we describe iron-rich saponites from a terrestrial perspective, with a focus on Griffith saponite, and discuss their implications for the mineralogy of Sheepbed saponite and its formation pathways. Iron-rich saponite: Iron-rich saponite on the Earth is recognized as a low-temperature (oxidize on the timescale of days when removed from their natural environment and not protected from oxidation. The Griffith saponite is Mg-rich ferrian saponite, and sample AMNH 89172 has an 02l spacing of 4.59 A (same as the Sheepbed saponites) and Fe3+/?Fe = 0.64 [3]. This similarity suggests that Sheepbed saponites are ferrian (incompletely oxidized ferrosaponite). More oxidized Griffith saponites (Fe3+/?Fe > 0.90) have somewhat smaller 02l d-spacings and also show Mossbauer evidence for an XRD amorphous Fe-bearing phase (e.g., ferrihydrite, hisingerite, superparamagnetic ferric oxides, etc.). The Griffith saponite occurs as vesicle fills, as replacements of olivine, and as replacements of mesostasis (basaltic glass). Similar occurrence modes are reported elsewhere. Hisingerite has been proposed by [13] as the alteration product of ferrian saponite whose precursor by oxidation was ferrosaponite.

  16. Three-dimensional characterization of microporosity and permeability in fault zones hosted in heterolithic succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, H. B.; Zambrano, M.; Jablonska, D.; Emanuele, T.; Agosta, F.; Mattioni, L.; Rustichelli, A.

    2017-12-01

    The hydraulic properties of fault zones depend upon the individual contributions of the damage zone and the fault core. In the case of the damage zone, it is generally characterized by means of fracture analysis and modelling implementing multiple approaches, for instance the discrete fracture network model, the continuum model, and the channel network model. Conversely, the fault core is more difficult to characterize because it is normally composed of fine grain material generated by friction and wear. If the dimensions of the fault core allows it, the porosity and permeability are normally studied by means of laboratory analysis or in the other case by two dimensional microporosity analysis and in situ measurements of permeability (e.g. micro-permeameter). In this study, a combined approach consisting of fracture modeling, three-dimensional microporosity analysis, and computational fluid dynamics was applied to characterize the hydraulic properties of fault zones. The studied fault zones crosscut a well-cemented heterolithic succession (sandstone and mudstones) and may vary in terms of fault core thickness and composition, fracture properties, kinematics (normal or strike-slip), and displacement. These characteristics produce various splay and fault core behavior. The alternation of sandstone and mudstone layers is responsible for the concurrent occurrence of brittle (fractures) and ductile (clay smearing) deformation. When these alternating layers are faulted, they produce corresponding fault cores which act as conduits or barriers for fluid migration. When analyzing damage zones, accurate field and data acquisition and stochastic modeling was used to determine the hydraulic properties of the rock volume, in relation to the surrounding, undamaged host rock. In the fault cores, the three-dimensional pore network quantitative analysis based on X-ray microtomography images includes porosity, pore connectivity, and specific surface area. In addition, images were

  17. Evolution of pores and fractures in an unconventional Upper Carboniferous reservoir analogue, Westphalian D, W-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, M.; Schurk, K.; Hilgers, C. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Reservoir-Petrology, Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR); Koehrer, B. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Barnstorf (Germany); Bertier, P. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Clay and Interface Mineralogy

    2013-08-01

    Uncertainties in reservoir characterization of tight gas sandstones can be significantly reduced by using quantitative data from outcrops. The active Piesberg quarry near Osnabrueck exposes Upper Carboniferous strata and therefore provides a reservoir outcrop analog to the gas-bearing tight gas fields in NW-Germany. This study focused on variations of sedimentary facies, porosity, diagenesis and structural inventory in the quarry. The Westphalian D strata at Piesberg consist of siliciclastic, coarse- to fine-grained sandstones with a strong cementation, intercalated with coal seams, siltstones and mudstones. Petrography shows shale-, mudstone and clay rip-up fragments squeezed into primary porosity during eodiagenesis. Sandstone types commonly show low porosities (<10 %) and very low permeabilities (<0.01 mD) mainly due to intense quartz cementation. Scarce authigenic carbonates are euhedral ankerites formed during burial. Secondary porosity resulted mostly from detrital carbonate leaching and limited dissolution of feldspars. Within a zone of up to several meters around faults, porosity is much higher. Feldspars are almost completely altered to illite and locally to kaolinite. Partly dissolved detrital carbonates show Fe-oxide margins around intragranular pores, indicative of Fe-rich compositions formed during telo-diagenesis. Both joints and faults were mapped throughout the quarry and strike, slip and throw of the latter were documented. Cemented fractures prevail around faults and may thus be associated with the structural and diagenetic evolution of the Upper Carboniferous of the Piesberg area. This study is embedded into a larger outcrop analog study of RWTH Aachen in cooperation with Wintershall. Its aim is to unravel the impact of structural diagenesis on the alteration and evolution of pore space and thus reservoir quality. Results can be used to develop datadriven exploration strategies and improved development options for analogous subsurface tight gas

  18. Bioerosion by pit-forming, temperate-reef sea urchins: History, rates and broader implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Victoria K.; Duwan, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Sea urchins are dominant members of rocky temperate reefs around the world. They often occur in cavities within the rock, and fit so tightly, it is natural to assume they sculpted these “pits.” However, there are no experimental data demonstrating they bore pits. If they do, what are the rates and consequences of bioerosion to nearshore systems? We sampled purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, from sites with four rock types, three sedimentary (two sandstones and one mudstone) and one metamorphic (granite). A year-long experiment showed urchins excavated depressions on sedimentary rocks in just months. The rate of pit formation varied with rock type and ranged from 100 yr for granite. In the field, there were differences in pit size and shapes of the urchins (height:diameter ratio). The pits were shallow and urchins flatter at the granite site, and the pits were deeper and urchins taller at the sedimentary sites. Although overall pit sizes were larger on mudstone than on sandstone, urchin size accounted for this difference. A second, short-term experiment, showed the primary mechanism for bioerosion was ingestion of the substratum. This experiment eliminated potential confounding factors of the year-long experiment and yielded higher bioerosion rates. Given the high densities of urchins, large amounts of rock can be converted to sediment over short time periods. Urchins on sandstone can excavate as much as 11.4 kg m-2 yr-1. On a broader geographic scale, sediment production can exceed 100 t ha-1 yr-1, and across their range, their combined bioerosion is comparable to the sediment load of many rivers. The phase shift between urchin barrens and kelp bed habitats in the North Pacific is controlled by the trophic cascade of sea otters. By limiting urchin populations, these apex predators also may indirectly control a substantial component of coastal rates of bioerosion. PMID:29466357

  19. Helium measurements of pore fluids obtained from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD, USA) drill cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2011-02-01

    4He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk 4He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 ± 1.3 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 at 21°C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 × 10-18 cm2 s-1 (21°C) to 3.0 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 (150°C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of 4Hewater for matrix porosity (˜3%) and tortuosity (˜6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 (21°C) and 1 × 10-7 (120°C), effectively isolating pore fluid 4He from the 4He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 ± 0.4% (SD, n = 4) and mudstones 3.1 ± 0.8% (SD, n = 4).

  20. Formation of fine crystalline dolomites in lacustrine carbonates of the Eocene Sikou Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qiang Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genesis of the fine crystalline dolomites that exhibit good to excellent reservoir properties in the upper fourth member of the Eocene Shahejie Formation (Es 4 s around the Sikou Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, is uncertain. This paper investigates the formation mechanisms of this fine crystalline dolomite using XRD, SEM, thin section analysis and geochemical data. The stratigraphy of the Sikou lacustrine carbonate is dominated by the repetition of metre-scale, high-frequency deposition cycles, and the amount of dolomite within a cycle increases upward from the cycle bottom. These dolomite crystals are 2–30 μm in length, subhedral to anhedral in shape and typically replace both grains and matrix. They also occur as rim cement and have thin lamellae within ooid cortices. Textural relations indicate that the dolomite predates equant sparry calcite cement and coarse calcite cement. The Sr concentrations of dolomites range from 900 to 1200 ppm. Dolomite δ18O values (−11.3 to −8.2 ‰ PDB are depleted relative to calcite mudstone (−8.3 to −5.4 ‰ PDB that precipitated from lake water, while δ13C values (0.06–1.74 ‰ PDB are within the normal range of calcite mudstone values (−2.13 to 1.99 ‰ PDB. High 87Sr/86Sr values (0.710210–0.710844 indicate that amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+ have been derived from the chemical weathering of Palaeozoic carbonate bedrocks. The high strontium concentration indicates that hypersaline conditions were maintained during the formation of the dolomites and that the dolomites were formed by the replacement of precursor calcite or by direct precipitation.

  1. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Moab Quadrangle, Colorado and Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Franczyk, K.J.; Lupe, R.D.; Peterson, F.

    1982-09-01

    Portions of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison, the Chinle, the Rico, the Cutler, and the Entrada Formations are favorable for uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the US Department of Energy within the Moab 1' x 2' Quadrangle, Utah and Colorado. Nine areas are judged favorable for the Late Jurassic Salt Wash Member. The criteria used to evaluate these areas as favorable include the presence of (1) fluvial sandstone beds deposited by low-energy streams; (2) actively moving major and minor structures such as the Paradox basin and the many folds within it; (3) paleostream transport directions approximately perpendicular to the trend of many of the paleofolds; (4) presence of favorable gray lacustrine mudstone beds; and (5) known uranium occurrences associated with the favorable gray mudstones. Three favorable areas have been outlined for the Late Triassic Chinle Formation. The criteria used to evaluate these areas are the sandstone-to-shale ratios for the Chinle Formation and the distribution of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle, which is considered the source for the uranium. Two favorable areas have been delineated for the Permian Cutler Formation, and one for the Permian Rico Formation. The criteria used to outline favorable areas are the distribution of favorable facies within each formation. Favorable facies are those that are a result of deposition in environments that are transitional between fluvial and marine. One favorable area is outlined in the Jurassic Entrada Sandstone in the southeastern corner of the quadrangle in the Placerville district. Boundaries for this area were established by geologic mapping

  2. Paleocene-middle Miocene flexural-margin migration of the non marine llanos Foreland basin of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayona, German; Jaramillo, Carlos; Rueda, Milton; Reyes Harker, Andres; Torres, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A foreland basin is a dynamic system whose depositional systems migrate in response to changes in tectonic uplift patterns, sedimentary filling processes and isostatic rebound of the lithosphere. The Paleocene-middle Miocene foreland system of the llanos foothills and llanos basin of Colombia includes regional unconformities, abrupt changes in lithology/stacking patterns and flooding surfaces bounding reservoir and seal units. Here we integrate a systematic biostratigraphic study, strata architecture and tectonic subsidence analyses, regional seismic profiles, and provenance data to define the diachronism of such surfaces and to document the direction of migration of foreland depozones. Line a flexural-deformed basin, sandstone composition, rates of accommodation and sediment supply vary across and along the basin. we show how a coeval depositional profile in the llanos foothills-llanos foreland basin consists of lithoranites inter b edded with mudstones (seal rock, supplied from the orogenic front to the west) that correlate craton ward with organic-rich mudstones and coal (source rock), and to amalgamated fluvial-estuarine quartzarenites (reservoir rock, supplied from the craton to the east) adjacent to a sub-aerial fore-bulge (unconformity). This system migrated northward and eastward during the Paleocene, westward during the early-middle Eocene, and eastward during the Oligocene. In the lower-middle Miocene succession of the llanos basin, identification of flooding events indicates a westward encroaching of a shallow-water lacustrine system that covered an eastward-directed fluvial-deltaic system. A similar process has been documented in other basins in Venezuela and Bolivia, indicating the regional extent of such flooding event may be related to the onset of Andean-scale mountain-building processes

  3. Microfacies, Sedimentary Environment and Relative Sea Level Changes of the Ruteh Formation, Sangsar and Makaroud Sections, Central Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Bastami

    2016-12-01

    -red S solution according to Dickson (1965 method. The grain and matrix percentages were estimated using visual percentage charts of Bacelle and Bosellini (1965. Dunham (1962 classification were used for carbonate facies nomenclature. Based on lithological and textural characteristics, fossil content, abiotic allochems, facies succession and their comparision with well studied environments by Flugel (2010, microfacies and their subenvironments have been identified. In this study investigation of relative sea level changes is on the basis of field observations and facies analysis. Based on the vertical succession of microfacies and sedimentary paleoenvironmental features, Systems tracts and sedimentary sequences have been recognized. Discussion of Results & Conclusions Field and petrographic studies at the Sangsar and Makaroud sections, indicate that the Ruteh Formation sediments consist of 19 carbonate microfacies and one siliciclastic petrofacies that during the Middle Permian times deposited in tidal flat to open marine facies belts of a bioclastic homoclinal carbonate ramp on the southern passive margin of the Paleotethys located on the northern Gondwana Supercontinent in a tropical region. Tidal flat facies belt includes: Dolomitic mudstone, lime mudstone to sandy lime mudstone, pelloid intraclast packstone and one quartzarenite siliciclastic petrofacies. Lagoon facies belt includes: bioclast mudstone, dasycladacea wackestone, foraminifera pelloid wackestone, bioclast pelloid wackestone,  bioclast tubiphytes wackestone, bioclast algal wackestone/packstone. Shoal facies belt includes: ooid pelloid packstone/grainstone, bioclast pelloid packstone/grainstone, pelloid bioclast grainstone and algal packstone/grainstone. Open marine facies belt includes: tubiphytes gymnocodiacea wackestone, gymnocodiacea packstone, bioclast gymnocodiacea wackestone, sponge spicule bioclast wackestone, crinoid mudstone/wackestone and bioclast mudstone.  The Ruteh Formation at both

  4. Lithofacies, age, depositional setting, and geochemistry of the Otuk Formation in the Red Dog District, northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Burruss, Robert A.; Blome, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    Complete penetration of the Otuk Formation in a continuous drill core (diamond-drill hole, DDH 927) from the Red Dog District illuminates the facies, age, depositional environment, source rock potential, and isotope stratigraphy of this unit in northwestern Alaska. The section, in the Wolverine Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains Allochthon (EMA), is ~82 meters (m) thick and appears structurally uncomplicated. Bedding dips are generally low and thicknesses recorded are close to true thicknesses. Preliminary synthesis of sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic data suggests that the Otuk succession in DDH 927 is a largely complete, albeit condensed, marine Triassic section in conformable contact with marine Permian and Jurassic strata. The Otuk Formation in DDH 927 gradationally overlies gray siliceous mudstone of the Siksikpuk Formation (Permian, based on regional correlations) and underlies black organic-rich mudstone of the Kingak(?) Shale (Jurassic?, based on regional correlations). The informal shale, chert, and limestone members of the Otuk are recognized in DDH 927, but the Jurassic Blankenship Member is absent. The lower (shale) member consists of 28 m of black to light gray, silty shale with as much as 6.9 weight percent total organic carbon (TOC). Thin limy layers near the base of this member contain bivalve fragments (Claraia sp.?) consistent with an Early Triassic (Griesbachian-early Smithian) age. Gray radiolarian chert dominates the middle member (25 m thick) and yields radiolarians of Middle Triassic (Anisian and Ladinian) and Late Triassic (Carnian-late middle Norian) ages. Black to light gray silty shale, like that in the lower member, forms interbeds that range from a few millimeters to 7 centimeters in thickness through much of the middle member. A distinctive, 2.4-m-thick interval of black shale and calcareous radiolarite ~17 m above the base of the member has as much as 9.8 weight percent TOC, and a 1.9-m-thick interval of limy to cherty

  5. ARGAZ: a new device for experimental study of the coupling between hydrogen production and hydrogen transfer through saturated Callovian-Oxfordian argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbert, C.; Bataillon, C.; Touze, G.; Vigier, P.; Talandier, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A specific experimental device has been designed to produce hydrogen at the metal-argillite interface by electrochemistry. The target is for one hand to reproduce the production of hydrogen occurring when a metal is corroded by the water contained in the porosity of the mud-stone. On the other hand, the transfer of the hydrogen through the mud-stone can be studied. The specific features of the experiment are the following: - Hydrogen is generated inside a cell by electrochemistry, at the interface between the argillite and a metallic surface; no gas injection is required; - Electrochemistry gives the possibility to control the hydrogen production rate; - Hydrogen generation implies water consumption: the water comes from the porosity of the bulk argillite, near the interface; - That one-dimensional experiment has been built around a cylindrical sample of bulk and undamaged argillite coming from the Callovian-Oxfordian formation. Inside the device a cylindrical sample of argillite is placed above a nickel plate. Around the argillite, a ring of compacted bentonite ensures a mechanical confinement. When saturated, the bentonite will apply a swelling pressure close to the total pressure encountered by the sample in the geological formation. The hydrogen is generated at the interface nickel-argillite. The nickel plate is one of the two electrodes required for electrochemistry. At the top face of bentonite, iron electrode is used to close the electrical circuit. The hydrogen produced at the bottom face of the mud-stone is expected to go across the argillite towards the top face. A porous plate connected with a sampling bottle allows the capture of hydrogen. The argillite sample has a diameter of 50 mm, and a height of 50 mm. It is obtained by over-coring a core sample, and by a careful machining leading to a perfect geometry and surface quality. The production rate of hydrogen can be calculated from the current intensity

  6. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    The marine terraces in and around Santa Cruz, California, represent a set of well-preserved terraces formed as a product of geology, sea level, and climate. A marine terrace begins as a wave cut platform. Eustatic sea level changes, seacliff erosion, and tectonic uplift work together to generate marine terraces. "When a wave-cut platform is raised (due to tectonic activity) above sea level and cliffed by wave action it becomes a marine terrace" (Bradley, 1957, p. 424). During glacial periods, eustatic sea level is estimated to have dropped by 150 meters (Fairbanks, 1989). Cliff retreat measured from aerial photographs between 1930 and 1980 vary from 0.0 to 0.2 m yr–1 (Best and Griggs, 1991). Estimates of uplift rates along the Santa Cruz coastline vary from 0.10 to 0.48 m kyr–1 (Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Weber and others, 1999). Uplift mechanisms include coseismic uplift associated both with a reverse component of slip on the steeply SW dipping Loma Prieta fault in the restraining bend of the San Andreas Fault and a small component of reverse slip on the steeply SE dipping San Gregorio fault (Anderson and Menking 1994). Previous work studying physical properties on these terraces include Pinney and others (in press) and Aniku (1986) and Bowman and Estrada (1980). Sedimentary deposits of the marine terraces are a mixture of terrestrial and marine sediments but generally consist of a sheet of marine deposits overlying the old platform and a wedge of nonmarine deposits banked against the old sea cliff (Bradley, 1957). Bedrock underlying the terraces in the Santa Cruz area is generally either Santa Margarita Sandstone or Santa Cruz Mudstone. The Santa Margarita Sandstone represents an upper Miocene, transgressive, tidally dominated marine-shelf deposit with crossbedded sets of sand and gravel and horizontally stratified and bioturbated invertebrate-fossils beds (Phillips, 1990). The siliceous Santa Cruz Mudstone, of late Miocene age, conformably overlies the Santa

  7. Revised stratigraphy and reinterpretation of the Miocene Pohang basinfill, SE Korea: sequence development in response to tectonism and eustasy in a back-arc basin margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Y. K.; Rhee, C. W.; Shon, H.

    2001-09-01

    The Miocene Pohang Basin is a pull-apart basin formed along the eastern continental margin of Korea (ECMK) during the back-arc opening of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). The basin is filled by more than 1 km thick, nonmarine to deep-marine strata. These strata show extreme vertical and lateral lithofacies changes and have caused decades-long controversies on their nature and stratigraphy. Previous sedimentological studies suggest that the basinfill was deposited by a series of contemporaneously developed depositional systems, including fan delta, prodelta, slope apron, and basin plain. Detailed mapping and magnetotelluric surveying show, however, that the basinfill is composed of several packages of strata (sequences) that are bounded by distinct and laterally persistent stratigraphic discontinuities (sequence boundaries). This suggests that the depositional systems in the Pohang Basin developed sequentially rather than contemporaneously. Six packages of strata are identified in the basin: a nonmarine to shallow marine (transgressive) sequence (Sequence 1), a Gilbert-type-delta conglomerate (Sequence 2), and alternations of submarine conglomerates and hemipelagic mudstones (Sequences 3-6). The conglomerates and hemipelagic mudstones of the latter four sequences are interpreted to represent lowstand depositional systems (slope apron, submarine fan, and high-gradient delta) and condensed intervals, respectively. Compilation of geochronologic, paleomagnetic, and biostratigraphic data suggests that Sequence 1 formed during the gradual subsidence of the ECMK prior to 17 Ma, whereas Sequence 2 formed in response to abrupt downfaulting of the Pohang Basin at about 17 Ma. Both sequences are interpreted to have developed in response to the early Miocene back-arc-opening tectonism of the East Sea. On the other hand, Sequences 3-6 formed between 17 and about 10.5 Ma. The Pohang Basin was subject to only minor tectonism during this period and could record global sea

  8. The thermal and chemical evolution of hydrothermal vent fluids in shale hosted massive sulphide (SHMS) systems from the MacMillan Pass district (Yukon, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnall, J. M.; Gleeson, S. A.; Blamey, N. J. F.; Paradis, S.; Luo, Y.

    2016-11-01

    At Macmillan Pass (YT, Canada), the hydrothermal vent complexes beneath two shale-hosted massive sulphide (SHMS) deposits (Tom, Jason) are well preserved within Late Devonian strata. These deposits provide a unique opportunity to constrain key geochemical parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, fO2, ΣS) that are critical for metal transport and deposition in SHMS systems, and to evaluate the interaction between hydrothermal fluids and the mudstone host rock. This has been achieved using a combination of detailed petrography, isotopic techniques (δ34S, δ13C and δ18O values), carbonate rare earth element analysis (LA-ICP-MS), fluid inclusion analysis (microthermometry, gas analysis via incremental crush fast scan mass spectrometry), and thermodynamic modelling. Two main paragenetic stages are preserved in both vent complexes: Stage 1 comprises pervasive ankerite alteration of the organic-rich mudstone host rock and crosscutting stockwork ankerite veining (±pyrobitumen, pyrite and quartz) and; Stage 2 consists of main stage massive sulphide (galena-pyrrhotite-pyrite ± chalcopyrite-sphalerite) and siderite (±quartz and barytocalcite) mineralisation. Co-variation of δ18O and δ13C values in ankerite can be described by temperature dependent fractionation and fluid rock interaction. Together with fluid inclusion microthermometry, this provides evidence of a steep thermal gradient (from 300 to ∼100 °C) over approximately 15 m stratigraphic depth, temporally and spatially constrained within the paragenesis of both vent complexes and developed under shallow lithostatic (28), characteristic of diagenetic fluids, are coupled with positive europium anomalies and variable light REE depletion, which are more consistent with chloride complexation in hot (>250 °C) hydrothermal fluids. In this shallow sub-seafloor setting, thermal alteration of organic carbon in the immature, chemically reactive mudstones also had an important role in the evolution of fluid chemistry

  9. Trace fossils and sedimentary facies from a Late Cambrian‐Early Ordovician tide‐dominated shelf (Santa Rosita Formation, northwest Argentina): Implications for ichnofacies models of shallow marine successions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mángano, M. Gabriela; Buatois, Luis A.; Aceñolaza, Guillermo F.

    1996-01-01

    The Santa Rosita Formation is one the most widely distributed lower Paleozoic units of northwest Argentina. At the Quebrada del Salto Alto section, east of Purmamarca, Jujuy Province, it is represented by four sedimentary facies: thick‐bedded planar cross‐stratified quartzose sandstones (A), thin‐bedded planar cross‐stratified quartzose sandstones and mudstones (B), wave‐rippled sandstones and bioturbated mudstones (C), and black and greenish gray shales (D). Paleocurrent data, sandstone architecture, and sedimentary structures from faciès A and B indicate bipolar/bimodal paleoflows, suggesting the action of tidal currents. The succession is interpreted as that of a tide‐dominated shelf, with only secondary influence of wave processes. Trace fossils are restricted to facies B and C.The Cruziana ichnocoenosis is preserved on the soles of thin‐bedded planar cross‐stratified quartzose sandstones (faciès B). This ichnocoenosis consists of Conostichus isp., Cruziana omanica, C. semiplicata, C. cf. tortworthi, Cruziana isp. Helminthopsis abeli, Monomorphichnus bilinearis, M. multilineatus, Palaeophycus tubularis, Rusophycus carbonarias, R. latus, and R. isp. The occurrence of Cruziana semiplicata, C. omanica, C. cf. tortworthi, and Rusophycus latus supports a Late Cambrian‐Tremadoc age. Slabbing of Cruziana shows complex interactions between biologic and sedimentologic processes, and suggests a predominance of exhumed traces, washed out and recast by tractive sand deposition. Sandstone soles are densely packed with biogenic structures and exhibit distinctive clusters of Rusophycus isp. that most likely represent trilobite nesting burrows. The Cruziana ichnocoenosis records the resident fauna of a protected, lower intertidal to subtidal interbar setting.The Skolithos ichnocoenosis is represented by high to low density vertical burrows of Skolithos linearis, which extend downwards to the quartzose sandstone soles of faciès B and

  10. Surveying Clay Mineral Diversity in the Murray Formation, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, T.F.; Blake, D. F..; Vaniman, D. T.; Chipera, S. J.; Rampe, E. B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W..; Morrison, S. M.; Yen, A. S.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The CheMin XRD instrument aboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has documented clay minerals in various drill samples during its traverse of Gale Crater's floor and ascent of Mt. Sharp. The most recent samples, named Marimba, Quela and Sebina were acquired from the Murray Formation in the Murray Buttes region of lower Mt. Sharp. Marimba and Quela come from a approx. 30 m package of finely laminated lacustrine mudstones. Sebina comes from an overlying package of heterolithic mudstone-sandstones. Clay minerals make up approx.15-25 wt.% of the bulk rock with similar contributions to XRD patterns in all three samples. Broad basal reflections at approx. 10deg 2(theta) CoK(alpha) indicate the presence of 2:1 group clay minerals. The 02(lambda) clay mineral band lies at approx. 22.9deg 2(theta), a region typically occupied by Fe-bearing dioctahedral 2:1 clay minerals like nontronite or Fe-illite. The low humidity within the CheMin instrument, which is open to the martian atmosphere, promotes loss of interlayer H2O and collapse of smectite interlayers making them difficult to distinguish from illites. However, based on the low K content of the bulk samples, it appears that smectitic clay minerals are dominant. Peak dehydroxylation of the Marimba sample measured by the SAM instrument on MSL occurred at 610C and 780C. Fe-bearing smectites are not consistent with these dehydroxylation temperatures. Thus, we suggest that a mixture of dioctahedral and trioctahedral smectite phases are present giving the appearance of intermediate octahedral occupancy in XRD. Dioctahedral smectites have not previously been reported in Gale Crater by MSL. Earlier in the mission, relatively clay mineral rich samples (approx. 20 wt.%) from lacustrine mudstones in Yellowknife Bay (YKB) were found to contain ferrian saponites. It is proposed that YKB saponites formed via isochemical aqueous alteration of detrital olivine close to the time of sediment deposition, under anoxic to poorly oxidizing

  11. Characterization of the mechanical and hydraulic damage in the excavation damaged zone of MHM with gas permeability measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.

    2008-09-01

    On the feasibility evaluation of nuclear waste storage in deep formations, the essential issues are as follows: the stability of underground structures over the reversible period, the influence of cavity excavation on geomechanical properties of the wall rock and the variation of those properties during the different phases while storage realization. The work presented here covers the investigations on the variation of geomechanical properties of the approximately 500 m deep MHM in France (mudstone in the departments of Meuse/Haute-Marne), chosen as a potential medium for nuclear waste disposal by ANDRA. In order to measure the very low permeability of mudstone and to observe the dependency on saturation, a special test scheme on measurement of gas permeability has been developed. In the scheme, in situ referenced stresses have been chosen as the stresses acting on the solid matrix. The gas permeability has been determined with both analytical and numerical methods. To estimate the mechanical damage of storage induced by the excavation, laboratory tests on gas permeability have been conducted on samples recovered from different locations situated at different distances from the wall of the main access shaft of the MHM (from 0,1 m to 12,5 m). Results of gas permeability obtained under an isotropic stress of 11 MPa vary between 10 -21 and 10 -22 m 2 and do not show significant variations between damaged zones (near the wall) and intact zones (sample located 12 m from the wall). The observations in laboratory tests coincide with in situ damage characterizations. The variation of gas permeability under the cycle of loading and unloading is an order less than the initial value under the isotropic stress. Taking into account the precision of the testing system, this variation is not significant. The oviparous intact samples have been imposed different saturations by salt solutions (with a relative humidity from 25 % to 98 %) to form a cycle of de- and re-saturation. The

  12. Diagenetic evolution and stable isotopes of Lower Permian platform marginal carbonates (Trogkofel Limestone, Carnic Alps, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Maria; Krainer, Karl; Sanders, Diethard Gerald; Spötl, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    The Trogkofel massif in the Carnic Alps, Austria/Italy, consists of a succession up to 400 m thick of limestones deposited along a platform margin (Trogkofel Limestone; Artinskian). The top of the Trogkofel Limestone is erosively overlain by the Tarvis Breccia. Up-section, the Trogkofel Limestone consists of well-bedded shallow-water bioclastic limestones with intercalated mud mounds, overlain by thick-bedded to unbedded limestones (bioclastic grainstones, packstones, rudstones) and cementstone mounds rich in phylloid algae, Tubiphytes, bryozoans and Archaeolithoporella. In the cementstone mounds, bioclasts are coated by thick fringes and botryoids of fibrous calcite, and of calcite spar that probably represents calcitized aragonite. Primary and intrinsic pores are filled by microbialite, and/or by mudstone to bioclastic wackestone. Shallow-water bioclastic grainstones are cemented by isopachous fringes of fibrous calcite, or by sparry calcite. Throughout the succession, evidence for meteoric-vadose dissolution is present. The Trogkofel Limestone is riddled by palaeokarstic dykes and caverns filled by (a) isopachous cement fringes up to a few decimetres thick, and/or (b) by red, geopetally-laminated lime mudstone to bio-lithoclastic wackestone; geopetal laminasets locally display convolute bedding. Small dissolution cavities are filled by grey internal sediment, or by crystal silt. Brecciated internal sediments overlain by unbrecciated, geopetally-laminated infillings record deformation during or after deposition of the Trogkofel Limestone. Polyphase fractures cemented by calcite may cross-cut both internal sediments and host rock. In the Trogkofel Limestone, local dolomitization is common. Replacement dolomites show a wide range of shapes and fabrics, including: (a) fine-crystalline anhedral xenotopic fabric, (b) coarse-crystalline subhedral to euhedral, hypidiotopic to idiotopic fabric of turbid or optically zoned crystals, and (c) saddle dolomite as replacement

  13. Collision of the Tacheng block with the Mayile-Barleik-Tangbale accretionary complex in Western Junggar, NW China: Implication for Early-Middle Paleozoic architecture of the western Altaids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Luo, Jun; Chen, Yichao; Windley, Brian F.; Song, Dongfang; Han, Chunming; Safonova, Inna

    2018-06-01

    Western Junggar in NW China, located to the southeast of the Boshchekul-Chingiz (BC) Range and to the north of the Chu-Balkhash-Yili microcontinent (CBY), played a key role in the architectural development of the western Altaids. However, the mutual tectonic relationships have been poorly constrained. In this paper, we present detailed mapping, field structural geology, and geochemical data from the Barleik-Mayile-Tangbale Complex (BMTC) in Western Junggar. The Complex is divisible into Zones I, II and III, which are mainly composed of Cambrian-Silurian rocks. Zone I contains pillow lava, siliceous shale, chert, coral-bearing limestone, sandstone and purple mudstone. Zone II consists of basaltic lava, siliceous shale, chert, sandstone and mudstone. Zone III is characterized by basalt, chert, sandstone and mudstone. These rocks represent imbricated ocean plate stratigraphy, which have been either tectonically juxtaposed by thrusting or form a mélange with a block-in-matrix structure. All these relationships suggest that the BMTC is an Early-Middle Paleozoic accretionary complex in the eastern extension of the BC Range. These Early Paleozoic oceanic rocks were thrust onto Silurian sediments forming imbricate thrust stacks that are unconformably overlain by Devonian limestone, conglomerate and sandstone containing fossils of brachiopoda, crinoidea, bryozoa, and plant stems and leaves. The tectonic vergence of overturned folds in cherts, drag-related curved cleavages and σ-type structures on the main thrust surface suggests top-to-the-NW transport. Moreover, the positive εNd(t) values of volcanic rocks from the Tacan-1 drill-core, and the positive εHf(t) values and post-Cambrian ages of detrital zircons from Silurian and Devonian strata to the south of the Tacheng block indicate that its basement is a depleted and juvenile lithosphere. And there was a radial outward transition from coral-bearing shallow marine (shelf) to deep ocean (pelagic) environments, and from

  14. The sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology, and economic importance of evaporite carbonate transitions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarg, J. F.

    2001-04-01

    -energy, shallow water grainstones and packstones to nonporous evaporitic lagoonal dolomite and sabkha anhydrite occurs in the Upper Permian San Andres/Grayburg sequences of the Permian basin. This facies change provides the trap for secondary oil pools on the basinward flanks of fields that are productive from highstand facies identical to the lowstand dolograinstones. Type 2 lowstand systems, like the Smackover Limestone of the Gulf of Mexico, show a similar relationship. Commonly, these evaporite systems are a facies mosaic of salina and sabkha evaporites admixed with wadi siliciclastics. They overlie and seal highstand carbonate platforms containing reservoir facies of shoalwater nonskeletal and skeletal grainstones. Further basinward these evaporites change facies into similar porous platform facies, and contain separate hydrocarbon traps. Transgressions in arid settings over underfilled platforms (e.g. Zechstein (Permian) of Europe; Ferry Lake Anhydrite (Cretaceous), Gulf of Mexico) can result in deposition of alternating cyclic carbonates and evaporites in broad, shallow subaqueous hypersaline environments. Evaporites include bedded and palmate gypsum layers. Mudstones and wackestones are deposited in mesosaline, shallow subtidal to low intertidal environments during periodic flooding of the platform interior. Highstand systems tracts are characterized by thick successions of m-scale, brining upward parasequences in platform interior settings. The Seven Rivers Formation (Guadalupian) of the Permian basin typifies this transition. An intertonguing of carbonate and sulfates is interpreted to occur in a broad, shallow subaqueous hypersaline shelf lagoon behind the main restricting shelf-edge carbonate complex. Underlying paleodepositional highs appear to control the position of the initial facies transition. Periodic flooding of the shelf interior results in widespread carbonate deposition comprised of mesosaline, skeletal-poor peloid dolowackestones/mudstones. Progressive

  15. Structural Evolution of Kerogen and Bitumen during Thermal Maturation examined by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, P. R.; Le Doan, T. V.; Pomerantz, A.

    2014-12-01

    Kerogen—the organic matter that is solid and insoluble in organic solvents—is a key component of organic-rich mudstones. The composition of kerogen affects the storage and transport of hydrocarbons in these unconventional resources and is known to change with thermal maturity. We report here using FTIR spectroscopy, the compositional characteristics of kerogen as a function of thermal maturity, together with the compositional characteristics of the organic phase, bitumen—the organic matter that is solid, but soluble in organic solvents. Kerogen is consumed during thermal maturation, whereas bitumen is an intermediary formed at low maturity from kerogen and consumed at higher maturities in formation of oil and gas. Bitumen relative to kerogen has higher aliphatic content, lower aromatic content, and lower abundance of oxygenated functions. At low maturity (vitrinite reflectance equivalent VRe ~ 0.5-0.9 %), the average length of aliphatic chains in bitumen increases during bitumen formation. At higher thermal maturities (VRe > 1.0-1.3 %), average aliphatic chain length decreases as bitumen is consumed. This evolution contrasts to that in kerogen, where aliphatic chain lengths shorten during all stages of maturation. Breakdown of kerogen appears to be driven by cleavage of oxygen functions at low maturity and removal of aliphatic carbons at higher maturities. These aliphatic-rich fragments may comprise the bitumen, and may in part explain the solubility of bitumen in organic solvents. Bitumen shows evidence of oxidation at low thermal maturity, a phenonemom not documented for kerogen. Bitumen maturation and degradation at higher thermal maturity is driven by cleavage and loss of aliphatic carbons, and is coincident with the maximum generation of oil and gas. The aromatic content of bitumen and of kerogen both increase during maturation as a consequence of the loss of aliphatic carbon. The oil and gas generation potential of the residual organic matter thus

  16. High resolution taxonomic study of the late Eocene (~34 Ma) Florissant palynoflora, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is located in Teller County in central Colorado, at approximate latitude 38°54'N and longitude 105°13'. The lithologies of the Florissant Formation consist of coarse-grained arkosic and volcanoclastic sandstones and conglomerates, finer shale, and tuffaceus mudstone and siltstone. It is divided into six units, mostly of lacustrine and fluvial origin with volcanic sediments interfingering and topping the strata. Volcanic units have been dated using the 40Ar/39Ar single-crystal method, giving an absolute age of ca. 34 Ma for the upper fossiliferous sedimentary unit. This pinpoints the formation of the Florissant sediments at the end of the Eocene, providing fruitful insight into the changing palaeoecosystem of the region at the dawn of the Oligocene. The formation is very well known for its rich fossil insect fauna and well preserved plant macrofossils found in the shale units, and the silicified tree stumps occurring in the lower mudstone unit. The sample used for this study originates from the upper shale unit, the fifth unit from the base of the formation. Previous studies on the plant macrofossils, mesofossils and the palynoflora have shown that during the late Eocene the surroundings of Florissant palaeo-lake were covered by diverse mixed broad-leaved evergreen/deciduous and needle-leafed forests. Until now pollen from the Florissant Formation has mostly been described according to conventional morphological nomenclature, using light microscopy (LM) only. In this study the same individual pollen grains are investigated using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by means of single grain technique. This provides best exploitable results concerning a more detailed resolution regarding taxonomy and more accurate identifications. The main goal of this study is to compile a well resolved taxonomic species list based on the palynoflora, to clarify the generic and species diversity of selected families (e

  17. Reconstruction of the pre-compactional thickness of the Zechstein Main Dolomite in northwest Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semyrka Grażyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our reconstruction of the pre-compactional thickness of the Main Dolomite strata from the so-called Grotów Peninsula (northwest Poland was based on macroscopic observations of drill cores from three wells: Mokrzec-1, Sieraków-4 and Międzychód-5. These wells are located in various palaeogeographical zones of the Main Dolomite and cored rocks represent a range of microfacies. The amount of compactional reduction in thickness of the Main Dolomite was estimated by summing the total heights (Wst of all stylolites encountered in logs of these wells. For calculations, a generalised model of a drill core was developed, which embraced all types of stylolite seams present in the Main Dolomite succession studied. Also the method of stylolite dimensioning was demonstrated. The number of stylolites in the drill cores studied varied from 511 in the Sieraków-4 well to 1,534 in the Międzychód-5 well. In all cores studied low-amplitude macrostylolites predominated, but the reduction of thickness was controlled mostly by the low- and medium-amplitude macrostylolites. The largest number of stylolites was found in the grainstone/packstone microfacies. The turnout of stylolites depends of microfacies. The highest density of stylolites was documented in mudstones/wackestones (24 stylolites per metre of rock thickness and the lowest in boundstones (14 stylolites per metre of rock thickness. The low-amplitude stylolites appear most frequently in the mudstone/wackestone microfacies (15 stylolites per metre of rock thickness; in grainstones/packstones, rudstones/floatstones and boundstones middle-amplitude stylolites are rare (3 stylolites per metre of rock thickness. The degree of compaction of the Main Dolomite succession studied varied from 6 to 10%; hence, its calculated initial thickness also varied in the wells studied: from 41.3 m in the Sieraków-4 well to 56.9 m in the Mokrzec-1 well and to 97.1 m in the Międzychód-5 well. The volumes of reservoir

  18. Sedimentology and paleoenvironments of the Las Chacritas carbonate paleolake, Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Jurassic), Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.

    2013-02-01

    The Las Chacritas Member is the lower part of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Jurassic). The unit is a completely continental limestone succession with volcanic contributions that were deposited during the development of the Cañadón Asfalto Rift Basin (Chubut province, Patagonia, Argentina). A detailed sedimentological analysis was performed in the Fossati depocenter to determine the paleoenvironments that developed in the context of this rift. The Las Chacritas Member represents a carbonate paleolake system with ramp-shaped margins associated with wetlands that were eventually affected by subaerial exposure and pedogenesis. This process is represented by three main subenvironments: a) a lacustrine setting sensu stricto (lacustrine limestone facies association), represented by Mudstones/Wackestones containing porifera spicules (F1), Intraclastic packstones (F6) and Tabular stromatolites (F10) in which deposition and diagenesis were entirely subaqueous; b) a palustrine setting (palustrine limestone facies association) containing Microbial Mudstones (F2), Intraclastic sandy packstone with ostracode remains (F3), Oncolitic packstone (F5), Brecciated limestone (F7) and Nodular-Mottled limestone (F8) representing shallow marginal areas affected by groundwater fluctuations and minor subaerial exposure; and c) a pedogenic paleoenvironment (pedogenic limestone facies association) including Intraclastic limestone (F4) and Packstones containing Microcodium (F9) facies displaying the major features of subaerial exposure, pedogenic diagenesis and the development of paleosols. The fluvial-palustrine-lacustrine succession shows a general shallow upward trend in which contraction-expansion cycles are represented (delimited by exposure and surface erosion). The variations in the successive formations reflect the responses to fluctuations in a combination of two major controls, the tectonic and local climatic variables. The predominance of the palustrine facies associations was

  19. The Investigation of Chlorate and Perchlorate/Saponite Mixtures as a Possible Source of Oxygen and Chlorine Detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.; Sutter, B.; Min, D. W.; Mahaffy, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Curiosity Rover has detected O2 and HCl gas releases from all analyzed Gale Crater sediments, which are attributed to the presence of perchlorates and/or chlorates in martian sediment. Previous SAM analog laboratory analyses found that most pure perchlorates and chlorates release O2 and HCl at different temperatures than those observed in the SAM data. Subsequent studies examined the effects of perchlorate and chlorate mixtures with Gale Crater analog iron phases, which are known to catalyze oxychlorine decomposition. Several mixtures produced O2 releases at similar temperatures as Gale Crater materials, but most of these mixtures did not produce significant HCl releases comparable to those detected by the SAM instrument. In order to better explain the Gale Crater HCl releases, perchlorates and chlorates were mixed with Gale Crater analog saponite, which is found at abundances from 8 to 20 wt % in the John Klein and Cumberland drill samples. Mixtures of chlorates or perchlorates with calcium-saponite or ferrian-saponite were heated to 1000 deg C in a Labsys EVO differential scanning calorimeter/mass spectrometer configured to operate similarly to the SAM oven/quadrupole mass spectrometer system. Our results demonstrate that all chlorate and perchlorate mixtures produce significant HCl releases below 1000 deg C as well as depressed oxygen peak release temperatures when mixed with saponite. The type of saponite (calcium or ferrian saponite) did not affect the evolved gas results significantly. Saponite/Mg-perchlorate mixtures produced two HCl releases similar to the Cumberland drilled sample. Mg-chlorate mixed with saponite produced HCl releases similar to the Big Sky drilled sample in an eolian sandstone. A mixture of Ca-perchlorate and saponite produced HCl and oxygen releases similar to the Buckskin mudstone drilled sample and the Gobabeb 2 eolian dune material. Ca-chlorate mixed with saponite produced both

  20. Eo-Oligocene Oil Shales of the Talawi, Lubuktaruk, and Kiliranjao Areas, West Sumatra: Are they potential source rocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.198To anticipate the increasing energy demand, additional data and information covering unconventional fossil fuels such as oil shale must be acquired to promote the usage of alternative energy sources to crude oil. The Talawi and Lubuktaruk regions situated within intra-montane Ombilin Basin, and the Kiliranjao assumed to be a small intra montane basin are occupied by Eo-Oligocene sediments of Sangkarewang and Kiliran Formations, respectively. Field activity, geochemical screening techniques, and organic petrographic analysis, supported by SEM mode, are methods used. Most of the oil shale sequence is typically of an organically rich-succession comprising predominantly well-bedded, laminated and fissile, brownish to dark grey organic-rich shale and mudstone rocks. The exinite macerals within oil shale comprise mainly Pediastrum-lamalginite with minor cutinite, resinite, liptodetrinite, sporinite, bituminite, and rare Botryococcus-telalginite. Therefore; the oil shale deposits can be described as “lamosites”. Minor vitrinite maceral is also recognized. TOC analysis on selected shale samples corresponds to a fair up to excellent category of source rock characterization. The hydrogen index (HI for all samples shows a range of values from 207 - 864, and pyrolysis yield (PY ranges from 2.67 to 79.72 mg HC/g rock. The kerogen is suggested to be of mixed Type II and Type I autochthonous materials such as alginite, with minor allochthonous substances. Oil samples collected appear to be positioned within more oil prone rather than gas prone. Thermal maturity of the oil shales gained from Tmax value and production index (PI tends to show immature to marginally/early mature stage. A consistency in the thermal maturity level results by using both Tmax and vitrinite reflectance value is recognized. On the basis of  SEM analysis, the oil shale has undergone a late eodiagenetic process. Thereby, overall, vitrinite reflectance

  1. Hollow Nodules Gas Escape Sedimentary Structures in Lacustrine Deposits on Earth and Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Willson, D.; Fairen, A. G.; Baker, L.; McKay, C.; Zent, A.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Curiosity's Mastcam and MAHLI instruments in Gale Crater (GC) imaged mm-sized circular rimmed hollow nodules (HNs) (Figure 1A), pitting the Sheepbed mudstone of Yellowknife Bay Formation [1,2]. HNs are significantly smaller than the solid nodules within the outcrop, with an external mean diameter of 1.2 mm and an interior one of 0.7 mm [2] Several formation mechanisms of HNs have been discussed, such as: (1) Diagenetic dissolution of soluble mineral phases; or, (2) Gas bubbles released shortly after sediment deposition [1-3]. In an ephemeral pond in Ubehebe Crater (Death Valley, CA) we observed the formation of hollow nodule sedimentary structures produced by gas bubbles (Figure 1C) preserved in smectite-rich mud that are strikingly similar to those imaged in GC (Figure 1A). This finding supports the gas bubble hypothesis [2]. Ubehebe Crater (UC) surface sediment hollow nodules were sampled, imaged, and their internal diameter measured (200 hollow structures) showing similar shape, distribution, and composition to those imaged by Curiosity in GC. UC in-situ observations suggest the gas bubbles were generated within the slightly reducing ephemerally submerged mud. These intra-crater deposits remain otherwise extremely dry year round, i.e., Air_rH ~2-5%; ground H2O wt%: 1-2%; Summer air/ground T: 45-48ºC/67-70ºC [4-5]. Data from the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), CheMin, and ChemCam instruments onboard the rover revealed that HNs-bearing mudstone are rich in smectite clay e.g., ~18-20% [6,7] deposited in a neutral to mildly alkaline environment, capturing a period when the surface was potentially habitable [1]. The UC HNs-hosting deposits are also rich in smectite clays (~30%) and occur in an ephemeral shallow freshwater setting [4-5]. If present, surface hollow nodules are easy to find in dry clay-rich mud in lacustrine sediments, so they could represent a new indicator of ephemeral but habitable/inhabited environments on both Earth and early Mars. References: [1

  2. Stratigraphic distribution, taphonomy and paleoenvironments of Spinicaudata in the Triassic and Jurassic of the Paraná Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenisch, Alan Gregory; Lehn, Ilana; Gallego, Oscar Florencio; Monferran, Mateo Daniel; Horodyski, Rodrigo Scalise; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

    2017-12-01

    Due to the chitino-phosphatic nature of Spinicaudata conchostracan exoskeletons, their carapaces exhibit a low preservational potential compared to other bivalve groups. However, the recent studies point towards the increased tolerance of the carapace against the physical processes. Due to this peculiar characteristic, conchostracan carapace have been utilized as precise temporal markers in estimating stratigraphic and taphonomic parameters. The same characteristic also makes the spinicaudatans useful in evaluating the depositional processes and environments. The present work aims at providing a paleoenvironmental and stratigraphic analysis of conchostracans (Spinicaudata) from the Triassic-Jurassic of the Paraná Basin (Santa Maria and Caturrita formations) in terms of the sedimentary facies analysis, depositional system characterization, and analysis of the taphonomic signatures of the fossiliferous horizons within these formations. The results from the taphonomic study delineates the presence of 4 distinct fossil assemblages based on the causative mechanism and fundamental characteristics of the fossil concentrations: two taphonomic assemblages in the laminated mudstone beds deposited from the decanting fine-grained sediments in floodplains; the sandstone beds with plane parallel laminations and dune- and ripple-cross-stratifications deposited from the flooding-related overflow in the floodplains; and the association of laminated mudstone and massive sandstone beds deposited as the river mouth bars. The results show that the taphonomic signatures, e.g., closed valves, may indicate the various patterns of autochthony and allochthony. In the fine-grained floodplain assemblages, the high degree of preservation can be attributed to autochthony in the conchostracans, whereas the preservational condition of floodplain sandstone sheet and mouth bar assemblages point toward parautochthony and even allochthony. Therefore, the preservational quality of conchostracan

  3. Sedimentology and High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation Carbonates Outcrops in the Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ibrahim; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Abdulghani, Waleed

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the microfacies and sequence stratigraphic frame work of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation in outcrops in central Saudi Arabia. The study contributes to the efforts to understand and enhance local and regional stratigraphic relationship and correlation of the Jurassic carbonate sequences and their significance to reservoir description and prediction in the subsurcae. The study describes and characterizes the sedimentology, microfacies and the stratigraphy of Dhruma Formation from outcrop sections having a total thickness of 70 m. Detailed microfacies and high-resolution stratigraphical analysis were carried out to determine microfacies, cyclicity, sequences and staking pattern. The study revealed ten lithofacies namely: oolitic grainstone,bioclastic oolitic grainstone, oolitic grapestone, bioclastic grainstone,foraminiferal packstone, echinoderm packstone, peloidal packstone to grainstone,skeletal wackestone to packstone, mudstone, and marlstone.These lithofacies were grouped into five lithofacies associations that deposited on a carbonate ramp setting. The depositional environment ranging from low energy lagoonal setting to high-energy shoals and banks to low energy outer ramp setting. Five high-resolution composite sequences have been defined and each sequence is composed at the bottom of intercalated mudstone/wackestone that passing up into grainstone lithofacies.The composite sequences range in thickness from 7 to 15 m, while the parasequences range from 0.5 to 1.5 m. The composite sequences extend laterally for a distance of more than 350 m. The overall composite section shows a shallowing upward succession of the 4th to the 5th order high-resolution sequences.The dominant lithofacies are the grainy ones, which constitute 30%, 50% and 80% of the studied sections. Furthermore, the parasequences thickness and their bio-components are increasing towards the top. The muddy lithofacies intensively affected the vertical continuity of the

  4. Bedrock cores from 89° North: Implications for the geologic framework and Neogene paleoceanography of Lomonosov Ridge and a tie to the Barents shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Pease, Victoria L.; Willard, Debra A.; Phillips, R.L.; Clark, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Two piston cores from the Eurasian flank of Lomonosov Ridge near lat 88.9°N, long 140°E provide the first samples of bedrock from this high-standing trans-Arctic ridge. Core 94-PC27 sampled nonmarine siltstone similar in facies and age to uppermost Triassic to lower Lower Jurassic and mid– Lower Cretaceous beds in the 4 to > 5 km Mesozoic section on Franz Josef Land, on the outer Barents shelf. A ca. 250 Ma peak in the cumulative frequency curve of detrital zircons from the siltstone, dated by U- Th-Pb analysis, suggests a source in the post-tectonic syenites of northern Taymyr and nearby islands in the Kara Sea. Textural trends reported in the literature indicate that the Lower Jurassic nonmarine strata of Franz Josef Land coarsen to the southeast; this suggests the existence of a sedimentary system in which detrital zircons could be transported from the northern Taymyr Peninsula to the outer Barents shelf near the position of core 94-PC27 prior to opening of the Eurasia Basin. Correlation of the coaly siltstone in core 94-PC27 with part of the Mesozoic section on Franz Josef Land is compatible with the strong evidence from seafloor magnetic anomalies and bathymetry that Lomonosov Ridge is a continental fragment rifted from the Barents shelf during the Cenozoic. It also suggests that Lomonosov Ridge near the North Pole is underlain by a substantial section of unmetamorphosed Mesozoic marine and nonmarine sedimentary strata. Core 94-PC29 sampled cyclical deposits containing ice-rafted debris (IRD) overlying weakly consolidated laminated olive-black anoxic Neogene siltstone and mudstone with an average total organic carbon (TOC) of 4.1 wt%. The high TOC content of the mudstone indicates that during the Neogene, prior to the introduction of IRD into the Arctic seas about 3.3 Ma (early late Pliocene), the shallow waters of the central Arctic Ocean supported significant primary photosynthetic organic production near the North Pole. These deposits also contain fine

  5. Magnetic Polarity Stratigraphy and Rock Magnetic Data From the Continuous Cored Record of Triassic Continental Environmental Change, the Colorado Plateau Coring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissman, J. W.; McIntosh, J.; Buhedma, H. M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the fact that the Triassic Period (ca. 251.9-201.3 Ma) is bound by two of Earth's largest mass extinctions, experienced giant bolide impacts and eruption of three large igneous provinces, and witnessed evolution of the main components of modern tetrapod communities, the time interval has sparse geochronologic calibration. The US NSF- and ICDP-funded coring of Phase 1 of the CPCP was completed in 2013, with the recovery of two major cores (6.35 cm diameter: 1A, 518m length and 2B, 253m; 31km apart) from the Petrified Forest National Park spanning the Chinle and Moenkopi fms. Core 1A has been fully sampled, with specimens obtained either by drilling or by extraction of core fragments and packing in ceramic boxes. Specimens are subjected to progressive thermal demagnetization or a combination of alternating field (AF) followed by thermal treatment. In several cases, specimens were extracted from each core segment to test for internal consistency. Chinle hematitic mudstones and siltstones have NRM intensities between 130 to 0.5 mA/m, with bulk susceptibilities from 2 x 10-2 to 5 x 10-5 SI units. More indurated hematitic siltstones/ medium sandstones of the Moenkopi Fm have NRM intensities and bulk susceptibilities that are far less variable (NRM: 9.0 to 1.2 mA/m, MS: 3.0 X 10-4 and 0.5 x 10-5 SI vol). Thermal demagnetization typically isolates magnetizations of N declination and shallow inclination (interpreted as normal polarity) and antipodes (reverse) (image), a polarity stratigraphy is being compiled for much of the section. Response is typically more interpretable for very hematitic Chinle mudstone sections and most Moenkopi rocks. Coarser grained, less hematitic Chinle strata rarely yield interpretable results, likely due to coarse-grained detrital magnetite, and it is likely that these intervals will not yield robust polarity information. Some core segments yield well-resolved magnetizations that are inconsistent with a Triassic field and we suspect

  6. Magnetic susceptibility as a simple tracer for fluvial sediment source ascription during storm events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowntree, Kate M; van der Waal, Bennie W; Pulley, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Sediment tracing using a single tracer, low frequency magnetic susceptibility (X lf ), was used to apportion suspended sediment to geologically defined source areas and to interpret sediment source changes during flood events in the degraded catchment of the Vuvu River, a headwater tributary of the Mzimbubu River, South Africa. The method was tested as a simple tool for use by catchment managers concerned with controlling erosion. The geology of the 58 km 2 catchment comprises two distinct formations: basalt in the upper catchment with a characteristically high magnetic susceptibility and shales with a low magnetic susceptibility in the lower catchment. Application of an unmixing model incorporating a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis showed that X lf provided a means to assign the proportion of each geological province contributing to the river's sediment load. Grab water samples were collected at ten-minute intervals during flood events for subsequent analysis of suspended sediment concentration and the magnetic susceptibility of the filtered sediment. Two floods are presented in detail, the first represents a significant event at the start of the wet season (max. discharge 32 m 3  s -1 ); the second was a smaller flood (max discharge 14 m 3  s -1 ) that occurred a month later. Suspended sediment concentrations during the twelve monitored events showed a characteristic decline over the wet season. The main source of suspended sediment was shown to be from the mudstones in the lower catchment, which contributed 86% of the total measured load. The sediment dynamics during the two floods monitored in detail were quite different from each other. In the first the sediment concentration was high (11 g L -1 ), peaking after the flood peak. The X lf value increased during the event, indicating that contribution to the sediment load from basalt in the upper catchment increased during the recession limb. In the second, smaller flood the sediment peak (6 g L -1

  7. Cover sequences at the northern margin of the Antongil Craton, NE Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, W.; Walsh, G.J.; De Waele, B.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Bracciali, L.; Schofield, D.I.; Wollenberg, U.; Lidke, D.J.; Rasaona, I.T.; Rabarimanana, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The island of Madagascar is a collage of Precambrian, generally high-grade metamorphic basement domains, that are locally overlain by unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks and poorly understood low-grade metasediments. In the Antalaha area of NE Madagascar, two distinct cover sequences rest on high-grade metamorphic and igneous basement rocks of the Archaean Antongil craton and the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo belt. The older of these two cover sequences, the Andrarona Group, consists of low-grade metasedimentary rocks. The younger sequence, the newly defined Ampohafana Formation, consists of unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks. The Andrarona Group rests on Neoarchaean granites and monzogranites of the Antongil craton and consists of a basal metagreywacke, thick quartzites and an upper sequence of sericite-chlorite meta-mudstones, meta-sandstones and a volcaniclastic meta-sandstone. The depositional age of the volcaniclastic meta-sandstone is constrained in age by U–Pb laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of euhedral zircons to 1875 ± 8 Ma (2σ). Detrital zircons of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic age represent an input from the Antongil craton and a newly defined Palaeoproterozoic igneous unit, the Masindray tonalite, which underlies the Andrarona Group, and yielded a U–Pb zircon age of 2355 ± 11 Ma (2σ), thus constraining the maximum age of deposition of the basal part of the Andrarona Group. The Andrarona Group shows a low-grade metamorphic overprint in the area near Antalaha; illite crystallinity values scatter around 0.17°Δ2Θ CuKα, which is within the epizone. The Ampohafana Formation consists of undeformed, polymict conglomerate, cross-bedded sandstone, and red mudstone. An illite crystallinity value of >0.25°Δ2Θ CuKα obtained from the rocks is typical of the diagenetic zone. Occurrences of rhyodacite pebbles in the Ampohafana Formation and the intrusion of a basaltic dyke suggest a deposition in a WSW-ENE-trending graben system during the opening of the Indian

  8. On the water saturation calculation in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalheim, Stein Ottar

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to identify the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation and examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations or possibility to develop methods to remove weaknesses and uncertainties in existing S{sub w} - equations. Due to the need for industrial applicability of the equations we aimed for results with the following properties: The accuracy in S{sub w} should increase compared with existing S{sub w} - equations. The equations should be simple to use in petrophysical evaluations. The equations should be based on conventional logs and use as few as possible input parameters. The equations should be numerical stable. This thesis includes an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the most common S{sub w} equations. The results are addressed in chapter 3 and were intended to find the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation. To increase the knowledge of the relationship between R{sub t} and S{sub w} in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs and to understand how the pore geometry affects the conductivity (n and m) of the rock a theoretical study was done. It was also an aim to examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations (or investigation an effective medium model) valid inhydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs. The results are presented in paper 1. A new equation for water saturation calculation in clean sandstone oil reservoirs is addressed in paper 2. A recommendation for best practice of water saturation calculation in non water wet formation is addressed in paper 3. Finally a new equation for water saturation calculation in thinly interbedded sandstone/mudstone reservoirs is presented in paper 4. The papers are titled: 1) Is the saturation exponent n a constant. 2) A New Model for Calculating Water Saturation In 3) Influence of wettability on water saturation modeling. 4) Water Saturation Calculations in Thinly Interbedded Sandstone/mudstone Reservoirs. A

  9. The stratigraphic distribution of large marine vertebrates and shell beds in the Pliocene of Tuscany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Stefano; Benvenuti, Marco; Danise, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    The record of 337 shark fossils, 142 cetaceans and 10 sea cows from the Pliocene of Tuscany, mostly from historical museum collections, is revised. The majority of these fossils are concentrated at a few geographic sites from separated hinterland basins, on the South-Western side of the Northern Apennines. To better understand the meaning of these concentrations, the sequence stratigraphic distribution of more recent findings of large marine vertebrates is reconstructed against a high-resolution framework based on sedimentary facies analysis. These remains are usually covered by, or included in mudstones deposited far from the coast (N=12), skeletons being usually articulated, slightly displaced, and often bioeroded. A minor part of better preserved articulated skeletons is associated with sandstones from deltaic paleonenvironments (N=2). Marine mammal and shark remains may be associated with laterally-continuous shell accumulations, a type of concentration occurring at maximum flooding surfaces, separating relatively coarse-grained facies from open marine mudstones. Shell beds were bulk-sampled at 66 locations from six basins, covering a wide range of sedimentary facies, and spanning a chronologic interval of about 2.5 million years. A dataset of 62,655 mollusc specimens belonging to 496 species formed the basis of a statistical study to reconstruct the structure of the benthic communities, and to estimate paleodepths from intertidal to upper bathyal settings. Mollusc associations closely mirror the distribution of sedimentary facies, allowing for a fine tuning of the sequence stratigraphic architecture. Merging paleogeographic, stratigraphic and paleoecologic data, we conclude that the more abundant and diverse accumulations of large vertebrates took place in settings under the influence of coastal upwelling. A modern analogue occurs today in the Ligurian Sea, on the Tuscan offshore, where abundant nutrients carried by deep-marine currents of Western origin

  10. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettima, B.; Abubakar, M. B.; Kuku, A.; Haruna, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Facies analysis of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub -basin of the Northern Benue Trough northeastern Nigeria indicated that the Lower Bima Member is composed of alluvial fan and braided river facies associations. The alluvial fan depositional environment dominantly consists of debris flow facies that commonly occur as matrix supported conglomerate. This facies is locally associated with grain supported conglomerate and mudstone facies, representing sieve channel and mud flow deposits respectively, and these deposits may account for the proximal alluvial fan region of the Lower Bima Member. The distal fan facies were represented by gravel-bed braided river system of probably Scot - type model. This grade into sandy braided river systems with well developed floodplains facies, forming probably at the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan depositional gradient, where it inter-fingers with basinal facies. In the Middle Bima Member, the facies architecture is dominantly suggestive of deep perennial sand-bed braided river system with thickly developed amalgamated trough crossbedded sandstone facies fining to mudstone. Couplets of shallow channels are also locally common, attesting to the varying topography of the basin. The Upper Bima Member is characterized by shallow perennial sand-bed braided river system composed of successive succession of planar and trough crossbedded sandstone facies associations, and shallower channels of the flashy ephemeral sheetflood sand - bed river systems defined by interbedded succession of small scale trough crossbedded sandstone facies and parallel laminated sandstone facies. The overall stacking pattern of the facies succession of the Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - basin is generally thinning and fining upwards cycles, indicating scarp retreat and deposition in a relatively passive margin setting. Dominance of kaolinite in the clay mineral fraction of the Bima Formation points to predominance of humid sub - tropical

  11. Carbonate microfacies of the San Juan Formation (Ordovician: Oepikodus evae and Oepikodus intermedius conodont zones), Niquivil, Central Precordillera, Province of San Juan (Argentina); Microfacies carbonáticas de la Formación San Juan (Ordovícico: zonas de conodontos Oepikodus evae y Oepikodus intermedius), Niquivil, Precordillera Central, Provincia de San Juan (Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, T.; Beresi, M.; Mestre, A.; Heredia, S.; Rodríguez, M.C.

    2017-09-01

    This contribution presents the description and interpretation of carbonate microfacies of the San Juan Formation (Ordovician) at the Niquivil section, considering the stratigraphical interval between the Oepikodus evae and Oepikodus intermedius conodont zones. The distribution of the microfacies and the conodonts assemblages allow us to identify different sub-environments within the late Floian carbonate ramp of the Central Precordillera. Five microfacies were recognized from the base to the top: M1 Bioclastic mudstone-wackestone; M2 Bioclastic-peloidal wackestone; M3 Intra-bioclastic wackestone; M4 Intra-bioclastic packstone; M5 Peloidal grainstone. The vertical distribution of these microfacies indicates a shallowing trend of the carbonate ramp in the Niquivil section for this temporal interval, which suggests a middle ramp environment with low energy, without wave action, and that evolved towards the middle-inner ramp environment with more energy by wave action and development of tempestites. [Spanish] En la presente contribución se realiza la descripción e interpretación de las microfacies carbonáticas de la Formación San Juan (Ordovícico) en la sección de Niquivil, considerando el intervalo estratigráfico comprendido entre las zonas de conodontos Oepikodus evae y Oepikodus intermedius. El análisis de las microfacies y los conodontos asociados permiten el reconocimiento de diferentes subambientes carbonáticos dentro de la rampa carbonática desarrollada durante el Floiense tardío de la Precordillera Central. Se reconocieron cinco microfacies que, de base a techo, son: M1 Mudstone-Wackestone bioclástico; M2 Wackestone bioclástico-peloidal; M3 Wackestone intra-bioclástico; M4 Packstone intra-bioclástico; M5 Grainstone peloidal. La interpretación vertical de estas microfacies indica una tendencia hacia la somerización de la rampa carbonática en la sección de Niquivil para el lapso temporal estudiado. El que se correspondería con un ambiente de

  12. Mineral Fractionation during Sediment Comminution and Transport in Fluvio-Deltaic and Lacustrine Rocks of the Bradbury Group, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebach, K. L.; Baker, M. B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; McLennan, S. M.; Gellert, R.; Thompson, L. M.; Hurowitz, J.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral distribution patterns in sediments of the Bradbury group in Gale crater, interpreted from observations by the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, show the importance of transport mechanics in source-to-sink processes on Mars. The Bradbury group is comprised of basalt-derived mudstones to conglomerates exposed along the modern floor of Gale crater and analyzed along a 9-km traverse of the Curiosity rover. Over 110 bulk chemistry analyses of the rocks were acquired, along with two XRD mineralogical analyses of the mudstone. These rocks are uniquely suited for analysis of source-to-sink processes because they exhibit a wide range of compositions, but (based on multiple chemical weathering proxies) they appear to have experienced negligible cation-loss during weathering and erosion. Chemical variations between analyses correlate with sediment grain sizes, with coarser-grained rocks enriched in plagioclase components SiO2, Al2O3, and Na2O, and finer-grained rocks enriched in components of mafic minerals, consistent with grain-size sorting of mineral fractions during sediment transport. Further geochemical and mineralogical modeling supports the importance of mineral fractionation: even though the limited XRD data suggests that some fraction (if not all) of the rocks contain clays and an amorphous component, models show that 90% of the compositions measured are consistent with sorting of primary igneous minerals from a plagioclase-phyric subalkaline basalt (i.e., no corrections for cation-loss are required). The distribution of K2O, modeled as a potassium feldspar component, is an exception to the major-element trends because it does not correlate with grain size, but has an elevation-dependent signal likely correlated with the introduction of a second source material. However, the dominant compositional trends within the Bradbury group sedimentary rocks are correlated with grain size and consistent with mineral fractionation of minimally

  13. Stratigraphy and Folding in the Cenozoic Cover of a Fold-Thrust Belt in the Nallıhan Region (Ankara, Central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaǧaç, Serdal; Koral, Hayrettin

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates stratigraphy and structural features in the Cenozoic sedimentary sequence of the fold-thrust belt of the Nallıhan-Ankara region, located to the north of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. Permian-Triassic age marble intercalated with schist-phyllites, the upper Jurassic-lower Cretaceous age limestone and the upper Cretaceous age sandstone-shale alternation compose the basement in the study area. These rocks are unconformably overlain by the Cenozoic age terrestrial sedimentary and volcanic units. The Cenozoic stratigraphy begins with the Paleocene-Eocene age coal-bearing, at times, volcanic intercalated conglomerate-sandstone-mudstone alternation of alluvial-fluvial origins (Aksaklar Formation) and the tuff intercalated with lacustrine limestone, bituminous limestone (Kabalar Formation). These units are conformably overlain by the Eocene age basalt-andesite and pyroclastic rocks (Meyildere volcanics). The Paleocene-Eocene aged units are unconformably overlain by the conglomerate-sandstone-mudstone-marl of a lower-middle Miocene lacustrine environment (Hançili Formation). The terrestrial conglomerate-sandstone alternation (Örencik Formation) is the youngest unit in the Cenozoic stratigraphy, and is assumed to be of Pliocene age based its stratigraphic position on older units. Field study shows existence of both folds and faults in the sedimentary cover. Stereographic projections of bedding measured in the field shows N25W/45NW and N60W/4SE-oriented fold axes in the Paleocene-Eocene age units. There are also N76W/12SE and N88E/8NE-oriented folds. The difference in fold-axis orientations suggests that some folds may have been rotated in blocks bound by faults during the post-Paleocene/Eocene period. Whereas, the lower-middle Miocene units manifest N88W/13SE-oriented fold axes. It is thus proposed that the observed difference in the azimuth of fold axes represent two different folding phases, one with NE-SW and the other with N

  14. Porosity-depth trends of carbonate deposits along the northwest shelf of Australia (IODP Expedition 356)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Kominz, Michelle; Reuning, Lars; Takayanagi, Hideko; Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Wagreich, Michael; Expedition 356 shipboard scientists, IODP

    2017-04-01

    The northwest shelf (NWS) of Australia extends from northern tropical to southern temperate latitudes situated offshore from the low-moderate-relief and semi-arid Australian continent. The shelf environment is dominated throughout by carbonate sedimentation with warm-water and tropical carbonate deposits, connected to the long-term northward drift of Australia bringing the NWS into tropical latitudes. IODP expedition 356 cored seven sites (U1458-U1464) covering a latitudinal range of 29°S-18°S off the NWS. This study focuses on porosity-depth trends of the Miocene - Pleistocene carbonate sediment on the NWS. The NWS is an ideal area to study regional (and furthermore general) carbonate porosity-depth relationships, because it contains a nearly continuous sequence of carbonate sediment ranging in depth from the surface to about 1,100m and in age from Pleistocene to Miocene. Porosity-depth trends of sedimentary rocks are generally controlled by a variety of factors which govern the rates of porosity loss due to mechanical compaction and of porosity loss (or gain) due to chemical processes during diagenesis. This study derives porosity data from Moisture and Density (MAD) technique conducted during IODP Expedition 356. MAD samples were collected from packstone (44%), wackestone (27%), mudstone (15%) and grainstone (7%), with the rest from floatstone, rudstone, dolostone, sandstone and other subordinate lithologies. To understand porosity-depth trends, the porosity data are arranged both exponentially and linearly, and correlated with age models and lithologic descriptions provided by IODP shipboard scientists. Porosity(%)-depth(m) trends of all the porosity data are Porosity=52e-0.0008/Depth (exponential) and Porosity=-0.03Depth+52 (linear). Porosities near surface and in the deepest parts of each well are least well represented by these trend lines. Porosity values of Pleistocene sediment are generally higher than those of Miocene - Pliocene sediment. The initial

  15. Stratigraphy and paleontology of Lower Permian rocks north of Cananea, northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, R.B.; Moore, T.E.; Gray, F.

    2002-01-01

    Lower Permian carbonate and overlying red bed clastic rocks are present in a 2 km2 stratigraphic window in the vicinity of Rancho La Cueva, Santa Cruz sheet (scale 1:50,000), northern Sonora, Mexico. This exposure lies unconformably beneath predominantly intermediate Upper Cretaceous volcanics yielding 40Ar/39Ar ages of 73.4?? 0.18 and 71.1 ?? 0.35 Ma. The lower part of the Permian succession consists of light- to medium-gray colored limestones of the Colina Limestone, with a minimum thickness of 235 m. Sedimentary features suggest shallow water, slightly restricted depositional environments. Although lacking observable fossils for the most part, two intervals of richly fossiliferous, silicified shell beds are present near the base and top of the Colina Limestone. The lower fauna consist mostly of gastropods and bivalves. The presence of a new microdomatid gastropod species. Glyptospira sonorensis n. sp., close to Glytospira arelela Plas, suggests a late Wolfcampian age for this horizon. The upper fauna are predominantly molluscan dominated (gastropods and bivalves), but some brachiopods (productids and the rhynchonellid genus Pontisia) are also present. Gastropod genera include Bellerophon, Warthia, Euomphalus (represented by the species, Euomphalus kaibabensis Chronic), Baylea, Worthenia, Naticopsis, Goniasma, Kinishbia, Cibecuia, and Glyptospira. The gastropods suggest a Leonardian (late Early Permian) age for this horizon, and many of the species have previously been recorded from the Supai Group and Kaibab Formation of northern and central Arizona. The Colina Limestone is conformably overlain by 11.2 m of light-gray lime mudstone and dolostone, assigned here to the Epitaph Dolomite, which in turn is succeeded by 58.8 m of red-colored sandstone and gray lime mudstone, assigned here to the Scherrer Formation. This Lower Permian succession is significant because it further strengthens the stratigraphic ties of southeastern Arizona rocks with those of northern

  16. Sedimentology and paleoenvironments of a new fossiliferous late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtelela, Cassy; Roberts, Eric M.; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah L.; Downie, Robert; Hendrix, Marc S.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed sedimentologic investigation of a newly identified, fossiliferous Late Neogene sedimentary succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin, southwestern Tanzania. This synrift deposit is a rare and significant new example of a fossiliferous succession of this age in the Western Branch of East Africa Rift System. The unit, informally termed the lower Lake Beds succession, is late Miocene to Pliocene in age based on cross-cutting relationships, preliminary biostratigraphy, and U-Pb geochronology. An angular unconformity separates the lower Lake Beds from underlying Cretaceous and Oligocene strata. Deposition was controlled by rapid generation of accommodation space and increased sediment supply associated with late Cenozoic tectonic reactivation of the Rukwa Rift and synchronous initiation of the Rungwe Volcanic Centre. The lower Lake Beds, which have thus far only been identified in three localities throughout the Rukwa Rift Basin, are characterized by two discrete lithologic members (herein A and B). The lower Member A is a volcanic-rich succession composed mostly of devitrified volcanic tuffs, and volcaniclastic mudstones and sandstones with minor conglomerates. The upper Member B is a siliciclastic-dominated succession of conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones and minor volcanic tuffs. Detailed facies analysis of the lower Lake Beds reveals various distinctive depositional environments that can be grouped into three categories: 1) alluvial fan; 2) fluvial channel; and 3) flood basin environments, characterized by volcanoclastic-filled lakes and ponds, abandoned channel-fills and pedogenically modified floodplains. Member A represents a shallow lacustrine setting filled by tuffaceous sediments, which grade up into a system of alluvial fans and high-energy, proximal gravel-bed braided rivers. An unconformity marks the contact between the two members. Member B shows an upward transition from a high-energy, gravel-bed braided river system to a sandy

  17. The Sedimentology and Origins of a Giant Mass Transport Deposit: The Nataraja Slide, Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, S. K.; Clift, P. D.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Calves, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Nataraja Slide was recently discovered by seismic mapping off the west coast of India in the Arabian Sea. Volumetrically estimated to be 19,000 km3, it is the second largest mass transport deposit known on a passive margin. Understanding how this deposit was emplaced is important to constrain how mass wasting affects the bathymetry of sedimentary basins, as well as the effects triggered by such a large event, including tsunamis. The Nataraja Slide was emplaced at 10.8 Ma as a result of collapse of the western India margin, which traveled 550 km into the basin. The deposit has been cored in two locations by the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355, where it is 330 m (Site U1456) and 190 m thick (Site U1457). The presence of various deformation structures and the occurrence of a predominantly reworked calcareous nannofossil assemblages are used to define the top of the deposit. The deposit appears to consist of two units at Site U1456 with 22 m of upper Miocene hemipelagic sediment separating them, suggesting emplacement in two large pulses. At both sites, the mass transport deposit has a coarse carbonate-dominated base, composed of clast-supported breccia overlain by massive calcarenite associated with high-energy current transport, and calcilutite. These strata are overlain by steeply inclined, slumped but otherwise coherent pyritized, siliciclastic mudstones and minor volumes of matrix-supported conglomerates, interpreted as debris flows. Emplacement appears to have eroded significant thicknesses of Indus Fan turbidites at Site U1456, as there is a hiatus that is a minimum of 2.5 m.y. at the base. At Site U1457, the slide directly overlies Paleocene reddish mudstones on the eastern flank of the Laxmi Ridge, which likely diverted the sediment to the south in the Laxmi Basin and away from the main Arabian Sea basin. Bulk sediment Nd and Sr isotope geochemistry show a provenance, similar to those of the Tapti and Narmada rivers in western

  18. Environmental radioactivity in the UK: the airborne geophysical view of dose rate estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamish, David

    2014-01-01

    This study considers UK airborne gamma-ray data obtained through a series of high spatial resolution, low altitude surveys over the past decade. The ground concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides Potassium, Thorium and Uranium are converted to air absorbed dose rates and these are used to assess terrestrial exposure levels from both natural and technologically enhanced sources. The high resolution airborne information is also assessed alongside existing knowledge from soil sampling and ground-based measurements of exposure levels. The surveys have sampled an extensive number of the UK lithological bedrock formations and the statistical information provides examples of low dose rate lithologies (the formations that characterise much of southern England) to the highest sustained values associated with granitic terrains. The maximum dose rates (e.g. >300 nGy h −1 ) encountered across the sampled granitic terrains are found to vary by a factor of 2. Excluding granitic terrains, the most spatially extensive dose rates (>50 nGy h −1 ) are found in association with the Mercia Mudstone Group (Triassic argillaceous mudstones) of eastern England. Geological associations between high dose rate and high radon values are also noted. Recent studies of the datasets have revealed the extent of source rock (i.e. bedrock) flux attenuation by soil moisture in conjunction with the density and porosity of the temperate latitude soils found in the UK. The presence or absence of soil cover (and associated presence or absence of attenuation) appears to account for a range of localised variations in the exposure levels encountered. The hypothesis is supported by a study of an extensive combined data set of dose rates obtained from soil sampling and by airborne geophysical survey. With no attenuation factors applied, except those intrinsic to the airborne estimates, a bias to high values of between 10 and 15 nGy h −1 is observed in the soil data. A wide range of

  19. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Huurdeman, Emiel P.; Rem, Charlotte C. M.; Donders, Timme H.; Pross, Jörg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy R.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, Peter K.

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the Australo-Antarctic Gulf (AAG). These reconstructions have revealed a large discrepancy between temperature proxy data and climate models in this region, suggesting a crucial error in model, proxy data or both. To resolve the origin of this discrepancy, detailed reconstructions are needed from both sides of the Tasmanian Gateway. Paleocene-Eocene sedimentary archives from the west of the Tasmanian Gateway have unfortunately remained scarce (only IODP Site U1356), and no well-dated successions are available for the northern sector of the AAG. Here we present new stratigraphic data for upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata from the Otway Basin, southeast Australia, on the (north)west side of the Tasmanian Gateway. We analyzed sediments recovered from exploration drilling (Latrobe-1 drill core) and outcrop sampling (Point Margaret) and performed high-resolution carbon isotope geochemistry of bulk organic matter and dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) and pollen biostratigraphy on sediments from the regional lithostratigraphic units, including the Pebble Point Formation, Pember Mudstone and Dilwyn Formation. Pollen and dinocyst assemblages are assigned to previously established Australian pollen and dinocyst zonations and tied to available zonations for the SW Pacific. Based on our dinocyst stratigraphy and previously published planktic foraminifer biostratigraphy, the Pebble Point Formation at Point Margaret is dated to the latest Paleocene. The globally synchronous negative carbon isotope excursion that marks the Paleocene-Eocene boundary is identified within the top part of the Pember Mudstone in the Latrobe-1 borehole and at Point Margaret. However, the high abundances of the

  20. Deposition of Boron in Possible Evaporite Deposits in Gale Crate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, P. J.; Peets, E.; Lamm, S. N.; Rapin, W.; Lanza, N.; Frydenvang, J.; Clark, B. C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bridges, J.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Haldeman, E. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Delapp, D.; Sanford, V.; Bodine, M. R.; McInroy, R.

    2017-12-01

    Boron has been previously detected in Gale crater using the ChemCam instrument on board the NASA Curiosity rover within calcium sulfate fracture fill hosted by lacustrine mudstone and eolian sandstone units. Recent results show that up to 300 ppm B is present in the upper sections of the lacustrine unit. Boron has been detected in both the groundwater-emplaced calcium sulfate fracture fill materials and bedding-parallel calcium sulfate layers. The widespread bedding-parallel calcium sulfate layers within the upper strata of the lacustrine bedrock that Curiosity has encountered recently could be interpreted as primary evaporite deposits. We have two hypotheses for the history of boron in Gale crater. In both hypotheses, borates were first deposited as lake water evaporated, depositing primary evaporates that were later re-dissolved by groundwater, which redistributed the boron into secondary evaporitic calcium sulfate fracture fill deposits. In the first scenario, Gale crater may have undergone a period of perennial lake formation during a drier period of martian history, depositing layers of evaporitic minerals (including borates) among lacustrine mudstone layers. In the second scenario, lake margins could have become periodically exposed during cyclic drops in lake level and subsequently desiccated. Evaporites were deposited and desiccation features were formed in lowstand deposits. Either hypothetical scenario of evaporite deposition would promote prebiotic chemical reactions via wet-dry cycles. Boron may be an important prebiotic element, and as such, its presence in ancient martian surface and groundwater provides evidence that important prebiotic chemical reactions could occur on Mars if organics were present. The presence of boron in ancient Gale crater groundwater also provides additional evidence that a habitable environment existed in the martian subsurface well after the expected disappearance of liquid water on the surface of Mars. We will report on the

  1. Scenario development of long-term evolution for deep hydrochemical conditions in Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Ishii, Eiichi; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2009-01-01

    A methodology to estimate long-term hydrochemical evolution of deep underground is indispensable for the safe geological isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This study demonstrates the methodology by illustrating scenarios of past geological events, processes, and their interrelationships with present-day hydrochemical conditions. Besides, we infer long-term variations of groundwater chemistry at Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, (the Wakkanai Formation (Fm) and the overlying Koetoi Fm: siliceous and diatomaceous mudstones). During various events in the geological past, such as deposition, compaction, uplift, and denudation, and the more recent Neotectonic activities in this area, highly permeable hydrogeological structures formed at depths not over than 400 m below ground level in the Wakkanai Fm. The hydrogeological system can be subdivided into three hydrogeological sub-systems: (1) overlying, relatively low permeability Koetoi Fm., (2) highly permeable, upper Wakkanai Fm at depths less than 400 m and (3) relatively low permeability Wakkanai Fm, at depths greater than 400 m. The present-day hydrochemical conditions in each sub-system have been influenced by hydrogeological properties and hydraulic conditions over a long period. In subsystems 1 and 2, recharging with meteoric water flushed connate seawater during uplifting and denudation during the last 1 Ma. In contrast, fossil seawater with one-third to one-half the salinity of present-day seawater has been preserved in subsystem 3. The relatively low permeability sequence in sub-system 3 was formed by the compaction of diatomaceous mudstone during subsidence prior to 1.0 Ma. After that, changes of climatic conditions and geographical features would not have influenced groundwater flow. The groundwater chemistry evolved from seawater during long-term geochemical diagenesis in a relatively closed system. The long

  2. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  3. Early neogene history of the central American arc from Bocas del Toro, western Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Anthony G.; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Collins, Laurel S.; Kunk, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A newly discovered sequence of lower to middle Miocene rocks from the eastern Bocas del Toro archipelago, western Panama, reveals the timing and environment of the earliest stages in the rise of the Isthmus of Panama in this region. Two new formations, the Punta Alegre Formation (lower Miocene, Aquitanian to Burdigalian) and the Valiente Formation (middle Miocene, Langhian to Serravallian), are here named and formally described. The Punta Alegre Formation contains a diagnostic microfauna of benthic and planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils that indicate deposition in a 2000-m-deep pre-isthmian neotropical ocean from as old as 21.5–18.3 Ma. Its lithology varies from silty mudstone to muddy foraminiferal ooze with rare thin microturbidite layers near the top. The Valiente Formation, which ranges in age from 16.4 to ca. 12.0 Ma, lies with slight angular unconformity on the Punta Alegre Formation and consists of five lithofacies: (1) columnar basalt and flow breccia, (2) pyroclastic deposits, (3) coarse-grained volcaniclastic deposits, (4) coral-reef limestone with diverse large coral colonies, and (5) marine debris-flow deposits and microturbidites. These lithofacies are interpreted to indicate that after ca. 16 Ma a volcanic arc developed in the region of Bocas del Toro and that by ca. 12 Ma an extensively emergent archipelago of volcanic islands had formed. 39Ar/40Ar dating of basalt flows associated with the fossiliferous sedimentary rocks in the upper part of the Valiente Formation strongly confirms the ages derived from planktic foraminifera and nannofossils. Paleobathymetric analysis of the two new formations in the Valiente Peninsula and Popa Island, in the Bocas del Toro archipelago, shows a general shallowing from lower- through upper-bathyal to upper-neritic and emergent laharic and fluviatile deposits from ca. 19 to 12 Ma. The overlying nonconformable Bocas del Toro Group contains a lower transgressive sequence ranging from basal nearshore

  4. A drowned lycopsid forest above the Mahoning coal (Conemaugh Group, Upper Pennsylvanian) in eastern Ohio, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMichele, W.A.; Eble, C.F.; Chaney, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Over 800 mud-filled casts of upright lycopsid tree stumps have been documented immediately above the Mahoning coal in an active underground mine located in northwestern Jefferson County, Ohio. The coal body originated as a pod-shaped peat body of ??? 60 km2. Trees are rooted at several levels within a thin (15-40 cm) bone coal directly above the banded coal; they extend upward up to 15 cm into overlying, flat-bedded, carbonaceous mudstones that coarsen up. From a maximum basal diameter of 1.2 m, stumps taper upward to diameters no less than 0.3 m. Within single-entry transects, trees are identified as lepidodendrids on the basis of gross morphology, external stem patterns, and attached stigmarian root systems, and provisionally as Lepidophloios or Lepidodendron by associated palynology of the enclosing matrix. Palynological analyses of incremental seam samples indicate an initial dominance of lycopsid spores with lepidodendracean affinities (Lycospora granulata from Lepidophloios hallii), replaced upwards by tree-fern spores, with a reoccurrence of lepidodendracean spores in the upper benches; spores of Sigillaria (Crassispora) are abundant only at the base of the coal. Petrographic analyses indicate a parallel trend from vitrinite-rich to inertinite- and liptinite-rich upward in the coal body. All data indicate that the peat represented by the Mahoning coal was drowned slowly. During the earliest stages of inundation, a lycopsid forest was re-established, only to be subsequently drowned.

  5. Shaft sealing concepts for high-level radioactive waste repositories based on the host-rock options rock salt and clay stone; Schachtverschlusskonzepte fuer zukuenftige Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle fuer die Wirtsgesteinsoptionen Steinsalz und Ton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram; Gruner, Matthias [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdbau und Spezialtiefbau; Herold, Philipp; Jobmann, Michael [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Unlike the shaft barriers used for the dry preservation of former mine workings and underground storage sites, shaft seals designed for radioactive-waste repositories must also fulfil additional requirements associated with the design diversity of the sealing system. This diversity makes use of the simple redundancy principle in order to prevent the proliferation of defects. In practice this means combining several sealing elements made from different materials or from materials with different properties. The R and D project, Shaft sealing systems for final repositories for high-level radioactive waste (ELSA) - phase 2: concept design for shaft seals and testing of the functional elements of shaft seals', which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), set out to investigate potential sealing elements for the two host-rock options rock salt and mudstone. This paper combines the text that the authors presented at the First International Freiberg Shaft Colloquium held at the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology on 01.10.2014 with a presentation on the sealing elements that were investigated as part of the R and D project.

  6. On results of measurement and method of behavior analysis for land slide protection wall in excavation works for main building foundation of No.2 plant in Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuki, Hideo; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Nishioka, Toshimichi

    1987-01-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Co. has been constructing the nuclear power station having 8 million kW capacity of seven BWR plants in the site of about 4.2 million m 2 in Niigata Prefecture. No.1 BWR plant of 1100 MWe output started the operation in September, 1985. As a rule, the important structures in nuclear power stations such as a reactor building and a turbine building are to be directly supported on bedrocks, and in this case, on the mudstone of Nishiyama strata. As this Nishiyama strata exists in large depth, the excavation works for the foundations of buildings are to be carried out by installing large scale land slide protection walls. In this report, among the excavation works for the main building foundation of No.2 plant, the results of examining the behavior of the land slide protection wall installed in soft rock ground based on the results of measurement of vertical excavation by land slide protection method and the techniques of its analysis are described. The geological features, the design of land slide protection walls, the measurement of the land slide protection walls and surrounding ground and the results, and the examination of the analysis methods by a beam model and FEM are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. DOE workshop: Sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    A DOE workshop on sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry was held July 15-16, 1993 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Papers were organized into several sections: Fundamental Properties, containing papers on the thermodynamics of brines, minerals and aqueous electrolyte solutions; Geochemical Transport, covering 3-D imaging of drill core samples, hydrothermal geochemistry, chemical interactions in hydrocarbon reservoirs, fluid flow model application, among others; Rock-Water Interactions, with presentations on stable isotope systematics of fluid/rock interaction, fluid flow and petotectonic evolution, grain boundary transport, sulfur incorporation, tracers in geologic reservoirs, geothermal controls on oil-reservoir evolution, and mineral hydrolysis kinetics; Organic Geochemistry covered new methods for constraining time of hydrocarbon migration, kinetic models of petroleum formation, mudstones in burial diagenesis, compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of petroleums, stability of natural gas, sulfur in sedimentary organic matter, organic geochemistry of deep ocean sediments, direct speciation of metal by optical spectroscopies; and lastly, Sedimentary Systems, covering sequence stratigraphy, seismic reflectors and diagenetic changes in carbonates, geochemistry and origin of regional dolomites, and evidence of large comet or asteroid impacts at extinction boundaries

  8. The sedimentology and uranium mineralization of the Klipbankskraal deposit north of Merweville, C.P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    A sedimentological study was conducted on the farm Klipbankskraal, north-west of Merweville. The orebody is located in the Poortjie Member at the base of the Teekloof Formation. The mineralised sandstone, S1, is a tabular lithosome deposited in an ephemeral, braided river environment. It consists of two major and several minor mesocycles, with the upper major cycle showing evidence of having inherited the drainage pattern of the lower mesocycle. The vector mean azimuth of the sequence as a whole is towards 059 degrees. The uranium is present as stacked, tabular lenses associated with permeable zones in the immediate vicinity of erosional inter-cycle contacts. Although no obvious relationship exists between the uranium and channels or bars, the distribution of plant material was controlled by the current velocities which also controlled the type of sedimentary structures. Uranium occurs preferentially in fissile-weathering (horizontal-bedded) sandstone and mud-pebble conglomerate, both permeable lithologies, and in mudstone or silt-stone. Uranium is genetically related to other elements such as Mn, Mo, Cu, Co and Pb, which must have been constituents of the ore fluid. Uraniferous granites in the source areas probaly supplied most of the uranium

  9. What Can the Curiosity Rover Tell Us About the Climate of Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    What Can the Curiosity Rover Tell Us About the Climate of Mars? Assessing the habitability of Gale Crater is the goal of the Curiosity Rover, which has been gathering data since landing on the Red Planet last August. To meet that goal, Curiosity brought with it a suite of instruments to measure the biological potential of the landing site, the geology and chemistry of its surface, and local environmental conditions. Some of these instruments illuminate the nature of the planet fs atmosphere and climate system, both for present day conditions as well as for conditions that existed billions of years ago. For present day conditions, Curiosity has a standard meteorology package that measures pressure, temperature, winds and humidity, plus a sensor the measures the UV flux. These data confirm what we learned from previous missions namely that today Mars is a cold, dry, and barren desert-like planet. For past conditions, however, wetter and probably warmer conditions are indicated. Curiosities cameras reveal gravel beds that must have formed by flowing rivers, and sedimentary deposits of layered sand and mudstones possibly associated with lakes. An ancient aqueous environment is further supported by the presence of sulfate veins coursing through some of the rocks in Yellowknife Bay where Curiosity is planning its first drilling activity. I will discuss these results and their implications in this lecture.

  10. Development of in-situ rock shear test under low compressive to tensile normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Takashi; Shin, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an in-situ rock shear testing method to evaluate the shear strength under low normal stress condition including tensile stress, which is usually ignored in the assessment of safety factor of the foundations for nuclear power plants against sliding. The results are as follows. (1) A new in-situ rock shear testing method is devised, in which tensile normal stress can be applied on the shear plane of a specimen by directly pulling up a steel box bonded to the specimen. By applying the counter shear load to cancel the moment induced by the main shear load, it can obtain shear strength under low normal stress. (2) Some model tests on Oya tuff and diatomaceous mudstone have been performed using the developed test method. The shear strength changed smoothly from low values at tensile normal stresses to higher values at compressive normal stresses. The failure criterion has been found to be bi-linear on the shear stress vs normal stress plane. (author)

  11. Paleocene coal deposits of the Wilcox group, central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; SanFilipo, John R.; Schultz, Adam C.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    Coal deposits in the Wilcox Group of central Texas have been regarded as the richest coal resources in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Although minable coal beds appear to be less numerous and generally higher in sulfur content (1 percent average, as-received basis; table 1) than Wilcox coal deposits in the Northeast Texas and Louisiana Sabine assessment areas (0.5 and 0.6 percent sulfur, respectively; table 1), net coal thickness in coal zones in central Texas is up to 32 ft thick and more persistent along strike (up to 15 mi) at or near the surface than coals of any other Gulf Coast assessment area. The rank of the coal beds in central Texas is generally lignite (table 1), but some coal ranks as great as subbituminous C have been reported (Mukhopadhyay, 1989). The outcrop of the Wilcox Group in central Texas strikes northeast, extends for approximately 140 mi between the Trinity and Colorado Rivers, and covers parts of Bastrop, Falls, Freestone, Lee, Leon, Limestone, Milam, Navarro, Robertson, and Williamson Counties (Figure 1). Three formations, in ascending order, the Hooper, Simsboro, and Calvert Bluff, are recognized in central Texas (Figure 2). The Wilcox Group is underlain conformably by the Midway Group, a mudstone-dominated marine sequence, and is overlain and scoured locally by the Carrizo Sand, a fluvial unit at the base of the Claiborne Group.

  12. Simulation on breakage of heterogeneous materials caused by detonative loading; Bakugo shogeki ni yoru fukinshitsu zairyo no hakai gensho no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassa, K; Watanabe, T; Ashida, Y [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Investigations were conducted by simulation of breakage of inhomogeneous materials (rock) attributable to detonative loading, which simulation used the Days-2 Code. During the simulation, one-free-face blastings were used for testing a homogeneous structure, horizontal 2-layer structure, and horizontal 3-layer structure. Property values were assigned to the rocks on the assumption that they were sedimentary rocks such as sandstone or mudstone or hard rocks such as granite. As the result, it was found that a detonative loading resulted in shear failure in a sphere near the focus that was followed by radially developed cracks due to tension breakage, that more area is damaged in a soft rock than in a hard rock, that cracks due to breakage are produced by the overlapping of waves directly from the focus and those reflected from the free face in case of one-free-face blastings, that such cracks propagated along the soft rock layer in case there is a soft rock layer in a hard rock, but that breakage does not extend beyond the soft rock layer. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Failure Behavior and Constitutive Model of Weakly Consolidated Soft Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-ming Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining areas in western China are mainly located in soft rock strata with poor bearing capacity. In order to make the deformation failure mechanism and strength behavior of weakly consolidated soft mudstone and coal rock hosted in Ili No. 4 mine of Xinjiang area clear, some uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were carried out according to the samples of rocks gathered in the studied area, respectively. Meanwhile, a damage constitutive model which considered the initial damage was established by introducing a damage variable and a correction coefficient. A linearization process method was introduced according to the characteristics of the fitting curve and experimental data. The results showed that samples under different moisture contents and confining pressures presented completely different failure mechanism. The given model could accurately describe the elastic and plastic yield characteristics as well as the strain softening behavior of collected samples at postpeak stage. Moreover, the model could precisely reflect the relationship between the elastic modulus and confining pressure at prepeak stage.

  14. Toe-of-slope of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in outcrop, seismic model and offshore seismic data (Apulia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco Gartner, Guido; Morsilli, Michele; Schlager, Wolfgang; Bosellini, Alfonso

    Synthetic seismic models of outcrops in the Early Cretaceous slope of a carbonate platform on the Gargano Promontory (southern Italy) were compared to an offshore seismic section south of the Promontory. Outcrops of the same age on the promontory have the same sequence stratigraphic characteristics as their offshore equivalent, and are the only areas where the transition from platform to basin of Early Cretaceous is exposed on land. Two adjacent outcrop areas were combined into one seismic-scale lithologic model with the aid of photo mosaics, measured sections, and biostratigraphic data. Velocity, density, and porosity measurements on spot samples were used to construct the impedance model. Seismic models were generated by vertical incidence and finite difference programs. The results indicate that the reflections in the seismic model are controlled by the impedance contrast between low porous intervals rich in debris from the platform and highly porous intervals of pelagic lime mudstone, nearly devoid of debris. Finite difference seismic display showed best resemblance with the real seismic data, especially by mapping a drowning unconformity.

  15. Total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province, Tunisia, Libya, Italy, and Malta; the Bou Dabbous, Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province (2048) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Pelagian Province is located mainly in eastern Tunisia and northwestern Libya. Small portions of the province extend into Malta and offshore Italy. Although several petroleum systems may exist, only two ?composite? total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system comprises a single assessment unit. These total petroleum systems are called the Bou Dabbous?Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite, named after the source-rock intervals and reservoir-rock ages. The main source rocks include mudstone of the Eocene Bou Dabbous Formation; Cretaceous Bahloul, Lower Fahdene, and M?Cherga Formations; and Jurassic Nara Formation. Known reservoirs are in carbonate rocks and sandstone intervals throughout the Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary sections. Traps for known accumulations include fault blocks, low-amplitude anticlines, high-amplitude anticlines associated with reverse faults, wrench fault structures, and stratigraphic traps. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province are as follows: [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids] Total Petroleum System MMBO BCFG MMBNGL Bou Dabbous?Tertiary 667 2,746 64 Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite 403 2,280 27

  16. Total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya; the Tanezzuft-Oued Mya, Tanezzuft-Melrhir, and Tanezzuft-Ghadames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province (2054) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Trias/Ghadames Province is in eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and westernmost Libya. The province and its total petroleum systems generally coincide with the Triassic Basin. The province includes the Oued Mya Basin, Melrhir Basin, and Ghadames (Berkine) Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within each of these basins, only three “composite” total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system occurs in a separate basin, and each comprises a single assessment unit.The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. Maturation history and the major migration pathways from source to reservoir are unique to each basin. The total petroleum systems were named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides.The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province are as follows [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids]:Tanezzuft-Oued Mya 830 MMBO 2,341 BCFG 110 MMBNGLTanezzuft-Melrhir 1,875 MMBO 4,887 BCFG 269 MMBNGLTanezzuft-Ghadames 4,461 MMBO 12,035 BCFG 908 MMBNGL

  17. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  18. Classification Scheme for Diverse Sedimentary and Igneous Rocks Encountered by MSL in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Mangold, N.; Fisk, M.; Forni, O.; McLennan, S.; Ming, D. W.; Sumner, D.; Sautter, V.; Williams, A. J.; Gellert, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover landed in a lithologically and geochemically diverse region of Mars. We present a recommended rock classification framework based on terrestrial schemes, and adapted for the imaging and analytical capabilities of MSL as well as for rock types distinctive to Mars (e.g., high Fe sediments). After interpreting rock origin from textures, i.e., sedimentary (clastic, bedded), igneous (porphyritic, glassy), or unknown, the overall classification procedure (Fig 1) involves: (1) the characterization of rock type according to grain size and texture; (2) the assignment of geochemical modifiers according to Figs 3 and 4; and if applicable, in depth study of (3) mineralogy and (4) geologic/stratigraphic context. Sedimentary rock types are assigned by measuring grains in the best available resolution image (Table 1) and classifying according to the coarsest resolvable grains as conglomerate/breccia, (coarse, medium, or fine) sandstone, silt-stone, or mudstone. If grains are not resolvable in MAHLI images, grains in the rock are assumed to be silt sized or smaller than surface dust particles. Rocks with low color contrast contrast between grains (e.g., Dismal Lakes, sol 304) are classified according to minimum size of apparent grains from surface roughness or shadows outlining apparent grains. Igneous rocks are described as intrusive or extrusive depending on crystal size and fabric. Igneous textures may be described as granular, porphyritic, phaneritic, aphyric, or glassy depending on crystal size. Further descriptors may include terms such as vesicular or cumulate textures.

  19. Investigation of geothermal development and promotion for fiscal 1997. Investigation report on geological/alteration zone (No. B-5 Musadake area); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chishitsu henshitsutai chosa hokokusho (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This investigation was intended to clarify the possibility of existence of geothermal reservoir layer by elucidating the underground structure and thermal source forming the geothermal system around Musadake, in the area extending over Nakashibetu-cho and Shibetu-cho, Shibetu district, Hokkaido, and further by grasping the distribution and properties of the geothermal alteration zone. The geothermal system of the subject area seems to be governed by Musadake - Mt. Shitabanupuri fault, its incidental bent zone, and the graben extending to the southeast side. The thermal source is presumably a magma reservoir that evolved Musa volcano. The depth hot water is presumed to exist in the underground depth around Mt. Imora; and it seems that the thermal conduction and volcanic ejecta are caused by a chain of volcano-related magma reservoirs around Musadake, the thermal source presumably. The depth hot water is estimated to be not less than 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. Within the graben, mudstones are distributed such as Kawakita layer and Yokoushigawa geological layer. Moreover, it is possible that an impermeable layer due to alteration is spread. (NEDO)

  20. Depositional environments of the uranium bearing Cutler Formations, Lisbon Valley, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Steele-Mallory, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Cutler Formation in Lisbon Valley, San Juan County, Utah, is composed predominantly of fluvial arkosic sandstones, siltstones, shales, and mudstones that were deposited by meandering streams that flowed across a flood plain and tidal flat close to sea level. Two types of channel deposits are recognized from their sedimentary structures: meandering and distributary. The flood plain was occasionally transgressed by a shallow sea from the west, resulting in the deposition of several thin limestones and marine sandstones. The marine sandstones were deposited as longshore bars. Wind transported sand along the shoreline of the shallow sea, forming a coastal dune field. Marine sandstones and eolian sandstones are more common in the upper Cutler in the southern part of the area, whereas in the central and northern part of the area the formation is predominantly fluvial. Crossbed orientation indicates that Cutler streams flowed S. 67 0 W. on the average, whereas marine currents moved sediment S. 36 0 E. and N. 24 0 W., and wind transported sand S. 80 0 E. The uranium in the Cutler is found in the central and northern part of the area, in the upper part of the formation, in small fluvial sandstone bodies that were deposited predominantly in a distributary environment. No uranium is known in the marine or eolian sandstones. Petrographically, the uranium-bearing sandstones are identical to other Cutler fluvial sandstones except that they contain less calcite and more clay and are slightly coarser grained. Ore formation has modified the host sandstones very little

  1. The Paleozoic-Mesozoic recycling of the Rakaia Terrane, South Island, New Zealand : sandstone clast and sandstone petrology, geochemistry, and geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandres, A.M.; Bradshaw, J.D.; Ireland, T.

    2005-01-01

    The Torlesse terranes - part of the New Zealand Eastern Province - are accretionary complexes that comprise an enormous volume of quartzofeldspathic sandstones and mudstones with subsidiary conglomerates plus minor oceanic assemblages. Two terranes are recognised in the South Island - the Permian to Late Triassic Rakaia Terrane and the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Pahau Terrane. Sandstone clasts from two Rakaia Terrane and two Pahau Terrane conglomerates were collected. We present the first combined detailed information on petrography and geochemistry of Torlesse conglomerate sandstone clasts and use our own and published U-Pb SHRIMP detrital zircon age data to demonstrate the recycling of the Rakaia Terrane into Rakaia strata itself and into Pahau Terrane strata. Sandstone clast major and trace element chemical data largely support petrographic observations derived from thin-section analysis. The similarities of petrographic and geochemical data between sandstone clasts from the Rakaia Terrane and Rakaia sandstones suggest that clasts in the Permian Te Moana and Late Triassic Lake Hill Conglomerates were derived by autocannibalistic reworking of older, consolidated, Rakaia sediments. Data from sandstone clasts from the Pahau Terrane suggest that uplift of the Rakaia Terrane continued into the Cretaceous. These Pahau Terrane clasts indicate that at the time of the Pahau sedimentation Permian to early Late Triassic Rakaia rocks were exposed and recycled into the Pahau Basin. (author). 57 refs., 8 figs., 3 tables

  2. Uranium distribution and sandstone depositional environments: oligocene and upper Cretaceous sediments, Cheyenne basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nibbelink, K.A.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    Wyoming-type roll-front uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills sandstones in the Cheyenne basin of northeastern Colorado. The location, geometry, and trend of specific depositional environments of the Oligocene White River and the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills formations are important factors that control the distribution of uranium in these sandstones. The Fox Hills Sandstone consists of up to 450 ft (140 m) of nearshore marine wave-dominated delta and barrier island-tidal channel sandstones which overlie offshore deposits of the Pierre Shale and which are overlain by delta-plain and fluvial deposits of the Laramie Formation. Uranium, which probably originated from volcanic ash in the White River Formation, was transported by groundwater through the fluvial-channel deposits of the White River into the sandstones of the Laramie and Fox Hills formations where it was precipitated. Two favorable depositional settings for uranium mineralization in the Fox Hills Sandstone are: (1) the landward side of barrier-island deposits where barrier sandstones thin and interfinger with back-barrier organic mudstones, and (2) the intersection of barrier-island and tidal channel sandstones. In both settings, sandstones were probably reduced during early burial by diagenesis of contained and adjacent organic matter. The change in permeability trends between the depositional strike-oriented barrier sandstones and the dip-oriented tidal-channel sandstones provided sites for dispersed groundwater flow and, as demonstrated in similar settings in other depositional systems, sites for uranium mineralization

  3. A comparison between elemental logs and core data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, S.A.; Grau, J.A.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron-induced gamma-ray spectroscopy, of prompt capture and delayed activation, together with natural gamma-ray measurements, provides a borehole elemental analysis to characterize rock matrix composition. This study involved extensive core and log data in two wells. One well was drilled with a barite-weighted oil-based mud through a shallow marine sand. The other was drilled with fresh water-based mud through a channel sand, mudstone sequence overlying limestone. The results illustrate the importance of a suitable core sampling strategy and the problems associated with matching core to log data. Possible inaccuracies from the modelling of Ca-, Fe- and S-bearing minerals have been determined. A method for correcting the total measured aluminium concentration for that due to the borehole mud has been successfully tested against aluminium concentrations measured in the cleaned core samples. Estimates of the overall accuracy and precision of the elemental logging concentrations are obtained by comparing the log results with those obtained from the laboratory core analysis. A comprehensive core elemental analysis can also provide useful insight into the way other logs, such as the photoelectric factor or formation thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross section, are influenced by minor and trace elements. Differences between calculated values from elemental logs and measured macroscopic parameters provide additional data for a more detailed understanding of the rock properties. (Author)

  4. MIDDLE TRIASSIC AUTOCLASTIC DEPOSITS FROM SOUTHWESTERN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duje Smirčić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Middle Triassic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks have been recognized at several localities near Bosansko Grahovo, in southwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the External Dinarides. Peculiar types of autoclastic rocks were investigated. These are peperites and hyaloclastites. Regarding specific structures, mineral composition and micropetrographic characteristics it was possible to further differentiate hyaloclastites into in situ hyaloclastites and slightly resedimented hyaloclastites that represent genetic succession. All rock types occurred in a deep sea troughs that formed as a consequence of Middle Triassic extensional tectonic and rift related wrench faulting. In situ hyaloclastites and slightly resedimented hyaloclastites were formed due to quenching at the contact of lava effusions with sea water. Genesis of peperites is related to lava emplacement in unconsolidated water saturated lime mudstones that were deposited in deep sea basin. All investigated rock types represent first findings of autoclastic deposits in the External Dinarides. Biostratigraphic constraints achieved by means of conodont species Neogondolella excentrica, Paragondolella excelsa, Paragondolella trammeri and Gladigondolella tethydis indicate Late Anisian to Early Ladinian interval of the autoclastic deposits from Bosansko Grahovo.

  5. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6. Salt Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox Formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the Area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker Trail Formation. The current data base is insufficient to estimate ground-water flow rates and directions in this unit. The middle unit includes the evaporites in the Paradox Formation and no laterally extensive flow systems are apparent. The lower unit consists of the rocks below the Paradox Formation where permeabilities vary widely, and the apparent flow direction is toward the west. 108 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Analysis of geophysical well logs from the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley drilling project, San Juan Basin, Northwestern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical well logs were obtained in eight deep holes drilled and cored by the U.S. Geological Survey to examine the geology of the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley area in the southern part of the San Juan basin, New Mexico. The logs were made to determine the petrophysical properties of the rocks penetrated by the holes, to aid in making stratigraphic correlations between the holes, and to estimate the grade of uranium enrichment in mineralized zones. The logs can be divided into six categories-nuclear, electric, sonic, magnetic, dipmeter, and borehole conditions. Examples of these logs are presented and related to lithological and petrophysical properties of the cores recovered. Gamma-ray and prompt fission neutron logs were used to estimate uranium grade in mineralized zones. Resistivity and spontaneous potential logs were used to make stratigraphic correlations between drill holes and to determine the variability of the sandstone:mudstone ratios of the major sedimentary units. In one drill hole a dipmeter log was used to estimate the direction of sediment transport of the fluvial host rock. Magnetic susceptibility logs provided supportive information for a laboratory study of magnetic mineral alteration in drill cores. This study was used to infer the geochemical and hydrologic environment associated with uranium deposition in the project area

  7. Geotechnical conditions at the Konrad mine. Excavation of drifts and rooms in squeezing rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlmann, Joachim; Missal, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The Konrad mine is a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter in Germany. The mine will be rebuilt in the next few years into a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. During this conversion drifts and rooms for operating the repository are extended and newly constructed at shaft 2 on the 2nd floor level (depth 850 m). The planned useful life for the rooms is 40 years. In this period, maintenance-free operation has to be ensured. The bedrock is characterized by complex geology. In addition, the mudstone layers show partly a squeezing behavior. For the proof of stability and usability, the observation method is applied. Therefore numerical prediction models are necessary, which can reproduce the three dimensional stress redistribution and convergences in the rock mass. These numerical calculations are flanked by an extensive geotechnical measurement program in order to detect the real behavior of the bedrock. The underground support system consists of a slotted lining with sliding anchors in the areas where squeezing rock is present. This allows converging of the bedrock. During the convergence period a bearing ring is formed within the rock mass. Afterwards the final lining is created in reinforced shotcrete. One major issue is the assessment of the convergence period taking into account the numerical prediction model and the measurement program.

  8. Morrowan stratigraphy, depositional systems, and hydrocarbon accumulation, Sorrento field, Cheyenne County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchard, D.M.; Kidwell, M.R.

    1983-08-01

    The Sorrento field, located on the western flank of the present-day Las Animas arch in western Cheyenne County, Colorado, has approximately 29 million bbl of oil and 12 bcf of gas in place in sandstones of the Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow units. The sandstones were deposited in a fluvially dominated deltaic system, and the trap for the hydrocarbon accumulation is formed by pinch-out of this deltaic system onto regional dip. The primary reservoirs are point-bar deposits. At the Sorrento field, the basal Keyes limestone member of the Morrow formation rests unconformably on the Mississippian St. Louis Formation. Above the Keyes limestone, the Morrow shale is 180 to 214 ft (55 to 65 m) thick, and locally contains reservoir sands. Gas/oil and oil/water contacts are not uniform through the field owing to discontinuities between separate point bars. One such discontinuity is formed by an apparent mud plug of an abandoned channel separating two point bars on the southeastern end of the field. In a well 7000 ft (2100 m) from the edge of the meander belt, the regressive sequence is represented by a shoreline siltstone unit 8 ft (2 m) thick with flaser bedding, graded bedding, load structures, and rare wave-ripple cross-bedding overlain by 3 ft (1 m) of flood-plain mudstone and coal with no indication of proximity to a nearby sand system.

  9. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Lopingian (Late Permian) coal measures in southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [School of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Shao, Longyi; Hao, Liming; Zhang, Pengfei [School of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Glasspool, Ian J. [Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Wheeley, James R.; Hilton, Jason [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Wignall, Paul B. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Yi, Tongsheng [Guizhou Bureau of Coal Geological Exploration, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Zhang, Mingquan [Coal Geology and Prospecting Institute of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan (China)

    2011-01-01

    The Lopingian coal measures of southwestern China were deposited within a range of facies associations spanning a spectrum of settings from fluvial to marine carbonate platform. The transitional to terrestrial coal measures are dominated by siliciclastics, but they also contain fifteen laterally extensive marine bands (limestone beds and mudstone). These bands act as marker horizons that enable correlation between fully marine and terrestrial facies. Examination of this range of facies and their sedimentology has enabled the development of a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework. Set against the established backdrop of second-order Lopingian transgression, sixteen fourth-order sequences and three composite sequences (third-order) are recognized. Results show that, in the composite sequences, peat accumulation in the seaward parts of the study area predominantly correlates with early transgressive sequence sets (TSS), while in more landward areas it correlates with the middle TSS to late highstand sequence sets (HSS). Differences in peat-accumulation regimes within the sequence stratigraphic framework are attributed to variations in subsidence and background siliciclastic input rates in different depositional settings, with these combining to produce differences in the rate of accommodation change. The preservation of coal resources in the middle to late HSS in this area was most likely related to the rise of the regional base level throughout the Lopingian. (author)

  10. Isotopic (U-Pb, Nd) and geochemical constraints on the origins of the Aileu and Gondwana sequences of Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, S. D.; Spelbrink, L. G.; Lee, R. I.; Sandiford, M.; Maas, R.; Woodhead, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb age data collected from the argillitic sedimentary rocks of the Timorese Aileu Complex and Gondwana Sequence indicate that both units were derived from a common source containing 200-600 Ma, 900-1250 Ma and 1450-1900 Ma zircon. The modally most significant age population within this range of ages dates to c. 260 Ma. The observed spectrum of ages can be traced to the eastern active margin of Pangaea and its immediate foreland, which today is best exposed along the northeast coast of Australia. Compared to the relative homogeneity of the detrital zircon age data, geochemical and Nd isotopic data show that the mudstones of the Aileu Complex are on average more siliceous, have higher K2O/Na2O, Rb/Sr, Th/Sc and yield notably older Nd TDM model ages when compared to those from the Gondwana Sequence. These data are interpreted to suggest that, although both sequences share a common east Pangaea provenance, they were eroded from different sections of this active margin and deposited in spatially separated basins. The present proximity of these units is a result of their tectonic juxtaposition during the Pliocene to Recent collision between the northern edge of the Indo-Australia plate and the Banda Arc.

  11. Geological setting of petroleum systems in central Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.G.; Wall, G.; Macdougal, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : During the Late Cretaceous, central Georgia was located south of the Greater Caucasus basin and on a south-facing destructive continental margin. Om the Santonian, an Andean are developed above the subduction zone. They are rifted in latest Cretaceous or early Paleocene times to form an extensional basin that underwent post-rift thermal subsidence untill the latest part of the Middle Eocene. This formed the eastern part of the eastern Black Sea. The basin filled with depp marine clastic sediments, many volcanogenic. During the late Middle Eocene, the region became compressional for the first time. The sense of movement along Cretaceous extensional faults reversed, causing folding of the Paleogene sediments into tight inversion structures. Compression and fold growth continued to influence late Eocene and Oligocene sedimentation untill regional uplift and peneplanation affected the area prior to the Middle Miocene, related to the development of a foreland bulge produced by compression in the Greater Caucasus. The northern part of the region subsided beneath the growing Caucasus foreland basin during the late Miocene and part of this basin was thrust over the top of the eroded Paleogene basin, mainly along a detachment at the base of the middle Sarmatian. oil accumulations in central Georgia are found throughout the Paleogene post-rift sedimentary sequence, mostly trapped in inversion anticlines that predate middle Miocene erosion. The source rock for the oil is probably the lower part of the upper Eocene marine mudstone sequence.

  12. Petrophysical examination of CO₂-brine-rock interactions-results of the first stage of long-term experiments in the potential Zaosie Anticline reservoir (central Poland) for CO₂ storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Radosław; Wdowin, Magdalena; Manecki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was determination of experiment-induced alterations and changes in the properties of reservoir rocks and sealing rocks sampled from potential reservoir for CO₂. In the experiment, rocks submerged in brine in specially constructed reactors were subjected to CO₂ pressure of 6 MPa for 20 months at room temperature. Samples of Lower Jurassic reservoir rocks and sealing rocks (sandstones, claystones, and mudstones) from the Zaosie Anticline (central Poland) were analysed for their petrophysical properties (specific surface area, porosity, pore size and distribution) before and after the experiment. Comparison of the ionic composition the brines before and after the experiment demonstrated an increase in total dissolved solids as well as the concentration of sulphates and calcium ions. This indicates partial dissolution of the rock matrix and the cements. As a result of the reaction, the properties of reservoir rocks did not changed significantly and should not affect the process of CO₂ storage. In the case of the sealing rocks, however, the porosity, the framework density, as well as the average capillary and threshold diameter increased. Also, the pore distribution in the pore space changed in favour of larger pores. The reasons for these changes could not be explained by petrographic characteristics and should be thoroughly investigated.

  13. Multiscale properties of unconventional reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, W. F.

    A multidisciplinary study of unconventional reservoir rocks is presented, providing the theory, forward modeling and Bayesian inverse modeling approaches, and laboratory protocols to characterize clay-rich, low porosity and permeability shales and mudstones within an anisotropic framework. Several physical models characterizing oil and gas shales are developed across multiple length scales, ranging from microscale phenomena, e.g. the effect of the cation exchange capacity of reactive clay mineral surfaces on water adsorption isotherms, and the effects of infinitesimal porosity compaction on elastic and electrical properties, to meso-scale phenomena, e.g. the role of mineral foliations, tortuosity of conduction pathways and the effects of organic matter (kerogen and hydrocarbon fractions) on complex conductivity and their connections to intrinsic electrical anisotropy, as well as the macro-scale electrical and elastic properties including formulations for the complex conductivity tensor and undrained stiffness tensor within the context of effective stress and poroelasticity. Detailed laboratory protocols are described for sample preparation and measurement of these properties using spectral induced polarization (SIP) and ultrasonics for the anisotropic characterization of shales for both unjacketed samples under benchtop conditions and jacketed samples under differential loading. An ongoing study of the effects of kerogen maturation through hydrous pyrolysis on the complex conductivity is also provided in review. Experimental results are catalogued and presented for various unconventional formations in North America including the Haynesville, Bakken, and Woodford shales.

  14. Shallow magnetic inclinations in the Cretaceous Valle Group, Baja California: remagnetization, compaction, or terrane translation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas P.; Busby, Cathy J.

    1993-10-01

    Paleomagnetic data from Albian to Turonian sedimentary rocks on Cedros Island, Mexico (28.2° N, 115.2° W) support the interpretation that Cretaceous rocks of western Baja California have moved farther northward than the 3° of latitude assignable to Neogene oblique rifting in the Gulf of California. Averaged Cretaceous paleomagnetic results from Cedros Island support 20 ± 10° of northward displacement and 14 ± 7° of clockwise rotation with respect to cratonic North America. Positive field stability tests from the Vizcaino terrane substantiate a mid-Cretaceous age for the high-temperature characteristic remanent magnetization in mid-Cretaceous strata. Therefore coincidence of characteristic magnetization directions and the expected Quaternary axial dipole direction is not due to post mid-Cretaceous remagnetization. A slump test performed on internally coherent, intrabasinal slump blocks within a paleontologically dated olistostrome demonstrates a mid-Cretaceous age of magnetization in the Valle Group. The in situ high-temperature natural remanent magnetization directions markedly diverge from the expected Quaternary axial dipole, indicating that the characteristic, high-temperature magnetization was acquired prior to intrabasinal slumping. Early acquisition of the characteristic magnetization is also supported by a regional attitude test involving three localities in coherent mid-Cretaceous Valle Group strata. Paleomagnetic inclinations in mudstone are not different from those in sandstone, indicating that burial compaction did not bias the results toward shallow inclinations in the Vizcaino terrane.

  15. Organic geochemistry of oil and gas in the Kuqa depression, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digang Liang; Shuichang Zhang; Jianping Chen [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina, Beijing (China); Feiyu Wang [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Peirong Wang [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Jianghan Petroleum Institute (China)

    2003-07-01

    The Kuqa depression in the Tarim Basin, NW China contains significant natural gas and condensate resources, with only small amounts of black oil. This study demonstrates that the primary reason for the accumulation of large natural gas reserves in the Kuqa depression is the high maturity level of the Jurassic coal-bearing sequence that is currently at the peak stage of dry gas generation. From the combined stable carbon isotopes and molecular and biomarker data it is possible to identify two separate source rocks for the discovered hydrocarbon fluids: the gases were primarily from the Middle-Lower Jurassic coals and associated clastic rocks, and the oils were from the Upper Triassic lacustrine mudstones. Peak oil generation from the Triassic source rocks occurred during the early Miocene (23-12 Ma b.p.). These oils migrated laterally over relatively long distances ({approx}20-50 km) reaching the outer periphery of the depression. Peak gas generation took place more recently, perhaps during the past 5 Ma. The gases migrated mainly along faults over relatively short lateral distances, resulting in accumulations adjacent to the over-matured source kitchens. Different timings for the trap formation along the north and south margins and a late injection of gas into early oil accumulations provided favorable conditions for the formation of evaporative condensates and the preservation of gas pools in the more down-dip reservoirs and oil pools in the more up-dip locations. (author)

  16. Age of formation deposition Tunes, Sierra de la Ventana Foldbelt, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandretti, L.; Philipp, R.; Chemale, F.; Ramos, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Sierra de la Ventana, located in east-central Argentina, is the most important recharge area within the South American Plate, an extensive Paleozoic basin, which evolved from a passive margin basin to basin - ante country. The basin developed on the southwestern edge of the supercontinent Gondwana, where magmatic activity occurred in large areal and temporal scale during the Paleozoic, particularly during the Permian . Tufáceos horizons that occur in the Sierra de la Ventana and the Cape Foldbelt Basins and San Rafael, Paraná, Sauce Grande and Karoo can be correlated with this period of intense magmatic activity . Five igneous zircons in an interleaved tufácea layer with sandstones and mudstones of the Tunas Formation, through the U / Pb method were dated using LA - MC - ICP - MS . Yielded an age of 274.3 ± 4.8 Concord Ma for tuffs of the Tunas Formation . Inherited zircons with ages between 623 and 374 Ma, indicate provenance of Patagonian region. Analysis of x -ray diffraction allowed the identification of quartz, plagioclase, smectite and illite mineral constituents of the tufts . The presence of abundant quartz and plagioclase suggests a dacitic volcanism nature to volcanism of southwestern Gondwanan margin and smectite is interpreted as a product of alteration of volcanic material deposited in an aqueous environment

  17. DOE workshop: Sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    A DOE workshop on sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry was held July 15-16, 1993 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Papers were organized into several sections: Fundamental Properties, containing papers on the thermodynamics of brines, minerals and aqueous electrolyte solutions; Geochemical Transport, covering 3-D imaging of drill core samples, hydrothermal geochemistry, chemical interactions in hydrocarbon reservoirs, fluid flow model application, among others; Rock-Water Interactions, with presentations on stable isotope systematics of fluid/rock interaction, fluid flow and petotectonic evolution, grain boundary transport, sulfur incorporation, tracers in geologic reservoirs, geothermal controls on oil-reservoir evolution, and mineral hydrolysis kinetics; Organic Geochemistry covered new methods for constraining time of hydrocarbon migration, kinetic models of petroleum formation, mudstones in burial diagenesis, compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of petroleums, stability of natural gas, sulfur in sedimentary organic matter, organic geochemistry of deep ocean sediments, direct speciation of metal by optical spectroscopies; and lastly, Sedimentary Systems, covering sequence stratigraphy, seismic reflectors and diagenetic changes in carbonates, geochemistry and origin of regional dolomites, and evidence of large comet or asteroid impacts at extinction boundaries.

  18. Facies characterization and sequential evolution of an ancient offshore dunefield in a semi-enclosed sea: Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Schwarz, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    This study analyses a 30-m-thick, sand-dominated succession intercalated between offshore mudstones in the Lower Cretaceous record of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina, defining facies associated with unidirectional currents as sand dunes (simple and compound), rippled sand sheets and heterolithic sheets. These facies associations are related to the development of an offshore, forward-accreting dunefield developed as a response to the onset of a tidal-transport system. The reported stratigraphic record results from the combination of the gradual downcurrent decrease of the current speed together with the long-term climbing of the entire system. Maximum amplification of the tidal effect associated with incoming oceanic tides to this epicontinental sea would develop at the time of more efficient connection between the basin and the open ocean. Thus, the onset of the offshore tidal system approximately corresponds to the time of maximum flooding conditions (or immediately after). The short-term evolution of the tidal-transport system is more complex and characterized by the vertical stacking of small-scale cycles defined by the alternation of episodes of construction and destruction of the dunefield. The development of these cycles could be the response to changes in tidal current speed and transport capacity.

  19. PETROGRAPHY AND APPLICATION OF THE RIETVELD METHOD TO THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHASES OF NATURAL CLINKER GENERATED BY COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinilla A. Jesús Andelfo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Fine-grained and mainly reddish color, compact and slightly breccious and vesicular pyrometamorphic rocks (natural clinker are associated to the spontaneous combustion of coal seams of the Cerrejón Formation exploited by Carbones del Cerrejón Limited in La Guajira Peninsula (Caribbean Region of Colombia. These rocks constitute remaining inorganic materials derived from claystones, mudstones and sandstones originally associated with the coal and are essentially a complex mixture of various amorphous and crystalline inorganic constituents. In this paper, a petrographic characterization of natural clinker, aswell as the application of the X-ray diffraction (Rietveld method by mean of quantitative analysis of its mineral phases were carried out. The RIQAS program was used for the refinement of X ray powder diffraction profiles, analyzing the importance of using the correct isostructural models for each of the existing phases, which were obtained from the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD. The results obtained in this investigation show that the Rietveld method can be used as a powerful tool in the quantitative analysis of phases in polycrystalline samples, which has been a traditional problem in geology.

  20. Late Permian rivers draining the uplifted Cape Fold Belt: magnetostratigraphy and detrital thermochronology of Karoo Basin sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohver, E.; Schmieder, M.; Arosio, R.; Lanci, L.; Jourdan, F.; Wilson, A.; Ratcliffe, K.; Payenberg, T.; Flint, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Cape Fold Belt and Karoo Basin of southern Africa formed during the Permian orogeny that affected the 13,000 km southern margin of the Gondwanan continent. In this report, we synthesize new and recent magnetostratigraphic and geochronologic data to establish a chronostratigraphic framework for Karoo Basin sedimentation for comparison with the thermal/exhumation history of the Cape Fold Belt. The source-sink model is evaluated using new data from detrital muscovite and zircon from 2 km composite section of fluvial sandstone and mudstones deposited at ca.275 - 260 Ma. Coherent age populations of detrital zircon grains indicate rapid incorporation of contemporary volcanic ashbeds into the sedimentary record. In contrast, cooling age distributions of detrital muscovite are typically ca. 5 - 10 Ma older than the age of deposition; similar lag times are observed from modern sediments in active mountain belts. Trace element geochemical signatures demonstrate a clear shift towards crustal recycling via headland erosion in the Beaufort Group relative to the underlying Ecca Group. These observations pinpoint the age of uplift for the Cape Fold Belt, which began to function as the major sediment source for the foreland Karoo Basin with the deposition of the uppermost Ecca Group and basal Beaufort Group.

  1. Applying of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to Identify and Characterize Sweet Spots in Shale Gas Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskarczyk, Edyta

    2018-03-01

    The main goal of the study was to enhance and improve information about the Ordovician and Silurian gas-saturated shale formations. Author focused on: firstly, identification of the shale gas formations, especially the sweet spots horizons, secondly, classification and thirdly, the accurate characterization of divisional intervals. Data set comprised of standard well logs from the selected well. Shale formations are represented mainly by claystones, siltstones, and mudstones. The formations are also partially rich in organic matter. During the calculations, information about lithology of stratigraphy weren't taken into account. In the analysis, selforganizing neural network - Kohonen Algorithm (ANN) was used for sweet spots identification. Different networks and different software were tested and the best network was used for application and interpretation. As a results of Kohonen networks, groups corresponding to the gas-bearing intervals were found. The analysis showed diversification between gas-bearing formations and surrounding beds. It is also shown that internal diversification in sweet spots is present. Kohonen algorithm was also used for geological interpretation of well log data and electrofacies prediction. Reliable characteristic into groups shows that Ja Mb and Sa Fm which are usually treated as potential sweet spots only partially have good reservoir conditions. It is concluded that ANN appears to be useful and quick tool for preliminary classification of members and sweet spots identification.

  2. Dinosaur footprint assemblage from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation, Khorat Group, northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Kozu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Khok Kruat Formation is the upper part of the Khorat Group, which consists of upper Lower Cretaceous non-marine sedimentary rocks in northeastern Thailand. Many dinosaur footprints have been known from the upper Lower Cretaceous (Aptian–Albian Khok Kruat Formation at the Huai Dam Chum (Tha Uthen site, northeastern Thailand. Approximately 600 tracks occur in thin mudstone layer of the northern part of the outcrop at the Huai Dam Chum track site. Two types of footprints, small-sized theropod and crocodylomorph are imprinted with mud cracks and ripple marks on the thin mud layer. Most of footprints are referred to cf. Asianopodus, and are imprinted by small-sized theropoda, probably ornithomimosauria. Theropod tracks are mainly separated into two groups, Group A and Group B. From ichnological viewpoints, the small-sized theropod track assemblage indicates the herd behaviour and its idiosyncratic group composition. In particular, the histogram of size-frequency measurements of Group A shows the anomalous bimodal distribution. We consider that there are two hypotheses; the first one is due to the male-female difference, and the second is a result of the different growing stage.

  3. X-Ray Diffraction on Mars: Scientific Discoveries Made by the CheMin Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Blake, D. F.; Ming, D. W.; Bristow, T. F.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity landed in Gale crater in August 2012 with the goal to identify and characterize habitable environments on Mars. Curiosity has been studying a series of sedimentary rocks primarily deposited in fluviolacustrine environments approximately 3.5 Ga. Minerals in the rocks and soils on Mars can help place further constraints on these ancient aqueous environments, including pH, salinity, and relative duration of liquid water. The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument on Curiosity uses a Co X-ray source and charge-coupled device detector in transmission geometry to collect 2D Debye-Scherrer ring patterns of the less than 150 micron size fraction of drilled rock powders or scooped sediments. With an angular range of approximately 2.52deg 20 and a 20 resolution of approximately 0.3deg, mineral abundances can be quantified with a detection limit of approximately 1-2 wt. %. CheMin has returned quantitative mineral abundances from 16 mudstone, sandstone, and aeolian sand samples so far. The mineralogy of these samples is incredibly diverse, suggesting a variety of depositional and diagenetic environments and different source regions for the sediments. Results from CheMin have been essential for reconstructing the geologic history of Gale crater and addressing the question of habitability on ancient Mars.

  4. Current status of spent fuel disposal program in Taiwan, Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, K.L.; Liu, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    In the year of 1988, Taiwan has completed a two-year preliminary study and began in late 1988 a second term for the final disposal of spent fuel program. The research conducted in the first phase was mainly concentrated on the reviews of international studies and domestic geological literatures, set-up of siting criteria, and pertinent engineering analysis of a repository. Taiwan is an area of complex and unstable geological structures, abundant ground water and high density of population. Favorable host rocks under consideration for permanent waste disposal are thick shales and mudstones, metamorphosed rocks of mesozoic basement, solidified quartzite and mesozoic granitic gneiss. The analysis of heat transfer for hypothetical case studies indicate that the temperature rises in the repository systems would be well below the proposed maximum admissible temperatures. The repository size would be less than 2 km 2 when appropriate period for surface storage of spent fuel is satisfied. A probabilistic risk analysis also demonstrates that the presence of faulting and other tectonic instabilities characterize Taiwan's disadvantages for geological disposal of nuclear waste

  5. Potential Cement Phases in Sedimentary Rocks Drilled by Curiosity at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.; Cavanagh, P.; Farmer, J. D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has encountered a variety of sedimentary rocks in Gale crater with different grain sizes, diagenetic features, sedimentary structures, and varying degrees of resistance to erosion. Curiosity has drilled three rocks to date and has analyzed the mineralogy, chemical composition, and textures of the samples with the science payload. The drilled rocks are the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay on the plains of Gale crater (John Klein and Cumberland targets), the Dillinger sandstone at the Kimberley on the plains of Gale crater (Windjana target), and a sedimentary unit in the Pahrump Hills in the lowermost rocks at the base of Mt. Sharp (Confidence Hills target). CheMin is the Xray diffractometer on Curiosity, and its data are used to identify and determine the abundance of mineral phases. Secondary phases can tell us about aqueous alteration processes and, thus, can help to elucidate past aqueous environments. Here, we present the secondary mineralogy of the rocks drilled to date as seen by CheMin and discuss past aqueous environments in Gale crater, the potential cementing agents in each rock, and how amorphous materials may play a role in cementing the sediments.

  6. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and petrology of neogene rocks in the Deschutes Basin, Central Oregon: a record of continental-margin volcanism and its influence on fluvial sedimentation in an arc-adjacent basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    Neogene rocks of the Deschutes basin include the middle Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group and Simtustus Formation, and late Miocene to early Pliocene Deschutes Formation. Assignment of Prineville chemical-type flows to the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group is based on correlation of these lavas from their type area through the Deschutes basin and onto the Columbia Plateau, where they have been previously mapped as Grande Ronde Basalt. Simtustus Formation is a newly defined unit intercalated with and conformable upon these basalts, and is unconformably overlain by Deschutes Formation. Burial of mature topography by middle Miocene basalts raised local base levels and initiated aggradation by low-gradient streams within the basin represented by the tuffaceous sandstones and mudstones of the Simtustus Formation. These sediments are enriched in pyroclastic constituents relative to contemporaneous Western Cascades volcanics, reflecting preferential incorporation of easily eroded and more widespread pyroclastic debris in distal sedimentary sequences compared to epiclastic contributions from lavas. The abundance of basalts, combined with the paucity of hydrous minerals and FeO and TiO 2 enrichment in intermediate lavas, characterizes early High Cascade volcanics as atypical for convergent-margin arcs. These petrologic characteristics are consistent with high-level fractionation in an extensional regime. Extension culminated in the development of an intra-arc graben, which ended Deschutes Formation deposition by structurally isolating the basin from the High Cascade source area

  7. Research and development of groundwater dating (Part 3). A proposal of determination method for diffusion coefficients of dissolved helium in rock and applicability of estimation of diffusion coefficients using anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashihara, Tomohiro; Nakata, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Takuma

    2006-01-01

    Dissolved helium in groundwater is one of the most suitable tracers for the groundwater dating. The diffusion coefficients in aquitard and aquifer were important to estimate an accumulation of the helium in groundwater. However, few papers have been reported about the diffusion of helium in rocks. In this study, effective diffusion coefficients of the helium in sandstones and mudstone were determined using a through-diffusion method. The effective diffusion coefficients of helium were in the range of 1.5 x 10 -10 to 1.1 x 10 -9 m 2 s -1 and larger than those of Br - ions. Geometrical factors for the diffusion of helium were also larger than those for the diffusion of Br - ions. This fact suggests that diffusion path of helium in the rocks is not more restricted than that of Br - ions. The diffusion coefficients of helium were also estimated using the diffusion coefficient of helium in bulk water and formation factors for diffusion of Br - ions. The estimated diffusion coefficients of helium were larger than the effective diffusion coefficients. It is clarified that the effective diffusion coefficients of helium are underestimated by the estimation method using anions. (author)

  8. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  9. [NIR and XRD analysis of drill-hole samples from Zhamuaobao iron-graphite deposit, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-kui; Cao, Jian-jin; Wu, Zheng-quan; Dai, Dong-le; Lin, Zu-xu

    2015-01-01

    The author analyzed the 4202 drill-hole samples from Zhamuaobao iron-graphite deposit by using near infrared spectroscopy(NIR) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) measuring and testing techniques, and then compared and summarized the results of two kinds of testing technology. The results indicate that some difference of the mineral composition exists among different layers, the lithology from upper to deeper is the clay gravel layer of tertiary and quaternary, mudstone, mica quartz schist, quartz actinolite scarn, skarnization marble, iron ore deposits, graphite deposits and mica quartz schist. The petrogenesis in different depth also shows difference, which may indicate the geological characteristic to some extent. The samples had mainly undergone such processes as oxidization, carbonation, chloritization and skarn alteration. The research results can not only improve the geological feature of the mining area, but also have great importance in ore exploration, mining, mineral processing and so on. What's more, as XRD can provide preliminary information about the mineral composition, NIR can make further judgement on the existence of the minerals. The research integrated the advantages of both NIR and XRD measuring and testing techniques, put forward a method with two kinds of modern testing technology combined with each other, which may improve the accuracy of the mineral composition identification. In the meantime, the NIR will be more wildly used in geography on the basis of mineral spectroscopy.

  10. Diagenesis of diatomite from the Kolubara Coal Basin, Barosevac, Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obradovic, J; Hein, J R; Djurdjevic, J [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Mining and Geology

    1994-09-01

    Diatomite associated with the Kolubara Coal Basin was studied to better understand early stage silica diagenesis of shallow water deposits. The Kolubara Basin consists of Neogene siliciclastic rocks, diatomite, marlstone and rare carbonates. Palaeozoic metamorphic and Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous basement rocks are transgressively overlain by Upper Miocene sandstone, siltstone, shale and mudstone. This Upper Miocene section is transgressively overlain by the Pontian section, which contains diatomite and coal beds. White and grey diatomite form beds 0.7-2.2 m thick that are continuous over an area of about 2 km[sup 2]. Siliceous rocks vary in composition from diatomite (81-89% SiO[sub 2]) to diatom-bearing shale (58-60% SiO[sub 2]). Siliceous deposits are laminated in places, with the laminae defined by variations in clay minerals, organic matter and diatoms. Diatomite shows only incipient diagenesis characterized by the fragmentation of diatom frustules, the minor to moderate corrosion of frustules and the formation of minor amounts of opal-A (X-ray amorphous inorganic opal) cement. The low degree of diagenesis results from the young age of the deposits, low burial temperatures and possibly also from the presence of abundant organic matter and the dissolution of kaolinite. The presence of only weak diagenesis is also reflected by the characteristically poor consolidation of the rocks and low rank of the associated coal.

  11. Upper Paleozoic coal measures and unconventional natural gas systems of the Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper Paleozoic coal measures in the Ordos Basin consist of dark mudstone and coal beds and are important source rocks for gas generation. Gas accumulations include coal-bed methane (CBM, tight gas and conventional gas in different structural areas. CBM accumulations are mainly distributed in the marginal area of the Ordos Basin, and are estimated at 3.5 × 1012 m3. Tight gas accumulations exist in the middle part of the Yishan Slope area, previously regarded as the basin-centered gas system and now considered as stratigraphic lithologic gas reservoirs. This paper reviews the characteristics of tight gas accumulations: poor physical properties (porosity < 8%, permeability < 0.85 × 10−3 μm2, abnormal pressure and the absence of well-defined gas water contacts. CBM is a self-generation and self-reservoir, while gas derived from coal measures migrates only for a short distance to accumulate in a tight reservoir and is termed near-generation and near-reservoir. Both CBM and tight gas systems require source rocks with a strong gas generation ability that extends together over wide area. However, the producing area of the two systems may be significantly different.

  12. Sulfur isotopes of host strata for Howards Pass (Yukon–Northwest Territories) Zn-Pb deposits implicate anaerobic oxidation of methane, not basin stagnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Slack, John F.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Kelley, Karen Duttweiler; Falck, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    A new sulfur isotope stratigraphic profile has been developed for Ordovician-Silurian mudstones that host the Howards Pass Zn-Pb deposits (Canada) in an attempt to reconcile the traditional model of a stagnant euxinic basin setting with new contradictory findings. Our analyses of pyrite confirm the up-section 34S enrichment reported previously, but additional observations show parallel depletion of carbonate 13C, an increase in organic carbon weight percent, and a change in pyrite morphology. Taken together, the data suggest that the 34S enrichment reflects a transition in the mechanism of pyrite formation during diagenesis, not isotopic evolution of a stagnant water mass. Low in the stratigraphic section, pyrite formed mainly in the sulfate reduction zone in association with organic matter–driven bacterial sulfate reduction. In contrast, starting just below the Zn-Pb mineralized horizon, pyrite formed increasingly within the sulfate-methane transition zone in association with anaerobic oxidation of methane. Our new insights on diagenesis have implications for (1) the setting of Zn-Pb ore formation, (2) the reliability of redox proxies involving metals, and (3) the source of ore sulfur for Howards Pass, and potentially for other stratiform Zn-Pb deposits contained in carbonaceous strata.

  13. Sedimentary facies and depositional history of the Swan Islands, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Marvin L.; Breyer, John A.; Britton, Joseph C.

    1980-10-01

    Swan Island is a Honduran possession in the western Caribbean, located on the southeastern side of the Cayman Trench. Two sedimentary assemblages are found on the island: an older bedded sequence of mid-Tertiary age (Aquitanian or Burdigalian) and a younger sedimentary sequence of Late Pleistocene age. The older sequence is composed of a series of calcarenites, calcilutites, and siliciclastic mudstones; capping these are cliff-forming reefal carbonates of the younger sequence. The rocks of the older bedded sequence accumulated in deep water. Sedimentation consisted of a constant rain of pyroclastic debris interrupted by the episodic introduction of upslope carbonate material by turbidity currents. Uplift and deformation of this sequence was initiated sometime after the Early Miocene. By the Late Pleistocene, uplift had brought the rocks into water depths conducive to coral growth. Pleistocene sedimentation on the island was controlled by the interaction between tectonic uplift and eustatic sea-level changes. The primary controlling force on the tectonic history of the island is its proximity to the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates.

  14. Braided fluvial sedimentation in the lower paleozoic cape basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Richard G.; Tankard, Anthony J.

    1981-07-01

    Lower Paleozoic braided stream deposits from the Piekenier Formation in the Cape Province, South Africa, provide information on lateral and vertical facies variability in an alluvial plain complex influenced by a moderate to high runoff. Four braided stream facies are recognized on the basis of distinct lithologies and assemblages of sedimentary structures. A lower facies, dominated by upward-fining conglomerate to sandstone and mudstone channel fill sequences, is interpreted as a middle to lower alluvial plain deposit with significant suspended load sedimentation in areas of moderate to low gradients. These deposits are succeeded by longitudinal conglomerate bars which are attributed to middle to upper alluvial plain sedimentation with steeper gradients. This facies is in turn overlain by braid bar complexes of large-scale transverse to linguoid dunes consisting of coarse-grained pebbly sandstones with conglomerate lenses. These bar complexes are compared with environments of the Recent Platte River. They represent a middle to lower alluvial plain facies with moderate gradients and no significant suspended load sedimentation or vegetation to stabilize channels. These bar complexes interfinger basinward with plane bedded medium to coarse-grained sandstones interpreted as sheet flood deposits over the distal portions of an alluvial plain with low gradients and lacking fine-grained detritus or vegetation.

  15. The sedimentology of uranium-bearing sandstones on the farm Ryst Kuil 351 Beaufort West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.

    1979-06-01

    A study of the sedimentology of some uranium-bearing sandstones on the farm Ryst Kuil 351 was made in order to assess possible relationships between the mineralisation and the sedimentary facies and/or the palaeo-environment. Use was made of 6 vertical profiles, derived from horizontal traverses. 12 sedimentary facies were recognised according to grain-size and sedimentary structure. The transitions between these facies, as derived from the vertical profiles, were subjected to Markov analysis. Only 3 Markov-dependent transitions were derived, but several facies transitions and associations occurred with greater than random frequency. These, together with the vertical profiles, were used to interpret the palaeo-environmental succession. This succession is fluvial meandering and two sub-environments - channel and flood plain - were delineated according to the prevalence of sandstone or mudstone facies. The uranium-bearing sandstones occur in the lower part of a thick (29 - 46m) multistorey point bar sequence within the channel sub-environment. The mineralisation is associated with koffieklip and is restricted to two sedimentary facies - massive very fine-to-finegrained sandstone and horizontally bedded, very fine- to fine-grained sandstone. The mineralisation normally occurs near the bases of the point bars

  16. Permian storm current-produced offshore bars from an ancient shelf sequence : Northwestern Karoo basin, republic of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. M.; Zawada, P. K.

    The Ecca-Beaufort transition zone from the Karoo Basin comprises upward-coarsening sequences which are interpreted as prograding, storm-produced offshore bars. Eight facies are recognised: (A) dark-grey shale, (B) thinly interbedded siltstone and mudstone, (C) thinly interbedded siltstone and very fine-grained sandstone, (D) blue-grey coarse-grained siltstone, (E) low-angle truncated and flat-laminated sandstone, (F) wave-rippled sandstone, (G) planar cross-bedded sandstone, (H) intraformational clay-pellet conglomerate. Four sub-environments are recognised, these being: (1) the bar crest which comprises proximal tempestites, (2) the bar slope consisting of soft-sediment deformed siltstone, (3) the bar fringe/ margin which is composed of storm layers and offshore siltstones and (4) the interbar/offshore environment comprising siltstone and distal storm layers. These bars formed in response to wave and storm processes and migrated across a muddy shelf environment. The orientation of bars was probably coast-parallel to subparallel with respect to the inferred north-northwest-south-southeast coastline. These proposed, storm-produced bars acted as major depo-centres within the shelf setting of the study area. As shelf sediments are recorded from almost the entire northwestern Karoo Basin it is anticipated that bar formation was an important sedimentary factor in the deposition of the sediments now referred to as the Ecca-Beaufort transition zone.

  17. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-5 (C-3002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-18

    SNL-5 (permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-3002) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation in an area north of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site where data are sparse and where a pumping or monitoring well for the northern pumping test is needed. SNL-5 is located in the southeast quarter of section 6, T22S, R31E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-5 was drilled to a total depth of 687 ft below ground level (bgl), based on driller's measurements. Below the caliche pad, SNL-5 encountered the Mescalero caliche, Gatu?a, Dewey Lake, and Rustler Formations. Two intervals of the Rustler were cored: (1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and (2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and into the upper Los Meda?os Members. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to a depth of ~672 ft. No water was observed to flow into the open drillhole until the Culebra was penetrated. includes horizontal beds and laminae near the base, and the uppermost part shows some inclined bedding. The mudstone unit shows mostly reddish brown claystone and siltstone with some gray mottling. Clasts or intraclasts are also included in the unit. The upper Tamarisk sulfate is somewhat brecciated near the base.

  18. Catahoula formation as a source of sedimentary uranium deposits in east Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledger, E.B.; Tieh, T.T.

    1983-01-01

    Volcanic glass-rich mudstone and siltstone samples from the Oligocene/Miocene Catahoula formation of Jasper County, Texas, and coeval volcaniclastic rock samples from Trans-Pecos, Texas, have been compared as to U, Th, Zr, Ti, K, Rb, and Sr contents. Uranium is slightly greater in the distal ash (5.85 ppM U) compared to the Trans-Pecos samples (average 5.41 ppM U). Diagenetic and pedogenetic alteration of Catahoula volcanic glass releases uranium to solution and, under favorable conditions, this uranium may accumulate to form ore bodies. Uranium has been produced from such ore bodies in south Texas, but economic deposits are not known in east Texas. Significant differences between south and east Texas include: (1) a greater amount of volcanic debris delivered to south Texas, both as air-fall ash and stream-transported material, (2) delivery of only air-fill ash to east Texas, (3) the possibility of more petroleum-related reductants such as H 2 S in south Texas, and (4) pervasive glass alteration with subsequent uranium release in south Texas due to late calichification. These differences argue against economic deposits of the south Texas type being found in east Texas. If economic deposits occur they are likely to be far downdip making exploration difficult and expensive

  19. Geological and taphonomic context for the new hominin species Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Paul HGM; Berger, Lee R; Roberts, Eric M; Kramers, Jan D; Hawks, John; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick S; Elliott, Marina; Musiba, Charles M; Churchill, Steven E; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Schmid, Peter; Backwell, Lucinda R; Belyanin, Georgy A; Boshoff, Pedro; Hunter, K Lindsay; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Gurtov, Alia; Harrison, James du G; Hunter, Rick; Kruger, Ashley; Morris, Hannah; Makhubela, Tebogo V; Peixotto, Becca; Tucker, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We describe the physical context of the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave, South Africa, which contains the fossils of Homo naledi. Approximately 1550 specimens of hominin remains have been recovered from at least 15 individuals, representing a small portion of the total fossil content. Macro-vertebrate fossils are exclusively H. naledi, and occur within clay-rich sediments derived from in situ weathering, and exogenous clay and silt, which entered the chamber through fractures that prevented passage of coarser-grained material. The chamber was always in the dark zone, and not accessible to non-hominins. Bone taphonomy indicates that hominin individuals reached the chamber complete, with disarticulation occurring during/after deposition. Hominins accumulated over time as older laminated mudstone units and sediment along the cave floor were eroded. Preliminary evidence is consistent with deliberate body disposal in a single location, by a hominin species other than Homo sapiens, at an as-yet unknown date. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09561.001 PMID:26354289

  20. Integration of thermal digital 3D model and a MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave) as a means of improving monitoring of spoil tip stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewińska, Paulina; Matuła, Rafał; Dyczko, Artur

    2018-01-01

    Spoil tips are anthropogenic terrain structures built of leftover (coal) mining materials. They consist mostly of slate and sandstone or mudstone but also include coal and highly explosive coal dust. Coal soil tip fires cause an irreversible degradation to the environment. Government organizations notice the potential problem of spoil tip hazard and are looking for ways of fast monitoring of their temperature and inside structure. In order to test new monitoring methods an experimental was performed in the area of spoil tip of Lubelski Węgiel "Bogdanka" S.A. A survey consisted of creating a 3D discreet thermal model. This was done in order to look for potential fire areas. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) was done in order to find potential voids within the body of a tip. Existing data was digitalized and a 3D model of object's outside and inside was produced. This article provides results of this survey and informs about advantages of such an approach.

  1. Implementation of a funnel-and-gate remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, K.; Keyes, G.; Sherman, N.

    1997-01-01

    A funnel-and-gate trademark system incorporating activated carbon was deemed the most attractive remediation method for an active lumber mill in the western United States. Petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, pentachlorophenol, and tetrachlorophenol were detected in on-site groundwater samples. The shallow aquifer consists of a heterogeneous mixture of marine deposits and artificial fill, underlain by low-permeability siltstones and mudstone. In the funnel-and-gate trademark system, a low-permeability cutoff wall was installed to funnel groundwater flow to a smaller area (a open-quotes gateclose quotes) where a passive below-grade treatment system treats the plume as it flows through the gate. Groundwater flow modeling focused on the inhomogeneities of the aquifer and the spatial relationship between gate(s) and barrier walls. The gate design incorporates several factors, including contaminant concentration, flow rate, and time between carbon changeouts. To minimize back pressure and maximize residence time, each gate was designed using 1.25-meter (4-foot) diameter corrugated metal pipe filled with a 1.25-meter (4-foot) thick bed of activated carbon. The configuration will allow water to flow through the treatment gates without pumps. The installed system is 190 meters (625 feet) long and treats approximately 76 L/min (20 gpm) during the winter months

  2. El neopaleozoico de la Sierra de Castaño (Cordillera Frontal andina, San Juan, Argentina: Reconstrucción tectónica y paleoambiental The neopaleozoic of the Sierra de Castaño (Andean Cordillera Frontal, San Juan, Argentina: Tectonic and paleoenviromental reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Busquets

    2013-01-01

    ón andina. El más antiguo tuvo lugar próximo al límite Carbonífero-Pérmico, o durante el Pérmico más temprano. El segundo evento de deformación ocurrió hacia fines del Pérmico temprano y se correlaciona con la Fase Tectónica San Rafael, la que señala el inicio del importante volcanismo permotriásico (Grupo Choiyoi extensamente desarrollado a lo largo de la región andina.This paper addresses the stratigraphic analysis of the Late Paleozoic sequence outcroping in the Sierra de Castaño area (Cordillera Frontal, San Juan Province, Argentina. In this region three major stratigraphic units have been recognized. The lower one corresponds to the Cerro Agua Negra Formation (Late Carboniferous-Early Permian? composed of sandstones and mudstones, mainly deposited in shallow marine environments. The San Ignacio Formation (Early Permian covers unconformably the Cerro Agua Negra Formation and it is formed by conglomerates, breccias, sandstones, mudstones, stromatolitic limestones, volcanic and pyroclastic rocks. Three facies associations were recognized in the San Ignacio Formation. The lower (AFa is composed of breccias, conglomerates and lithic sandstones which were very probably deposited in alluvial and fluvial (braided systems that filled the irregular topography carved into the Cerro Agua Negra Formation. The facies association AFb, formed by conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones, characteristically develops metric-scale finning-upward cycles probably formed in high-sinuosity fluvial systems. Regarding the facies association AFc comprises stromatolitic limestones, mudstones, volcanics and pyroclastic rocks which are interpreted as deposited in shallow water bodies under recurrent volcanic activity. The San Ignacio Formation allows characterizing the transition from the prevolcanic sequences belonging to the Cerro Agua Negra Formation to the large volcanic activity represented in the Choiyoi Group (Middle Permian-Early Triassic. Moreover the analyzed sequence

  3. Cavola experiment site: geophysical investigations and deployment of a dense seismic array on a landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Martelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical site investigations have been performed in association with deployment of a dense array of 95 3-component seismometers on the Cavola landslide in the Northern Apennines. The aim of the array is to study propagation of seismic waves in the heterogeneous medium through comparison of observation and modelling. The small-aperture array (130 m×56 m operated continuously for three months in 2004. Cavola landslide consists of a clay body sliding over mudstone-shale basement, and has a record of historical activity, including destruction of a small village in 1960. The site investigations include down-hole logging of P- and S-wave travel times at a new borehole drilled within the array, two seismic refraction lines with both P-wave profiling and surface-wave analyses, geo-electrical profiles and seismic noise measurements. From the different approaches a consistent picture of the depths and seismic velocities for the landslide has emerged. Their estimates agree with resonance frequencies of seismic noise, and also with the logged depths to basement of 25 m at a new borehole and of 44 m at a pre-existing borehole. Velocities for S waves increase with depth, from 230 m/s at the surface to 625 m/s in basement immediately below the landslide.

  4. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  5. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  6. Linking Volcanism and Gas Release from the North East Atlantic Volcanic Province to the PETM: Challenges and Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, H.; Jones, M. T.; Jerram, D. A.; Planke, S.; Kjoberg, S.; Schmid, D. W.; Iyer, K.; Tegner, C.

    2016-12-01

    The main phase of the development of the North East Atlantic Volcanic Province took place about 56 Ma and coincides with the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The volcanic activity was characterized by voluminous flood basalts, large plutonic complexes, sub-marine eruptions, widespread tephra deposition, and emplacement of sills and dikes along the continental margins of Norway, Greenland, Ireland, and the UK. Here we review the style and tempo of volcanism during this important period of Earth's history and discuss the sources and volumes of the carbon gases emitted to the ocean and atmosphere. Moreover, we present new data and models from 1) West Greenland showing the impact on sill intrusions on gas generation from heated Cretaceous mudstones, 2) a 3D seismic survey of gas release structures offshore Norway, and 3) Paleocene-Eocene tephra layers from Svalbard and Denmark. Gas migrated out of the contact aureoles by either explosive venting or by slower seepage towards the seafloor as demonstrated by 3D seismic data. Some of the gas was permanently trapped (dry gas and CO2-rich gas) in the source rocks and aureoles. Combined with high-precision zircon ages and a time model for the PETM, our approach may give robust fluxes that can explain both the onset and the body of the PETM.

  7. The sedimentology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Mooifontein deposit, Orange Free State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynard, H.J.; Jakob, W.R.O.; Le Roux, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    The sedimentology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Mooifontein deposit, which is situated north-west of Edenburg, Orange Free State, has been investigated. The orebody is located stratigraphically in the Adelaide Subgroup of the Karoo Sequence. Palaeocurrent and geological sections afford a picture of a fan-shaped distributary system and together with features such as small-scale channeling, cyclical deposition and an upward coarsening cycle, suggest a lacustrine-delta model of formation. The rocks constituting the deposit are feldspathic greywackes and feldspathic silt- and mudstones and can be divided into five texturally distinguishable groups. The mineralised lenses of the Mooifontein deposit attain a thickness of 7 m which can be split into two or three zones. The average grade of 0,85 kg U 3 O 8 /t is lower than that of the southern Karoo deposits (1 kg U 3 O 8 /t). The shallow depth of the orebody makes it amenable to open-cast mining. Molybdenum concentrations in the deposit are too low to be of economic significance. The sediments have low copper, vanadium and arsenic contents and the above-average calcite content of 9% will result in high acid consumption should an acid leaching process be used for uranium recovery. Both calcite and fluorite are unrelated to the uranium mineralisation. The deposit as a whole appears to have been little affected by post-genetic processes with only minor redistribution of uranium and moderate oxidation of organic carbon and sulphides

  8. Dubois Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodzicki, A.; Krason, J.

    1981-06-01

    Within the Dubois Quadrangle (Idaho and Montana), environments favorable for uranium deposits, based on National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria, occur in the McGowan Creek Formation and within some Tertiary sedimentary basins. The Mississippian McGowan Creek Formation consists of uraniferous, black, siliceous mudstone and chert with minor porous sedimentary channels. In the southern Beaverhead Mountains it has been fractured by a bedding-plane fault, and uranium has been further concentrated by circulating groundwater in the porous channels and brecciated zones, both of which contain about 200 ppM uranium. The northern parts of the Pahsimeroi River, Lemhi River, Medicine Lodge Creek, Horse Prairie, and Sage Creek Basins are considered favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits. Evidence present includes suitable source rocks such as rhyolitic flow breccia, laharic deposits, or strongly welded tuffs; permeable sediments, including most sandstones and conglomerates, providing they do not contain devitrified glass; suitable reductants such as lignite, pyrite, or low-Eh geothermal water; and uranium occurrences

  9. Transverse zones controlling the structural evolution of the Zipaquira Anticline (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia): Regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Helbert; Jiménez, Giovanny

    2016-08-01

    We report paleomagnetic, magnetic fabric and structural results from 21 sites collected in Cretaceous marine mudstones and Paleogene continental sandstones from the limbs, hinge and transverse zones of the Zipaquira Anticline (ZA). The ZA is an asymmetrical fold with one limb completely overturned by processes like gravity and salt tectonics, and marked by several axis curvatures. The ZA is controlled by at least two (2) transverse zones known as the Neusa and Zipaquira Transverse Zones (NTZ and ZTZ, respectively). Magnetic mineralogy methods were applied at different sites and the main carriers of the magnetic properties are paramagnetic components with some sites being controlled by hematite and magnetite. Magnetic fabric analysis shows rigid-body rotation for the back-limb in the ZA, while the forelimb is subjected to internal deformation. Structural and paleomagnetic data shows the influence of the NTZ and ZTZ in the evolution of the different structures like the ZA and the Zipaquira, Carupa, Rio Guandoque, Las Margaritas and Neusa faults, controlling several factors as vergence, extension, fold axis curvature and stratigraphic detatchment. Clockwise rotations unraveled a block segmentation following a discontinuos model caused by transverse zones and one site reported a counter clockwise rotation associated with a left-lateral strike slip component for transverse faults (e.g. the Neusa Fault). We propose that diverse transverse zones have been active since Paleogene times, playing an important role in the tectonic evolution of the Cundinamarca sub-basin and controlling the structural evolution of folds and faults with block segmentation and rotations.

  10. Evolution of Xihulitu basin and its control to uranium ore-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingyin; Li Ziying; Dong Wenming

    2003-01-01

    There is a close relationship between basin filling succession and evolution of the basin. Characteristics of basin evolution can be studied by analyzing the basin filling succession. Two major periods are recognized according to the filling succession and subsequent alteration of the Xihulitu Basin. Evolutionary characteristics of each stage of the basin formation and alteration have been discussed in details. The types and special distribution of uranium metallization are controlled by the scale, connection degree and distribution of sandstone units and impermeable mudstone beds. The environment of uranium ore-formation became favorable as the faults modified the hydrodynamic condition. The basin had been uplifted for a long time after it was filled. Intergranular pores are not destroyed due to the weak mechanical compaction, which is beneficial to groundwater penetrating. Montmorillonitization and zeolitization in some sandstone units are strong because of the high content of volcanic fragments. The major uranium metallization is the phreatic oxidation type. The northern zone of the second sub-basin in the central section of the basin is regarded as the first perspective target for subsequent exploration. (authors)

  11. Dillon quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodzicki, A.; Krason, J.

    1981-04-01

    All geologic conditions in the Dillon quadrangle (Montana and Idaho) have been thoroughly examined, and, using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria, environments are favorable for uranium deposits along fractured zones of Precambrian Y metasediments, in the McGowan Creek Formation, and in some Tertiary sedimentary basins. A 9-m-wide quartz-bearing fractured zone in Precambrian Y quartzites near Gibbonsville contains 175 ppM uranium, probably derived from formerly overlying Challis Volcanics by supergene processes. The Mississippian McGowan Creek Formation consists of uraniferous, black, siliceous mudstone and chert. In the Melrose district it has been fractured by a low-angle fault, and uranium has been further concentrated by circulating ground water in the 2- to 6-m-thick brecciated zones that in outcrop contain 90 to 170 ppM uranium. The Wise River, northern Divide Creek, Jefferson River, Salmon River, Horse Prairie, Beaverhead River, and upper Ruby River Basins are considered favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone. Present are suitable uraniferous source rocks such as the Boulder batholith, rhyolitic flow breccia, laharic deposits, or strongly welded tuffs; permeable sediments, including most sandstones and conglomerates, providing they do not contain devitrified glass; suitable reductants such as lignite, pyrite, or low-Eh geothermal water; and uranium occurrences

  12. Preliminary Test Results of Heshe Hydrogeological Experimental Well Station in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, P.; Liu, C.; Lin, M.; Chan, W.; Lee, T.; Chia, Y.; Teng, M.; Liu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Safe disposal of radioactive waste is a critical issue for the development of nuclear energy. The design of final disposal system is based on the concept of multiple barriers which integrate the natural barriers and engineering barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive wastes. As groundwater is the major medium that can transport radionuclides to our living environment, it is essential to characterize groundwater flow at the disposal site. Taiwan is located at the boundary between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. Geologic formations are often fractured due to tectonic compression and extension. In this study, a well station for the research and development of hydrogeological techniques was established at the Experimental Forest of the National Taiwan University in central Taiwan. There are 10 testing wells, ranging in depth from 25 m to 100 m, at the station. The bedrock beneath the regolith is highly fractured mudstone. As fracture is the preferential pathway of the groundwater flow, the focus of in-situ tests is to investigate the location of permeable fractures and the connection of permeable fractures. Several field tests have been conducted, including geophysical logging, heat-pulse flowmeter, hydraulic test, tracer test and double packer test, for the development of advanced technologies to detect the preferential groundwater flow in fractured rocks.

  13. Beaufort Formation, eastern Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustin, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    On eastern Axel Heiberg Island erosional outliers of the Miocene-early Pliocene Beaufort Formation overlie with angular unconformity, or are faulted against, Mesozoic and early Tertiary strata East of Princess Margaret Arch the Beaufort Formation is divisible into three lithofacies: a conglomerate lithofacies interpreted as alluvial-plain deposits, a sandstone conglomerate lithofacies interpreted as distal alluvial-fan deposits and a sandstone-mudstone-siltstone lithofacies interpreted as alluvial-plain deposits. The floodplain was vegetated by a coniferous forest which was characterized by Picea banksii, Larix, Metasequoia and Alnus. Paleocurrent analysis, facies relationships and petrology of the conglomerates and sandstones indicate the provenance of the Beaufort Formation wa Mesozoic strata to the west. Deposition of the Beaufort Formation on eastern Axel Heiberg Island clearly postdates folding of mid-Eocene and older strata and thus provides a minimum age for orogenesis in this part of the Arctic. The occurrence of faulted massiv conglomerates of the Beaufort Formation provides evidence for Miocene-early Pliocene or earlier uplift of ancestral Princess Margaret Arch and a still-later phase of extension.

  14. Analysis of hydromechanical well tests in fractured sedimentary rock at the NAWC site, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, L.C.; Hisz, D.B.; Ebenhack, J.F.; Fowler, D.E.; Tiedeman, C.R.; Germanovich, L.N.

    2009-01-01

    Hydromechanical well tests involve measuring and interpreting displacements along with hydraulic heads that result when a hydraulic stress is applied to a well. The motivation behind this type of test is that the displacement measurements provide information about the constitutive properties and structure of the aquifer that go beyond what can be derived from pressure signals alone. We used a borehole extensometer to measure transient displacements with a resolution of +/- 25 nm during well tests in fractured mudstone and sandstone at the former Naval Air Warfare Center in West Trenton, New Jersey. One well showed opening displacements on the order of 300nm during slug tests with maximum head changes of 7 m. Inversion of the transient signals suggest that a conductive fracture (aperture = 380 ??m, normal stiffness = 8??10 8 Pa/m) was largely responsible for the pressure signal, but the displacement signal appears to have resulted from both the fracture and deformation of the enveloping sandstone (E = 5 GPa, permeability = 0.6 md). At another well, an anomalous but repeatable signal was characterized by closing displacements during increasing pressure. This displacement signal can be explained by a hydraulically active fracture below the extensometer that became pressurized and compressed the overly sediments. Poroelastic theoretical analyses were inverted to estimate parameters and verify interpretations. Copyright 2009 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association.

  15. Permeability and compressibility of resedimented Gulf of Mexico mudrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, W. S.; Flemings, P. B.; Schneider, J.

    2011-12-01

    We use a constant-rate-of strain consolidation test on resedimented Gulf of Mexico mudrock to determine the compression index (Cc) to be 0.618 and the expansion index (Ce) to be 0.083. We used crushed, homogenized Pliocene and Pleistocene mudrock extracted from cored wells in the Eugene Island block 330 oil field. This powdered material has a liquid limit (LL) of 87, a plastic limit (PL) of 24, and a plasticity index (PI) of 63. The particle size distribution from hydrometer analyses is approximately 65% clay-sized particles (<2 μm) with the remainder being less than 70 microns in diameter. Resedimented specimens have been used to characterize the geotechnical and geophysical behavior of soils and mudstones independent of the variability of natural samples and without the effects of sampling disturbance. Previous investigations of resedimented offshore Gulf of Mexico sediments (e.g. Mazzei, 2008) have been limited in scope. This is the first test of the homogenized Eugene Island core material. These results will be compared to in situ measurements to determine the controls on consolidation over large stress ranges.

  16. Bioremediation in Fractured Rock: 2. Mobilization of Chloroethene Compounds from the Rock Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Allen M; Tiedeman, Claire R; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E; Goode, Daniel J; Hsieh, Paul A; Lacombe, Pierre J; DeFlaun, Mary F; Drew, Scott R; Curtis, Gary P

    2018-03-01

    A mass balance is formulated to evaluate the mobilization of chlorinated ethene compounds (CE) from the rock matrix of a fractured mudstone aquifer under pre- and postbioremediation conditions. The analysis relies on a sparse number of monitoring locations and is constrained by a detailed description of the groundwater flow regime. Groundwater flow modeling developed under the site characterization identified groundwater fluxes to formulate the CE mass balance in the rock volume exposed to the injected remediation amendments. Differences in the CE fluxes into and out of the rock volume identify the total CE mobilized from diffusion, desorption, and nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution under pre- and postinjection conditions. The initial CE mass in the rock matrix prior to remediation is estimated using analyses of CE in rock core. The CE mass mobilized per year under preinjection conditions is small relative to the total CE mass in the rock, indicating that current pump-and-treat and natural attenuation conditions are likely to require hundreds of years to achieve groundwater concentrations that meet regulatory guidelines. The postinjection CE mobilization rate increased by approximately an order of magnitude over the 5 years of monitoring after the amendment injection. This rate is likely to decrease and additional remediation applications over several decades would still be needed to reduce CE mass in the rock matrix to levels where groundwater concentrations in fractures achieve regulatory standards. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Mineralogía de arcillas y nanofósiles calcáreos de las formaciones Jagüel y Roca en el sector oriental del lago Pellegrini, Cuenca Neuquina, República Argentina Clay mineralogy and calcareous nannofossils from Jagüel and Roca formations in the eastern sector of Pellegrini Lake, Neuquen Basin, República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Musso

    2012-09-01

    hacia posiciones más altas del Daniano, lo cual podría indicar un clima cálido y más húmedo en este intervalo, que tendería a condiciones menos húmedas y estacionales hacia el Daniano tardío. Las asociaciones de nanofósiles calcáreos maastrichtianos sugerirían la existencia de ambientes oligotróficos con buena estratificación de la capa fótica, aunque en algunos niveles la nanoflora es abundante y con menor riqueza específica, lo que indica condiciones marinas más restringidas.This study presents new mineralogical, sedimentologi-cal, and micropaleontological data from the Jagüel (Late Maastrichtian-Early Danian and Roca (Danian formations, located in the eastern sector of Pellegrini Lake, Río Negro province, República Argentina. According to the physical characteristics and the age of the sediments that conform these formations, two siliciclastic lithofacies and a carbonate one were recognized, they are named: Maastrichtian grayish yellow calcareous mudstones, Danian olive gray calcareous mudstones, and Danian carbonates. The rocks which constitutes siliciclastic lithofacies were classified as allochemical mudstones and the mineralogy is characterized by high proportions of clay minerals and, to a lesser extent, calcite. The clay mineral association is dominated by a random (R0 I/S mixed-layers (70-90% Sm accompanied by lower proportions of illite and kaolinite. The mineralogy and the microfabric of the mudstones reflect that these sediments have not been affected significantly by diagenesis. Clay minerals would be of detrital origin and the predominance of the highly smectitic I/S along all sections would be associated with an active volcanism coming from the western magmatic arc, located in the Neuquén Basin during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. Micropalaeontological analyses confirmed the presence of Cretaceous-Paleogene transition in the Jagüel Formation beds. The calcareous nannofossils allowed to relate changes in the the mineralogical

  18. Numerical simulation of roadway support in a sandstone-type uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huipeng; Li Yu; Song Lixia

    2009-01-01

    At present, the most surrounding rocks of sandstone-type uranium mines in China are mudstone, sandstone, pelitic siltstone, and so on. They show the characteristics of soft rock. Such uranium deposit is not fit for in-situ leaching. If the uranium ores are mined by conventional mining method, one of the problems to be solved is the support technique in the soft rock roadway. So, taking a uranium mine in Inner Mongolia as the research object, the support technique in the soft rock roadway of the sandstone-type uranium deposits is studied. Through on-site engineering geological investigation and laboratory test, the main reasons for roadway damage are analyzed. A technique of support in the soft rock roadway of sandstone-type uranium deposits is put forward by drawing on the expericnce of soft rock roadway support in coal mines. The roadway shape and support parameters are optimized by using a numerical simulati