WorldWideScience

Sample records for mucosal peroxide transport

  1. Intestinal glutathione: determinant of mucosal peroxide transport, metabolism, and oxidative susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aw, Tak Yee

    2005-01-01

    The intestine is a primary site of nutrient absorption and a critical defense barrier against dietary-derived mutagens, carcinogens, and oxidants. Accumulation of oxidants like peroxidized lipids in the gut lumen can contribute to impairment of mucosal metabolic pathways, enterocyte dysfunction independent of cell injury, and development of gut pathologies, such as inflammation and cancer. Despite this recognition, we know little of the pathways of intestinal transport, metabolism, and luminal disposition of dietary peroxides in vivo or of the underlying mechanisms of lipid peroxide-induced genesis of intestinal disease processes. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of the determinants of intestinal absorption and metabolism of peroxidized lipids. I will review experimental evidence from our laboratory and others (Table 1) supporting the pivotal role that glutathione (GSH) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) play in mucosal transport and metabolism of lipid hydroperoxides and how reductant availability can be compromised under chronic stress such as hypoxia, and the influence of GSH on oxidative susceptibility, and redox contribution to genesis of gut disorders. The discussion is pertinent to understanding dietary lipid peroxides and GSH redox balance in intestinal physiology and pathophysiology and the significance of luminal GSH in preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelium

  2. The Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenger, Catalase, Alleviates Ion Transport Dysfunction in Murine Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kim E.; McCole, Declan F.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contribute to epithelial damage and ion transport dysfunction (key events in inflammatory diarrhea) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to identify if H2O2 mediates suppression of colonic ion transport function in the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model by using the H2O2 degrading enzyme, catalase. Colitis was induced by administering DSS (4%) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 3 days on normal H2O. Mice were administered either pegylated-catalase or saline at day −1, 0 and +1 of DSS treatment. Ion transport responses to the Ca2+-dependent agonist, carbachol (CCh), or the cAMP-dependent agonist, forskolin, were measured across distal colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers. Parameters of DSS-induced inflammation (loss in body weight, decreased colon length, altered stool consistency), were only partially alleviated by catalase while histology was only minimally improved. However, catalase significantly reversed the DSS-induced reduction in baseline ion transport as well as colonic Isc responses to CCh. However, ion transport responses to forskolin were not significantly restored. Catalase also reduced activation of ERK MAP kinase in the setting of colitis, and increased expression of the Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter, NKCC1, consistent with restoration of ion transport function. Ex vivo treatment of inflamed colonic mucosae with catalase also partially restored ion transport function. Therefore, catalase partially prevents, and rescues, the loss of ion transport properties in DSS colitis even in the setting of unresolved tissue inflammation. These findings indicate a prominent role for ROS in ion transport dysfunction in colitis and may suggest novel strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diarrhea. PMID:27543846

  3. Hydrogen peroxide scavenger, catalase, alleviates ion transport dysfunction in murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kim E; McCole, Declan F

    2016-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) contribute to epithelial damage and ion transport dysfunction (key events in inflammatory diarrhoea) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to identify if H 2 O 2 mediates suppression of colonic ion transport function in the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model by using the H 2 O 2 degrading enzyme, catalase. Colitis was induced by administering DSS (4%) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 3 days on normal H 2 O. Mice were administered either pegylated catalase or saline at day -1, 0 and +1 of DSS treatment. Ion transport responses to the Ca 2+ -dependent agonist, carbachol (CCh), or the cAMP-dependent agonist, forskolin, were measured across distal colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers. Parameters of DSS-induced inflammation (loss in body weight, decreased colon length, altered stool consistency), were only partially alleviated by catalase while histology was only minimally improved. However, catalase significantly reversed the DSS-induced reduction in baseline ion transport as well as colonic I sc responses to CCh. However, ion transport responses to forskolin were not significantly restored. Catalase also reduced activation of ERK MAP kinase in the setting of colitis, and increased expression of the Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporter, NKCC1, consistent with restoration of ion transport function. Ex vivo treatment of inflamed colonic mucosae with catalase also partially restored ion transport function. Therefore, catalase partially prevents, and rescues, the loss of ion transport properties in DSS colitis even in the setting of unresolved tissue inflammation. These findings indicate a prominent role for ROS in ion transport dysfunction in colitis and may suggest novel strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diarrhoea. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Transport and cycling of iron and hydrogen peroxide in a freshwater stream: Influence of organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Durelle T.; Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Voelker, Bettina M.; Kimball, Briant A.; Carraway, Elizabeth R.

    2003-01-01

    An in-stream injection of two dissolved organic acids (phthalic and aspartic acids) was performed in an acidic mountain stream to assess the effects of organic acids on Fe photoreduction and H2O2 cycling. Results indicate that the fate of Fe is dependent on a net balance of oxidative and reductive processes, which can vary over a distance of several meters due to changes in incident light and other factors. Solution phase photoreduction rates were high in sunlit reaches and were enhanced by the organic acid addition but were also limited by the amount of ferric iron present in the water column. Fe oxide photoreduction from the streambed and colloids within the water column resulted in an increase in the diurnal load of total filterable Fe within the experimental reach, which also responded to increases in light and organic acids. Our results also suggest that Fe(II) oxidation increased in response to the organic acids, with the result of offsetting the increase in Fe(II) from photoreductive processes. Fe(II) was rapidly oxidized to Fe(III) after sunset and during the day within a well-shaded reach, presumably through microbial oxidation. H2O 2, a product of dissolved organic matter photolysis, increased downstream to maximum concentrations of 0.25 ??M midday. Kinetic calculations show that the buildup of H2O2 is controlled by reaction with Fe(III), but this has only a small effect on Fe(II) because of the small formation rates of H2O2 compared to those of Fe(II). The results demonstrate the importance of incorporating the effects of light and dissolved organic carbon into Fe reactive transport models to further our understanding of the fate of Fe in streams and lakes.

  5. Impaired carbohydrate digestion and transport and mucosal dysbiosis in the intestines of children with autism and gastrointestinal disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brent L; Hornig, Mady; Buie, Timothy; Bauman, Margaret L; Cho Paik, Myunghee; Wick, Ivan; Bennett, Ashlee; Jabado, Omar; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances are commonly reported in children with autism, complicate clinical management, and may contribute to behavioral impairment. Reports of deficiencies in disaccharidase enzymatic activity and of beneficial responses to probiotic and dietary therapies led us to survey gene expression and the mucoepithelial microbiota in intestinal biopsies from children with autism and gastrointestinal disease and children with gastrointestinal disease alone. Ileal transcripts encoding disaccharidases and hexose transporters were deficient in children with autism, indicating impairment of the primary pathway for carbohydrate digestion and transport in enterocytes. Deficient expression of these enzymes and transporters was associated with expression of the intestinal transcription factor, CDX2. Metagenomic analysis of intestinal bacteria revealed compositional dysbiosis manifest as decreases in Bacteroidetes, increases in the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, and increases in Betaproteobacteria. Expression levels of disaccharidases and transporters were associated with the abundance of affected bacterial phylotypes. These results indicate a relationship between human intestinal gene expression and bacterial community structure and may provide insights into the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disturbances in children with autism.

  6. Inhibition of insulin-stimulated hydrogen peroxide production prevents stimulation of sodium transport in A6 cell monolayers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markadieu, N.Y.G.; Crutzen, R.; Boom, A.; Erneux, C.; Beauwens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated sodium transport across A6 cell (derived from amphibian distal nephron) monolayers involves the activation of a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. We previously demonstrated that exogenous addition of H2O2 to the incubation medium of A6 cell monolayers provokes an increase in PI

  7. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  8. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feber, T. [Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author).

  9. Management of mucositis in oral irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feber, T.

    1996-01-01

    Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical radiotherapy treatment (55-60 Gy in 4 weeks) to more than 50% of the oral cavity and oropharynx were randomized to a research based oral care protocol with either saline 0.9% or hydrogen peroxide 3.5 volumes (HP) as rinses. The results of this study show that, on average, the group receiving saline rinses appeared to do better on some outcomes than the group receiving HP. This suggests that frequent mechanical cleansing of the mouth may be more important than the antiseptic properties of a mouthwash. Antiseptic mouthwashes may be contra-indicated in radiation mucositis. In order to determine best practice in mucositis management, multicentre, multidisciplinary trials should be conducted. (Author)

  10. New frontiers in mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Douglas E; Keefe, Dorothy M; Sonis, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Mucositis is among the most debilitating side effects of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted anticancer therapy. Research continues to escalate regarding key issues such as etiopathology, incidence and severity across different mucosae, relationships between mucosal and nonmucosal toxicities, and risk factors. This approach is being translated into enhanced management strategies. Recent technology advances provide an important foundation for this continuum. For example, evolution of applied genomics is fostering development of new algorithms to rapidly screen genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for patient-associated risk prediction. This modeling will permit individual tailoring of the most effective, least toxic treatment in the future. The evolution of novel cancer therapeutics is changing the mucositis toxicity profile. These agents can be associated with unique mechanisms of mucosal damage. Additional research is needed to optimally manage toxicity caused by agents such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, without reducing antitumor effect. There has similarly been heightened attention across the health professions regarding clinical practice guidelines for mucositis management in the years following the first published guidelines in 2004. New opportunities exist to more effectively interface this collective guideline portfolio by capitalizing upon novel technologies such as an Internet-based Wiki platform. Substantive progress thus continues across many domains associated with mucosal injury in oncology patients. In addition to enhancing oncology patient care, these advances are being integrated into high-impact educational and scientific venues including the National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query (PDQ) portfolio as well as a new Gordon Research Conference on mucosal health and disease scheduled for June 2013.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to review the safety issues involved in handling hydrogen peroxide solutions. Most of the information found in the literature is not directly applicable to conditions at the Rocky Flats Plant, but one report describes experimental work conducted previously at Rocky Flats to determine decomposition reaction-rate constants for hydrogen peroxide solutions. Data from this report were used to calculate decomposition half-life times for hydrogen peroxide in solutions containing several decomposition catalysts. The information developed from this survey indicates that hydrogen peroxide will undergo both homogeneous and heterogeneous decomposition. The rate of decomposition is affected by temperature and the presence of catalytic agents. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by alkalies, strong acids, platinum group and transition metals, and dissolved salts of transition metals. Depending upon conditions, the consequence of a hydrogen peroxide decomposition can range from slow evolution of oxygen gas to a vapor, phase detonation of hydrogen peroxide vapors

  12. Production of uranium peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caropreso, F.E.; Kreuz, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    A process is claimed of recovering uranium values as uranium peroxide from an aqueous uranyl solution containing dissolved vanadium and sodium impurities by treating the uranyl solution with hydrogen peroxide in an amount sufficient to have an excess of at least 0.5 parts H 2 O 2 per part of vanadium (V 2 O 5 ) above the stoichiometric amount required to form the uranium peroxide, the hydrogen peroxide treatment is carried out in three sequential phases consisting of I, a precipitation phase in which the hydrogen peroxide is added to the uranyl solution to precipitate the uranium peroxide and the pH of the reaction medium maintained in the range of 2.5 to 5.5 for a period of from about 1 to 60 minutes after the hydrogen peroxide addition; II, a digestion phase in which the pH of the reaction medium is maintained in the range of 3.0 to 7.0 for a period of about 5 to 180 minutes and III, a final phase in which the pH of the reaction medium is maintained in the range of 4.0 to 7.0 for a period of about 1 to 60 minutes during which time the uranium peroxide is separated from the reaction solution containing the dissolved vanadium and sodium impurities. The excess hydrogen peroxide is maintained during the entire treatment up until the uranium peroxide is separated from the reaction medium

  13. Neonatal mucosal immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torow, N; Marsland, B J; Hornef, M W; Gollwitzer, E S

    2017-01-01

    Although largely deprived from exogenous stimuli in utero, the mucosal barriers of the neonate after birth are bombarded by environmental, nutritional, and microbial exposures. The microbiome is established concurrently with the developing immune system. The nature and timing of discrete interactions between these two factors underpins the long-term immune characteristics of these organs, and can set an individual on a trajectory towards or away from disease. Microbial exposures in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are some of the key determinants of the overall immune tone at these mucosal barriers and represent a leading target for future intervention strategies. In this review, we discuss immune maturation in the gut and lung and how microbes have a central role in this process.

  14. Serosal-to-mucosal urea flux across the isolated ruminal epithelium is mediated via urea transporter-B and aquaporins when Holstein calves are abruptly changed to a moderately fermentable diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, M E; Schurmann, B L; Górka, P; Penner, G B; Loewen, M E; Mutsvangwa, T

    2015-02-01

    Urea transport (UT-B) proteins are known to facilitate urea movement across the ruminal epithelium; however, other mechanisms may be involved as well because inhibiting UT-B does not completely abolish urea transport. Of the aquaporins (AQP), which are a family of membrane-spanning proteins that are predominantly involved in the movement of water, AQP-3, AQP-7, and AQP-10 are also permeable to urea, but it is not clear if they contribute to urea transport across the ruminal epithelium. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the functional roles of AQP and UT-B in the serosal-to-mucosal urea flux (Jsm-urea) across rumen epithelium; and (2) whether functional adaptation occurs in response to increased diet fermentability. Twenty-five Holstein steer calves (n=5) were assigned to a control diet (CON; 91.5% hay and 8.5% vitamin and mineral supplement) or a medium grain diet (MGD; 41.5% barley grain, 50% hay, and 8.5% vitamin and mineral) that was fed for 3, 7, 14, or 21 d. Calves were killed and ruminal epithelium was collected for mounting in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions and for analysis of mRNA abundance of UT-B and AQP-3, AQP-7, and AQP-10. To mimic physiologic conditions, the mucosal buffer (pH 6.2) contained no urea, whereas the serosal buffer (pH 7.4) contained 1 mM urea. The fluxes of (14)C-urea (Jsm-urea; 26 kBq/10 mL) and (3)H-mannitol (Jsm-mannitol; 37 kBq/10 mL) were measured, with Jsm-mannitol being used as an indicator of paracellular or hydrophilic movement. Serosal addition of phloretin (1 mM) was used to inhibit UT-B-mediated urea transport, whereas NiCl2 (1 mM) was used to inhibit AQP-mediated urea transport. Across treatments, the addition of phloretin or NiCl2 reduced the Jsm-urea from 116.5 to 54.0 and 89.5 nmol/(cm(2) × h), respectively. When both inhibitors were added simultaneously, Jsm-urea was further reduced to 36.8 nmol/(cm(2) × h). Phloretin-sensitive and NiCl2-sensitive Jsm-urea were not affected by diet. The

  15. New Pathways for Alimentary Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Bowen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alimentary mucositis is a major dose-limiting toxicity associated with anticancer treatment. It is responsible for reducing patient quality of life and represents a significant economic burden in oncology. The pathobiology of alimentary mucositis is extremely complex, and an increased understanding of mechanisms and pathway interactions is required to rationally design improved therapies. This review describes the latest advances in defining mechanisms of alimentary mucositis pathobiology in the context of pathway activation. It focuses particularly on the recent genome-wide analyses of regimen-related mucosal injury and the identification of specific regulatory pathways implicated in mucositis development. This review also discusses the currently known alimentary mucositis risk factors and the development of novel treatments. Suggestions for future research directions have been raised.

  16. Mucosal melanosis associated with chemoembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal lesions due to underlying disease or drug toxicity, are important part of oncology practice. Patient with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was treated with chemoembolisation. She presented with new onset of mucosal hyperpigmented lesion all through her oral cavity. Biopsy was consistent with mucosal melanosis, which was associated with the chemotherapeutics used in the chemoembolisation procedure. Lesion progressively improved without any treatment. Here we present an mucosal melanosis experience after chemoembolisation. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 189-191

  17. Mucosal immunity to poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Pearay L; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Sutter, Roland W

    2011-10-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) currently based on use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has identified suboptimal immunogenicity of this vaccine as a major impediment to eradication, with a failure to induce protection against paralytic poliomyelitis in certain population segments in some parts of the world. The Mucosal Immunity and Poliovirus Vaccines: Impact on Wild Poliovirus Infection, Transmission and Vaccine Failure conference was organized to obtain a better understanding of the current status of global control of poliomyelitis and identify approaches to improve the immune responsiveness and effectiveness of the orally administered poliovirus vaccines in order to accelerate the global eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis.

  18. Mucosal immunology and virology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyring, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    .... A third chapter focuses on the proximal end of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. the oral cavity). The mucosal immunology and virology of the distal end of the gastrointestinal tract is covered in the chapter on the anogenital mucosa. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) plays a role in protection against all viral (and other) infections except those that enter the body via a bite (e.g. yellow fever or dengue from a mosquito or rabies from a dog) or an injection or transfusion (e.g. HIV, Hepatitis B). ...

  19. Alteration of the redox state with reactive oxygen species for 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Yoshino

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is often induced in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy treatment. It has been reported that oral mucositis can reduce quality of life, as well as increasing the incidence of mortality. The participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis is well known, but no report has actually demonstrated the presence of ROS. Thus, the purpose of this study was thus to demonstrate the involvement of ROS and the alteration of the redox state in oral mucositis using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance (ESR technique. An oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with 10% acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch was used. Lipid peroxidation was measured as the level of malondialdehyde determined by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. The rate constants of the signal decay of nitroxyl compounds using in vivo L-band ESR were calculated from the signal decay curves. Firstly, we established the oral mucositis animal model induced by treatment of 5-fluorouracil with acetic acid in hamster cheek pouch. An increased level of lipid peroxidation in oral mucositis was found by measuring malondialdehyde using isolated hamster cheek pouch ulcer. In addition, as a result of in vivo L-band ESR measurements using our model animals, the decay rate constants of carbamoyl-PROXYL, which is a reagent for detecting the redox balance in tissue, were decreased. These results suggest that a redox imbalance might occur by excessive generation of ROS at an early stage of oral mucositis and the consumption of large quantities of antioxidants including glutathione in the locality of oral mucositis. These findings support the presence of ROS involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis with anti-cancer therapy, and is useful for the development of novel therapies drugs for oral mucositis.

  20. Ascorbic acid deficiency aggravates stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Chiba, S; Imai, Y; Kamiya, Y; Arisawa, T; Kitagawa, A

    2006-12-01

    We examined whether ascorbic acid (AA) deficiency aggravates water immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats. ODS rats received scorbutic diet with either distilled water containing AA (1 g/l) or distilled water for 2 weeks. AA-deficient rats had 12% of gastric mucosal AA content in AA-sufficient rats. AA-deficient rats showed more severe gastric mucosal lesions than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h after the onset of WIRS, although AA-deficient rats had a slight decrease in gastric mucosal AA content, while AA-sufficient rats had a large decrease in that content. AA-deficient rats had more decreased gastric mucosal nonprotein SH and vitamin E contents and increased gastric mucosal lipid peroxide content than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h of WIRS. These results indicate that AA deficiency aggravates WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions in ODS rats by enhancing oxidative damage in the gastric mucosa.

  1. Protein oxidation and peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are major targets for radicals and two-electron oxidants in biological systems due to their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. With highly reactive radicals damage occurs at multiple side-chain and backbone sites. Less reactive species show greater selectivity with regard...... to the residues targeted and their spatial location. Modification can result in increased side-chain hydrophilicity, side-chain and backbone fragmentation, aggregation via covalent cross-linking or hydrophobic interactions, protein unfolding and altered conformation, altered interactions with biological partners...... and modified turnover. In the presence of O2, high yields of peroxyl radicals and peroxides (protein peroxidation) are formed; the latter account for up to 70% of the initial oxidant flux. Protein peroxides can oxidize both proteins and other targets. One-electron reduction results in additional radicals...

  2. Protective effect of ginsenoside Re on acute gastric mucosal lesion induced by compound 48/80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of ginsenoside Re, isolated from ginseng berry, against acute gastric mucosal lesions was examined in rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 (C48/80. Ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg was orally administered 0.5 h prior to C48/80 treatment. Ginsenoside Re dose-dependently prevented gastric mucosal lesion development 3 h after C48/80 treatment. Increases in the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO; an index of neutrophil infiltration and xanthine oxidase (XO and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; an index of lipid peroxidation and decreases in the contents of hexosamine (a marker of gastric mucus and adherent mucus, which occurred in gastric mucosal tissues after C48/80 treatment, were significantly attenuated by ginsenoside Re. The elevation of Bax expression and the decrease in Bcl2 expression after C48/80 treatment were also attenuated by ginsenoside Re. Ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated all these changes 3 h after C48/80 treatment. These results indicate that orally administered ginsenoside Re protects against C48/80-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions in rats, possibly through its stimulatory action on gastric mucus synthesis and secretion, its inhibitory action on neutrophil infiltration, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosal tissue.

  3. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    . With the introduction of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors for the treatment of UC, it has become increasingly evident that the disease course is influenced by whether or not the patient achieves mucosal healing. Thus, patients with mucosal healing have fewer flare-ups, a decreased risk of colectomy......, and a lower probability of developing colorectal cancer. Understanding the mechanisms of mucosal wound formation and wound healing in UC, and how they are affected therapeutically is therefore of importance for obtaining efficient treatment strategies holding the potential of changing the disease course of UC....... This review is focused on the pathophysiological mechanism of mucosal wound formation in UC as well as the known mechanisms of intestinal wound healing. Regarding the latter topic, pathways of both wound healing intrinsic to epithelial cells and the wound-healing mechanisms involving interaction between...

  4. Cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes are characterized by pain, burning sensation, numbness or paraesthesia of a particular part of the skin or mucosal surface without any visible signs. They are usually sensory disorders, sometimes with a great deal of psychologic overlay. In this article various conditions have been listed and are described. The possible causative mechanisms are discussed when they are applicable and the outline of their management is described.

  5. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  6. Effects of sucralfate on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis in cultured guinea pig gastric mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tatsuya; Takano, Tatsunori; Tomisato, Wataru; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Koura, Yuko; Nishimoto, Kiyo; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Mizushima, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that several gastric irritants, including ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and hydrochloric acid, induced both necrosis and apoptosis in cultured gastric mucosal cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralfate, a unique gastroprotective drug, on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis produced in vitro. Sucralfate strongly inhibited ethanol-induced necrosis in primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells. The preincubation of cells with sucralfate was not necessary for its cytoprotective effect to be observed, thus making its mechanism of action different from that of other gastroprotective drugs. Necrosis of gastric mucosal cells induced by hydrogen peroxide or indomethacin was also suppressed by sucralfate. On the other hand, sucralfate only weakly inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effect of sucralfate on gastric mucosa in vivo can be explained, at least in part, by its inhibitory effect on gastric irritant-induced necrosis.

  7. Peroxide organometallic compounds and their transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razuvaev, G.A.; Brilkina, T.G.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given experimental works on synthesis and reactions of peroxide organometallic compounds. Reactions have been considered of organometallic compounds with oxygen and organic peroxides which result in formation of both peroxide and non-peroxide products. Possible routes and mechanisms of chemical transformations of peroxide organometallic compounds have been discussed. Reactions of organometallic compounds with oxygen and peroxides have been considered

  8. Uranyl peroxide enhanced nuclear fuel corrosion in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Christopher R; Nyman, May; Shvareva, Tatiana; Sigmon, Ginger E; Burns, Peter C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2012-02-07

    The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident brought together compromised irradiated fuel and large amounts of seawater in a high radiation field. Based on newly acquired thermochemical data for a series of uranyl peroxide compounds containing charge-balancing alkali cations, here we show that nanoscale cage clusters containing as many as 60 uranyl ions, bonded through peroxide and hydroxide bridges, are likely to form in solution or as precipitates under such conditions. These species will enhance the corrosion of the damaged fuel and, being thermodynamically stable and kinetically persistent in the absence of peroxide, they can potentially transport uranium over long distances.

  9. Absorption of iron in the aged; investigation of mucosal-uptake, mucosal-transfer and retention of a physiological dose of inorganic iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, J.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Iron (II) and iron (III) uptake by the mucosal cells, the retention in the body, and the mucosal-transport fraction were studied in 40 healthy people over 65 years old, in 30 young adults and in 20 patients with iron-deficiency. The study was performed with 59 Fe as a tracer and 51 Cr as an inert indicator. The radioactivity was measured with a whole body scanner 24 hours and 24 days after ingestion

  10. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  11. The Mucosal Immune System of Teleost Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Salinas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess an adaptive immune system associated with each of their mucosal body surfaces. Evidence obtained from mucosal vaccination and mucosal infection studies reveal that adaptive immune responses take place at the different mucosal surfaces of teleost. The main mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT of teleosts are the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT, the gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT and the recently discovered nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT. Teleost MALT includes diffuse B cells and T cells with specific phenotypes different from their systemic counterparts that have co-evolved to defend the microbe-rich mucosal environment. Both B and T cells respond to mucosal infection or vaccination. Specific antibody responses can be measured in the gills, gut and skin mucosal secretions of teleost fish following mucosal infection or vaccination. Rainbow trout studies have shown that IgT antibodies and IgT+ B cells are the predominant B cell subset in all MALT and respond in a compartmentalized manner to mucosal infection. Our current knowledge on adaptive immunity in teleosts is limited compared to the mammalian literature. New research tools and in vivo models are currently being developed in order to help reveal the great intricacy of teleost mucosal adaptive immunity and help improve mucosal vaccination protocols for use in aquaculture.

  12. 21 CFR 172.802 - Acetone peroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetone peroxides. 172.802 Section 172.802 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.802 Acetone peroxides. The food additive acetone peroxides may be safely used in... acetone peroxide, with minor proportions of higher polymers, manufactured by reaction of hydrogen peroxide...

  13. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  14. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Hughes

    Full Text Available Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible.To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension.Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  15. Cystic fibrosis: a mucosal immunodeficiency syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taylor Sitarik; Prince, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as a channel that regulates the transport of ions and the movement of water across the epithelial barrier. Mutations in CFTR, which form the basis for the clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis, affect the epithelial innate immune function in the lung, resulting in exaggerated and ineffective airway inflammation that fails to eradicate pulmonary pathogens. Compounding the effects of excessive neutrophil recruitment, the mutant CFTR channel does not transport antioxidants to counteract neutrophil-associated oxidative stress. Whereas mutant CFTR expression in leukocytes outside of the lung does not markedly impair their function, the expected regulation of inflammation in the airways is clearly deficient in cystic fibrosis. The resulting bacterial infections, which are caused by organisms that have substantial genetic and metabolic flexibility, can resist multiple classes of antibiotics and evade phagocytic clearance. The development of animal models that approximate the human pulmonary phenotypes—airway inflammation and spontaneous infection—may provide the much-needed tools to establish how CFTR regulates mucosal immunity and to test directly the effect of pharmacologic potentiation and correction of mutant CFTR function on bacterial clearance. PMID:22481418

  16. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  17. Mucosal Ecological Network of Epithelium and Immune Cells for Gut Homeostasis and Tissue Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Yosuke; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2017-04-26

    The intestinal epithelial barrier includes columnar epithelial, Paneth, goblet, enteroendocrine, and tuft cells as well as other cell populations, all of which contribute properties essential for gastrointestinal homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa is covered by mucin, which contains antimicrobial peptides and secretory IgA and prevents luminal bacteria, fungi, and viruses from stimulating intestinal immune responses. Conversely, the transport of luminal microorganisms-mediated by M, dendritic, and goblet cells-into intestinal tissues facilitates the harmonization of active and quiescent mucosal immune responses. The bacterial population within gut-associated lymphoid tissues creates the intratissue cohabitations for harmonized mucosal immunity. Intermolecular and intercellular communication among epithelial, immune, and mesenchymal cells creates an environment conducive for epithelial regeneration and mucosal healing. This review summarizes the so-called intestinal mucosal ecological network-the complex but vital molecular and cellular interactions of epithelial mesenchymal cells, immune cells, and commensal microbiota that achieve intestinal homeostasis, regeneration, and healing.

  18. Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis and associated infections in a novel organotypic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, T; Bertolini, M; Thompson, A; Peterson, D E; Diaz, P I; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2018-06-01

    Oral mucositis is a common side effect of cancer chemotherapy, with significant adverse impact on the delivery of anti-neoplastic treatment. There is a lack of consensus regarding the role of oral commensal microorganisms in the initiation or progression of mucositis because relevant experimental models are non-existent. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro mucosal injury model that mimics chemotherapy-induced mucositis, where the effect of oral commensals can be studied. A novel organotypic model of chemotherapy-induced mucositis was developed based on a human oral epithelial cell line and a fibroblast-embedded collagen matrix. Treatment of organotypic constructs with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) reproduced major histopathologic characteristics of oral mucositis, such as DNA synthesis inhibition, apoptosis and cytoplasmic vacuolation, without compromising the three-dimensional structure of the multilayer organotypic mucosa. Although structural integrity of the model was preserved, 5-FU treatment resulted in a widening of epithelial intercellular spaces, characterized by E-cadherin dissolution from adherens junctions. In a neutrophil transmigration assay we discovered that this treatment facilitated transport of neutrophils through epithelial layers. Moreover, 5-FU treatment stimulated key proinflammatory cytokines that are associated with the pathogenesis of oral mucositis. 5-FU treatment of mucosal constructs did not significantly affect fungal or bacterial biofilm growth under the conditions tested in this study; however, it exacerbated the inflammatory response to certain bacterial and fungal commensals. These findings suggest that commensals may play a role in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis by amplifying the proinflammatory signals to mucosa that is injured by cytotoxic chemotherapy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  20. Mucosal vaccines: a paradigm shift in the development of mucosal adjuvants and delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul; Gowda, Devegowda Vishakante; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Shinde, Chetan G; Iyer, Meenakshi

    2015-04-01

    Mucosal immune responses are the first-line defensive mechanisms against a variety of infections. Therefore, immunizations of mucosal surfaces from which majority of infectious agents make their entry, helps to protect the body against infections. Hence, vaccinization of mucosal surfaces by using mucosal vaccines provides the basis for generating protective immunity both in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments. Mucosal vaccines offer several advantages over parenteral immunization. For example, (i) ease of administration; (ii) non-invasiveness; (iii) high-patient compliance; and (iv) suitability for mass vaccination. Despite these benefits, to date, only very few mucosal vaccines have been developed using whole microorganisms and approved for use in humans. This is due to various challenges associated with the development of an effective mucosal vaccine that can work against a variety of infections, and various problems concerned with the safe delivery of developed vaccine. For instance, protein antigen alone is not just sufficient enough for the optimal delivery of antigen(s) mucosally. Hence, efforts have been made to develop better prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for improved mucosal Th1 and Th2 immune responses using an efficient and safe immunostimulatory molecule and novel delivery carriers. Therefore, in this review, we have made an attempt to cover the recent advancements in the development of adjuvants and delivery carriers for safe and effective mucosal vaccine production. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. BISPHOSPHONATE - RELATED MUCOSITIS (BRM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Stanimirov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates (BPs are the most widely used and effective antiresorptive agents for the treatment of diseases in which there is an increase in osteoclastic resorption, including post-menopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, and tumor-associated osteolysis. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are well aware of the side effects of bisphosphonates and mainly with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ. Less known are the mucosal lesions associated with the use of these agents. In the scientific literature, there are only few reports of mucosal lesions due to the direct contact of the oral form of BPs with the mucosa (bisphosphonate-related mucositis. They are mostly related to improper use of bisphosphonate tablets that are chewed, sucked or allowed to melt in the mouth before swallowing. Lesions are atypical and need to be differentiated from other mucosal erosions. We present a case of bisphosphonate-related mucositis due to the improper use of alendronate.

  2. Duodenal epithelial transport in functional dyspepsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; D'Amato, Mauro; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2013-01-01

    To investigate functional duodenal abnormalities in functional dyspepsia (FD) and the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in mucosal ion transport and signalling.......To investigate functional duodenal abnormalities in functional dyspepsia (FD) and the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in mucosal ion transport and signalling....

  3. Uranium precipitation with hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Although hydrogen peroxide precipitation of uranium continues to be used primarily as means of producing a high purity yellowcake, it has also become an important process due to its superior physical properties. Processing costs such as filtering, drying and/or calcining and drumming, can be reduced. 5 refs

  4. Hydrogen peroxide: importance and determination

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz de; Shiraishi, Karina Antonelli; Braz, Alexandre Delphini; Fernandes, João Roberto

    2003-01-01

    A brief discussion about the hydrogen peroxide importance and its determination is presented. It was emphasized some consideration of the H2O2 as reagent (separated or combined), uses and methods of analysis (techniques, detection limits, linear response intervals, sensor specifications). Moreover, it was presented several applications, such as in environmental, pharmaceutical, medicine and food samples.

  5. A regenerative approach towards mucosal fenestration closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandi, Padma; Anumala, Naveen; Reddy, Amarender; Viswa Chandra, Rampalli

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal fenestration is an opening or an interstice through the oral mucosa. A lesion which occurs with greater frequency than generally realised, its occurrence is attributed to a myriad of causes. Mucogingival procedures including connective tissue grafts, free gingival grafts and lateral pedicle grafts are generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the closure of a mucosal fenestration. More often, these procedures are performed in conjunction with other procedures such as periradicular surgery and with bone grafts. However, the concomitant use of gingival grafts and bone grafts in mucosal fenestrations secondary to infections in sites exhibiting severe bone loss is highly debatable. In this article, we report two cases of mucosal fenestrations secondary to trauma and their management by regenerative periodontal surgery with the placement of guided tissue regeneration membrane and bone graft. The final outcome was a complete closure of the fenestration in both the cases. PMID:23749826

  6. Transgenic Killer Commensal Bacteria as Mucosal Protectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As first line of defense against the majority of infections and primary site for their transmission, mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity and genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts represent the most suitable sites to deliver protective agents for the prevention of infectious diseases. Mucosal protection is important not only for life threatening diseases but also for opportunistic infections which currently represent a serious burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and cost of cures. Candida albicans is among the most prevalent causes of mucosal infections not only in immuno- compromised patients, such as HIV-infected subjects who are frequently affected by oral and esophageal candidiasis, but also in otherwise healthy individuals, as in the case of acute vaginitis. Unfortunately, current strategies for mucosal protection against candidiasis are severely limited by the lack of effective vaccines and the relative paucity and toxicity of commercially available antifungal drugs. An additional option has been reported in a recent

  7. Microneedle and mucosal delivery of influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years with the threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs, alternative vaccination methods other than intramuscular immunization have received great attention. The skin and mucosal surfaces are attractive sites probably because of both non-invasive access to the vaccine delivery and unique immunological responses. Intradermal vaccines using a microinjection system (BD Soluvia) and intranasal vaccines (FluMist) are licensed. As a new vaccination method, solid microneedles have been developed using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Because coated micorneedle influenza vaccines are administered in the solid state, developing formulations maintaining the stability of influenza vaccines is an important issue to be considered. Marketable microneedle devices and clinical trials remain to be developed. Other alternative mucosal routes such as oral and intranasal delivery systems are also attractive for inducing cross protective mucosal immunity but effective non-live mucosal vaccines remain to be developed. PMID:22697052

  8. Tryptamine-gallic acid hybrid prevents non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastropathy: correction of mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of apoptosis in gastric mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chinmay; Bindu, Samik; Dey, Sumanta; Alam, Athar; Goyal, Manish; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Sarkar, Souvik; Kumar, Rahul; Halder, Kamal Krishna; Debnath, Mita Chatterjee; Adhikari, Susanta; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2012-01-27

    We have investigated the gastroprotective effect of SEGA (3a), a newly synthesized tryptamine-gallic acid hybrid molecule against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy with mechanistic details. SEGA (3a) prevents indomethacin (NSAID)-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS) and dysfunctions in gastric mucosal cells, which play a pathogenic role in inducing gastropathy. SEGA (3a) offers this mitoprotective effect by scavenging of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O(2)(·-)) and intramitochondrial free iron released as a result of MOS. SEGA (3a) in vivo blocks indomethacin-mediated MOS, as is evident from the inhibition of indomethacin-induced mitochondrial protein carbonyl formation, lipid peroxidation, and thiol depletion. SEGA (3a) corrects indomethacin-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo by restoring defective electron transport chain function, collapse of transmembrane potential, and loss of dehydrogenase activity. SEGA (3a) not only corrects mitochondrial dysfunction but also inhibits the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by indomethacin. SEGA (3a) inhibits indomethacin-induced down-regulation of bcl-2 and up-regulation of bax genes in gastric mucosa. SEGA (3a) also inhibits indometacin-induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in gastric mucosa. Besides the gastroprotective effect against NSAID, SEGA (3a) also expedites the healing of already damaged gastric mucosa. Radiolabeled ((99m)Tc-labeled SEGA (3a)) tracer studies confirm that SEGA (3a) enters into mitochondria of gastric mucosal cell in vivo, and it is quite stable in serum. Thus, SEGA (3a) bears an immense potential to be a novel gastroprotective agent against NSAID-induced gastropathy.

  9. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  10. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1150 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide...

  11. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  12. Inside the mucosal immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R McGhee

    Full Text Available An intricate network of innate and immune cells and their derived mediators function in unison to protect us from toxic elements and infectious microbial diseases that are encountered in our environment. This vast network operates efficiently by use of a single cell epithelium in, for example, the gastrointestinal (GI and upper respiratory (UR tracts, fortified by adjoining cells and lymphoid tissues that protect its integrity. Perturbations certainly occur, sometimes resulting in inflammatory diseases or infections that can be debilitating and life threatening. For example, allergies in the eyes, skin, nose, and the UR or digestive tracts are common. Likewise, genetic background and environmental microbial encounters can lead to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. This mucosal immune system (MIS in both health and disease is currently under intense investigation worldwide by scientists with diverse expertise and interests. Despite this activity, there are numerous questions remaining that will require detailed answers in order to use the MIS to our advantage. In this issue of PLOS Biology, a research article describes a multi-scale in vivo systems approach to determine precisely how the gut epithelium responds to an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, given by the intravenous route. This article reveals a previously unknown pathway in which several cell types and their secreted mediators work in unison to prevent epithelial cell death in the mouse small intestine. The results of this interesting study illustrate how in vivo systems biology approaches can be used to unravel the complex mechanisms used to protect the host from its environment.

  13. Mucosal immunogenicity of plant lectins in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, E C; Grant, G; Pusztai, A; Pfüller, U; O’Hagan, D T

    2000-01-01

    The mucosal immunogenicity of a number of plant lectins with different sugar specificities was investigated in mice. Following intranasal (i.n.) or oral administration, the systemic and mucosal antibody responses elicited were compared with those induced by a potent mucosal immunogen (cholera toxin; CT) and a poorly immunogenic protein (ovalbumin; OVA). After three oral or i.n. doses of CT, high levels of specific serum antibodies were measured and specific IgA was detected in the serum, saliva, vaginal wash, nasal wash and gut wash of mice. Immunization with OVA elicited low titres of serum IgG but specific IgA was not detected in mucosal secretions. Both oral and i.n. delivery of all five plant lectins investigated [Viscum album (mistletoe lectin 1; ML‐1), Lycospersicum esculentum (tomato lectin; LEA), Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA), Triticum vulgaris (wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus I (UEA‐1)] stimulated the production of specific serum IgG and IgA antibody after three i.n. or oral doses. Immunization with ML‐1 induced high titres of serum IgG and IgA in addition to specific IgA in mucosal secretions. The response to orally delivered ML‐1 was comparable to that induced by CT, although a 10‐fold higher dose was administered. Immunization with LEA also induced high titres of serum IgG, particularly after i.n. delivery. Low specific IgA titres were also detected to LEA in mucosal secretions. Responses to PHA, WGA and UEA‐1 were measured at a relatively low level in the serum, and little or no specific mucosal IgA was detected. PMID:10651938

  14. Thermochemistry of cyclic acetone peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinditskii, V.P., E-mail: vps@rctu.ru [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, 9 Miusskaya Square, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolesov, V.I.; Egorshev, V.Yu.; Patrikeev, D.I. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, 9 Miusskaya Square, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dorofeeva, O.V. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Old data on DADP and TATP enthalpies of formation have been revised. • Combining Gaussian-4 (G4) theory with an isodesmic reaction scheme allowed calculated enthalpies of formation of TATP and DADP. • Oxygen bomb calorimetry measurements allowed experimental enthalpies of formation of the peroxides. • Both experimental and calculated values show a satisfactory agreement between each other. • The newly obtained enthalpies reasonably account for the observed derivative parameters: heats of decomposition, combustion, and explosion. - Abstract: Two potentially initiating explosive peroxides, diacetonediperoxide (DADP) and triacetonetriperoxide (TATP), were studied in respect to their thermochemical properties. To get the internally self-consistent estimations of gas-phase enthalpy of formation of DADP and TATP, their values were calculated by combining Gaussian-4 (G4) theory with an isodesmic reaction scheme. The energies of combustion (Δ{sub c}U) were measured and the standard enthalpies of formation (Δ{sub f}H{sub 298}{sup °}) of DADP and TATP were derived using the standard enthalpies of formation of the combustion products. The heat of explosion was measured for small low-pressed charges of the peroxides. The obtained enthalpies of formation of DADP and TATP were found to agree well with quantum chemical calculations and reasonably account for the observed derivative parameters: heats of decomposition, combustion, and detonation.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide kinetics in water radiolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro; Sundin, Sara; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2018-04-01

    The kinetics of the formation and reaction of hydrogen peroxide in the long time γ- radiolysis of water is examined using a combination of experiment with model calculations. Escape yields of hydrogen peroxide on the microsecond time scale are easily measured with added radical scavengers even with substantial amounts of initial added hydrogen peroxide. The γ-radiolysis of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions without added radical scavengers reach a steady state limiting concentration of hydrogen peroxide with increasing dose, and that limit is directly proportional to the initial concentration of added hydrogen peroxide. The dose necessary to reach that limiting hydrogen peroxide concentration is also proportional to the initial concentration, but dose rate has a very small effect. The addition of molecular hydrogen to aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide leads to a decrease in the high dose limiting hydrogen peroxide concentration that is linear with the initial hydrogen concentration, but the amount of decrease is not stoichiometric. Proton irradiations of solutions with added hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen are more difficult to predict because of the decreased yields of radicals; however, with a substantial increase in dose rate there is a sufficient decrease in radical yields that hydrogen addition has little effect on hydrogen peroxide decay.

  16. Overoxidation of chloroplast 2-Cys peroxiredoxins: balancing toxic and signaling activities of hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor ePuerto-Galán

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis, the primary source of biomass and oxygen into the biosphere, involves the transport of electrons in the presence of oxygen and, therefore, chloroplasts constitute an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS, including hydrogen peroxide. If accumulated at high level, hydrogen peroxide may exert a toxic effect; however, it is as well an important second messenger. In order to balance the toxic and signaling activities of hydrogen peroxide its level has to be tightly controlled. To this end, chloroplasts are equipped with different antioxidant systems such as 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs, thiol-based peroxidases able to reduce hydrogen- and organic peroxides. At high peroxide concentrations the peroxidase function of 2-Cys Prxs may become inactivated through a process of overoxidation. This inactivation has been proposed to explain the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide in eukaryotes, whereas in prokaryotes, the 2-Cys Prxs of which were considered to be insensitive to overoxidation, the signaling activity of hydrogen peroxide is less relevant. Here we discuss the current knowledge about the mechanisms controlling 2-Cys Prx overoxidation in chloroplasts, organelles with an important signaling function in plants. Given the prokaryotic origin of chloroplasts, we discuss the occurrence of 2-Cys Prx overoxidation in cyanobacteria with the aim of identifying similarities between chloroplasts and their ancestors regarding their response to hydrogen peroxide.

  17. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  18. HIV enteropathy and aging: gastrointestinal immunity, mucosal epithelial barrier, and microbial translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyin; Kotler, Donald P

    2014-07-01

    Despite decreases in morbidity and mortality as a result of antiretroviral therapy, gastrointestinal dysfunction remains common in HIV infection. Treated patients are at risk for complications of 'premature' aging, such as cardiovascular disease, osteopenia, neurocognitive decline, malignancies, and frailty. This review summarizes recent observations in this field. Mucosal CD4 lymphocytes, especially Th17 cells, are depleted in acute HIV and simian immune deficiency virus (SIV) infections, although other cell types also are affected. Reconstitution during therapy often is incomplete, especially in mucosa. Mucosal barrier function is affected by both HIV infection and aging and includes paracellular transport via tight junctions and uptake through areas of apoptosis; other factors may affect systemic antigen exposure. The resultant microbial translocation is associated with systemic immune activation in HIV and SIV infections. There is evidence of immune activation and microbial translocation in the elderly. The immune phenotypes of immunosenescence in HIV infection and aging appear similar. There are several targets for intervention; blockage of residual mucosal virus replication, preventing antigen uptake, modulating the microbiome, improving T cell recovery, combining therapies aimed at mucosal integrity, augmenting mucosal immunity, and managing traditional risk factors for premature aging in the general population. Aging may interact with HIV enteropathy to enhance microbial translocation and immune activation.

  19. Detection of hydrogen peroxide with graphyne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, R.; Karami, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the electronic properties of graphyne has been investigated to explore the possibility of using graphyne based biosensor. We have used density functional theory to study the electronic properties of γ-graphyne in the presence of different number of hydrogen peroxide. The optimal adsorption position, orientation, and distance of hydrogen peroxide adsorbed on the graphyne sheet have been determined by calculating adsorption energy. It is found that γ-graphyne which is an intrinsic semiconductor becomes an n-type semiconductor due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The energy band gap of γ-graphyne is decreased by increasing the number of hydrogen peroxide. The results demonstrate that γ-graphyne is a promising candidate for biosensor application because of its electrical sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide.

  20. Mucosal vaccines: recent progress in understanding the natural barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Olga; Lebre, Filipa; Bento, Dulce; Borchard, Gerrit; Junginger, Hans E

    2010-02-01

    It has long been known that protection against pathogens invading the organism via mucosal surfaces correlates better with the presence of specific antibodies in local secretions than with serum antibodies. The most effective way to induce mucosal immunity is to administer antigens directly to the mucosal surface. The development of vaccines for mucosal application requires antigen delivery systems and immunopotentiators that efficiently facilitate the presentation of the antigen to the mucosal immune system. This review provides an overview of the events within mucosal tissues that lead to protective mucosal immune responses. The understanding of those biological mechanisms, together with knowledge of the technology of vaccines and adjuvants, provides guidance on important technical aspects of mucosal vaccine design. Not being exhaustive, this review also provides information related to modern adjuvants, including polymeric delivery systems and immunopotentiators.

  1. PEROXIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

    1958-09-16

    reduced state, from hexavalent uranium. It consists in treating an aqueous solution containing such uranium and plutonium ions with sulfate ions in order to form a soluble uranium sulfate complex and then treating the solution with a soluble thorium compound and a soluble peroxide compound in order to ferm a thorium peroxide carrier precipitate which carries down with it the plutonium peroxide present. During this treatment the pH of the solution must be maintained between 2 and 3.

  2. A novel vitamin E derivative (TMG) protects against gastric mucosal damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Norimasa; Takano, Hiroshisa; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Handa, Osamu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji; Murase, Hironobu; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of water-soluble vitamin E derivative, 2-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)methyl-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol (TMG), on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) -induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Gastric ischemia was induced by applying a small clamp to the celiac artery and reoxygenation was produced by removal of the clamp. The area of gastric mucosal erosion, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and the myeloperoxidase activity in gastric mucosa significantly increased in I/R groups compared with those of sham-operated groups. These increases were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with TMG. The contents of both mucosal TNF-alpha and CINC-2beta in I/R groups were also increased compared with the levels of those in sham-operated groups. These increases of the inflammatory cytokines were significantly inhibited by the treatment with TMG. It is concluded that TMG inhibited lipid peroxidation and reduced development of the gastric mucosal inflammation induced by I/R in rats.

  3. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  4. The mucosal firewalls against commensal intestinal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew J; Slack, Emma; Geuking, Markus B; McCoy, Kathy D

    2009-07-01

    Mammals coexist with an extremely dense microbiota in the lower intestine. Despite the constant challenge of small numbers of microbes penetrating the intestinal surface epithelium, it is very unusual for these organisms to cause disease. In this review article, we present the different mucosal firewalls that contain and allow mutualism with the intestinal microbiota.

  5. Nutrition and Gut Mucositis in Pediatric Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko

    Childhood malignancies are the second most common cause of death in children. A major limitation of current therapies is the high toxicity. Alimentary tract toxicity (mucositis) is associated with increased risk of complication such as infections that may lead to death. In relation to HSCT, mucos...

  6. Can the oral microflora affect oral ulcerative mucositis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, A.M.G.A.; de Soet, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review: Oral mucositis is one of the most prevalent toxicities after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Mucositis is initiated by the chemotherapy or radiotherapy preceding the transplantation. It is commonly accepted that microorganisms play a role in the process of oral mucositis.

  7. The postnatal development of the mucosal immune system and mucosal tolerance in domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey , Mick; Haverson , Karin

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The mucosal immune system is exposed to a range of antigens associated with pathogens, to which it must mount active immune responses. However, it is also exposed to a large number of harmless antigens associated with food and with commensal microbial flora, to which expression of active, inflammatory immune responses to these antigens is undesirable. The mucosal immune system must contain machinery capable of evaluating the antigens to which it is exposed and mounting...

  8. Phenol oxidation with hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramiez Cortina, R.C.; Hernadez Perez, I. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, Div. de CBI, Dept. de Energia, Azcapotzalco (Mexico); Ortiz Lozoya, C.E. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, Div. de CBI, Dept. de Energia, Azcapotzalco (Mexico)]|[Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Alonso Gutierrez, M.S. [Inst. National Polytechnique, ENSCT, Lab. of Chimie Agro-Industrielle, Toulouse (France)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the process application of advanced oxidation is investigated with hydrogen peroxide, for the phenol destruction. The experiments were carried out in a glass reactor of 750 mL. Three phenol concentrations were studied (2000, 1000 and 500 ppm) being oxidized with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (1, 2 and 3 M). The tests of oxidation had a reaction time of 48 h at ambient temperature and pressure. The phenol degradation was determined as COD at different reaction times and intermediate oxidation products were analyzed by chromatography. The results of this study show that it is possible to degrade phenol (1000 ppm) until 90% with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 2M. Being achieved the best efficiency with a good molar relationship of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/phenol. Intends a reaction outline in the degradation of the phenol. (orig.)

  9. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the U.S...

  10. Problem of the lithium peroxide thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, R A; Ferapontov, Yu A; Kozlova, N P

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate samples under heating in atmospheric air was studied by the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that in the temperature range of 32°C to 82°C the interaction of lithium peroxides and steam with the formation of lithium peroxide monohydrate occurs, which was confirmed chemically and by X-ray Single-qualitative analysis. It was experimentally found that lithium peroxide starts to decompose into the lithium oxide and oxygen in the temperature range of 340 ÷ 348°C. It was established that the resulting thermal decomposition of lithium oxide, lithium peroxide at the temperature of 422°C melts with lithium carbonate eutecticly. The manifestation of polymorphism was not marked(seen or noticed) under the heating of studied samples of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate in the temperature range of 25°C ÷ 34°C. (paper)

  11. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of TCE contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, D.H.; Robinson, K.G.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Solvent contaminated soils are ubiquitous in the industrial world and represent a significant environmental hazard due to their persistence and potentially negative impacts on human health and the environment. Environmental regulations favor treatment of soils with options which reduce the volume and toxicity of contaminants in place. One such treatment option is the in-situ application of hydrogen peroxide to soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). This study investigated hydrogen peroxide mass loading rates on removal of TCE from soils of varying organic matter content. Batch experiments conducted on contaminated loam samples using GC headspace analysis showed up to 80% TCE removal upon peroxide treatment. Column experiments conducted on sandy loam soils with high organic matter content showed only 25% TCE removal, even at hydrogen peroxide additions of 25 g peroxide per kg soil

  12. Rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Yaremenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This review is the first to collate and summarize main data on named and unnamed rearrangement reactions of peroxides. It should be noted, that in the chemistry of peroxides two types of processes are considered under the term rearrangements. These are conventional rearrangements occurring with the retention of the molecular weight and transformations of one of the peroxide moieties after O–O-bond cleavage. Detailed information about the Baeyer−Villiger, Criegee, Hock, Kornblum−DeLaMare, Dakin, Elbs, Schenck, Smith, Wieland, and Story reactions is given. Unnamed rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes are also analyzed. The rearrangements and related processes of important natural and synthetic peroxides are discussed separately.

  13. Gastroduodenal mucosal defence mechanisms and the action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, A; Allen, A; Rowe, P H

    1987-01-01

    This review summarises gastroduodenal protective mechanisms, the actions of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) agents on mucus and HCO3 secretions, and the basis of gastric mucosal injury induced by acetylsalicylic and salicylic acids (ASA and SA). Resistance to autodigestion by acid and pepsin present in gastric juice is multifactorial involving pre-epithelial (mucus-bicarbonate barrier) and post-epithelial (blood flow, acid-base balance) factors in addition to properties of the surface cell layer per se. The latter includes mucosal re-epithelialisation, a property which appears particularly important with respect to recovery from acute injury. A range of NSAI agents (ASA, fenclofenac, ibuprofen and indomethacin) inhibit gastric HCO3 transport in isolated mucosal preparations. Inhibition of duodenal HCO3 transport has been demonstrated in response to indomethacin in vitro and in vivo. These effects on secretion can be antagonised by exogenous prostaglandins of the E series. The layer of secreted mucus gel overlying the epithelial surface is not affected by NSAI drugs in the short term. However a number of these agents have been shown to inhibit glycoprotein biosynthesis by the epithelial cells. Thus loss of this protective coat could be anticipated during chronic drug exposure since erosion of adherent mucus by luminal shear and proteolysis would not be compensated by continued secretion. Detailed analysis of the gastric mucosal injury induced by salicylates both in vitro and in vivo reveals that much of the damage previously attributed to ASA is in fact due to the metabolic product SA. In this respect it is concluded that mucosal injury caused by ASA is due to a combination of two factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Mechanisms of gastroprotection by lansoprazole pretreatment against experimentally induced injury in rats: role of mucosal oxidative damage and sulfhydryl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Lazzeri, Gloria; Lubrano, Valter; Colucci, Rocchina; Vassalle, Cristina; Fornai, Matteo; Blandizzi, Corrado; Del Tacca, Mario

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms involved in the protective actions exerted by lansoprazole against experimental gastric injury. Following the intraluminal injection of ethanol-HCl, the histomorphometric analysis of rat gastric sections demonstrated a pattern of mucosal lesions associated with a significant increase in the mucosal contents of malondialdehyde and 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (indices of lipid peroxidation), as well as a decrease in the levels of mucosal sulfhydryl compounds, assayed as reduced glutathione (GSH). Pretreatment with lansoprazole 90 μmol/kg, given intraduodenally as single dose or once daily by intragastric route for 8 days, significantly prevented ethanol-HCl-induced gastric damage. The concomitant changes in the mucosal levels of malondialdehyde, 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α and GSH elicited by ethanol-HCl were also counteracted by lansoprazole. In separate experiments, performed on animals undergoing 2-h pylorus ligation, lansoprazole did not enhance the concentration of prostaglandin E 2 , bicyclo-prostaglandin E 2 , or nitric oxide (NO) metabolites into gastric juice. Western blot analysis revealed the expression of both type 1 and 2 cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms in the gastric mucosa of pylorus-ligated rats. These expression patterns were not significantly modified by single-dose or repeated treatment with lansoprazole. Lansoprazole also exhibited direct antioxidant properties by reducing 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α generation in an in vitro system where human native low-density lipoproteins were subjected to oxidation upon exposure to CuSO 4 . The present results suggest that the protective effects of lansoprazole can be ascribed to a reduction of gastric oxidative injury, resulting in an increased bioavailability of mucosal sulfhydryl compounds. It is also proposed that lansoprazole does not exert modulator effects on the gastric expression of COX isoforms as well as on the activity of NO pathways

  15. Mucoadhesive formulation of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae reduces intestinal injury from 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal mucositis induced during cancer treatment is considered a serious dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Frequently, interruption of the cancer treatment due to this pathology leads to a reduction in cure rates, increase of treatment costs and decrease life quality of the patient. Natural products such as Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae, represent a potential alternative for the treatment of mucositis given its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, edema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125 mg/kg managed to mitigate clinical and pathologic changes, noticeably at 100 mg/kg. This dose led to the restoration of intestinal proliferative activity through increasing Ki-67 levels; modulated the expression of Bax, Bcl2 and p53 apoptotic markers protecting intestinal cells from cell death. Moreover, this treatment regulated lipid peroxidation and inflammatory infiltration. No acute toxic effects were observed with this formulation. This work demonstrated that BPF was safe and effective against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Additional studies are already in progress to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of this technological formulation toward the development of a new medicine for the prevention and treatment of intestinal injury in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

  16. Dermoscopic appearance of an amelanotic mucosal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Andreas; Beck-Zoul, Ulrike; Held, Laura; Haase, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypomelanotic or amelanotic melanomas are challenging to identify, especially at mucosal sites. The dermoscopic clues to the diagnosis of mucosal melanomas have been reported to be structureless zones with the presence of blue, gray, or white colors. Case A female in her seventies noted a new lesion on the inside of her right labia that first appeared two months prior. Her past medical history was significant for rheumatoid arthritis requiring ongoing treatment with methotrexate for 20 years and adalimumab for 10 years. After no response to two weeks of local treatment for suspected herpes simplex infection, her gynecologist performed a skin biopsy. Based on the histopathological diagnosis of an amelanotic melanoma (Breslow thickness of 1.3 mm) the patient was referred to dermatology for further assessment. Polarized dermoscopy revealed a distinct asymmetric, sharply demarcated homogenous white papule (4 × 5 mm) as well as polymorphous vessels. Conclusion Dermoscopy may aid in the diagnosis of amelanotic mucosal melanomas. Our case revealed a structureless white area and polymorphous vessels. Additional clues to the diagnosis were the advanced age of the patient and the clinical presentation of a new lesion. PMID:27867742

  17. Bladder Mucosal Graft Vaginoplasty: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Cinzia; Vestri, Elettra; Tripi, Flavia; Giannone, Antonino Giulio; Cimador, Marcello; Cataliotti, Ferdinando

    2018-06-18

    Female vaginoplasty reconstruction, by choice, is usually performed with adjacent tissue. However in some clinical conditions such as high urogenital confluence sinus, cloacal malformation with extreme vaginal hypoplasia, local tissue may not be available. When vaginal replacement is performed in pediatric patients intestinal segments is preferred to non-operative procedures that require continuative dilations. However mucus production, malignant transformation risk and diversion colitis are important side effects. We present a nouvel technique for vaginoplasty in a female child presenting with an isolated urogenital sinus malformation without virilization. The patient at 20 months underwent vaginoplasty using tubularized bladder mucosal graft. Surgical procedure was devoid of complications. Pubertal development occurred at age of 15. She underwent regular follow up until 18 years of age. At this age we performed clinical evaluation: absence of vaginal introitus stenosis and good cosmetic results were observed. Then she underwent vaginoscopy with multiple biopsies. Pathology examination of the bladder mucosal graft evidenced a normal structure of the mucosa, with a stratified squamous epithelium. Different techniques are taken into account for vaginal reconstruction according to the severity and to the type of malformation. We describe the use of bladder mucosal graft with favorable results after long term follow-up. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Brain-gut axis and mucosal immunity: a perspective on mucosal psychoneuroimmunology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    The role of the brain-gut axis has traditionally been investigated in relation to intestinal motility, secretion, and vascularity. More recently, the concept of brain-gut dialogue has extended to the relationship between the nervous system and mucosal immune function. There is compelling evidence for a reciprocal or bi-directional communication between the immune system and the neuroendocrine system. This is mediated, in part, by shared ligands (chemical messengers) and receptors that are common to the immune and nervous systems. Although the concept of psychoneuroimmunology and neuroimmune cross-talk has been studied primarily in the context of the systemic immune system, it is likely to have special significance in the gut. The mucosal immune system is anatomically, functionally, and operationally distinct from the systemic immune system and is subject to independent regulatory signals. Furthermore, the intestinal mucosal immune system operates in a local milieu that depends on a dense innervation for its integrity, with juxtaposition of neuroendocrine cells and mucosal immune cells. An overview of evidence for the biologic plausibility of a brain-gut-immune axis is presented and its potential relevance to mucosal inflammatory disorders is discussed.

  19. Rectal mucosal electrosensitivity - what is being tested?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, A P; Kennedy, M L; Lubowski, D Z

    1996-01-01

    The results of rectal mucosal electrosensitivity (RME) testing have been used to support theories regarding the aetiology of both idiopathic constipation and bowel dysfunction following rectopexy. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of tests of RME. Sixty-eight patients, comprising three groups (group 1: 50 patients undergoing assessment in the Anorectal Physiology Unit, group 2: 10 patients with coloanal or ileoanal anastomosis, group 3: 8 patients with a stoma) underwent mucosal electrosensitivity testing, with the threshold stimulus required to elicit sensation being recorded. In addition the RME was measured in groups 1 and 2 when placing the electrode, mounted on a catheter with a central wire, against the anterior, posterior, right and left rectal or neorectal walls. To asses the influence on this test of loss of mucosal contact due to faeces, a further 8 cases with a normal rectum had RME performed with and without a layer of water soaked gauze around the electrode to stimulate faeces and prevent the electrode from making contact with the rectal mucosa. There was marked variance in the sensitivity of the different regions of rectal wall tested (P < 0.001). In group 1 patients the mean sensitivities were: central 36.6 mA, anterior 27.4 mA, posterior 37.9 mA, right 22.3 mA and left 25.6 mA. This circumferential variation suggests that the pelvic floor rather than rectal mucosa was being stimulated. All patients in group 2 had recordable sensitivities, and the mean sensitivity threshold was significantly higher than group 1 patients in the central (P = 0.03), right (P = 0.03) and left (P = 0.007) positions. In group 3 the sensitivity was greater within the stoma at the level of the abdominal wall muscle than intra-abdominally or subcutaneously, again suggesting an extra-colonic origin of the sensation. The sensitivity threshold was significantly greater with the electrode wrapped in gauze (P < 0.01), and loss of mucosal contact was not detected by

  20. The problem of peroxidation in radiolis logy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraboj, V.A.; Chebotarev, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    A hypothesis is validated concerning the products of freeradical oxidation of lipids and the phenol compounds as a mediator of the stress-syndrome. The data are reviewed on activation of peroxidation under the effect of radiation, cytochemical agents, etc., secondarily stimulating the neurohumoral system function of homeostasis regulation. With the emotional-algesic and cold-stresses, the regulatory system stimulation is of primary, reflex, nature, but it secondarily promotes the peroxidation activation. The radiotoxins (of the quinoid and lipid nature) appearing in tissues under the effect of ionizing radiation, are smilar in structure and mechanism of action to peroxidation activation products formed under the effect of other stress-agents

  1. Inorganic precursor peroxides for antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, L.T.; Hermann, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Modern antifouling coatings are generally based on cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and organic biocides as active ingredients. Cu2O is prone to bioaccumulation, and should therefore be replaced by more environmentally benign compounds when technically possible. However, cuprous oxide does not only provide...... antifouling properties, it is also a vital ingredient for the antifouling coating to obtain its polishing and leaching mechanism. In this paper, peroxides of strontium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc are tested as pigments in antifouling coatings. The peroxides react with seawater to create hydrogen peroxide...... matrix provides antifouling properties exceeding those of a similar coating based entirely on zinc oxide....

  2. Peroxides and radiation impairment of oxidative phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovgii, I E; Akoev, I G

    1975-09-01

    An increase in the peroxidase activity of the mitochondria and a simultaneous rise in the amount of peroxide compounds, which are half lipid-like substances, are detected within the first 10 minutes after irradiation (1000 r). A mechanism of radiation impairment of oxidative phosphorylation is connected with the penetration of its inhibitors to the mitochondria due to the disturbed permeability of membranes affected by peroxides.

  3. Mechanisms of wet oxidation by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    A research programme is currently under way at BNL and MEL to investigate the possible use of Hydrogen Peroxide with metal ion catalysts as a wet oxidation treatment system for CEGB organic radioactive wastes. The published literature relating to the kinetics and mechanism of oxidation and decomposition reactions of hydrogen peroxide is reviewed and the links with practical waste management by wet oxidation are examined. Alternative wet oxidation systems are described and the similarities to the CEGB research effort are noted. (author)

  4. Evidence for a common mucosal immune system in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather L; Obradovic, Milan R

    2015-07-01

    The majority of lymphocytes activated at mucosal sites receive instructions to home back to the local mucosa, but a portion also seed distal mucosa sites. By seeding distal sites with antigen-specific effector or memory lymphocytes, the foundation is laid for the animal's mucosal immune system to respond with a secondary response should to this antigen be encountered at this site in the future. The common mucosal immune system has been studied quite extensively in rodent models but less so in large animal models such as the pig. Reasons for this paucity of reported induction of the common mucosal immune system in this species may be that distal mucosal sites were examined but no induction was observed and therefore it was not reported. However, we suspect that the majority of investigators simply did not sample distal mucosal sites and therefore there is little evidence of immune response induction in the literature. It is our hope that more pig immunologists and infectious disease experts who perform mucosal immunizations or inoculations on pigs will sample distal mucosal sites and report their findings, whether results are positive or negative. In this review, we highlight papers that show that immunization/inoculation using one route triggers mucosal immune system induction locally, systemically, and within at least one distal mucosal site. Only by understanding whether immunizations at one site triggers immunity throughout the common mucosal immune system can we rationally develop vaccines for the pig, and through these works we can gather evidence about the mucosal immune system that may be extrapolated to other livestock species or humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Probiotic supplements and debridement of peri-implant mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallström, Hadar; Lindgren, Susann; Widén, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplements in adjunct to conventional management of peri-implant mucositis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine adult patients with peri-implant mucositis were consecutively recruited...... debridement and oral hygiene reinforcement resulted in clinical improvement of peri-implant mucositis and a reduction in cytokine levels. Probiotic supplements did not provide added benefit to placebo....

  6. Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles for Mucosal Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Alina; Olesen, Morten Jarlstad; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    of the polysaccharide chitosan have been used to facilitate delivery of siRNA across mucosal surfaces following local administration. This chapter describes the mucosal barriers that need to be addressed in order to design an effective mucosal delivery strategy and the utilization of the mucoadhesive properties...... of chitosan. Focus is given to preparation methods and the preclinical application of chitosan nanoparticles for respiratory and oral delivery of siRNA....

  7. Hydrogen peroxide as a sustainable energy carrier: Electrocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide and the fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O 2 -reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal–oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O 2 , which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  8. Hydrogen Peroxide as a Sustainable Energy Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and the Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2012-11-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O 2 -reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O 2 , which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  9. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALGREN DL

    2008-01-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation

  10. Scoring irradiation mucositis in head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Panders, A.K. (Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)); Saene, H.K.F. van (Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool (UK)); Vermey, A. (Department of Surgery Oncology Division, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)); Mehta, D.M. (Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands))

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation mucositis is defined as an inflammatory-like process of the oropharyngeal mucosa following therapeutic irradiation of patients who have head and neck cancer. Clinically, it is a serious side effect because severe mucositis can cause generalized problems (weight loss, nasogastic tube feedings) and interferes with the well-being of the patient seriously. Grading mucositis is important for the evaluation of preventive and therapeutic measures. The object of this study was to develop a scoring method based on local mucositis signs only. Four clinical local signs of mucositis were used in this score: white discoloration, erythema, pseudomembranes and ulceration. Mucositis of the oral cavity was calcualted during conventional irradiation protocol for 8 distinguishable areas using the 4 signs and their extent. A prospective evaluation of this method in 15 irradiated head and neck cancer patients displayed an S-curve reflecting a symptomless first irradiation week, followed by a rapid and steady increase of white discoloration, erythema and pseudomembranes during the second and third week. Oral candidiasis, generalized symptoms such as weight loss and the highest mucositis scores were seen after 3 weeks irradiation. The novel mucositis scoring method may be of value in studying the effect of hygiene programs, topical application of disinfectans or antibiotics on oral mucositis. (author).

  11. Scoring irradiation mucositis in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Panders, A.K.; Saene, H.K.F. van; Vermey, A.; Mehta, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation mucositis is defined as an inflammatory-like process of the oropharyngeal mucosa following therapeutic irradiation of patients who have head and neck cancer. Clinically, it is a serious side effect because severe mucositis can cause generalized problems (weight loss, nasogastic tube feedings) and interferes with the well-being of the patient seriously. Grading mucositis is important for the evaluation of preventive and therapeutic measures. The object of this study was to develop a scoring method based on local mucositis signs only. Four clinical local signs of mucositis were used in this score: white discoloration, erythema, pseudomembranes and ulceration. Mucositis of the oral cavity was calcualted during conventional irradiation protocol for 8 distinguishable areas using the 4 signs and their extent. A prospective evaluation of this method in 15 irradiated head and neck cancer patients displayed an S-curve reflecting a symptomless first irradiation week, followed by a rapid and steady increase of white discoloration, erythema and pseudomembranes during the second and third week. Oral candidiasis, generalized symptoms such as weight loss and the highest mucositis scores were seen after 3 weeks irradiation. The novel mucositis scoring method may be of value in studying the effect of hygiene programs, topical application of disinfectans or antibiotics on oral mucositis. (author)

  12. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T cell differentiation and tissue level cell-cell interactions was developed to illustrate the capabilities, power and scope of ENISI MSM. Background Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Implementation Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. Conclusion We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut

  13. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yongguo; Abedi, Vida; Carbo, Adria; Zhang, Xiaoying; Lu, Pinyi; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Hoops, Stefan; Liles, Nathan; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut inflammation. Our modeling predictions dissect the mechanisms by which effector CD4+ T cell responses contribute to tissue damage in the gut mucosa following immune dysregulation.Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T

  14. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  15. Oral mucosal lesions in denture wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainkittivong, Aree; Aneksuk, Vilaiwan; Langlais, Robert P

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) and denture-related mucosal lesions (DMLs) in denture wearers and to co-relate the prevalence with age, gender, type of denture and any systemic conditions. Dental records of 380 denture wearers were retrospectively reviewed for OMLs and DMLs. We found 45% of the denture wearers had DMLs and 60.8% had OMLs not related to denture wearing. Although the prevalence of DMLs was higher in complete denture wearers than in partial denture wearers (49% vs. 42.2%), this difference was not significant. The most common DMLs were traumatic ulcer (19.5%) and denture-induced stomatitis (18.1%). When analysed by type, traumatic ulcer, denture hyperplasia, frictional keratosis and candidiasis were more common in complete denture wearers, whereas denture-induced stomatitis was more common in partial denture wearers. Frictional keratosis was more common in men than in women. The prevalence of OMLs not related to denture wearing was higher in complete denture wearers than in partial denture wearers, and the most common OML was fissured tongue (27.6%). No association between DMLs and systemic conditions or xerostomic drugs was noted. No differences in the prevalence of DMLs in association with denture type were found. The prevalence of OMLs not related to denture wearing was higher in complete denture wearers than in partial denture wearers. This difference was affected by age, and the data were similar to the findings observed in the elderly.

  16. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Safe handling of potential peroxide forming compounds and their corresponding peroxide yielded derivatives.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Boyle, Timothy J.; Dean, Christopher J.

    2013-06-01

    This report addresses recent developments concerning the identification and handling of potential peroxide forming (PPF) and peroxide yielded derivative (PYD) chemicals. PPF chemicals are described in terms of labeling, shelf lives, and safe handling requirements as required at SNL. The general peroxide chemistry concerning formation, prevention, and identification is cursorily presented to give some perspective to the generation of peroxides. The procedure for determining peroxide concentrations and the proper disposal methods established by the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility are also provided. Techniques such as neutralization and dilution are provided for the safe handling of any PYD chemicals to allow for safe handling. The appendices are a collection of all available SNL documentation pertaining to PPF/PYD chemicals to serve as a single reference.

  18. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Early Infancy: Monitoring and Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hol (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe mucosal immune system of infants is dependent on the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Homeostasis results from the interaction between the mucosa and exogenous factors such as dietar and microbial agents. Induction and maintenance of homeostasis is a highly regluated system that

  19. Chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis; from bench to bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.E. Koning, de (Barbara)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 focuses primarily on the pathophysiology of mucositis, in order to gain more insight different experimental mouse models were used. Chapter 2 describes mucositis induced by high dose doxorubicin (DOX)- treatment. DOX is a frequently used cytostatic drug in childhood cancer,

  20. Gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities using videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Antonietti, M; Houivet, E; Hachulla, E; Maunoury, V; Bienvenu, B; Viennot, S; Smail, A; Duhaut, P; Dupas, J-L; Dominique, S; Hatron, P-Y; Levesque, H; Benichou, J; Ducrotté, P

    2014-07-01

    To date, there are no large studies on videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Consequently, the prevalence and features of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in SSc have not been determined. To determine both prevalence and characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in unselected patients with SSc, using videocapsule endoscopy. To predict which SSc patients are at risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal abnormalities. Videocapsule endoscopy was performed on 50 patients with SSc. Prevalence of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities was 52%. Potentially bleeding vascular mucosal lesions were predominant, including: watermelon stomach (34.6%), gastric and/or small intestinal telangiectasia (26.9%) and gastric and/or small intestinal angiodysplasia (38.5%). SSc patients with gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions more often exhibited: limited cutaneous SSc (P = 0.06), digital ulcers (P = 0.05), higher score of nailfold videocapillaroscopy (P = 0.0009), anaemia (P = 0.02), lower levels of ferritin (P correlation between gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions and presence of severe extra-digestive vasculopathy (digital ulcers and higher nailfold videocapillaroscopy scores). This latter supports the theory that SSc-related diffuse vasculopathy is responsible for both cutaneous and digestive vascular lesions. Therefore, we suggest that nailfold videocapillaroscopy may be a helpful test for managing SSc patients. In fact, nailfold videocapillaroscopy score should be calculated routinely, as it may result in identification of SSc patients at higher risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The analysis of bacterial culture in radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zunbei; Su Deqing; Liang Yuxue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate pathogen dose existing or not in patients with radiation mucositis. Methods: From Juanary 2004 to August 2005, from 46 patients with radiation mucositis some pharynx secretion were taken for culture. Then they were treated with antibiotics selected by the cultured results and gargle. Results: 5 patients with grade 0 of radiation mucositis were with no cultured pathogen, and the results of some other patients with radiation mucositis include 8 cases of epiphyte, 1 cases of p. vulgaris and 3 cases of Staphylococcus. the positive rate is 29.2% (12/41); Conclusion: Some patients with radiation mucositis do exist pathogen, and we must slect antibiotics by the bacterial cultured results. (authors)

  2. A sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor based on leaf-like silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Mingyin; Zhang, Hongfang; Zheng, Jianbin

    2014-01-01

    A novel non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on leaf-like silver was constructed. The leaf-like silver was synthesized on the surface of L-cysteine (L-cys) by electrodeposition. Scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques were used to characterize the leaf-like silver nanoparticles. The sensor showed high electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. A wide linear range of 2.5–1.5 mM with a low detection limit of 0.7 µM was obtained. Excellent electrocatalytic activity, large surface-to-volume ratio and efficient electron transport properties of leaf-like silver have enabled stable and highly sensitive performance for the non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor. (paper)

  3. Effect of gene time on acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Suyan; Gao Li; Yin Weibo; Xu Guozhen; Xiao Guangli

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (Gene Time) on acute mucositis and dermatitis induced by radiation. Methods: 120 head and neck cancer patients were randomized into 3 groups: 1. Mucositis prophylactic application (MPA) group with control, 2. Mucositis therapeutic application (MTA) group with control and 3. Dermatitis therapeutic application (DTA) group with control. Prophylactic application of drug consisted of spraying the Gene Time preparation on the irradiated skin or mucous membrane as radiotherapy was being carried out. This was compared with control patients who received routine conventional skin care. Therapeutic application was started as grade I radiation mucositis or dermatitis appeared. The evaluation of acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis was done according to the systems proposed by RTOG or EORTC. Results: The results showed that in the MPA group, the rate of radiation mucositis at ≤10 Gy was 20% (4/20) as compared to the 70% (14/20) of the control (P = 0.004). During the course of radiation, the incidences of grade III, IV acute radiation mucositis and dermatitis were always lower than the control. In therapeutic application of Gene Time, the response rate of acute radiation mucositis was also better than the control (90% vs 50%) (P = 0.016) and that of acute dermatitis was similar (95% vs 50%) (P = 0.005). Moreover, the ≤3 d rate of healing of grade III dermatitis in the application group was 3/7 as compared to the 0/14 of the control. Conclusion: Prophylactic application of recombinant human epidermal growth factor is able to postpone the development of radiation mucositis. This preparation is also able to lower the incidence of grade III, IV mucositis and dermatitis both by therapeutic and prophylactic application in addition to the hastened healing of grade III dermatitis

  4. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, Deborah P.; Epstein, Joel B.; Elad, Sharon; Allemano, Justin; Bossi, Paolo; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; Rao, Nikhil G.; Potting, Carin; Cheng, Karis K.; Freidank, Annette; Brennan, Michael T.; Bowen, Joanne; Dennis, Kristopher; Lalla, Rajesh V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. A systematic review of the available literature was conducted. The body

  5. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, D.P.; Epstein, J.B.; Elad, S.; Allemano, J.; Bossi, P.; Wetering, M.D. van de; Rao, N.G.; Potting, C.M.J.; Cheng, K.K.; Freidank, A.; Brennan, M.T.; Bowen, J.; Dennis, K.; Lalla, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature was

  6. Radiation induced peroxidation in model lipid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, K.Z.B.H.M.

    1981-08-01

    In the studies of radiation induced lipid peroxidation, lecithin-liposomes and aqueous micellar solutions of sodium linoleate (or linoleic acid) have been used as models of lipid membrane systems. The liposomes and aqueous linoleate micelles were irradiated in the presence of O 2 and N 2 O/O 2 (80/20 v/v). The peroxidation was initiated using gamma radiation from 60 Co radiation source and was monitored by measuring the increase in absorbance of conjugated diene at 232 nm and by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. The oxidation products were also identified by GLC and GLC-MS analysis. (author)

  7. Precipitation of uranium concentrates by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa Filho, O.; Teixeira, L.A.C.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study on the precipitation of uranyl peroxide (UO 4 x H 2 O) has been carried out in a laboratory scale. The objective was to assess the possibility of the peroxide route as an alternative to a conventional ammonium diuranate process. A factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the initial pH, precipitation pH and H 2 O 2 /UO 2 2+ ratio upon the process. The responses were measured in terms of: efficiency of U precipitation, content of U in the precipitates, and distribution of impurities in the precipitates. (Author) [pt

  8. Uranium peroxide precipitate drying temperature relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C.; Dyck, B., E-mail: chick_rodgers@cameco.com [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Cameco Corporation is in the process of revitalizing the mill at its Key Lake operation in northern Saskatchewan. The current Key Lake process employs ammonia stripping and ammonia precipitation. As part of the revitalization, the company is considering installing strong acid stripping in solvent extraction as used at its Rabbit Lake operation. This change would lead to using hydrogen peroxide for uranium precipitation. As part of the process evaluation, tests were carried out to study how changes in the temperature of an indirect fired dryer affected the properties of uranium peroxide [yellowcake] precipitate. This paper discusses the results of the test work, including the relationships between drying temperature and the following: (author)

  9. Inhibition of rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation by N-acyldehydroalanines: An in vitro comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buc-Calderon, P.; Roberfroid, M. (Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium))

    1989-09-01

    Captodative substituted olefins are radical scavengers which react with free radicals to form stabilized radical adducts. One of those compounds, N-(paramethoxyphenylacetyl)dehydroalanine (AD-5), may react and scavenge both superoxide anion (O-2) and alk-oxyl radicals (RO.), and in this way prevent the appearance of their mediated biological effects. Nitrofurantoin and tert-butyl hydroperoxide were used as model compounds to stimulate free radical production and their mediated lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. In addition, lipid peroxidation was also initiated by exposure of rat liver microsomal suspensions to ionizing radiation (gamma rays). The microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by these chemicals and physical agents was inhibited by the addition of AD-5. These effects were dose-dependent in a millimolar range of concentration. In addition, AD-5 has no effect on microsomal electron transport, showing that NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity was not modified. These data, together with the comparisons of the effects of AD-5 and some antioxidant molecules such as superoxide dismutase, uric acid, and mannitol, support the conclusion that inhibition of lipid peroxidation by AD-5 is the result of its free radical scavenger activity. In addition, the inhibitory effect of AD-5 on microsomal lipid peroxidation was dependent of the nature of the free radical species involved in the initiation of the process, suggesting that O-2 is scavenged more efficiently than RO.

  10. Mucosal biofilm detection in chronic otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Marcus; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Eickhardt-Sørensen, Steffen Robert

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine middle ear biopsies from Greenlandic patients with chronic otitis media (COM) for the presence of mucosal biofilms and the bacteria within the biofilms. Thirty-five middle ear biopsies were obtained from 32 Greenlandic COM patients admitted to ear...... of the patients served as controls. PNA-FISH showed morphological signs of biofilms in 15 out of 35 (43 %) middle ear biopsies. In the control skin biopsies, there were signs of biofilms in eight out of 23 biopsies (30 %), probably representing skin flora. PCR and 16s sequencing detected bacteria in seven out...... of 20 (35 %) usable middle ear biopsies, and in two out of ten (20 %) usable control samples. There was no association between biofilm findings and PCR and 16s sequencing. Staphylococci were the most common bacteria in bacterial culture. We found evidence of bacterial biofilms in 43 % of middle ear...

  11. Mucosal immunity to pathogenic intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly dynamic environment in which the host constantly interacts with trillions of commensal microorganisms, known as the microbiota, and periodically interacts with pathogens of diverse nature. In this Review, we discuss how mucosal immunity is controlled in response to enteric bacterial pathogens, with a focus on the species that cause morbidity and mortality in humans. We explain how the microbiota can shape the immune response to pathogenic bacteria, and we detail innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that drive protective immunity against these pathogens. The vast diversity of the microbiota, pathogens and immune responses encountered in the intestines precludes discussion of all of the relevant players in this Review. Instead, we aim to provide a representative overview of how the intestinal immune system responds to pathogenic bacteria.

  12. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PRODUCTION ACTIVITY AND ADHESIVE PROPERTIES OF AEROCOCCI, ISOLATED IN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanskyi D.O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antagonistic activity of probiotic microorganisms against other species of bacteria is an important mechanism of their ecology and it is widely used in practice. This activity is inherent in many heme-deficient bacteria, which include aerococci, and can be composed of several components: the production of organic acids, antibiotics, lysozyme, hydrogen peroxide and others. Ability to produce hydrogen peroxide under aerobic conditions and in a state of relative anaerobiosis was established in aerococci. They were divided into strong and weak producers, depending on the amount of peroxides. Lack of data about peroxide-productive ability of aerococci, isolated from the lower genital tract of women, as well as a proven mechanism of hydrogen peroxide excretion in the oxidation of lactic acid, led to need in studying the aerococci hydrogen peroxide production level, to create autobacterial drugs, based on aerococci symbiont strains for sanitation of birth canal. Colonization resistance of the vaginal mucous and normal microflora value depends largely on the degree of adhesion of microbial cells to the mucosal surface. Along with numerous studies of lactobacilli adhesive properties to the vaginal epithelium, there are no data on the adsorption capacity of aerococci to the vaginal epithelial cells. Material and methods. 18 aerococci resident strains and 1 museum strain were explored in total. Presence and quantity of autosymbiont aerococci content in different parts of the birth tract (cervical canal, vagina, external genitalia skin (EGS and perineum was studied in 44 healthy women. Isolation and identification of aerococci from the women body was conducted by the method, taking into account growth on selective indicator medium, growth and biochemical activity in environments with selenium and tellurium salts, lactate oxidase and superoxide dismutase activity. Hydrogen peroxide was determined by iodometric method. Hydrogen peroxide

  13. Circular mucosal anopexy: Experience and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo Grau, Luis Antonio; Ruiz Edo, Neus; Llorca Cardeñosa, Sara; Heredia Budó, Adolfo; Estrada Ferrer, Óscar; Del Bas Rubia, Marta; García Torralbo, Eva María; Suñol Sala, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Circular mucosal anopexy (CMA) achieves a more comfortable postoperative period than resective techniques. But complications and recurrences are not infrequent. This study aims to evaluate of the efficacy of CMA in the treatment of hemorrhoids and rectal mucosal prolapse (RMP). From 1999 to 2011, 613 patients underwent surgery for either hemorrhoids or RMP in our hospital. CMA was performed in 327 patients. Gender distribution was 196 male and 131 female. Hemorrhoidal grades were distributed as follows: 28 patients had RMP, 46 2nd grade, 146 3rd grade and 107 4th grade. Major ambulatory surgery (MAS) was performed in 79.9%. Recurrence of hemorrhoids was studied and groups of recurrence and no-recurrence were compared. Postoperative pain was evaluated by Visual Analogical Scale (VAS) as well as early complications. A total of 31 patients needed reoperation (5 RMP, 2 with 2nd grade, 17 with 3rd grade,/with 4th grade). No statistically significant differences were found between the non-recurrent group and the recurrent group with regards to gender, surgical time or hemorrhoidal grade, but there were differences related to age. In the VAS, 81.3% of patients expressed a postoperative pain ≤ 2 at the first week. Five patients needed reoperation for early postoperative bleeding. Six patients needed admission for postoperative pain. Recurrence rate is higher in CMA than in resective techniques. CMA is a useful technique for the treatment of hemorrhoids in MAS. Pain and the rate of complications are both low. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex hormones and mucosal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Christopher G; Sabzehei, Bahareh; Marucha, Phillip T

    2009-07-01

    Wound healing studies, which have chiefly examined dermal tissues, have reported a female advantage in healing rates. In contrast, our laboratory recently demonstrated women heal mucosal wounds more slowly than men. We hypothesized sex hormones influence wound healing rates, possibly through their modulating effects on inflammation. This study involved 329 younger subjects aged 18-43 (165 women, 164 men) and 93 older subjects aged 50-88 (60 women, 33 men). A 3.5mm diameter wound was created on the hard oral palate and videographed daily to assess wound closure. Blood collected at the time of wounding was used to assess circulating testosterone, progesterone and estradiol levels, and in vitro cytokine production in response to LPS. No strong associations were observed between healing times and estradiol or progesterone levels. However, in younger subjects, lower testosterone levels related to faster wound closure. Conversely, in older women higher testosterone levels related to (1) lower inflammatory responses; and (2) faster healing times. No such relationships were seen in older men, or in women taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy [HRT]. Older women (50-54 years) not yet experiencing menopause healed similarly to younger women and dissimilarly from age-matched post-menopausal women. This suggests that the deleterious effects of aging on wound healing occur secondary to the effects of menopause. Supporting this, there was evidence in post-menopausal women that HRT augmented wound closure. Overall, this study suggests that human mucosal healing rates are modulated by testosterone levels. Based upon when between-group differences were observed, testosterone may impact upon the proliferative phase of healing which involves immune processes such as re-epithelialization and angiogenesis.

  15. Allopurinol gel mitigates radiation-induced mucositis and dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Junichi; Nasu, Masanori; Okumura, Hayato; Matsumoto, Shigeji; Shibata, Akihiko; Makino, Kimiko; Terada, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    It has not been verified whether allopurinol application is beneficial in decreasing the severity of radiation-induced oral mucositis and dermatitis. Rats were divided into 4 groups and received 15 Gy irradiation on the left whisker pad. Group 1 received only irradiation. Group 2 was maintained by applying allopurinol/carrageenan-mixed gel (allopurinol gel) continuously from 2 days before to 20 days after irradiation. Group 3 had allopurinol gel applied for 20 days after radiation. Group 4 was maintained by applying carrageenan gel continuously from 2 days before to 20 days after irradiation. The intra oral mucosal and acute skin reactions were assessed daily using mucositis and skin score systems. The escape thresholds for mechanical stimulation to the left whisker pad were measured daily. In addition, the irradiated tissues at the endpoint of this study were compared with naive tissue. Escape threshold in group 2 was significantly higher than that in group 1, and mucositis and skin scores were much improved compared with those of group 1. Concerning escape threshold, mucositis and skin scores in group 3 began to improve 10 days after irradiation. Group 4 showed severe symptoms of mucositis and dermatitis to the same extent as that observed in group 1. In the histopathological study, the tissues of group 1 showed severe inflammatory reactions, compared with those of group 2. These results suggest that allopurinol gel application can mitigate inflammation reactions associated with radiation-induced oral mucositis and dermatitis. (author)

  16. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belka, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [de

  17. Roles of Mucosal Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, is one of the world's leading infectious causes of morbidity and mortality. As a mucosal-transmitted pathogen, Mtb infects humans and animals mainly through the mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Apart from providing a physical barrier against the invasion of pathogen, the major function of the respiratory mucosa may be to serve as the inductive sites to initiate mucosal immune responses and sequentially provide the first line of defense for the host to defend against this pathogen. A large body of studies in the animals and humans have demonstrated that the mucosal immune system, rather than the systemic immune system, plays fundamental roles in the host’s defense against Mtb infection. Therefore, the development of new vaccines and novel delivery routes capable of directly inducing respiratory mucosal immunity is emphasized for achieving enhanced protection from Mtb infection. In this paper, we outline the current state of knowledge regarding the mucosal immunity against Mtb infection, including the development of TB vaccines, and respiratory delivery routes to enhance mucosal immunity are discussed.

  18. Surgical outcome in headache due to mucosal contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Fumiyuki; Yabe, Haruna; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    Headaches is classified as primary and secondary, with secondary originating in head and neck conditions, the most important etiology being acute sinusitis. Headache due to mucosal contact, rarely encountered by otorhinolaryngologists, is an important secondary headache, whose criteria are defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders to include intermittent pain localized in the periorbital and medial canthal or temporozygomatic regions, evidence that pain is attributable to mucosal contact and the presence of mucosal contact in the absence of acute rhinosinusitis, obtained using clinical examinations, nasal endoscopy, and/or computed tomography (CT). After mucosal contact is surgically corrected pain usually disappears permanently within 7 days. We reviewed mucosal contact headaches in 63 subjects undergoing nasal or paranasal surgery from April 2007 to March 2008. Of those 7 were diagnosed with headaches due to contact points in nasal mucosa, ranging from canthal to the temporozygomatic. The most common contact, between the middle turbinate and nasal septum, was seen in 6 of the 7. Surgery eliminated symptoms in 4 and ameliorated them in 3 indicating effective headache management. Subjects with severe headaches or localized periorbital and medial canthal pain regions, mucosal contact involvement is ruled out when CT allows no lesions. When mucosal contact headache is suspected, however surgery should be considered as a last resort. (author)

  19. Vitamin C Supplementation Reduces Peroxidative Damage without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function tests and peroxidative damage in asthmatic children. Methodology: Fifteen asthmatics aged between 8 - 14 years, all in the stable state were used in this study. Three millilitres of blood were drawn from the antecubital ...

  20. Relationship Between Calorie Restriction, Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the brain of the caloric restricted rats, there was little or no change in the tGSH and GSH, although the GSSG and GSSG/GSH% ratio were increased significantly. These results suggest that aging of rats had been decelerated by caloric restriction due to the decrease in the peroxidative damage in the lungs and brain.

  1. Microsomal lipid peroxidation as a mechanism of cellular damage. [Dissertation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornbrust, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The NADPH/iron-dependent peroxidation of lipids in rat liver microsomes was found to be dependent on the presence of free ferrous ion and maintains iron in the reduced Fe/sup 2 +/ state. Chelation of iron by EDTA inhibited peroxidation. Addition of iron, after preincubation of microsomes in the absence of iron, did not enhance the rate of peroxidation suggesting that iron acts by initiating peroxidative decomposition of membrane lipids rather than by catalyzing the breakdown of pre-formed hydroperoxides. Liposomes also underwent peroxidation in the presence of ferrous iron at a rate comparable to intact microsomes and was stimulated by ascorbate. Carbon tetrachloride initiated lipid peroxidation in the absence of free metal ions. Rates of in vitro lipid peroxidation of microsomes and homogenates were found to vary widely between different tissues and species. The effects of paraquat on lipid peroxidation was also studied. (DC)

  2. Prior mucosal exposure to heterologous cells alters the pathogenesis of cell-associated mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavell Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of research suggest that exposure to cellular material can alter the susceptibility to infection by HIV-1. Because sexual contact often includes exposure to cellular material, we hypothesized that repeated mucosal exposure to heterologous cells would induce an immune response that would alter the susceptibility to mucosal infection. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV model of HIV-1 mucosal transmission, the cervicovaginal mucosa was exposed once weekly for 12 weeks to 5,000 heterologous cells or media (control and then cats were vaginally challenged with cell-associated or cell-free FIV. Results Exposure to heterologous cells decreased the percentage of lymphocytes in the mucosal and systemic lymph nodes (LN expressing L-selectin as well as the percentage of CD4+ CD25+ T cells. These shifts were associated with enhanced ex-vivo proliferative responses to heterologous cells. Following mucosal challenge with cell-associated, but not cell-free, FIV, proviral burden was reduced by 64% in cats previously exposed to heterologous cells as compared to media exposed controls. Conclusions The pathogenesis and/or the threshold for mucosal infection by infected cells (but not cell-free virus can be modulated by mucosal exposure to uninfected heterologous cells.

  3. Ionizing radiation and lipid peroxidation in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco

    1997-07-01

    Lipids are organic compounds constituting the living cells. Lipid molecules can be disassembled through peroxidative pathways and hydrocarbons can be bred as end-product of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Lipid peroxidation can be started by an indirect effect of ionizing radiation. So a radioinduced cellular damage in human body can be detected by monitoring the production of specific hydrocarbons

  4. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  5. Vaccination against Salmonella Infection: the Mucosal Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Rémi; Bioley, Gilles; Rochereau, Nicolas; Paul, Stéphane; Corthésy, Blaise

    2017-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains. Having studied host-pathogen interactions, microbiologists and immunologists argue in favor of topical gastrointestinal administration for improvement in vaccine efficacy. Here, recent advances in this field are summarized, including mechanisms of bacterial uptake at the intestinal epithelium, the assessment of protective host immunity, and improved animal models that closely mimic infection in humans. The pros and cons of existing vaccines are presented, along with recent progress made with novel formulations. Finally, new candidate antigens and their relevance in the refined design of anti- Salmonella vaccines are discussed, along with antigen vectorization strategies such as nanoparticles or secretory immunoglobulins, with a focus on potentiating mucosal vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Mucosal effects of tenofovir 1% gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Florian; Burgener, Adam; Ballweber, Lamar; Gottardo, Raphael; Vojtech, Lucia; Fourati, Slim; Dai, James Y; Cameron, Mark J; Strobl, Johanna; Hughes, Sean M; Hoesley, Craig; Andrew, Philip; Johnson, Sherri; Piper, Jeanna; Friend, David R; Ball, T Blake; Cranston, Ross D; Mayer, Kenneth H; McElrath, M Juliana; McGowan, Ian

    2015-02-03

    Tenofovir gel is being evaluated for vaginal and rectal pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV transmission. Because this is a new prevention strategy, we broadly assessed its effects on the mucosa. In MTN-007, a phase-1, randomized, double-blinded rectal microbicide trial, we used systems genomics/proteomics to determine the effect of tenofovir 1% gel, nonoxynol-9 2% gel, placebo gel or no treatment on rectal biopsies (15 subjects/arm). We also treated primary vaginal epithelial cells from four healthy women with tenofovir in vitro. After seven days of administration, tenofovir 1% gel had broad-ranging effects on the rectal mucosa, which were more pronounced than, but different from, those of the detergent nonoxynol-9. Tenofovir suppressed anti-inflammatory mediators, increased T cell densities, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, altered regulatory pathways of cell differentiation and survival, and stimulated epithelial cell proliferation. The breadth of mucosal changes induced by tenofovir indicates that its safety over longer-term topical use should be carefully monitored.

  7. [Recurrent pulmonary infection and oral mucosal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Fei-Mei; Tang, Lan-Lan; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Min; Yang, Ming-Hua; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yu, Yan; Cao, Li-Zhi

    2017-04-01

    An 8-year-old girl who had experienced intermittent cough and fever over a 3 year period, was admitted after experiencing a recurrence for one month. One year ago the patient experienced a recurrent oral mucosal ulcer. Physical examination showed vitiligo in the skin of the upper right back. Routine blood tests and immune function tests performed in other hospitals had shown normal results. Multiple lung CT scans showed pulmonary infection. The patient had recurrent fever and cough and persistent presence of some lesions after anti-infective therapy. The antitubercular therapy was ineffective. Routine blood tests after admission showed agranulocytosis. Gene detection was performed and she was diagnosed with dyskeratosis congenita caused by homozygous mutation in RTEL1. Patients with dyskeratosis congenita with RTEL1 gene mutation tend to develop pulmonary complications. Since RTEL1 gene sequence is highly variable with many mutation sites and patterns and can be inherited via autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance, this disease often has various clinical manifestations, which may lead to missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. For children with unexplained recurrent pulmonary infection, examinations of the oral cavity, skin, and nails and toes should be taken and routine blood tests should be performed to exclude dyskeratosis congenita. There are no specific therapies for dyskeratosis congenita at present, and when bone marrow failure and pulmonary failure occur, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and lung transplantation are the only therapies. Androgen and its derivatives are effective in some patients. Drugs targeting the telomere may be promising for patients with dyskeratosis congenita.

  8. Role of helminths in regulating mucosal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Joel V; Summers, Robert W; Elliott, David E

    2005-09-01

    The rapid rise in prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in highly developed countries suggests that environmental change engenders risk for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Eradication of parasitic worms (helminths) through increased hygiene may be one such change that has led to increased prevalence of these diseases. Helminths alter host mucosal and systemic immunity, inhibiting dysregulated inflammatory responses. Animals exposed to helminths are protected from experimental colitis, encephalitis, and diabetes. Patients with CD or UC improve when exposed to whipworm. Lamina propria (LP) mononuclear cells from helminth-colonized mice make less interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IFN-gamma, but more IL-4, IL-13, IL-10, TGF-beta, and PGE(2) compared to LP mononuclear cells from naive mice. Systemic immune responses show similar skewing toward Th2 and regulatory cytokine production in worm-colonized animal models and humans. Recent reports suggest that helminths induce regulatory T cell activity. These effects by once ubiquitous organisms may have protected individuals from many of the emerging immune-mediated illnesses like IBD, multiple sclerosis, type I diabetes, and asthma.

  9. Mucosal T cells in gut homeostasis and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    van Wijk, Femke; Cheroutre, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    The antigen-rich environment of the gut interacts with a highly integrated and specialized mucosal immune system that has the challenging task of preventing invasion and the systemic spread of microbes, while avoiding excessive or unnecessary immune responses to innocuous antigens. Disruption of the mucosal barrier and/or defects in gut immune regulatory networks may lead to chronic intestinal inflammation as seen in inflammatory bowel disease. The T-cell populations of the intestine play a c...

  10. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Early Infancy: Monitoring and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hol, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe mucosal immune system of infants is dependent on the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Homeostasis results from the interaction between the mucosa and exogenous factors such as dietar and microbial agents. Induction and maintenance of homeostasis is a highly regluated system that involves different cell types. If homeostasis is lost this may lead to disease, including allergy and chronic intestinal inflammation. In this thesis we observed whether loss of homeostasis leading ...

  11. Radiation-induced mucositis pain in laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Atsuhito; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Iki, Takehiro; Mizuta, Masanobu; Matsubara, Mami

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy in those with head and neck malignancies often triggers painful mucositis poorly controlled by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To better understand how radiation-induced pain develops over time, we studied the numerical rating scale (NRS 0-5) pain scores from 32 persons undergoing radiation therapy of 60-72 Gy for newly diagnosed laryngeal cancer. The degree of mucositis was evaluated using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). We divided the 32 into a conventional fractionation (CF) group of 14 and a hyperfractionation (HF) group of 18, and further divided laryngeal cancer into a small-field group of 23 and a large-field group of 9. The mucositis pain course was similar in CF and HF, but mucositis pain was severer in the HF group, which also required more NSAIDs. Those in the large-field group had severer pain and mucositis and required more NSAIDs than those in the small-field group. We therefore concluded that small/large-field radiation therapy, rather fractionation type, was related to the incidence of radiation-induced mucositis pain. (author)

  12. Differential Apoptosis in Mucosal and Dermal Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ariel; Francis, Marybeth; DiPietro, Luisa Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Dermal and mucosal healing are mechanistically similar. However, scarring and closure rates are dramatically improved in mucosal healing, possibly due to differences in apoptosis. Apoptosis, nature's preprogrammed form of cell death, occurs via two major pathways, extrinsic and intrinsic, which intersect at caspase3 (Casp3) cleavage and activation. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the predominant pathways of apoptosis in mucosal and dermal wound healing. Approach: Wounds (1 mm biopsy punch) were made in the dorsal skin (n=3) or tongue (n=3) of female Balb/C mice aged 6 weeks. Wounds were harvested at 6 h, 24 h, day 3 (D3), D5, D7, and D10. RNA was isolated and analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels for genes in the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were compared in dermal and mucosal wounds. Results: Compared to mucosal healing, dermal wounds exhibited significantly higher expression of Casp3 (at D5; phealing compared to skin. Conclusion: Expression patterns of key regulators of apoptosis in wound healing indicate that apoptosis occurs predominantly through the intrinsic pathway in the healing mucosa, but predominantly through the extrinsic pathway in the healing skin. The identification of differences in the apoptotic pathways in skin and mucosal wounds may allow the development of therapeutics to improve skin healing. PMID:25493209

  13. Crystal structure of rubidium peroxide ammonia disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Grassl

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, Rb2O2·2NH3, has been obtained as a reaction product of rubidium metal dissolved in liquid ammonia and glucuronic acid. As a result of the low-temperature crystallization, a disolvate was formed. To our knowledge, only one other solvate of an alkali metal peroxide is known: Na2O2·8H2O has been reported by Grehl et al. [Acta Cryst. (1995, C51, 1038–1040]. We determined the peroxide bond length to be 1.530 (11 Å, which is in accordance with the length reported by Bremm & Jansen [Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. (1992, 610, 64–66]. One of the ammonia solvate molecules is disordered relative to a mirror plane, with 0.5 occupancy for the corresponding nitrogen atom.

  14. Functionalized Palladium Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Baccar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between two biosensors for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection. The first biosensor was developed by the immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP enzyme on thiol-modified gold electrode. The second biosensor was developed by the immobilization of cysteamine functionalizing palladium nanoparticles on modified gold surface. The amino groups can be activated with glutaraldehyde for horseradish peroxidase immobilization. The detection of hydrogen peroxide was successfully observed in PBS for both biosensors using the cyclic voltammetry and the chronoamperometry techniques. The results show that the limit detection depends on the large surface-to-volume ratio attained with palladium nanoparticles. The second biosensor presents a better detection limit of 7.5 μM in comparison with the first one which is equal to 75 μM.

  15. Determination and analysis of uptake of gaseous hydrogen peroxide by red spruce seedlings, determined by CSTR-type chamber experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborn, C.S.; Aneja, V.P.; Carbonell, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    In order to better understand the pathways for damage, the fate of gaseous hydrogen peroxide in red spruce needles was examined. The uptake of gaseous hydrogen peroxide by red spruce trees was determined from controlled exposure chamber experiments in which the chamber behaved as a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR). The results from these experiments were analyzed using a detailed transport model developed from fundamental principles, in order to determine the fate of hydrogen peroxide in the needles and characterize the exposure. The chamber was specially designed to accommodate highly reactive gases. All inner surfaces were Teflon-coated to minimize wall losses. Fluxes of hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were determined. Both daytime and nighttime conditions were examined. Although other investigators have reported that the flux of other, less water-soluble pollutants to red spruce decreases at night when the stomata closes, the hydrogen peroxide flux did not exhibit this behavior. The results of these studies suggest that, at the concentrations observed in the atmosphere, hydrogen peroxide does not reach the inner, mesophyll tissues, but is lost in water condensing in the cuticular wax residing in the stomatal antechamber, above the stomata. The implications of the condensation in the stomatal antechamber and subsequent reactions occurring in this water for forest damage are discussed

  16. Mucosal immunization using proteoliposome and cochleate structures from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B induce mucosal and systemic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Judith Del; Zayas, Caridad; Romeu, Belkis; Acevedo, Reinaldo; González, Elizabeth; Bracho, Gustavo; Cuello, Maribel; Cabrera, Osmir; Balboa, Julio; Lastre, Miriam

    2009-12-01

    Most pathogens either invade the body or establish infection in mucosal tissues and represent an enormous challenge for vaccine development by the absence of good mucosal adjuvants. A proteoliposome-derived adjuvant from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (AFPL1, Adjuvant Finlay Proteoliposome 1) and its derived cochleate form (Co, AFCo1) contain multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns as immunopotentiators, and can also serve as delivery systems to elicit a Th1-type immune response. The present studies demonstrate the ability of AFPL1and AFCo1 to induce mucosal and systemic immune responses by different mucosal immunizations routes and significant adjuvant activity for antibody responses of both structures: a microparticle and a nanoparticle with a heterologous antigen. Therefore, we used female mice immunized by intragastric, intravaginal, intranasal or intramuscular routes with both structures alone or incorporated with ovalbumin (OVA). High levels of specific IgG antibody were detected in all sera and in vaginal washes, but specific IgA antibody in external secretions was only detected in mucosally immunized mice. Furthermore, antigen specific IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes were all induced. AFPL1 and AFCo1 are capable of inducing IFN-gamma responses, and chemokine secretions, like MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta. However, AFCo1 is a better alternative to induce immune responses at mucosal level. Even when we use a heterologous antigen, the AFCo1 response was better than with AFPL1 in inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. These results support the use of AFCo1 as a potent Th1 inducing adjuvant particularly suitable for mucosal immunization.

  17. Protein energy malnutrition alters mucosal IgA responses and reduces mucosal vaccine efficacy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Semi; Kim, Heejoo; Shim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Seung Young; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho; Han, Byung Woo; Song, Man Ki; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Jae-Ouk

    2017-10-01

    Oral vaccine responsiveness is often lower in children from less developed countries. Childhood malnutrition may be associated with poor immune response to oral vaccines. The present study was designed to investigate whether protein energy malnutrition (PEM) impairs B cell immunity and ultimately reduces oral vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. Purified isocaloric diets containing low protein (1/10 the protein of the control diet) were used to determine the effect of PEM. PEM increased both nonspecific total IgA and oral antigen-specific IgA in serum without alteration of gut permeability. However, PEM decreased oral antigen-specific IgA in feces, which is consistent with decreased expression of polymeric Immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in the small intestine. Of note, polymeric IgA was predominant in serum under PEM. In addition, PEM altered B cell development status in the bone marrow and increased the frequency of IgA-secreting B cells, as well as IgA secretion by long-lived plasma cells in the small intestinal lamina propria. Moreover, PEM reduced the protective efficacy of the mucosally administered cholera vaccine and recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine in a mouse model. Our results suggest that PEM can impair mucosal immunity where IgA plays an important role in host protection and may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in malnourished subjects. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Underwater colorectal EMR: remodeling endoscopic mucosal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Gabriele; Granata, Antonino; Ligresti, Dario; Tarantino, Ilaria; Barresi, Luca; Liotta, Rosa; Traina, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Underwater EMR (UEMR) has been reported as a new technique for the removal of large sessile colorectal polyps without need for submucosal injection. To evaluate (1) outcomes of UEMR, (2) whether UEMR can be easily performed by an endoscopist skilled in traditional EMR without specific dedicated training in UEMR, and (3) whether EUS is required before UEMR. Prospective, observational study. Single, tertiary-care referral center. Underwater EMR. Complete resection and adverse events. A total of 72 consecutive patients underwent UEMR of 81 sessile colorectal polyps. EUS was performed before UEMR in 9 cases (11.1%) with a suspicious mucosal/vascular pattern. The mean polyp size was 18.7 mm (range 10-50 mm); the mean UEMR time was 11.8 minutes. Fifty-five polyps (68%) were removed en bloc, and 26 (32%) were removed with a piecemeal technique. Histopathology consisted of tubular adenomas (25.9%), tubulovillous adenomas (5%), adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (42%), serrated polyps (4.9%), carcinoma in situ (13.6%), and hyperplastic polyps (8.6%). Surveillance colonoscopy was scheduled at 3 months. Complete resection was successful in all patients. No adverse events or recurrence was recorded in any of the patients. Limited follow-up; single-center, uncontrolled study. Interventional endoscopists skilled in conventional EMR performed UEMR without specific dedicated training. EUS may not be required for lesions with no invasive features on high-definition narrow-band imaging. UEMR appears to be an effective and safe alternative to traditional EMR and could eventually improve the way in which we can effectively and safely treat colorectal lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clotrimazole nanoparticle gel for mucosal administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Elisabetta, E-mail: ese@unife.it [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ravani, Laura [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Contado, Catia [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Costenaro, Andrea [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Drechsler, Markus [Macromolecular Chemistry II, University of Bayreuth (Germany); Rossi, Damiano [Department of Biology and Evolution, LT Terra and Acqua Tech UR7, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Menegatti, Enea [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Grandini, Alessandro [Department of Biology and Evolution, LT Terra and Acqua Tech UR7, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Cortesi, Rita [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-01-01

    In this study a formulation suitable to be applied on oral and/or vaginal mucosa has been developed for the treatment of fungal infections. The aim of the research is a comparison between clotrimazole (CLO) containing semisolid formulations based on monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) or nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). MAD and NLC have been characterized in terms of morphology and dimensional distribution by cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). CLO was encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC, according to Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) combined with HPLC. CLO recovery in MAD and NLC has been investigated by time. In order to obtain formulations with suitable viscosity for mucosal application, MAD was diluted with a carbomer gel, while NLC was directly viscosized by the addition of poloxamer 407 in the dispersion. The rheological properties of MAD and NLC after viscosizing have been investigated. Franz cell has been employed to study CLO diffusion from the different vehicles, evidencing diffusion rates from MAD and NLC superimposable to that obtained using Canesten{sup Registered-Sign }. An anticandidal activity study demonstrated that both CLO-MAD and CLO-NLC were more active against Candida albicans with respect to the pure drug. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) and nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clotrimazole (CLO) encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solid matrix of NLC controls CLO degradation better than MAD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CLO containing MAD and NLC exhibits a higher anticandidal activity than the free drug. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple production of CLO-NLC based poloxamer gel, suitable for industry scaling up.

  20. Clotrimazole nanoparticle gel for mucosal administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Ravani, Laura; Contado, Catia; Costenaro, Andrea; Drechsler, Markus; Rossi, Damiano; Menegatti, Enea; Grandini, Alessandro; Cortesi, Rita

    2013-01-01

    In this study a formulation suitable to be applied on oral and/or vaginal mucosa has been developed for the treatment of fungal infections. The aim of the research is a comparison between clotrimazole (CLO) containing semisolid formulations based on monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) or nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). MAD and NLC have been characterized in terms of morphology and dimensional distribution by cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). CLO was encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC, according to Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) combined with HPLC. CLO recovery in MAD and NLC has been investigated by time. In order to obtain formulations with suitable viscosity for mucosal application, MAD was diluted with a carbomer gel, while NLC was directly viscosized by the addition of poloxamer 407 in the dispersion. The rheological properties of MAD and NLC after viscosizing have been investigated. Franz cell has been employed to study CLO diffusion from the different vehicles, evidencing diffusion rates from MAD and NLC superimposable to that obtained using Canesten ® . An anticandidal activity study demonstrated that both CLO-MAD and CLO-NLC were more active against Candida albicans with respect to the pure drug. Highlights: ► Comparison between monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) and nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). ► Clotrimazole (CLO) encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC. ► The solid matrix of NLC controls CLO degradation better than MAD. ► CLO containing MAD and NLC exhibits a higher anticandidal activity than the free drug. ► Simple production of CLO-NLC based poloxamer gel, suitable for industry scaling up

  1. Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokeya Begum

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is the most common and major medical complication of pregnancy with a high incidence of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. During pregnancy abnormally increased lipid peroxidation and free radical formation as well as significantly decreased antioxidants production in maternal blood may lead to pathogenesis of preeclampsia. So, we designed this study as little information is known about lipid peroxidation and antioxidant level in preeclampsia. Objectives: To assess the serum malondialdehyde (MDA level as a lipid peroxidation product and vitamin E (antioxidant level in women with preeclampsia as well as in normal pregnancy and to compare the values. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 women aged from 25 to 35 years in the department of Biochemistry, Budi Kemuliaan Maternity Hospital (BKMH in Jakarta during the period April to July 2004. Twenty were normal pregnant women and 20 were preeclamptic patients. For comparison age matched 20 apparently healthy nonpregnant women were included in the study. The study subjects were selected from outpatient department (OPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of BKMH in Jakarta. Serum MDA (lipid peroxidation product level was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBRAS method and vitamin E was estimated spectroflurometrically. Data were analyzed by unpaired Student’s t test between the groups by using SPSS version 12. Results: The mean serum MDA levels were significantly higher in normal pregnancy and also in preeclampsia than that of nonpregnant control group women (p<0.001. Again the serum MDA levels were significantly higher in preeclampsia than that of normal pregnant women (p<0.001. The serum vitamin E levels were significantly lower in preeclampsia and also in normal pregnancy than that of nonpregnant control women (p<0.001. Moreover, the serum vitamin E levels were significantly lower in preeclampsia compared to that of normal

  2. Time and concentration dependency in the potentially affected fraction of species: the case of hydrogen peroxide treatment of ballast water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Ebbens, E.; Jak, R.G.; Huijbregts, M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transport of large volumes of ballast water contributes greatly to invasions of species. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be used as a disinfectant to prevent the spread of exotic species via ballast water. Instead of using environmental risk assessment techniques for protecting a certain fraction of

  3. Using a Hands-On Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition Activity to Teach Catalysis Concepts to K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulskis, Viktor J.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Gounder, Rajamani

    2016-01-01

    A versatile and transportable laboratory apparatus was developed for middle and high school (6th-12th grade) students as part of a hands-on outreach activity to estimate catalytic rates of hydrogen peroxide decomposition from oxygen evolution rates measured by using a volumetric displacement method. The apparatus was constructed with inherent…

  4. Investigation of the decomposition reaction and dust explosion characteristics of crystalline benzoyl peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, K.-T.; Chen, T.-C.; Hu, K.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is widely used in the chemical industry. Many catastrophes have been caused by its thermal instability or reactive incompatibility in storage or thermal decomposition reaction. Thus, its hazard characteristics have to be clearly identified. First of all, the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) is used to measure the heat of decomposition reaction, which can contribute to understanding the reaction characteristics of benzoyl peroxide. The accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) is used to measure the rates of temperature and pressure rises of decomposition reaction, and then the kinetics parameters are estimated. Furthermore, the MIKE 3 apparatus and the 20-l-Apparatus are used to measure and analyze the dust explosion characteristics of benzoyl peroxide under room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Finally, Semenov's thermal explosion theory is applied to investigate the critical runaway condition and the stability criterion of decomposition reaction, and to build the relationship of critical temperature, convective heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer surface area and ambient temperature. These results contribute to improving the safety in the reaction, transportation and storage processes of benzoyl peroxide

  5. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

    2011-09-01

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.

  6. A randomised clinical trial of misoprostol for radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faroudi, F.; Timms, I.; Sathiyuaseelan, Y.; Cakir, B.; Tiver, K.W.; Gebski, V.; Veness, M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation mucositis is a major acute toxicity of radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies. We tested whether Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E 1 analogue given prophylactically decreased intensity of radiation mucositis. A double blind randomized trial was conducted. The intervention consisted of swishing dissolved drug or placebo as a mouthwash, and then swallowing two hours prior to radiation treatment. Patients were stratified based on concurrent chemotherapy, altered fractionation, smoking, extent of oral mucosa in radiation field, and institution. The main end point was the extent of RTOG grade III mucositis, taking into account both time and duration of mucositis. 42 patients were randomized to active drug, and 41 patients to placebo. The trial was designed to have 70 patients in each arm. The trial closed due to poor accrual. In the Misoprostol group 18/42 (43%) had grade III/IV mucositis, and in the placebo group 17/40 (42%). The mean difference between the areas under the curve was 0.38 (p-value: 0.38). For grade II mucositis the corresponding figures were 18 (42%) and 19 (47%). The time from commencement of radiation therapy to the development of peak mucositis was 49 days in the misoprostol patients and 51 days in the placebo group. The duration of grade III mucositis 12.5 days in the Misoprostol patients and 7 days in the placebo patients. In the Misoprostol arm 4 patients had an interruption to their Radiation Therapy, in the Placebo arm 5 had interruptions. Patients average weight loss was 8.1 and 8.2kg. Average self-assessment was via a 10cm LASA scale for soreness of throat and overall well-being. Misoprostol showed a worse QoL on soreness of mouth (mean difference: 0.84 units (p-value .03), but overall well-being was similar on both treatment arms 1 patient withdrew in the Misoprostol arm and 2 in the placebo arm. Misoprostol given prophylactically does not reduce the incidence of Grade III/IV mucositis, is associated with a shorter

  7. A Review of Clinical Radioprotection and Chemoprotection for Oral Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Oronsky

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The first tenet of medicine, “primum non nocere” or “first, do no harm”, is not always compatible with oncological interventions e.g., chemotherapy, targeted therapy and radiation, since they commonly result in significant toxicities. One of the more frequent and serious treatment-induced toxicities is mucositis and particularly oral mucositis (OM described as inflammation, atrophy and breakdown of the mucosa or lining of the oral cavity. The sequelae of oral mucositis (OM, which include pain, odynodysphagia, dysgeusia, decreased oral intake and systemic infection, frequently require treatment delays, interruptions and discontinuations that not only negatively impact quality of life but also tumor control and survivorship. One potential strategy to reduce or prevent the development of mucositis, for which no effective therapies exist only best supportive empirical care measures, is the administration of agents referred to as radioprotectors and/or chemoprotectors, which are intended to differentially protect normal but not malignant tissue from cytotoxicity. This limited-scope review briefly summarizes the incidence, pathogenesis, symptoms and impact on patients of OM as well as the background and mechanisms of four clinical stage radioprotectors/chemoprotectors, amifostine, palifermin, GC4419 and RRx-001, with the proven or theoretical potential to minimize the development of mucositis particularly in the treatment of head and neck cancers.

  8. Alkaline Peroxide Delignification of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh [Biosciences; Katahira, Rui [National; Donohoe, Bryon S. [Biosciences; Black, Brenna A. [National; Pattathil, Sivakumar [Complex; Stringer, Jack M. [National; Beckham, Gregg T. [National

    2017-05-30

    Selective biomass fractionation into carbohydrates and lignin is a key challenge in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In the present study, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was investigated to fractionate lignin from polysaccharides in corn stover (CS), with a particular emphasis on the fate of the lignin for subsequent valorization. The influence of peroxide loading on delignification during AHP pretreatment was examined over the range of 30-500 mg H2O2/g dry CS at 50 degrees C for 3 h. Mass balances were conducted on the solid and liquid fractions generated after pretreatment for each of the three primary components, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. AHP pretreatment at 250 mg H2O2/g dry CS resulted in the pretreated solids with more than 80% delignification consequently enriching the carbohydrate fraction to >90%. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy of the AHP pretreated residue shows that, under high peroxide loadings (>250 mg H2O2/g dry CS), most of the side chain structures were oxidized and the aryl-ether bonds in lignin were partially cleaved, resulting in significant delignification of the pretreated residues. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis shows that AHP pretreatment effectively depolymerizes CS lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fragments in the aqueous fraction. Imaging of AHP pretreated residues shows a more granular texture and a clear lamellar pattern in secondary walls, indicative of layers of varying lignin removal or relocalization. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this pretreated residue at 20 mg/g of glucan resulted in 90% and 80% yields of glucose and xylose, respectively, after 120 h. Overall, AHP pretreatment is able to selectively remove more than 80% of the lignin from biomass in a form that has potential for downstream valorization processes and enriches the solid pulp into a highly digestible material.

  9. Engineering bacterial motility towards hydrogen-peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgile, Chelsea; Hauk, Pricila; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Shang, Wu; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic biologists construct innovative genetic/biological systems to treat environmental, energy, and health problems. Many systems employ rewired cells for non-native product synthesis, while a few have employed the rewired cells as 'smart' devices with programmable function. Building on the latter, we developed a genetic construct to control and direct bacterial motility towards hydrogen peroxide, one of the body's immune response signaling molecules. A motivation for this work is the creation of cells that can target and autonomously treat disease, the latter signaled by hydrogen peroxide release. Bacteria naturally move towards a variety of molecular cues (e.g., nutrients) in the process of chemotaxis. In this work, we engineered bacteria to recognize and move towards hydrogen peroxide, a non-native chemoattractant and potential toxin. Our system exploits oxyRS, the native oxidative stress regulon of E. coli. We first demonstrated H2O2-mediated upregulation motility regulator, CheZ. Using transwell assays, we showed a two-fold increase in net motility towards H2O2. Then, using a 2D cell tracking system, we quantified bacterial motility descriptors including velocity, % running (of tumble/run motions), and a dynamic net directionality towards the molecular cue. In CheZ mutants, we found that increased H2O2 concentration (0-200 μM) and induction time resulted in increased running speeds, ultimately reaching the native E. coli wild-type speed of ~22 μm/s with a ~45-65% ratio of running to tumbling. Finally, using a microfluidic device with stable H2O2 gradients, we characterized responses and the potential for "programmed" directionality towards H2O2 in quiescent fluids. Overall, the synthetic biology framework and tracking analysis in this work will provide a framework for investigating controlled motility of E. coli and other 'smart' probiotics for signal-directed treatment.

  10. Peroxide coordination of tellurium in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaylov, Alexey A.; Medvedev, Alexander G. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); The Casali Center of Applied Chemistry, The Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel); Churakov, Andrei V.; Grishanov, Dmitry A.; Prikhodchenko, Petr V. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lev, Ovadia [The Casali Center of Applied Chemistry, The Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-02-15

    Tellurium-peroxo complexes in aqueous solutions have never been reported. In this work, ammonium peroxotellurates (NH{sub 4}){sub 4}Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 4}(OH){sub 2} (1) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 5}Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 5}(OH).1.28 H{sub 2}O.0.72 H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (2) were isolated from 5 % hydrogen peroxide aqueous solutions of ammonium tellurate and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis, by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The crystal structure of 1 comprises ammonium cations and a symmetric binuclear peroxotellurate anion [Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}]{sup 4-}. The structure of 2 consists of an unsymmetrical [Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 5}(OH)]{sup 5-} anion, ammonium cations, hydrogen peroxide, and water. Peroxotellurate anions in both 1 and 2 contain a binuclear Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O) fragment with one μ-oxo- and two μ-peroxo bridging groups. {sup 125}Te NMR spectroscopic analysis shows that the peroxo bridged bitellurate anions are the dominant species in solution, with 3-40 %wt H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and for pH values above 9. DFT calculations of the peroxotellurate anion confirm its higher thermodynamic stability compared with those of the oxotellurate analogues. This is the first direct evidence for tellurium-peroxide coordination in any aqueous system and the first report of inorganic tellurium-peroxo complexes. General features common to all reported p-block element peroxides could be discerned by the characterization of aqueous and crystalline peroxotellurates. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Human Secretory IgM Antibodies Activate Human Complement and Offer Protection at Mucosal Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, T E; Emilsen, S; Sandin, R H; Granerud, B K; Bratlie, D; Ihle, O; Sandlie, I

    2017-01-01

    IgM molecules circulate in serum as large polymers, mainly pentamers, which can be transported by the poly-Ig receptor (pIgR) across epithelial cells to mucosal surfaces and released as secretory IgM (SIgM). The mucosal SIgM molecules have non-covalently attached secretory component (SC), which is the extracellular part of pIgR which is cleaved from the epithelial cell membrane. Serum IgM antibodies do not contain SC and have previously been shown to make a conformational change from 'a star' to a 'staple' conformation upon reaction with antigens on a cell surface, enabling them to activate complement. However, it is not clear whether SIgM similarly can induce complement activation. To clarify this issue, we constructed recombinant chimeric (mouse/human) IgM antibodies against hapten 5-iodo-4-hydroxy-3-nitro-phenacetyl (NIP) and in addition studied polyclonal IgM formed after immunization with a meningococcal group B vaccine. The monoclonal and polyclonal IgM molecules were purified by affinity chromatography on a column containing human SC in order to isolate joining-chain (J-chain) containing IgM, followed by addition of excess amounts of soluble SC to create SIgM (IgM J+ SC+). These SIgM preparations were tested for complement activation ability and shown to be nearly as active as the parental IgM J+ molecules. Thus, SIgM may offer protection against pathogens at mucosal surface by complement-mediated cell lysis or by phagocytosis mediated by complement receptors present on effector cells on mucosa. © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  12. Improved capacity to evaluate changes in intestinal mucosal surface area using mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Chasen J; Cowles, Robert A

    2017-07-01

    Quantification of intestinal mucosal growth typically relies on morphometric parameters, commonly villus height, as a surrogate for presumed changes in mucosal surface area (MSA). We hypothesized that using mathematical modeling based on multiple unique measurements would improve discrimination of the effects of interventions on MSA compared to standard measures. To determine the ability of mathematical modeling to resolve differences in MSA, a mouse model with enhanced serotonin (5HT) signaling known to stimulate mucosal growth was used. 5-HT signaling is potentiated by targeting the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) molecule. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-treated wild-type (WT-SSRI), SERT-knockout (SERTKO), and wild-type C57Bl/6 (WT) mice were used. Distal ileal sections were H&E-stained. Villus height (VH), width (VW), crypt width (CW), and bowel diameter were used to calculate surface area enlargement factor (SEF) and MSA. VH alone for SERTKO and SSRI was significantly increased compared to WT, without a difference between SERTKO and WT-SSRI. VW and CW were significantly decreased for both SERTKO and WT-SSRI compared to WT, and VW for WT-SSRI was also decreased compared to SERTKO. These changes increased SEF and MSA for SERTKO and WT-SSRI compared to WT. Additionally, SEF and MSA were significantly increased for WT-SSRI compared to SERTKO. Mathematical modeling provides a valuable tool for differentiating changes in intestinal MSA. This more comprehensive assessment of surface area does not appear to correlate linearly with standard morphometric measures and represents a more comprehensive method for discriminating between therapies aimed at increasing functional intestinal mucosa. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  14. Dual oxidase in mucosal immunity and host-microbe homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Soo; Choi, Myoung Kwon; Lee, Won-Jae

    2010-07-01

    Mucosal epithelia are in direct contact with microbes, which range from beneficial symbionts to pathogens. Accordingly, hosts must have a conflicting strategy to combat pathogens efficiently while tolerating symbionts. Recent progress has revealed that dual oxidase (DUOX) plays a key role in mucosal immunity in organisms that range from flies to humans. Information from the genetic model of Drosophila has advanced our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of DUOX and its role in mucosal immunity. Further investigations of DUOX regulation in response to symbiotic or non-symbiotic bacteria and the in vivo consequences in host physiology will give a novel insight into the microbe-controlling system of the mucosa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Peptic ulcer pathophysiology: acid, bicarbonate, and mucosal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Mertz Nielsen, A; Rune, S J

    1996-01-01

    The previously accepted role of gastric acid hypersecretion in peptic ulcer disease has been modified by studies showing no correlation between acid output and clinical outcome of ulcer disease, or between ulcer recurrence rate after vagotomy and preoperative acid secretion. At the same time......, studies have been unable to demonstrate increased acidity in the duodenal bulb in patients with duodenal ulcer, and consequently more emphasis has been given to the mucosal protecting mechanisms. The existence of an active gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion creates a pH gradient from...... cell removal and repair regulated by epidermal growth factor. Sufficient mucosal blood flow, including a normal acid/base balance, is important for subepithelial protection. In today's model of ulcer pathogenesis, gastric acid and H. pylori work in concert as aggressive factors, with the open question...

  16. Endomicroscopy for assessing mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Cotruta, Bogdan; Iacob, Razvan; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dumbrava, Mona; Gheorghe, Liana

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of tissue healing has emerged as an important treatment goal in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), mucosal healing may represent the ultimate therapeutic goal due to the fact that the inflammation is limited to the mucosal layer. Mucosal and histological healing may indicate a subset of UC patients in long-term clinical, endoscopic and histological remission in whom immunomodulators, biologics, and even aminosalicylates may be withdrawn. Confocal laser endomicroscopy allows the assessment of residual cellular inflammation, crypt and vessel architecture distortion during ongoing endoscopy, and therefore permits a real-time evaluation of histological healing in patients with ulcerative proctitis. Images of conventional optical microscopy and confocal laser endomicroscopy in patients with ulcerative proctitis in remission are presented.

  17. Oral mucositis: recent perspectives on prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is a result of toxicity and one of the most common side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in cancer treatment and in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinically these changes are characterized by epithelial atrophy, edema, erythema and the appearance of ulcerations that can affect the entire oral mucosa, causing pain and discomfort, impairing speech, and swallowing food. In addition to the major symptoms, the ulcers increase the risk of local and systemic infection, compromising function and interfering with oral antineoplastic treatment and may lead to it being discontinued. The diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic strategies in providing support in cases of oral mucositis are the dentist’s responsibility. Through critical analysis of literature, the aim of this article is to present oral mucositis, its pathogenesis, clinical features and treatments offered today to address or control the condition, highlighting the importance of dentists’ role in its management.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalai Malinouski; You Zhou; Vsevolod V Belousov; Dolph L Hatfield; Vadim N Gladyshev

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular ...

  19. Radiation-induced peroxidation of egg lecithin liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisby, R.H.; Cundall, R.B.; Tomaszewski, K.E.; Coleman, M.H.; Gould, G.

    1983-01-01

    Peroxidation of multilamellar vesicles of egg lecithin was measured following γ-irradiation of oxygen saturated suspensions. The addition of hydroxyl radical scavengers and the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase was used to show that hydroxyl radicals were the major species initiating peroxidation. Superoxide radicals were found to be much less effective initiators of peroxidation. Trolox C, a water soluble analogue of vitamin E, was found to act as an efficient antioxidant in this system. (author)

  20. Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.

    1987-09-01

    The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS.

  1. The identification of plant lectins with mucosal adjuvant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, E C; Grant, G; Pusztai, A; Pfüller, U; O'hagan, D T

    2001-01-01

    To date, the most potent mucosal vaccine adjuvants to be identified have been bacterial toxins. The present data demonstrate that the type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (type 2 RIP), mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) is a strong mucosal adjuvant of plant origin. A number of plant lectins were investigated as intranasal (i.n.) coadjuvants for a bystander protein, ovalbumin (OVA). As a positive control, a potent mucosal adjuvant, cholera toxin (CT), was used. Co-administration of ML-I or CT with OVA stimulated high titres of OVA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in addition to OVA-specific IgA in mucosal secretions. CT and ML-I were also strongly immunogenic, inducing high titres of specific serum IgG and specific IgA at mucosal sites. None of the other plant lectins investigated significantly boosted the response to co-administered OVA. Immunization with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) plus OVA elicited a lectin-specific response but did not stimulate an enhanced response to OVA compared with the antigen alone. Intranasal delivery of tomato lectin (LEA) elicited a strong lectin-specific systemic and mucosal antibody response but only weakly potentiated the response to co-delivered OVA. In contrast, administration of wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA) or Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-I) with OVA stimulated a serum IgG response to OVA while the lectin-specific responses (particularly for WGA) were relatively low. Thus, there was not a direct correlation between immunogenicity and adjuvanticity although the strongest adjuvants (CT, ML-I) were also highly immunogenic. PMID:11168640

  2. Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.

    1987-01-01

    The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS

  3. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  4. Precipitation of uranium concentrates by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa Filho, O.

    1986-12-01

    An experimental study on the (UO 4 .xH 2 ) uranyl peroxide precipitation from a uranium process strip solution is presented. The runs were performed in a batch reactor, in laboratory scale. The main objective was to assess the possibility of the peroxide route as an alternative to a conventional ammonium diuranate process. The chemical composition of process solution was obtained. The experiments were conducted according to a factorial design, aiming to evaluate the effects of initial pH, precipitation pH and H 2 O 2 /UO 2 2+ ratio upon the process. The responses were measured in terms of the efficiency of U precipitation, the content of U in the precipitates and the distribution of impurities in the precipitates. The results indicated that the process works is satisfactory on the studied conditions and depending on conditions, it is possible to achieve levels of U precipitation efficiency greater than 99.9% in reaction times of 2 hours. The precipitates reach grades around 99% U 3 O 8 after calcination (900 0 C) and impurities fall below the limit for penalties established by the ASTM and the Allied Chemical Standards. The precipitates are composed of large aggregates of crystals of 1-4 μm, are fast settling and filtering, and are free-flowing when dry. (Author) [pt

  5. Investigation of how to prevent mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaka, Chihiro; Tajima, Hakuju; Inoue, Tadao

    2011-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe oral mucositis; an adverse, painful event. Oral mucositis also causes nutritional deficiency by making oral feeding difficult. This may lead to prolongation of hospitalization due to complications caused by malnutrition. However, an effective way to prevent oral mucositis completely, remains to be found. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of oral mucositis, and nutritional conditions such as hypoalbuminemia, reduction of body weight, and length of hospital stay (days) when the mouth was rinsed using rebamipide solution (R solution), or Poraprezinc-alginate sodium solution (P-A solution) (both considered to be effective for oral mucositis). A mouth rinsed with sodium azulene sulfonate (S solution) was used as a control. The mouth was rinsed out six times per day continuously during chemoradiotherapy. In the study, 31 patients were assigned to rinse their mouths using R solution, 11 patients using P-A solution, and 15 patients using S solution (reduction rate of body weight in 14 patients). For the evaluation, the criteria for adverse drug reactions CTCAE (v3.0) were used. Grade 1 and over, oral mucositis occurred in 48% of the R solution group, 36% of the P-A solution group, and 80% of the S solution group, indicating that the P-A solution group significantly prevented the occurrence of oral mucositis as opposed to the S solution group. A reduction in body weight was observed in 81% of the R solution group, 82% of the P-A solution group, and 79% of the S solution group, indicating a similar weight reduction rate among individual solution groups. Hypoalbuminemia equal to grade 2 or higher occurred in 3% of the R solution group, 18% of the P-A solution group, and 29% of the S solution group, indicating that the R group significantly prevented the occurrence of hypoalbuminemia compared to the S solution group. In addition, the length of hospital stays were 44±8.0 days for

  6. Experiences with Pontal syrup in mucositis caused by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shoji; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kunieda, Etsuo; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1983-01-01

    Pontal syrup was administered at daily dose of 30 ml t. i. d. to 17 patients of mucositis developed due to radiotherapy against malignant tumor. Results were: Remarkably effective-5 cases, effective-8 cases, slightly effective-3 cases, and non-effective-1 case. Certain effects were observed in 16 cases out of 17 cases/94.1%, excluding only one non-effective case. No side-effects were observed in all cases. It is considered that Pontal syrup is a drug useful for mucositis caused by radiotherapy because of its easiness of administration and also of its characteristic of non-stimulant. (author)

  7. Intestinal dendritic cells in the regulation of mucosal immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Vasileios; Persson, Emma K.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    immune cells within the mucosa must suitably respond to maintain intestinal integrity, while also providing the ability to mount effective immune responses to potential pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinel immune cells that play a central role in the initiation and differentiation of adaptive....... The recognition that dietary nutrients and microbial communities in the intestine influence both mucosal and systemic immune cell development and function as well as immune-mediated disease has led to an explosion of literature in mucosal immunology in recent years and a growing interest in the functionality...

  8. Psychological factors in oral mucosal and orofacial pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashdan, Mohammad S; Alkhader, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The psychological aspects of chronic pain conditions represent a key component of the pain experience, and orofacial pain conditions are not an exception. In this review, we highlight how psychological factors affect some common oral mucosal and orofacial pain conditions (namely, oral lichen planus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome, and temporomandibular disorders) with emphasis on the significance of supplementing classical biomedical treatment modalities with appropriate psychological counseling to improve treatment outcomes in targeted patients. A literature search restricted to reports with highest relevance to the selected mucosal and orofacial pain conditions was carried out to retrieve data.

  9. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal...... healthy volunteers. Bicarbonate and PGE2 were measured in the gastroduodenal effluents by back-titration and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: Vagal stimulation and duodenal luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 20 ml; 5 min) increased gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion (p ... markedly inhibited both basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion, and this reduction was similar to the degree of cyclooxygenase inhibition estimated by the luminal release of PGE2 (p

  10. Antioxidant effect of bisphosphonates and simvastatin on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrecht, E.J.; De Tollenaere, C.B.; Aerts, K.; Cos, P.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Bridts, C.H.; Van Offel, J.F.; Ebo, D.G.; Stevens, W.J.; De Clerck, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) and simvastatin on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. For this purpose, a flow cytometrical method using C11-BODIPY 581/591 was developed to detect hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation in chondrocytes. Tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced a time and concentration dependent increase in chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. Addition of a Fe 2+ /EDTA complex to t-BHP or hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) clearly enhanced lipid peroxidation. The lipophilic simvastatin demonstrated a small inhibition in the chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. None of three tested BPs (clodronate, pamidronate, and risedronate) had an effect on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation induced by t-BHP. However, when Fe 2+ /EDTA complex was added to t-BHP or H 2 O 2 , BPs inhibited the lipid peroxidation process varying from 25% to 58%. This study demonstrates that BPs have antioxidant properties as iron chelators, thereby inhibiting the chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. These findings add evidence to the therapeutic potential of bisphosphonates and statins in rheumatoid arthritis

  11. A survey of chemicals inducing lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, H

    1987-01-01

    A great number of drugs and chemicals are reviewed which have been shown to stimulate lipid peroxidation in any biological system. The underlying mechanisms, as far as known, are also dealt with. Lipid peroxidation induced by iron ions, organic hydroperoxides, halogenated hydrocarbons, redox cycling drugs, glutathione depleting chemicals, ethanol, heavy metals, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and a number of miscellaneous compounds, e.g. hydrazines, pesticides, antibiotics, are mentioned. It is shown that lipid peroxidation is stimulated by many of these compounds. However, quantitative estimates cannot be given yet and it is still impossible to judge the biological relevance of chemical-induced lipid peroxidation.

  12. Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells. PMID:21283738

  13. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikalai Malinouski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells.Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events.We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells.

  14. Synthesis and thermal properties of strontium and calcium peroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Warren H.; Kraft, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    A practical synthesis and a discussion of some chemical properties of pure strontium peroxide and calcium peroxide are presented. The general synthesis of these peroxides involves precipitation of their octahydrates by addition of H2O2 to aqueous ammoniacal Sr(NO3)2 or CaCl2. The octahydrates are converted to the anhydrous peroxides by various dehydration techniques. A new x-ray diffraction powder pattern for CaO2 x 8H2O is given from which lattice parameters a=6.212830 and c=11.0090 were calculated on the basis of the tetragonal crystal system.

  15. Effect of antioxidants and silicates on peroxides in povidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ajit S; Rao, Venkatramana M; Desai, Divyakant S

    2012-01-01

    Reactive peroxides in povidone often lead to degradation of oxidation-labile drugs. To reduce peroxide concentration in povidone, the roles of storage conditions, antioxidants, and silicates were investigated. Povidone alone and its physical mixtures with ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, sodium sulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were stored at 25 °C and 40 °C, at 11%, 32%, and 50% relative humidity. In addition, povidone solution in methanol was equilibrated with silicates (silica gel and molecular sieves), followed by solvent evaporation to recover povidone powder. Peroxide concentrations in povidone were measured. The concentration of peroxides in povidone increased under very-low-humidity storage conditions. Among the antioxidants, ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, and sodium sulfite reduced the peroxide concentration in povidone, whereas BHA and BHT did not. Water solubility appeared to determine the effectiveness of antioxidants. Also, some silicates significantly reduced peroxide concentration in povidone without affecting its functionality as a tablet binder. Porosity of silicates was critical to their ability to reduce the peroxide concentration in povidone. A combination of these approaches can reduce the initial peroxide concentration in povidone and minimize peroxide growth under routine storage conditions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses Elicited by GPI-0100-Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine Delivered by Different Immunization Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery

  17. Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: Toxico-pharmacological evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Caroline Cunha Bastos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies towards the development of an effective treatment for intestinal mucositis have been reported, since this condition represents a major problem in clinical oncology practice due to cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However standardized protocols and universally accepted treatment options are yet to be established. Objectives: Given above, this study evaluated the protective effects of a mucoadhesive formulation containing both Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae (BP and curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae (CL on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluoruoacil (5-FU in mice. Results: As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg showed a significant reduction of 60.3 and 42.4% in villi and crypts size, respectively, when compared to control. On the other hand, the proposed therapeutic/prophylactic treatment with mucoadhesive formulations managed to reduce histopathologic changes in mice bearing mucositis, especially at 125 mg/kg BP + 15 mg/kg CL dose. The formulation promoted an increase of 275.5% and 148.7% for villi and crypts size, respectively. Moreover, chemotherapy-related weight loss was reduced by 7.4% following the treatment. In addition, an increase of 10 and 30.5% in red and white blood cells was observed when compared to 5-FU group. Furthermore, treatments with the mucoadhesive formulation containing BP/CL up modulated Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression while reduced pro-apoptotic regulator Bax. The formulation also modulated inflammatory response triggered by 5-FU through reduction of 68% of myeloperoxidase activity and a 4-fold increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels. In parallel, the oxidative stress via lipid peroxidation was reduced as indicated by decrease of 63% of malondialdehyde concentrations. Additionally, the new formulation presented low acute oral systemic toxicity, being classified in the category 5 (2000 mg/kg < LD50 < 5000 mg/kg of the Globally Harmonized

  18. Environmental and mucosal microbiota and their role in childhood asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birzele, L T; Depner, M.; Ege, M.J.; Engel, M; Kublik, S; Bernau, C; Loss, G J; Genuneit, J.; Horak, E.; Schloter, M; Braun-Fahrländer, C.; Danielewicz, H.; Heederik, D; von Mutius, E.; Legatzki, A

    BACKGROUND: High microbial diversity in the environment has been associated with lower asthma risk, particularly in children exposed to farming. It remains unclear whether this effect operates through an altered microbiome of the mucosal surfaces of the airways. METHODS: DNA from mattress dust and

  19. Effects of synbiotics on intestinal mucosal barrier in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xue

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Probiotics can improve the concentration of colonic probiotics, while synbiotics can improve probiotics concentration and mucosa thickness in colon, decrease L/M ratio and bacterial translocation. Synbiotics shows more protective effects on intestinal mucosal barrier in rats after cecectomy and gastrostomy and the intervention of specific antibiotics.

  20. Mucosal malignant melanoma - a clinical, oncological, pathological and genetic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lauge H; Larsen, Ann-Cathrine; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    cavity (0.2/million/year). Anorectal melanoma occurs slightly more often in females, whereas oral melanoma has a male predilection. Mucosal melanoma most commonly develops in a patient's sixth or seventh decade of life, and no differences between races have been found except for sinonasal melanoma...

  1. The Mucosal Immune System and Its Regulation by Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Agnieszka M; Pott, Johanna; Maloy, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract presents a unique challenge to the mucosal immune system, which has to constantly monitor the vast surface for the presence of pathogens, while at the same time maintaining tolerance to beneficial or innocuous antigens. In the intestinal mucosa, specialized innate and adaptive immune components participate in directing appropriate immune responses toward these diverse challenges. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that the process of autophagy influences several aspects of mucosal immune responses. Initially described as a "self-eating" survival pathway that enables nutrient recycling during starvation, autophagy has now been connected to multiple cellular responses, including several aspects of immunity. Initial links between autophagy and host immunity came from the observations that autophagy can target intracellular bacteria for degradation. However, subsequent studies indicated that autophagy plays a much broader role in immune responses, as it can impact antigen processing, thymic selection, lymphocyte homeostasis, and the regulation of immunoglobulin and cytokine secretion. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of mucosal immune cells and discuss how autophagy influences many aspects of their physiology and function. We focus on cell type-specific roles of autophagy in the gut, with a particular emphasis on the effects of autophagy on the intestinal T cell compartment. We also provide a perspective on how manipulation of autophagy may potentially be used to treat mucosal inflammatory disorders.

  2. Oral mucositis frequency in head and neck chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Hironobu; Ota, Yojiro; Ueno, Takao; Kurihara, Kinue; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Onozawa, Yusuke; Zenda, Sadamoto

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine the frequency and risk factors of oral mucositis in patients receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for head and neck tumors. We classified all patients into three groups according to the radiation dose given in the oral cavity (Group A: 0 Gy; 73 patients, Group B: <40 Gy; 66 patients, Group C: ≥40 Gy; 110 patients). In group C, the odds ratio of oral mucositis (≥Gr.2) was 5.6 times in the concomitant chemotherapy group (62 patients) (odds ratio (OR) of 5.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-14.9) compared with the radiotherapy (RT) only group (48 patients). In the case of concomitant chemotherapy group in Group C, the odds ratio of oral mucositis (≥Gr.2) was 17 times (OR of 17.1; 95% CI: 2.8-106.0) that in the group using 5-fluorouracil (FU) (50 patients) compared with the group that did not use it (12 patients). For patients whose accumulated radiation dose in the oral cavity was more than 40 Gy, 5-FU was found to be a significant risk factor for oral mucositis. (author)

  3. Live bacterial delivery systems for development of mucosal vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.E.R.; Dalen, P.J. van; Havenith, C.E.G.; Pouwels, P.H.; Seegers, J.F.M.L.; Tielen, F.D.; Zee, M.D. van der; Zegers, N.D.; Shaw, M.

    2000-01-01

    By expression of foreign antigens in attenuated strains derived from bacterial pathogens and in non-pathogenic commensal bacteria, recombinant vaccines are being developed that aim to stimulate mucosal immunity. Recent advances in the pathogenesis and molecular biology of these bacteria have allowed

  4. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Eric A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Camacho, Zenaido T. [Department of Cell Biology, Department of Natural Sciences, Western New Mexico University, Silver City, NM 88062 (United States); Hillestad, Matthew L. [Nephrology Training Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Crosby, Catherine M.; Turner, Mallory A.; Guenzel, Adam J.; Fadel, Hind J. [Virology and Gene Therapy Graduate Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Mercier, George T. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Barry, Michael A., E-mail: mab@mayo.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Department of Immunology and Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5.

  5. C-kit expression in canine mucosal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S J; Jankovsky, J M; Rohrbach, B W; LeBlanc, A K

    2012-09-01

    The c-kit receptor is responsible for transmission of promigration signals to melanocytes; its downregulation may be involved in malignant progression of human melanocytic neoplasms. Expression of this receptor has not been examined in normal or neoplastic melanocytes from dogs. In this study, 14 benign dermal and 61 malignant mucosal melanocytic tumors were examined for c-kit (KIT) expression. Sites of the mucosal melanomas were gingiva (not further specified; n = 30), buccal gingiva (n = 6), soft palate (n = 4), hard palate (n = 5), tongue (n = 7), lip (n = 6), and conjunctiva (n = 3). Melan A was expressed in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and in 59 of 61 (96.7%) tumors from oral or conjunctival mucosa, confirming melanocytic origin. C-kit receptor expression was strong and diffuse throughout the cytoplasm in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and was identified in basilar mucosal melanocytes over submucosal neoplasms (27 of 61, 44.3%), junctional (neoplastic) melanocytes (17 of 61, 27.9%), and, less commonly, neoplastic melanocytes of the subepithelial tumors (6 of 61, 9.8%). KIT expression anywhere within the resected melanomas correlated with significantly longer survival. These results suggest that c-kit receptor expression may be altered in canine melanomas and may have potential as a prognostic indicator for mucosal melanomas.

  6. Endoscopic mucosal resection for early gastric cancer. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Sporea, Ioan; Becheanu, Gabriel; Gheorghe, Liana

    2002-03-01

    European experience in endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for early gastric cancer is still relatively low, since early stomach cancer is diagnosed at a much lower rate in Europe than in Japan and generally operable patients are referred to surgery for radical resection. Endoscopic mucosal resection or mucosectomy was developed as a promising technology to diagnose and treat mucosal lesions in the esophagus, stomach and colon. In contrast to surgical resection, EMR allows "early cancers" to be removed with a minimal cost, morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a patient with hepatic cirrhosis incidentally diagnosed with an elevated-type IIa early gastric cancer. Echoendoscopy was performed in order to assess the depth of invasion into the gastric wall confirming the only mucosal involvement. We performed an EMR using "cup and suction" method. After the procedure, the patient experienced an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the ulcer bed requiring argon plasma coagulation. The histopathological examination confirmed an early cancer, without involvement of muscularis mucosae. The patient has had an uneventful evolution being well at six months after the procedure

  7. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Eric A.; Camacho, Zenaido T.; Hillestad, Matthew L.; Crosby, Catherine M.; Turner, Mallory A.; Guenzel, Adam J.; Fadel, Hind J.; Mercier, George T.; Barry, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5

  8. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation ± Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotrim, Ana P.; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu; Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation ± cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, ∼8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses ± cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 × 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  9. Current practices for management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    Many anticancer therapies induce oral mucositis, diminishing the patient's quality of life. Especially in neutropenic patients, it can lead to life-threatening systemic infection. Moreover, it can become a limiting factor in intensive treatment schedules. Many interventions are aimed at reducing

  10. Cellular and mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the cellular and mucosal responses in the respiratory tract of Nigerian goats vaccinated intranasally with recombinant Mannheimia hemolytica bacterine. Twenty one goats were divided into five groups, five goats each in three vaccinated groups while three goats each ...

  11. Management of chronic mucosal otitis media in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucosal otitis media (COM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children worldwide. As it causes considerable morbidity and is a major global cause of hearing impairment, establishing its most effective treatment is important. It is generally accepted that antibiotic eardrops

  12. Management of oral mucositis in patients with cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, R.; Fliedner, M.C.; Smiet, A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a distressing toxic effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It can increase the need for total parenteral nutrition and opioid analgesics, prolong hospital stays, increase the risk of infection, and greatly diminish a patient's quality of life. Nurses play a critical role in

  13. Neonatal Cytokine Profile in the Airway Mucosal Lining Fluid Is Skewed by Maternal Atopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folsgaard, Nilofar V.; Chawes, Bo L.; Rasmussen, Morten A.

    2012-01-01

    on the cytokines and chemokines in the upper airway mucosal lining fluid of healthy neonates. Objectives: To study parental atopic imprinting on the cytokines and chemokines in the upper airway mucosal lining fluid of healthy neonates. Methods: Eighteen cytokines and chemokines were quantified in nasal mucosal...

  14. Oral Cryotherapy for Preventing Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; McCabe, Martin G; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In patients receiving treatment for cancer, does oral cryotherapy prevent oral mucositis? Oral cryotherapy is effective for the prevention of oral mucositis in adults receiving fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for solid cancers, and for the prevention of severe oral mucositis in adults receiving high-dose melphalan-based chemotherapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

  15. Oral and intestinal mucositis - causes and possible treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M; Grant, G

    2003-11-01

    Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, whilst highly effective in the treatment of neoplasia, can also cause damage to healthy tissue. In particular, the alimentary tract may be badly affected. Severe inflammation, lesioning and ulceration can occur. Patients may experience intense pain, nausea and gastro-enteritis. They are also highly susceptible to infection. The disorder (mucositis) is a dose-limiting toxicity of therapy and affects around 500 000 patients world-wide annually. Oral and intestinal mucositis is multi-factorial in nature. The disruption or loss of rapidly dividing epithelial progenitor cells is a trigger for the onset of the disorder. However, the actual dysfunction that manifests and its severity and duration are greatly influenced by changes in other cell populations, immune responses and the effects of oral/gut flora. This complexity has hampered the development of effective palliative or preventative measures. Recent studies have concentrated on the use of bioactive/growth factors, hormones or interleukins to modify epithelial metabolism and reduce the susceptibility of the tract to mucositis. Some of these treatments appear to have considerable potential and are at present under clinical evaluation. This overview deals with the cellular changes and host responses that may lead to the development of mucositis of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, and the potential of existing and novel palliative measures to limit or prevent the disorder. Presently available treatments do not prevent mucositis, but can limit its severity if used in combination. Poor oral health and existing epithelial damage predispose patients to mucositis. The elimination of dental problems or the minimization of existing damage to the alimentary tract, prior to the commencement of therapy, lowers their susceptibility. Measures that reduce the flora of the tract, before therapy, can also be helpful. Increased production of free radicals and the induction of inflammation are

  16. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics in aquaculture water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2015-01-01

    during the HP decomposition. The model assumes that the enzyme decay is controlled by an inactivation stoichiometry related to the HP decomposition. In order to make the model easily applicable, it is furthermore assumed that the COD is a proxy of the active biomass concentration of the water and thereby......Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used in aquaculture systems where preventive or curative water treatments occasionally are required. Use of chemical agents can be challenging in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) due to extended water retention time and because the agents must not damage the fish...... reared or the nitrifying bacteria in the biofilters at concentrations required to eliminating pathogens. This calls for quantitative insight into the fate of the disinfectant residuals during water treatment. This paper presents a kinetic model that describes the HP decomposition in aquaculture water...

  17. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Nur Hamidah Abdul; Heng, Lee Yook; Hashim, Uda

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a biosensor utilizing modified titania, TiO2 particles using aminopropyl-triethoxy-silane, (APTS) for developing hydrogen peroxide biosensor is presented. The surface of Ti-APTS particles is used as a support for hemoglobin immobilization via covalent bonding. The performance of the biosensor is determined by differential pulse voltammetry. The linear response was observed at the reduction current of redox mediator probe [FeCN6]3-/4- at potential between 0.22 V to 0.24 V. The preliminary result for electrochemistry study on this modified electrode is reported. The preliminary linear range is obtained from 1×10-2 M to 1×10-8 M.

  18. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-01-01

    Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results

  19. Lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid levels in Nigeria children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to establish data on the roles of lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid in the pathology of malaria in Nigeria children. We measured the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid in the plasma of 406 parasitaemic and 212 non-parasitaemic Nigerian children.

  20. effect of hydrogen peroxide and thiourea on dormancy breaking of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (Claassens and. Vreugdenhil, 2000; Suttle, 2004). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide and thiourea on dormancy and sprouting of potato microtubers and field grown tubers is described. MATERIELS AND METHODS. Production of microtubers.

  1. Plasma lipid peroxidation and progression of disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M.; Mostert, J.; Arutjunyan, A. V.; Stepanov, M.; Teelken, A.; Heersema, D.; De Keyser, J.

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), but its relation to disease progression is uncertain. To evaluate the relationship of plasma lipid peroxidation with progression of disability in MS, we measured blood plasma fluorescent lipid peroxidation

  2. Propylene epoxydation with hydrogen peroxide in acidic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kertalli, E.; Rijnsoever, L.S.; Paunovic, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Neira d'Angelo, M.F.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the epoxidation of propylene with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of acids and halides is studied. The presence of acids and halides is indispensable for increasing the selectivity of the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, the first step of the direct propylene oxide

  3. Chromium-induced accumulation of peroxide content, stimulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative damage and changes in contents of chlorophyll, protein, peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of enzymatic antioxidants were investigated in 4-day-old green gram (Vigna radiata L. cv. Wilczek) seedlings. Cr increased the contents of peroxide and MDA but decreased the ...

  4. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    An increase in produced hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  5. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2005-01-01

    An increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to the lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  6. Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paunovic, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    The direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a microreactor is a safe and efficient process. Conventionally, hydrogen peroxide is produced using the anthraquinone autooxidation process, which is rather complex and can only be performed cost-effectively on a large scale. As a result, hydrogen

  7. The evaluation of hydrogen peroxide bleaching of Gonometa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide bleaching on Gonometa postica silk and the influence that temperature, pH and time duration had on hydrogen peroxide release , colour change, breaking load and stiffness were determined. The best bleaching (81 delta E) of the Gonometa postica silk fabric was obtained with 60 minutes ...

  8. Mucosal healing and deep remission: What does it mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, Gerhard; Vavricka, Stephan; Schoepfer, Alain; Lakatos, Peter L

    2013-01-01

    The use of specific terms under different meanings and varying definitions has always been a source of confusion in science. When we point our efforts towards an evidence based medicine for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) the same is true: Terms such as “mucosal healing” or “deep remission” as endpoints in clinical trials or treatment goals in daily patient care may contribute to misconceptions if meanings change over time or definitions are altered. It appears to be useful to first have a look at the development of terms and their definitions, to assess their intrinsic and context-independent problems and then to analyze the different relevance in present-day clinical studies and trials. The purpose of such an attempt would be to gain clearer insights into the true impact of the clinical findings behind the terms. It may also lead to a better defined use of those terms for future studies. The terms “mucosal healing” and “deep remission” have been introduced in recent years as new therapeutic targets in the treatment of IBD patients. Several clinical trials, cohort studies or inception cohorts provided data that the long term disease course is better, when mucosal healing is achieved. However, it is still unclear whether continued or increased therapeutic measures will aid or improve mucosal healing for patients in clinical remission. Clinical trials are under way to answer this question. Attention should be paid to clearly address what levels of IBD activity are looked at. In the present review article authors aim to summarize the current evidence available on mucosal healing and deep remission and try to highlight their value and position in the everyday decision making for gastroenterologists. PMID:24282345

  9. Laboratory evaluation of PAH oxidation by magnesium peroxides and iron oxides mixtures as reactive material for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valderrama, C.; Gamisans, X.; Cortina, J.L.; Farran, A.; Marti, V.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. They represent the largest group of compounds that are mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic and are included in the priority pollutants lists. In recent years, increasing attention has been drawn to PAH contamination in aquatic sediments. Biological aerobic degradation was earlier the promoted option to degrade PAH in soils and sediments; however this could be extended for decades. In this direction, addition of oxygen has been proposed as an effective way to speed up their degradation in contaminated soil or groundwater. This objective could be achieved either by adding oxygen releasing compounds or by using an oxygen pump. The latter option is not economically defensible due to the enormous power needed. The use of ex-situ technologies to treat contaminated soils is in general not effective due to the high costs and work efforts demanded to remove big quantities of soil. For that reason, the use of in-situ technologies based on degradation processes has been identified as a suitable approach. These technologies would reduce costs and environmental impacts due to reduction of soil transportations and digging activities. In-situ degradation of recalcitrant contaminants could be achieved by using strong oxidant agents by soil injection or by using permeable treatment wall or zones. Oxidants typically used have been hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and ozone. In situ chemical oxidation using Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and iron(II) mixtures) has been evaluated for BTEX and poly-aromatic compounds. The successful application of in situ Fenton's reagent chemical oxidation is based on an understanding of oxidant chemistry and the geology, hydrogeology and chemistry of the contaminant site. Choosing the proper conditions requires the determination of 1) the better way to promote the formation of the OH radicals that react with the

  10. Radiation effect on lipid peroxide content of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Nobutada; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the radiation-induced deterioration of lipid in spices, peroxide value, iodine value and acid value were measured after extraction by chloroform. Peroxide values of black pepper and white pepper were not increased by gamma-irradiation with doses below 30 kGy and gradually increased at higher dose up to 80 kGy in this study. On contrary, peroxide values of clove and rosemary increased rather quickly below 20 kGy of gamma-irradiation, and they became stationary at higher dose. Iodine values and acid values had relationship with peroxide values on each kind of spices. On the storage study of irradiated spices, peroxide values decreased quickly during 20 days storage as same as nonirradiated spices, and it became stationary after 20 to 50 days storage at 30degC. Enhancement of oxidized deterioration were not observed even higher irradiation doses up to 80 kGy in this study. (author)

  11. Determination of active oxygen content in rare earth peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos A.S.; Abrao, Alcidio

    1993-01-01

    The content of active oxygen in rare earth peroxides have been determined after the dissolution of the samples with hydrocloridic acid in the presence of potassium iodide. The free generated iodine is titrated with sodium thiosulfate using starch as indicator. The oxidation of iodide to the free iodine indicates the presence of a higher valence state rare earth oxide, until now specifically recognized for the oxides of cerium (Ce O 2 ), praseodymium (Pr 6 O 1 1) and terbium (TB 4 O 7 ). recently the authors synthesized a new series of rare earth compounds, the peroxides. These new compounds were prepared by precipitating the rare earth elements complexed with carbonate ion by addition of hydrogen peroxide. the authors demonstrated that all rare earth elements, once solubilized by complexing with carbonate ion, are quantitatively precipitated as peroxide by addition of hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  12. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halgren, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft 2 ) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  13. Mitochondria as a source and target of lipid peroxidation products in healthy and diseased heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ethan J; Katunga, Lalage A; Willis, Monte S

    2012-02-01

    The heart is a highly oxidative organ in which cardiomyocyte turnover is virtually absent, making it particularly vulnerable to accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (LPP) formed as a result of oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are the most common electrophiles formed during lipid peroxidation and lead to the formation of both stable and unstable LPP. Of the LPP formed, highly reactive aldehydes are a well-recognized causative factor in ageing and age-associated diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Recent studies have identified that the mitochondria are both a primary source and target of LPP, with specific emphasis on aldehydes in cardiomyocytes and how these affect the electron transport system and Ca(2+) balance. Numerous studies have found that there are functional consequences in the heart following exposure to specific aldehydes (acrolein, trans-2-hexanal, 4-hydroxynonenal and acetaldehyde). Because these LPP are known to form in heart failure, cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury and diabetes, they may have an underappreciated role in the pathophysiology of these disease processes. Lipid peroxidation products are involved in the transcriptional regulation of endogenous anti-oxidant systems. Recent evidence demonstrates that transient increases in LPP may be beneficial in cardioprotection by contributing to mitohormesis (i.e. induction of anti-oxidant systems) in cardiomyocytes. Thus, exploitation of the cardioprotective actions of the LPP may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for future treatment of heart disease. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity in provoked vestibulodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witzeman K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Witzeman,1 Ruby HN Nguyen,2 Alisa Eanes,3 Sawsan As-Sanie,4 Denniz Zolnoun51Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO, 2Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pelvic Pain Research Unit, Division of Advanced Laparoscopy and Pelvic Pain, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center for Neurosensory Disorders, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: An estimated 8.3%–16% of women experience vulvovaginal discomfort during their lifetime. Frequently these patients report provoked pain on contact or with attempted intercourse, commonly referred to as provoked vestibulodynia (PVD. Despite the burden of this condition, little is known about its potential etiologies including pelvic floor muscular dysfunction and mucosal components. This knowledge would be beneficial in developing targeted therapies including physical therapy.Objective: To explore the relative contribution of mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity on pain report from intercourse among women with PVD.Design: In this proof of concept study, 54 women with PVD underwent a structured examination assessing mucosal and pelvic muscle sensitivity.Methods: We examined three mucosal sites in the upper and lower vestibule. Patients were asked to rate their pain on cotton swab palpation of the mucosa using a 10-point visual analog scale. Muscle pain was assessed using transvaginal application of pressure on right and left puborectalis, and the perineal muscle complex. The Gracely pain scale (0–100 was used to assess the severity of pain with intercourse, with women rating the lowest, average, and highest pain levels; a 100 rating the

  15. The efficacy of sucralfate suspension in the prevention of oral mucositis due to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, J.B.; Wong, F.L.W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of sucralfate suspension in prevention of oral mucositis and for reduction of oral pain in patients who develop mucositis during radiation therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized prospective trial of a sucralfate suspension in the prevention and management of oral mucositis during radiation therapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using a quantitative scale and symptoms were assessed using visual analogue scales. The statistical model was developed to detect a 40% reduction in mucositis. No statistically significant reduction in mucositis was seen. Early during radiation therapy less oral pain was reported in the sucralfate group, but as treatment progressed all patients experienced pain. Patients in the sucralfate group were prescribed topical and systemic analgesics later in the course of radiation therapy. Prophylactic oral rinsing with sucralfate did not prevent oral ulcerative mucositis. Sucralfate may reduce the experience of pain during radiation therapy. 32 refs., 3 tabs

  16. The efficacy of sucralfate suspension in the prevention of oral mucositis due to radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, J.B.; Wong, F.L.W. (British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver (Canada))

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of sucralfate suspension in prevention of oral mucositis and for reduction of oral pain in patients who develop mucositis during radiation therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized prospective trial of a sucralfate suspension in the prevention and management of oral mucositis during radiation therapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using a quantitative scale and symptoms were assessed using visual analogue scales. The statistical model was developed to detect a 40% reduction in mucositis. No statistically significant reduction in mucositis was seen. Early during radiation therapy less oral pain was reported in the sucralfate group, but as treatment progressed all patients experienced pain. Patients in the sucralfate group were prescribed topical and systemic analgesics later in the course of radiation therapy. Prophylactic oral rinsing with sucralfate did not prevent oral ulcerative mucositis. Sucralfate may reduce the experience of pain during radiation therapy. 32 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Oral mucositis in head and neck cancer: risk, biology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonis, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Of the toxicities associated with conventional forms of treatment for head and neck cancers, probably none has such a consistent legacy as oral mucositis.1 Despite the fact that mucosal injury was noted as far back as Marie Curie's first forays into therapeutic radiation, an effective intervention has yet to be developed. In addition to its historic link to radiation, new therapeutic strategies including induction chemotherapy often produce mucositis, and targeted therapies appear to alter mucositis risk and its severity and course.2 The symptomatic effect of oral mucositis is profound. Disabling oral and oropharyngeal pain prevents patients from eating normally, requires opiate analgesics, and in some cases results in alteration or discontinuation of anticancer therapy.3 Furthermore, the health and economic consequences of oral mucositis are far from trivial. The incremental cost of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer exceeds $17,000 (USD).4.

  18. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  19. Kinetics of Platinum-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Tiffany A.; Colombo, D. Philip, Jr.

    2003-07-01

    CIBA Vision Corporation markets a contact lens cleaning system that consists of an AOSEPT disinfectant solution and an AOSEPT lens cup. The disinfectant is a buffered 3.0% m/v hydrogen peroxide solution and the cup includes a platinum-coated AOSEPT disc. The hydrogen peroxide disinfects by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses found on the contact lenses. Because the concentration of hydrogen peroxide needed to disinfect is irritating to eyes, the hydrogen peroxide needs to be neutralized, or decomposed, before the contact lenses can be used again. A general chemistry experiment is described where the kinetics of the catalyzed decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide are studied by measuring the amount of oxygen generated as a function of time. The order of the reaction with respect to the hydrogen peroxide, the rate constant, and the energy of activation are determined. The integrated rate law is used to determine the time required to decompose the hydrogen peroxide to a concentration that is safe for eyes.

  20. Perspectives toward oral mucositis prevention from parents and health care professionals in pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Regier, Dean A; Tomlinson, Deborah; Judd, Peter; Doyle, John; Gassas, Adam; Naqvi, Ahmed; Sung, Lillian

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe parents and health care professionals (HCPs) perceived importance of oral mucositis prevention in children with cancer; (2) To describe utilities and willingness-to-pay (WTP) to prevent mucositis. Respondents included parents of children receiving intensive chemotherapy for leukemia/lymphoma or undergoing stem cell transplantation and HCPs caring for children with cancer. Importance of mild and severe oral mucositis was estimated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Mucositis-associated utilities were elicited using the time trade-off technique (TTO). WTP to avoid mucositis was obtained using contingent valuation. These techniques quantify how much time or money the participant is willing to relinquish in order to prevent mucositis. Eighty-two parents and 60 HCPs were included. Parents and HCPs believed mild mucositis to be of similar importance (median VAS 2.5 versus 3.6; P = 0.357) while parents considered severe mucositis less important than HCPs (median VAS 8.3 versus 9.0; P parent versus HCP responses were seen with TTO (mild or severe mucositis) and most parents were not willing to trade any survival time to prevent severe mucositis. Parents were willing to pay significantly more than HCPs to prevent mild mucositis (average median WTP $1,371 CAN vs. $684 CAN, P = 0.031). No differences were seen in WTP to prevent severe mucositis. Parents and HCP believe severe mucositis to be important, although it is more important to HCPs. Parents would not be willing to reduce life expectancy to eliminate mucositis.

  1. Novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hairui; Yu, Yuan; Faraji Dana, Sara; Li, Bo; Lee, Chi-Ying; Kang, Lifeng

    2013-08-01

    Technological advances in drug discovery have resulted in increasing number of molecules including proteins and peptides as drug candidates. However, how to deliver drugs with satisfactory therapeutic effect, minimal side effects and increased patient compliance is a question posted before researchers, especially for those drugs with poor solubility, large molecular weight or instability. Microfabrication technology, polymer science and bioconjugate chemistry combine to address these problems and generate a number of novel engineered drug delivery systems. Injection routes usually have poor patient compliance due to their invasive nature and potential safety concerns over needle reuse. The alternative non-invasive routes, such as oral, mucosal (pulmonary, nasal, ocular, buccal, rectal, vaginal), and transdermal drug delivery have thus attracted many attentions. Here, we review the applications of the novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

  2. Intestinal stromal cells in mucosal immunity and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, B M J; Simmons, A

    2013-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that non-hematopoietic stromal cells of the intestine have multiple roles in immune responses and inflammation at this mucosal site. Despite this, many still consider gut stromal cells as passive structural entities, with past research focused heavily on their roles in fibrosis, tumor progression, and wound healing, rather than their contributions to immune function. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of stromal cells in intestinal immunity, highlighting the many immunological axes in which stromal cells have a functional role. We also consider emerging data that broaden the potential scope of their contribution to immunity in the gut and argue that these so-called "non-immune" cells are reclassified in light of their diverse contributions to intestinal innate immunity and the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis.

  3. Effect of bupivacaine lozenges on oral mucositis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Kristensen, Claus A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A nonblinded parallel-group randomized controlled study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of repeated administration of a bupivacaine lozenge (25 mg) as pain management for oral mucositis pain in head and neck cancer patients as add-on to standard systemic pain management...... with bupivacaine lozenges (taken up to every 2 hours) plus standard pain treatment minus topical lidocaine (Lozenge group) or standard pain treatment including topical lidocaine (Control group). The efficacy analysis included 38 patients, as 12 patients were excluded because of changes in study design and missing...... that the bupivacaine lozenge as an add-on to standard pain treatment had a clinically significant pain-relieving effect in patients with oral mucositis. ClinicalTrialsgov: NCT02252926....

  4. Mucosal immunity in the female genital tract, HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  5. Influence of bedding type on mucosal immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Amy N; Clark, Stephanie E; Talham, Gwen; Sidelsky, Michael G; Coffin, Susan E

    2002-10-01

    The mucosal immune system interacts with the external environment. In the study reported here, we found that bedding materials can influence the intestinal immune responses of mice. We observed that mice housed on wood, compared with cotton bedding, had increased numbers of Peyer's patches (PP) visible under a dissecting microscope. In addition, culture of lymphoid organs revealed increased production of total and virus-specific IgA by PP and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes from mice housed on wood, compared with cotton bedding. However, bedding type did not influence serum virus-specific antibody responses. These observations indicate that bedding type influences the intestinal immune system and suggest that this issue should be considered by mucosal immunologists and personnel at animal care facilities.

  6. Electron irradiation effects on lithium peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Jun; Shiotsuki, Taishi; Shimo, Yusuke; Koshiya, Shogo; Nagai, Takuro; Nito, Takehiro; Kimoto, Koji

    2018-03-01

    In this study, electron irradiation effects on lithium peroxide (Li2O2), which is an important discharge product of Li-air (or Li-O2) batteries, were investigated using selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and high-energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The results obtained show that Li2O2 to Li2O transformation occurs with 80 and 300 keV incident electrons under high electron dose rates at 20 and -183 °C. The Li2O2 to Li2O transformation rate for 300 keV was 1/5 of that for 80 keV with the irradiation taking place at -183 °C. We also present a series of the EELS spectra that can be used as a criterion to judge the molar ratio of Li2O to Li2O2 in the general systems where Li2O2 and Li2O coexist.

  7. Analysis of lipid peroxidation kinetics. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doktorov, Alexander B.; Lukzen, Nikita N.; Pedersen, Jørgen Boiden

    2008-01-01

    concentrations of reactants or different ways of initiating the re-  action. Nor has it been possible to predict the time dependence of the  products. The reason for these problems is the complicated structure  of the kinetic scheme, which includes a chain reaction. In this work  we perform an in depth analysis......  The kinetics of the lipid peroxidation reaction is only partly under-  stood. Although the set of reactions constituting the overall reaction  is believed to be known, it has not been possible to predict how the  reaction will respond to a change of one or more of the parameters, e.g.  initial...... of the importance of the individual  reaction steps and we introduce a new quasi-stationary concentration  method based on the assumption that one or more concentrations vary  much slower than the others. We show that it is justified to use a  quasi-stationary concentration approximation for the alkyl radical L...

  8. Plutonium peroxide precipitation: review and current research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Increasing the HNO 3 concentration decreases the filtration time but increases the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. A compromise was therefore necessary. If a minimum plutonium concentration is required in the filtrate, the acidity could be lowered to 1.9M with an approximate doubling in the filtration time. The H 2 O 2 concentration has little effect on filtration time. However, the higher the H 2 O 2 concentration, the less plutonium lost to the filtrate. Concentrations higher than the 22 moles/mole Pu recommended (at least up to 30 molar which was the highest investigated) would be beneficial if reagent costs are not excessive and production capacity exists for destroying the excess H 2 O 2 in the filtrate. Although the effect is not large, filtration time is shorter and the plutonium concentration in the filtrate is lower if metallic impurities are present. The slowest rate of H 2 O 2 addition investigated gives a plutonium peroxide precipitate with the fastest filtration time. The rate of addition has very little effect on the plutonium concentration in the filtrate. The temperature has little effect on the filtration time. 14 0 C is recommended since decomposition of H 2 O 2 would be slower at 14 0 C than at 22 0 C (min. Pu content in the filtrate). The effect of digestion time on both the filtration time and the plutonium content in the filtrate is minor, so the shortest digestion time investigated is recommended

  9. Mucosal delivery of liposome-chitosan nanoparticles complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Edison Samir Mascarelhas; Grenha, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Alonso, Maria José; Seijo, Begoña

    2009-01-01

    Designing adequate drug carriers has long been a major challenge for those working in drug delivery. Since drug delivery strategies have evolved for mucosal delivery as the outstanding alternative to parenteral administration, many new drug delivery systems have been developed which evidence promising properties to address specific issues. Colloidal carriers, such as nanoparticles and liposomes, have been referred to as the most valuable approaches, but still have some limitations that can...

  10. Mucosal defence along the gastrointestinal tract of cats and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes , Chris; Waly , Nashwa

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Diseases that are associated with infections or allergic reactions in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are major causes of morbidity in both cats and dogs. Future strategies for the control of these conditions require a greater understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of responses at the mucosal surfaces. Historically, the majority of the fundamental studies have been carried out in rodents or with tissu...

  11. Psittacid herpesviruses associated with mucosal papillomas in neotropical parrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, Darrel K.; Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K.; Jaeger, Laurie A.; Phalen, David N.

    2004-01-01

    Mucosal papillomas are relatively common lesions in several species of captive neotropical parrots. They cause considerable morbidity and in some cases, result in mortality. Previous efforts to identify papillomavirus DNA and proteins in these lesions have been largely unsuccessful. In contrast, increasing evidence suggests that mucosal papillomas may contain psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs). In this study, 41 papillomas from 30 neotropical parrots were examined by PCR with PsHV-specific primers. All 41 papillomas were found to contain PsHV DNA. This 100% prevalence of PsHV infection in the papilloma population was found to be significantly higher than PsHV infection prevalence observed in other surveys of captive parrots. PsHV genotypes 1, 2, and 3, but not 4 were found in these lesions. Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus DNA and finch papillomavirus DNA were not found in the papillomas. A papilloma from a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found to contain cells that had immunoreactivity to antiserum made to the common antigenic region of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein. However, four other mucosal papillomas were negative for this immunoreactivity, and negative control tissues from a parrot embryo showed a similar staining pattern to that seen in the cloaca papilloma of the hyacinth macaw, strongly suggesting that the staining seen in hyacinth macaw papilloma was nonspecific. Based on these findings, it was concluded that specific genotypes of PsHV play a direct role in the development of mucosal papillomas of neotropical parrots and there is no evidence to suggest the concurrent presence of a papillomavirus in these lesions

  12. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  13. Collagenous mucosal inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh J

    2005-07-01

    Collagenous mucosal inflammatory diseases involve the columnar-lined gastric and intestinal mucosa and have become recognized increasingly as a significant cause of symptomatic morbidity, particularly in middle-aged and elderly women, especially with watery diarrhea. Still, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this diarrhea remain poorly understood and require further elucidation. The prognosis and long-term outcome of these disorders has been documented only to a limited extent. Recent clinical and pathologic studies have indicated that collagenous mucosal inflammatory disease is a more extensive pathologic process that concomitantly may involve several sites in the gastric and intestinal mucosa. The dominant pathologic lesion is a distinct subepithelial hyaline-like deposit that has histochemical and ultrastructural features of collagen overlying a microscopically defined inflammatory process. An intimate relationship with other autoimmune connective tissue disorders is evident, particularly celiac disease. This is intriguing because these collagenous disorders have not been shown to be gluten dependent. Collagenous mucosal inflammatory disorders may represent a relatively unique but generalized inflammatory response to a multitude of causes, including celiac disease, along with a diverse group of pharmacologic agents. Some recent reports have documented treatment success but histopathologic reversal has been more difficult to substantiate owing to the focal, sometimes extensive nature, of this pathologic process.

  14. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  15. The Mucosal Adjuvant Cholera Toxin B Instructs Non-Mucosal Dendritic Cells to Promote IgA Production Via Retinoic Acid and TGF-β

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Gloudemans (Anouk); M. Plantinga (Maud); M. Guilliams (Martin); M.A. Willart (Monique); A. Ozir-Fazalalikhan (Arifa); A. van der Ham (Alwin); L. Boon (Louis); N.L. Harris (Nicola); H. Hammad (Hamida); H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); M. Yazdanbakhsh (Maria); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); H.H. Smits (Hermelijn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIt is currently unknown how mucosal adjuvants cause induction of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), and how T cell-dependent (TD) or -independent (TI) pathways might be involved. Mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) are the primary antigen presenting cells driving TI IgA synthesis, by producing

  16. Effect of plantain banana on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, antioxidants and free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Kumar, M; Joshi, M C; Prabha, T; Dorababu, M; Goel, R K

    2006-04-01

    Methanolic extract of Musa sapientum var. Paradisiaca (MSE, 100 mg/kg) was studied for its antiulcer and mucosal defensive factors in normal and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats. NIDDM was induced by administering streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg, ip) to 5 days old rat pups. The animals showing blood glucose level >140mg/dL after 12 weeks of STZ administration were considered as NIDDM positive. Effects of MSE were compared with known ulcer protective drug, sucralfate (SFT, 500 mg/kg) and anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (GLC, 0.6 mg/kg) when administered orally, once daily for 6 days against gastric ulcers (GU) induced by cold-restraint stress (CRS) and ethanol and subsequent changes in gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, free radicals (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide) and anti-oxidants enzymes (super oxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione (GSH) levels. MSE showed better ulcer protective effect in NIDDM rats compared with SFT and GLC in CRS-induced GU. NIDDM caused a significant decrease in gastric mucosal glycoprotein level without having any effect on cell proliferation. However, all the test drugs reversed the decrease in glycoprotein level in NIDDM rats, but cell proliferation was enhanced in case of MSE alone. Both CRS or NIDDM as such enhanced gastric mucosal LPO, NO and SOD, but decreased CAT levels while CRS plus NIDDM rats caused further increase in LPO and NO level without causing any further changes in SOD and CAT level. MSE pretreatment showed reversal in the levels of all the above parameters better than GLC. Ethanol caused a decrease in glutathione level which was further reduced in NIDDM-ethanol rats. MSE reversed the above changes significantly in both normal as well as in NIDDM rats, while GLC reversed it only in NIDDM rats. However, SFT was ineffective in reversing the changes induced by CRS or ethanol or when given in NIDDM-CRS or NIDDM-ethanol rats. The results indicated that the ulcer protective effect

  17. Quantifying intracellular hydrogen peroxide perturbations in terms of concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beijing K. Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular level, mechanistic understanding of the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS in a variety of pathological conditions is hindered by the difficulties associated with determining the concentration of various ROS species. Here, we present an approach that converts fold-change in the signal from an intracellular sensor of hydrogen peroxide into changes in absolute concentration. The method uses extracellular additions of peroxide and an improved biochemical measurement of the gradient between extracellular and intracellular peroxide concentrations to calibrate the intracellular sensor. By measuring peroxiredoxin activity, we found that this gradient is 650-fold rather than the 7–10-fold that is widely cited. The resulting calibration is important for understanding the mass-action kinetics of complex networks of redox reactions, and it enables meaningful characterization and comparison of outputs from endogenous peroxide generating tools and therapeutics across studies.

  18. Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) Decontamination of VX, GD, and HD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Sorrick, David C; Procell, Lawrence R; Hess, Zoe A; Brickhouse, Mark D; McVey, Iain F; Schwartz, Lewis I

    2003-01-01

    Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) has been utilized for more than a decade to sterilize clean rooms and pharmaceutical processing equipment and, quite recently, to decontaminate anthrax-ridden buildings...

  19. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Cheneviere, Yohan; Caps, Valerie; Tuel, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional

  20. Free standing graphene oxide film for hydrogen peroxide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Pranay; Balakrishnan, Jayakumar; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2018-05-01

    We report hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)sensing using free standing graphene oxide thin films prepared using a cost effective scalable approach. Such sensors may find application in pharmaceutical and food processing industries.

  1. the effects of vitamin e supplementation on serum lipid peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. C.O.NWAIGWE

    The effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E on feed intake and serum lipid peroxidation formation were ... belongs to the family Birnaviridae and of the genus Birnavirus ... diseases, Alzheimer's disease and increased resistance to ...

  2. Lab-scale hydrogen peroxide data from ECBC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from small lab scale tests conducted at ECBC. It contains efficacy data as well as data on env conditions such as temperature, RH, and hydrogen peroxide vapor...

  3. Potentiometric Titration Method for Quantitative Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bessette, Russell R

    2005-01-01

    An electrochemical potentiometric titration method that entails titration of a known volume of a catholyte containing an unknown amount of hydrogen peroxide in a titration cell having two electrodes...

  4. Mucosal Healing and Risk of Lymphoproliferative Malignancy in Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Granath, Fredrik; Ekbom, Anders; Smedby, Karin Ekström; Murray, Joseph A.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Green, Peter HR; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy (LPM). It is unknown whether this risk is affected by the results of the follow-up intestinal biopsy, performed to document mucosal healing. Objective To examine the association between mucosal healing in CD and later LPM. Design Population-based cohort study Setting We identified patients with CD from all of Sweden’s 28 pathology departments. Patients Individuals with CD who had a follow-up biopsy after initial diagnosis. Measurements We compared the risk of LPM to that of the general population using expected rates; and through Cox regression we compared the rate of LPM in those with persistent villous atrophy to those with mucosal healing. Results Among 7,625 patients with CD and a follow-up biopsy, persistent villous atrophy was present in 3,308 (43%). The overall risk of LPM was increased compared to the general population (Standardized incidence ratio, SIR 2.81; 95%CI 2.10–3.67), but this increase was greater among those with persistent villous atrophy (SIR 3.78; 95%CI 2.71–5.12) as compared to those with mucosal healing (SIR 1.50; 95%CI 0.77–2.62). Persistent villous atrophy compared to mucosal healing was associated with an increased risk of LPM (Hazard ratio, HR 2.26; 95%CI 1.18–4.34). We found an increased risk of T cell lymphoma (HR 3.51; 95%CI 0.75–16.34), but no excess risk of B cell lymphoma (HR 0.97; 95%CI 0.21–4.49). Limitation We had no data on dietary compliance. Conclusions The increased LPM risk in CD is associated with the results of the follow-up biopsy, with a higher risk among those with persistent villous atrophy. Follow-up biopsy may be a means to effectively stratify CD patients regarding subsequent LPM risk. Primary funding source the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, The American Scandinavian Foundation, the Celiac Sprue Association, Örebro University Hospital, Karolinska

  5. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening

    OpenAIRE

    Karadas, Muhammet; Hatipoglu, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n = 10): AS: no whitening (negative control), with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwas...

  6. Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

  7. Physico Chemical Characteristic of Kappa Carrageenan Degraded Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Febriansyah Siregar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractKappa carrageenan is polysaccharide that widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and printing industries as coagulate agent, stabilizer and gelling agent. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is strong oxidator to degrade polysaccharide. Hydrogen peroxide has some advantades such as cheap, easy to get and savety environment. Degradation method using hydrogen peroxide is a technology based on establishment radical hydoxile reactive that attack the glycosidic of polysaccharides as a result reducing in molecular weight of polysaccharide. The aims of this study were to analyze the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature and degradation time to molecular weight of refined kappa carrageenan. Structural changes on kappa carrageenan degradation were characterized by viscometer, SEM and FTIR. Hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature and degradation time were significantly reducing molecular weight and changes in the structural function of refined kappa carrageenan. The lowest molecular weight of refined kappa carrageenan degraded was obtained from the treatment 3% of hydrogen peroxide at temperature 80°C and degradation time for 4 hours.

  8. Lacrimal drainage-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT): a part of the human mucosal immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, E; Knop, N

    2001-03-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) specifically protects mucosal surfaces. In a previous study of the human conjunctiva, evidence was also found for the presence of MALT in the lacrimal sac. The present study, therefore, aims to investigate its morphology and topographical distribution in the human lacrimal drainage system. Lacrimal drainage systems (n = 51) obtained from human cadavers were investigated by clearing flat wholemounts or by serial sections of tissue embedded in paraffin, OCT compound, or epoxy resin. These were further analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. All specimens showed the presence of lymphocytes and plasma cells as a diffuse lymphoid tissue in the lamina propria, together with intraepithelial lymphocytes and occasional high endothelial venules (HEV). It formed a narrow layer along the canaliculi that became thicker in the cavernous parts. The majority of lymphocytes were T cells, whereas B cells were interspersed individually or formed follicular centers. T cells were positive for CD8 and the human mucosa lymphocyte antigen (HML-1). Most plasma cells were positive for IgA and the overlying epithelium expressed its transporter molecule secretory component (SC). Basal mucous glands were present in the lacrimal canaliculi and in the other parts accompanied by alveolar and acinar glands, all producing IgA-rich secretions. Primary and secondary lymphoid follicles possessing HEV were present in about half of the specimens. The term lacrimal drainage-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT) is proposed here to describe the lymphoid tissue that is regularly present and belongs to the common mucosal immune system and to the secretory immune system. It is suggested that it may form a functional unit together with the lacrimal gland and conjunctiva, connected by tear flow, lymphocyte recirculation, and probably the neural reflex arc, and play a major role in preserving ocular surface integrity.

  9. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  10. Spectroscopic studies of europium-tetracyclines complexes and their applications in detection of hydrogen peroxide and urea peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Andrea Nastri

    2010-01-01

    In this work were studied the spectroscopic properties of trivalent europium ion complexed with components of tetracycline family, chlorotetracycline, oxytetracycline and metacycline, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and urea peroxide. Optical parameters were obtained such as absorption, emission, lifetime and calibration curves were constructed for luminescence spectra. Experiments were carried out with both inorganic compounds and europium-tetracyclines complexes in order to verify possible interferences. Studies for glucose determination were also described using europium-tetracyclines complexes as biosensors. Results show that europium tetracyclines complexes emit a narrow band in the visible region and, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or urea peroxide there is a greater enhancement in their luminescence and lifetime. Thus, europium-tetracyclines complexes studied can be used as biosensors for hydrogen and urea peroxides determination as a low cost and room temperature method. An indirect method for glucose determination was studied by adding glucose oxidase enzyme in europium-tetracyclines complex in the presence of glucose promoting as product hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  11. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Unidirectional 45 Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J net Ca ) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J net Ca to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J net Ca was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J net Ca decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J net Ca was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue 45 Ca content was ≅30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca 2+ -ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na + -K + -ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa

  12. Role of Serum Iron in the Activation of Lipid Peroxidation in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Orlov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four critically ill patients due to generalized purulent peritonitis, pancreatonecrosis, thermal skin injuries, and severe poisoning by acetic acid were examined. The general regularities of the effect of high serum iron concentrations on the health status of patients, on the activity of antioxidative enzymes, and on the initiation of lipid peroxidation (LPO processes, as supported by the values of Fe2+-induced chemiluminescence, were revealed. In critically ill patients, iron metabolism occurs with the overload of a transport protein, such as transferrin, which is caused by intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobin metabolism to ionized iron. The overload of proteins responsible for iron transport leads to the tissue accumulation of free (ferrous and ferric iron that is actively involved in the processes of LPO initiation with excess synthesis of cytotoxic radicals, which in turn accounts for the severity of endotoxicosis.

  13. Trophic factors in the treatment and prevention of alimentary tract mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Shen, Rene L; Sangild, Per T

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mucositis is a common adverse effect of cytotoxic anticancer treatment with serious implications for the quality of life, morbidity and mortality of cancers patients. Although, evidence supporting the use of certain treatments exists there is no gold standard for preventing...... clinical trials and uniform reporting of mucositis, are important elements to help establish new standard interventions that can be included into the continuously updated clinical recommendations for treatment of mucositis....

  14. Colonization and effector functions of innate lymphoid cells in mucosal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myunghoo; Kim, Chang H.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) protect mucosal barrier tissues to fight infection and maintain tissue integrity. ILCs and their progenitors are developmentally programmed to migrate, differentiate and populate various mucosal tissues and associated lymphoid tissues. Functionally mature ILC subsets respond to diverse pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in subset-specific manners. In this review, we will discuss how ILCs populate mucosal tissues and regulate immune responses to distinct pathogens to protect the host and maintain tissue integrity. PMID:27365193

  15. Changes of nitric oxide system and lipid peroxidation parameters in the digestive system of rats under conditions of acute stress, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomenko Iryna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in combination with being physiologically stressed often occurs in in the course of different pathologies. This situation may result in the alteration of digestive system functioning. The effect of stress brings about changes in the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, arginase, cyclooxygenase (COX and lipid peroxidation, whereas the use of NSAIDs interrupts the multiple functions of the cell via the inhibition of prostaglandins (PGs synthesis. Taking into account that NOS and COX-systems are connected in their regulation, the aim of the study was to determine the role played by NOS and lipid peroxidation under conditions of the combined action of NSAIDs and stress. In our study, male rats were used. The NSAIDs (naproxen - a non-selective COX inhibitor, celecoxib - a selective COX-2 blocker, and the compound 2A5DHT (which is the active substance of dual COX, and the lipoxygenase (LOX inhibitor, darbufelone were all administered at a dose 10 mg/kg, prior to water restraint stress (WRS. WRS brought about an increase of inducible NOS (iNOS activity in the intestinal mucosal and muscular membranes, as well as in the pancreas. Because of this, constitutive NOS izoform (cNOS and arginase activities decreased. Moreover, the MDA concentration increased, indicating the development of oxidative stress. In our work, pretreatment with naproxen, as in the WRS model, engendered a decrease in iNOS activity. What is more, administration of Celecoxib did not change iNOS activity, as compared to WRS alone, and it showed a tendency to reduce lipid peroxidation. In addition, 2A5DHT prior WRS brought about a decrease of iNOS activity, with the subsequent rise of cNOS activity. Of note, MDA concentration decreased in all studied organs, indicating the reduction of lipid peroxidation under the action of the darbufelone active substance.

  16. Increased melatonin in oral mucosal tissue of oral lichen planus (OLP) patients: A possible link between melatonin and its role in oral mucosal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengtrakoon, Kirawut; Wannakasemsuk, Worraned; Vichitrananda, Vilasinee; Klanrit, Poramaporn; Hormdee, Doosadee; Noisombut, Rajda; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham

    2017-06-01

    The existence of extra-pineal melatonin has been observed in various tissues. No prior studies of melatonin in human oral mucosal tissue under the condition of chronic inflammation have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin in oral mucosal tissue of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) which was considered as a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease causing oral mucosal damage and ulcerations. Sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients (n=30), and control subjects (n=30) were used in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and the semiquantitative scoring system was used to assess the levels of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT: a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of melatonin), melatonin, and melatonin receptor 1 (MT1) in oral mucosa of OLP patients and normal oral mucosa of control subjects. AANAT, melatonin, and MT1were detected in oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients and control subjects. Immunostaining scores of AANAT, melatonin, and MT1 in oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects (p=0.002, poral mucosal tissue of OLP patients imply that chronic inflammation may induce the local biosynthesis of melatonin via AANAT, and may enhance the action of melatonin via MT1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Amoebicidal Effect of Ergosterol Peroxide Isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Menchaca, Thuluz; Suárez-Medellín, Jorge; Del Ángel-Piña, Christian; Trigos, Ángel

    2015-12-01

    Dysentery is an inflammation of the intestine caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica and is a recurrent health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Because of the magnitude of this disease, finding novel strategies for treatment that does not affect human cells is necessary. Ergosterol peroxide is a sterol particularly known as a major cytotoxic agent with a wide spectrum of biological activities produced by edible and medicinal mushrooms. The aim of this report is to evaluate the amoebicidal activity of ergosterol peroxide (5α, 8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol isolated from 5α, 8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol) (Jacq.) P. Kumm. f. sp. Florida. Our results show that ergosterol peroxide produced a strong cytotoxic effect against amoebic growth. The inhibitory concentration IC50 of ergosterol peroxide was evaluated. The interaction between E. histolytica and ergosterol peroxide in vitro resulted in strong amoebicidal activity (IC50  = 4.23 nM) that may be due to the oxidatory effect on the parasitic membrane. We also tested selective toxicity of ergosterol peroxide using a cell line CCL-241, a human epithelial cell line isolated from normal human fetal intestinal tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the cytotoxicity of ergosterol peroxide against E. histolytica, which uncovers a new biological property of the lipidic compound isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. f. sp. Florida. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Different modes of hydrogen peroxide action during seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz eWojtyla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide was initially recognized as a toxic molecule that causes damage at different levels of cell organization and thus losses in cell viability. From the 1990s, the role of hydrogen peroxide as a signaling molecule in plants has also been discussed. The beneficial role of H2O2 as a central hub integrating signaling network in response to biotic and abiotic stress and during developmental processes is now well established. Seed germination is the most pivotal phase of the plant life cycle, affecting plant growth and productivity. The function of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and seed aging has been illustrated in numerous studies; however, the exact role of this molecule remains unknown. This review evaluates evidence that shows that H2O2 functions as a signaling molecule in seed physiology in accordance with the known biology and biochemistry of H2O2. The importance of crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and a number of signaling molecules, including plant phytohormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellins and ethylene and reactive molecules such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide acting on cell communication and signaling during seed germination, is highlighted. The current study also focuses on the detrimental effects of H2O2 on seed biology, i.e., seed aging that leads to a loss of germination efficiency. The dual nature of hydrogen peroxide as a toxic molecule on one hand and as a signal molecule on the other is made possible through the precise spatial and temporal control of its production and degradation. Levels of hydrogen peroxide in germinating seeds and young seedlings can be modulated via pre-sowing seed priming/conditioning. This rather simple method is shown to be a valuable tool for improving seed quality and for enhancing seed stress tolerance during post-priming germination. In this review, we outline how seed priming/conditioning affects the integrative role of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and

  19. Lipid Peroxidation: Pathophysiology and Pharmacological Implications in the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Fatou eNjie-Mbye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-derived free radicals such as hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl species have been shown to oxidize phospholipids and other membrane lipid components leading to lipid peroxidation. In the eye, lipid peroxidation has been reported to play an important role in degenerative ocular diseases (age-related macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy. Indeed, ocular tissues are prone to damage from reactive oxygen species due to stress from constant exposure of the eye to sunlight, atmospheric oxygen and environmental chemicals. Furthermore, free radical catalyzed peroxidation of long chain polyunsaturated acids (LCPUFAs such as arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid leads to generation of LCPUFA metabolites including isoprostanes and neuroprostanes that may further exert pharmacological/toxicological actions in ocular tissues. Evidence from literature supports the presence of endogenous defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species in the eye, thereby presenting new avenues for the prevention and treatment of ocular degeneration. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and synthetic peroxides can exert pharmacological and toxicological effects on tissues of the anterior uvea of several mammalian species. There is evidence suggesting that the retina, especially retinal ganglion cells can exhibit unique characteristics of antioxidant defense mechanisms. In the posterior segment of the eye, H2O2 and synthetic peroxides produce an inhibitory action on glutamate release (using [3H]-D-aspartate as a marker, in vitro and on the endogenous glutamate and glycine concentrations in vivo. In addition to peroxides, isoprostanes can elicit both excitatory and inhibitory effects on norepinephrine (NE release from sympathetic nerves in isolated mammalian iris ciliary bodies. Whereas isoprostanes attenuate dopamine release from mammalian neural retina, in vitro, these novel arachidonic acid metabolites exhibit a biphasic regulatory effect on glutamate release

  20. Human colorectal mucosal microbiota correlates with its host niche physiology revealed by endomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Li, Ming; Li, Chang-Qing; Kou, Guan-Jun; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-02-26

    The human gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of health, but how the microbiota interacts with the host at the colorectal mucosa is poorly understood. We proposed that confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) might help to untangle this relationship by providing in vivo physiological information of the mucosa. We used CLE to evaluate the in vivo physiology of human colorectal mucosa, and the mucosal microbiota was quantified using 16 s rDNA pyrosequencing. The human mucosal microbiota agglomerated to three major clusters dominated by Prevotella, Bacteroides and Lactococcus. The mucosal microbiota clusters did not significantly correlate with the disease status or biopsy sites but closely correlated with the mucosal niche physiology, which was non-invasively revealed by CLE. Inflammation tilted two subnetworks within the mucosal microbiota. Infiltration of inflammatory cells significantly correlated with multiple components in the predicted metagenome, such as the VirD2 component of the type IV secretory pathway. Our data suggest that a close correlation exists between the mucosal microbiota and the colorectal mucosal physiology, and CLE is a clinically available tool that can be used to facilitate the study of the in vivo correlation between colorectal mucosal physiology and the mucosal microbiota.

  1. Pretreatment with Saccharomyces boulardii does not prevent the experimental mucositis in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; de Melo Silva, Brenda; Dias, Michelle Nobre; Paiva, Nivea Carolina; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Fernandes, Simone Odilia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Dos Santos Martins, Flaviano; de Vasconcelos Generoso, Simone

    2014-04-11

    The antimetabolite chemotherapy 5-Fluorouracil is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical cancer treatment. Although this drug is not specific for cancer cells and also acts on healthy cells, it can cause mucositis, a common collateral effect. Dysbiosis has also been described in 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis and is likely to contribute to the overall development of mucositis. In light of this theory, the use of probiotics could be a helpful strategy to alleviate mucositis. So the aim of this study was evaluate the impact of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in a model of mucositis. After induced of mucositis, mice from the Mucositis groups showed a decrease in food consumption (p Saccharomyces boulardii did not reverse this effect (p > 0.05). Mucositis induced an increase in intestinal permeability and intestinal inflammation (p  0.05) in mice pretreated with S. boulardii. S. boulardii was not able to prevent the effects of experimental mucositis induced by 5- Fluorouracil.

  2. Oral cryotherapy reduces mucositis and opioid use after myeloablative therapy--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Anncarin; Birgegård, Gunnar; Ohrn, Kerstin

    2007-10-01

    Mucositis is a major complication in myeloablative therapy, which often necessitates advanced pharmacological pain treatment, including i.v. opioids. Attempts to prevent oral mucositis have included oral cryotherapy, which has been shown to reduce mucositis, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning the effect of oral cryotherapy on opioid use by reducing the mucositis for patients treated with myeloablative therapy before bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate if oral cryotherapy could delay or alleviate the development of mucositis and thereby reduce the number of days with i.v. opioids among patients who receive myeloablative therapy before BMT. Eighty patients 18 years and older, scheduled for BMT, were included consecutively and randomised to oral cryotherapy or standard oral care. A stratified randomisation was used with regard to type of transplantation. Intensity of pain, severity of mucositis and use of opioids were recorded using pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, mucositis index scores and medical and nursing charts. This study showed that patients receiving oral cryotherapy had less pronounced mucositis and significantly fewer days with i.v. opioids than the control group. In the autologous setting, cryotherapy patients also needed significantly lower total dose of opioids. Oral cryotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated therapy to alleviate mucositis and consequently reduce the number of days with i.v. opioids among patients treated with myeloablative therapy before BMT.

  3. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among chewing tobacco users: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha S Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests were used to assess the statistical significance. Results: Of the 901 subjects with CT habits, 55.8% revealed no clinically detectable oral mucosal changes and 44.1% showed mucosal changes of which 63.8% were males and 36.1% were females. The most common finding was chewers mucositis (59.5% followed by submucous fibrosis (22.8%, leukoplakia (8%, lichenoid reaction (6.5%, oral cancer (2.7%, and lichen planus (0.5%. Conclusion: This study provides information about different CT habits and associated mucosal lesions among this population.

  4. Rectal dexmedetomidine in rats: evaluation of sedative and mucosal effects

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    Volkan Hanci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the anesthetic and mucosal effects of the rectal application of dexmedetomidine to rats. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 250-300 g were divided into four groups: Group S (n = 8 was a sham group that served as a baseline for the normal basal values; Group C (n = 8 consisted of rats that received the rectal application of saline alone; Group IPDex (n = 8 included rats that received the intraperitoneal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1; and Group RecDex (n = 8 included rats that received the rectal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1. For the rectal drug administration, we used 22 G intravenous cannulas with the stylets removed. We administered the drugs by advancing the cannula 1 cm into the rectum, and the rectal administration volume was 1 mL for all the rats. The latency and anesthesia time (min were measured. Two hours after rectal administration, 75 mg kg-1 ketamine was administered for intraperitoneal anesthesia in all the groups, followed by the removal of the rats' rectums to a distal distance of 3 cm via an abdominoperineal surgical procedure. We histopathologically examined and scored the rectums. RESULTS: Anesthesia was achieved in all the rats in the Group RecDex following the administration of dexmedetomidine. The onset of anesthesia in the Group RecDex was significantly later and of a shorter duration than in the Group IPDEx (p < 0.05. In the Group RecDex, the administration of dexmedetomidine induced mild-moderate losses of mucosal architecture in the colon and rectum, 2 h after rectal inoculation. CONCLUSION: Although 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine administered rectally to rats achieved a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared with the rectal administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine led to mild-moderate damage to the mucosal structure of the

  5. Histopathological analysis of gastric mucosal biopsies in non ulcer dyspepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Hafeez, M.; Tariq, H.; Azhar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the pattern of gastric mucosal histopathological findings in gastric biopsies of patients with non ulcer dyspepsia. Study Design: Prospective descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Histopathology department Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian Pakistan from Jan to Dec 2015. Material and Methods: One hundred patients presenting at outpatient gastroenterology department with dyspepsia having no endoscopic lesion were included in the study. Two gastric mucosal biopsies from antrum and two from corpus were taken. The specimens were processed and examined histologically to see the changes. Results: Gastric biopsies of 100 patients including 65 males and 35 females presenting with non ulcer dyspepsia were studied. Most of the patients were between the age group of 31-50 years. Histological examination of gastric biopsies revealed 70 percent of patients having histological features of gastritis, while 30 percent having no significant histological finding. Chronic inflammation was seen in 70 cases (70 percent), activity in 15 cases (15 percent), glandular atrophy in 2 cases (2 percent) and intestinal metaplasia in 2 cases (2 percent). H.Pylori were identified in 25 cases (25 percent) based on haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and modified giemsa staining. Conclusion: Most the cases of non ulcer dyspepsia show histological evidence of gastritis, however a significant number of patients showed no gastric mucosal histological abnormality. A significantly low frequency of H. Pylori in gastric biopsies noted in non ulcer dyspepsia cases may be due to more frequent use of antibiotics and acid suppressant drugs used by general practitioners at some stage of disease. (author)

  6. Role of Lactobacilli and Lactoferrin in the Mucosal Cervicovaginal Defense

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    Piera Valenti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds. Among bioactive factors of cervicovaginal mucosa, lactoferrin, an iron-binding cationic glycoprotein, is a multifunctional glycoprotein with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic activities, recently emerging as an important modulator of inflammation. Lactobacilli and lactoferrin are largely under the influence of female hormones and of paracrine production of various cytokines. Lactoferrin is strongly increased in lower genital tract mucosal fluid of women affected by Neisseria gonorrheae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections promoting both innate and adaptive immune responses. In vaginal dysbiosis characterized by low amounts of vaginal lactobacilli and increased levels of endogenous anaerobic bacteria, the increase in lactoferrin could act as an immune modulator assuming the role normally played by the healthy microbiota in vaginal mucosa. Then lactoferrin and lactobacilli may be considered as biomarkers of altered microbial homeostasis at vaginal level. Considering the shortage of effective treatments to counteract recurrent and/or antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, the intravaginal administration of lactobacilli and lactoferrin could be a novel efficient therapeutic strategy and a valuable tool to restore

  7. Cyclic GMP-AMP Displays Mucosal Adjuvant Activity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Škrnjug, Ivana; Guzmán, Carlos Alberto; Ruecker, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice....

  8. Alpha-Toxin Promotes Mucosal Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

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    Michele J Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous diseases in humans ranging from the mild skin infections to serious, life-threatening, superantigen-mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS. S. aureus may also be asymptomatically carried in the anterior nares, vagina or on the skin, which serve as reservoirs for infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clonal type USA200 is the most widely disseminated colonizer and a major cause of TSS. Our prior studies indicated that α-toxin was a major epithelial proinflammatory exotoxin produced by TSS S. aureus USA200 isolates. It also facilitated the penetration of TSS Toxin-1 (TSST-1 across vaginal mucosa. However, the majority of menstrual TSS isolates produce low α-toxin due to a nonsense point mutation at codon 113, designated hly, suggesting mucosal adaptation. The aim of this study was to characterize the differences between TSS USA200 strains [high (hla+ and low (hly+ α-toxin producers] in their abilities to infect and disrupt vaginal mucosal tissue. A mucosal model was developed using ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa, LIVE/DEAD® staining and confocal microscropy to characterize biofilm formation and tissue viability of TSS USA 200 isolates CDC587 and MN8, which contain the α-toxin pseudogene (hly, MNPE (hla+ and MNPE isogenic hla knockout (hlaKO. All TSS strains grew to similar bacterial densities (1-5 x 108 CFU on the mucosa and were proinflammatory over 3 days. However, MNPE formed biofilms with significant reductions in the mucosal viability whereas neither CDC587, MN8 (hly+, or MNPE hlaKO, formed biofilms and were less cytotoxic. The addition of exogenous, purified α-toxin to MNPE hlaKO restored the biofilm phenotype. Our studies suggest α-toxin affects S. aureus phenotypic growth on vaginal mucosa, by promoting tissue disruption and biofilm formation; and α–toxin mutants (hly are not benign colonizers, but rather form a different type of infection, which we have termed high density pathogenic

  9. Singlet oxygen-mediated formation of protein peroxides within cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.; Policarpio, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Singlet oxygen is generated by a number of cellular, enzymatic and chemical reactions as well as by exposure to UV, or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer; as a consequence this oxidant has been proposed as a damaging agent in a number of pathologies including photo-aging and skin cancer. Proteins are major targets for singlet oxygen as a result of their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. In this study it is shown that illumination of viable, sensitizer-loaded, THP-1 (human monocyte-like) cells with visible light gives rise to intra-cellular protein-derived peroxides. The peroxide yield increases with illumination time, requires the presence of the sensitizer, is enhanced in D 2 O, and decreased by azide; these data are consistent with the mediation of singlet oxygen. The concentration of peroxides detected, which is not affected by glucose or ascorbate loading of the cells, corresponds to ca. 1.5 nmoles peroxide per 10 6 cells using rose bengal as sensitizer, or 10 nmoles per mg cell protein and account for up to ca. 15% of the O 2 consumed by the cells. Similar peroxides have been detected on isolated cellular proteins exposed to light in the presence of rose bengal and oxygen. After cessation of illumination, the cellular protein peroxide levels decreases with t 1/2 ca. 4 hrs at 37 deg C, and this is associated with increased cell lysis. Decomposition of protein peroxides formed within cells, or on isolated cellular proteins, by metal ions, gives rise to radicals as detected by EPR spin trapping. These protein peroxides, and radicals derived from them, can inactivate key cellular enzymes (including caspases, GAPDH and glutathione reductase) and induce DNA base oxidation, strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links. These studies demonstrate that exposure of intact cells to visible light in the presence of a sensitizer gives rise to novel long-lived, but reactive, intra-cellular protein peroxides via singlet oxygen

  10. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonios, George [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Dimou, Aikaterini [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Galaris, Dimitrios [Laboratory of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2008-01-07

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo.

  11. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonios, George; Dimou, Aikaterini; Galaris, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H 2 O 2 solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo

  12. Safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Greenwall, L

    2013-07-01

    In-office tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) has been practised in dentistry without significant safety concerns for more than a century. While few disputes exist regarding the efficacy of peroxide-based at-home whitening since its first introduction in 1989, its safety has been the cause of controversy and concern. This article reviews and discusses safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials, including biological properties and toxicology of H₂O₂, use of chlorine dioxide, safety studies on tooth whitening, and clinical considerations of its use. Data accumulated during the last two decades demonstrate that, when used properly, peroxide-based tooth whitening is safe and effective. The most commonly seen side effects are tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation, which are usually mild to moderate and transient. So far there is no evidence of significant health risks associated with tooth whitening; however, potential adverse effects can occur with inappropriate application, abuse, or the use of inappropriate whitening products. With the knowledge on peroxide-based whitening materials and the recognition of potential adverse effects associated with the procedure, dental professionals are able to formulate an effective and safe tooth whitening regimen for individual patients to achieve maximal benefits while minimising potential risks.

  13. Destruction of oxalate by reaction with hydrogen peroxide. [Hydrazine oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.; Arwood, P.C.

    1981-09-01

    The destruction of oxalate by oxidation to carbon dioxide using hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative method for the disposal of oxalate in connection with the possible use of an aqueous hydrazine oxalate solution as a scrubbing agent for solvent cleanup in processes for the recovery of uranium, plutonium, and thorium by solvent extraction. The rate of oxidation of oxalate by hydrogen peroxide in acid solution at the reflux temperature was adequate for process application; reaction half-times at 100/sup 0/C were less than one hour when the hydrogen peroxide concentration was greater than 0.5 M. The reaction was first order with respect to both the oxalate and hydrogen peroxide concentrations and had an activation energy of 58.7 kJ/g-mol. The rate increased with the hydrogen ion concentration as (H/sup +/)/sup 0/ /sup 3/ but was not significantly affected by the presence of 100 ppM of uranium or copper in solution. In the near-neutral hydrazine oxalate solutions, the reaction of either component with hydrogen peroxide was too slow for process application.

  14. Aluminum induces lipid peroxidation and aggregation of human blood platelets

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    T.J.C. Neiva

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al3+ intoxication is thought to play a major role in the development of Alzheimer's disease and in certain pathologic manifestations arising from long-term hemodialysis. Although the metal does not present redox capacity, it can stimulate tissue lipid peroxidation in animal models. Furthermore, in vitro studies have revealed that the fluoroaluminate complex induces diacylglycerol formation, 43-kDa protein phosphorylation and aggregation. Based on these observations, we postulated that Al3+-induced blood platelet aggregation was mediated by lipid peroxidation. Using chemiluminescence (CL of luminol as an index of total lipid peroxidation capacity, we established a correlation between lipid peroxidation capacity and platelet aggregation. Al3+ (20-100 µM stimulated CL production by human blood platelets as well as their aggregation. Incubation of the platelets with the antioxidants nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA (100 µM and n-propyl gallate (NPG (100 µM, inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, completely prevented CL and platelet aggregation. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA (100 µM, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, was a weaker inhibitor of both events. These findings suggest that Al3+ stimulates lipid peroxidation and the lipoxygenase pathway in human blood platelets thereby causing their aggregation

  15. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male infertility.

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    Dandekar S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mammalian spermatozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and are very susceptible to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane lipid peroxide ion. Normally a balance is maintained between the amount of ROS produced and that scavenged. Cellular damage arises when this equilibrium is disturbed. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen and vaginal secretions can induce an oxidative stress on spermatozoa. The aim was to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD and to correlate the same, with the ′water test′, in male infertility. SETTINGS: Experimental study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ejaculates from a total of 83 infertile and fertile healthy individuals were obtained. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels were studied and correlated with water test. RESULTS: The results indicate that (i the antioxidant enzyme catalase showed no significant changes in the various pathological samples, (ii antioxidant enzymes SOD and glutathione peroxidase correlate positively with asthenozoospermic samples and (iii the degree of lipid peroxidation also correlates positively with the poorly swollen sperm tails. The increase in SOD and glutathione peroxidase values, in the pathological cases represents an attempt made to overcome the reactive oxygen species. CONCLUSION: Water test could be used as a preliminary marker test for sperm tail damage by reactive oxygen species, since it correlates very well with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes.

  16. A chemiluminescent method for determination of lipid peroxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xiaofeng; Hu Tianxi; Fan Xiaobing

    2003-01-01

    We established a chemiluminescent system for determination of lipid peroxidation and screening anti-oxidants. The lipid containing unsaturated fatly acids was injected into a galls tube. Luminol solution and the deionized water were added into it too. The glass tube was put into a preincubation box to incubate it for 0.5 h at 37 degree C. AAPH solution was injected into the tube for immediate measurement in a biochemiluminometer at 38-39 degree C. The pulses /6s(CP6s) were determined with T-2 program. Chemiluminescent dynamic and lipid peroxidation changes were observed continuously. Once the CL intensity of lipid peroxidation got peak, the antioxidant which has different concentration was added immediately in situ. A certain CL intensity (CP6s) was chosen as evaluation index to compare the activity of antioxidants. A luminol chemiluminescent system for determination of lipid peroxidation has been made. It was found that Vit. C, teapolyphenol, and glutathione have effects on scavenging lipid free radicals. The new method is quick, sensitive, and simple for determination of lipid peroxidation and screening antioxidants

  17. Permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier via mucosal engrafting: implications for drug delivery to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, Benjamin S; Kohman, Richie E; Feldman, Rachel E; Ramanlal, Shreshtha; Han, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Utilization of neuropharmaceuticals for central nervous system(CNS) disease is highly limited due to the blood-brain barrier(BBB) which restricts molecules larger than 500Da from reaching the CNS. The development of a reliable method to bypass the BBB would represent an enormous advance in neuropharmacology enabling the use of many potential disease modifying therapies. Previous attempts such as transcranial catheter implantation have proven to be temporary and associated with multiple complications. Here we describe a novel method of creating a semipermeable window in the BBB using purely autologous tissues to allow for high molecular weight(HMW) drug delivery to the CNS. This approach is inspired by recent advances in human endoscopic transnasal skull base surgical techniques and involves engrafting semipermeable nasal mucosa within a surgical defect in the BBB. The mucosal graft thereby creates a permanent transmucosal conduit for drugs to access the CNS. The main objective of this study was to develop a murine model of this technique and use it to evaluate transmucosal permeability for the purpose of direct drug delivery to the brain. Using this model we demonstrate that mucosal grafts allow for the transport of molecules up to 500 kDa directly to the brain in both a time and molecular weight dependent fashion. Markers up to 40 kDa were found within the striatum suggesting a potential role for this technique in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. This proof of principle study demonstrates that mucosal engrafting represents the first permanent and stable method of bypassing the BBB thereby providing a pathway for HMW therapeutics directly into the CNS.

  18. Mucosal immunity and B cells in teleosts: effect of vaccination and stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eParra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish are subjected to several insults from the environment, which may endanger animal survival. Mucosal surfaces are the first line of defense against those threats and they act as a physical barrier to protect the animal but also function as immunologically active tissues. Thus, four mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues have been described in fish, which lead the immune responses in gut, skin, gills and nose. Humoral and cellular immunity, as well as its regulation and the factors that influence the response in these mucosal lymphoid tissues is still not well known in most of fish species. Mucosal B-lymphocytes and immunoglobulins (Igs are one of the key players in the immune response after vaccination. Recent findings about IgT in trout have delimited the compartmentalization of immune response in systemic and mucosal. The existence of IgT as a specialized mucosa Ig gives us the opportunity of measuring mucosal specific responses after vaccination, a fact that was not possible until recently in most of the fish species. Vaccination process is influenced by several factors, being stress one of the main stimuli determining the success of the vaccine. Thus, one of the major goals in a vaccination process is to avoid possible situations of stress, which might interfere with fish immune performance. However, the interaction between immune and neuroendocrine systems at mucosal tissues is still unknown. In this review we will summarized the latest findings about B-lymphocytes and immunoglobulins in mucosal immunity and the effect of stress and vaccines on B cell response at mucosal sites. It is important to point out that a small number of studies have been published regarding mucosal stress and very few about the influence of stress over mucosal B-lymphocytes.

  19. Study of reduction methods for irradiation on oral mucositis. The examination of reduction methods for mucosal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonogi, Morio; Yamane, Genyuki; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Hasegawa, Azusa; Mizoe, Junetsu; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2004-01-01

    Reduction methods for irradiation on oral mucosa examined concerning in acute phase of the carbon ion radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. We enforced a mechanical teeth and gingival cleaning as an Oral hearth care and gargled a polaprezinc with sodium alginate, and azulene- lidocaine with glycerin sodium as a oral linces before radiation. The response of the mucosal failure was reduced compare with no care group. In this Result, we considered that oral hearth care for prevention of infection, and mucosa protection by the drug was important factor. (author)

  20. Mucosal delivery of liposome-chitosan nanoparticle complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edison L S; Grenha, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Alonso, Maria José; Seijo, Begoña

    2009-01-01

    Designing adequate drug carriers has long been a major challenge for those working in drug delivery. Since drug delivery strategies have evolved for mucosal delivery as the outstanding alternative to parenteral administration, many new drug delivery systems have been developed which evidence promising properties to address specific issues. Colloidal carriers, such as nanoparticles and liposomes, have been referred to as the most valuable approaches, but still have some limitations that can become more inconvenient as a function of the specific characteristics of administration routes. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new drug delivery system that results from the combination of chitosan nanoparticles and liposomes, in an approach of combining their advantages, while avoiding their individual limitations. These lipid/chitosan nanoparticle complexes are, thus, expected to protect the encapsulated drug from harsh environmental conditions, while concomitantly providing its controlled release. To prepare these assemblies, two different strategies have been applied: one focusing on the simple hydration of a previously formed dry lipid film with a suspension of chitosan nanoparticles, and the other relying on the lyophilization of both basic structures (nanoparticles and liposomes) with a subsequent step of hydration with water. The developed systems are able to provide a controlled release of the encapsulated model peptide, insulin, evidencing release profiles that are dependent on their lipid composition. Moreover, satisfactory in vivo results have been obtained, confirming the potential of these newly developed drug delivery systems as drug carriers through distinct mucosal routes.

  1. Therapeutic management of radiation-induced oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Doelling-Jochem, I.; Baumann, M.; Herrmann, T.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Acute reactions of oral mucosa are a frequent side effect of radiotherapy, which often necessitates interruption of the treatment. Marked proliferation of tumor stem cells during treatment interruptions may occur in squamous cell carcinomata, which represent the majority of tumors in the head and neck area. Hence a fatal consequence of treatment breaks may be a significant decrease in tumor cure rates. Furthermore, marked acute responses frequently result in increased late sequelae ('consequential damage'). Therefore, amelioration of the mucosal response aiming at avoiding treatment breaks and at reduction of late reactions coul definitely increase the therapeutic success of radiation treatment. Results: A variety of prophylactic and therapeutic methods have been proposed for the management of acute radiation reactions of the oral mucosa. Frequently, their efficiacy has been established for chemotherapy or in combination with other immunosuppressive treatments. Hence, systemical rather than local effects have to be considered. Conclusions: In general, prophylaxis of oral mucositis is mainly based on dental restoration or edentation, in combination with frequent oral hygienic measures after the meals and with antiseptic mouthwashes. Intensive personal care is recommended. The necessity of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostoma is dependent on the status of the patient and on size and localization of the treatment area, i.e. the impairment of food uptake which is to be expected. Therapeutic intervention is restricted to local or systemic treatment of pain and local application of antimycotics and antibiotics. (orig./VHE) [de

  2. Inlay buccal mucosal graft for reoperative posterior urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Hung Tang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior urethral distraction injury following major pelvic trauma is a surgical challenge. Although rarely seen, cases of failure after formal urethral reconstruction are even more problematic. We adapted the concept of augmented free buccal mucosal grafts, which have been successful in anterior urethroplasty, for repairing the posterior urethra in these rare cases with the aim of reducing the likelihood of penile chordee postoperatively. During 2007–2009, four patients were candidates for the proposed procedure because they had received formal transperineal urethral reconstruction but were unable to urinate through the urethra. The urethra was approached transperineally and opened in the midline, rather than divided. Buccal mucosal grafts of an appropriate size were placed in the created urethral groove from 4- to 8 o’clock in the lithotomy view. After the procedure, the urethral catheter was kept for 3 weeks. All patients voided through the urethra after the procedure. The maximal postoperative urinary flow rates were between 12–15 ml/seconds in all cases for a follow-up period of 18–30 months. The recurrence rate was 50% (2/4. Recurrent strictures were minor, and they showed a web-like stricture ring near the suture line. Restricture within 6 months of surgery responded well to endoscopic internal urethrotomy plus dilatations. In conclusion, without further compromising urethral length, reoperative posterior urethroplasty with the inlay grafting technique can be considered in selective cases.

  3. Cyclic GMP-AMP displays mucosal adjuvant activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škrnjug

    Full Text Available The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice. A characteristic of the cGAMP-induced immune response is the slightly reduced induction of interleukin-17 as a hallmark of Th17 activity--a distinct feature that is not observed with other cyclic di-nucleotide adjuvants. We further characterize the innate immune stimulation activity in vitro on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and human dendritic cells. The observed results suggest the consideration of cGAMP as a candidate mucosal adjuvant for human vaccines.

  4. Cyclic GMP-AMP displays mucosal adjuvant activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrnjug, Ivana; Guzmán, Carlos Alberto; Rueckert, Christine; Ruecker, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice. A characteristic of the cGAMP-induced immune response is the slightly reduced induction of interleukin-17 as a hallmark of Th17 activity--a distinct feature that is not observed with other cyclic di-nucleotide adjuvants. We further characterize the innate immune stimulation activity in vitro on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and human dendritic cells. The observed results suggest the consideration of cGAMP as a candidate mucosal adjuvant for human vaccines.

  5. Inlay buccal mucosal graft for reoperative posterior urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shou-Hung; Kao, Chien-Chang; Wu, Seng-Tang; Meng, En; Cha, Tai-Lung

    2012-04-01

    Posterior urethral distraction injury following major pelvic trauma is a surgical challenge. Although rarely seen, cases of failure after formal urethral reconstruction are even more problematic. We adapted the concept of augmented free buccal mucosal grafts, which have been successful in anterior urethroplasty, for repairing the posterior urethra in these rare cases with the aim of reducing the likelihood of penile chordee postoperatively. During 2007-2009, four patients were candidates for the proposed procedure because they had received formal transperineal urethral reconstruction but were unable to urinate through the urethra. The urethra was approached transperineally and opened in the midline, rather than divided. Buccal mucosal grafts of an appropriate size were placed in the created urethral groove from 4- to 8 o'clock in the lithotomy view. After the procedure, the urethral catheter was kept for 3 weeks. All patients voided through the urethra after the procedure. The maximal postoperative urinary flow rates were between 12-15 ml/seconds in all cases for a follow-up period of 18-30 months. The recurrence rate was 50% (2/4). Recurrent strictures were minor, and they showed a web-like stricture ring near the suture line. Restricture within 6 months of surgery responded well to endoscopic internal urethrotomy plus dilatations. In conclusion, without further compromising urethral length, reoperative posterior urethroplasty with the inlay grafting technique can be considered in selective cases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Pathogenesis of human papillomavirus-associated mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ian J; Coleman, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a necessary cause of carcinoma of the cervix and other mucosal epithelia. Key events in high-risk HPV (HRHPV)-associated neoplastic progression include persistent infection, deregulated expression of virus early genes in basal epithelial cells and genomic instability causing secondary host genomic imbalances. There are multiple mechanisms by which deregulated virus early gene expression may be achieved. Integration of virus DNA into host chromosomes is observed in the majority of cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), although in ∼15% of cases the virus remains extrachromosomal (episomal). Interestingly, not all integration events provide a growth advantage to basal cervical epithelial cells or lead to increased levels of the virus oncogenes E6 and E7, when compared with episome-containing basal cells. The factors that provide a competitive advantage to some integrants, but not others, are complex and include virus and host contributions. Gene expression from integrated and episomal HRHPV is regulated through host epigenetic mechanisms affecting the virus long control region (LCR), which appear to be of functional importance. New approaches to treating HRHPV-associated mucosal neoplasia include knockout of integrated HRHPV DNA, depletion of virus transcripts and inhibition of virus early gene transcription through targeting or use of epigenetic modifiers. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Gut microbiota utilize immunoglobulin A for mucosal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, G P; Ladinsky, M S; Yu, K B; Sanders, J G; Yoo, B B; Chou, W-C; Conner, M E; Earl, A M; Knight, R; Bjorkman, P J; Mazmanian, S K

    2018-05-18

    The immune system responds vigorously to microbial infection while permitting lifelong colonization by the microbiome. Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. We found that a regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mice. Specific immune recognition facilitated bacterial adherence to cultured intestinal epithelial cells and intimate association with the gut mucosal surface in vivo. The IgA response was required for B. fragilis (and other commensal species) to occupy a defined mucosal niche that mediates stable colonization of the gut through exclusion of exogenous competitors. Therefore, in addition to its role in pathogen clearance, we propose that IgA responses can be co-opted by the microbiome to engender robust host-microbial symbiosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  8. [Treatment and prevention of cancer treatment related oral mucositis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Esquide, Gonzalo; Nervi, Bruno; Vargas, Alex; Maíz, Alberto

    2011-03-01

    One of the most common and troublesome complications of modern intensive anticancer treatments is oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence and clinical guidelines regarding its prevention and therapy. The use of keratinocyte growth factor-1, supplementary glutamine and other recently developed treatment modalities are discussed. The injury of the oral mucosa caused by antineoplastic agents promotes the local expression of multiple pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic molecules and eventually leads to the development of ulcers. Such lesions predispose patients to several infectious and nutritional complications. Also, they lead to modification of treatment schedules, potentially affecting overall prognosis. Local cryotherapy with ice chips and phototherapy with low energy laser may be useful as preventive measures. Mouthwashes with allopurinol and phototherapy with low energy laser can be used as treatment. In radiotherapy, special radiation administration techniques should be used to minimize mucosal injury. Pain control should always be optimized, with the use of patient controlled analgesia and topical use of morphine. Supplemental glutamine should not be used outside of research protocols. Lastly, thorough attention should be paid to general care and hygiene measures.

  9. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  10. Reproducing Phenomenology of Peroxidation Kinetics via Model Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslanov, Anatole D.; Bashylau, Anton V.

    2010-06-01

    We studied mathematical modeling of lipid peroxidation using a biochemical model system of iron (II)-ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation of rat hepatocyte mitochondrial fractions. We found that antioxidants extracted from plants demonstrate a high intensity of peroxidation inhibition. We simplified the system of differential equations that describes the kinetics of the mathematical model to a first order equation, which can be solved analytically. Moreover, we endeavor to algorithmically and heuristically recreate the processes and construct an environment that closely resembles the corresponding natural system. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to theoretically predict both the kinetics of oxidation and the intensity of inhibition without resorting to analytical and biochemical research, which is important for cost-effective discovery and development of medical agents with antioxidant action from the medicinal plants.

  11. Synthesis of unstable cyclic peroxides for chemiluminescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoloni, Fernando H.; Oliveira, Marcelo A. de; Augusto, Felipe A.; Ciscato, Luiz Francisco M.L.; Bastos, Erick L.; Baader, Wilhelm J., E-mail: wjbaader@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2012-11-15

    Cyclic four-membered ring peroxides are important high-energy intermediates in a variety of chemi and bioluminescence transformations. Specifically, a-peroxy lactones (1,2-dioxetanones) have been considered as model systems for efficient firefly bioluminescence. However, the preparation of such highly unstable compounds is extremely difficult and, therefore, only few research groups have been able to study the properties of these substances. In this study, the synthesis, purification and characterization of three 1,2-dioxetanones are reported and a detailed procedure for the known synthesis of diphenoyl peroxide, another important model compound for the chemical generation of electronically excited states, is provided. For most of these peroxides, the complete spectroscopic characterization is reported here for the first time. (author)

  12. Electrochemical behaviour of platinum in hydrogen peroxide solution (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prost, G.H.

    1963-06-01

    The relative stability of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution at 25 deg. C, allows its amperometric determination from the theory, using either its cathodic reduction or its anodic oxidation. The cathodic reduction yields a wave on a platinum electrode only when some oxygen is present in the solution. It cannot, therefore, be used for electrochemical determination. On the other hand, the anodic oxidation on platinum produces a wave which might be used. However, a passivation of platinum occurs at the same time. This passivation process is studied by means of potentio-kinetic, potentio-static, intensio-static curves and of pH measurements in the vicinity of the anode. A mechanism for passivation is presented, which takes into account the role of hydrogen peroxide as a reducing agent. This passivation rules out any analytical application of the oxidation reaction of hydrogen peroxide. (author) [fr

  13. Determination of hydrogen peroxide in water by chemiluminescence detection, (1). Flow injection type hydrogen peroxide detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Naoya; Uchida, Shunsuke; Satoh, Yoshiyuki; Morishima, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Hiroaki; Satoh, Tomonori; Sugama, Junichi; Yamada, Rie

    2004-01-01

    A flow injection type hydrogen peroxide detection system with a sub-ppb detection limit has been developed to determine hydrogen peroxide concentration in water sampled from a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen peroxide water loop. The hydrogen peroxide detector is based on luminol chemiluminescence spectroscopy. A small amount of sample water (20 μl) is mixed with a reagent mixture, an aqueous solution of luminol and Co 2+ catalyst, in a mixing cell which is installed just upstream from the detection cell. The optimum values for pH and the concentrations of luminol and Co 2+ ion have been determined to ensure a lower detectable limit and a higher reproducibility. The photocurrent detected by the detection system is expressed by a linear function of the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the region of lower concentration ([H 2 O 2 ] 2 O 2 ] in the region of higher concentration ([H 2 O 2 ] > 10 ppb). The luminous intensity of luminol chemiluminescence is the highest when pH of the reagent mixture is 11.0. Optimization of the major parameters gives the lowest detectable limit of 0.3 ppb. (author)

  14. Characterization of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter species isolated during the Mars Phoenix spacecraft assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derecho, I; McCoy, K B; Vaishampayan, P; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2014-10-01

    The microbiological inventory of spacecraft and the associated assembly facility surfaces represent the primary pool of forward contaminants that may impact the integrity of life-detection missions. Herein, we report on the characterization of several strains of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter, which were isolated during the Mars Phoenix lander assembly. All Phoenix-associated Acinetobacter strains possessed very high catalase specific activities, and the specific strain, A. gyllenbergii 2P01AA, displayed a survival against hydrogen peroxide (no loss in 100 mM H2O2 for 1 h) that is perhaps the highest known among Gram-negative and non-spore-forming bacteria. Proteomic characterizations reveal a survival mechanism inclusive of proteins coupled to peroxide degradation (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy/redox management (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase), protein synthesis/folding (EF-G, EF-Ts, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, DnaK), membrane functions (OmpA-like protein and ABC transporter-related protein), and nucleotide metabolism (HIT family hydrolase). Together, these survivability and biochemical parameters support the hypothesis that oxidative tolerance and the related biochemical features are the measurable phenotypes or outcomes for microbial survival in the spacecraft assembly facilities, where the low-humidity (desiccation) and clean (low-nutrient) conditions may serve as selective pressures. Hence, the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter, due to the conferred oxidative tolerances, may ultimately hinder efforts to reduce spacecraft bioburden when using chemical sterilants, thus suggesting that non-spore-forming bacteria may need to be included in the bioburden accounting for future life-detection missions.

  15. Selective Electrochemical Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide from Water Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Hansen, Heine Anton; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2015-01-01

    evolution and form hydrogen peroxide. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that the free energy of adsorbed OH* can be used to determine selectivity trends between the 2e(-) water oxidation to H2O2 and the 4e(-) oxidation to O2. We show that materials which bind oxygen intermediates...... sufficiently weakly, such as SnO2, can activate hydrogen peroxide evolution. We present a rational design principle for the selectivity in electrochemical water oxidation and identify new material candidates that could perform H2O2 evolution selectively....

  16. Intercommunication of factors the energy products and peroxidation at training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov E.I.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the training loading on the state of some parameters, characterizing the basic ways of power providing and lipid peroxidation is studied. In research took part 34 footballers in the age 19 - 25 years. Trainings were conducted in aerobic-anaerobic mode. It is set that as a result of training duration 90 minutes the endogenous antioxidant systems of man adequately get along at the processes of peroxidase. Meaningful correlative connections are exposed statistically between the intermediate products of carbohydrate, lipidic, albuminous exchange and lipid peroxidation.

  17. Adrenergic influence on gastric mucosal blood flow in gastric fistula dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    micrograms/kg/min) induced an increase in mucosal blood flow and a similar increase in acid secretion. If the dopamine infusion was preceded by alpha-receptor blockade, a pronounced increase in mucosal blood flow was observed without a similar increase in acid secretion. beta-adrenergic stimulation...

  18. Use of inactivated E.Coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally co-administered with an antigen to pigs. Detoxified E. coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced mucosal and systemic immunity to the model peptide, exhibiting their efficacy as mucosal adjuvants for...

  19. Oral mucositis in patients treated with chemotherapy for solid tumors: a retrospective analysis of 150 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Weijl, N. I.; Abu Saris, M.; de Koning, B.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Osanto, S.

    2000-01-01

    The incidence and the severity of chemotherapy-associated oral mucositis were determined in a retrospective analysis of 150 patients with various solid tumors. In addition, possible risk factors for the development of mucositis were identified. Patients were treated with chemotherapeutic regimens

  20. Host responses to Candida albicans: Th17 cells and mucosal candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Heather R.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans causes mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, which represent serious problems for the rapidly expanding immunocompromised population. Until recently, Th1-mediated immunity was thought to confer the primary protection, particularly for oral candidiasis. However, emerging data indicate that the newly-defined Th17 compartment appears to play the predominant role in mucosal candidiasis.

  1. The Potential Effect of Oral Microbiota in the Prediction of Mucositis During Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Interpretation: Oral microbiota changes correlate with the progression and aggravation of radiotherapy-induced mucositis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Microbiota-based strategies can be used for the early prediction and prevention of the incidence of severe mucositis during radiotherapy.

  2. Mucosal immune response in broilers following vaccination with inactivated influenza and recombinant Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal and systemic immunity were observed in broilers vaccinated with mannosylated chitosan adjuvated (MCA) inactivated A/Turkey/Virginia/158512/2002 (H7N2) and administered with and without recombinant Bacillus subtilis to elicit heterologous influenza strain protection. Previously, mucosal immu...

  3. Clinical effects of flurbiprofen tooth patch on radiation-induced oral mucositis. A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, MA; Spijkervet, FKL; Burlage, FR; Roodenburg, JLN

    Background: Mucositis is an oral sequela of radiotherapy. In the development of mucositis several mechanisms play a role, such as inflammation and the effect of radiation on the high proliferation rate of oral basal epithelial cells. Therefore, administration of a drug with antiinflammatory and

  4. MASCC/ISOO clinical practice guidelines for the management of mucositis secondary to cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Bowen, Joanne; Barasch, Andrei; Elting, Linda; Epstein, Joel; Keefe, Dorothy M.; McGuire, Deborah B.; Migliorati, Cesar; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Peterson, Douglas E.; Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; Sonis, Stephen T.; Elad, Sharon; Al-Dasooqi, Noor; Brennan, Michael; Gibson, Rachel; Fulton, Janet; Hewson, Ian; Jensen, Siri B.; Logan, Richard; Öhrn, Kerstin E. O.; Sarri, Triantafyllia; Saunders, Deborah; von Bültzingslöwen, Inger; Yarom, Noam

    2014-01-01

    Mucositis is a highly significant, and sometimes dose-limiting, toxicity of cancer therapy. The goal of this systematic review was to update the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer and International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) Clinical Practice Guidelines for mucositis.

  5. Systematic review of agents for the management of gastrointestinal mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, Rachel J.; Keefe, Dorothy M. K.; Lalla, Rajesh V.; Bateman, Emma; Blijlevens, Nicole; Fijlstra, Margot; King, Emily E.; Stringer, Andrea M.; van der Velden, Walter J. F. M.; Yazbeck, Roger; Elad, Sharon; Bowen, Joanne M.

    The aim of this study was to review the available literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of agents for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal mucositis. A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive

  6. Systematic review of agents for the management of gastrointestinal mucositis in cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, R.J.; Keefe, D.M.; Lalla, R.V.; Bateman, E.; Blijlevens, N.M.; Fijlstra, M.; King, E.E.; Stringer, A.M.; Velden, W.J.F.M. van der; Yazbeck, R.; Elad, S.; Bowen, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to review the available literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of agents for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal mucositis. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association

  7. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 as a molecular adjuvant for enhancement of mucosal immunity during DNA vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holechek, Susan A; McAfee, Megan S; Nieves, Lizbeth M; Guzman, Vanessa P; Manhas, Kavita; Fouts, Timothy; Bagley, Kenneth; Blattman, Joseph N

    2016-11-04

    In order for vaccines to induce efficacious immune responses against mucosally transmitted pathogens, such as HIV-1, activated lymphocytes must efficiently migrate to and enter targeted mucosal sites. We have previously shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can be used as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance mucosal CD8 + T cell responses during vaccination and improve protection against mucosal viral challenge. However, the ATRA formulation is incompatible with most recombinant vaccines, and the teratogenic potential of ATRA at high doses limits its usage in many clinical settings. We hypothesized that increasing in vivo production of retinoic acid (RA) during vaccination with a DNA vector expressing retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2), the rate-limiting enzyme in RA biosynthesis, could similarly provide enhanced programming of mucosal homing to T cell responses while avoiding teratogenic effects. Administration of a RALDH2- expressing plasmid during immunization with a HIVgag DNA vaccine resulted in increased systemic and mucosal CD8 + T cell numbers with an increase in both effector and central memory T cells. Moreover, mice that received RALDH2 plasmid during DNA vaccination were more resistant to intravaginal challenge with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the same HIVgag antigen (VACVgag). Thus, RALDH2 can be used as an alternative adjuvant to ATRA during DNA vaccination leading to an increase in both systemic and mucosal T cell immunity and better protection from viral infection at mucosal sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection favourably affects gastric mucosal superoxide dismutases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, J. M.; Thio, J. L.; Verspaget, H. W.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Biemond, I.; Lamers, C. B.; Veenendaal, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) by phagocytic cells is thought to contribute to the mucosal pathology of Helicobacter pylori infection. Previously, H pylori infection was shown to have a differential effect on some gastric mucosal scavenger enzymes of ROMs-namely,

  9. The role of sucralfate oral suspension in prevention of radiation induced mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Emami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Mucositis is one of the most common complications of radiotherapy in head and neck cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate sucralfate mouthwash in prevention of radiation induced mucositis.
    • METHODS: A clinical randomized trial performed on 52 patients with head and neck cancers in Sayyed-Al-Shohada Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. These patients randomly assigned in 2 groups of 26 patients. Placebo and sucralfate was used for control and experimental patients respectiv ly, from the beginning of radiotherapy. Patients were visited weekly until the end of treatment. Grade of the mucositis was evaluated according to WHO grading scale.
    • RESULTS: Sucralfate significantly reduced the mean grade of mucositis in weeks one to four (with P-values of 0.02, 0.02, 0.001 and 0.004, respectively. Development of grade3 mucositis was also lower in sucralfate group (P-value = 0.0001. But, time interval between radiotherapy and appearance of mucositis was not statistically different in the two groups (P-value = 0.9
    • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that using oral suspension of sucralfate reduced the grade of radiation-induced mucositis, but did not prevent or delay it.
    • KEYWORDS: Mucositis, radiotherapy, sucralfate, head and neck cancers.

  10. Icing oral mucositis: Oral cryotherapy in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joey; Seabrook, Jamie; Fulford, Adrienne; Rajakumar, Irina

    2017-03-01

    Background Up to 70% of patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant develop oral mucositis as a side effect of high-dose melphalan conditioning chemotherapy. Oral cryotherapy has been documented to be potentially effective in reducing oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the cryotherapy protocol implemented within the hematopoietic stem cell transplant program. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult multiple myeloma patients who received high-dose melphalan conditioning therapy for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Primary endpoints were incidence and severity of oral mucositis. Secondary endpoints included duration of oral mucositis, duration of hospital stay, parenteral narcotics use and total parenteral nutrition use. Results One hundred and forty patients were included in the study, 70 patients in both no cryotherapy and cryotherapy groups. Both oral mucositis incidence and severity were found to be significantly lower in the cryotherapy group. Fifty (71.4%) experienced mucositis post cryotherapy compared to 67 (95.7%) in the no cryotherapy group (p cryotherapy group (p = 0.03). Oral mucositis duration and use of parenteral narcotics were also significantly reduced. Duration of hospital stay and use of parenteral nutrition were similar between the two groups. Conclusion The cryotherapy protocol resulted in a significantly lower incidence and severity of oral mucositis. These results provide evidence for the continued use of oral cryotherapy, an inexpensive and generally well-tolerated practice.

  11. Oral Candida as an aggravating factor of mucositis Induced by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, Cristiane Araujo; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de; Cazal, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Antineoplastic treatment induces some undesirable consequences in head and neck cancer patients. Often, the emergence of major clinical manifestations, such as oral mucositis, results in temporary interruption of the treatment, decreasing the patients' quality of life, and increasing hospital costs. Radio-induced or chemo-induced oral mucositis is possibly aggravated by opportunist fungal infections, which turn the mucositis more resistant to the conventional treatments. Objective: this study aims to identify the presence of Candida sp. as a possible aggravating factor of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer under antineoplastic treatment. Method: all patients with radio- or chemo-induced oral mucositis from the Cancer Hospital of Pernambuco, treated between October 2008 and April 2009, were selected for the study. The prevalence of Candida sp was measured through the cytological analysis of oral mucosa in patients with oral mucositis. The fungal presence was correlated with the mucositis severity. Results: the results showed a positive association between fungal colonization and more several lesions (degrees III and IV of mucositis). Conclusion: The outcomes shown may contribute to a solution for unconventional mucosites, which do not respond to the usual treatment. (author)

  12. Understanding the Oral Mucosal Absorption and Resulting Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Asenapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartlett, Jeremy A.; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of drugs from the oral cavity into the mucosal tissues is typically a fast event. Dissolved drugs partition into the mucosal membranes and within minutes will reach equilibrium with drug in solution in the oral cavity. However, this does not always equate to rapid drug appearance in the

  13. Glucose-mediated control of ghrelin release from primary cultures of gastric mucosal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ichiro; Park, Won-Mee; Walker, Angela K.; Piper, Paul K.; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri

    2012-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is released from a distinct group of gastrointestinal cells in response to caloric restriction, whereas its levels fall after eating. The mechanisms by which ghrelin secretion is regulated remain largely unknown. Here, we have used primary cultures of mouse gastric mucosal cells to investigate ghrelin secretion, with an emphasis on the role of glucose. Ghrelin secretion from these cells upon exposure to different d-glucose concentrations, the glucose antimetabolite 2-deoxy-d-glucose, and other potential secretagogues was assessed. The expression profile of proteins involved in glucose transport, metabolism, and utilization within highly enriched pools of mouse ghrelin cells and within cultured ghrelinoma cells was also determined. Ghrelin release negatively correlated with d-glucose concentration. Insulin blocked ghrelin release, but only in a low d-glucose environment. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose prevented the inhibitory effect of high d-glucose exposure on ghrelin release. mRNAs encoding several facilitative glucose transporters, hexokinases, the ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunit Kir6.2, and sulfonylurea type 1 receptor were expressed highly within ghrelin cells, although neither tolbutamide nor diazoxide exerted direct effects on ghrelin secretion. These findings suggest that direct exposure of ghrelin cells to low ambient d-glucose stimulates ghrelin release, whereas high d-glucose and glucose metabolism within ghrelin cells block ghrelin release. Also, low d-glucose sensitizes ghrelin cells to insulin. Various glucose transporters, channels, and enzymes that mediate glucose responsiveness in other cell types may contribute to the ghrelin cell machinery involved in regulating ghrelin secretion under these different glucose environments, although their exact roles in ghrelin release remain uncertain. PMID:22414807

  14. Novel mucosal DNA-MVA HIV vaccination in which DNA-IL-12 plus Cholera Toxin B subunit (CTB) cooperates to enhance cellular systemic and mucosal genital tract immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Maeto, Cynthia Alejandra; Rodríguez, Ana María; Holgado, María Pía; Falivene, Juliana; Gherardi, Maria Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Induction of local antiviral immune responses at the mucosal portal surfaces where HIV-1 and other viral pathogens are usually first encountered remains a primary goal for most vaccines against mucosally acquired viral infections. Exploring mucosal immunization regimes in order to find optimal vector combinations and also appropriate mucosal adjuvants in the HIV vaccine development is decisive. In this study we analyzed the interaction of DNA-IL-12 and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) after thei...

  15. A prospective comparison of common toxicity criteria adverse events Version 3 and 4 in assessing oral mucositis for oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hickman

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Differences in grading of mucositis scored by V3 and V4 are frequent. Relationships between biologically effective dose and rates of grade 3 mucositis have historically been based on mucosal appearances. It is not known whether the same relationships apply when mucositis is graded based on symptomatic grading systems. Both V3 and V4 should be used in clinical trials to improve understanding of mucositis and its relationship to quality of life and late mucosal toxicity.

  16. Applications of hydrogen peroxide in electrochemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto Armando

    1998-12-01

    It is demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide can be produced with a current efficiency of 40-70% by the cathodic reduction of oxygen at a reticulated vitreous carbon electrode in a divided flow-cell using catholytes consisting of aqueous chloride or sulphate media, pH >>{sub 2}. The supporting electrolyte does not influence either the current efficiency for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or its rate of production. The current efficiency for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is not a strong function of the potential and this suggests that 2e- and 4e- reduction of oxygen occurs in parallel at different sites on the carbon surface. Voltammetry experiments showed that (a) the I-E response for oxygen reduction at pH >>{sub 2} is a function of the electrode surface and/or the supporting electrolyte; (b) both H{sub 2} evolution and oxygen reduction are retarded on carbon with increasing ionic strength; (c) the presence of ferrous ions lead to the homogeneous decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} away from the cathode surface but their effectiveness as a catalyst for this decomposition depends on their speciation in solution which changes during an electrolysis. The use of a three-dimensional electrode fabricated from reticulated vitreous carbon allows Fenton`s reagent to be electroproduced at a practical rate which makes possible the removal of organics in slightly acidic aqueous media. A wide range of highly toxic organic molecules (phenol, catechol, hydroquinone, p-benzoquinone, oxalic acid, aniline, cresol and amaranth) have been oxidised in mild conditions and a significant fraction of the organic carbon is evolved as CO{sub 2}. In all cases studied the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) was depleted to levels higher than 85%, indicating a complete mineralisation of the organic pollutants. The life-time of the reticulated vitreous carbon cathode was demonstrated to be over 1000 hours during two and a half years of experiments. During this time the cathode performance was very good, leading to

  17. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonan, Paulo Rogerio Ferreti; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Alves, Fabio de Abreu

    2005-01-01

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-1 as a treatment for chemotherapy-induced mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissow, Hannelouise; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    : To determine whether endogenous GLP-1 contributes to the healing processes and if exogenous GLP-1 has a potential role in treating mucositis. METHODS: Mice were injected with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or saline to induce mucositis and were then treated with GLP-1, GLP-2, GLP-2 (3-33), exendin (9-39) or vehicle....... The mice were sacrificed 48 or 96 h after the 5-FU injections. The end points were intestinal weight, villus height, proliferation and histological scoring of mucositis severity. Rats were injected with 5-FU or saline, and after 48 h, blood was drawn and analysed for GLP-1 and GLP-2 concentration. RESULTS......: GLP-1 and GLP-2 significantly prevented the loss of mucosal mass and villus height and significantly decreased the mucositis severity score in the duodenum and jejunum 48 h after chemotherapy. The effect was equivalent. Exendin (9-39) reduced the intestinal weight 96 h after chemotherapy. The GLP-1...

  19. Pilot study of ice-ball cryotherapy for radiation-induced oral mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, Waichiro; Ebihara, Satoshi [National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    Oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy is intractable and may worsen the patient`s nutritional condition and interrupt treatment. To reduce the incidence and severity of oral mucositis induced by cancer therapy and promote early improvement of its symptoms, we devised cryotherapy by ice balls using Elase (fibrinolysin and deoxyribonuclease, combined). The therapeutic effect of ice-ball cryotherapy was evaluated in 10 patients with carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx who were undergoing radiotherapy. Cryotherapy was continued from the development of oral mucositis until its disappearance. The severity of various symptoms of mucositis were reduced by cryotherapy. Healing required 3 to 16 days (median, 7 days) after the end of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was not interrupted in any cases. This preliminary report suggests that ice-ball cryotherapy is an effective treatment for radiation-induced oral mucositis. (author).

  20. Pilot study of ice-ball cryotherapy for radiation-induced oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Waichiro; Ebihara, Satoshi

    1996-01-01

    Oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy is intractable and may worsen the patient's nutritional condition and interrupt treatment. To reduce the incidence and severity of oral mucositis induced by cancer therapy and promote early improvement of its symptoms, we devised cryotherapy by ice balls using Elase (fibrinolysin and deoxyribonuclease, combined). The therapeutic effect of ice-ball cryotherapy was evaluated in 10 patients with carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx who were undergoing radiotherapy. Cryotherapy was continued from the development of oral mucositis until its disappearance. The severity of various symptoms of mucositis were reduced by cryotherapy. Healing required 3 to 16 days (median, 7 days) after the end of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was not interrupted in any cases. This preliminary report suggests that ice-ball cryotherapy is an effective treatment for radiation-induced oral mucositis. (author)

  1. Five Decades with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Chemical Synthesis, Enzymatic Formation, Lipid Peroxidation and Its Biological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Catalá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been involved in research on polyunsaturated fatty acids since 1964 and this review is intended to cover some of the most important aspects of this work. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have followed me during my whole scientific career and I have published a number of studies concerned with different aspects of them such as chemical synthesis, enzymatic formation, metabolism, transport, physical, chemical, and catalytic properties of a reconstructed desaturase system in liposomes, lipid peroxidation, and their effects. The first project I became involved in was the organic synthesis of [1-14C] eicosa-11,14-dienoic acid, with the aim of demonstrating the participation of that compound as a possible intermediary in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid “in vivo.” From 1966 to 1982, I was involved in several projects that study the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the eighties, we studied fatty acid binding protein. From 1990 up to now, our laboratory has been interested in the lipid peroxidation of biological membranes from various tissues and different species as well as liposomes prepared with phospholipids rich in PUFAs. We tested the effect of many antioxidants such as alpha tocopherol, vitamin A, melatonin and its structural analogues, and conjugated linoleic acid, among others.

  2. Hydrogen-bearing iron peroxide and the origin of ultralow-velocity zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Hu, Qingyang; Young Kim, Duck; Wu, Zhongqing; Wang, Wenzhong; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul; Meng, Yue; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-11-01

    Ultralow-velocity zones (ULVZs) at Earth’s core-mantle boundary region have important implications for the chemical composition and thermal structure of our planet, but their origin has long been debated. Hydrogen-bearing iron peroxide (FeO2Hx) in the pyrite-type crystal structure was recently found to be stable under the conditions of the lowermost mantle. Using high-pressure experiments and theoretical calculations, we find that iron peroxide with a varying amount of hydrogen has a high density and high Poisson ratio as well as extremely low sound velocities consistent with ULVZs. Here we also report a reaction between iron and water at 86 gigapascals and 2,200 kelvin that produces FeO2Hx. This would provide a mechanism for generating the observed volume occupied by ULVZs through the reaction of about one-tenth the mass of Earth’s ocean water in subducted hydrous minerals with the effectively unlimited reservoir of iron in Earth’s core. Unlike other candidates for the composition of ULVZs, FeO2Hx synthesized from the superoxidation of iron by water would not require an extra transportation mechanism to migrate to the core-mantle boundary. These dense FeO2Hx-rich domains would be expected to form directly in the core-mantle boundary region and their properties would provide an explanation for the many enigmatic seismic features that are observed in ULVZs.

  3. The therapeutic effect of PLAG against oral mucositis in hamster and mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Reum Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced mucositis can limit the effectiveness of cancer therapy and increase the risk of infections. However, no specific therapy for protection against mucositis is currently available. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol, acetylated diglyceride in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced oral mucositis animal models. Hamsters were administered 5-FU (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally on days 0, 6, and 9. The animals’ cheek pouches were then scratched equally with the tip of an 18-gauge needle on days 1, 2, and 7. PLAG was administered daily at 250 mg/kg/day. PLAG administration significantly reduced 5-FU/scratching–induced mucositis. Dramatic reversal of weight loss in PLAG-treated hamsters with mucositis was observed. Histochemical staining data also revealed newly differentiated epidermis and blood vessels in the cheek pouches of PLAG-treated hamsters, indicative of recovery. Whole blood analyses indicated that PLAG prevents 5-FU–induced excessive neutrophil transmigration to the infection site and eventually stabilizes the number of circulating neutrophils. In a mouse mucositis model, mice with 5-FU–induced disease treated with PLAG exhibited resistance to body-weight loss compared with mice that received 5-FU or 5-FU/scratching alone. PLAG also dramatically reversed mucositis-associated weight loss and inhibited mucositis-induced inflammatory responses in the tongue and serum. These data suggest that PLAG enhances recovery from 5-FU–induced oral mucositis and may therefore be a useful therapeutic agent for treating side effects of chemotherapy, such as mucositis and cachexia.

  4. Effect of Terminalia chebula fruit extract on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... products mainly edible vegetables and spices, have a key role in chemopreventers ... protein; dunit/minute/mg protein ; eµg/mg protein; fn moles of H2O2 ... induce peroxidation of cell membrane lipids (Bhattacharya et al., 1999). .... catalase – like activities in seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Int. J. Androl.

  5. Blood lipid metabolites and meat lipid peroxidation responses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... Fat and protein contents of thigh muscle and abdominal fat weight were measured and reported. Chickens fed LPO had greater serum triacylglycerol and very low ... favour lipid peroxidation, inhibit synthesis of higher homologous of ... The ambient temperature was gradually decreased from 33 °C at first.

  6. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  7. Peroxidative damage of mitochondrial respiration is substrate-dependent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Endlicher, R.; Křiváková, P.; Rauchová, Hana; Nůsková, Hana; Červinková, Z.; Drahota, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2009), s. 685-692 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/06/1261 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mitochondrial enzymes * peroxidative damage * tert-butyl hydroperoxide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  8. Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of formic acid in wastewater with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... The reaction was monitored by ATR FTIR by following the disappearance of the O-H ..... of hydrogen peroxide than other iron ions such as FeCl2, FeCl3, ..... HWANG D-S, LEE E-H, KIM K-W, LEE K-I and PARK S-J (1999).

  9. Combined effect of vanadium and nickel on lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exposure to nickel led to a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in SOD, GST activities in liver and GSH content in kidney and a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the hepatic MDA content and renal SOD activity. When the metals were administered in combination, the elevation of lipid peroxidation did not potentiate. However ...

  10. Hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, V.K.; Rach, J.J.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    1994-01-01

    Antifungal agents are needed to maintain healthy stocks of fish in the intensive culture systems currently employed in fish hatcheries. Malachite green has been the most widely used antifungal agent; however, its potential for producing teratology in animals and fish precludes further use in fish culture. Preliminary studies at the National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, WI, USA (La Crosse Center) indicate that hydrogen peroxide is effective for control of Saprolegnia sp. fungus on incubating eggs of rainbow trout. It is also effective against a wide variety of other organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, viruses, and spores, and has been proposed as a treatment for sea lice on salmon. Hydrogen peroxide and its primary decomposition products, oxygen and water, are not systemic poisons and are considered environmentally compatible. In response to a petition from the La Crosse Center, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently classified hydrogen peroxide as a 'low regulatory priority' when used for control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Preliminary tests conducted at the La Crosse Center suggest that prophylactic treatments of 250 to 500 ppm (based on 100% active ingredient) for 15 minutes every other day will inhibit fungal infections on healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. This treatment regime also seems to inhibit fungal development and increase hatching success among infected eggs. Efficacy and safety of hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish are currently being evaluated.

  11. Sperm DNA damage in relation to lipid peroxidation following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationships between lipid peroxidation (LPO) and sperm DNA damage following freezing-thawing of boar semen in different extenders. The comet assay was used to measure the extent of sperm DNA damage in a cryoprotectant-free extender or in cryoprotectant-based extenders after single ...

  12. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 2. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L. AY ZUNUN-PÉREZ T GUEVARA-FIGUEROA SN ...

  13. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrel, L.; Chopin, J.

    1996-01-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40 o C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H + ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I 2 ], [IO 3 - ], [H 2 O 2 ] and [H + ]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs

  14. Blood lipid metabolites and meat lipid peroxidation responses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from broilers to evaluate serum biochemical metabolites on day 41. Thigh meat samples were provided and analysed after 1, 5 and 10 days' storage to evaluate lipid peroxidation at the end of the experiment. Fat and protein contents of thigh muscle and abdominal fat weight were measured ...

  15. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air of healthy children: reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Jobsis (Quirijn); R.H. Raatgeep (Rolien); S.L. Schellekens; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAn increased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a marker of inflammation, has been described in the condensate of exhaled air from adults and children with inflammatory lung disorders, including asthma. However, the normal range of [H2O2] in the exhaled

  16. Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis predicts that low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation is an early event in atherosclerosis and that oxidized LDL-C contributes to atherogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To determine a link, if any, between the plasma lipid peroxidation and total ...

  17. Sol – Gel synthesis and characterization of magnesium peroxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaison, J; Chan, Y S; Ashok raja, C; Balakumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium peroxide is an excellent source of oxygen in agriculture applications, for instance it is used in waste management as a material for soil bioremediation to remove contaminants from polluted underground water, biological wastes treatment to break down hydrocarbon, etc. In the present study, sol-gel synthesis of magnesium peroxide (MgO 2 ) nanoparticles is reported. Magnesium peroxide is odourless; fine peroxide which releases oxygen when reacts with water. During the sol-gel synthesis, the magnesium malonate intermediate is formed which was then calcinated to obtain MgO 2 nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using Thermo gravimetric -Differential Thermal Analysis (TG- DTA), X-Ray Diffraction studies (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM). Our study provides a clear insight that the formation of magnesium malonate during the synthesis was due to the reaction between magnesium acetate, oxalic acid and ethanol. In our study, we can conclude that the calcination temperature has a strong influence on particle size, morphology, monodispersity and the chemistry of the particles. (paper)

  18. Can hydrogen peroxide and quercetin improve production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present work was to determine if hydrogen peroxide in combination with quercetin or indole butyric acid, can modify some characteristics related to rooting and development in cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Cuttings were periodically evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days according to the ...

  19. Hydrogen peroxide and radiation water chemistry of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, E.; Watanabe, A.; Endo, M.; Takahashi, M.; Karasawa, H.

    1991-01-01

    G-values and rate constants at elevated temperature are reviewed and updated for computer simulation of water radiolysis in BWRs. Quantitative relationship between g-values of H 2 and OH was found out to govern numerically the radiolytic environment in the BWR primary system. Thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was measured in stagnant water in a quartz cell and the rate constant was determined at 2.4 x 10 -7 s -1 with the activation energy of 53.3 kJ/mol. Behaviors of hydrogen peroxide under HWC simulated with updated variables were consistent with plant observation at Forsmark 1 and 2. The most likely decomposition scheme of hydrogen peroxide at surface was identified as H 2 O 2 → H + HO 2 . Based on the surface decomposition process, actual level of hydrogen peroxide was estimated at 200-400 ppb under NWC condition from measured at BWR sampling stations. The estimation was consistent with the numerical simulation of BWR water radiolysis with updated variables. (author)

  20. Desiccation-induced changes in viability, lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... Key words: Intermediate seeds, desiccation, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation,. Mimusops ... between ROS production and cell defenses determines ... needed for reduction of dehydroascorbate, which is .... was calculated using the extinction coefficient (6.2 mM-1cm-1) for.

  1. Electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide on stainless steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    wide range of industrial processes such as food processing (e.g. in the ... tron transfer effect of mitochondria.4 These radicals. (reactive .... of H2O2 without undergoing fouling or poisoning due to any inter- .... adsorbed OHads species was shown operative at po- tentials of .... Douglass W C 2003 Hydrogen peroxide medical.

  2. The basic chemistry and photochemistry behind hydrogen peroxide tooth whitening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, N.D.; Fairley, P.D.; Mohan, V.; Jumeaux, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide gel formulation is a complexprocess which involves both chemistry and physics, and there is still some controversy about the efficiency of whitening processes, particularly with respect to the roles of temperature and irradiation with light. In this work we

  3. Treatment of Oral Mucosal Lesions Associated With Overlapping Psychodermatologic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaris, Sausan; France, Katherine; Sollecito, Thomas P; Stoopler, Eric T

    2018-04-01

    Delusional infestations are psychodermatologic disorders in which those affected have a false belief they are infested by parasites and/or "growing" inanimate objects from cutaneous surfaces. Individuals with delusional parasitosis (DP) believe parasites, bacteria, worms, mites, or other living organisms are the source of cutaneous symptoms, while those with Morgellons disease (MD) attribute their symptoms to growth of small fibers or inorganic material. In both DP and MD, self-inflicted, non-healing cutaneous lesions caused by scratching at the affected areas to alleviate symptoms are commonly observed. This report describes a case of oral mucosal lesions in a patient demonstrating overlapping symptoms of DP and MD. It is important for oral healthcare providers to recognize oral signs and symptoms that may be associated with psychodermatologic disorders.

  4. Immunity and Tolerance Induced by Intestinal Mucosal Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Aliberti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells present in the digestive tract are constantly exposed to environmental antigens, commensal flora, and invading pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, these cells have high tolerogenic potential, triggering differentiation of regulatory T cells to protect the host from unwanted proinflammatory immune responses to innocuous antigens or commensals. On the other hand, these cells must discriminate between commensal flora and invading pathogens and mount powerful immune response against pathogens. A potential result of unbalanced tolerogenic versus proinflammatory responses mediated by dendritic cells is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, food allergies, and celiac disease. Herein, we review the dendritic cell population involved in mediating tolerance and immunity in mucosal surfaces, the progress in unveiling their development in vivo, and factors that can influence their functions.

  5. Effects of Mycotoxins on Mucosal Microbial Infection and Related Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Juil; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites detected in many agricultural commodities and water-damaged indoor environments. Susceptibility to mucosal infectious diseases is closely associated with immune dysfunction caused by mycotoxin exposure in humans and other animals. Many mycotoxins suppress immune function by decreasing the proliferation of activated lymphocytes, impairing phagocytic function of macrophages, and suppressing cytokine production, but some induce hypersensitive responses in different dose regimes. The present review describes various mycotoxin responses to infectious pathogens that trigger mucosa-associated diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of humans and other animals. In particular, it focuses on the effects of mycotoxin exposure on invasion, pathogen clearance, the production of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the prognostic implications of interactions between infectious pathogens and mycotoxin exposure. PMID:26529017

  6. Histopathology of cutaneous and mucosal lesions in human paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Uribe

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Biopsies from cutaneous and mucosal lesions from 40 patients with active paracoccidioidomycosis, were studied histopathologically. All cases exhibited chronic granulomatous inflammation and 38 also presented suppuration; this picture corresponded to the mixed mycotic granuloma (MMG. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and the transepidermic (or epithelial elimination of the parasite, were observed in all cases. In paracoccidioidomycosis elimination takes place through formation of progressive edema, accompained by exocytosis. The edema gives rise to spongiosis, microvesicles and microabscesses which not only contain the fungus but also, various cellular elements. Cells in charge of the phagocytic process were essentialy Langhans giant cells; PMN's, epithelioid and foreign body giant cells were poor phagocytes. An additional finding was the presence of fibrosis in most biopsies.

  7. [Cutaneous and mucosal manifestations associated with cocaine use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrián; Chico, Ricardo; Aguilar-Martínez, Antonio

    2016-06-17

    Complications due to cocaine are a public health problem. The typical cutaneous disease is leukocytoclastic vasculitis and/or thrombotic vasculopathy affecting mainly the ears. No intense systemic involvement is usually present, but there may be several cutaneous, mucosal and systemic manifestations. Other findings associated as arthralgia, neutropaenia or agranulocytosis, low titer positive antinuclear antibodies, antiphospholipid antibody positivity and neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies against multiple antigens help the diagnosis. This disease requires a clinical suspicion with a clinical history, a complete physical examination and a broad differential diagnosis for an early and correct diagnosis. The course is usually self-limited. In most cases the only treatment is to discontinue the use of cocaine associated with symptomatic treatment, no proven benefit of systemic corticosteroids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Removable denture-related oral mucosal lesions: descriptive clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen Akçiçek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a relationship between removable denture-related oral mucosal lesions and denture type, and demographic characteristics. Materials and Method: The age, sex, denture type, systemic condition and medication use, presence of denture-related oral mucosal lesions (DROML, their locations and patients’ awareness of above mentioned lesions were recorded for 199 patients. Pearson chi-square test was used to analyse the relationship between the DROML and denture type, and demographic characteristics of the patients. Results: Among the patients included to the study, 122 (61.3% were female and 77 (38.7% were male. Ninety-six patients (48.2% exhibited DROML, whereas 103 patients (51.8% had no DROML. No relationship was detected between DROML and age, and sex (p>0.05. The most commonly detected DROML was denture stomatitis (34.7%. Denture stomatitis was significantly more frequently seen in partial denture wearers (p<0.05, while epulis fissuratum and flabby ridge were statistically more frequent in complete denture wearers (p<0.001. Traumatic ulcer was more frequently found in mandibular complete denture wearers (p<0.05, while epulis fissuratum and flabby ridge were significantly more common in maxillary complete denture wearers (p<0.001. Among the patients with DROML, 57.3% stated that they were unaware of these lesions. Conclusion: In this study sample, the rate of DROML was high in patients wearing removable dentures (48.2%, and more than half of the patients with DROML were not aware of these lesions. Upon these findings, it is considered that removable denture wearers should follow the denture usage instructions and should be informed about the importance of periodic controls.

  9. Effects of stimulated repopulation on oral mucositis during conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Jacubek, A.; Kummermehr, J.; Herrmann, Th.; Doelling-Jochem, I.; Eckelt, U.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of local conditioning of human oral mucosa by silver nitrate solution (3%) on epithelial proliferation rates was tested in 11 healthy volunteers by in vitro labelling of biopsies with tritiated thymidine. Compared to control biopsies from 13 volunteers, stimulation over 3 days, 3 times per day, yielded a significant (p = 0.006) increase in the epithelial labelling index (LI) from 4.75 ± 0.32% to 6.85 ± 0.65%, i.e., by 44%. The increase in the absolute number of labelled cells per mm epithelial length was dependent on the overall cell density at the various intraoral sites and varied between 45% in the maxillary vestibule and 91% at the floor of the mouth. In an analysis of variance, stimulation turned out to be the most important source causing the effect (p = 0.011 for LI and 0.015 for labelled cells per mm). In a radiotherapy trial with conventional postoperative treatment with 5 x 2 Gy/week to a total dose of 60 Gy in 6 weeks, the left buccal mucosa in 10 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck was conditioned (3% silver nitrate, 3 times per day, 5 days before and the first 2 days of radiotherapy) while the contralateral mucosa, receiving an identical dose, served as individual control. Mucositis scores according to the EORTC/RTOG or the Dische system showed that the time course and severity of the mucosal response was almost identical in both cheeks, which is in clear contrast to a previous clinical study (Maciejewski et al. Radiother. Oncol. 22, 7-11, 1991). Differences in radiation dose intensity, i.e., weekly dose, in these studies are discussed as a tentative explanation for the different clinical findings

  10. Comparison of Alloderm and mucosal graft in mandibular vestibuloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodhashemi H.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The usage of free gingival grafts for vestibuloplasty is a routine procedure. The free gingival procedure requires harvesting the graft from a donor site which increases morbidity and the risk of surgical complications. In addition, adequate amount of donor tissue may not be available. Acceptable results of Alloderm application as a substitute for autogenous soft tissue grafts are: Not exposing the patient to an additional surgery, no donor site morbidity, unlimited availability, decreasing the bleeding during the surgery, decreasing the surgical complications, and better color match. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maintenance of the vestibular depth in vestibuloplasty with mucosal graft and Alloderm."nMaterials and Methods: Both methods of anterior mandibular vestibuloplasty by Clark, utilizing Alloderm and mucosal grafts, were employed in ten clinical cases. During the surgeries, half the prepared recipient sites received Alloderm, while the remaining half received autografts in a randomized fashion. Immediately, 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively, the variables of graft rejection, depth of vestibule and the degree of relapse were evaluated. SPSS software was used for analysis of the data and the methods used for "statistical tests" were as follows: Friedman Method, Paired sample t-test, Smirnov-kolmogrove Method. (The statistical significance level was established at P-value<0.05."nResults: The mean difference of the relapse measurements in both methods throughout the survey did not have significant predictive value (P>0.05. Similar results were achieved for the mean difference of depth of the vestibule."nConclusion: In patients undergoing Vestibuloplasty, Alloderm could be material of choice to be utilized as autogenic soft tissue grafts in pre-prosthesis procedures.

  11. Thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides with interlayers of hydroxide and peroxide species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Ta-Lei; Lybeck, Jenni; Chan, Ting-Shan; Hsu, Ying-Ya; Tewari, Girish C.; Rautama, Eeva-Leena; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Among the thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides, [M m A 2 O m+2 ] q CoO 2 , the parent m=0 phases exhibit divergent chemical features but are less understood than the more common m>0 members of the series. Here we synthesize Sr-for-Ca substituted [(Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 ] q CoO 2 zero phases up to x=0.2 through low-temperature hydrothermal conversion of precursor powders of the m=1 misfit system, [Co(Ca 1−x Sr x ) 2 O 3 ] q CoO 2 . In the zero-phase [(Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 ] q CoO 2 system, as the Sr content x increases the lattice expands anisotropically along the c axis such that the ab-plane dimension and the misfit parameter q remain essentially constant. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest the presence of peroxide-type oxygen species in the (Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 rock-salt block and together with infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and low-temperature resistivity and thermopower measurements evidence that the isovalent Sr-for-Ca substitution controls the balance between the peroxide and hydroxide species in the (Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 block but leaves the valence of Co essentially intact in the CoO 2 block. The higher electrical conductivity of the Sr-substituted phases is explained as a consequence of increased carrier mobility. - Graphical abstract: Among the thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides, [M m A 2 O m+2 ] q CoO 2 , the parent zero (m=0) phases exhibit divergent chemical features. For [(Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 ] q CoO 2 , X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest the presence of peroxide-type oxygen species in the (Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 rock-salt block and together with thermogravimetric and low-temperature transport-property measurements evidence that the isovalent Sr-for-Ca substitution controls the balance between the peroxide and hydroxide species in the (Ca 1−x Sr x ) z (O,OH) 2 block but leaves the valence of Co essentially intact in the CoO 2 block. - Highlights: • Parent m=0 [M m A 2 O

  12. Secretory IgA's complex roles in immunity and mucosal homeostasis in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantis, N J; Rol, N; Corthésy, B

    2011-11-01

    Secretory IgA (SIgA) serves as the first line of defense in protecting the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms. Through a process known as immune exclusion, SIgA promotes the clearance of antigens and pathogenic microorganisms from the intestinal lumen by blocking their access to epithelial receptors, entrapping them in mucus, and facilitating their removal by peristaltic and mucociliary activities. In addition, SIgA functions in mucosal immunity and intestinal homeostasis through mechanisms that have only recently been revealed. In just the past several years, SIgA has been identified as having the capacity to directly quench bacterial virulence factors, influence composition of the intestinal microbiota by Fab-dependent and Fab-independent mechanisms, promote retro-transport of antigens across the intestinal epithelium to dendritic cell subsets in gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and, finally, to downregulate proinflammatory responses normally associated with the uptake of highly pathogenic bacteria and potentially allergenic antigens. This review summarizes the intrinsic biological activities now associated with SIgA and their relationships with immunity and intestinal homeostasis.

  13. Evaluation of mast cells, eosinophils, blood capillaries in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D Santhosh; Sivapathasundharam, B; Saraswathi, T R; SriRam, G

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were studied to find out if they could aid in histopathological distinction between oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis. To enumerate mast cells and compare the status of Mast Cells (Intact or Degranulated) in Lichen planus, Lichenoid mucositis and normal buccal mucosa in tissue sections stained with Toluidine Blue, and also to enumerate Eosinophils and blood capillaries in tissue sections stained with H and E. The study group included 30 cases each of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis. 10 cases of clinically normal oral buccal mucosa formed the control group. All the sections were stained with Toluidine blue and H and E separately. Histopathological analysis was done using binocular light microscope equipped with square ocular grid to standardize the field of evaluation. The result of the study showed. · Significant increase in number of mast cells in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis compared to normal buccal mucosa. · Significant increase of intact mast cells suepithelially within the inflammatory cell infiltrate in oral lichen planus compared to oral lichenoid mucositis. · Significant increase of degranulated mast cells in oral lichenoid mucositis to oral lichen planus, and increase in number of eosinophil densities in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. · Significant increase in number of capillaries in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. The findings of increased number of intact mast cells sub epithelially in oral

  14. LIPID PEROXIDATION AND JOB STRESS IN DENTAL HEALTHCARE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Melnikova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study devoted to the lipid peroxidation indices in dentists target group as a marker of psycho-emotional state. We revealed increase in the level of TBA-active products in female and male dentists during job stress. There was strong decrease in level of TBA-active products in control group of dentist that study during the lectures. Activation of lipid peroxidation in dentists during dentist examination can be considered as non-specific component of reactions towards the stressors of professional activities. We also revealed that the initial level of TBA-active products in female and male dentists before the outpatient dental reception was higher than that of dentists that study before lectures. This is indicates the mobilization of sympathetic nervous system before beginning of the working day. The contents of the level of TBA-active products in the oral fluid of female and male dentists after dental examination significantly increased, whereas these indices decreased in the group of dentists that study after the lectures. The increasing of TBA-active products in dentists after outpatient dental reception was by 42.5 % and 77 % higher compared with a group of dentists that study in the lecture classes. The results of correlation analysis suggest the influence of lipid peroxidation processes on the cardiovascular and blood system of dentists during job stress. Activation of lipid peroxidation in dentists during dental examination can be considered as non-specific component of the body's response to stressors influence in professional activities. Key words: dentists, activation of lipid peroxidation, psychoemotional stress, job stress.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide oxidant fuel cell systems for ultra-portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will address the issues of using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant fuel in a miniature DMFC system. Cell performance for DMFC based fuel cells operating on hydrogen peroxide will be presented and discussed.

  16. Immediate effect of benzalkonium chloride in decongestant nasal spray on the human nasal mucosal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, J; Leiacker, R; Wiesmiller, K; Rettinger, G; Keck, T

    2004-08-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a preservative commonly used in nasal decongestant sprays. It has been suggested that benzalkonium chloride may be harmful to the nasal mucosa. Decongestion with the vasoconstrictor xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride has been shown to cause a significant reduction of the nasal mucosal temperature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the short-term influence of xylometazoline nasal spray with and without benzalkonium chloride on the nasal mucosal temperature. Healthy volunteers (30) were included in the study. Fifteen volunteers received xylometazoline nasal spray (1.0 mg/mL) containing benzalkonium chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and 15 age-matched subjects, received xylometazoline nasal spray without benzalkonium chloride. Using a miniaturized thermocouple the septal mucosal temperature was continuously measured at defined intranasal detection sites before and after application of the nasal spray. The mucosal temperature values did not significantly differ between the group receiving xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride and the group receiving xylometazoline spray without benzalkonium chloride before and after decongestion (P > 0.05). In both study groups septal mucosal temperatures significantly decreased after decongestion (P reduction of the nasal mucosal blood flow following vasoconstriction. This study indicates that benzalkonium chloride itself does not seem to influence nasal blood flow and nasal mucosal temperature in topical nasal decongestants.

  17. Clinical assessment of oral mucositis and candidiasis compare to chemotherapic nadir in transplanted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patussi, Cleverson; Sassi, Laurindo Moacir; Munhoz, Eduardo Ciliao; Zanicotti, Roberta Targa Stramandinoli; Schussel, Juliana Lucena

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a chief complication in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is considered a toxic inflammatory reaction that interferes with the patient's recuperation and quality of life. Oral candidiasis is a common fungal infection observed in dental practice, particularly in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis in patients who underwent HSCT and their correlation with the chemotherapeutic nadir (lowest possible outcome). We evaluated patients with different diagnoses who underwent HSCT at the Hospital Erasto Gaertner. No chemotherapeutic nadir curves could be associated with mucositis, and patients had different presentations of mucositis. No patient developed oral candidiasis during hospitalization. Together with cell counts, we collected demographic data including age, oral hygiene, habits harmful to health, and the use of oral prostheses. It was observed that patients who smoked cigarettes before hospitalization showed less mucositis, resulting in no feeding problems or other comorbid conditions due to the effect of mucositis. However, the nadir of the chemotherapy curve, in isolation, is not a predictive tool for the appearance (or no appearance) of oral mucositis.

  18. Modulation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by pentoxifylline: Preclinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Sylvia; Bozsaky, Eva; Schmidt, Margret; Doerr, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a frequent early side effect of radio(chemo)therapy of head-and-neck malignancies. The epithelial radiation response is accompanied by inflammatory reactions; their interaction with epithelial processes remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on the oral mucosal radiation response in the mouse tongue model. Irradiation comprised fractionation (5 fractions of 3 Gy/week) over 1 (days 0-4) or 2 weeks (days 0-4, 7-11), followed by graded local top-up doses (day 7/14), in order to generate complete dose-effect curves. PTX (15 mg/kg subcutaneously) was applied once daily over varying time intervals. Ulceration of mouse tongue epithelium, corresponding to confluent mucositis, was analyzed as the clinically relevant endpoint. With fractionated irradiation over 1 week, PTX administration significantly reduced the incidence of mucosal reactions when initiated before (day - 5) the onset of fractionation; a trend was observed for start of PTX treatment on day 0. Similarly, PTX treatment combined with 2 weeks of fractionation had a significant effect on ulcer incidence in all but one experiment. This clearly illustrates the potential of PTX to ameliorate oral mucositis during daily fractionated irradiation. PTX resulted in a significant reduction of oral mucositis during fractionated irradiation, which may be attributed to stimulation of mucosal repopulation processes. The biological basis of this effect, however, needs to be clarified in further, detailed mechanistic studies. (orig.) [de

  19. Cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among recipients of bone marrow transplantation: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Abdel-Qader Mahmoud

    2014-08-01

    Oral mucositis is a distressing toxic effect of cancer therapy and one of the major side effects of the myeloablative conditioning used to prepare patients for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Oral cryotherapy is one of the recent modalities used to prevent and manage oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to clarify the cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among patients receiving myeloablative conditioning followed by BMT. A literature search was performed using six different electronic databases: CINAHL®, MEDLINE®, Nursing Ovid, PubMed, Springer, and Science Direct. Six articles were deemed relevant and included in this review. Oral mucositis increases mortality rate, length of hospital stay, opioid use, and the need for parenteral nutrition usage. It also decreases patient's quality of life and his or her desire to complete treatment. However, oral cryotherapy significantly minimizes the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and decreases secondary oral mucositis complications. Using oral cryotherapy concurrently with a regular oral care protocol can improve its efficacy for preventing and managing oral mucositis. Additional studies should be conducted to create standard oral cryotherapy protocols.

  20. Hydrogen peroxide in the marine boundary layer over the South Atlantic during the OOMPH cruise in March 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H.; Pozzer, A.; Schmitt, T.; Jöckel, P.; Klippel, T.; Taraborrelli, D.; Lelieveld, J.

    2015-06-01

    In the OOMPH (Ocean Organics Modifying Particles in both Hemispheres) project a ship measurement cruise took place in the late austral summer from 01 to 23 March 2007. The French research vessel Marion Dufresne sailed from Punta Arenas, Chile (70.85° W, 53.12° S), to Réunion island (55.36° E, 21.06° S) across the South Atlantic Ocean. In situ measurements of hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and ozone were performed and are compared to simulations with the atmospheric chemistry global circulation model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry). The model generally reproduces the measured trace gas levels, but it underestimates hydrogen peroxide mixing ratios at high wind speeds, indicating too-strong dry deposition to the ocean surface. An interesting feature during the cruise is a strong increase of hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and ozone shortly after midnight off the west coast of Africa due to an increase in the boundary layer height, leading to downward transport from the free troposphere, which is qualitatively reproduced by the model.

  1. Abnormalities of magnesium homeostasis in patients with chemotherapy-induced alimentary tract mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Baršić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hypomagnesemia contributes to morbidity in a significant proportion of hospitalized and severely ill patients, but it could also have beneficial anticancer effects. Alimentary tract mucositis is a frequent complication of cytotoxic chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and severity of hypomagnesemia in patients with different grades of chemotherapy-induced alimentary tract mucositis and to assess its clinical manifestations. Methods: Multicentric observational study included 226 adult patients with alimentary mucositis treated at 3 different institutions. Patients were evaluated for severity of mucositis and the presence of hypomagnesemia, symptoms associated with hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, ECG changes and granulocytopenia. Subgroup analysis related to mucositis severity and presence of hypomagnesemia was performed. Results: Patients with grade 3 or 4 alimentary mucositis expectedly had more frequent and more severe granulocytopenia than patients with milder mucositis (49.6% vs. 35.4%, P = 0.043, but there were no differences in rate of hypomagnesemia (24.8% vs. 26.5%. When compared to patients with normal magnesium levels, patients with hypomagnesemia had higher rates of hypocalcemia (50.0% vs. 32.7%, P = 0.026, QTc prolongation (15.5% vs. 3.0%, P = 0.002 and granulocytopenia (77.6% vs. 39.9%, P < 0.001, while there was no difference in symptoms or other ECG features among these subgroups. Conclusions: Hypomagnesaemia is not associated with the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. However, hypomagnesaemia was associated with higher rates of granulocytopenia and hypocalcemia. Our study failed to identify the link between hypomagnesaemia and chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  2. ٍEvaluating Baremoom Mouthwash Efficacy in Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Akhavan Karbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is regarded as a painful and discomforting chemotherapy complication , affecting patient’s quality of life and endurance to continue the treatment. Hence, treatment of mucositis is of great significance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Baremoom mouthwash in treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis . Methods: This interventional double-blinded randomized clinical trial study was performed on 40 adult patients under chemotherapy in blood and oncology department of Shahid Sadouqhi hospital. The total of 40 patients were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental baremoom group and a control placebo group each containing 20 subjects. Baremoom mouthwash (30% extract, Soren Tektoos, Mashhad and placebo mouthwash ( Sterile water with allowable additives ,Soren Tektoos, Mashhad with same apparent properties were given to the patients (3 times a day for 7 days after mucositis detection. The patients were evaluated in regard with mucositis grade (0-4 WHO and wounds extension on 1th , 3th and 7th days after the study begining. In order to statistically analyze the collected data, Freidman, Mann–Whitney, and wilcoxon W tests were applied utilizing SPSS software (ver, 17. Results: On 3rd  and 7th  days, mean degree of wound extension and mucositis were demonstrated to be significantly different between the two groups. According to Friedman test, both experimental and control groups revealed a significant difference in regard with wound extension and mucositis grade within the three time periods. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that Baremoom mouthwash was more effective in chemotherapy- induced mucositis than placebo. Hence, this agent can be recommended as an appropriate medicine in order to eliminate mucositis symtoms and decrease oral ulcers.

  3. Protective mechanisms against peptide and protein peroxides generated by singlet oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Philip E; Dean, Roger T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    or detoxify such peroxides. It is shown that catalase, horseradish peroxidase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase do not react rapidly with these peroxides. Oxymyoglobin and oxyhemoglobin, but not the met (Fe3+) forms of these proteins, react with peptide but not protein, peroxides with oxidation of the heme iron...

  4. Colonization and effector functions of innate lymphoid cells in mucosal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myunghoo; Kim, Chang H

    2016-10-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) protect mucosal barrier tissues to fight infection and maintain tissue integrity. ILCs and their progenitors are developmentally programmed to migrate, differentiate and populate various mucosal tissues and associated lymphoid tissues. Functionally mature ILC subsets respond to diverse pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in subset-specific manners. In this review, we will discuss how ILCs populate mucosal tissues and regulate immune responses to distinct pathogens to protect the host and maintain tissue integrity. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin B instructs non-mucosal dendritic cells to promote IgA production via retinoic acid and TGF-β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk K Gloudemans

    Full Text Available It is currently unknown how mucosal adjuvants cause induction of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA, and how T cell-dependent (TD or -independent (TI pathways might be involved. Mucosal dendritic cells (DCs are the primary antigen presenting cells driving TI IgA synthesis, by producing a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL, B cell activating factor (BAFF, Retinoic Acid (RA, TGF-β or nitric oxide (NO. We hypothesized that the mucosal adjuvant Cholera Toxin subunit B (CTB could imprint non-mucosal DCs to induce IgA synthesis, and studied the mechanism of its induction. In vitro, CTB-treated bone marrow derived DCs primed for IgA production by B cells without the help of T cells, yet required co-signaling by different Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands acting via the MyD88 pathway. CTB-DC induced IgA production was blocked in vitro or in vivo when RA receptor antagonist, TGF-β signaling inhibitor or neutralizing anti-TGF-β was added, demonstrating the involvement of RA and TGF-β in promoting IgA responses. There was no major involvement for BAFF, APRIL or NO. This study highlights that synergism between CTB and MyD88-dependent TLR signals selectively imprints a TI IgA-inducing capacity in non-mucosal DCs, explaining how CTB acts as an IgA promoting adjuvant.

  6. The mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin B instructs non-mucosal dendritic cells to promote IgA production via retinoic acid and TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloudemans, Anouk K; Plantinga, Maud; Guilliams, Martin; Willart, Monique A; Ozir-Fazalalikhan, Arifa; van der Ham, Alwin; Boon, Louis; Harris, Nicola L; Hammad, Hamida; Hoogsteden, Henk C; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Hendriks, Rudi W; Lambrecht, Bart N; Smits, Hermelijn H

    2013-01-01

    It is currently unknown how mucosal adjuvants cause induction of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), and how T cell-dependent (TD) or -independent (TI) pathways might be involved. Mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) are the primary antigen presenting cells driving TI IgA synthesis, by producing a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), B cell activating factor (BAFF), Retinoic Acid (RA), TGF-β or nitric oxide (NO). We hypothesized that the mucosal adjuvant Cholera Toxin subunit B (CTB) could imprint non-mucosal DCs to induce IgA synthesis, and studied the mechanism of its induction. In vitro, CTB-treated bone marrow derived DCs primed for IgA production by B cells without the help of T cells, yet required co-signaling by different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands acting via the MyD88 pathway. CTB-DC induced IgA production was blocked in vitro or in vivo when RA receptor antagonist, TGF-β signaling inhibitor or neutralizing anti-TGF-β was added, demonstrating the involvement of RA and TGF-β in promoting IgA responses. There was no major involvement for BAFF, APRIL or NO. This study highlights that synergism between CTB and MyD88-dependent TLR signals selectively imprints a TI IgA-inducing capacity in non-mucosal DCs, explaining how CTB acts as an IgA promoting adjuvant.

  7. A comparative study on two explosive acetone peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorshev, V. Yu.; Sinditskii, V.P., E-mail: vps@rctu.ru; Smirnov, S.P.

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • The most accurate heats of DADP and TATP sublimation were evaluated from experimental vapor pressures in a widened temperature range. • DADP is more volatile while more thermally stable peroxide than TATP. • DADP reveals lesser sensitivity to drop-weight impact, flame temperature, burning rate, and initiating efficiency as compared with TATP. - Abstract: Two explosive cyclic acetone peroxides, diacetone diperoxide (DADP) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) have been studied in respect of thermal decomposition, burning behavior, impact sensitivity, and initiating efficiency. Using the glass Bourdon gauge technique, the vapor pressures of TATP and DADP were determined over the temperature range 75–144 °C and 67–120 °C, respectively. The kinetic parameters of decomposition of the peroxides in the gas phase have been obtained in the temperature interval of 140–200 °C. The decomposition of both DADP and TATP followed the first-order reaction to high degrees of decay with close activation energies of 159.2 kJ/mol (38.0 kcal/mol) and 165.8 kJ/mol (39.6 kcal/mol), respectively. The decomposition rate constants of DADP were found to be approximately 2 times less than those of TATP. The linear burning rate of DADP measured in a constant-pressure window bomb appeared to be approximately 5 times less than that of TATP. Temperature profiles in the combustion wave were measured at subatmospheric pressures with the help of thin tungsten-rhenium thermocouples. The leading reaction on combustion of both volatile peroxides was assumed to occur in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the leading reaction derived from the combustion data showed a good agreement with kinetic parameters of low-temperature thermal decomposition extrapolated to the high-temperature flame zone. In the drop-weight impact test, DADP appeared to be notably less sensitive peroxide than TATP. No deflagration-to-detonation transition was observed when RDX was attempted to explode by

  8. Regulation of intestinal mucosal growth by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

    2014-03-01

    Amino acids, especially glutamine (GLN) have been known for many years to stimulate the growth of small intestinal mucosa. Polyamines are also required for optimal mucosal growth, and the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, blocks growth. Certain amino acids, primarily asparagine (ASN) and GLN stimulate ODC activity in a solution of physiological salts. More importantly, their presence is also required before growth factors and hormones such as epidermal growth factor and insulin are able to increase ODC activity. ODC activity is inhibited by antizyme-1 (AZ) whose synthesis is stimulated by polyamines, thus, providing a negative feedback regulation of the enzyme. In the absence of amino acids mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is inhibited, whereas, mTORC2 is stimulated leading to the inhibition of global protein synthesis but increasing the synthesis of AZ via a cap-independent mechanism. These data, therefore, explain why ASN or GLN is essential for the activation of ODC. Interestingly, in a number of papers, AZ has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation, stimulate apoptosis, or increase autophagy. Each of these activities results in decreased cellular growth. AZ binds to and accelerates the degradation of ODC and other proteins shown to regulate proliferation and cell death, such as Aurora-A, Cyclin D1, and Smad1. The correlation between the stimulation of ODC activity and the absence of AZ as influenced by amino acids is high. Not only do amino acids such as ASN and GLN stimulate ODC while inhibiting AZ synthesis, but also amino acids such as lysine, valine, and ornithine, which inhibit ODC activity, increase the synthesis of AZ. The question remaining to be answered is whether AZ inhibits growth directly or whether it acts by decreasing the availability of polyamines to the dividing cells. In either case, evidence strongly suggests that the regulation of AZ synthesis is the

  9. Differential sensitivity of cellular membranes to peroxidative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijbers, W.A.R.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a morphological and cytochemical investigation into the effects of both vitamin E deficiency and X-irradiation on the ultrastructure and enzyme activities of several cellular membranes, particularly the plasma membrane and the membranes of lysosomes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. In the vitamin E deficient situation, the radicals and peroxides only originate near mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, so that these membrane systems suffer from changes. After irradiation of the liver of both the control duckling and the deficient duckling, radicals originate in all parts of the cell. Due to their high content of lipids and cholesterols, peroxides will occur mainly in plasma membranes and lysosomal membranes. Moreover, in these membranes there is hardly any protection by vitamin E

  10. Ultraviolet- and sunlight-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, T.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation and sunlight caused lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane (as detected by measurement of the oxidation index, A 233 /A 215 , and the amount of malondialdehyde formed) and made the membrane leaky (as revealed by the release of the trapped chromate anions). The oxidation index and the formation of malondialdehyde increased linearly with increasing dose of radiation and depended significantly on the dose rate. The effects were smaller in liposomes derived from Vibrio cholerae phospholipid than in those derived from egg lecithin. The effects of the radiation dose and dose rate on hemolysis and peroxidation (MDA formation) of the erythrocyte membrane followed a similar pattern. A direct correlation between the percentage leakage of chromate (Y) and the oxidation index (X) of the liposomal system was obtained as Y = 236.5 x X

  11. Assay to detect lipid peroxidation upon exposure to nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Timothy M; Neun, Barry W; Stern, Stephan T

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for the analysis of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HEP G2) for lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), following treatment with nanoparticle formulations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a likely mechanism of nanoparticle toxicity, and cell-based in vitro systems for evaluation of nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress are widely considered to be an important component of biocompatibility screens. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides, and aldehydes, such as MDA, can be measured via a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In this assay, which can be performed in cell culture or in cell lysate, MDA combines with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form a fluorescent adduct that can be detected at an excitation wavelength of 530 nm and an emission wavelength of 550 nm. The results are then expressed as MDA equivalents, normalized to total cellular protein (determined by Bradford assay).

  12. Hydrogen Peroxide: A Key Chemical for Today's Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Albanese, Lorenzo; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Pagliaro, Mario

    2016-12-20

    The global utilization of hydrogen peroxide, a green oxidant that decomposes in water and oxygen, has gone from 0.5 million tonnes per year three decades ago to 4.5 million tonnes per year in 2014, and is still climbing. With the aim of expanding the utilization of this eminent green chemical across different industrial and civil sectors, the production and use of hydrogen peroxide as a green industrial oxidant is reviewed herein to provide an overview of the explosive growth of its industrial use over the last three decades and of the state of the art in its industrial manufacture, with important details of what determines the viability of the direct production from oxygen and hydrogen compared with the traditional auto-oxidation process. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Study on the agglomeration kinetics of uranium peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, M.; Mojica Rodriguez, L.A. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Process Department, 17171, Bagnols-sur-Ceze 30207 (France); Muhr, H.; Plasari, E. [Reaction and Process Engineering Laboratory, CNRS, University of Lorraine. 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, Nancy 54001 (France); Auger, F. [Areva Mines/SEPA. 2 route de Lavaugrasse, Bessines-sur-Gartempe 87250 (France)

    2016-07-01

    Considering the previous study dealing with thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena (nucleation and crystal growth) during the uranium peroxide precipitation, this work focuses on the agglomeration mechanism. It provides the results obtained from the experiments carried out in a mixed suspension - mixed product removal (MSMPR) mixer operating at steady state. The influence of the operating parameters on the uranium peroxide agglomerates was studied in order to identify the agglomeration kernel. The method is based on the resolution of the population balance equation using the method of moments and the experimental particle size distributions. The results lead to a size-independent kernel directly proportional to the crystal growth rate. Under the stirring conditions studied, the agglomeration appears to be significantly reduced by mixing which results in a kernel inversely proportional to the average shear rate. The agglomeration kinetic law obtained in this study will be used for the process modelling in a further study. (authors)

  14. Carbon catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen peroxide production in acidic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čolić, Viktor; Yang, Sungeun; Révay, Zsolt

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a commodity chemical, as it is an environmentally friendly oxidant. The electrochemical production of H2O2 from oxygen and water by the reduction of oxygen is of great interest, as it would allow the decentralized, on-site, production of pure H2O2. The ability to run...... the reaction in an acidic electrolyte with high performance is particularly important, as it would allow the use of polymer solid electrolytes and the production of pH-neutral hydrogen peroxide. Carbon catalysts, which are cheap, abundant, durable and can be highly selective show promise as potential catalysts...... for such systems. In this work, we examine the electrocatalytic performance and properties of seven commercially available carbon materials for H2O2 production by oxygen electroreduction. We show that the faradaic efficiencies for the reaction lie in a wide range of 18-82% for different carbon catalysts. In order...

  15. Study on the agglomeration kinetics of uranium peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, M.; Mojica Rodriguez, L.A.; Muhr, H.; Plasari, E.; Auger, F.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the previous study dealing with thermodynamic and kinetic phenomena (nucleation and crystal growth) during the uranium peroxide precipitation, this work focuses on the agglomeration mechanism. It provides the results obtained from the experiments carried out in a mixed suspension - mixed product removal (MSMPR) mixer operating at steady state. The influence of the operating parameters on the uranium peroxide agglomerates was studied in order to identify the agglomeration kernel. The method is based on the resolution of the population balance equation using the method of moments and the experimental particle size distributions. The results lead to a size-independent kernel directly proportional to the crystal growth rate. Under the stirring conditions studied, the agglomeration appears to be significantly reduced by mixing which results in a kernel inversely proportional to the average shear rate. The agglomeration kinetic law obtained in this study will be used for the process modelling in a further study. (authors)

  16. Lycopene control of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Dragan; Marković, Dejan

    2012-05-01

    Lycopene antioxidant activity in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous regime of UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C) has been evaluated in this work. Lycopene expected role was to control lipid peroxidation, by scavenging free radicals generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone. This work shows that lycopene undergoes to UV-induced destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on the incident photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The further increase ("excess") of its bleaching is undoubtedly related to the further increase of its antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, having the same cause: increase of (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  17. Preparation of water soluble chitosan by hydrolysis using hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenqiang; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Jinhua

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan is not soluble in water, which limits its wide application particularly in the medicine and food industry. In the present study, water soluble chitosan (WSC) was prepared by hydrolyzing chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid in homogeneous phase. Factors affecting hydrolysis were investigated and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined. The WSC structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting products were composed of chitooligosaccharides of DP 2-9. The WSC content of the product and the yield were 94.7% and 92.3% (w/w), respectively. The results indicate that WSC can be effectively prepared by hydrolysis of chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on mechanism of decreased lipid peroxide by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Okazoe, Yoko; Akimaru, Kunihiro; Sato, E.F.; Utsumi, Kozo.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the effect of SOD on lipid peroxidation in biomembrane from V.E-deficient rats, in order to study the mechanism of increased SOD activities and decreased lipid peroxide by low dose irradiation. The following results were obtained. i. Active oxygen (O 2 - ) strongly enhances lipid peroxidations in biomembrane with the Fe 3+ as catalyst. ii. SOD evidently inhibits lipid peroxidations under above conditions. iii. We suggested that the effect of SOD enhanced by low dose irradiation results in inhibition of lipid peroxidation. (author)

  19. Glycerophosphate-dependent hydrogen peroxide production by rat liver mitochondria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ješina, Pavel; Kholová, D.; Bolehovská, R.; Červinková, Z.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Houštěk, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2004), s. 305-310 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/03/0799; GA MŠk OC 918.50 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenace * triiodothyronine * hydrogen peroxide Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  20. Hydrogen peroxide removal with magnetically responsive Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Maděrová, Zdeňka; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, - (2008), s. 7925-7928 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk OC 157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetic alginate beads * catalase * magnetic separation * Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells * hydrogen peroxide Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2008

  1. Role of lipid peroxidation in pathogenesis of senile cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisić Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background /Aim. Cataract is a structural, biochemical and optical change in the eye lens, which changes transmission and refraction of light rays reducing keenness and clarity of a figure on the retina. Its occurrence is highest in older people, over the age of 65 (45.9%, thus a certain degree of opacification exists practically in all people over the 70. Our research was directed to measuring of lipid peroxidation products in cataract lenses involved in early stages of cataractogenesis through oxidative stress and in the development of mature cataract. Methods. Clinical and biochemical research was carried out in 101 patients with cataract, 46 women and 55 men. The average age of the group was 72.47 (ґ = 7.98. According to the cataract maturity degree the patients were classified into two groups as follows: cataracta senilis incipiens (n = 41 and cataracta senilis matura (n = 60. Measuring of diene conjugates was carried out by spectrophotometer. Fluorescent lipid peroxidation products were measured by a spectrofluorophotometer, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration was measured by colorimeter as a product of a reaction with thiobarbituric acid (TBA. Result. Significantly higher diene conjugated concentration in lenses was measured in the patients with the diagnosis cataracta senilis incipiens (p < 0.001 as well as the intensity of fluorescent iminopropens (p < 0.001. Significantly higher MDA concentration in lens (p < 0.001 was measured in the patients with cataracta senilis matura. Conclusion. The lens structure changes caused by lipid peroxidation can, with other risk factors present, influence the occurrence and development of mature cataract. Some cataract types show different lipid peroxidation intensity with the most distinct changes in cataract which started as corticonuclear.

  2. The kinetic study of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrel, L [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPNS, CEN Cadarache, Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chopin, J [Laboratoire d` Electrochimie Inorganique, ENSSPICAM, Marseille (France)

    1996-12-01

    Iodine chemistry is one of the most important subjects of research in the field of reactor safety because this element can form volatile species which represent a biological hazard for environment. As the iodine and the peroxide are both present in the sump of the containment in the event of a severe accident on a light water nuclear reactor, it can be important to improve the knowledge on the reaction of oxidation of iodine by hydrogen peroxide. The kinetics of iodine by hydrogen peroxide has been studied in acid solution using two different analytical methods. The first is a UV/Vis spectrophotometer which records the transmitted intensity at 460 nm as a function of time to follow the decrease of iodine concentration, the second is an amperometric method which permits to record the increase of iodine+1 with time thanks to the current of reduction of iodine+1 to molecular iodine. The iodine was generated by Dushman reaction and the series of investigations were made at 40{sup o}C in a continuous stirring tank reactor. The influence of the initial concentrations of iodine, iodate, hydrogen peroxide, H{sup +} ions has been determined. The kinetics curves comprise two distinct chemical phases both for molecular iodine and for iodine+1. The relative importance of the two processes is connected to the initial concentrations of [I{sub 2}], [IO{sub 3}{sup -}], [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] and [H{sup +}]. A rate law has been determined for the two steps for molecular iodine. (author) figs., tabs., 22 refs.

  3. Determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Bodiroga Milanka; Ognjanović Jasminka

    2002-01-01

    Iodometric and permanganometric titrations were used for determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the mixture. Two procedures were described and compared. Titrations could be done in only one vessel, in the same reaction mixture, when iodometric titration of peracetic acid was continued after the permanganometric titration of H2O2, (procedure A). Peracetic acid and H2O2, as oxidizing agents, reacted with potassium iodide in an acid medium, evolving iodine. This reaction...

  4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The basic chemistry and photochemistry behind hydrogen peroxide tooth whitening

    OpenAIRE

    Young, N.D.; Fairley, P.D.; Mohan, V.; Jumeaux, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide gel formulation is a complexprocess which involves both chemistry and physics, and there is still some controversy about the efficiency of whitening processes, particularly with respect to the roles of temperature and irradiation with light. In this work we avoid the complications of the physics bystudying the basic interactions between whitening agents and stainmolecules in simple solutions. We demonstrate that blue light irradiation has a clear and la...

  6. Oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by [Ni (cyclam)] in aqueous acidic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by tris(2,2 -bipyridine) and tris(4,4 -dimethyl-2,2 - bipyridine) complexes of osmium(III), iron(III), ruthenium(III), and nickel(III) studied in acidic and neutral aqueous media, show an inverse acid depen- dence over the pH the range 6.0–8.5.12 Kinetic mea- surements with an excess of H2O2 ...

  7. Effect of exercise on lipid peroxidation in student soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Puspaningtyas, Desty Ervira; Afriani, Yuni; Mahfida, Silvi Lailatul; Kushartanti, Wara; Farmawati, Arta

    2018-01-01

    Training is conducted to improve physiological functions that can support improvementof cardio-respiratory function (O2max). However, intensive training can lead to oxidativestress, which can contribute to health problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluatethe effect of training on serum lipid peroxidation levels in student soccer players. Thestudy was pre-experimental study with a one-shot case design conducted in April 2014.Twelve student soccer players from UGM who chosen by purposi...

  8. Continuous precipitation of uranium peroxide in process pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinelato, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study on uranium peroxide precipitation has been carried out with the objective to evaluate the influence of the main process parameters with a technological approach. The uraniferous solution used was obtained from the hydrometallurgical processing of an ore from Itataia - CE. Studies were developed in two distinct experimental stages. In the first stage, the precipitation was investigated by means of laboratory batch tests and, in the second stage, by means of continuous operation in a process pilot plant. (author)

  9. Acute mucosal radiation reactions in patients with head and neck cancer. Patterns of mucosal healing on the basis of daily examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wygoda, A.; Skladowski, K.; Rutkowski, T.; Hutnik, M.; Golen, M.; Pilecki, B.; Przeorek, W.; Lukaszczyk-Widel, B. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland). 1st Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to evaluate the healing processes of acute mucosal radiation reactions (AMRR) in patients with head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: In 46 patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients irradiated with conventional (n = 25) and accelerated (n = 21) dose fractionation AMRR was evaluated daily during and after radiotherapy. Complex of morphological and functional symptoms according to the Dische score were collected daily until complete healing. Results: Duration of healing after the end of radiotherapy ranged widely (12-70 days). It was on the average 8 days longer for accelerated than for conventional radiotherapy (p = 0.016). Duration of dysphagia was also longer for accelerated irradiation (11 days, p = 0.027). Three types of morphological symptoms were observed as the last symptom at the end of AMRR healing: spotted and confluent mucositis, erythema, and edema. Only a slight correlation between healing duration and area of irradiation fields (r = 0.23) was noted. In patients with confluent mucositis, two morphological forms of mucosal healing were observed, i.e., marginal and spotted. The spotted form was noted in 71% of patients undergoing conventional radiotherapy and in 38% of patients undergoing accelerated radiotherapy. The symptoms of mucosal healing were observed in 40% patients during radiotherapy. Conclusion: The wide range of AMRR healing reflects individual potential of mucosa recovery with longer duration for accelerated radiotherapy. Two morphological forms of confluent mucositis healing were present: marginal and spotted. Healing of AMRR during radiotherapy can be observed in a significant proportion of patients. (orig.)

  10. Effect of minimal enteral feeding on recovery in a methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Nicoline S. S.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Havinga, Rick; Groen, Albert K.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    Patients suffering from gastrointestinal mucositis often receive parenteral nutrition as nutritional support. However, the absence of enteral nutrition might not be beneficial for the intestine. We aimed to determine the feasibility of minimal enteral feeding (MEF) administration in a methotrexate

  11. Substitution urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures: buccal versus lingual mucosal graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Das, Suren K; Trivedi, Sameer; Dwivedi, Udai S; Singh, Pratap B

    2010-01-01

    To compare the results of substitution urethroplasty and donor site morbidity between buccal mucosal graft (BMG) and lingual mucosal graft (LMG). Patients who underwent single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft substitution urethroplasty by Barbagli's technique between January 2004 and August 2008 were included in this study. Patients who underwent buccal (cheek, lip) mucosal graft urethroplasty were included in group I and those who underwent LMG urethroplasty (tongue) were included in group II. All patients underwent complete evaluation of the stricture including inspection of the oral cavity. Exclusion criteria were stricture length speech complications was seen in group II, but not in group I. The long-term complications of persistent oral discomfort, perioral numbness and tightness of the mouth were seen only in group I. LMG urethroplasty is a good substitute for BMG urethroplasty with equally good results of urethroplasty with lower donor site morbidity. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Immunosuppressive Tryptophan Catabolism and Gut Mucosal Dysfunction Following Early HIV Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; El-Far, Mohamed; Vyboh, Kishanda; Kema, Ido; Costiniuk, Cecilia T.; Thomas, Rejean; Baril, Jean-Guy; LeBlanc, Roger; Kanagaratham, Cynthia; Radzioch, Danuta; Allam, Ossama; Ahmad, Ali; Lebouche, Bertrand; Tremblay, Cecile; Ancuta, Petronela; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tryptophan (Trp) catabolism into kynurenine (Kyn) contributes to immune dysfunction in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To better define the relationship between Trp catabolism, inflammation, gut mucosal dysfunction, and the role of early antiretroviral therapy

  13. Crestal Sinus Augmentation in the Presence of Severe Sinus Mucosal Thickening: A Report of 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiqin; An, Xueyin; Jeong, Seung-Mi; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2018-06-01

    In the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening, the ostium can be blocked when the sinus membrane is lifted, causing drainage disturbances and sinusitis. Here, we present 3 cases in which maxillary sinus floor elevation was performed using a crestal approach in the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening (>10 mm). The effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation using the crestal approach technique on sinus mucosal thickening and bone formation in the sinus were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography. None of the patients exhibited an increase in sinus membrane thickness. No complications were encountered during the follow-up periods, and bone formation was observed around the implants at the sinus floor. All implants were functioning successfully. Maxillary sinus floor elevation using the crestal approach technique in the presence of severe sinus mucosal thickening allows for minimally invasive sinus grafting and simultaneous implant placement and does not increase sinus membrane thickness.

  14. [Rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome: study of cases. Hospital Daniel A Carrion, Lima, Peru, 2010-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo Suarez, Fernando; Cárdenas Vela, Irene; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Kriss; Pérez Narrea, María Teresa; Rodríguez Vargas, Omar; Montes Teves, Pedro; Monge Salgado, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    to describe the clinical, endoscopic, and histological characteristics of rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome, formerly known as Solitary rectal ulcer, in patients from a general hospital. All patient diagnosed as rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome during 2010-2013 was selected; the medical history war reviewed and the histological slides were reevaluated by two pathologists. 17 cases of rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome were selected, the majority were males under 50 years, the most common clinical findings were rectal bleeding (82%) and constipation (65%), the endocopic findings were heterogeneous,: erythema (41%), ulcers (35%) and elevated lesions (29%). All cases presented fibromuscularhyperplasia in lamina propia and crypt distortion in the microscopic evaluation. In our study of rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome. The most common clinical findings were rectal bleeding and constipation. Erythematous mucosa was the most common endoscopic finding.

  15. Esophageal acid sensitivity and mucosal integrity in patients with functional heartburn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, P. W.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with functional heartburn (FH) experience troublesome heartburn that is not related to gastroesophageal reflux. The etiology of the heartburn sensation in FH patients is unknown. In patients with reflux disease, esophageal hypersensitivity seems associated with impaired mucosal integrity.

  16. Differentiation of mucosal disease from partial development of the paranasal sinuses in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerinckx, A.J.; Whyte, A.M.; Lufkin, R.B.; Hall, T.R.; Kangarloo, H.

    1988-01-01

    On magnetic resonance (MR) images of pediatric patients, sinus mucosal disease may have an appearance similar to that of the normal partially developed sinus, leading to an increase in the number of patients labeled as having incidental sinusitis. The paranasal sinuses were retrospectively evaluated in 27 infants and children aged 0-11 years undergoing brain MR imaging for indications both unrelated and related to sinus disease. The authors developed criteria for grading paranasal sinus development and mucosal disease. Incidental mucosal disease is not uncommon, occurring in 28% of patients aged 0-7 years. In children under 3 years of age, inflammatory mucosal thickening and marrow surrounding the partially developed sinus have a high signal on many MR sequences and may be confused. Recognition of the low-intensity peripheral cortical margin of the sinus and awareness of the stages of normal sinus development allow differentiation

  17. Membrane lipid peroxidation by UV-A: Mechanism and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, B.; Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    UV-A produced a dose-dependent linear increase of lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane, as detected by the assay of (i) conjugated dienes, (ii) lipid hydroperoxides, (iii) malondialdehydes (MDA), and (iv) the fluorescent adducts formed by the reaction of MDA with glycine and also a linear dose-dependent increase of [ 14 C]glucose efflux from the liposomes. UV-A-induced MDA production could not be inhibited by any significant degree by sodium formate, dimethyl sulfoxide, EDTA, or superoxide dismutase but was very significantly inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene, alpha-tocopherol, sodium azide, L-histidine, dimethylfuran, and beta-carotene. MDA formation increased with an increase in the D 2 O content in water, leading to a maximal amount of nearly 50% enhancement of lipid peroxidation in 100% D 2 O vis-a-vis water used as dispersion medium. The experimental findings indicate the involvement of singlet oxygen as the initiator of the UV-A-induced lipid peroxidation

  18. MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S. Rabelo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

  19. Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Orla

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the presence of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia. METHODS: Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, we assessed levels of DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) in 71 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 17 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and matched normal thyroid tissue. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG and 4-HNE expression was significantly higher in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal tissue (all p values < .001). Similarly, elevated nuclear levels of 8-oxo-dG were seen in all in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal (p values < .07, < .001, < .001, respectively). In contrast, a higher level of 4-HNE expression was detected in normal thyroid tissue compared with matched tumor tissue (p < .001 for all groups). Comparing all 3 groups, 4-HNE levels were higher than 8-oxo-dG levels (p < .001 for all groups) except that cytoplasmic levels of 8-oxo-dG were higher than 4-HNE in all (p < .001). These results were independent of proliferation status. CONCLUSION: High levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia indicates this damage is an early event that may influence disease progression.

  20. Effect of irradiation of lipid peroxidation in serum, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisa, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    With blood obtained from patients irradiated for cervical uterine cancer (consisting of 4 cases of Stage I, 5 cases of Stage II and 4 cases of Stage III), changes of blood picture, serum lipid weight and serum lipid peroxide accompanying irradiation were studied on 3 occasions, before, during and after the irradiation. The following results were obtained. Serum lipid and serum lipid peroxide were found to increase along with the advance of uterine cancer from Stage I to II and III. At the termination of irradiation the serum lipid and serum lipid peroxide in the cases of cervical uterine cancer at Stage III were found to have recovered to close to the levels before irradiation, but in the other cases these values tended to increase with irradiation. Except the termination of irradiation treatment of cervical uterine cancer of Stage III, the decrease of leucocyte count has a mutual relationship with the increase of serum thiobarbituric acid (TBA), so that change in the serum TBA level can be assumed to be a criterion for irradiation injury. (auth.)

  1. Effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheeshkumar P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral care in cancer patients is an important aspect in the quality of life of patients undergoing cancer therpay. Mucositis, trismus, salivary gland dysfunction are the main complications of the cancer therapy, which lead to long-term comlications such as radiation caries, poor oral hygiene and osteoradionecrosis. A timely oral evaluation and intervention in these patients can reduce the severity of the potential complications. Triclosan is an antibacterial agent widely used in periodontal therapy, the effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation induced oral mucositis is evaluated here. Aims: 1 To determine the effectiveness of triclosan in the management of radiation-induced oral mucositis. 2 To compare the effectiveness of triclosan mouth rinse with conventional sodium bicarbonate mouth rinse. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients who underwent radiation therapy for oral cancer and subsequently developed oral mucositis were included in the study. They were randomly allocated into two groups on noticing grade I mucositis (erythema. The study group was advised to use triclosan mouthwash containing triclosan 0.03% W/V and sodium bicarbonate 2 mg mouth wash for the control group. A weekly follow-up evaluation of body weight, food intake, pain and grading of mucositis were made during the radiation treatment period and post radiation treatment period. Results: Both the groups were statistically identical. All the 24 patients in both the groups passed through grade 3 mucositis on the last day of radiotherapy. However, 10 patients in the control group and only one patient in the study group entered to grade 4 mucositis. A definite change was noticed in the severity of the mucositis, food intake and weight loss. The control group took more than 45 days to resolve while the study group took only less than 28 days. Discussion: The results of the study were evaluated and tried to formulate a hypothesis so as to explain

  2. How to prevent contamination with Candida albicans during the fabrication of transplantable oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Takagi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have utilized patients' own oral mucosa as a cell source for the fabrication of transplantable epithelial cell sheets to treat limbal stem cell deficiency and mucosal defects after endoscopic submucosal dissection of esophageal cancer. Because there are abundant microbiotas in the human oral cavity, the oral mucosa was sterilized and 40 μg/mL gentamicin and 0.27 μg/mL amphotericin B were added to the culture medium in our protocol. Although an oral surgeon carefully checked each patient's oral cavity and although candidiasis was not observed before taking the biopsy, contamination with Candida albicans (C. albicans was detected in the conditioned medium during cell sheet fabrication. After adding 1 μg/mL amphotericin B to the transportation medium during transport from Nagasaki University Hospital to Tokyo Women's Medical University, which are 1200 km apart, no proliferation of C. albicans was observed. These results indicated that the supplementation of transportation medium with antimycotics would be useful for preventing contamination with C. albicans derived from the oral mucosa without hampering cell proliferation.

  3. Nitrophenylboronic acids as highly chemoselective probes to detect hydrogen peroxide in foods and agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Ping; Lin, Chieh-Ti; Chang, Ching-Ming; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Lo, Lee-Chiang

    2011-11-09

    Hydrogen peroxide is commonly used in the food processing industry as a chlorine-free bleaching and sterilizing agent, but excessive amounts of residual hydrogen peroxide have led to cases of food poisoning. Here we describe the development of a novel nonenzymatic colorimetric method for the determination of residual hydrogen peroxide in foods and agricultural products. Nitrophenylboronic acids chemoselectively react with hydrogen peroxide under alkaline conditions to produce yellow nitrophenolates. Of the three nitrophenylboronic acid isomers tested, the p-isomer displayed the highest sensitivity for hydrogen peroxide and the fastest reaction kinetics. The reaction product, p-nitrophenolate, has an absorption maximum at 405 nm and a good linear correlation between the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the A(405) values was obtained. We successfully applied this convenient and rapid method for hydrogen peroxide determination to samples of dried bean curds and disposable chopsticks, thereby demonstrating its potential in foods and agricultural industries.

  4. Developmental Profiles of Mucosal Immunity in Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ewing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of attending pre-school on mucosal immunity. Children 3.5 to 5 years of age who attended pre-school were observed for a 10 month period. Demographic information was collected on previous childcare experiences, the home environment and clinical information relating to the child and the family. A daily illness log was kept for each child. A multivariate longitudinal analysis of the relation between immunoglobulins in saliva and age, gender, childcare experience, pre-school exposure, number of siblings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, atopy and hospitalisation was conducted. There was a positive association of higher IgA levels with the winter season and with children being older than 4 years (<.001, having attended childcare prior to commencing pre-school (<.05, and having been exposed to ETS at home (<.05. Lower IgA levels were associated with being atopic (<.05. Higher IgG levels were associated with exposure to ETS (<.001, while lower levels were associated to having atopy. Higher IgM levels were associated with previous childcare experience (<.01 whilst having been hospitalised was associated with having low salivary IgM levels (<.01. Lagged analyses demonstrated that immunological parameters were affected by the number of respiratory infections in the preceding 2 months.

  5. Nasal mucosal blood flow after intranasal allergen challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, K.; Bake, B.; Pipkorn, U.

    1988-01-01

    The nasal mucosal blood flow in patients with allergic rhinitis was determined at nasal allergen challenges with the 133 Xenon washout method. Determinations were made in 12 subjects before and 15 minutes after challenge with diluent and increasing doses of allergen. The time course was followed in eight subjects by means of repeated measurements during 1 hour after a single allergen dose. Finally, the blood flow was measured after unilateral allergen challenge in the contralateral nasal cavity. A dose-dependent decrease in blood flow was found after nasal challenge with increasing doses of allergens, whereas challenge with diluent alone did not induce any changes. The highest allergen dose, which also induced pronounced nasal symptoms, resulted in a decrease in blood flow of 25% (p less than 0.001). The time-course study demonstrated a maximum decrease in blood flow 10 to 20 minutes after challenge and then a gradual return to baseline. Unilateral allergen challenge resulted in a decrease in blood flow in the contralateral, unchallenged nasal cavity, suggesting that part of the allergen-induced changes in blood flow were reflex mediated

  6. Oral mucosal lesions in Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and EDNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Rene; Piemonte, Eduardo; Lazos, Jerónimo; Gilligan, Gerardo; Zampini, Anibal; Lanfranchi, Héctor

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe oral lesions in patients with eating disorders (ED), including Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). A prospective case-control study was carried out from April 2003 to May 2004. Inclusion criteria for the study group were individuals with a diagnosis of ED; age and sex-matched individuals without ED were included as controls. Clinical data regarding ED, medical complications and oral examination were performed by previously calibrated professionals. Study group (n = 65) presented 46 cases of BN (71%), 13 of EDNOS (20%) and 6 of AN (9%); also, 94% (n = 61) showed oral lesions. The most common were: labial erythema, exfoliative cheilitis, orange-yellow palate, hemorrhagic lesions, lip-cheek biting and non-specific oral atrophies. Only two patients of the study group had dental erosions, and no case of major salivary gland swelling was found. ED display a wide array of oral mucosal lesions that can be regarded as their early manifestations. The dentist could be the first professional to detect symptoms of eating disorders, potentially improving early detection and treatment of ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Absence of mucosal inflammation in uncomplicated diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Roncoroni, Leda; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Terrani, Claudia; Bonura, Antonella; Ciulla, Michele; Marconi, Stefano; Piodi, Luca

    2011-07-01

    Uncomplicated diverticular disease is a common condition in patients older than 50 years. Symptoms are aspecific and overlapping with those of irritable bowel syndrome. Nowadays, patients are often treated with antinflammatory drugs (5-aminosalicilic acid). Our purpose was to evaluate the presence of inflammation in the colonic mucosa of patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease compared with subjects without diverticula. Endoscopic biopsies of colon from 10 patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease and 10 from subjects without diverticula (controls) were taken. Specimens were homogenised and IL2, IL4, IL5, IL8, IL10, IL12p70, IL13, IFN gamma, TNF alfa (searchlight multiplex technique), TGF beta, transglutaminase type 2 and caspase 9 were measured. Histochemistry for transglutaminase type 2 and TUNEL were performed on the histological sections, in addition to morphologic evaluation, as markers of tissue remodelling and apoptosis. For statistical analysis Student's t test and Spearman correlation test were used. No histological differences were detected between the patients with an uncomplicated diverticular disease and controls. Mean values of mucosal cytokines and of the other tested parameters did not show statistically significant differences between patients with uncomplicated diverticular disease and controls. Even if based on a small number of patients, the study demonstrates the absence of inflammation in the mucosa of subjects affected by uncomplicated diverticular disease.

  8. Colon mucosal cells after high-dose fractional irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorc-Pleskovic, R.; Vraspir-Porenta, O.; Petrovic, D.; Zorc, M.; Pleskovic, L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate histological and stereological changes in cryptal enterocytes, mucosal lymphocytes and mast cells 10 days after irradiation. For experimental model, 24 Beagle dogs 1-2 years old were used. Twelve dogs were irradiated 20 days with 32 Gy over the whole pelvis and tail. Another 12 dogs represented a control group. For the detection of apoptosis, the TUNEL technique was used. Histological and stereological analyses were performed using a Wild sampling microscope M 1000. In the irradiated group, volume density (P < 0.01), numerical density (P < 0.05) and average volume of lymphocytes (P < 0.001) were significantly lower than in the nonirradiated group. Numerical areal density of mast cells in the irradiated group was also significantly lower (P < 0.05). Volume density (P < 0.001) and average volume of mast cells (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the irradiated group. The results of our experiments show that irradiation causes injury and loss of lymphocytes and mast cells in the colon mucosa. Apoptosis was detected in enterocytes and lymphocytes in the irradiated group and in nonirradiated group in equal numbers (2.5 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3; ns.), suggesting that 10 days after high-dose irradiation, the cell loss is not due to apoptosis. (author)

  9. Use of 60Co panoramic source in the induction of oral mucositis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Maira F.; Benetti, Carolina; Zezell, Denise M.; Correa, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Oral Mucositis is a well-known side effect of chemo-radiotherapy in cancer patients or transplant recipients that could induce hospitalization or impairs therapy in different levels of severity. This study is devoted to define the first steps in the research of low level laser treatments in oral mucositis, proposing a 60 Co radiation to experimentally induce oral mucositis in rats using Panoramic gamma irradiator, simulating usual radiotherapy of head and neck cancer. Fifteen male Wistar rats, above 250g, were irradiated at Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes (IPEN - CNEN/SP) and divided in three experimental groups, with different single doses of radiation (30 Gy, 25 Gy and 20 Gy). The animals were observed for a 20 days period. Animals that received 30 Gy and 25 Gy developed greater severity of mucositis and premature euthanasia was performed in these groups on the 7th and 11th day after the irradiation, respectively. The 20 Gy group developed oral mucositis grading from moderated to severe between the days 7 and 11 after irradiation, with progressive body mass loss and decrease in the intake of food and water. These animals recovered from oral mucositis around the 18th day and clinical remission at the 20th day. The single dose of 20 Gy Gamma radiation proved to be efficient way for inducing oral mucositis in rats, allowing the establishment of an experimental model for oral mucositis in rats for future use on interventions of this serious aspect of radiation therapy, such as laser therapy using different wave lengths and power densities. (author)

  10. Mucosal complications of modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis in chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sayan; Pillai, Vinay Sukumara; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-11-01

    To describe clinical outcomes of complications afflicting the autologous oral mucous membrane graft after modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis surgery in chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Prospective case series. This study included 30 eyes of 30 patients with SJS-induced dry keratinized ocular surfaces; the patients underwent various stages of this procedure between August 2009 and February 2012. Mucosal complications were classified as either necrosis or overgrowth. Mucosal necrosis was managed according to a predesigned algorithm based on timing (pre- and postimplantation) and location (central or peripheral) of necrosis. Cases with mucosal overgrowth underwent mucosal debulking and trimming. Mucosal necrosis developed in 15 (50%) eyes and overgrowth in 4 (13.3%) eyes. Preimplantation necrosis (n = 7) was initially managed conservatively, but 2 eyes required free labial-mucous membrane grafting for persistent corneal exposure. Free labial-mucous membrane grafting was performed in all cases of postimplantation necrosis (n = 10), but 8 eyes required additional tarsal pedicle flaps (n = 6, for peripheral necrosis) or through-the-lid revisions (n = 2, for central necrosis). Debulking and trimming effectively managed all cases of mucosal overgrowth, but 3 eyes required repeat procedures. At 24.1 ± 6.5 months postimplantation, the keratoprosthesis was retained in all eyes, and the probability of maintaining 20/60 or better vision was similar in eyes with or without mucosal necrosis (86 ± 8.8% vs 80 ± 10.3%). Mucosal complications, especially necrosis, occurred commonly following modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis surgery in dry keratinized post-SJS eyes. The algorithm-based management approach described in this study was successful in treating these complications, retaining the prosthesis and preserving useful vision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intravenous glutamine does not modify leucocyte count but shortens duration of mucositis after bone marrow transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Andrade Hernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Intravenous administration of Glutamine dipeptides (Gln has been proposed as treatment of oral mucositis following a bone marrow transplant (BMT. Objective: To establish the effects of intravenous Gln supplementation upon the severity of oral mucositis after BMT. Study design: Retrospective, analytical. Study serie: Records from 25 patients (Males: 56.0%; BMT cause: Leukemia: 64.0% who developed oral mucositis (Grades III – IV: 48.0% after BMT (Autologous: 44.0% at the "Juan Tanca Marengo" Hospital (Guayaquil, Ecuador between 2009 – 2017. Glutamine source: Dipeptiven©®: 13 grams of Gln suspended in 100 milliliters of a 20% solution of the alanine-glutamine dipeptide (Fresenius-Kabi©®, Germany. Materials and Methods: Gln-treated patients received 3(4.0% of the treatment leg, 5 (20.0%; 6 (12.0%; 7 (48.0%; or 10 (16.0% doses of the dipeptide until resolution of the symptoms. Impact of Gln was estimated from changes observed in the severity and duration of mucositis, white blood cell counts, and body weight regarding 25 non-Gln treated patients (Males: 68.0%; Leukemias: 32.0%; Autologous graft: 68.0%; Grade III – IV mucositis: 48.0%. Results: Intravenously-administered Gln shortened duration of oral mucositis: Gln-Treated: 12.5 ± 5.1 days vs. Non-Gln Treated: 21.3 ± 17.8 days (p < 0.05. Also, intravenous Gln marginally ameliorated loss of body weight: Gln-Treated -4.5 ± 5.5% vs. Non-Gln Treated: -7.5 ± 5.7% (p = 0.07. Conclusions: Intravenous Gln administration shortens duration of oral mucositis following BMT. Gln effect might be translated to a lesser weight loss in patients with oral mucositis.

  12. Abnormalities of magnesium homeostasis in patients with chemotherapy-induced alimentary tract mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    Neven Baršić; Filip Grubišić-Čabo; Marko Nikolić; Neven Ljubičić

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Hypomagnesemia contributes to morbidity in a significant proportion of hospitalized and severely ill patients, but it could also have beneficial anticancer effects. Alimentary tract mucositis is a frequent complication of cytotoxic chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and severity of hypomagnesemia in patients with different grades of chemotherapy-induced alimentary tract mucositis and to assess its clinical manifestations. Methods: Multicentric observat...

  13. Identification of risk factors for mucosal injury during laparoscopic Heller myotomy for achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Kazuto; Omura, Nobuo; Yano, Fumiaki; Hoshino, Masato; Yamamoto, Se-Ryung; Akimoto, Shusuke; Masuda, Takahiro; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Mucosal injury during myotomy is the most frequent complication seen with the Heller-Dor procedure for achalasia. The present study aimed to examine risk factors for such mucosal injury during this procedure. This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent the laparoscopic Heller-Dor procedure for achalasia at a single facility. Variables for evaluation included patient characteristics, preoperative pathophysiological findings, and surgeon's operative experience. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors. We also examined surgical outcomes and the degree of patient satisfaction in relation to intraoperative mucosal injury. Four hundred thirty-five patients satisfied study criteria. Intraoperative mucosal injury occurred in 67 patients (15.4%). In univariate analysis, mucosal injury was significantly associated with the patient age ≥60 years, disease history ≥10 years, prior history of cardiac diseases, preoperative esophageal transverse diameter ≥80 mm, and surgeon's operative experience with fewer than five cases. In multivariate analysis involving these factors, the following variables were identified as risk factors: age ≥60 years, esophageal transverse diameter ≥80 mm, and surgeon's operative experience with fewer than five cases. The mucosal injury group had significant extension of the operative time and increased blood loss. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of reflux esophagitis or the degree of symptom alleviation postoperatively. The fragile esophagus caused by advanced patient age and/or dilatation were risk factor for mucosal injury during laparoscopic Heller-Dor procedure. And novice surgeon was also identified as an isolated risk factor for mucosal injury.

  14. Use of {sup 60}Co panoramic source in the induction of oral mucositis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Maira F.; Benetti, Carolina; Zezell, Denise M., E-mail: mairandrade@yahoo.com, E-mail: zezell@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, Luciana, E-mail: lcorrea@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia

    2013-07-01

    Oral Mucositis is a well-known side effect of chemo-radiotherapy in cancer patients or transplant recipients that could induce hospitalization or impairs therapy in different levels of severity. This study is devoted to define the first steps in the research of low level laser treatments in oral mucositis, proposing a {sup 60}Co radiation to experimentally induce oral mucositis in rats using Panoramic gamma irradiator, simulating usual radiotherapy of head and neck cancer. Fifteen male Wistar rats, above 250g, were irradiated at Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes (IPEN - CNEN/SP) and divided in three experimental groups, with different single doses of radiation (30 Gy, 25 Gy and 20 Gy). The animals were observed for a 20 days period. Animals that received 30 Gy and 25 Gy developed greater severity of mucositis and premature euthanasia was performed in these groups on the 7th and 11th day after the irradiation, respectively. The 20 Gy group developed oral mucositis grading from moderated to severe between the days 7 and 11 after irradiation, with progressive body mass loss and decrease in the intake of food and water. These animals recovered from oral mucositis around the 18th day and clinical remission at the 20th day. The single dose of 20 Gy Gamma radiation proved to be efficient way for inducing oral mucositis in rats, allowing the establishment of an experimental model for oral mucositis in rats for future use on interventions of this serious aspect of radiation therapy, such as laser therapy using different wave lengths and power densities. (author)

  15. Failure of ethamsylate to reduce aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshmend, T K; Stein, A G; Bhaskar, N K; Hawkey, C J

    1989-01-01

    1. We investigated the effect of the haemostatic agent ethamsylate on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal bleeding. 2. Eighteen healthy subjects were studied three times: at the end of 48 h periods of treatment with (a) placebo, (b) aspirin 600 mg four times daily, (9 doses) and (c) aspirin 600 mg four times daily with each dose preceded by ethamsylate 500 mg. 3. At the end of each treatment period gastric mucosal bleeding into timed gastric washings was quantified using the orthotolidine reactio...

  16. Proximal Gut Mucosal Epithelial Homeostasis in Aged IL-1 Type I Receptor Knockout Mice After Starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    increases whole-body lean mass and insulin sensitivity in elderly subjects with sarcopenia . Am J Cardiol. 2008; 101:69E. [PubMed: 18157968] 11. Iwakiri R...nutritional deficiencies in the elderly can be corrected by nutritional supplementation [5-7], especially among patients who are fed enterally [8-10...mechanistic approach regarding intestinal cell dysfunction in the elderly . Starvation causes mucosal atrophy and loss of mucosal height [32], and glutamine

  17. Induction of Mucosal Homing Virus-Specific CD8+ T Lymphocytes by Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Cromwell, Mandy A.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Altman, John D.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Glickman, Rhona; Allen, Todd M.; Watkins, David I.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Johnson, R. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Induction of virus-specific T-cell responses in mucosal as well as systemic compartments of the immune system is likely to be a critical feature of an effective AIDS vaccine. We investigated whether virus-specific CD8+ lymphocytes induced in rhesus macaques by immunization with attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an approach that is highly effective in eliciting protection against mucosal challenge, express the mucosa-homing receptor α4β7 and traffic to the intestinal mucosa. SIV-...

  18. Esophageal mucosal breaks in gastroesophageal reflux disease partially responsive to proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nicholas J; Denison, Hans; Björck, Karin; Silberg, Debra G

    2013-04-01

    Approximately 20-30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) do not experience complete symptom resolution during proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of esophageal mucosal breaks among patients who have a partial response to PPI therapy. This was an analysis of data from a phase 2b clinical trial carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of a reflux inhibitor, lesogaberan (AZD3355), as an add-on to PPI therapy in this patient population (clinicaltrials.gov reference: NCT01005251). A total of 661 patients with persistent GERD symptoms who had received a minimum of 4 weeks of PPI therapy were included in the study. The prevalence of esophageal mucosal breaks was assessed according to (i) the most recent endoscopy results from within the previous 24 months, if available ("historical" endoscopies), and (ii) the results of endoscopies performed at study baseline ("baseline" endoscopies). Baseline endoscopies were not carried out in patients who had a historical endoscopy showing an absence of esophageal mucosal breaks. Historical endoscopy results were available for 244 patients, of whom 48 (19.7%) had esophageal mucosal breaks. Baseline endoscopies were carried out in 465 patients, of whom 146 (31.4%) had esophageal mucosal breaks. Sensitivity analyses showed a prevalence of esophageal mucosal breaks of 20-30%. In both the historical and baseline endoscopies, most esophageal mucosal breaks were Los Angeles grades A or B. In patients with GERD symptoms partially responsive to PPI therapy, mild-to-moderate severity esophageal mucosal breaks are common (prevalence 20-30%), and may contribute to symptom etiology.

  19. Mucosal innate immune cells regulate both gut homeostasis and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Yosuke; Goto, Yoshiyuki; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Continuous exposure of intestinal mucosal surfaces to diverse microorganisms and their metabolites reflects the biological necessity for a multifaceted, integrated epithelial and immune cell-mediated regulatory system. The development and function of the host cells responsible for the barrier function of the intestinal surface (e.g., M cells, Paneth cells, goblet cells, and columnar epithelial cells) are strictly regulated through both positive and negative stimulation by the luminal microbiota. Stimulation by damage-associated molecular patterns and commensal bacteria-derived microbe-associated molecular patterns provokes the assembly of inflammasomes, which are involved in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. Mucosal immune cells located beneath the epithelium play critical roles in regulating both the mucosal barrier and the relative composition of the luminal microbiota. Innate lymphoid cells and mast cells, in particular, orchestrate the mucosal regulatory system to create a mutually beneficial environment for both the host and the microbiota. Disruption of mucosal homeostasis causes intestinal inflammation such as that seen in inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we review the recent research on the biological interplay among the luminal microbiota, epithelial cells, and mucosal innate immune cells in both healthy and pathological conditions. © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Mucus reduction promotes acetyl salicylic acid-induced small intestinal mucosal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yosuke; Handa, Osamu; Naito, Yuji; Takayama, Shun; Mukai, Rieko; Ushiroda, Chihiro; Majima, Atsushi; Yasuda-Onozawa, Yuriko; Higashimura, Yasuki; Fukui, Akifumi; Dohi, Osamu; Okayama, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Naohisa; Katada, Kazuhiro; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Konishi, Hideyuki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2018-03-25

    Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is a useful drug for the secondary prevention of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, but it has adverse effects on the small intestinal mucosa. The pathogenesis and prophylaxis of ASA-induced small intestinal injury remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the intestinal mucus, as the gastrointestinal tract is covered by mucus, which exhibits protective effects against various gastrointestinal diseases. ASA was injected into the duodenum of rats, and small intestinal mucosal injury was evaluated using Evans blue dye. To investigate the importance of mucus, Polysorbate 80 (P80), an emulsifier, was used before ASA injection. In addition, rebamipide, a mucus secretion inducer in the small intestine, was used to suppress mucus reduction in the small intestine of P80-administered rats. The addition of P80 reduced the mucus and exacerbated the ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Rebamipide significantly suppressed P80-reduced small intestinal mucus and P80-increased intestinal mucosal lesions in ASA-injected rats, demonstrating that mucus is important for the protection against ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Mucus secretion-increasing therapy might be useful in preventing ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Respuesta inmune mucosal inducida por proteoliposoma y cocleato derivados de N. meningitidis serogrupo B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith del Campo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccination offers attractive advantages to conventional systemic vaccination. Most pathogens enter or establish infection at mucosal surfaces. This represents an enormous challenge for vaccine development. Nevertheless, the availability of safe and effective adjuvants that function mucosally is the major limitation. Therefore, we investigated the impact of mucosal immunization with the Neisseria meningitidis B proteoliposome (AFPL1, Adjuvant Finlay Proteoliposome 1 and its-derived cochleate (Co, AFCo1. They contain multiple PAMPs as immunopotentiators and have delivery system ability as well as Th1 polarization activity. Groups of female mice were immunized by nasal, oral, intravaginal, or intramuscular routes with three doses with AFPL1/AFCo1 alone or containing ovalbumin or glycoprotein (g D2 from Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. High levels of specific IgG antibodies were detected in sera of mice vaccinated with either route. However, specific IgA antibodies were produced in saliva and vaginal wash only following mucosal delivering. The polarization to a Th1 pattern was confirmed by testing the induction of IgG2a/IgG2c antibody, positive delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and gIFN production. Additionally, AFCo1gD2 showed practically no vaginal HSV-2 replication and 100% protection against lethal vaginal HSV-2 challenge. In conclusion, the results support the use of AFCo1 as potent Th1 adjuvant for mucosal vaccines, particularly for nasal route.

  2. Effects of Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanru; Brook, Caitlin L; Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lawrence, Andrew; Yazbeck, Roger; Howarth, Gordon S

    2013-08-01

    Mucositis is a debilitating intestinal side effect of chemotherapeutic regimens. Probiotics have been considered a possible preventative treatment for mucositis. Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (TH-4), a newly identified probiotic, has been shown to partially alleviate mucositis induced by administration of the antimetabolite chemotherapy drug, methotrexate in rats; likely mediated through a mechanism of folate production. However, its effects against other classes of chemotherapy drug have yet to be determined. The authors investigated the effects of TH-4 in a rat model of mucositis induced by the anthracycline chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. Gastrointestinal damage was induced in female Dark Agouti rats (148.3 ± 1.5 g) by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (20 mg/kg). Animals recieved a daily oral gavage of TH-4 at 10(9) cfu/ml or skim milk (vehicle) from days 0 to 8. At day 6, rats were injected with either saline or doxorubicin. At kill, small intestinal tissues were collected for determination of sucrase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and histological assessment. Body weight was significantly decreased by doxorubicin compared with normal controls (p TH-4 partially prevented the loss of body weight induced by doxorubicin (2.3% compared with 4%), but provided no further therapeutic benefit. The minimal amelioration of doxorubicin-induced mucositis by TH-4 further supports folate production as a likely mechanism of TH-4 action against methotrexate-induced mucositis. Further studies into TH-4 are required to confirm its applicability to other conventional chemotherapy regimens.

  3. Close association between oral Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, S; Moriyama, M; Hayashida, J-N; Tanaka, A; Maehara, T; Ieda, S; Nakamura, S

    2012-10-01

    Heightened interest in oral health has lead to an increase in patients complaining of xerostomia, which is associated with various oral mucosal disorders. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. We evaluated whole salivary flow rate and presence of oral mucosal disorders in 48 patients with xerostomia and 15 healthy controls. The number of Candida species was measured as colony-forming units after propagation on selective medium. Identification of Candida at the species level was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We then examined the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal symptoms. Compared with controls, patients with xerostomia exhibited significantly decreased whole salivary flow rate, increased rate of oral mucosal symptoms, and higher numbers of Candida. Salivary flow rate negatively correlated with the number Candida. Among patients with oral candidiasis, Candida albicans was isolated from the tongue mucosa and Candida glabrata was isolated from the angle of the mouth. These results suggest that particular Candida species are involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Occurrence of Metastudtite (Uranium Peroxide Dihydrate) at a FUSRAP Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, C.M.; Nelson, K.A.; Stevens, G.T.; Grassi, V.J.

    2006-01-01

    Uranium concentrations in groundwater in a localized area of a site exceed the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) by a factor of one thousand. Although the groundwater seepage velocity ranges up to 0.7 meters per day (m/day), data indicate that the uranium is not migrating in groundwater. We believe that the uranium is not mobile because of local geochemical conditions and the unstable nature of the uranium compound present at the site; uranium peroxide dihydrate (metastudtite). Metastudtite [UO 4 .2(H 2 O) or (U(O 2 )|O|(OH) 2 ).3H 2 O] has been identified at other sites as an alteration product in casks of spent nuclear fuel, but neither enriched nor depleted uranium were present at this site. Metastudtite was first identified as a natural mineral in 1983, although documented occurrences in the environment are uncommon. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a remedial investigation at the DuPont Chambers Works in Deep water New Jersey under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) to evaluate radioactive contamination resulting from historical activities conducted in support of Manhattan Engineering District operations. From 1942 to 1947, Chambers Works converted uranium oxides to uranium tetrafluoride and uranium metal. More than half of the production at this facility resulted from the recovery process, where uranium-bearing dross and scrap were reacted with hydrogen peroxide to produce uranium peroxide dihydrate. The 280-hectare Chambers Works has produced some 600 products, including petrochemicals, aromatics, fluoro-chemicals, polymers, and elastomers. Contaminants resulting from these processes, including separate-phase petrochemicals, have also been detected within the boundaries of the FUSRAP investigation. USACE initiated remedial investigation field activities in 2002. The radionuclides of concern are natural uranium (U nat ) and its short-lived progeny. Areas of impacted soil generally correspond to the

  5. Plutonium(IV) peroxide formation in nitric medium and kinetics Pu(VI) reduction by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, C.; Adnet, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Reduction of plutonium (VI) to Pu(IV) with hydrogen peroxide is a step in industrial processes used to purify plutonium nitrate solutions. This operation must be carefully controlled, in order to avoid any formation of the Pu(IV) peroxide green precipitate and to obtain exclusively Pu(IV). This led us to study the acidity and Pu and H 2 O 2 concentrations influences on the precipitate appearance and to perform a Pu(VI) reduction kinetic study on a wide range of acidities ([HNO 3 ]: 0.5 to 8 M), plutonium concentrations ([Pu(VI)]: 0.1 to 0.8 M) and [H 2 O 2 ]/[Pu(VI)] ratio (from 1 to 8). Thus, the domain of Pu(IV) peroxide formation and the reactional paths were established. With the exception of 0.5 M nitric acid medium, the kinetic curves show two distinct regims: the first one corresponds to an induction period where the Pu(VI) concentration doesn't change, the second corresponds to a linear decrease of Pu(VI). An increase of the temperature greatly accelerates the Pu(VI) reduction rate while [H 2 O 2 ]/[Pu(VI)] has almost no influence. The Pu(VI) total reduction time decreases when initial concentration of plutonium increases. By increasing nitric acid concentration from 0.5 M to 6 M, the total Pu(VI) reduction time decreases. This time increases when [HNO 3 ] varies from 6 M to 8 M. (orig.)

  6. Simultaneous approach using systemic, mucosal and transcutaneous routes of immunization for development of protective HIV-1 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyakov, I M; Ahlers, J D

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal tissues are major sites of HIV entry and initial infection. Induction of a local mucosal cytotoxic T lymphocyte response is considered an important goal in developing an effective HIV vaccine. In addition, activation and recruitment of memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in systemic lymphoid circulation to mucosal effector sites might provide the firewall needed to prevent virus spread. Therefore a vaccine that generates CD4(+) and CD8(+) responses in both mucosal and systemic tissues might be required for protection against HIV. However, optimal routes and number of vaccinations required for the generation of long lasting CD4(+) and CD8(+) CTL effector and memory responses are not well understood especially for mucosal T cells. A number of studies looking at protective immune responses against diverse mucosal pathogens have shown that mucosal vaccination is necessary to induce a compartmentalized immune response including maximum levels of mucosal high-avidity CD8(+) CTL, antigen specific mucosal antibodies titers (especially sIgA), as well as induction of innate anti-viral factors in mucosa tissue. Immune responses are detectable at mucosal sites after systemic delivery of vaccine, and prime boost regimens can amplify the magnitude of immune responses in mucosal sites and in systemic lymphoid tissues. We believe that the most optimal mucosal and systemic HIV/SIV specific protective immune responses and innate factors might best be achieved by simultaneous mucosal and systemic prime and boost vaccinations. Similar principals of vaccination may be applied for vaccine development against cancer and highly invasive pathogens that lead to chronic infection.

  7. Hydrogen-bearing iron peroxide and the origin of ultralow-velocity zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin; Hu, Qingyang; Kim, Duck Young; Wu, Zhongqing; Wang, Wenzhong; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul; Meng, Yue; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Mao, Wendy L. (Stanford); (UST - China); (CIW); (UC); (CHPSTAR- China)

    2017-11-22

    Ultralow-velocity zones (ULVZs) at Earth’s core–mantle boundary region have important implications for the chemical composition and thermal structure of our planet, but their origin has long been debated1,2,3. Hydrogen-bearing iron peroxide (FeO2Hx) in the pyrite-type crystal structure was recently found to be stable under the conditions of the lowermost mantle4,5,6. Using high-pressure experiments and theoretical calculations, we find that iron peroxide with a varying amount of hydrogen has a high density and high Poisson ratio as well as extremely low sound velocities consistent with ULVZs. Here we also report a reaction between iron and water at 86 gigapascals and 2,200 kelvin that produces FeO2Hx. This would provide a mechanism for generating the observed volume occupied by ULVZs through the reaction of about one-tenth the mass of Earth’s ocean water in subducted hydrous minerals with the effectively unlimited reservoir of iron in Earth’s core. Unlike other candidates for the composition of ULVZs7,8,9,10,11,12, FeO2Hx synthesized from the superoxidation of iron by water would not require an extra transportation mechanism to migrate to the core–mantle boundary. These dense FeO2Hx-rich domains would be expected to form directly in the core–mantle boundary region and their properties would provide an explanation for the many enigmatic seismic features that are observed in ULVZs.

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of the furan peroxide formation in the reaction of furfural with hydrogen peroxide in the presence and absence of sodium molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunskaya, E.P.; Badovskaya, L.A.; Kaklyugina, T.Ya.; Poskonin, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    Kinetics of the initial stage of the reaction of furfural with hydrogen peroxide are studied in the presence of Na 2 MoO 4 in water and without catalytic additions in n-butanol. Organic peroxide having in its disposal Mo(6), which is the only product on the initial stage of the reaction, is formed since the first minutes of oxidation of furfural by hydrogen peroxide with the presence of Na 2 MoO 4 . The mechanisms of conversion of furfural in the Na 2 MoO 4 - H 2 O system and its oxidation by peroxide without sodium molybdate are discussed. Schemes of formation of furfural complexes based on the results of kinetic studies are suggested. Comparison of obtained data demonstrates that presence of the sodium molybdates in the reaction medium trends to change of reaction procedure in the hydrogen peroxide [ru

  9. The ethanol-induced stimulation of rat duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in vivo is critically dependent on luminal Cl-.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sommansson

    Full Text Available Alcohol may induce metabolic and functional changes in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, contributing to impaired mucosal barrier function. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DBS is a primary epithelial defense against gastric acid and also has an important function in maintaining the homeostasis of the juxtamucosal microenvironment. The aim in this study was to investigate the effects of the luminal perfusion of moderate concentrations of ethanol in vivo on epithelial DBS, fluid secretion and paracellular permeability. Under thiobarbiturate anesthesia, a ∼30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ in rats. The effects on DBS, duodenal transepithelial net fluid flux and the blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-EDTA were investigated. Perfusing the duodenum with isotonic solutions of 10% or 15% ethanol-by-volume for 30 min increased DBS in a concentration-dependent manner, while the net fluid flux did not change. Pre-treatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172 (i.p. or i.v. did not change the secretory response to ethanol, while removing Cl- from the luminal perfusate abolished the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. The administration of hexamethonium (i.v. but not capsazepine significantly reduced the basal net fluid flux and the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. Perfusing the duodenum with a combination of 1.0 mM HCl and 15% ethanol induced significantly greater increases in DBS than 15% ethanol or 1.0 mM HCl alone but did not influence fluid flux. Our data demonstrate that ethanol induces increases in DBS through a mechanism that is critically dependent on luminal Cl- and partly dependent on enteric neural pathways involving nicotinic receptors. Ethanol and HCl appears to stimulate DBS via the activation of different bicarbonate transporting mechanisms.

  10. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina N. Fichorova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested

  11. Environmental and mucosal microbiota and their role in childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzele, L T; Depner, M; Ege, M J; Engel, M; Kublik, S; Bernau, C; Loss, G J; Genuneit, J; Horak, E; Schloter, M; Braun-Fahrländer, C; Danielewicz, H; Heederik, D; von Mutius, E; Legatzki, A

    2017-01-01

    High microbial diversity in the environment has been associated with lower asthma risk, particularly in children exposed to farming. It remains unclear whether this effect operates through an altered microbiome of the mucosal surfaces of the airways. DNA from mattress dust and nasal samples of 86 school age children was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs), bacterial diversity and composition were related to farm exposure and asthma status. Farm exposure was positively associated with bacterial diversity in mattress dust samples as determined by richness (P = 8.1 × 10 -6 ) and Shannon index (P = 1.3 × 10 -5 ). Despite considerable agreement of richness between mattress and nasal samples, the association of richness with farming in nasal samples was restricted to a high gradient of farm exposure, that is, exposure to cows and straw vs no exposure at all. In mattress dust, the genera Clostridium, Facklamia, an unclassified genus within the family of Ruminococcaceae, and six OTUs were positively associated with farming. Asthma was inversely associated with richness [aOR = 0.48 (0.22-1.02)] and Shannon index [aOR = 0.41 (0.21-0.83)] in mattress dust and to a lower extent in nasal samples [richness aOR 0.63 = (0.38-1.06), Shannon index aOR = 0.66 (0.39-1.12)]. The stronger inverse association of asthma with bacterial diversity in mattress dust as compared to nasal samples suggests microbial involvement beyond mere colonization of the upper airways. Whether inhalation of metabolites of environmental bacteria contributes to this phenomenon should be the focus of future research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal specimen collection in clinical trial participants in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Omosa-Manyonyi

    Full Text Available Mucosal specimens are essential to evaluate compartmentalized immune responses to HIV vaccine candidates and other mucosally targeted investigational products. We studied the acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal sampling in East African clinical trial participants at low risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.The Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI enrolled participants into three Phase 1 trials of preventive HIV candidate vaccines in 2011-2012 at two clinical research centers in Nairobi. After informed consent to a mucosal sub-study, participants were asked to undergo collection of mucosal secretions (saliva, oral fluids, semen, cervico-vaginal and rectal, but could opt out of any collection at any visit. Specimens were collected at baseline and two additional time points. A tolerability questionnaire was administered at the final sub-study visit. Of 105 trial participants, 27 of 34 women (79% and 62 of 71 men (87% enrolled in the mucosal sub-study. Nearly all sub-study participants gave saliva and oral fluids at all visits. Semen was collected from about half the participating men (47-48% at all visits. Cervico-vaginal secretions were collected by Softcup from about two thirds of women (63% at baseline, increasing to 78% at the following visits, with similar numbers for cervical secretion collection by Merocel sponge; about half of women (52% gave cervico-vaginal samples at all visits. Rectal secretions were collected with Merocel sponge from about a quarter of both men and women (24% at all 3 visits, with 16% of men and 19% of women giving rectal samples at all visits.Repeated mucosal sampling in clinical trial participants in Kenya is feasible, with a good proportion of participants consenting to most sampling methods with the exception of rectal samples. Experienced staff members of both sexes and trained counselors with standardized messaging may improve acceptance of rectal sampling.

  13. The etiological structure, biological properties of causative agents of peri-implant mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Faustova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the peri-implant mucositis microflora and sensitivity of dominant pathogens to antibiotics and antiseptics. Materials and methods. The study involved 43 patients with peri-implant mucositis. During the study 162 clinical strains of microorganisms were isolated and identified. Cultivation of clinical isolates was performed by the standard method, final identification was carried out with using bacteriological automatic analyzer Vitec – 2compact bioMérieux (France. Determination of sensitivity to antibiotics of pathogens was carried with disc-diffusion method; the study of sensitivity to antiseptics was carried by means of double serial dilutions method by the standard procedure approved by the Order № 167 of the Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine on “On Approval of Training Guidance “Assessment of the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics”, dated by April, 5, 2007. Results. It is The microflora of peri-implant area of patients with mucositis was revealed to consist of opportunistic species. Representatives of Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were dominating among them, although Kocuria spp., Enterobacter spp. and yeast-like fungi Candida spp. were detected quite common. Investigated clinical strains of microorganisms had different sensitivity to antibiotics. All cultures were sensitive to fluoroquinolones, but very significant number of them showed resistance to penicillins, macrolides and lincosamides. In turn, horosten, dekasan and chlorhexidine had powerful antimicrobial effect on dominant pathogens of periimplant mucositis in patients. Moreover, the effect of decametoxine-based antiseptics on some of them significantly exceeded the activity of chlorhexidine. Conclusions. Microflora from peri-implant area of patients with peri-implant mucositis consists mainly of aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, belonging to normal oral microflora. Most of pathogens of mucositis obtaine

  14. Pelvis dilatation and mucosal thickening of transplanted kidney: comparative study of resistive index and ultrasonographic finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Yu Seun; Park, Ki Il

    1992-01-01

    Diagnostic ability of duplex Doppler ultrasonography relying on resistive index is limited when clinical symptoms and signs of rejection are subtle or renal dysfunction is caused by other conditions such as urinary tract infection. To investigate the significance in the changes of renal pelvis, a combined analysis of resistive index and ultrasonographic findings in cases of renal pelvis dilatation and mucosal thickening was undertaken. A mean resistive index was calculated from Doppler measurements of the main, segmental and interlobar arteries. The cause of mucosal thickening was retrospectively analysed using the clinical and laboratory findings. Twenty three cases of renal pelvis dilatation and 17 cases of mucosal thickening were found in a total of 159 renal transplantation cases. In 14 of the 23 cases with renal pelvis dilatation, renal function was normal and their mean resistive index was 0.64 ± 0.04. Pelvis and ureter dilatation caused by ureteral stenosis or compression was demonstrated in 6 cases and their mean resistive index (0.72 ± 0.05) was increased. Mucosal thickening of renal pelvis was found in 7 of 32 cases with acute injection and in 2 of 13 cases with chronic rejection, but their mean resistive index was not different from that of the cases without pelvic mucosal changes. Three cases of acute rejection associated with urinary tract infection and 2 cases of chronic rejection in whom resistive indices were indeterminate, but mucosal thickening of the renal pelvis was prominent at ultrasonography. In renal transplant patients having indeterminate resistive index and mucosal thickening of the renal pelvis, ultrasonographic features must be correlated with the clinical and laboratory findings for an accurate diagnosis and treatment of renal dysfunction

  15. Effect of light energy on peroxide tooth bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Karen; Tam, Laura; Hubert, Manfred

    2004-02-01

    Light-activated bleaching is a method of tooth whitening. The authors conducted a study to compare the whitening effects and tooth temperature changes induced by various combinations of peroxide bleaches and light sources. The authors randomly assigned 250 extracted human teeth halves into experimental groups (n = 10). A placebo gel (control), a 35 percent hydrogen peroxide or a 10 percent carbamide peroxide bleach was placed on the tooth surface and was irradiated with no light (control); a halogen curing light; an infrared, or IR, light; an argon laser; or a carbon dioxide, or CO2, laser. Color changes were evaluated immediately, one day and one week after treatment using a value-oriented shade guide and an electronic dental color analyzer. The outer enamel and inner dentin surface temperatures were monitored before and immediately after each 30-second application of light using a thermocouple thermometer. Color and temperature changes were significantly affected by an interaction of the bleach and light variables. The application of lights significantly improved the whitening efficacy of some bleach materials, but it caused significant temperature increases in the outer and inner tooth surfaces. The IR and CO2 laser lights caused the highest tooth temperature increases. Dentists performing an in-office bleaching technique with the use of an additional light source to accelerate tooth whitening should consider the specific bleaching agent being used, as well as the potential risks of heating teeth. A specific combination of bleach and light that demonstrates good color change and little temperature rise should be selected for in-office tooth bleaching.

  16. Studies on lipid peroxidation and anti-LPO chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Lao Qinhua

    1995-02-01

    The contents of lipid peroxides (LPO) in sera and tissues were determined by the modified spectrophotometry of TBA, and the effects of three chemicals on lipid peroxidation induced by radiation were observed. The items studied included: (1) the normal values of LPO of sera in rats and adults: (2) the normal values in some tissues of rats; (3) the changes of LPO levels of sera in patients with some mental diseases and patients with malignant tumours before and after local gamma irradiation exposure; (4) the changes of LPO contents of some tissues in rats after whole-body gamma irradiation exposure; (5) the changes of LPO contents of some tissues in mice after internal exposure by Th(NO 3 ) 4 solution; (6) the effects of chinonin, tannic acid and squalene on lipid peroxidation induced by irradiation. The results were as follows: (1) the LPO contents in patients with some mental diseases dramatically increased; (2) there was marked difference between the LPO levels before and after local gamma irradiation exposure in patients with malignant tumours; (3) the LPO contents in some tissues of rats remarkably increased after whole-body gamma irradiation exposure; (4) the LPO contents in some tissues of mice dramatically increased and their protein contents markedly reduced after internal exposure, showing a negative correlation between them; (5) a gradual increase in LPO contents in some tissues of mice appeared with increasing dosage of whole-body gamma irradiation exposure at dose range from 0 to 4 Gy. A linear relationship between the dose and the LPO contents was observed; (6) all three chemicals could reduce the LPO levels in liver, spleen and kidney of the irradiated mice. The efficacy of chinonin was better than that of tannic acid and squalene. (5 tabs., 1 fig.)

  17. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  18. Peroxide formation and kinetics of sodium dissolution in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Chandran, K.; Ganesan, V.; Periaswami, G.

    1997-01-01

    Suitable techniques for sodium removal and decontamination of sodium wetted components of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) are necessary both for repair, reuse and decommissioning of such components. Among the methods followed for sodium removal, alcohol dissolution is usually employed for small components like bellow sealed valves, gripping tools to handle core components and sodium sampling devices (primary and secondary). One of the concerns in the alcohol dissolution method is the possible role of peroxide formation in the ethoxy group during storage and handling leading to explosion. This paper describes the study of peroxide formation in ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve as well as some of the results of dissolution kinetic studies carried out in our laboratory using different alcohols. The peroxide formation of ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve were studied by iodometric technique. It has been found that the peroxide formation is less in sodium containing alcohol than in pure one. Ethyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve and Jaysol-SS (mixture of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone) were used in dissolution kinetics studies. The effects due to area and orientation of the fresh sodium surface have also been investigated. The reaction rates were studied in the temperature range of 303-343 K. The rate of dissolution was estimated by measuring the sodium content of alcohol at periodic intervals. It is found that the reaction rate varies in the order of ethyl alcohol-water mixture > Jaysol-SS > butyl cellosolve > ethyl carbitol. While cleaning sodium using alcohol, the concentration of alcohol is held essentially constant throughout the process. The rate of reaction depends only on the amount of sodium and follows pseudo-first order kinetics. Increase in surface area has a marked impact on the dissolution rate at lower temperatures while at higher temperatures, the temperature factor overrides the effect due to surface area

  19. Petroleum Contaminated Soil Treatment Using Surfactant and Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilza Lobo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of washing soil with surfactants, sodium lauryl ether sulphate (LESS and sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS was combined with chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide, with a view to in situ remediation of clay soil contaminated with hydrocarbons oil. The evaluation of the efficiency of the procedure was the removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the comparison of physical and chemical characteristics of contaminated soil and uncontaminated from the same region. The combination of these two techniques, soil washing and application of an oxidizing agent, presented as a process of effective remediation for soils contaminated with petroleum products in subtropical regions.

  20. Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation by Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Wheat Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran, an important by-product of the cereal industry, is rich in potentially health-promoting phenolic compounds. The phenolics are mainly esterified to the cell wall polysaccharides. In our previous paper, wheat bran was destarched and deproteinated by α-amylase, protease and amyloglucosidase successively and further hydrolyzed using Bacillus subtilis xylanases, and the enzymatic hydrolysates from wheat bran (EHWB showed good scavenging activity in vitro. The aim of this study is to further characterize the antioxidant potential of EHWB against various systems, both ex vivo and in vivo, namely, rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation systems induced by Fe2+/H2O2 and Fe3+-adenosine diphosphate (ADP/dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH, copper- and 2,2’-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced human low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation systems, and alloxan-induced in vivo lipid peroxidation in mice. EHWB inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes induced by Fe2+/H2O2 and Fe3+-ADP/NADPH in a concentration-dependent manner with 90.3 and 87 % inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 50 mg/L, respectively, which were similar to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 20 mg/L. The antioxidant potential of EHWB at a concentration ranging from 10 to 20 mg/L in the nonenzymatic system was more effective than in the enzymatic system. EHWB strongly inhibited in vitro copper- and AAPH-mediated oxidation of LDL in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with 52.41 and 63.03 % inhibition at 20 mg/L, respectively, which were similar to that of ascorbate at 10 mg/L. EHWB significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in serum and liver of alloxan-treated mice compared with the control. These results demonstrated that EHWB might be efficient in the protection of

  1. Historical Survey: German Research on Hydrogen Peroxide/Alcohol Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmeter, John E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Discussion of HP/fuel explosives in the scientific literature dates back to at least 1927. A paper was published that year in a German journal entitled On Hydrogen Peroxide Explosives [Bamberger and Nussbaum 1927]. The paper dealt with HP/cotton/Vaseline formulations, specifically HP89/cotton/Vaseline (76/15/9) and (70/8.5/12.5). The authors performed experiments with charge masses of 250-750 g and charge diameters of 35-45 mm. This short paper provides brief discussion on the observed qualitative effects of detonations but does not report detonation velocities.

  2. Removal of Reactive Red 198 by Nanoparticle Zero Valent Iron in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Shojaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although dyes are widely used in textile industries, they are carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic. Industries discharge their wastewater containing a variety of colors into water resources and make harmful effect on the environment. The present study aims to Evaluate removal of reactive red 198 by nanoparticle zero valent iron (NZVI in the presence of hydrogen peroxide from aqueous solution. The effective parameters on the removal of dye such as the hydrogen peroxide concentration of NZVI, contact time, pH and dye concentration were investigated and optimized. According to the results, the combination of NZVI with hydrogen peroxide is more effective than single hydrogen peroxide. At pH = 4, contact time= 40 min, 200 M of hydrogen peroxide, dye concentration= 75 mg/L and concentration of NZVI 2g/L, color removal was achieved 91% approximately. Based on the results of experiments, using hydrogen peroxide- NZVI has high efficiency in removal of azo dye type.

  3. A biosensor for hydrogen peroxide detection based on electronic properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory has been used to study the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the electronic properties of single walled carbon nanotubes. The metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes have been considered in the presence of different number of hydrogen peroxide. The results indicate that hydrogen peroxide has no significant effect on the metallic nanotube and these nanotubes remain to be metallic. In contrast, the electronic properties of the semiconducting nanotubes are so sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. The energy band gap of these nanotubes is decreased by increasing the number of hydrogen peroxide. The electronic sensivity of the carbon nanotubes to hydrogen peroxide opens new insights into developing biosensors based on the single walled carbon nanotubes.

  4. Apparatus and method for treating pollutants in a gas using hydrogen peroxide and UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Charles David (Inventor); Clausen, Christian Anthony (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for treating pollutants in a gas may include a source of hydrogen peroxide, and a treatment injector for creating and injecting dissociated hydrogen peroxide into the flow of gas. The treatment injector may further include an injector housing having an inlet, an outlet, and a hollow interior extending therebetween. The inlet may be connected in fluid communication with the source of hydrogen peroxide so that hydrogen peroxide flows through the hollow interior and toward the outlet. At least one ultraviolet (UV) lamp may be positioned within the hollow interior of the injector housing. The at least one UV lamp may dissociate the hydrogen peroxide flowing through the tube. The dissociated hydrogen peroxide may be injected into the flow of gas from the outlet for treating pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides.

  5. Mucosal application of gp140 encoding DNA polyplexes to different tissues results in altered immunological outcomes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie F S Mann

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that mucosally targeted vaccines will enhance local humoral and cellular responses whilst still eliciting systemic immunity. We therefore investigated the capacity of nasal, sublingual or vaginal delivery of DNA-PEI polyplexes to prime immune responses prior to mucosal protein boost vaccination. Using a plasmid expressing the model antigen HIV CN54gp140 we show that each of these mucosal surfaces were permissive for DNA priming and production of antigen-specific antibody responses. The elicitation of systemic immune responses using nasally delivered polyplexed DNA followed by recombinant protein boost vaccination was equivalent to a systemic prime-boost regimen, but the mucosally applied modality had the advantage in that significant levels of antigen-specific IgA were detected in vaginal mucosal secretions. Moreover, mucosal vaccination elicited both local and systemic antigen-specific IgG(+ and IgA(+ antibody secreting cells. Finally, using an Influenza challenge model we found that a nasal or sublingual, but not vaginal, DNA prime/protein boost regimen protected against infectious challenge. These data demonstrate that mucosally applied plasmid DNA complexed to PEI followed by a mucosal protein boost generates sufficient antigen-specific humoral antibody production to protect from mucosal viral challenge.

  6. Effect of Cissus quadrangularis on gastric mucosal defensive factors in experimentally induced gastric ulcer-a comparative study with sucralfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainu, Mallika; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2004-01-01

    Cissus quadrangularis is an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer-protective effect of a methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis (CQE) was comparable to that of the reference drug sucralfate. Further, gastric juice and mucosal studies showed that CQE at a dose of 500 mg/kg given for 10 days significantly increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell proliferation, glycoproteins, and life span of cells. The present investigation suggests that CQE not only strengthens mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular proliferation. Thus, CQE has potential usefulness for treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  7. The Molecular Immunology of Mucositis: Implications for Evidence-Based Research in Alternative and Complementary Palliative Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chiappelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The terms ‘mucositis’ and ‘stomatitis’ are often used interchangeably. Mucositis, however, pertains to pharyngeal-esophago-gastrointestinal inflammation that manifests as red, burn-like sores or ulcerations throughout the mouth. Stomatitis is an inflammation of the oral tissues proper, which can present with or without sores, and is made worse by poor dental hygiene. Mucositis is observed in a variety of immunosuppressed patients, but is most often consequential to cancer therapy. It appears as early as the third day of intervention, and is usually established by Day 7 of treatment. Mucositis increases mortality and morbidity and contributes to rising health care costs. The precise immune components involved in the etiology of mucositis are unclear, but evidence-based research (EBR data has shown that applications of granulocyte–macrophage-colony stimulating factor prevent the onset or the exacerbation of oropharyngeal mucositis. The molecular implications of this observation are discussed from the perspective of future developments of complementary and alternative treatments for this condition. It must be emphasized that this article is meant to be neither a review on mucositis and the various treatments for it, nor a discussion paper on its underlying molecular immunology. It is a statement of the implications of EBR for CAM-based interventions for mucositis. It explores and discusses the specific domain of molecular immunology in the context of mucositis and its direct implications for EBR research in CAM-based treatments for mucositis.

  8. Primary prevention of peri-implantitis: managing peri-implant mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Søren; Berglundh, Tord; Genco, Robert; Aass, Anne Merete; Demirel, Korkud; Derks, Jan; Figuero, Elena; Giovannoli, Jean Louis; Goldstein, Moshe; Lambert, France; Ortiz-Vigon, Alberto; Polyzois, Ioannis; Salvi, Giovanni E; Schwarz, Frank; Serino, Giovanni; Tomasi, Cristiano; Zitzmann, Nicola U

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, the placement of dental implants has become a routine procedure in the oral rehabilitation of fully and partially edentulous patients. However, the number of patients/implants affected by peri-implant diseases is increasing. As there are--in contrast to periodontitis--at present no established and predictable concepts for the treatment of peri-implantitis, primary prevention is of key importance. The management of peri-implant mucositis is considered as a preventive measure for the onset of peri-implantitis. Therefore, the remit of this working group was to assess the prevalence of peri-implant diseases, as well as risks for peri-implant mucositis and to evaluate measures for the management of peri-implant mucositis. Discussions were informed by four systematic reviews on the current epidemiology of peri-implant diseases, on potential risks contributing to the development of peri-implant mucositis, and on the effect of patient and of professionally administered measures to manage peri-implant mucositis. This consensus report is based on the outcomes of these systematic reviews and on the expert opinion of the participants. Key findings included: (i) meta-analysis estimated a weighted mean prevalence for peri-implant mucositis of 43% (CI: 32-54%) and for peri-implantitis of 22% (CI: 14-30%); (ii) bleeding on probing is considered as key clinical measure to distinguish between peri-implant health and disease; (iii) lack of regular supportive therapy in patients with peri-implant mucositis was associated with increased risk for onset of peri-implantitis; (iv) whereas plaque accumulation has been established as aetiological factor, smoking was identified as modifiable patient-related and excess cement as local risk indicator for the development of peri-implant mucositis; (v) patient-administered mechanical plaque control (with manual or powered toothbrushes) has been shown to be an effective preventive measure; (vi) professional intervention

  9. Effectivity of 0.15% benzydamine on radiation-induced oral mucositis in nasopharynx carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remita Adya Prasetyo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasopharynx carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour in head and neck region. Radiotherapy is the first choice of treatment for nasopharynx carcinoma that had not been metastases. The most common oral complications in radiotherapy is mucositis (± 80%. 0.15% benzydamine hydrochloride (HCl oral rinse can be used to prevent radiation-induced oral mucositis. Purpose: The aim of this research was to study the effectivity of 0.15% benzydamine HCl oral rinse for prevention of radiation-induced oral mucositis in nasopharynx carcinoma. Methods: Samples were divided into 2 groups. Group A was using 0.15% benzydamine HCl oral rinse for 10 days. Group B was using placebo oral rinse for 10 days. Evaluation was conducted 3 times: first day, fifth day and tenth day of radiotherapy. The scoring used Spijkervet’s mucositis α score. Results: Independent t test analysis for initial occurrence of oral mucositis showed no significant difference between 2 groups. Paired t test analysis showed significant difference between initial mucositis α score and mucositis α score in tenth day in each group. Independent t test analysis showed no significant difference in mucositis α score in tenth day between 2 groups. Conclusion: In conclusion 0.15% benzydamine HCl oral rinse was not effective to prevent radiation-induced oral mucositis in nasopharynx carcinoma.Latar belakang: Karsinoma nasofaring (KNF merupakan tumor ganas terbanyak di daerah kepala-leher. Radioterapi merupakan terapi pilihan utama KNF yang belum mempunyai metastasis jauh. Komplikasi akibat radioterapi dalam rongga mulut yang terbanyak adalah mukositis (± 80%. Salah satu obat untuk pencegahan mukositis akibat radioterapi adalah benzydamine hydrochloride (HCl 0,15%. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari efektivitas penggunaan obat kumur benzydamine HCl 0,15% sebagai pencegah mukositis akibat radioterapi pada karsinoma nasofaring. Metode: Sampel dibagi ke dalam 2

  10. The efficacy of a steroid mixture for chemoradiotherapy-induced acute mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamamura, Hiroyasu; Ohoguchi, Manabu; Ichioka, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Kiyotaka; Higashi, Kotarou; Tonami, Hisao

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an important therapeutic tool for malignant tumors in the head and neck and thoracic region. However, radiotherapy has also been known to cause acute mucositis and esophagitis during the early phase of treatment, for which there is no cure to date. A mixture of mucosal protective steroids has been shown to be beneficial in patients with these symptoms receiving radiotherapy alone. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of this agent to treat the mucositis that accompanies chemoradiotherapy. Moreover, the differences between the curative effects were examined retrospectively, according to the region irradiated. Radiotherapy was administered to the head and neck, and thoracic region, and the steroid mixture was prescribed for patients in the radiotherapy alone and chemoradiotherapy groups that exhibited acute radiation-induced mucositis symptoms. We then evaluated daily food consumption, total serum-protein value, serum-albumin value and body weight of the radiation-induced mucositis patients that were treated with the mixture. Moreover, we also examined the efficacy in patients undergoing irradiation of the oral cavity, and of the esophagus (which did not entail irradiation of the oral cavity). Two hundred and fourteen patients treated with the steroid mixture in this study had no treatment-related adverse events. In comparison between the radiotherapy alone and chemoradiotherapy groups, no significant differences were observed for daily food consumption. However, differences were observed for daily food consumption between the groups undergoing irradiation of the oral cavity and irradiation of the esophagus (p=0.0008). In the group experiencing irradiation of the mouth, decreased ability to swallow and digest food associated with the primary disease was also observed. Total serum-protein values, serum-albumin values and body weight exhibited a slight decrease despite the onset of radiation-induced mucositis, compared with the values

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has distinct adaptive responses to both hydrogen peroxide and menadione.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamieson, D J

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with low concentrations of either hydrogen peroxide or menadione (a superoxide-generating agent) induces adaptive responses which protect cells from the lethal effects of subsequent challenge with higher concentrations of these oxidants. Pretreatment with menadione is protective against cell killing by hydrogen peroxide; however, pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide is unable to protect cells from subsequent challenge with menadione. This suggests th...

  12. Low-level laser therapy in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Carlos de Oliveira; Mas, Josepa Rigau I.; Zangaro, Renato Amaro

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to verify if the use of InGaAIP laser with 685 nm wave length can reduce the xerostomy incidence, the oral mucositis severity and the pain related to mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer submitted to radiotherapy. Objective: sixty patients presenting head and neck carcinoma were submitted to radiotherapy with daily doses of 1.8 to 2.0 Gy and a final dose of 45 to 72 Gy. The salivary volume was evaluated in the first and fifteenth days, at the end of the treatment and after 15 and 30 days. The oral mucositis was evaluated on a weekly basis. Twenty-nine patients were submitted to radiotherapy without laser and 31 were submitted to radiotherapy and laser with daily doses of 2 joules/cm 2 in predetermined areas of the oral mucosa and the parotid and submandibular glands. Results: in the group submitted to radiotherapy and laser the incidence of mucositis (p < 0.001) and pain (p < 0.016) was significantly lower and the salivary volume (p < 0.001) was kept higher during and after the treatment. Conclusion: the group of patients submitted to radiotherapy and laser had lower incidence of xerostomy, oral mucositis and pain when compared to the group treated with radiotherapy without laser, producing statistically significant results. (author)

  13. Role of ABO secretor status in mucosal innate immunity and H. pylori infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lindén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The fucosylated ABH antigens, which constitute the molecular basis for the ABO blood group system, are also expressed in salivary secretions and gastrointestinal epithelia in individuals of positive secretor status; however, the biological function of the ABO blood group system is unknown. Gastric mucosa biopsies of 41 Rhesus monkeys originating from Southern Asia were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A majority of these animals were found to be of blood group B and weak-secretor phenotype (i.e., expressing both Lewis a and Lewis b antigens, which are also common in South Asian human populations. A selected group of ten monkeys was inoculated with Helicobacter pylori and studied for changes in gastric mucosal glycosylation during a 10-month period. We observed a loss in mucosal fucosylation and concurrent induction and time-dependent dynamics in gastric mucosal sialylation (carbohydrate marker of inflammation, which affect H. pylori adhesion targets and thus modulate host-bacterial interactions. Of particular relevance, gastric mucosal density of H. pylori, gastritis, and sialylation were all higher in secretor individuals compared to weak-secretors, the latter being apparently "protected." These results demonstrate that the secretor status plays an intrinsic role in resistance to H. pylori infection and suggest that the fucosylated secretor ABH antigens constitute interactive members of the human and primate mucosal innate immune system.

  14. Imaging of Mucosal Inflammation: Current Technological Developments, Clinical Implications, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian J. Waldner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various technological developments markedly improved imaging of mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Although technological developments such as high-definition-, chromo-, and autofluorescence-endoscopy led to a more precise and detailed assessment of mucosal inflammation during wide-field endoscopy, probe-based and stationary confocal laser microscopy enabled in vivo real-time microscopic imaging of mucosal surfaces within the gastrointestinal tract. Through the use of fluorochromes with specificity against a defined molecular target combined with endoscopic techniques that allow ultrastructural resolution, molecular imaging enables in vivo visualization of single molecules or receptors during endoscopy. Molecular imaging has therefore greatly expanded the clinical utility and applications of modern innovative endoscopy, which include the diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment of disease as well as the prediction of the therapeutic response of individual patients. Furthermore, non-invasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, scintigraphy, and ultrasound provide helpful information as supplement to invasive endoscopic procedures. In this review, we provide an overview on the current status of advanced imaging technologies for the clinical non-invasive and endoscopic evaluation of mucosal inflammation. Furthermore, the value of novel methods such as multiphoton microscopy, optoacoustics, and optical coherence tomography and their possible future implementation into clinical diagnosis and evaluation of mucosal inflammation will be discussed.

  15. Clinical effectiveness of Ancer 20 injection for prevention of radiation-induced oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tsubura; Shimoyama, Tetsuo; Nasu, Daisuke; Kaneko, Takahiro; Horie, Norio

    2000-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is very useful for treatment of oral cancer, it can cause radiation-induced oral mucositis as a troublesome side effect. Ancer 20 injection is useful for enhancing macrophage function, and apart from its inductive effect on IL-3, it also enhances G-CSF production. Therefore, Ancer 20 injection might also prevent mucositis. This effect was tested by administering the drug to prevent oral mucositis during radiotherapy. Eleven patients (5 males and 6 females, aged 39 to 84 yr, mean 64.5 yr) with squamous cell carcinoma were examined. Radiation was applied externally with a linear accelerator up to a total dose of 20-70 Gy, mean 38.2 Gy. All patients received a small dose of cisplatin concomitantly. Ancer 20 injection 1 ml twice weekly was administered subcutaneously. There was almost no objective or subjective abnormality up to a dose of 30 Gy, and at doses higher than that, the symptoms were mild in comparison with general mucosal reactions. This showed that Ancer 20 injection is useful for prevention of radiation-induced oral mucositis during radiotherapy of oral cancer. (author)

  16. Esophageal acid sensitivity and mucosal integrity in patients with functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenborg, P W; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2016-11-01

    Patients with functional heartburn (FH) experience troublesome heartburn that is not related to gastroesophageal reflux. The etiology of the heartburn sensation in FH patients is unknown. In patients with reflux disease, esophageal hypersensitivity seems associated with impaired mucosal integrity. We aimed to determine esophageal sensitivity and mucosal integrity in FH and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients. In this prospective experimental study, we performed an acid perfusion test and upper endoscopy with biopsies in 12 patients with NERD and nine patients with FH. Mucosal integrity was measured during endoscopy using electrical tissue impedance spectroscopy and biopsy specimens were analyzed in Ussing chambers for transepithelial electrical resistance and transepithelial permeability. Lag time to heartburn perception was significantly longer in FH patients (median 12 min) than in NERD patients (median 3 min). Once perceived, intensity of heartburn was scored equal with median visual analog scale 6.5 and 7.1 respectively. Esophageal mucosal integrity was also comparable between FH and NERD patients, both in vivo extracellular impedance and ex vivo transepithelial resistance and permeability were similar. Patients with FH did not show acid hypersensitivity as seen in patients with NERD. However, once perceived, intensity of heartburn is similar. Esophageal mucosal integrity is similar between NERD and FH patients, and is therefore unlikely to be the underlying cause of the observed difference in esophageal acid perception. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Vaginal mucosal flap as a sling preservation for the treatment of vaginal exposure of mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sea Young; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Han Kwon; Park, Chang Hoo; Kim, Sung Jin; Sung, Gi Teck; Park, Chang Myon

    2010-06-01

    Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures are used for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The procedures with synthetic materials can have a risk of vaginal erosion. We experienced transobturator suburethral sling (TOT) tape-induced vaginal erosion and report the efficacy of a vaginal mucosal covering technique. A total of 560 female patients diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence underwent TOT procedures at our hospital between January 2005 and August 2009. All patients succeeded in follow-ups, among which 8 patients (mean age: 50.5 years) presented with vaginal exposure of the mesh. A vaginal mucosal covering technique was performed under local anesthesia after administration of antibiotics and vaginal wound dressings for 3-4 days. Seven of the 8 patients complained of persistent vaginal discharge postoperatively. Two of the 8 patients complained of dyspareunia of their male partners. The one remaining patient was otherwise asymptomatic, but mesh erosion was discovered at the routine follow-up visit. Six of the 8 patients showed complete mucosal covering of the mesh after the operation (mean follow-up period: 16 moths). Vaginal mucosal erosion recurred in 2 patients, and the mesh was then partially removed. One patient had recurrent stress urinary incontinence. Vaginal mucosal covering as a sling preservation with continued patient continence may be a feasible and effective option for the treatment of vaginal exposure of mesh after TOT tape procedures.

  18. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: oral cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Littlewood, Anne; Clarkson, Jan E; McCabe, Martin G

    2015-12-23

    Oral mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy, head and neck radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, affecting over 75% of high risk patients. Ulceration can lead to severe pain and difficulty eating and drinking, which may necessitate opioid analgesics, hospitalisation and nasogastric or intravenous nutrition. These complications may lead to interruptions or alterations to cancer therapy, which may reduce survival. There is also a risk of death from sepsis if pathogens enter the ulcers of immunocompromised patients. Ulcerative oral mucositis can be costly to healthcare systems, yet there are few preventive interventions proven to be beneficial. Oral cryotherapy is a low-cost, simple intervention which is unlikely to cause side-effects. It has shown promise in clinical trials and warrants an up-to-date Cochrane review to assess and summarise the international evidence. To assess the effects of oral cryotherapy for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer who are receiving treatment. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 17 June 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 17 June 2015), EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 17 June 2015), CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 17 June 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 17 June 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching databases. We included parallel-design randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment. We used outcomes from a published core outcome set registered on the COMET website. Two review authors independently screened the results of electronic searches, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors for information

  19. Characteristic patients with oral mucositis receiving 5-FU chemotherapy at Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

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    Syarifah Fatimah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral mucositis is an inflammatory reaction of oral mucous membrane that often appears in cancer patients due to the chemotherapeutic agents, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristic patients who receive 5-FU and had oral mucositis. Methods: This study was conducted on 41 patients with cancer receiving 5-FU chemotherapy at Dr Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung. The data was retrieved through interviews to find out patient’s characteristic; nutritional status examination by using body mass index measurement; and oral examination. Severity level was determined by using National Cancer Institute’s Common Toxicity Criteria scale, and the level of pain was measured by Numeric Pain Intensity Rating scale. Results: This research have shown 60,98% patient with cancer had received 5-FU chemotherapy treatment, and 44% with poor nutritional status (underweight. Oral mucositis was only found at non-keratinised mucous. The finding of this study was patients that receiving 5-FU chemotherapy treatment diagnosed with oral mucositis was on the 1st stadium (52% and the 2nd stadium (44% with the level of pain was on the mild level (48% and moderate level (32%.Conclusion: Oral mucositis was found on patients with cancer that received 5-FU chemotherapy with a variety of characteristics, nutritional statuses, locations, levels of severity and pain.

  20. A metaproteomic approach to study human-microbial ecosystems at the mucosal luminal interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Li

    Full Text Available Aberrant interactions between the host and the intestinal bacteria are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of many digestive diseases. However, studying the complex ecosystem at the human mucosal-luminal interface (MLI is challenging and requires an integrative systems biology approach. Therefore, we developed a novel method integrating lavage sampling of the human mucosal surface, high-throughput proteomics, and a unique suite of bioinformatic and statistical analyses. Shotgun proteomic analysis of secreted proteins recovered from the MLI confirmed the presence of both human and bacterial components. To profile the MLI metaproteome, we collected 205 mucosal lavage samples from 38 healthy subjects, and subjected them to high-throughput proteomics. The spectral data were subjected to a rigorous data processing pipeline to optimize suitability for quantitation and analysis, and then were evaluated using a set of biostatistical tools. Compared to the mucosal transcriptome, the MLI metaproteome was enriched for extracellular proteins involved in response to stimulus and immune system processes. Analysis of the metaproteome revealed significant individual-related as well as anatomic region-related (biogeographic features. Quantitative shotgun proteomics established the identity and confirmed the biogeographic association of 49 proteins (including 3 functional protein networks demarcating the proximal and distal colon. This robust and integrated proteomic approach is thus effective for identifying functional features of the human mucosal ecosystem, and a fresh understanding of the basic biology and disease processes at the MLI.

  1. Salinity-gradient energy driven microbial electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaohu; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a strong oxidant, is widely used in various chemical industries and environmental remediation processes. In this study, we developed an innovative method for cost-effective production of H2O2 by using a microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell (MREC). In the......Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a strong oxidant, is widely used in various chemical industries and environmental remediation processes. In this study, we developed an innovative method for cost-effective production of H2O2 by using a microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell (MREC......). In the MREC, electrical potential generated by the exoelectrogens and the salinity-gradient between salt and fresh water were utilized to drive the high-rate H2O2 production. Operational parameters such as air flow rate, pH, cathodic potential, flow rate of salt and fresh water were investigated. The optimal...... H2O2 production was observed at salt and fresh water flow rate of 0.5 mL min−1, air flow rate of 12–20 mL min−1, cathode potential of −0.485 ± 0.025 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The maximum H2O2 accumulated concentration of 778 ± 11 mg L−1 was obtained at corresponding production rate of 11.5 ± 0.5 mg L−1 h−1...

  2. Antifungal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in dental unit waterline disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    The concentration and composition of fungal flora in dental unit waterlines (DUWL) were evaluated. For this purpose, water samples from unit reservoirs and high-speed handpieces, and biofilm samples from the waterline walls from units were collected. Subsequently, analogous samples from DUWL were taken before and after disinfection using agent containing hydrogen peroxide. In the examined samples, the yeast-like fungi Candida albicans and Candida curvata were found. The following species of mould were also identified: Aspergillus amstelodami, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus glaucus group, Aspergillus (=Eurotium herbariorum) repens, Citromyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium (glabrum) frequentans, Penicillium pusillum, Penicillium turolense and Sclerotium sclerotiorum (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). Before disinfection, Candida curvata and Candida albicans constituted the greatest proportion of the total fungi in the reservoirs water; in the water of handpieces--Candida albicans and Aspergillus glaucus group; and in the biofilm samples--Aspergillus glaucus group and Candida albicans. After disinfection, in all 3 kinds of samples, Candida albicans prevailed, constituting from 31.2-85.7 % of the total fungi. The application of agent containing hydrogen peroxide caused a significant decrease both in the number of total fungi and individual fungal species, which confirms the product effectiveness in fungal decontamination of DUWL.

  3. INTERACTION OF ALDEHYDES DERIVED FROM LIPID PEROXIDATION AND MEMBRANE PROTEINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania ePizzimenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of compounds are formed during lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. Among them, bioactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxyalkenals, malondialdehyde (MDA and acrolein, have received particular attention since they have been considered as toxic messengers that can propagate and amplify oxidative injury. In the 4-hydroxyalkenal class, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE is the most intensively studied aldehyde, in relation not only to its toxic function, but also to its physiological role. Indeed, HNE can be found at low concentrations in human tissues and plasma and participates in the control of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, at low doses, HNE exerts an anti-cancer effect, by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and by inducing differentiation and/or apoptosis in various tumor cell lines. It is very likely that a substantial fraction of the effects observed in cellular responses, induced by HNE and related aldehydes, be mediated by their interaction with proteins, resulting in the formation of covalent adducts or in the modulation of their expression and/or activity. In this review we focus on membrane proteins affected by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, under physiological and pathological conditions.

  4. Lipid peroxidation is increased in tears from the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlloch-Navarro, Soledad; Franco, Ilenia; Sánchez-Vallejo, Violeta; Silvestre, Dolores; Romero, Francisco Javier; Miranda, María

    2013-10-01

    We describe a procedure in which tears, obtained from Schirmer strips, are used to measure a marker of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA). We also compared the levels of proteins and MDA in tears from two groups of people: young adults (18-30 years old) and elderly adults (65-85 years old), because the data related to total protein concentration of human tears vary widely and because the majority of people over the age of 65 experience some symptoms of dry eyes and this condition has been recognized as an oxidative stress-induced disease. Our results show a significant difference in the protein concentration of the tears taken from the two age categories, younger adults (18-30 years old) and older adults (65-85 years old). Herein, we report for the first time an increase in MDA concentrations determined by HPLC in human tears based on age. It is possible that alterations in the tear lipid layer may lead to an increase in lipid peroxidation. Further studies are needed to understand the nature and function of tear film and stability in order to obtain new methods to analyze tears in patients with different diseases. In this sense, it would be interesting to compare MDA concentration in tears from control subjects and from people with meibomian gland dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y L; Chen, C Y; Sheu, J Y; Chuang, I C; Pan, J H; Lin, T H

    1999-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to hexavalent chromium induces lipid peroxidation in human. This study involved 25 chrome-plating factory workers and a reference group of 28 control subjects. The whole-blood and urinary chromium concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the activities of protective enzymes were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. In the chrome-plating workers, the mean concentrations of chromium in blood and urine were 5.98 microg/L and 5.25 microg/g creatinine, respectively; the mean concentrations of MDA in blood and urine were 1.7 micromol/L and 2.24 micromol/g creatinine. The concentrations of both chromium and MDA in blood and urine were significantly higher in the chromium-exposed workers. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were not markedly different between control and exposed workers. Data suggest that MDA may be used as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure. Antioxidant enzymic activities are not a suitable marker for chromium exposure.

  6. Dissolution of ion exchange resin by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    The resin dissolution process was conducted successfully in full-scale equipment at the SRL Semiworks. A solution containing 0.001M Fe 2+ , or Fe 3+ , and 3 vol % H 2 O 2 in 0.1M HNO 3 is sufficient to dissolve up to 40 vol % resin slurry (Dowex 50W-X8). Foaming and pressurization can be eliminated by maintaining the dissolution temperature below 99 0 C. The recommended dissolution temperature range is 85 to 90 0 C. Premixing hydrogen peroxide with all reactants will not create a safety hazard, but operating with a continual feed of hydrogen peroxide is recommended to control the dissolution rate. An air sparging rate of 1.0 to 1.5 scfm will provide sufficient mixing. Spent resin from chemical separation contains DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) residue, and the resin must be washed with 0.1M NH 4 OH to remove excess DTPA before dissolution. Gamma irradiation of resin up to 4 kW-hr/L did not change the dissolution rate significantly

  7. Formulation and Characterization of Benzoyl Peroxide Gellified Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Naresh Kumar; Bharti, Pratibha; Mahant, Sheefali; Rao, Rekha

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out with the objective of formulating a gellified emulsion of benzoyl peroxide, an anti-acne agent. The formulations were prepared using four different vegetable oils, viz. almond oil, jojoba oil, sesame oil, and wheat germ oil, owing to their emollient properties. The idea was to overcome the skin irritation and dryness caused by benzoyl peroxide, making the formulation more tolerable. The gellified emulsions were characterized for their homogeneity, rheology, spreadability, drug content, and stability. In vitro permeation studies were performed to check the drug permeation through rat skin. The formulations were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their acute skin irritation potential. The results were compared with those obtained for the marketed formulation. Later, the histopathological examination of the skin treated with various formulations was carried out. Formulation F3 was found to have caused a very mild dysplastic change to the epidermis. On the other hand, the marketed formulation led to the greatest dysplastic change. Hence, it was concluded that formulation F3, containing sesame oil (6%w/w), was the optimized formulation. It exhibited the maximum drug release and anti-microbial activity, in addition to the least skin irritation potential. PMID:23264949

  8. Determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodiroga Milanka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodometric and permanganometric titrations were used for determination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the mixture. Two procedures were described and compared. Titrations could be done in only one vessel, in the same reaction mixture, when iodometric titration of peracetic acid was continued after the permanganometric titration of H2O2, (procedure A. Peracetic acid and H2O2, as oxidizing agents, reacted with potassium iodide in an acid medium, evolving iodine. This reaction was used for the quantitative iodometric determination of total peroxide in procedure B. H2O2 reacted with potassium permanganate in acid medium, but peracetic acid did not react under the same conditions. That made possible the selective permanganometric determination of H2O2 in the presence of peracetic acid. The procedure B was performed in two titration vessels (KV=3.4% for peracetic acid, 0.6% for H2O2. The procedure A for iodometric determination of peracetic acid in one titration vessel after permanganometric titration of H2O2 was recommended (KV=2,5% for peracetic acid, 0,45% for H2O2.

  9. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Karadas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n=10: AS: no whitening (negative control, with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwash; SC: Scope White mouthwash; and OP group: 10% CP Opalescence PF (positive control. Color measurements were carried out with a spectrophotometer before staining, after staining, and on the 7th, 28th, and 56th day of the whitening period. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The color change (ΔE was significantly greater in all the groups compared to that of the AS group. After 56 days, no significant differences were found among the mouthwash products with respect to color change (P>0.05. The whiteness of the teeth treated with the mouthwashes increased significantly over time. Nevertheless, the color change achieved with the mouthwashes was significantly lower than that achieved with the 10% CP at-home bleaching gel.

  10. Inhibition of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation by means of gallic polydisulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losev, Yu.P.; Amadyan, M.G.; Oganesyan, N.M.; Fedulov, A.S.; Abramyan, A.K.; Shagoyan, A.G.; Khachkavanktsyan, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Inhibition of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation by means of gallic polydisulphade has been studied. Rats were exposed to X-rays in doses 4,8 and 5,25 Gy. Lipid peroxidation was analysed in blood plasma, membranes of erythrocytes and homogenates of liver and spleen tissues of rats. Polydisulphide of gallic acid was used as inhibitor of lipid peroxidation because of its effective antioxidant properties as have been reported previously. It has been demonstrated that gallic disulphide exhibited high inhibition efficiency in conditions of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation due to the effect of intra-molecular synergism

  11. Changes in mitochondrial function by lipid peroxidation and their inhibition by biscoclaurin alkaloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Arita, T.; Inouye, B.; Nakazawa, T.; Utsumi, K.

    1981-01-01

    During in vitro investigation of changes in mitochondrial function accompanying lipid peroxidation, it was found that cepharanthine, a biscoclaurin alkaloid, protects against such change. Results obtained were as follows: (1) Fe2+ induces lipid peroxidation of isolated mitochondria, resulting in diminished oxidative phosphorylation. (2) This diminishment largely depends on deterioration of ion compartmentation of the membrane and an increase in latent ATPase activity. (3) The Fe2+-induced deterioration in ion compartmentation is inhibited by cepharanthine. (4) Cepharanthine inhibits the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+. (5) Cepharanthine inhibits the lipid peroxidation of soybean lecithin liposomes by 60Co-irradiation

  12. Ultraviolet radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane: modification by capsaicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, A. K.; Ghosh, J. J.; Mandal, T. K. [University College of Science, Department of Biochemistry, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700-019 (India)

    1993-07-01

    Ultraviolet-radiation has been reported to cause lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane. In the present study, treatment with capsaicin, (8-methyl-n-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), the pungent principle of red hot pepper, was shown to modify UV-induced lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane. Treatment with low doses of capsaicin (less than 0.1 μg/mL of phosphatidyl choline liposome) produced a significant increase in UV-induced lipid peroxidation, while high doses (0.1-0.5 μg/mL of PC liposome) caused a significant decrease of UV-induced peroxidation.

  13. Ultraviolet radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane: modification by capsaicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, A.K.; Ghosh, J.J.; Mandal, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet-radiation has been reported to cause lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane. In the present study, treatment with capsaicin, (8-methyl-n-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), the pungent principle of red hot pepper, was shown to modify UV-induced lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane. Treatment with low doses of capsaicin (less than 0.1 μg/mL of phosphatidyl choline liposome) produced a significant increase in UV-induced lipid peroxidation, while high doses (0.1-0.5 μg/mL of PC liposome) caused a significant decrease of UV-induced peroxidation

  14. The effect of hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet irradiation on non-sporing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, C.E.; Waites, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A kill of 99.99% was obtained in cell suspensions of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis by incubation with hydrogen peroxide 1.0%(w/v) for 75 and 180 min respectively. The same kill was produced by 30s irradiation with ultraviolet (u.v.) light in the presence of hydrogen peroxide 1.0% (w/v). This simultaneous treatment with u.v. and hydrogen peroxide produced a synergistic kill at least 30-fold greater than that produced by irradiation of cell suspensions of Esch. coli with or without subsequent incubation with hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  15. Functional characterization of water transport and cellular localization of three aquaporin paralogs in the salmonid intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Olesen, Jesper H; Bedal, Konstanze

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal water absorption is greatly enhanced in salmonids upon acclimation from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW); however, the molecular mechanism for water transport is unknown. We conducted a pharmacological characterization of water absorption in the rainbow trout intestine along......%), 0.1 ouabain (72%), and 0.1 bumetanide (82%) suggesting that active transport, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Na(+), K(+), 2Cl(-)-co-transport are involved in establishing the driving gradient for water transport. J(v) was also inhibited by 1 mmol L(-1) HgCl(2), serosally (23% in M and 44% in P), mucosally...... (27% in M), or both (61% in M and 58% in P), suggesting involvement of both apical and basolateral aquaporins in water transport. The inhibition was antagonized by 5 mmol L(-1) mercaptoethanol. By comparison, 10 mmol L(-1) mucosal tetraethylammonium, an inhibitor of certain aquaporins, inhibited J...

  16. Toxin-mediated effects on the innate mucosal defenses: implications for enteric vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Francis, David H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2009-01-01

    mucosal barrier as a key step in enteric pathogen survival. We review key observations relevant to the roles of LT and cholera toxin in protective immunity and the effects of these toxins on innate mucosal defenses. We suggest either that toxin-mediated fluid secretion mechanically disrupts the mucus...... layer or that toxins interfere with innate mucosal defenses by other means. Such a breach gives pathogens access to the enterocyte, leading to binding and pathogenicity by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and other organisms. Given the common exposure to LT(+) ETEC by humans visiting or residing...... unexpectedly broad protective effects against LT(+) ETEC and mixed infections when using a toxin-based enteric vaccine. If toxins truly exert barrier-disruptive effects as a key step in pathogenesis, then a return to classic toxin-based vaccine strategies for enteric disease is warranted and can be expected...

  17. Digital gastrointestinal imaging: Effect of pixel size of subtle mucosal abnormalities on observer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastan, D.J.; Ackerman, L.V.; Feczko, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographs from double-contrast colon examinations demonstrating subtle mucosal changes of inflammatory bowel disease and radiographs showing normal colon were digitized (0.1-mm, 0.2-mm, 0.4-mm and 0.8-mm pixel sizes). Ten radiologists interpreted the laser-printed images. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed. The results indicated that (1) the sensitivity of radiography in detecting subtle mucosal abnormalities improved as resolution improved; (2) more experience readers performed remarkably well even at the poorer levels of resolution; (3) the resolution necessary for evaluating the colonic mucosa was less than expected; and (4) at low noise levels, conventional television fluoroscopy may have sufficient resolution for mucosal evaluation

  18. Assessment of intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation employing nuclear methods in murine mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Rafaela M.; Takenaka, Isabella K.T.M.; Barros, Patricia A.V.; Moura, Livia P.; Contarini, Sara M.L.; Amorim, Juliana M.; Castilho, Raquel O.; Leite, Camila M.A.; Cardoso, Valbert N.; Diniz, Simone Odilia F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Mg (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Mucositis affects approximately 80% of patients who receive chemotherapy combinations. The lesions are painful, restrict food intake and make patients more susceptible to systemic infections. Some agents and strategies are being studied for controlling mucositis, none of them is used in clinical practice. In Minas Gerais, many studies have addressed the popular use of the plant Arrabidaea chica in the form of tea, to treat intestinal cramps and diarrhea, the main symptoms of mucositis. Objective: To evaluate the potential of Arrabidaea chica extract in the management of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, using the experimental model of gut mucositis induced by 5-Fluorouracila (5-FU). Methods: The UFMG Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (CETEA/UFMG) approved this study (nº 411/2015). Male BALB/c mice between 6-8 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n=9) as follows: 1. Control (CTL) - oral administration of saline solution (10 days); 2. A. chica (AC) - oral administration of A. chica extract (10 days); 3. Mucositis (MUC) - underwent mucositis (5-FU) (10 days); 4. Mucositis + A. chica (MUC+ AC) - underwent mucositis and received oral administration of A. chica extract (10 days). At the 7{sup th} day, mice in the MUC and MUC + AC groups received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection containing 300 mg/kg 5-FU, whereas the animals of the CTL and AC groups received a saline IP injection. After 72 hours (10{sup th} experimental day), intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the radioactivity diffusion in the blood after oral administration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) and bacterial translocation was determined by measuring the radioactivity diffusion in the blood after oral administration of E. coli labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc). After 4 hours, the mice were euthanized and assessed for intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and

  19. Intragastric inulin as a measure of mucosal damage caused by aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmers, L.E. Jr.; Anderson, L.A.; Fall, M.M.; Alich, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to find a method of gastric mucosal damage assessment that yields consistent results, the experiments presented here employed the measurement of the movement of inulin out of the gastric contents into the stomach wall and vascular compartment as an estimate of mucosal damage. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were functionally nephrectomized and were administered a control or test solution containing 3H-inulin. The test solutions contained one of three doses of aspirin. Blood samples were taken at 15-min intervals over a 90-min exposure period. The stomach was removed from the animal and full-thickness tissue samples taken for measurement of 3H-inulin content. When the gastric mucosa was exposed to the test agents, there was a significantly greater accumulation of inulin in the body and antrum as well as in the plasma when compared to controls. We conclude that intragastric inulin can be employed to estimate gastric mucosal damage

  20. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Norimasa; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kuwabara, Chiaki; Aihara, Teruhito; Harada, Tamotsu; Imajo, Yoshinari; Ono, Koji; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  1. Assessment of intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation employing nuclear methods in murine mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Rafaela M.; Takenaka, Isabella K.T.M.; Barros, Patricia A.V.; Moura, Livia P.; Contarini, Sara M.L.; Amorim, Juliana M.; Castilho, Raquel O.; Leite, Camila M.A.; Cardoso, Valbert N.; Diniz, Simone Odilia F.

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Mucositis affects approximately 80% of patients who receive chemotherapy combinations. The lesions are painful, restrict food intake and make patients more susceptible to systemic infections. Some agents and strategies are being studied for controlling mucositis, none of them is used in clinical practice. In Minas Gerais, many studies have addressed the popular use of the plant Arrabidaea chica in the form of tea, to treat intestinal cramps and diarrhea, the main symptoms of mucositis. Objective: To evaluate the potential of Arrabidaea chica extract in the management of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, using the experimental model of gut mucositis induced by 5-Fluorouracila (5-FU). Methods: The UFMG Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (CETEA/UFMG) approved this study (nº 411/2015). Male BALB/c mice between 6-8 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n=9) as follows: 1. Control (CTL) - oral administration of saline solution (10 days); 2. A. chica (AC) - oral administration of A. chica extract (10 days); 3. Mucositis (MUC) - underwent mucositis (5-FU) (10 days); 4. Mucositis + A. chica (MUC+ AC) - underwent mucositis and received oral administration of A. chica extract (10 days). At the 7 th day, mice in the MUC and MUC + AC groups received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection containing 300 mg/kg 5-FU, whereas the animals of the CTL and AC groups received a saline IP injection. After 72 hours (10 th experimental day), intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the radioactivity diffusion in the blood after oral administration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) labelled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) and bacterial translocation was determined by measuring the radioactivity diffusion in the blood after oral administration of E. coli labelled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). After 4 hours, the mice were euthanized and assessed for intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and intestinal histology

  2. Mucosal IgA Responses: Damaged in Established HIV Infection—Yet, Effective Weapon against HIV Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Kulkarni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection not only destroys CD4+ T cells but also inflicts serious damage to the B-cell compartment, such as lymphadenopathy, destruction of normal B-cell follicle architecture, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, increased apoptosis of B cells, and irreversible loss of memory B-cell responses with advanced HIV disease. Subepithelial B cells and plasma cells are also affected, which results in loss of mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies. This leaves the mucosal barrier vulnerable to bacterial translocation. The ensuing immune activation in mucosal tissues adds fuel to the fire of local HIV replication. We postulate that compromised mucosal antibody defenses also facilitate superinfection of HIV-positive individuals with new HIV strains. This in turn sets the stage for the generation of circulating recombinant forms of HIV. What can the mucosal B-cell compartment contribute to protect a healthy, uninfected host against mucosal HIV transmission? Here, we discuss proof-of-principle studies we have performed using passive mucosal immunization, i.e., topical administration of preformed anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs as IgG1, dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1, and dIgA2 isotypes, alone or in combination. Our data indicate that mucosally applied anti-HIV envelope mAbs can provide potent protection against mucosal transmission of simian-human immunodeficiency virus. Our review also discusses the induction of mucosal antibody defenses by active vaccination and potential strategies to interrupt the vicious cycle of bacterial translocation, immune activation, and stimulation of HIV replication in individuals with damaged mucosal barriers.

  3. A characterization of anaerobic colonization and associated mucosal adaptations in the undiseased ileal pouch.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, F M

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: The resolution of pouchitis with metronidazole points to an anaerobic aetiology. Pouchitis is mainly seen in patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (UCP). We have recently found that sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), a species of strict anaerobe, colonize UCP exclusively. Herein, we aimed to correlate levels of different bacterial species (including SRB) with mucosal inflammation and morphology. METHODS: Following ethical approval, fresh faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were taken from 9 patients with UCP and 5 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis pouches (FAPP). For the purposes of comparison, faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were also taken from the stomas of 7 of the 9 patients with UC (UCS). Colonization by four types of strict anaerobes (SRB, Clostridium perfringens, Bifidobacteria and Bacteroides) as well as by three types of facultative anaerobes (Enterococci, Coliforms and Lactobacilli) was evaluated. Inflammatory scores and mucosal morphology were assessed histologically in a blinded fashion by a pathologist. RESULTS: In general, strict anaerobes predominated over facultative in the UCP (P = 0.041). SRB were present in UCP exclusively. Even after exclusion of SRB from total bacterial counts, strict anaerobes still predominated. In the UCS, facultative anaerobes predominated. Strict and facultative anaerobes were present at similar levels in the FAPP. Enterococci were present at significantly reduced levels in the UCP when compared with the UCS (P = 0.031). When levels of SRB and other anaerobic species were individually correlated with mucosal inflammation and morphology, no trends were observed. CONCLUSION: We have previously identified that SRB exclusively colonize UCP. In addition we have now identified a novel increase in the strict\\/facultative anaerobic ratio within the UCP compared to UCS. These stark differences in bacterial colonization, however, appear to have limited impact on mucosal inflammation or morphology.

  4. Use of Curcumin Mouthrinse in Radio-Chemotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Karthikeya; Guledgud, Mahima V; Kulkarni, P K; Keshari, Deepika; Tayal, Srishti

    2015-08-01

    Oral Mucositis is a complex and distinct pathobiologic entity resulting in injuries in mucosa that is a common complication in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) and radiation therapy (RT). Phytochemicals, such as Curcumin, turmeric extract, has attracted great attention for its therapeutic benefits in clinical oncology due to its chemopreventive, antitumoral, chemosensibilizing and radiosensibilizing activities against various types of cancers and the complications associated with their management. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of curcumin mouthwash in the management of Oral Mucositis in cancer patients undergoing radio-chemotherapy. The research group consisted of 20 adult cancer patients undergoing radio-chemotherapy at the Regional Oncology Centre, who were evaluated for signs and symptoms of oral mucositis and then randomly divided into two groups. Standard preventive oral care i.e. chlorhexidine mouthwash 0.2% was given to one group while the other group was provided with freshly prepared curcumin mouthwash; each to be used thrice daily. Oral mucositis was assessed at days 0, 10 and 20. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale, the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS), and a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS; patient reporting scale of 0-10) were used. Adverse events were tracked. Descriptive statistics, Independent sample t-test and repeated measure ANOVA test were performed. Statistically significant difference was found in the NRS (p=0.000), Erythema (p=0.050), ulceration (p=0.000) and WHO scores (p=0.003) between the two groups. Curcumin was found to be better than chlorhexidine mouth wash in terms of rapid wound healing and better patient compliance in management of radio-chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. No oral or systemic complications were reported.

  5. Use of atropine to reduce mucosal eversion during intestinal resection and anastomosis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrodnia, Marta; Hauptman, Joe; Walshaw, Richard

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether atropine altered the degree of mucosal eversion during jejunal resection and anastomosis in the dog. Part I: Prospective, blinded, randomized, controlled study using a therapeutic dose (0.04 mg/kg systemic) of atropine. Part II: Prospective, unblinded, assigned, controlled study using a pharmacologic (0.04 mg/kg local arterial) dose of atropine. Part I: Twenty-two young adult female Beagle dogs used during a nonsurvival third-year veterinary student surgical laboratory (small intestinal resection and anastomosis). Part II: Ten young adult female Beagle dogs used immediately after completion of a nonsurvival third-year veterinary student orthopedic surgical laboratory. Part I: Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either atropine (0.04 mg/kg), or an equal volume of saline, given intramuscularly (premedication) and again intravenously prior to intestinal resection. Part II: In each dog, atropine (0.04 mg/kg)/saline was alternately given in the proximal/distal jejunum. Part I: There was no clinically or statistically significant difference between systemic atropine and saline solution on the degree of jejunal mucosal eversion after resection. Part II: There was a statistically significant decrease in jejunal mucosal eversion with atropine compared with saline solution when injected into a local jejunal artery. Systemic atropine (0.04 mg/kg) does not alter the degree of jejunal mucosal eversion during resection and anastomosis. Jejunal intraarterial atropine (0.04 mg/kg) reduced jejunal mucosal eversion during resection and anastomosis. The clinical usefulness and consequences of jejunal arterial atropine administration to reduce mucosal eversion remain to be determined. Copyright 2003 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  6. Systematic review of oral cryotherapy for management of oral mucositis caused by cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Douglas E; Ohrn, Kerstin; Bowen, Joanne; Fliedner, Monica; Lees, Judith; Loprinzi, Charles; Mori, Takehiko; Osaguona, Anthony; Weikel, Dianna S; Elad, Sharon; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review analyzed the strength of the literature and defined clinical practice guidelines for the use of oral cryotherapy for the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis caused by cancer therapy. A systematic review on relevant oral cryotherapy studies indexed prior to 31 December 2010 was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society for Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) using OVID/MEDLINE, with publications selected for review based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings from the reviewed studies were integrated into guidelines based on the overall level of evidence for each intervention. Guidelines were classified into three types: recommendation, suggestion, or no guideline possible. Twenty-two clinical studies and two meta-analyses were analyzed. Results were compared with the MASCC/ISOO guidelines published in 2007. The recommendation for the use of oral cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis in patients receiving bolus fluorouracil (5-FU) was maintained, in agreement with the 2007 guidelines. A suggestion for use of oral cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis in patients receiving high-dose melphalan as conditioning regimen with or without total body irradiation for HCST was revised from the 2007 guidelines. No guideline was possible for any other intervention, due to insufficient evidence. The evidence continues to support the use of oral cryotherapy for prevention of oral mucositis in patients receiving bolus 5-FU chemotherapy or high-dose melphalan. This intervention is consistent with the MASCC/ISOO guidelines published in 2007. The literature is limited by the fact that utilization of a double-blind study design is not feasible. Future studies that compare efficacy of oral cryotherapy with other mucositis agents in patients receiving chemotherapy with relatively short plasma half-lives would be useful.

  7. Novel approach to gastric mucosal defect repair using fresh amniotic membrane allograft in dogs (experimental study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghali, Haithem A; AbdElKader, Naglaa A; Khattab, Marwa S; AbuBakr, Huda O

    2017-10-18

    Gastric mucosal defect could result from several causative factors including the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Helicobacter pylori infection, gastrointestinal and spinal cord diseases, and neoplasia. This study was performed to achieve a novel simple, inexpensive, and effective surgical technique for the repair of gastric mucosal defect. Six adult male mongrel dogs were divided into two groups (three dogs each). In the control positive group (C + ve), dogs were subjected to surgical induction of gastric mucosal defect and then treated using traditional medicinal treatment for such a condition. In the amniotic membrane (AM) group, dogs were subjected to the same operation and then fresh AM allograft was applied. Clinical, endoscopic, biochemical (serum protein and lipid and pepsin activity in gastric juice), histopathological, and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed. Regarding endoscopic examination, there was no sign of inflammatory reaction around the grafted area in the AM group compared to the C + ve group. The leukocytic infiltration in the gastric ulcer was well detected in the control group and was less observed in the AM group. In the AM group, the concentrations of both protein and lipid profiles were nearly the same as those in serum samples taken preoperatively at zero time, which indicated that the AM grafting acted the same as gastric mucosa. The re-epithelization of the gastric ulcer in the C + ve group was not yet detected at 21 days, while in the AM group it was well observed covering most of the gastric ulcer. AM accelerated the re-epithelization of the gastric ulcer. The fibrous connective tissue and the precursor of collagen (COL IA1) were poorly detected in the gastric ulcer with AM application. Using fresh AM allograft for repairing gastric mucosal defect in dogs showed great impact as a novel method to achieve optimum reconstruction of the gastric mucosal architecture and restoration of pre

  8. High levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas: effects on enamel and pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, George; Zaidel, Lynette; Lin, Nora; Stranick, Michael; Bagley, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Limited data are available to assess the safety of high levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hydrogen peroxide on enamel microhardness, pulp penetration, and enamel morphology. Colgate Platinum Professional Overnight Whitening System (Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Canton, MA, USA) (10% carbamide peroxide, equivalent to 3.5% hydrogen peroxide) was compared with two prototype formulations containing either 7.0% or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide. In the pulp chamber studies, human extracted teeth were exposed to 3.5%, 7.0%, or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes, 4 hours, or 7 hours. Microhardness, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atomic force microscopy evaluations were made from enamel blocks cut from human extracted molars. The enamel blocks were evaluated following 14 7-hour treatments (98 h total). At 7 hours' post-treatment, hydrogen peroxide penetrated the pulp chamber at 23.12 +/- 10.09, 24.58 +/- 6.90, and 26.39 +/- 5.43 microg for 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% hydrogen peroxide, respectively. With regard to enamel morphology, pulp penetration, microhardness, and elemental composition, no statistically significant differences were observed between treatment groups following 98 hours of treatment. Hydrogen peroxide does not adversely affect enamel morphology or microhardness. The levels recovered in pulp indicate that hydrogen peroxide is not expected to inhibit pulpal enzymes. Overnight tray products containing levels of hydrogen peroxide of 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% are not expected to adversely affect the enamel or pulpal enzymes. Additional safety studies are needed to assess the potential for tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation.

  9. Catalyst-free activation of peroxides under visible LED light irradiation through photoexcitation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yaowen [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Shenzhen Research Institute of Wuhan University, Shenzhen, 518057 (China); Li, Yixi; Yao, Linyu; Li, Simiao; Liu, Jin [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Zhang, Hui, E-mail: eeng@whu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Shenzhen Research Institute of Wuhan University, Shenzhen, 518057 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Persulfate could decolorize Rhodamine B (RhB) directly via non-radical reactions. • LED lamps emitting white light were utilized as the visible light source. • Dyes could activate peroxides through photoexcitation pathway. • Decolorization of dyes and production of radicals were achieved simultaneously. • The catalyst-free peroxide/dye/Vis process was effective in a broad pH range. - Abstract: Catalysts are known to activate peroxides to generate active radicals (i.e., hydroxyl radical (·OH) and sulfate radical (SO{sub 4}·{sup −})) under certain conditions, but the activation of peroxides in the absence of catalysts under visible light irradiation has been rarely reported. This work demonstrates a catalyst-free activation of peroxides for the generation of ·OH and/or SO{sub 4}·{sup −} through photoexcited electron transfer from organic dyes to peroxides under visible LED light irradiation, where Rhodamine B (RhB) and Eosin Y (EY) were selected as model dyes. The formation of ·OH and/or SO{sub 4}·{sup −} in the reactions and the electron transfer from the excited dyes to peroxides were validated via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The performance of the peroxide/dye/Vis process was demonstrated to be altered depending on the target substrate. Meanwhile, the peroxide/dye/Vis process was effective for simultaneous decolorization of dyes and production of active radicals under neutral even or basic conditions. The findings of this study clarified a novel photoexcitation pathway for catalyst-free activation of peroxides under visible light irradiation, which could avoid the secondary metal ion (dissolved or leached) pollution from the metal-based catalysts and expand the application range of the peroxide-based catalytic process.

  10. Acute mucosal pathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus is independent of viral dose in vaginally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egan Erin A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mucosal pathogenesis of HIV has been shown to be an important feature of infection and disease progression. HIV-1 infection causes depletion of intestinal lamina propria CD4+ T cells (LPL, therefore, intestinal CD4+ T cell preservation may be a useful correlate of protection in evaluating vaccine candidates. Vaccine studies employing the cat/FIV and macaque/SIV models frequently use high doses of parenterally administered challenge virus to ensure high plasma viremia in control animals. However, it is unclear if loss of mucosal T cells would occur regardless of initial viral inoculum dose. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of viral dose on mucosal leukocytes and associated innate and adaptive immune responses. Results Cats were vaginally inoculated with a high, middle or low dose of cell-associated and cell-free FIV. PBMC, serum and plasma were assessed every two weeks with tissues assessed eight weeks following infection. We found that irrespective of mucosally administered viral dose, FIV infection was induced in all cats. However, viremia was present in only half of the cats, and viral dose was unrelated to the development of viremia. Importantly, regardless of viral dose, all cats experienced significant losses of intestinal CD4+ LPL and CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL. Innate immune responses by CD56+CD3- NK cells correlated with aviremia and apparent occult infection but did not protect mucosal T cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in viremic cats were more likely to produce cytokines in response to Gag stimulation, whereas aviremic cats T cells tended to produce cytokines in response to Env stimulation. However, while cell-mediated immune responses in aviremic cats may have helped reduce viral replication, they could not be correlated to the levels of viremia. Robust production of anti-FIV antibodies was positively correlated with the magnitude of viremia. Conclusions Our results indicate

  11. Sinonasal mucosal melanoma extended to nose bridge: A one-time reconstruction treatment report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sinonasal mucosal melanoma is a rare and highly aggressive tumour. This tumour often carries a poor prognosis because of local invasion and early distant metastasis. It's, in fact, an aggressive, fortunately rare, disease. It's more common among population in their seventies, with a prolonged course due to innocuous symptoms. We report a case of sinonasal mucosal melanoma in a 56-years old male who presented with a brownish sinonasal mass involving right nasal fossa, swelling and spontaneous epistaxis. We report this case for the one-time reconstruction treatment performed by our team.

  12. Mucosal bridges of the upper esophagus after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papazian, A.; Capron, J.P.; Ducroix, J.P.; Dupas, J.L.; Quenum, C.; Besson, P.

    1983-05-01

    A 47-yr-old man developed dysphagia 4 yr after mediastinal radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. X-ray series, fiberoptic endoscopy, and computerized transverse tomography showed mucosal bridges in the upper esophagus. Histologically, these bridges were constituted from normal epithelium overlying a chronic inflammatory lamina propria, without evidence of Hodgkin's disease recurrence or of squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing was improved by endoscopic electrocoagulation and Eder-Puestow dilatations. Several arguments favor the hypothesis that these mucosal bridges were the late sequelae of radiation esophagitis.

  13. Systematic review of natural agents for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarom, Noam; Ariyawardana, Anura; Hovan, Allan

    2013-01-01

    /or conflicting evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Of the various natural agents reviewed here, the available evidence supported a guideline only for two agents: a suggestion in favor of zinc and a recommendation against glutamine, in the treatment settings listed above. Well-designed studies of other natural agents......Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to review the available literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of natural agents for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational...

  14. Effect of mucolytic pretreatment on gastric mucosal coating with barium sulfate in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, I.; Nevalainen, T.; Maeki, J.; Soederstroem, K.-O.

    1980-01-01

    Freshly prepared isolated rat stomachs were used to examine the adherence of barium sulfate particles to the mucosal surface by scanning electron microscopy. The stomachs were pretreated with sodium bicarbonate alone or in connection with N-acetyl-L-cysteine and then treated with barium sulfate specially designed for double contrast examination of the stomach. The best adhesion of the contrast medium was obtained when the mucosa was pretreated with both the alkaline and mucolytic agent indicating that, for the optimum adherence of the contrast medium, the mucosal surface must be as clean as possible. (Auth.)

  15. Effectiveness of India ink as a long-term colonic mucosal marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennerty, M B; Sampliner, R E; Hixson, L J; Garewal, H S

    1992-01-01

    We prospectively studied the use of India ink as a long-term or "permanent" mucosal marker as part of a study investigating the natural history of diminutive distal colorectal polyps. Twenty-six patients had 32 India ink tatoos implanted. The tatoo sites of the 19 patients who were followed at least 6 months continued to display intensely stained mucosa at the original sites. No side effects or complications were encountered. India ink appears to be a safe and effective long-term marker for colonic mucosal lesions.

  16. Mucosal bridges of the upper esophagus after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazian, A.; Capron, J.P.; Ducroix, J.P.; Dupas, J.L.; Quenum, C.; Besson, P.

    1983-01-01

    A 47-yr-old man developed dysphagia 4 yr after mediastinal radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. X-ray series, fiberoptic endoscopy, and computerized transverse tomography showed mucosal bridges in the upper esophagus. Histologically, these bridges were constituted from normal epithelium overlying a chronic inflammatory lamina propria, without evidence of Hodgkin's disease recurrence or of squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing was improved by endoscopic electrocoagulation and Eder-Puestow dilatations. Several arguments favor the hypothesis that these mucosal bridges were the late sequelae of radiation esophagitis

  17. Chemotherapy: the effect of oral cryotherapy on the development of mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagözoğlu, Serife; Filiz Ulusoy, Mehlika

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of oral cryotherapy on the development of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in patients administered combined chemotherapy. Mucositis has been of interest to scientists for more than 20 years. Unfortunately, this has not resulted in the development of standard procedures for prevention and management. To cope with this side-effect and to prevent opportunistic infections that may emerge during treatment, attempts are taken to provide preventative and comfort measures. In this context, cryotherapy (oral cooling) has become popular as a cheap and readily applicable method in preventing the developing due the rapid infusion of chemotherapy agents, or decreasing its severity. Study involved 60 patients, 30 of whom were in the study group and 30 in the control group. Ice cubes at a size that can be moved easily in the mouth and whose corners have been smoothed in order that they will not cause irritation in the mouth has been used in oral cryotherapy in the study group. Oral chemotherapy was initiated five minutes before chemotherapy and maintained during venous infusions of etoposide (Vepesid), platinol (Cisplatin), mitomycin (Mitomycin-C) and vinblastin (Velbe) depending on the chemotherapy course. According to Patient-Judged Mucositis Grading, the rate of mucositis is 36.7% in study group and 90.0% in control group, the difference between two groups being statistically significant (P cryotherapy makes an important contribution to the protection of oral health by reducing the mucositis score according to patient- and physician-judged mucositis score and by increasing oral pH values. Aggressive cancer therapy places patients at greater risk for oral complications and treatment-related consequences. Unfortunately, prevention and/or treatment of such oral sequelae have often become overlooked as priorities of the treatment team. Effective approaches for the prevention or treatment of oral mucositis have not been standardized

  18. Identification of airway mucosal type 2 inflammation by using clinical biomarkers in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkoff, Philip E; Laviolette, Michel; Singh, Dave; FitzGerald, J Mark; Kelsen, Steven; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste M; Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Berger, Patrick; Kline, Joel N; Chupp, Geoffrey; Susulic, Vedrana S; Barnathan, Elliot S; Baribaud, Frédéric; Loza, Matthew J

    2017-09-01

    The Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) study profiled patients with mild, moderate, and severe asthma and nonatopic healthy control subjects. We explored this data set to define type 2 inflammation based on airway mucosal IL-13-driven gene expression and how this related to clinically accessible biomarkers. IL-13-driven gene expression was evaluated in several human cell lines. We then defined type 2 status in 25 healthy subjects, 28 patients with mild asthma, 29 patients with moderate asthma, and 26 patients with severe asthma based on airway mucosal expression of (1) CCL26 (the most differentially expressed gene), (2) periostin, or (3) a multigene IL-13 in vitro signature (IVS). Clinically accessible biomarkers included fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) values, blood eosinophil (bEOS) counts, serum CCL26 expression, and serum CCL17 expression. Expression of airway mucosal CCL26, periostin, and IL-13-IVS all facilitated segregation of subjects into type 2-high and type 2-low asthmatic groups, but in the ADEPT study population CCL26 expression was optimal. All subjects with high airway mucosal CCL26 expression and moderate-to-severe asthma had Feno values (≥35 ppb) and/or high bEOS counts (≥300 cells/mm 3 ) compared with a minority (36%) of subjects with low airway mucosal CCL26 expression. A combination of Feno values, bEOS counts, and serum CCL17 and CCL26 expression had 100% positive predictive value and 87% negative predictive value for airway mucosal CCL26-high status. Clinical variables did not differ between subjects with type 2-high and type 2-low status. Eosinophilic inflammation was associated with but not limited to airway mucosal type 2 gene expression. A panel of clinical biomarkers accurately classified type 2 status based on airway mucosal CCL26, periostin, or IL-13-IVS gene expression. Use of Feno values, bEOS counts, and serum marker levels (eg, CCL26 and CCL17) in combination might allow patient

  19. Fibrous Catalyst-Enhanced Acanthamoeba Disinfection by Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilvington, Simon; Winterton, Lynn

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) disinfection systems are contact-lens-patient problem solvers. The current one-step, criterion-standard version has been widely used since the mid-1980s, without any significant improvement. This work identifies a potential next-generation, one-step H2O2, not based on the solution formulation but rather on a case-based peroxide catalyst. One-step H2O2 systems are widely used for contact lens disinfection. However, antimicrobial efficacy can be limited because of the rapid neutralization of the peroxide from the catalytic component of the systems. We studied whether the addition of an iron-containing catalyst bound to a nonfunctional propylene:polyacryonitrile fabric matrix could enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of these one-step H2O2 systems. Bausch + Lomb PeroxiClear and AOSept Plus (both based on 3% H2O2 with a platinum-neutralizing disc) were the test systems. These were tested with and without the presence of the catalyst fabric using Acanthamoeba cysts as the challenge organism. After 6 hours' disinfection, the number of viable cysts was determined. In other studies, the experiments were also conducted with biofilm formed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Elizabethkingia meningoseptica bacteria. Both control systems gave approximately 1-log10 kill of Acanthamoeba cysts compared with 3.0-log10 kill in the presence of the catalyst (P catalyst compared with ≥3.0-log10 kill when it was omitted. In 30 rounds' recurrent usage, the experiments, in which the AOSept Plus system was subjected to 30 rounds of H2O2 neutralization with or without the presence of catalytic fabric, showed no loss in enhanced biocidal efficacy of the material. The catalytic fabric was also shown to not retard or increase the rate of H2O2 neutralization. We have demonstrated the catalyst significantly increases the efficacy of one-step H2O2 disinfection systems using highly resistant Acanthamoeba cysts and bacterial biofilm. Incorporating the catalyst into the

  20. Maize plasma membrane aquaporin ZmPIP2;5, but not ZmPIP1;2, facilitates transmembrane diffusion of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Gerd P; Heinen, Robert B; Berny, Marie C; Chaumont, François

    2014-01-01

    Plant aquaporins play important roles in transmembrane water transport processes, but some also facilitate the diffusion of other small uncharged solutes ranging from gases to metalloids. Recent evidence suggests that the transmembrane movement of hydrogen peroxide, an intra- and intercellular multifunctional signaling and defense compound, can be regulated by aquaporins. We addressed the question whether maize aquaporins belonging to the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily facilitate hydrogen peroxide diffusion using heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We showed that ZmPIP proteins belonging to the PIP1 and PIP2 groups were significantly expressed in yeast cells only after codon optimization of their cDNA. In accordance with previous localization studies in oocytes and plants, ZmPIP1;2 was mainly retained in intracellular membranes, while ZmPIP2;5 was localized to the plasma membrane. However, upon co-expression with ZmPIP2;5, ZmPIP1;2 was re-localized to the plasma membrane. Using a non-functional plasma membrane-localized ZmPIP2;5 mutant to deliver ZmPIP1;2 to the plasma membrane, we demonstrated that, in contrast to wild type ZmPIP2;5, ZmPIP1;2 was not permeable to hydrogen peroxide. Our study further highlighted the fact that, when using the yeast system, which is widely employed to study substrates for plant aquaporins and other transporters, although positive transport assay results allow direct conclusions to be drawn regarding solute permeability, negative results require additional control experiments to show that the protein is expressed and localized correctly before concluding on the lack of transport activity. © 2013.