WorldWideScience

Sample records for mouse respiratory system

  1. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    8.1 Respiratory failure2007204 Comparison of the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers and low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. WANG Xiaozhi(王晓芝),et al. Dept Respir & Intensive Care Unit, Binzhou Med Coll, Binzhou 256603. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(1):44-47. Objective To compare the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(LRM) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods A prospective, randomized comparison of BiPAP mechanical ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(test group) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation (control group) was conducted in 28 patients with ARDS. FiO2/PaO2 ratio, respiratory system compliance(Cs), central venous pressure (CVP), duration of ventilation support were recorded at 0 h, 48 h and 72 h separately. The ventilation associated lung injury and mortality at 28 d were also recorded. Results The FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (298±16) and (309±16) cm H2O, Cs were (38.4±2.2) and (42.0±1.3) ml/cm H2O, CVP were (13.8±0.8) and (11.6±0.7) cm H2O in the test group at 48 h and 72 h separately. In the control group, FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (212±12) and (246±17) cm H2O, Cs were (29.5±1.3) and (29.0±1.0) ml/cm H2O, CVP were 18.6±1.1 and (16.8±1.0) cm H2O. The results were better in the test group as compared with the control group (t=10.03-29. 68, all P<0.01). The duration of ventilation support in the test group was shorter than the control group [(14±3) d vs (19±3)d, t=4.80, P<0.01]. The mortality in 28 d and ventilation associated lung injury were similar in the two groups. Conclusion The results show that combination of LRM with BiPAP mode ventilation, as compared with the control group, contributes to the improved FiO2/PaO2 ratio, pulmonary compliance, stable homodynamic and shorter duration of ventilation support in patients with ARDs.

  2. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    10.1 Respiratory failure2003068 Evaluation of non-invasive ventilation in a-cute respiratory failure with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. GU Jianyong(顾俭勇), et al. Dept E-mergen, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Shanghai J Med 2002; 25 (12): 741 - 743.Objective:To observe the effect of non-invasive venti-lation(NIV) in acute respiratory failure with chronic

  3. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    2004494 Respiratory control in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. WANG Wei (王玮), et al. Instit Respir Dis, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Limy, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Intern Med 2004; 43 (9): 647-650.

  4. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    6.1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2004073 A study on the heterogenous apoptosis of lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils from peripheral blood of asthmatic patients. LIU Chuntao (刘春涛), et al. West China Hosp, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2003; 26(10):610 - 614.

  5. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    7.1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2003306 Effects of vaccae on airway contraction and inflammation in asthmatic guinea pigs. ZHAO Xiao(赵晓燕), et al. Zhejiang Respir Drug Res Lab Med Sch, Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou 310031. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2003;26(4):218-222.Objective: To study the effects of Mycobacterium vaccae(M. vaccae)on the lung function, airway hyper-

  6. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    7.1 Upper Respiratory Tract Diesase And Bronchial Asthma 2007072 Dysfunction of releasing adrenaline in asthmatic adrenaline medullary chromaffin cells due to functional redundancy primed by nerve growth factor. WANG Jun(汪俊), et al. Dept Resp Dis Xiangya Hosp Central South Univ, Changsha 410008. Chin J Tuberc Dis 2006;29(12):812-815. Objective To investigate the possible causes of the dysfunction of adrenaline release in asthma rats and to identify the role of nerve growth factor(NGF) in this process.

  7. Your Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing? If you guessed your lungs, you're right! Your lungs make up one of the largest organs in your body, and they work with your respiratory system to allow you to take in fresh air, get rid of stale air, and even talk. ...

  8. Motavizumab, A Neutralizing Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv Monoclonal Antibody Significantly Modifies The Local And Systemic Cytokine Responses Induced By Rsv In The Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafri Hasan S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motavizumab (MEDI-524 is a monoclonal antibody with enhanced neutralizing activity against RSV. In mice, motavizumab suppressed RSV replication which resulted in significant reduction of clinical parameters of disease severity. We evaluated the effect of motavizumab on the local and systemic immune response induced by RSV in the mouse model. Balb/c mice were intranasally inoculated with 106.5 PFU RSV A2 or medium. Motavizumab was given once intraperitoneally (1.25 mg/mouse as prophylaxis, 24 h before virus inoculation. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and serum samples were obtained at days 1, 5 (acute and 28 (long-term post inoculation and analyzed with a multiplex assay (Beadlyte Upstate, NY for simultaneous quantitation of 18 cytokines: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, KC (similar to human IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1, RANTES, IFN-γ and GM-CSF. Overall, cytokine concentrations were lower in serum than in BAL samples. By day 28, only KC was detected in BAL specimens at low concentrations in all groups. Administration of motavizumab significantly reduced (p

  9. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  10. The respiratory system in equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  11. Brca1/p53 deficient mouse breast tumor hemodynamics during hyperoxic respiratory challenge monitored by a novel wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Eva Y. H. P.; Tromberg, Bruce; Cerussi, Albert; Choi, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Current imaging modalities allow precise visualization of tumors but do not enable quantitative characterization of the tumor metabolic state. Such quantitative information would enhance our understanding of tumor progression and response to treatment, and to our overall understanding of tumor biology. To address this problem, we have developed a wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) instrument which combines two optical imaging modalities, spatially modulated imaging (MI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI). Our current WiFI imaging protocol consists of multispectral imaging in the near infrared (650-980 nm) spectrum, over a wide (7 cm × 5 cm) field of view. Using MI, the spatially-resolved reflectance of sinusoidal patterns projected onto the tissue is assessed, and optical properties of the tissue are estimated using a Monte Carlo model. From the spatial maps of local absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, tissue composition information is extracted in the form of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, and percentage of lipid and water. Using LSI, the reflectance of a 785 nm laser speckle pattern on the tissue is acquired and analyzed to compute maps of blood perfusion in the tissue. Tissue metabolism state is estimated from the values of blood perfusion, volume and oxygenation state. We currently are employing the WiFI instrument to study tumor development in a BRCA1/p53 deficient mice breast tumor model. The animals are monitored with WiFI during hyperoxic respiratory challenge. At present, four tumors have been measured with WiFI, and preliminary data suggest that tumor metabolic changes during hyperoxic respiratory challenge can be determined.

  12. β-Naphthoflavone-Induced Mitochondrial Respiratory Damage in Cyp1 Knockout Mouse and in Cell Culture Systems: Attenuation by Resveratrol Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Anandasadagopan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of xenobiotic-inducible cytochrome P450s (CYPs are now known to be localized in the mitochondrial compartment, though their pharmacological or toxicological roles remain unclear. Here, we show that BNF treatment markedly inhibits liver mitochondrial O2 consumption rate (OCR, ADP-dependent OCR, and also reserve OCR, in wild-type mice but not in Cyp1a1/1a2(−/− double knockout mice. BNF treatment markedly affected mitochondrial complex I and complex IV activities and also attenuated mitochondrial gene expression. Furthermore, under in vitro conditions, BNF treatment induced cellular ROS production, which was inhibited by mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito-CP and CYP inhibitor proadefin, suggesting that most of the ROS production was intramitochondrial and probably involved the catalytic activity of mitochondrial CYP1 enzymes. Interestingly, our results also show that the AHR antagonist resveratrol, markedly attenuated BNF-induced liver mitochondrial defects in wild-type mice, confirming the role of AHR and AHR-regulated CYP1 genes in eliciting mitochondrial dysfunction. These results are consistent with reduced BNF-induced mitochondrial toxicity in Cyp1a1/1a2(−/− mice and elevated ROS production in COS cells stably expressing CYP1A1. We propose that increased mitochondrial ROS production and respiratory dysfunction are part of xenobiotic toxicity. Resveratrol, a chemopreventive agent, renders protection against BNF-induced toxicity.

  13. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneyber, Martin C J; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W R; Plötz, Frans B; Markhors, Dick G

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechanical ventilation with heliox in these patients is unclear. The objective of this prospective cross-over study was to determine the effects of mechanical ventilation with heliox 60/40 versus conventional gas on respiratory system resistance, air-trapping and CO2 removal. Mechanically ventilated, sedated and paralyzed infants with proven RSV were enrolled within 24 hours after paediatric intensive care unit (PICU)admission. At T = 0, respiratory system mechanics including respiratory system compliance and resistance, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured with the AVEA ventilator. The measurements were repeated at each interval (after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox, after 30 minutes of ventilation with nitrox and again after 30 minutes of ventilation with heliox). Indices of gas exchange (ventilation and oxygenation index) were calculated at each interval. Air-trapping (defined by relative change in end-expiratory lung volume) was determined by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at each interval. Thirteen infants were enrolled. In nine, EIT measurements were performed. Mechanical ventilation with heliox significantly decreased respiratory system resistance. This was not accompanied by an improved CO2 elimination, decreased peak expiratory flow rate or decreased end-expiratory lung volume. Importantly, oxygenation remained unaltered throughout the experimental protocol. Respiratory system resistance is significantly decreased by mechanical ventilation with heliox (ISCRTN98152468).

  14. Dynamics of human respiratory system mycoflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Biedunkiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determing the prevalence of individual species of fungi in the respiratory systems of women and men, analysis of the dynamics of the fungi in individual sections of the respiratory system as concerns their quantity and identification of phenology of the isolated fungi coupled with an attempt at identifying their possible preferences for appearing during specific seasons of thc year. During 10 years of studies (1989- 1998. 29 species of fungi belonging: Candida, Geolrichum, Saccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, Schizosaccharomyces, Torulopsis, Trichosporon and Aspergillus were isolated from the ontocenoses of the respiratory systems of patients at the Independent Public Center for Pulmonology and Oncology in Olsztyn. Candida albicans was a clearly dominating fungus. Individual species appeared individually, in twos or threes in a single patient, they were isolated more frequently in the spring and autumn, less frequently during the winter and summer. The largest number of fungi species were isolated from sputum (29 species, bronchoscopic material (23 species and pharyngeal swabs (15 species. Sacchoromycopsis capsularis and Trichosporon beigelii should be treated as new for the respiratory system. Biodiversity of fungi, their numbers and continous fluctuations in frequency indicate that the respiratory system ontocenose offers the optimum conditions for growth and development of the majority of the majority of yeasts - like fungi.

  15. Functional and histopathological identification of the respiratory failure in a DMSXL transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Petrica-Adrian Panaite; Thierry Kuntzer; Geneviève Gourdon; Johannes Alexander Lobrinus; Ibtissam Barakat-Walter

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute and chronic respiratory failure is one of the major and potentially life-threatening features in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Despite several clinical demonstrations showing respiratory problems in DM1 patients, the mechanisms are still not completely understood. This study was designed to investigate whether the DMSXL transgenic mouse model for DM1 exhibits respiratory disorders and, if so, to identify the pathological changes underlying these respiratory p...

  16. Refractoriness of interferon-beta signaling through NOD1 pathway in mouse respiratory epithelial cells using the anticancer xanthone compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaifang; Yu; Jarrod; D; Predina; Guanjun; Cheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To explore the possibility that nucleotide oligomerization domain 1(NOD1) pathway involved in refractoriness of interferon-β signaling in mouse respiratory epithelial cells induced by the anticancer xanthone compound,5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid(DMXAA).METHODS:C10 mouse bronchial epithelial cells were grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum,2 mmol/L glutamine,100 units/mL penicillin,100 g/mL streptomycin.Pathogen-free female BALB/c mice were used to explore the mechanisms of refractoriness of interferon-signaling.Mouse thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages,bone marrow derived macrophages and bone marrow derived dendritic cells were collected and cultured.The amount of interferon(IFN)-inducible protein-10(IP10/CXCL10),macrophage chemotactic protein(MCP1/CCL2) and interleukin(IL)-6 secreted by cells activated by DMXAA was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits according to the instructions of the manufacturers.Total RNA was isolated from cells or nasal epithelium with RNeasy Plus Mini Kit,and cDNA was synthesized.Gene expression was checked using Applied Biosystems StepOne Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction System.Transfection of small interfering RNA(siRNA) control,NOD1 duplexed RNA oligonucleotides,and high-mobility group box 1/2/3(HMGB1/2/3) siRNA was performed using siRNA transfection reagent.RESULTS:DMXAA activates IFN-β pathway with high level of IFN-β dependent antiviral genes including 2’,5’-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 and myxovirus resistance 1 in mouse thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages,bone marrow derived macrophages and bone marrow derived dendritic cells.Activation of IFN-β by DMXAA involved in NOD1,but not HMGB1/2/3 signal pathway demonstrated by siRNA.NOD1 pathway plays an important role in refractoriness of IFN-β signaling induced by DMXAA in mouse C10 respiratory epithelial cells and BALB/c mice nasal epithelia.These data indicate that DMXAA

  17. Improvement in the accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy using a respiratory guiding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Tae-Ho; Suh, Tae-Suk; Yoon, Jai-Woong

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) depends on the respiratory regularity because external respiratory signals are used for gating the radiation beam at particular phases. Many studies have applied a respiratory guiding system to improve the respiratory regularity. This study aims to evaluate the effect of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. To verify the effectiveness of this system, we acquired respiratory signals from five volunteers. The improvement in respiratory regularity was analyzed by comparing the standard deviations of the amplitudes and the periods between free and guided breathing. The reduction in residual motion at each phase was analyzed by comparing the standard deviations of sorted data within each corresponding phase bin as obtained from free and guided breathing. The results indicate that the respiratory guiding system improves the respiratory regularity, and that most of the volunteers showed significantly less average residual motion at each phase. The average residual motion measured at phases of 40, 50, and 60%, which showed lower variation than other phases, were, respectively, reduced by 41, 45, and 44% during guided breathing. The results show that the accuracy of RGRT can be improved by using the in-house-developed respiratory guiding system. Furthermore, this system should reduce artifacts caused by respiratory motion in 4D CT imaging.

  18. Thoracic sympathetic block reduces respiratory system compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ely Martins Benseñor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA following thoracic surgery presents known analgesic and respiratory benefits. However, intraoperative thoracic sympathetic block may trigger airway hyperreactivity. This study weighed up these beneficial and undesirable effects on intraoperative respiratory mechanics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, double-blind clinical study at a tertiary public hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients scheduled for partial lung resection were distributed using a random number table into groups receiving active TEA (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, n = 9 or placebo (15 ml 0.9% saline, n = 10 solutions that also contained 1:200,000 epinephrine and 2 mg morphine. Under general anesthesia, flows and airway and esophageal pressures were recorded. Pressure-volume curves, lower inflection points (LIP, resistance and compliance at 10 ml/kg tidal volume were established for respiratory system, chest wall and lungs. Student’s t test was performed, including confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Bupivacaine rose 5 ± 1 dermatomes upwards and 6 ± 1 downwards. LIP was higher in the bupivacaine group (6.2 ± 2.3 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 cmH2O, p = 0.016, CI = -3.4 to -1.8. Respiratory system and lung compliance were higher in the placebo group (respectively 73.3 ± 10.6 versus 51.9 ± 15.5, p = 0.003, CI = 19.1 to 23.7; 127.2 ± 31.7 versus 70.2 ± 23.1 ml/cmH2O, p < 0.001, CI = 61 to 53. Resistance and chest wall compliance showed no difference. CONCLUSION: TEA decreased respiratory system compliance by reducing its lung component. Resistance was unaffected. Under TEA, positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are advisable.

  19. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  20. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechan

  1. Non lineal respiratory systems mechanics simulation of acute respiratory distress syndrome during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madorno, Matias; Rodriguez, Pablo O

    2010-01-01

    Model and simulation of biological systems help to better understand these systems. In ICUs patients often reach a complex situation where supportive maneuvers require special expertise. Among them, mechanical ventilation in patients suffering from acuter respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is specially challenging. This work presents a model which can be simulated and use to help in training of physicians and respiratory therapists to analyze the respiratory mechanics in this kind of patients. We validated the model in 2 ARDS patients.

  2. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Guro Hospital, Korea Univeristy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory

  3. [The environment and human respiratory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodemowicz, Marian

    2008-01-01

    The process of gas exchange that is breathing is an important element of any person's relation with the environment. What decides about our health and life are the respiratory systems responsible for the breathing process and the quality of the air we breathe. On an average through a person's life 400 millions liters of air flows which carries pollution in the form of constant gases and liquid particles. Particles of about PM-2.5 size get into the deepest structures of the respiratory system from which they are being spread into the whole organism through circulation exerting thier toxic effect on all tissues and organs. The outdoor pollution diffuses but in certain local circumstances it increases. It was so in big ecological disasters such as in 1930 in the Mozy valley in Belgium, in 1948 in the Donory region in the USA and in 1952 smog pollution in London. On an average any human being spends indoors about 60-80% of his time. The increased concentration of pollution occurs indoors and there is a possibility of exposing oneself to ETS- Environmental Tobacco Smoke. The biggest concentration of inhaled pollution takes place when smoking tobacco. Pollution of air causes diseases of the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, tumours and others. Frequent occurrence of COPD in certain areas correlates with the level of air pollution and it significantly increases in tobacco smokers. The number and frequency of bronchial asthma and the need for hospitalization depends on air pollution. Lung cancer cases were rarely described in literature before the area of industrialization and wide spread custom of tobacco smoking. Now it is the most frequently occurred cancer in the whole world. There is an interdependence of the density of population, of the number of smoked cigarettes and of density of pollution with the number lung cancer cases. It is hoped that in the future, smoking habits will be eliminated, the use of crude oil and coal will be replaced by hydroelectric

  4. Citation classics: Top 50 cited articles in 'respiratory system'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wilson W S; Wong, Eliza L Y; Wong, Faye C Y; Hui, David S C

    2013-01-01

    Identifying citation classics in the field is one of the key methodologies used to conduct a systematic evaluation of research performance. The objective of this study was to determine the most frequently cited articles published in journals that are placed under the 'respiratory system' subject category (Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Journal Citation Reports) and to compare them with the most frequently cited respiratory-related articles published in any journal, regardless of subject category. The authors utilized the ISI Journal Citation Reports: Science Edition 2010 database in April 2012 to determine the most frequently cited articles by respiratory system subject category and by respiratory-related keywords. The top 50 most-cited articles were identified in each category and evaluated according to various characteristics. The majority of these papers originated from the United States. The median numbers of citations for the top 50 cited articles stratified by respiratory system subject category and respiratory-related keywords were 841.5 and 2701, respectively. Half of the top 50 cited articles identified by respiratory-related keywords were published in general medical or basic science journals, whereas only three out of these were published in journals under the respiratory system subject category in ISI Journal Citation Reports. In summary, respiratory-related articles published in general medical or science journals attracted more citations than those published in the specific respiratory journals.

  5. Crawling with Virus: Translational Insights from a Neonatal Mouse Model on the Pathogenesis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dahui; Saravia, Jordy; Siefker, David; Shrestha, Bishwas; Cormier, Stephania A

    2015-10-07

    The infant immune response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains incompletely understood. Here we review the use of a neonatal mouse model of RSV infection to mimic severe infection in human infants. We describe numerous age-specific responses, organized by cell type, observed in RSV-infected neonatal mice and draw comparisons (when possible) to human infants.

  6. Isoflurane anesthetic hypersensitivity and progressive respiratory depression in a mouse model with isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, S.; Manjeri, G.R.; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Driessen, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with mitochondrial disorders are frequently anesthetized for a wide range of operations. These disorders may interfere with the response to surgery and anesthesia. We examined anesthetic sensitivity to and respiratory effects of isoflurane in the Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mouse model

  7. Isoflurane anesthetic hypersensitivity and progressive respiratory depression in a mouse model with isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, S.; Manjeri, G.R.; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Driessen, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with mitochondrial disorders are frequently anesthetized for a wide range of operations. These disorders may interfere with the response to surgery and anesthesia. We examined anesthetic sensitivity to and respiratory effects of isoflurane in the Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mouse

  8. Corticosterone rapidly promotes respiratory burst of mouse peritoneal macrophages via non-genomic mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen-lei; MA Qian; ZHANG Lu-ding; HUANG Jun-long; ZHOU Jian; LIU Lei; SHEN Xing-hua; JIANG Chun-lei

    2011-01-01

    Background The immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) have been described as bimodal. High concentration of GCs exerts immunosuppressive effects and low levels of GCs are immunopermissive. While the immunosuppressive mechanisms of GCs have been investigated intensely, the immunopermissive effects of GCs remain unclear. A lot of studies showed GCs could exert rapid non-genomic actions. We herein studied the rapid immunopromoting effects of GCs.Methods We observed the rapid (within 30 minutes) effects of corticosterone on respiratory burst of mouse peritoneal macrophages and studied their mechanisms. The superoxide anions were measured by cytochrome C reduction assay.Protein kinase C phosphorylation was measured by Western blotting and membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence polarization measurement.Results The 10-8 mol/L and 10-7 mol/L corticosterone rapidly increased the superoxide anions production by macrophages, which were insensitive to GC-receptor antagonist, mifepristone, and protein-synthesis inhibitor,cycloheximide. Corticosterone coupled to bovine serum albumin was able to mimic the effects of corticosterone. The effects were independent of protein kinase C pathway and the change in membrane fluidity.Conclusions The results indicate that corticosterone rapidly promote the superoxide anions production by mouse peritoneal macrophages may through non-genomic mechanisms. This study may contribute to understanding the effects of GCs under stress condition and the physiological significance of nongenomic effects of GCs.

  9. Functional and histopathological identification of the respiratory failure in a DMSXL transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaite, Petrica-Adrian; Kuntzer, Thierry; Gourdon, Geneviève; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexander; Barakat-Walter, Ibtissam

    2013-05-01

    Acute and chronic respiratory failure is one of the major and potentially life-threatening features in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Despite several clinical demonstrations showing respiratory problems in DM1 patients, the mechanisms are still not completely understood. This study was designed to investigate whether the DMSXL transgenic mouse model for DM1 exhibits respiratory disorders and, if so, to identify the pathological changes underlying these respiratory problems. Using pressure plethysmography, we assessed the breathing function in control mice and DMSXL mice generated after large expansions of the CTG repeat in successive generations of DM1 transgenic mice. Statistical analysis of breathing function measurements revealed a significant decrease in the most relevant respiratory parameters in DMSXL mice, indicating impaired respiratory function. Histological and morphometric analysis showed pathological changes in diaphragmatic muscle of DMSXL mice, characterized by an increase in the percentage of type I muscle fibers, the presence of central nuclei, partial denervation of end-plates (EPs) and a significant reduction in their size, shape complexity and density of acetylcholine receptors, all of which reflect a possible breakdown in communication between the diaphragmatic muscles fibers and the nerve terminals. Diaphragm muscle abnormalities were accompanied by an accumulation of mutant DMPK RNA foci in muscle fiber nuclei. Moreover, in DMSXL mice, the unmyelinated phrenic afferents are significantly lower. Also in these mice, significant neuronopathy was not detected in either cervical phrenic motor neurons or brainstem respiratory neurons. Because EPs are involved in the transmission of action potentials and the unmyelinated phrenic afferents exert a modulating influence on the respiratory drive, the pathological alterations affecting these structures might underlie the respiratory impairment detected in DMSXL mice. Understanding

  10. Functional and histopathological identification of the respiratory failure in a DMSXL transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrica-Adrian Panaite

    2013-05-01

    Acute and chronic respiratory failure is one of the major and potentially life-threatening features in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1. Despite several clinical demonstrations showing respiratory problems in DM1 patients, the mechanisms are still not completely understood. This study was designed to investigate whether the DMSXL transgenic mouse model for DM1 exhibits respiratory disorders and, if so, to identify the pathological changes underlying these respiratory problems. Using pressure plethysmography, we assessed the breathing function in control mice and DMSXL mice generated after large expansions of the CTG repeat in successive generations of DM1 transgenic mice. Statistical analysis of breathing function measurements revealed a significant decrease in the most relevant respiratory parameters in DMSXL mice, indicating impaired respiratory function. Histological and morphometric analysis showed pathological changes in diaphragmatic muscle of DMSXL mice, characterized by an increase in the percentage of type I muscle fibers, the presence of central nuclei, partial denervation of end-plates (EPs and a significant reduction in their size, shape complexity and density of acetylcholine receptors, all of which reflect a possible breakdown in communication between the diaphragmatic muscles fibers and the nerve terminals. Diaphragm muscle abnormalities were accompanied by an accumulation of mutant DMPK RNA foci in muscle fiber nuclei. Moreover, in DMSXL mice, the unmyelinated phrenic afferents are significantly lower. Also in these mice, significant neuronopathy was not detected in either cervical phrenic motor neurons or brainstem respiratory neurons. Because EPs are involved in the transmission of action potentials and the unmyelinated phrenic afferents exert a modulating influence on the respiratory drive, the pathological alterations affecting these structures might underlie the respiratory impairment detected in DMSXL mice. Understanding

  11. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE AS THE DEBUT OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Ischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus — a chronic autoimmune disease that is often associated with infectious processes. The paper presents two clinical cases of systemic lupus erythematosus , debuted with acute respiratory infection.

  12. An Intelligent Multilingual Mouse Gesture Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal F. Shilbayeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive mouse gesture system is designed and tested successfully. The system is based on UNIPEN algorithm in terms of mouse movements and applies its geometrical principles such as angles and transposition steps. The system incorporates Neural Networks as its learning and recognition engine. The designed algorithm is not only capable of translating discrete gesture moves, but also continuous sentences and complete paragraphs. Hopfield Network is also used for initial learning to add a feature of language independence to the system.

  13. A Mathematical Model of the Human Respiratory Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhorn, Howard T.; Benton, Richard; Ross, Richard; Guyton, Arthur C.

    1965-01-01

    The respiratory system exhibits the properties of a control system of the regulator type. Equations describing this biological control system have been derived. Transient and steady-state solutions for various CO2 and O2 step input disturbances were obtained utilizing a digital computer and are compared with experimental results. The effectiveness of the respiratory system as a regulator is investigated. Further extensions of the model are suggested. PMID:14284328

  14. Animal models for diseases of respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latest trends in understanding of respiratory diseases in human beings can be derived from thorough clinical studies of these diseases occurring in man, but conducting such studies in man is difficult in terms of experimental manipulation. In the last 2 decades, various types of experimental respiratory disease models has been developed and utilized by investigators, which have contributed a lot to the understanding of respiratory diseases in man, but only little investigation has been done on the naturally occurring pulmonary diseases of animals as potential models which could have added to our knowledge. There are certain selected examples of spontaneous pulmonary disease in animals that may serve as exploitable models for human chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema, interstitial lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hyaline membrane disease, and bronchial asthma.

  15. Computational Fluid and Particle Dynamics in the Human Respiratory System

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Jiyuan; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2013-01-01

    Traditional research methodologies in the human respiratory system have always been challenging due to their invasive nature. Recent advances in medical imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have accelerated this research. This book compiles and details recent advances in the modelling of the respiratory system for researchers, engineers, scientists, and health practitioners. It breaks down the complexities of this field and provides both students and scientists with an introduction and starting point to the physiology of the respiratory system, fluid dynamics and advanced CFD modeling tools. In addition to a brief introduction to the physics of the respiratory system and an overview of computational methods, the book contains best-practice guidelines for establishing high-quality computational models and simulations. Inspiration for new simulations can be gained through innovative case studies as well as hands-on practice using pre-made computational code. Last but not least, students and researcher...

  16. Research on an active and continuous monitoring system for human respiratory system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Continuous and dynamic measurements of human respiratory parameters are very important for vital diseases of respiratory system during mechanical ventilation. This paper analyzed the structure and mechanical properties of the human respiratory system, and designed an active intervening monitoring micro system for it. The mobile mechanism of the micro system is soft and earthworm-like movement actuated by pneumatic rubber actuator, the measurement and therapy unit of the system is an extensible mechanism with sensors in the front. The micro monitoring system can move in respiratory tract and measure the respiratory parameters in bronchium continuously. Experiments had been done in swine's respiratory tract,the results proved that the micro robot system could measure the respiratory parameters in real-time successfully and its movement was smooth in swine's respiratory tract.

  17. [Respiratory system elastance and resistance measured by proportional assist ventilation in patients with respiratory muscle weakness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Yasushi; Ogawa, Masafumi; Kawai, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilatory therapy has prolonged survival of myopathy patients with hypoventilation. Efficacy of non-invasive ventilation depends on both elastance and resistance of the respiratory system. Although these parameters are important in the prescription of respiratory management, conventional respiratory function test does not show the appropriate answer in patients with severe respiratory muscle weakness. In muscular dystrophy, muscle tends to be shortened due to its fibrosis, when muscle becomes atrophic and weak; fibrosis of respiratory muscle tissues presumably causes high thoracic elastance. We evaluated the total respiratory system elastance and resistance during proportional assist ventilation (PAV) in myopathy patients. In PAV with 100% assist, using BiPAP Vision ventilator, airway pressure exceeds 20 cmH2O or tidal volume exceeds 1.5 liter (run-away phenomenon) when the volume assist or the flow assist is higher than the individual elastance or the resistance, respectively. Twenty myopathy patients with ventilatory failure and 7 healthy controls were evaluated, including 7 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), 2 patients with congenital myopathy (CM), 1 patient with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LG), 6 patients with myotonic dystrophy (MyD) and 4 patients with acid maltase deficiency (AMD). Seventeen patients used a nasal mask and 3 patients had a tracheostomy tube. Fifteen patients used a pressure-preset ventilator, and 3 patients used a volume-preset ventilator. In all patients with DMD, CM and LG, respiratory system elastance was higher than 20 (cmH2O/L) and than in all patients with AMD and MyD except 1 MyD patient. Follow-up measurement after half a or one year showed increase of respiratory system elastance in 2 DMD patients and 1 CM patient, but almost no change in 3 AMD patients. The elastance measured during PAV was consistent with the clinical impression of muscle shortening. One exceptional MyD patient showed extremely

  18. [Development of expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-hua; Chen, You-ling; Yan, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    To develop an internet-based expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases. SaaS system was used to build architecture; pattern of forward reasoning was applied for inference engine design; ASP.NET with C# from the tool pack of Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used for website-interview medical expert system.The database of the system was constructed with Microsoft SQL Server 2005. The developed expert system contained large data memory and high efficient function of data interview and data analysis for diagnosis of various diseases.The users were able to perform this system to obtain diagnosis for common respiratory diseases via internet. The developed expert system may be used for internet-based diagnosis of various respiratory diseases,particularly in telemedicine setting.

  19. MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data exchange has inhibited scientific collaboration and discovery. Results Here we introduce a Mouse Phenotype Analysis System (MPHASYS, a platform for integrating data generated by studies of mouse models of human biology and disease such as aging and cancer. This computational platform is designed to provide a standardized methodology for working with animal data; a framework for data entry, analysis and sharing; and ontologies and methodologies for ensuring accurate data capture. We describe the tools that currently comprise MPHASYS, primarily ones related to mouse pathology, and outline its use in a study of individual animal-specific patterns of multiple pathology in mice harboring a specific germline mutation in the DNA repair and transcription-specific gene Xpd. Conclusion MPHASYS is a system for analyzing multiple data types from individual animals. It provides a framework for developing data analysis applications, and tools for collecting and distributing high-quality data. The software is platform independent and freely available under an open-source license 1.

  20. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

  1. Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apeksh Patwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation with each other is important for understanding respiratory physiology. Ventilation to perfusion ratio alters with anaesthesia, body position and with one-lung anaesthesia. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, an important safety mechanism, is inhibited by majority of the anaesthetic drugs. Ventilation perfusion mismatch leads to reduced arterial oxygen concentration mainly because of early closure of airway, thus leading to decreased ventilation and atelectasis during anaesthesia. Various anaesthetic drugs alter neuronal control of the breathing and bronchomotor tone.

  2. Nanocarriers as pulmonary drug delivery systems to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Smola

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Smola1,2, Thierry Vandamme1, Adam Sokolowski21Université Louis Pasteur, Faculté de Pharmacie, Département de Chimie Bioorganique, Illkirch Graffenstaden, France; 2Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Wroclaw, PolandAbstract: The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of nanocarriers administered by pulmonary route to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases. Indeed, during the past 10 years, the removal of chlorofluorocarbon propellants from industrial and household products intended for the pulmonary route has lead to the developments of new alternative products. Amongst these ones, on one hand, a lot of attention has been focused to improve the bioavailability of marketed drugs intended for respiratory diseases and to develop new concepts for pulmonary administration of drugs and, on the other hand, to use the pulmonary route to administer drugs for systemic diseases. This has led to some marketed products through the last decade. Although the introduction of nanotechnology permitted to step over numerous problems and to improve the bioavailability of drugs, there are, however, unresolved delivery problems to be still addressed. These scientific and industrial innovations and challenges are discussed along this review together with an analysis of the current situation concerning the industrial developments.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanocarriers, nanoparticle, liposome, lung, pulmonary drug delivery, drug targeting, respiratory disease, microemulsion, bioavailability, micelle

  3. The role of leptin in the respiratory system: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since its cloning in 1994, leptin has emerged in the literature as a pleiotropic hormone whose actions extend from immune system homeostasis to reproduction and angiogenesis. Recent investigations have identified the lung as a leptin responsive and producing organ, while extensive research has been published concerning the role of leptin in the respiratory system. Animal studies have provided evidence indicating that leptin is a stimulant of ventilation, whereas researchers have proposed an important role for leptin in lung maturation and development. Studies further suggest a significant impact of leptin on specific respiratory diseases, including obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome, asthma, COPD and lung cancer. However, as new investigations are under way, the picture is becoming more complex. The scope of this review is to decode the existing data concerning the actions of leptin in the lung and provide a detailed description of leptin's involvement in the most common disorders of the respiratory system.

  4. The role of leptin in the respiratory system: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Since its cloning in 1994, leptin has emerged in the literature as a pleiotropic hormone whose actions extend from immune system homeostasis to reproduction and angiogenesis. Recent investigations have identified the lung as a leptin responsive and producing organ, while extensive research has been published concerning the role of leptin in the respiratory system. Animal studies have provided evidence indicating that leptin is a stimulant of ventilation, whereas researchers have proposed an important role for leptin in lung maturation and development. Studies further suggest a significant impact of leptin on specific respiratory diseases, including obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome, asthma, COPD and lung cancer. However, as new investigations are under way, the picture is becoming more complex. The scope of this review is to decode the existing data concerning the actions of leptin in the lung and provide a detailed description of leptin's involvement in the most common disorders of the respiratory system. PMID:21040518

  5. Mobilisation of toxic elements in the human respiratory system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, T. E-mail: murmur@itn1.itn.pt; Alves, L.C.; Palhano, M.J.; Bugalho de Almeida, A

    2001-07-01

    The fate of respired particles in the respiratory system is inferred through the chemical characterisation of individual particles at the tracheal and bronchial mucosas, and the accumulation of toxic elements in lung alveoli and lymph nodes. The particles and tissue elemental distributions were identified and characterised using micro-PIXE elemental mapping of thin frozen sections using the ITN Nuclear Microprobe facility. Significant particle deposits are found at the distal respiratory tract. Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn are elements detected at these accumulation areas. The elemental distributions in the different cellular environments of lymph nodes vary. The major compartments for Al, Si, Ti, Fe and Cr are the phagocytic cells and capsule of lymph nodes, while V and Ni are in the cortex and paracortex medullar areas which retain more than 70% of these two elements, suggesting high solubility of the latter in the cellular milieu. The elemental mobilisation from particles or deposits to surrounding tissues at the respiratory ducts evidences patterns of diffusion and removal that are different than those for elements in the respiratory tract. Mobilisation of elements such as V, Cr and Ni is more relevant at alveoli areas where gaseous exchange takes place. The apparent high solubility of V and Ni in the respiratory tract tissue points towards a deviation of the lymphatic system filtering efficiency for these elements when compared to others.

  6. Diverse and Tissue Specific Mitochondrial Respiratory Response in A Mouse Model of Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Michael; Hara, Naomi; Morata, Saori

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is thought to play a role in sepsis-induced multiple organ failure. However, the temporal and organ specific alterations in mitochondrial function has yet to be fully elucidated. Many studies show reduced phosphorylating capacity while others have indicated that mitochondrial...... respiration is enhanced. The objective of the study was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of brain and liver mitochondrial function in a mouse model of sepsis.Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Controls were sham operated. Using high-resolution respirometry, brain and liver homogenates from 31......-production was detected.Liver homogenate from the septic mice displayed a significant increase of the respiratory control ratio at 6 hours. In the 24-hour group, the rate of maximal oxidative phosphorylation, as well as LEAK respiration, was significantly increased compared to controls and the resultant respiratory...

  7. [Modern threats and burden of respiratory system diseases in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2013-11-01

    Polish population according to the National Census of Population and Housing, which was conducted in 2011, was 38 511.8 thousand. The average life expectancy in Poland is 71.0 years for men and 79.7 years for women. The reason for hospitalization in Poland are primarily cardiovascular disease (18%), tumors (11.4%), digestive diseases (10.6%), respiratory (9.3%), trauma (9.1%), infectious diseases (2.3%) and others (39%). Mortality rates determined on the basis of the analyzes and simulations in different disease groups indicates that the predominant causes of death of Polish citizens are strongly cardiovascular disease and cancer. Respiratory diseases occupy fourth place. World analyses clearly show that the number of deaths in 2030 due to lung diseases will be the fourth (COPD), fifth (pneumonia) and sixth (lung cancer) cause of death. As it turns out, the existence of various pathologies affecting the country's economic status. Respiratory allergies are observed more often, including in approximately 20% of Europeans are symptoms of allergic rhinitis (15-20% severe) and in 5-11% are diagnosed with asthma. Malignant tumors are the second most common causes of death in the group with the highest risk of life for the residents of Polish, particularly for men, is lung cancer, because of which in 2001, 20 570 people died. Incurred costs of the social security system are mainly caused by inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, which corresponds to the number of days of sick leave, especially in the age group 19-28 years, with a decrease in the age group above 59 years of age. Numbers hospitalized for respiratory diseases according to data from the National Health Fund also clearly indicate the cause of inflammation and cancer, and in the population aged 41-60 years, the need for hospital treatment is multiplied. The data indicate the constant threat of respiratory diseases.

  8. Respiratory Watch: Development of a Provincial System for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Surveillance in Nova Scotia, 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaad Al-Assam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in young children and is increasingly recognized as a cause of influenza-like illness in those older than 65 years of age. A surveillance system to provide timely local information about RSV activity in Nova Scotia (NS is described.

  9. Airway remodeling in a mouse asthma model assessed by in-vivo respiratory-gated micro-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederlin, Mathieu; Montaudon, Michel [Universite Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, Bordeaux (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U885, Bordeaux (France); CHU Bordeaux, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique, Pessac (France); Ozier, Annaig; Begueret, Hugues; Ousova, Olga; Marthan, Roger; Berger, Patrick [Universite Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, Bordeaux (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U885, Bordeaux (France); Laurent, Francois [Universite Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, Bordeaux (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U885, Bordeaux (France); CHU Bordeaux, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique, Pessac (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Hopital Cardiologique, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France)

    2010-01-15

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of non-invasive respiratory-gated micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for assessment of airway remodelling in a mouse asthma model. Six female BALB/c mice were challenged intranasally with ovalbumin. A control group of six mice received saline inhalation. All mice underwent plethysmographic study and micro-CT. For each mouse, peribronchial attenuation values of 12 bronchi were measured, from which a peribronchial density index (PBDI) was computed. Mice were then sacrificed and lungs examined histologically. Final analysis involved 10 out of 12 mice. Agreement of measurements across observers and over time was very good (intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.94-0.98). There was a significant difference in PBDI between asthmatic and control mice (-210 vs. -338.9 HU, P=0.008). PBDI values were correlated to bronchial muscle area (r=0.72, P=0.018). This study shows that respiratory-gated micro-CT may allow non-invasive monitoring of bronchial remodelling in asthmatic mice and evaluation of innovative treatment effects. (orig.)

  10. Muscle weakness in respiratory and peripheral skeletal muscles in a mouse model for nebulin-based nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joureau, Barbara; de Winter, Josine M; Stam, Kelly; Granzier, Henk; Ottenheijm, Coen A C

    2017-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy is among the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathies, and is characterized by the presence of nemaline rods in skeletal muscles fibers, general muscle weakness, and hypotonia. Although respiratory failure is the main cause of death in nemaline myopathy, only little is known regarding the contractile strength of the diaphragm, the main muscle of inspiration. To investigate diaphragm contractility, in the present study we took advantage of a mouse model for nebulin-based nemaline myopathy that we recently developed. In this mouse model, exon 55 of Neb is deleted (Neb(ΔExon55)), a mutation frequently found in patients. Diaphragm contractility was determined in permeabilized muscle fibers and was compared to the contractility of permeabilized fibers from three peripheral skeletal muscles: soleus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius. The force generating capacity of diaphragm muscle fibers of Neb(ΔExon55) mice was reduced to 25% of wildtype levels, indicating severe contractile weakness. The contractile weakness of diaphragm fibers was more pronounced than that observed in soleus muscle, but not more pronounced than that observed in extensor digitorum longus and gastrocnemius muscles. The reduced muscle contractility was at least partly caused by changes in cross-bridge cycling kinetics which reduced the number of bound cross-bridges. The severe diaphragm weakness likely contributes to the development of respiratory failure in Neb(ΔExon55) mice and might explain their early, postnatal death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Specific Dietary Oligosaccharides Increase Th1 Responses in a Mouse Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Marcel A.; Kruijsen, Debby; Bastiaans, Jacqueline; Coenjaerts, Frank E. J.; Garssen, Johan; van Bleek, Grada M.; van't Land, Belinda

    2012-01-01

    Breast feeding reduces the risk of developing severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in infants. In addition to maternal antibodies, other immune-modulating factors in human milk contribute to this protection. Specific dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides, similar to oligosaccharides pres

  12. A wireless portable system with microsensors for monitoring respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhe; Zhu, Rong; Que, Rui-Yi

    2012-11-01

    A wireless portable monitoring system for respiratory diseases using microsensors is proposed. The monitoring system consists of two sensor nodes integrating with Bluetooth transmitters that measure user's respiratory airflow, blood oxygen saturation, and body posture. The utility of micro-hot-film flow sensor makes the monitor can acquire comprehensive respiration parameters which are useful for diagnoses of obstructive sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. The system can serve as both sleep recorder and spirometer. Additionally, a mobile phone or a PC connected to the Internet serving as a monitoring and transfer terminal makes telemedicine achievable. Several experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system for monitoring and diagnosing OSA, COPD, and asthma.

  13. Electrical Neuromodulation of the Respiratory System After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmann, Jan T; Grahn, Peter J; Calvert, Jonathan S; Drubach, Dina I; Lee, Kendall H; Lavrov, Igor A

    2017-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex and devastating condition characterized by disruption of descending, ascending, and intrinsic spinal circuitry resulting in chronic neurologic deficits. In addition to limb and trunk sensorimotor deficits, SCI can impair autonomic neurocircuitry such as the motor networks that support respiration and cough. High cervical SCI can cause complete respiratory paralysis, and even lower cervical or thoracic lesions commonly result in partial respiratory impairment. Although electrophrenic respiration can restore ventilator-independent breathing in select candidates, only a small subset of affected individuals can benefit from this technology at this moment. Over the past decades, spinal cord stimulation has shown promise for augmentation and recovery of neurologic function including motor control, cough, and breathing. The present review discusses the challenges and potentials of spinal cord stimulation for restoring respiratory function by overcoming some of the limitations of conventional respiratory functional electrical stimulation systems. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Practice and considerations on the integrated respiratory system course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying HUANG; Wei LIU; Yu-hui HAN

    2015-01-01

    The system-based integrated curriculum teaching is a mainstream trend of curriculum reform at medical schools both at home and abroad.Since 2009,Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine has implemented the integrated teaching reform with modules classified by organ systems.This paper takes the integrated respiratory system course as an example,reviews and explores the outcomes and existing problems during the teaching reform practice,so as to lay a foundation for comprehensive and efficient implementation of the system-based integrated teaching,improve the teaching quality,and cultivate high level excellent medical talents.

  15. Inhaled formulations and pulmonary drug delivery systems for respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Loh, Zhi Hui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers. Novel particle engineering and intelligent device design also make dry powder inhalers appealing for the delivery of high-dose antibiotics. In view of the fact that no new antibiotic entities against multi-drug resistant bacteria have come close to commercialisation, advanced formulation strategies are in high demand for combating respiratory 'super bugs'.

  16. [Mathematical simulation of the respiratory system (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middendorf, T; Loeschcke, H H

    1976-06-30

    The respiratory system is described as a feedback control system. The controller consists of the peripheral chemoreceptors and the central chemosensitive structures, the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata and the thorax-lung pump which they drive. The controlled system is comprised of three compartments (lung, brain and the remaining tissue) connected by the blood circulation. The controlled values are arterial pH and arterial O2 partial pressure and cerebral extracellular pH. Earlier models have been improved by: (1) the dead space description, (2) the thermodynamic formulation of the CO2 dissociation equation and the simple but accurate O2 dissociation equation of the blood, (3) the alteration of the CO2 dissociation equation for the brain and the remaining tissue to accommodate recent results, (4) the application of the one-receptor-theory of central chemosensitivity, (5) the pH dependence of brain circulation, (6) the bicarbonate exchange between blood and extracellular fluid of the brain and (7) the introduction of variable circulation times. Respiratory and metabolic disturbances of the respiratory system are analyzed. The mathematical formulation of the respiratory system is a differential difference equation system. In the steady state the experimental results are reproduced fairly well. A slight discrepancy is found in the simulation of metabolic acidosis. Apparently we have assumed the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreceptors to be too large so that the respiratory response is not correctly predicted. In the numerical solution there is an overshoot in the on-transient and a damped oscillation in the off-transient of the alveolar CO2 partial pressure during respiratory acidosis. We have varied the parameters to make deviations small. The best agreement seems to result, if the central threshold is near the normal extracellular pH of the brain. A further deviation from experimental findings is that the cerebral CO2 and H+ concentration, the

  17. Measurement of respiratory system compliance and respiratory system resistance in healthy dogs undergoing general anaesthesia for elective orthopaedic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbrook, Carl A; Clark, Louise; Dugdale, Alexandra H A; Burford, John; Mosing, Martina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate normal values for the dynamic compliance of the respiratory system (Crs) and respiratory system resistance (Rrs) in mechanically ventilated anaesthetized dogs. Prospective clinical study. Forty healthy dogs undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery. Body weight was (mean ± SD) 26.8 ± 10.7 kg (range: 1.9-45.0 kg), age 4.7 ± 2.9 years (range: 0.1-10.6 years). Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine and methadone administered intramuscularly and anaesthesia induced with propofol intravenously. After endotracheal intubation the dog's lungs were connected to an appropriate breathing system depending on body weight and isoflurane in oxygen administered for maintenance of anaesthesia. The lungs were ventilated mechanically with variables set to maintain normocapnia (end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration 4.7-6.0 kPa). Peak inspiratory pressure, Crs, Rrs, tidal volume, respiratory rate and positive end-expiratory pressure were recorded at 5, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after start of mechanical ventilation. Cardiovascular variables were recorded at time of collection of respiratory data. General additive modeling revealed the following relationships: Crs =[0.895 × body weight (kg)] + 8.845 and Rrs=[-0.0966 × body weight (kg)] + 6.965. Body weight and endotracheal tube diameter were associated with Crs (p<0.001 and p=0.002 respectively) and Rrs (p=0.017 and p=0.002 respectively), body weight being linearly related to Crs and inversely to Rrs. Body weight was linearly related to Crs while Rrs has an inverse linear relationship with body weight in mechanically ventilated dogs. The derived values of Crs and Rrs may be used for monitoring of lung function and ventilation in healthy dogs under anaesthesia. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  18. Digestive system manifestations in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹俊; 陈为宪; 李楚强; 伍卫; 李建军; 江山平; 王景峰; 曾志勇; 黄子通; 黄洪章

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore digestive system manifestations in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).Method The clinical data of 96 cases with SARS admitted into our hospital from February 6, 2003 to March 28, 2003 were retrospectively analyzed.Results Among the 96 cases, 26 cases (27%) had diarrhea, 17 (18%) had nausea, 6 (6%) had vomiting, 16 (17%) had bellyache, and 8 (8%) had ALT elevation.Conclusions Patients with SARS may have digestive system manifestations; diarrhea is the most common symptom.

  19. Respiratory systems in the hemin-requiring Haemophilus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHITE, D C

    1963-01-01

    White, D. C. (Rockefeller Institute, New York, N.Y.). Respiratory systems in hemin-requiring Haemophilus species. J. Bacteriol. 85:84-96. 1963.-If grown in Levinthal's medium or in proteose peptone medium with excess hemin, Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, and H. canis (H. haemoglobinophilus) form an electron-transport system consisting of six cytochromes and two respiratory flavoproteins. In proteose peptone, these species can greatly modify the composition of their electron-transport complex. With anaerobic incubation in the presence of nitrate, they produce increased amounts of cytochrome c(1) and the cytochrome oxidases a(1) and o. This anaerobic pattern is greatly exaggerated by growth under carbon monoxide, in which case large concentrations of cytochrome oxidase are produced. In the presence of the inhibitor secobarbital or of growth-limiting amounts of hemin, intermediate amounts of cytochromes and respiratory flavoproteins are formed. When only small amounts of hemin are present, these species grow but form no detectable cytochrome system. Catalase is the only hemoprotein found. Under these conditions, the addition of glucose induces the formation of a lactate oxidase flavoprotein if the system is incubated aerobically. This cytochromeless state also occurs when these species are grown in KCN or anaerobically without nitrate and with excess hemin. The ability of these species to modify the composition of the electron-transport system strongly suggests that this function unit is formed from individual components. Hemin-requiring Haemophilus species have a hemin-sparing compensatory mechanism that allows growth under conditions under which hemin-independent Haemophilus species will not grow.

  20. Flow Transport in Microtubes Inspired by Insect Respiratory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelkaasem, Yasser; Staples, Anne

    2010-11-01

    The mechanics of insect respiration and tracheal ventilation generally follow either highly discontinuous, or cyclic gas exchange patterns. In the former, gases are exchanged by diffusion, while in the latter, recent imaging of internal respiratory flow dynamics in insects performed at the x-ray synchrotron imaging facility at Argonne indicates that convective gas exchange is accomplished by changes in internal pressure due to rhythmic compressions of the tracheal tubes that comprise the respiratory network. These localized tracheal compressions are induced by global body movements and are used to enhance the oxygen transport to the tissue. Inspired by the dynamics of insect respiratory networks in the cyclic gas exchange regime, we study fluid transport in a mixed rigid/elastic microtube that undergoes localized single and multiple periodic collapses. The latter induces a streaming of flows and therefore enhances convection and flow transport in the tube downstream of the collapse site. The shape of the microtube, the material properties, and the compression and reinflation spatial and temporal profiles are selected to mimic those observed in insect tracheal tubes. A low Reynolds number assumption and lubrication theory are used to develop a mathematical model for the system. The effects of tube shape, collapse amplitude, collapse-to-collapse distance, and collapse phase lags on the net flow rate, pressure gradient, wall shear stress, velocity are investigated.

  1. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  2. Respiratory gated irradiation system for heavy-ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minohara, S; Kanai, T; Endo, M; Noda, K; Kanazawa, M

    2000-07-01

    In order to reduce the treatment margin of the moving target due to breathing, we developed a gated irradiation system for heavy-ion radiotherapy. The motion of a patient due to respiration is detected by the motion of the body surface around the chest wall. A respiratory sensor was developed using an infrared light spot and a position-sensitive detector. A timing signal to request a beam is generated in response to the respiration waveform, and a carbon beam is extracted from the synchrotron using a RF-knockout method. CT images for treatment planning are taken in synchronization with the respiratory motion. For patient positioning, digitized fluoroscopic images superimposed with the respiration waveform were used. The relation between the respiratory sensor signal and the organ motion was examined using digitized video images from fluoroscopy. The performance of our gated system was demonstrated by using the moving phantom, and dose profiles were measured in the direction of phantom motion. The timing of gate-on is set at the end of the expiratory phase, because the motion of the diaphragm is slower and more reproducible than during the inspiratory phase. The signal of the respiratory sensor shows a phase difference of 120 milliseconds between lower and upper locations on the chest wall. The motion of diaphragm is delayed by 200 milliseconds from the respiration waveform at the lower location. The beam extraction system worked according to the beam on/off logic for gating, and the gated CT scanner performed well. The lateral penumbra size of the dose profile along the moving axis was distinguishably decreased by the gated irradiation. The ratio of the nongated to gated lateral fall-off was 4.3, 3.5, and 2. 0 under the stroke of 40.0, 29.0, and 13.0 mm respectively. We developed a total treatment system of gated irradiation for heavy-ion radiotherapy. We found that with this system the target margin along the body axis could be decreased to 5-10 mm although the

  3. Systemic signature of the lung response to respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen L A Pennings

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus is a frequent cause of severe bronchiolitis in children. To improve our understanding of systemic host responses to RSV, we compared BALB/c mouse gene expression responses at day 1, 2, and 5 during primary RSV infection in lung, bronchial lymph nodes, and blood. We identified a set of 53 interferon-associated and innate immunity genes that give correlated responses in all three murine tissues. Additionally, we identified blood gene signatures that are indicative of acute infection, secondary immune response, and vaccine-enhanced disease, respectively. Eosinophil-associated ribonucleases were characteristic for the vaccine-enhanced disease blood signature. These results indicate that it may be possible to distinguish protective and unfavorable patient lung responses via blood diagnostics.

  4. SPF和正常鼠下呼吸道菌群多样性研究%Study on low respiratory tract microbiota diversity of SPF and normal mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文凯; 刘越坚; 唐立; 袁晓鹏; 徐星澈; 谭丽莎; 李坤; 戴凤翠; 刘银辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨SPF和正常鼠下呼吸道菌群多样性区别,为研究洁净环境下呼吸道菌群对免疫耐受形成的影响提供简便的动物模型.方法 采用飞行质谱和DGGE的方法检测正常和SPF BALB/c小鼠及Wistar大鼠呼吸道支气管肺泡灌洗液中菌群多样性的区别.结果 SPF BALB/c小鼠下呼吸道菌群丰度小于普通小鼠,下呼吸道菌群丰度小于消化道.SPF Wistar大鼠下呼吸道菌群丰度小于普通大鼠.结论 SPF环境造成鼠下呼吸道菌群丰度减小.%Objective To analyze the low respiratory tract microbiota diversity difference between SPF and normal mouse, provide a convenient animal model for the study of the effect of low respiratory tract microbiota on immune tolerance in clean environment. Methods Flight mass spectrometry and DGGE method were used to detect the microbiota diversity difference between normal and SPF mouse respiratory Bronchoalveolar lavage. Results The low respiratory tract microbiota diversity of SPF BALB/c mice was less than the normal mice, and the respiratory tract mierobiota diversity less than the digestive tract. SPF Wistar rat low respiratory tract microbiota diversity was less than ordinary rats. Conclusion The low mouse respiratory tract microbiota diversity decreases in SPF environment.

  5. Mouse Saliva Inhibits Transit of Influenza Virus to the Lower Respiratory Tract by Efficiently Blocking Influenza Virus Neuraminidase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Brad; Ng, Wy Ching; Crawford, Simon; McKimm-Breschkin, Jenny L; Brown, Lorena E

    2017-07-15

    We previously identified a novel inhibitor of influenza virus in mouse saliva that halts the progression of susceptible viruses from the upper to the lower respiratory tract of mice in vivo and neutralizes viral infectivity in MDCK cells. Here, we investigated the viral target of the salivary inhibitor by using reverse genetics to create hybrid viruses with some surface proteins derived from an inhibitor-sensitive strain and others from an inhibitor-resistant strain. These viruses demonstrated that the origin of the viral neuraminidase (NA), but not the hemagglutinin or matrix protein, was the determinant of susceptibility to the inhibitor. Comparison of the NA sequences of a panel of H3N2 viruses with differing sensitivities to the salivary inhibitor revealed that surface residues 368 to 370 (N2 numbering) outside the active site played a key role in resistance. Resistant viruses contained an EDS motif at this location, and mutation to either EES or KDS, found in highly susceptible strains, significantly increased in vitro susceptibility to the inhibitor and reduced the ability of the virus to progress to the lungs when the viral inoculum was initially confined to the upper respiratory tract. In the presence of saliva, viral strains with a susceptible NA could not be efficiently released from the surfaces of infected MDCK cells and had reduced enzymatic activity based on their ability to cleave substrate in vitro This work indicates that the mouse has evolved an innate inhibitor similar in function, though not in mechanism, to what humans have created synthetically as an antiviral drug for influenza virus.IMPORTANCE Despite widespread use of experimental pulmonary infection of the laboratory mouse to study influenza virus infection and pathogenesis, to our knowledge, mice do not naturally succumb to influenza. Here, we show that mice produce their own natural form of neuraminidase inhibitor in saliva that stops the virus from reaching the lungs, providing a

  6. The German Mouse Clinic: a platform for systemic phenotype analysis of mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H; Gailus-Durner, V; Adler, T; Pimentel, J A Aguilar; Becker, L; Bolle, I; Brielmeier, M; Calzada-Wack, J; Dalke, C; Ehrhardt, N; Fasnacht, N; Ferwagner, B; Frischmann, U; Hans, W; Hölter, S M; Hölzlwimmer, G; Horsch, M; Javaheri, A; Kallnik, M; Kling, E; Lengger, C; Maier, H; Mossbrugger, I; Mörth, C; Naton, B; Nöth, U; Pasche, B; Prehn, C; Przemeck, G; Puk, O; Racz, I; Rathkolb, B; Rozman, J; Schäble, K; Schreiner, R; Schrewe, A; Sina, C; Steinkamp, R; Thiele, F; Willershäuser, M; Zeh, R; Adamski, J; Busch, D H; Beckers, J; Behrendt, H; Daniel, H; Esposito, I; Favor, J; Graw, J; Heldmaier, G; Höfler, H; Ivandic, B; Katus, H; Klingenspor, M; Klopstock, T; Lengeling, A; Mempel, M; Müller, W; Neschen, S; Ollert, M; Quintanilla-Martinez, L; Rosenstiel, P; Schmidt, J; Schreiber, S; Schughart, K; Schulz, H; Wolf, E; Wurst, W; Zimmer, A; Hrabé de Angelis, M

    2009-02-01

    The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) is a large scale phenotyping center where mouse mutant lines are analyzed in a standardized and comprehensive way. The result is an almost complete picture of the phenotype of a mouse mutant line--a systemic view. At the GMC, expert scientists from various fields of mouse research work in close cooperation with clinicians side by side at one location. The phenotype screens comprise the following areas: allergy, behavior, clinical chemistry, cardiovascular analyses, dysmorphology, bone and cartilage, energy metabolism, eye and vision, host-pathogen interactions, immunology, lung function, molecular phenotyping, neurology, nociception, steroid metabolism, and pathology. The German Mouse Clinic is an open access platform that offers a collaboration-based phenotyping to the scientific community (www.mouseclinic.de). More than 80 mutant lines have been analyzed in a primary screen for 320 parameters, and for 95% of the mutant lines we have found new or additional phenotypes that were not associated with the mouse line before. Our data contributed to the association of mutant mouse lines to the corresponding human disease. In addition, the systemic phenotype analysis accounts for pleiotropic gene functions and refines previous phenotypic characterizations. This is an important basis for the analysis of underlying disease mechanisms. We are currently setting up a platform that will include environmental challenge tests to decipher genome-environmental interactions in the areas nutrition, exercise, air, stress and infection with different standardized experiments. This will help us to identify genetic predispositions as susceptibility factors for environmental influences.

  7. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF 5785 CASES WITH RESPIRATORY SYSTEM TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics and tendency of incidence of patients with respiratory system tumors during the past 23 y in Tianjin. Methods: All data in our research was obtained from the surgical pathology files of Department of Pathology of the general and the Second Hospitals of Tianjin Medical University between 1981 and 2003. All data was analyzed by Spss 11.5 statistics program. The comparisons were made by u-test, P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: 1. The detection rate of malignant tumors is significantly higher than that of benign tumors (U=52.68, p=0.000) in respiratory system. 2. The common sites of benign tumors are nose and pharynx, but the common sites of malignant tumors are lung and larynx. 3. The incidence of benign tumors generally peaks between the ages of 40 and 50, but the incidence of malignant tumor generally peaks between the ages of 50 and 60. 4. The commonest histological type of malignant tumors is squamous cell carcinoma, but the commonest histological type of benign tumors is papilloma. 5. The detection rate of malignant lung tumors steadily increased between 1981 and 1999 and increased sharply from 1999 to 2003, but the detection rate of malignant Nasopharyngeal tumors steadily decreased from 1981 to 2003. Between 1981 and 1997, the detection rate of malignant laryngeal tumors steadily increased, followed by a decrease between 1997 and 2003. Conclusion: The detection rate of malignant respiratory system tumors especially lung cancer is gradually increasing. Therefore early prevention and treatment are critical to patients' prognosis.

  8. Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Based Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy with Respiratory Guidance System: Analysis of Respiratory Signals and Dosimetric Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ae Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effectiveness of respiratory guidance system in 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT based respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT by comparing respiratory signals and dosimetric analysis of treatment plans. Methods. The respiratory amplitude and period of the free, the audio device-guided, and the complex system-guided breathing were evaluated in eleven patients with lung or liver cancers. The dosimetric parameters were assessed by comparing free breathing CT plan and 4DCT-based 30–70% maximal intensity projection (MIP plan. Results. The use of complex system-guided breathing showed significantly less variation in respiratory amplitude and period compared to the free or audio-guided breathing regarding the root mean square errors (RMSE of full inspiration (P=0.031, full expiration (P=0.007, and period (P=0.007. The dosimetric parameters including V5 Gy, V10 Gy, V20 Gy, V30 Gy, V40 Gy, and V50 Gy of normal liver or lung in 4DCT MIP plan were superior over free breathing CT plan. Conclusions. The reproducibility and regularity of respiratory amplitude and period were significantly improved with the complex system-guided breathing compared to the free or the audio-guided breathing. In addition, the treatment plan based on the 4D CT-based MIP images acquired with the complex system guided breathing showed better normal tissue sparing than that on the free breathing CT.

  9. A Novel Parametric Model For The Human Respiratory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mihaela IONESCU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present some recent results in an ongoing research project between Ghent University and Chess Medical Technology Company Belgium. The overall aim of the project is to provide a fast method for identification of the human respiratory system in order to allow for an instantaneously diagnosis of the patient by the medical staff. A novel parametric model of the human respiratory system as well as the obtained experimental results is presented in this paper. A prototype apparatus developed by the company, based on the forced oscillation technique is used to record experimental data from 4 patients in this paper. Signal processing is based on spectral analysis and is followed by the parametric identification of a non-linear mechanistic model. The parametric model is equivalent to the structure of a simple electrical RLC-circuit, containing a non-linear capacitor. These parameters have a useful and easy-to-interpret physical meaning for the medical staff members.

  10. Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Fu-Shi; Rubino, Ilaria; Lee, Su-Hwa; Koch, Brendan; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2017-01-01

    Aerosolized pathogens are a leading cause of respiratory infection and transmission. Currently used protective measures pose potential risk of primary/secondary infection and transmission. Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions. Our results can be applied in obtaining a broad-spectrum, airborne pathogen prevention device in preparation for epidemic and pandemic of respiratory diseases.

  11. The Pulmonary Anatomy of Alligator mississippiensis and Its Similarity to the Avian Respiratory System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, R. Kent; Farmer, C.G

    2012-01-01

    ... ( Alligator mississippiensis ). Our findings indicate that both the external and internal morphology of the lungs is strikingly similar to the embryonic avian respiratory system (lungs + air sacs...

  12. Verification and compensation of respiratory motion using an ultrasound imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao, E-mail: hchuang@mail.ntut.edu.tw; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Chiu, Wei-Hung; Tien, Der-Chi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Number 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Road, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ren-Hong; Hsu, Chung-Hsien [Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Number 95, Wen-Chang Road, Shih-Lin District, Taipei 11101, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to use ultrasound imaging as an aid for moving the treatment couch during diagnosis and treatment procedures associated with radiation therapy, in order to offset organ displacement caused by respiratory motion. A noninvasive ultrasound system was used to replace the C-arm device during diagnosis and treatment with the aims of reducing the x-ray radiation dose on the human body while simultaneously being able to monitor organ displacements. Methods: This study used a proposed respiratory compensating system combined with an ultrasound imaging system to monitor the compensation effect of respiratory motion. The accuracy of the compensation effect was verified by fluoroscopy, which means that fluoroscopy could be replaced so as to reduce unnecessary radiation dose on patients. A respiratory simulation system was used to simulate the respiratory motion of the human abdomen and a strain gauge (respiratory signal acquisition device) was used to capture the simulated respiratory signals. The target displacements could be detected by an ultrasound probe and used as a reference for adjusting the gain value of the respiratory signal used by the respiratory compensating system. This ensured that the amplitude of the respiratory compensation signal was a faithful representation of the target displacement. Results: The results show that performing respiratory compensation with the assistance of the ultrasound images reduced the compensation error of the respiratory compensating system to 0.81–2.92 mm, both for sine-wave input signals with amplitudes of 5, 10, and 15 mm, and human respiratory signals; this represented compensation of the respiratory motion by up to 92.48%. In addition, the respiratory signals of 10 patients were captured in clinical trials, while their diaphragm displacements were observed simultaneously using ultrasound. Using the respiratory compensating system to offset, the diaphragm

  13. Comparison of virulence of ovine respiratory mycoplasmas in the mouse mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, B M; Herceg, M; Davies, D H

    1984-08-01

    The virulence of isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and M. arginini from pneumonic and unaffected ovine lungs was compared in a mouse mammary gland model. The isolates varied in their ability to induce a neutrophilic response in the mammary gland. A moderate to severe form of mastitis was induced by 3 M. ovipneumoniae isolates recovered from pneumonic lungs, while the remaining M. ovipneumoniae isolates from pneumonic lungs and those from unaffected lungs induced a very mild histopathological response. The severity of the mastitis could not be increased by the simultaneous inoculation of a mixture of 5 mycoplasma isolates. Mycoplasma arginini isolates induced only a very mild histopathological response despite having been isolated from pneumonic lungs. The finding that the 3 most virulent M. ovipneumoniae isolates were initially recovered from pneumonic ovine lungs suggested that these virulent isolates may contribute to ovine pneumonia. However, the isolation of M. ovipneumoniae from pneumonic ovine lungs does not necessarily imply that these organisms are the causal agents, since M. ovipneumoniae isolates may vary in virulence.

  14. Mitochondrial free radical overproduction due to respiratory chain impairment in the brain of a mouse model of Rett syndrome: protective effect of CNF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Bianca; Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; De Rasmo, Domenico; Musto, Mattia; Fabbri, Alessia; Ricceri, Laura; Fiorentini, Carla; Laviola, Giovanni; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2015-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene associated with severe intellectual disability, movement disorders, and autistic-like behaviors. Its pathogenesis remains mostly not understood and no effective therapy is available. High circulating levels of oxidative stress markers in patients and the occurrence of oxidative brain damage in MeCP2-deficient mouse models suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in RTT pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism and the origin of the oxidative stress have not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that a redox imbalance arises from aberrant mitochondrial functionality in the brain of MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, a condition that more closely recapitulates that of RTT patients. The marked increase in the rate of hydrogen peroxide generation in the brain of RTT mice seems mainly produced by the dysfunctional complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In addition, both membrane potential generation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis are decreased in RTT mouse brains when succinate, the complex II respiratory substrate, is used as an energy source. Respiratory chain impairment is brain area specific, owing to a decrease in either cAMP-dependent phosphorylation or protein levels of specific complex subunits. Further, we investigated whether the treatment of RTT mice with the bacterial protein CNF1, previously reported to ameliorate the neurobehavioral phenotype and brain bioenergetic markers in an RTT mouse model, exerts specific effects on brain mitochondrial function and consequently on hydrogen peroxide production. In RTT brains treated with CNF1, we observed the reactivation of respiratory chain complexes, the rescue of mitochondrial functionality, and the prevention of brain hydrogen peroxide overproduction. These results provide definitive evidence of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction in RTT mouse brain and

  15. Presence of Saccharomycopsis capsularis in the human respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dynowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The following paper represents a fragment of studies on the dynamics of microflora in the human respiratory system with a particular focus on new species developing in that ontocoenosis. Saccharomycopsis capsularus amounts to 6.7% of all the isolated fungi. The isolates were obtained from sputum (41.9%, bronchoscopic material (18.6% and the pharyngeal, nasal and oral swabs representing jointly 39.5% of the positive results. Almost twice as many isolates were obtained from women (66.3% as from men (33.7%. The fungi were most frequently found in the spring and autumn, more rarely in the winter, the rarest in the summer. Appearance of S. capsularis in the human body is, most probably, a consequence of its increased expansiveness in the external environment. So far it has been isolated from the soil, pollens of some tropical plants and from water reservoirs contaminated with municipal sewage.

  16. Aerosol deposition in the human respiratory system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop mathematical models for the deposition of aerosols in the human respiratory system. Expressions were obtained for the mean deposition efficiency for nasal inspiration, nasal expiration, and mouth inspiration. A determination was made of statistical properties associated with each deposition efficiency due to intersubject and intrasubject variabilities. Expressions were then derived for head deposition with combined nose and mouth breathing. In the lung, deposition is a result primarily of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. While there was no adequate model for impaction, several deposition formulae for sedimentation were derived as well as ones for diffusion. Studies were also made of the particle charge effect, as the electrostatic image force on a particle contributes to its deposition. There is, however, a threshold charge per particle below which the particle charge has no effect on deposition. Deposition data on ultrafine particles is scarce due to the difficulties in conducting proper experiments.

  17. Systems biology unravels interferon responses to respiratory virus infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea; L; Kroeker; Kevin; M; Coombs

    2014-01-01

    Interferon production is an important defence against viral replication and its activation is an attractive therapeutic target. However, it has long been known that viruses perpetually evolve a multitude of strategies to evade these host immune responses. In recent years there has been an explosion of information on virusinduced alterations of the host immune response that have resulted from data-rich omics technologies. Unravelling how these systems interact and determining the overall outcome of the host response to viral infection will play an important role in future treatment and vaccine development. In this review we focus primarily on the interferon pathway and its regulation as well as mechanisms by which respiratory RNA viruses interfere with its signalling capacity.

  18. Detection of speaking with a new respiratory inductive plethysmography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Handke, Eva M; Roth, Walton T

    2003-01-01

    The LifeShirt system, a garment with integrated sensors connected to a handheld computer, allows recording of a wide variety of clinically important cardiorespiratory data continuously for extended periods outside the laboratory or clinic. The device includes sensors for assessment of physical activity and posture since both can affect physiological activation and need to be controlled. Speaking is another potential confounding factor in the interpretation of physiological data. Auditory speech recording is problematic because it can pick up sources other than the person's voice (external microphone) or is obtrusive (throat microphone). The abdominal and thoracic calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) sensors integrated in the LifeShirt system might be an adequate alternative for detecting speech. In a laboratory experiment we determined respiratory parameters indicative of speech. Eighteen subjects were instructed to sit quietly, write, and speak continuously, for 4 min each. Nine parameters were derived from the RIP signals and averaged over each minute. In addition, nine variability parameters were computed as their coefficients of breath-by-breath variation. Inspiratory/expiratory time (IE-ratio) best distinguished speaking from writing with 98% correct classification at a cutoff criterion of 0.52. This criterion was equally successful in distinguishing speaking from sitting quietly. Discriminant analyses indicated that linear combinations of IE-ratio and a variety of other parameters did not reliably improve classification accuracy across tasks and replications. These results demonstrate the high efficacy of RIP-derived IE-ratio for speech detection and suggest that auditory recording is not necessary for detection of speech in ambulatory assessment.

  19. Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum, intraperitoneal pressure, and peritoneal tissue hypoxia: a mouse study with controlled respiratory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Sachiko; Jardon, Kris; Maleysson, Elodie; D'Arpiany, Francis; Canis, Michel; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Mage, Gérard

    2010-11-01

    cellular level in a mouse model when a low IPP was used.

  20. [Check list of the helminths in the respiratory system of domesticated animals in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Ali Tümay

    2006-01-01

    Helminths of the respiratory system make up an important part of the parasitic diseases found in domestic animals. Therefore, many studies have been carried out on these helminths in Turkey. In this article, a check list and the prevalence rates of helminths of respiratory system found in domestic animals in Turkey has been given.

  1. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module V. Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the respiratory system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Five units of study are presented: (1) anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system; (2) pathophysiology assessment of the patient; (3) pathophysiology and management of…

  2. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  3. compliance of the respiratory system as a predictor for successful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exmbated and 16 (32.6%) required reintubation. Infants in the ... endotracheal tube via the nasal route and were being ventilated by time-cycled ... attending physician, who notified the respiratory technologist ... The device utilises a heated.

  4. Low-power system-on-chip implementation for respiratory rate detection and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padasdao, Bryson; Yee, Roxanne; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Recent biosensors can measure respiratory rate non-invasively, but limits patient mobility or requires regular battery replacement. Respiratory effort, which can scavenge mW, may power the sensor, but requires minimal sensor power usage. This paper demonstrates feasibility of respiratory rate measurement by using a comparator instead of ADC. A low-power system-on-chip can implement respiratory rate detection and wireless data transmission with a total power consumption under 82 µW. This approach produces significant power savings, and transmission uses under 30% of total power consumption.

  5. Numerical stability analysis in respiratory control system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo E. Kollar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the unique equilibrium in two mathematical models (based on chemical balance dynamics of human respiration is examined using numerical methods. Due to the transport delays in the respiratory control system these models are governed by delay differential equations. First, a simplified two-state model with one delay is considered, then a five-state model with four delays (where the application of numerical methods is essential is investigated. In particular, software is developed to perform linearized stability analysis and simulations of the model equations. Furthermore, the Matlab package DDE-BIFTOOL v.~2.00 is employed to carry out numerical bifurcation analysis. Our main goal is to study the effects of transport delays on the stability of the model equations. Critical values of the transport delays (i.e., where Hopf bifurcations occur are determined, and stable periodic solutions are found as the delays pass their critical values. The numerical findings are in good agreement with analytic results obtained earlier for the two-state model.

  6. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-23

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens.

  7. Respiratory failure in a mouse model of myotonic dystrophy does not correlate with the CTG repeat length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaite, Petrica-Adrian; Kuntzer, Thierry; Gourdon, Geneviève; Barakat-Walter, Ibtissam

    2013-10-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is a multisystemic disease caused by an expansion of CTG repeats in the region of DMPK, the gene encoding DM protein kinase. The severity of muscle disability in DM1 correlates with the size of CTG expansion. As respiratory failure is one of the main causes of death in DM1, we investigated the correlation between respiratory impairment and size of the (CTG)n repeat in DM1 animal models. Using pressure plethysmography the respiratory function was assessed in control and transgenic mice carrying either 600 (DM600) or >1300 CTG repeats (DMSXL). The statistical analysis of respiratory parameters revealed that both DM1 transgenic mice sub-lines show respiratory impairment compared to control mice. In addition, there is no significant difference in breathing functions between the DM600 and DMSXL mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that respiratory impairment is present in both transgenic mice sub-lines, but the severity of respiratory failure is not related to the size of the (CTG)n expansion.

  8. Megacomplex organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system by structural analysis of respiratory supercomplexes from potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultema, Jelle B.; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Kouril, Roman; Kouřil, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The individual protein complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complexes 1 to V) specifically interact and form defined supramolecular structures, the so-called "respiratory supercomplexes". Some supercomplexes appear to associate into larger structures, or megacomplexes, such as a

  9. Megacomplex organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system by structural analysis of respiratory supercomplexes from potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultema, Jelle B.; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Kouřil, Roman

    The individual protein complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complexes 1 to V) specifically interact and form defined supramolecular structures, the so-called "respiratory supercomplexes". Some supercomplexes appear to associate into larger structures, or megacomplexes, such as a

  10. Respiratory failure in a mouse model of myotonic dystrophy does not correlate with the CTG repeat length.

    OpenAIRE

    Panaite, P.A.; Kuntzer, T; Gourdon, G; Barakat-Walter, I.

    2013-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is a multisystemic disease caused by an expansion of CTG repeats in the region of DMPK, the gene encoding DM protein kinase. The severity of muscle disability in DM1 correlates with the size of CTG expansion. As respiratory failure is one of the main causes of death in DM1, we investigated the correlation between respiratory impairment and size of the (CTG)n repeat in DM1 animal models. Using pressure plethysmography the respiratory function was assessed in control an...

  11. Influence of the ageing process on the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Vinicius Villalón e Tramont

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In an increasingly old society, the study of the respiratory system changes and new techniques dedicated to older patients are of interest in physiologic studies as well as in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. OBJECTIVES: (1 To investigate the impact of ageing on the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system, and (2 to compare the easiness of accomplishment of spirometry and forced oscillation for assessing lung function. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which forced oscillation was used to investigate respiratory system resistive and reactive properties, while spirometry was used as a reference test to evaluate 80 normal subjects aged between 20 and 86 years. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the easiness of accomplishment of spirometry and forced oscillation. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the respiratory system resonance frequency (p<0.003 and a reduction in the mean reactance (p<0.004 with increasing age. Respiratory system resistance and dynamic compliance were not related to the ageing process. The easiness of accomplishment of forced oscillation measurements was greater than that of spirometry. This result was particularly relevant in subjects over 70 years old (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory system resistance and dynamic compliance are not modified with ageing. On the other hand, respiratory system homogeneity decreases during the ageing process. Forced oscillation is easy to perform and provides information complementary to spirometry. This technique may be a promising alternative and/or complement to other conventional exams used to evaluate older people who are unable to adequately perform spirometric tests.

  12. Periodic properties of the histaminergic system of the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, Stanislav V; Zant, Janneke C; Karlstedt, Kaj; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    Brain histamine is involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and alertness. Despite the widespread use of the mouse as an experimental model, the periodic properties of major markers of the mouse histaminergic system have not been comprehensively characterized. We analysed the daily levels of histamine and its first metabolite, 1-methylhistamine, in different brain structures of C57BL/6J and CBA/J mouse strains, and the mRNA level and activity of histidine decarboxylase and histamine-N-methyltransferase in C57BL/6J mice. In the C57BL/6J strain, histamine release, assessed by in vivo microdialysis, underwent prominent periodic changes. The main period was 24 h peaking during the activity period. Additional 8 h periods were also observed. The release was highly positively correlated with active wakefulness, as shown by electroencephalography. In both mouse strains, tissue histamine levels remained steady for 24 h in all structures except for the hypothalamus of CBA/J mice, where 24-h periodicity was observed. Brain tissue 1-methylhistamine levels in both strains reached their maxima in the periods of activity. The mRNA level of histidine decarboxylase in the tuberomamillary nucleus and the activities of histidine decarboxylase and histamine-N-methyltransferase in the striatum and cortex did not show a 24-h rhythm, whereas in the hypothalamus the activities of both enzymes had a 12-h periodicity. These results show that the activities of histamine-metabolizing enzymes are not under simple direct circadian regulation. The complex and non-uniform temporal patterns of the histaminergic system of the mouse brain suggest that histamine is strongly involved in the maintenance of active wakefulness.

  13. The early changes of respiratory system resistance andγδT lymphocytes infiltrated in graft after lung transplantation of mouse%小鼠肺移植术后早期肺呼吸阻力与γδT淋巴细胞变化规律的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其瑞; 王丽凤; 张亚梅; 许江南; 李辉; 丁跃中

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To generate an orthotopic left lung transplantation model in mice, and to observe the early changes of respiratory system resistance andγδT lymphocytes infiltrated in grafts� Methods The research time was from March 2014 to May 2015� The male C57BL/6 mice ( n=35) and BALB/c mice (syngenic group,n=10) were randomly divided into five groups. Control group (n=5): wild C57BL/6 mice; syngenic transplant group ( n=10 ): C57BL/6→C57BL/6; allogenic transplant group ( allogenic group,n=10): BALB/c→C57BL/6; each transplant group was randomly divided into 3⁃day and 7⁃day subgroups ( n=5 )� Respiratory system resistance and histological features of grafts were assessed, and differences in graft infiltrating γδT lymphocytes and mRNA expression of interleukin ( IL )⁃17A were quantified on 3 and 7 days after transplantation� Multiple comparisons were performed using one⁃way analysis of variance and least significant difference analysis� Results ( 1 ) The respiratory system resistance of syngenic group and allogenic group were (2�61±0�59) cmH2O·s/ml and (2�84±0�31) cmH2O·s/ml 3 days post⁃operation, both of them increased compared to control group (1�39±0�17) cmH2O·s/ml (1 cmH2O=0�098 kPa) (P=0�001, 0�000). The respiratory system resistance of allogenic group were (4�33±0�67) cmH2 O·s/ml 7 days post⁃operation, which was significantly higher than that of syngenic 7⁃day subgroup (1�87±0�27) cmH2O·s/ml and control group (1�39±0�17) cmH2O·s/ml (P=0�000, 0�000)�(2) The isografts of syngenic group showed a relatively normal histological appearance with minimal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and the allografts of allogenic group infiltrated apparently by inflammatory cells, especially 7⁃day subgroup showed acute cellular rejection� ( 3) The percentage of γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in isografts and allografts were 3�90%± 0�86% and 4�40%± 0�57%, respectively, which were

  14. Respiratory alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G T; Vaziri, N D; Sassoon, C S

    2001-04-01

    Respiratory alkalosis is an extremely common and complicated problem affecting virtually every organ system in the body. This article reviews the various facets of this interesting problem. Respiratory alkalosis produces multiple metabolic abnormalities, from changes in potassium, phosphate, and calcium, to the development of a mild lactic acidosis. Renal handling of the above ions is also affected. The etiologies may be related to pulmonary or extrapulmonary disorders. Hyperventilation syndrome is a common etiology of respiratory alkalosis in the emergency department setting and is a diagnosis by exclusion. There are many cardiac effects of respiratory alkalosis, such as tachycardia, ventricular and atrial arrhythmias, and ischemic and nonischemic chest pain. In the lungs, vasodilation occurs, and in the gastrointestinal system there are changes in perfusion, motility, and electrolyte handling. Therapeutically, respiratory alkalosis is used for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure. Correction of a respiratory alkalosis is best performed by correcting the underlying etiology.

  15. End-expiration Respiratory Gating for a High Resolution Stationary Cardiac SPECT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual-respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or 8 cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (pdefect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (pdefect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on the patient with defect. The results showed that the proposed methods can effectively reduce motion blur in the images caused by both respiratory and cardiac motions, which may lead to more accurate defect detection and

  16. End-expiration respiratory gating for a high-resolution stationary cardiac SPECT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung; Harris, Mark; Le, Max; Biondi, James; Grobshtein, Yariv; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motions can degrade myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) image quality and reduce defect detection and quantitative accuracy. In this study, we developed a dual respiratory and cardiac gating system for a high-resolution fully stationary cardiac SPECT scanner in order to improve the image quality and defect detection. Respiratory motion was monitored using a compressive sensor pillow connected to a dual respiratory-cardiac gating box, which sends cardiac triggers only during end-expiration phases to the single cardiac trigger input on the SPECT scanners. The listmode data were rebinned retrospectively into end-expiration frames for respiratory motion reduction or eight cardiac gates only during end-expiration phases to compensate for both respiratory and cardiac motions. The proposed method was first validated on a motion phantom in the presence and absence of multiple perfusion defects, and then applied on 11 patient studies with and without perfusion defects. In the normal phantom studies, the end-expiration gated SPECT (EXG-SPECT) reduced respiratory motion blur and increased myocardium to blood pool contrast by 51.2% as compared to the ungated images. The proposed method also yielded an average of 11.2% increase in myocardium to defect contrast as compared to the ungated images in the phantom studies with perfusion defects. In the patient studies, EXG-SPECT significantly improved the myocardium to blood pool contrast (p defect, EXG-SPECT improved the defect contrast and definition. The dual respiratory-cardiac gating further reduced the blurring effect, increased the myocardium to blood pool contrast significantly by 36% (p defect characteristics and visualization of fine structures at the expense of increased noise on the patient with defect. The results showed that the proposed methods can effectively reduce motion blur in the images caused by both respiratory and cardiac motions, which may lead to more accurate defect detection and

  17. Ultrafine Particles in Residential Indoors and Doses Deposited in the Human Respiratory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Manigrasso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Indoor aerosol sources may significantly contribute to the daily dose of particles deposited into the human respiratory system. Therefore, it is important to characterize the aerosols deriving from the operations currently performed in an indoor environment and also to estimate the relevant particle respiratory doses. For this aim, aerosols from indoor combustive and non-combustive sources were characterized in terms of aerosol size distributions, and the relevant deposition doses were estimated as a function of time, particle diameter and deposition site in the respiratory system. Ultrafine particles almost entirely made up the doses estimated. The maximum contribution was due to particles deposited in the alveolar region between the 18th and the 21st airway generation. When cooking operations were performed, respiratory doses per unit time were about ten-fold higher than the relevant indoor background dose. Such doses were even higher than those associated with outdoor traffic aerosol.

  18. Aging-related changes in respiratory system mechanics and morphometry in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan E; Mantilla, Carlos B; Pabelick, Christina M; Roden, Anja C; Sieck, Gary C

    2016-07-01

    Previous work investigating respiratory system mechanics in mice has reported an aging-related increase in compliance and mean linear intercept (Lm). However, these changes were assessed using only a young (2-mo-old) and old (20- and 26-mo-old) group yet were interpreted to reflect a linear evolution across the life span. Therefore, to investigate respiratory system mechanics and lung morphometry across a more complete spectrum of ages, we utilized 2 (100% survival, n = 6)-, 6 (100% survival, n = 12)-, 18 (90% survival, n = 12)-, 24 (75% survival, n = 12)-, and 30 (25% survival, n = 12)-mo-old C57BL/6 mice. We found a nonlinear aging-related decrease in respiratory system resistance and increase in dynamic compliance and hysteresis between 2- and 24-mo-old mice. However, in 30-mo-old mice, respiratory system resistance increased, and dynamic compliance and hysteresis decreased relative to 24-mo-old mice. Respiratory system impedance spectra were measured between 1-20.5 Hz at positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) of 1, 3, 5, and 7 cmH2O. Respiratory system resistance and reactance at each level of PEEP were increased and decreased, respectively, only in 2-mo-old animals. No differences in the respiratory system impedance spectra were observed in 6-, 18-, 24-, and 30-mo-old mice. Additionally, lungs were fixed following tracheal instillation of 4% paraformaldehyde at 25 cmH2O and processed for Lm and airway collagen deposition. There was an aging-related increase in Lm consistent with emphysematous-like changes and no evidence of increased airway collagen deposition. Accordingly, we demonstrate nonlinear aging-related changes in lung mechanics and morphometry in C57BL/6 mice.

  19. The expression of SEIPIN in the mouse central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Xie, Beibei; Qi, Yanfei; Du, Ximing; Wang, Shaoshi; Zhang, Yumei; Paxinos, George; Yang, Hongyuan; Liang, Huazheng

    2016-11-01

    Immunohistochemical staining was used to investigate the expression pattern of SEIPIN in the mouse central nervous system. SEIPIN was found to be present in a large number of areas, including the motor and somatosensory cortex, the thalamic nuclei, the hypothalamic nuclei, the mesencephalic nuclei, some cranial motor nuclei, the reticular formation of the brainstem, and the vestibular complex. Double labeling with NeuN antibody confirmed that SEIPIN-positive cells in some nuclei were neurons. Retrograde tracer injections into the spinal cord revealed that SEIPIN-positive neurons in the motor and somatosensory cortex and other movement related nuclei project to the mouse spinal cord. The present study found more nuclei positive for SEIPIN than shown using in situ hybridization and confirmed the presence of SEIPIN in neurons projecting to the spinal cord. The results of this study help to explain the clinical manifestations of patients with Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (Bscl2) gene mutations.

  20. Optical mapping system for visualizing arrhythmias in isolated mouse atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robyn; Nygren, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Optical mapping has become an important technique in the study of cardiac electrophysiology, especially in terms of investigating the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias. The increasing availability of transgenic mice as models for cardiovascular disease is driving the need for instrumentation suitable for the study of electrical activity in the mouse heart. In this paper we evaluate our optical mapping system's ability to clearly record induced arrhythmic activity in an isolated mouse atrial preparation. Preliminary results indicate that the signal quality is high enough that individual optically recorded action potentials can be discerned in many pixels, even without post-processing for noise removal. The optical mapping video is clear enough for general observations regarding the patterns of electrical propagation during arrhythmic behaviour. The induced arrhythmias appear to have a regular pattern of activity, and are likely best classified as atrial tachycardias.

  1. Excretion-retention diagram to evaluate gas exchange properties of vertebrate respiratory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, A; Luijendijk, S C

    1982-09-01

    Excretion [E = (PE - PI)/(PV - PI)] and retention [R = (Pa - PI)/(PV -PI)]are completely model-free defined variables which describe the dual input-output black-box representation of vertebrate respiratory systems under steady-state conditions. In the excretion-retention diagram (E-R diagram), E is plotted as a function of R. The application of the principle of mass conservation confines the possible combinations of E and R for a gas with a blood-gas partition coefficient, lambda, in a respiratory system with an overall ventilation, VT, and an overall perfusion, QT, to E = (lambda QT/VT) (1 - R). In general, E can be described as a continuous function of R. The mathematical formulation of this function depends on the configuration of the respiratory system. Easily recognizable curvatures are obtained for counter-cross, and cocurrent systems with and without parallel inhomogeneities. Visual inspection of actual E and R data displayed in an E-R diagram therefore allows the correct choice of the configuration of the respiratory system to be eventually used for further parameter estimation schemes. The E-R diagram is also a powerful tutorial tool for visualizing the complex relationships between the gas exchange of agents with different physical properties and the consequences of changes in ventilation and perfusion distribution within the respiratory system on gas transport.

  2. Extramitochondrial release of hydrogen peroxide from insect and mouse liver mitochondria using the respiratory inhibitors phosphine, myxothiazol, and antimycin and spectral analysis of inhibited cytochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolter, C J; Chefurka, W

    1990-04-01

    The fumigant insecticide phosphine (PH3) is known to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase in vitro. Inhibition of the respiratory chain at this site has been shown to stimulate the generation of superoxide radicals (O2-), which dismutate to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This study was performed in order to investigate the production of H2O2 by mitochondria isolated from granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and mouse liver on exposure to PH3. Other respiratory inhibitors, antimycin, myxothiazol, and rotenone were used with insect mitochondria. Hydrogen peroxide was measured spectrophotometrically using yeast cytochrome c peroxidase as an indicator. Insect and mouse liver mitochondria, utilizing endogenous substrate, both produced H2O2 after inhibition by PH3. Insect organelles released threefold more H2O2 than did mouse organelles, when exposed to PH3. Production of H2O2 by PH3-treated insect mitochondria was increased significantly on addition of the substrate alpha-glycerophosphate. Succinate did not enhance H2O2 production, however, indicating that the H2O2 did not result from the autoxidation of ubiquinone. NAD(+)-linked substrates, malate and pyruvate also had no effect on H2O2 production, suggesting that NADH-dehydrogenase was not the source of H2O2. Data obtained using antimycin and myxothiazol, both of which stimulated the release of H2O2 from insect mitochondria, lead to the conclusion that glycerophosphate dehydrogenase is a source of H2O2. The effect of combining PH3, antimycin, and myxothiazol on cytochrome spectra in insect mitochondria was also recorded. It was observed that PH3 reduces cytochrome c oxidase but none of the other cytochromes in the electron transport chain. There was no movement of electrons to cytochrome b when insect mitochondria are inhibited with PH3. The spectral data show that the inhibitors interact with the respiratory chain in a way that would allow the production of H2O2 from the sites proposed previously.

  3. [Amphibians as a model system for the investigation of respiratory control development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Olivier; Simard, Edith; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Bairam, Aida; Kinkead, Richard

    2004-10-01

    Recent medical advances have made it possible for babies to survive premature birth at increasingly earlier developmental stages. This population requires costly and sophisticated medical care to address the problems associated with immaturity of the respiratory system. In addition to pulmonary complications, respiratory instability and apnea reflecting immaturity of the respiratory control system are major causes of hospitalization and morbidity in this highly vulnerable population. These medical concerns, combined with the curiosity of physiologists, have contributed to the expansion of research in respiratory neurobiology. While most researchers working in this field commonly use rodents as an animal model, recent research using in vitro brainstem preparation from bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have revealed the technical advantages of this animal model, and shown that the basic principles underlying respiratory control and its ontogeny are very similar between these two groups of vertebrates. The present review highlights the recent advances in the area of research with a focus on intermittent (episodic) breathing and the role of serotonergic and GABAergic modulation of respiratory activity during development.

  4. Antitussive activity and respiratory system effects of levodropropizine in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, R; Braga, P C; Centanni, S; Legnani, D; Moavero, N E; Allegra, L

    1988-08-01

    Antitussive activity of the new antitussive drug, levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526), was evaluated in healthy volunteers by the classical method of citric acid-induced coughing. Levodropropizine dose-dependently reduced cough frequency. Maximal inhibition was observed at 6 h after administration. Cough intensity was also reduced, as shown by the analysis of cough noise. Levodropropizine, at the dosage of 60 mg t.i.d., had no adverse effects on respiratory function nor on airway clearance mechanisms: in fact, it did not affect spirometric parameters. Levodropropizine had no effects on the rheological properties of mucus nor on ciliary activity of airway epithelium.

  5. A Novel Point-of-Care Smartphone Based System for Monitoring the Cardiac and Respiratory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kwanghyun; Merchant, Faisal M.; Sayadi, Omid; Puppala, Dheeraj; Doddamani, Rajiv; Sahani, Ashish; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Heist, E. Kevin; Isselbacher, Eric M.; Armoundas, Antonis A.

    2017-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory monitoring is one of the most demanding areas in the rapidly growing, mobile-device, based health care delivery. We developed a 12-lead smartphone-based electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition and monitoring system (called “cvrPhone”), and an application to assess underlying ischemia, and estimate the respiration rate (RR) and tidal volume (TV) from analysis of electrocardiographic (ECG) signals only. During in-vivo swine studies (n = 6), 12-lead ECG signals were recorded at baseline and following coronary artery occlusion. Ischemic indices calculated from each lead showed statistically significant (p mobile platform. PMID:28327645

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the respiratory system, digestive system and on the skin in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dynowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of observations on the occurrence of S. cerevisiae in the respiratory and digestive systems and on the skin in hospitalised individuals, mostly belonging to so-called risk groups of fungal infections, conducted over a period of five years (1999-2004, are described and discussed. The participation of S. cerevisiae in the mycocoenoses studied was 11.04% of all the recorded fungi. A significant increase in its prevalence, especially on the skin, was noticed. The fungus was mostly isolated with fungi of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, as well as separately in the last two years of the study.

  7. Functional status of respiratory system of the students engaged in taekwondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamakha O.Y.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Influence of systematic lessons is certain taekwondo on functional possibilities of the respirator system of students. 40 students of the first course took part in research. Trainings were conducted two times in a week during a school year. The program included 140 educational hours. The complex of respiratory exercises is developed. The changes of the functional state of the respirator system of students are resulted under influence of systematic employments taekwondo. It is set that effective application of receptions of base technique of taekwondo, implementation of the special respiratory exercises is a condition increase of functional possibilities of all links of the system of the external breathing of students.

  8. SU-E-J-192: Comparative Effect of Different Respiratory Motion Management Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Ito, K; Kanai, T; Jingu, K [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Kida, S [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai City, Miyagi (Japan); Kishi, K; Sato, K [Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Dobashi, S; Takeda, K [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of four-dimensional computed tomography imaging for causing artifacts. Audio-visual biofeedback systems associated with patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches), representing simpler visual coaching techniques without guiding waveform are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching to reduce respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. Methods: We collected data from eleven healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as audio-visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. Results: All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared to free breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86, and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and wave model differed significantly (p < 0.05). Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18, and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free breathing, Abches, bar model, and wave model, respectively. Free breathing and all coaching techniques differed significantly (p < 0.05). For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to free breathing, bar model, and Abches. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of audio-visual biofeedback to reduce respiratory irregularity compared with Abches. Our results showed that audio-visual biofeedback combined with a wave model can potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management

  9. Respiratory system mechanics in patients receiving aerosolized ribavirin during mechanical ventilation for suspected respiratory syncytial viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, L S; Coss-Bu, J A; Englund, J A; Walding, D; Stein, F

    1999-08-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important respiratory pathogen for infants. Aerosolized ribavirin (AR) has been used in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients with RSV bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to measure respiratory system mechanics (RSM) in pediatric patients requiring MV and receiving AR for suspected RSV. Patients were prospectively randomized to receive AR, either at a regular dose (RD) (6 g/300 mL over 18 hr/day) or a high dose (HD) (6 g/100 mL over 2 hr, three times a day). To measure changes in RSM, a passive exhalation technique was used before and after each dose of AR; time constant (tc) in s, resistance (Rrs) in cmH(2)O/mL/kg/s, and quasistatic compliance (Crs) in mL/cmH(2)O/kg were measured. Airway pressure and flow signals were obtained and analyzed using a pneumotachograph, a differential pressure transducer, and a computer interface. Statistical analysis was done by Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon rank tests. Thirteen patients were enrolled: 5 patients in the HD group (mean age of 52 months), and 8 patients in the RD group (mean age of 10 months). Four and 5 patients were positive for RSV by ELISA in the HD and RD groups, respectively. The RSM in the HD group were: tc, 0.58 +/- 0.15 s and 0.55 +/- 0.20 s before and after AR, respectively; Rrs, 0.03 +/- 0. 03 cmH(2)0/mL/kg/s and 0.02 +/- 0.02 cmH(2)0/mL/kg/s, respectively; and Crs, 0.63 +/- 0.21 mL/cmH(2)O/kg and 0.70 +/- 0.13 mL/cmH(2)O/kg, respectively. In the RD group, the RSM were: tc, 0.37 +/- 0.12 s and 0.31 +/- 0.10 s before and after AR, respectively; Rrs, 0.03 +/- 0.02 cmH(2)0/mL/kg/s and 0.02 +/- 0.01 cmH(2)0/mL/kg/s, respectively (P mechanical ventilation does not worsen RSM.

  10. The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yu-Fei; Xu, Yue-Hua; Shi, Min-Hua; Lian, Yi-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and respiratory system disease. In the past few years, levels of smog have increased throughout China resulting in the deterioration of air quality, raising worldwide concerns. PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter) can penetrate deeply into the lung, irritate and corrode the alveolar wall, and consequently impair lung function. Hence it is important to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on the respiratory system and then to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this review, we will discuss PM2.5 damage on human respiratory system from epidemiological, experimental and mechanism studies. At last, we recommend to the population to limit exposure to air pollution and call to the authorities to create an index of pollution related to health.

  11. An investigation of functional state of the kickboxing athlete respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Volodchenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study of the functional state of the respiratory system of kickboxing athletes. Material & Methods: in study involved 17 athletes – members of the Kharkov region team, age (17,88±0,58 years. Anthropometric studies were carried out according to standard methods, determined: body weight, body length, vital capacity of the lungs. Assessment of physical development, the state of the respiratory system was made with the SPIROCOM program. Results: the physical development of athletes is rated as average and harmonious. An increase in the vital capacity of the lungs was almost doubled in comparison with the standard. A significant increase in actual tidal volume and minute volume of respiration was established in comparison with the proper values. A significant increase in expiration time, a predominance of individuals with a large expiratory volume. Conclusion: established increased functionality of the respiratory system, which is due to the specifics of training in this sportа.

  12. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Richard J; Barrett, Paul M; Gower, David J

    2012-01-01

    Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise...

  13. Brainstem respiratory oscillators develop independently of neuronal migration defects in the Wnt/PCP mouse mutant looptail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Thoby-Brisson

    Full Text Available The proper development and maturation of neuronal circuits require precise migration of component neurons from their birthplace (germinal zone to their final positions. Little is known about the effects of aberrant neuronal position on the functioning of organized neuronal groups, especially in mammals. Here, we investigated the formation and properties of brainstem respiratory neurons in looptail (Lp mutant mice in which facial motor neurons closely apposed to some respiratory neurons fail to migrate due to loss of function of the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP protein Vangl2. Using calcium imaging and immunostaining on embryonic hindbrain preparations, we found that respiratory neurons constituting the embryonic parafacial oscillator (e-pF settled at the ventral surface of the medulla in Vangl2(Lp/+ and Vangl2(Lp/Lp embryos despite the failure of tangential migration of its normally adjacent facial motor nucleus. Anatomically, the e-pF neurons were displaced medially in Lp/+ embryos and rostro-medially Lp/Lp embryos. Pharmacological treatments showed that the e-pF oscillator exhibited characteristic network properties in both Lp/+ and Lp/Lp embryos. Furthermore, using hindbrain slices, we found that the other respiratory oscillator, the preBötzinger complex, was also anatomically and functionally established in Lp mutants. Importantly, the displaced e-pF oscillator established functional connections with the preBötC oscillator in Lp/+ mutants. Our data highlight the robustness of the developmental processes that assemble the neuronal networks mediating an essential physiological function.

  14. Low-power system for the acquisition of the respiratory signal of neonates using diaphragmatic electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Róbinson; López-Isaza, Sergio; Mejía-Mejía, Elisa; Paniagua, Viviana; González, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction An apnea episode is defined as the cessation of breathing for ≥15 seconds or as any suspension of breathing accompanied by hypoxia and bradycardia. Obtaining information about the respiratory system in a neonate can be accomplished using electromyography signals from the diaphragm muscle. Objective The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a method by which the respiratory and electrocardiographic signals from neonates can be obtained using diaphragmatic electromyography. Materials and methods The system was developed using single-supply, micropower components, which deliver a low-power consumption system appropriate for the development of portable devices. The stages of the system were tested in both adult and neonate patients. Results The system delivers signals as those expected in both patients and allows the acquisition of respiratory signals directly from the diaphragmatic electromyography. Conclusion This low-power system may present a good alternative for monitoring the cardiac and respiratory activity in newborn babies, both in the hospital and at home. Significance The system delivers good signals but needs to be validated for its use in neonates. It is being used in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital General de Medellín Luz Castro de Gutiérrez. PMID:28260954

  15. Chronic Respiratory Disease: Considerations within the Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Durán Palomino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD is a publichealth problem in Colombia. Its severity increasesby the presence of risk factors like firesmoke, which tend to prevail in young populationand that leads consequences at physical,social and mental level in the long run. The CRDincludes a series of clinical entities with theirown characteristics, caused by the suffering, socialisolation, physiological deterioration andthe associated morbidity. All these contributeto the functional limitation, the lost quality oflife and, ultimately, can turn the individual thatsuffers it in a dependent being without future.All this takes to a greater consumption of healthresources without this means one better attention,since in many opportunities the isolated efforts, the lack of clear rules, sustained proposalsand the non use of clinical guidelines amongother causes, allow that the intervention wouldbe destined to only palliate the present symptoms,but is far from including an integral, effectivehandling and that responds to individualnecessities. This article analyze the public norms and policies that cover patients with CRD, theaspects related to the rights to an integral, safeand real treatment in the affected individualalong with the obstacles for its accomplishment.

  16. A novel modelling approach to energy transport in a respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithiarasu, Perumal; Sazonov, Igor

    2016-11-24

    In this paper, energy transport in a respiratory tract is modelled using the finite element method for the first time. The upper and lower respiratory tracts are approximated as a 1-dimensional domain with varying cross-sectional and surface areas, and the radial heat conduction in the tissue is approximated using the 1-dimensional cylindrical coordinate system. The governing equations are solved using 1-dimensional linear finite elements with convective and evaporative boundary conditions on the wall. The results obtained for the exhalation temperature of the respiratory system have been compared with the available animal experiments. The study of a full breathing cycle indicates that evaporation is the main mode of heat transfer, and convection plays almost negligible role in the energy transport. This is in-line with the results obtained from animal experiments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Statistical determinations of the gating windows in the respiratory gated radiotherapy using the visible guiding system

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Se An; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory gated radiation therapy (RGRT) is used to minimize the radiation dose to normal tissue in lung cancer patients. Determinations of the gating window in the respiratory phase of patients are important in RGRT but it is not easy. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal gating window with a visible guiding system in RGRT. Materials and Methods: Between April and October in 2014 the breathing signals of 23 lung cancer patients were recorded with a Real-time Position Management (RPM) respiratory gating system (Varian, USA). We performed statistical analysis with breathing signals to find the optimal gating window for the guided breathing for RGRT. Results: 19 of the 23 patients showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) when the breathing signals obtained before and after breathing training were compared, The standard deviation of the respiration signals after breathing training was the lowest in the phase of 30 % - 70 % (p < 0.05). Conclusions: RGRT with RPM...

  18. Laryngeal dystonia in the course of multiple system atrophy: a cause of postoperative respiratory insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wujtewicz, Magdalena A; Chwojnicki, Kamil; Owczuk, Radosław; Wujtewicz, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult onset, incurable neurodegenerative disease, characterized by symptoms of nervous system failure. Occurrence of laryngeal dystonia indicates increased risk of sudden death caused by airway occlusion. We present the case report of 63-year-old patient with history of orthostatic hypotension, parkinsonism, progressive adynamia, and stridor. The patient was admitted to the hospital for diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension. A diagnosis of possible MSA was made. Because of patient's complaints, an X-ray of the hip joint was taken. It revealed femoral neck fracture. Endoprosthesis insertion under general anesthesia was performed. Two days later the patient presented progressive adynamy and respiratory insufficiency. Endotracheal intubation and respiratory support were required followed by extubation and one more intubation. After second extubation, stridor and acute respiratory insufficiency occurred. Urgent tracheostomy was performed. After 13 days in ICU, the patient was discharged to the rehabilitation center.

  19. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  20. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among patients with systemic arterial hypertension without respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabahi MF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Fouad Rabahi,1,2 Sheila Alves Pereira,1 José Laerte Rodrigues Silva Júnior,1,2 Aline Pacheco de Rezende,1 Adeliane Castro da Costa,2 Krislainy de Sousa Corrêa,2,3 Marcus Barreto Conde4,5 1School of Medicine, Federal University of Goiás, Goiania, Brazil; 2Clínica do Aparelho Respiratório (CLARE, Goiania, Brazil; 3Pontifical Catholic University of Goiás, Goiania, Brazil; 4Faculdade de Medicina de Petrópolis/FASE, Petrópolis, Brazil; 5Instituto de Doenças do Tórax da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is often delayed until later stages of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD among adults on treatment for systemic arterial hypertension independently of the presence of respiratory symptoms. Methods: This cross-sectional study included adults aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and systemic arterial hypertension diagnosed at three Primary Health Care facilities in Goiania, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using a standardized respiratory questionnaire and spirometry. COPD prevalence was measured considering the value of forced vital capacity and/or forced expiratory volume in 1 second <0.70. Results: Of a total of 570 subjects, 316 (55% met inclusion criteria and were invited to participate. Two hundred and thirty-three (73.7% patients with arterial hypertension reported at least one respiratory symptom, while 83 (26.3% reported no respiratory symptoms; 41 (17.6% patients with arterial hypertension and at least one respiratory symptom, and 10 (12% patients with arterial hypertension but no respiratory symptoms were diagnosed with COPD (P=0.24. The prevalence of COPD in people with no previous COPD diagnosis was greater among those with no respiratory symptoms (100% than among those with respiratory symptoms (56.1% (P=0.01. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that

  1. Low-power system for the acquisition of the respiratory signal of neonates using diaphragmatic electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres R

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Róbinson Torres,1,2 Sergio López-Isaza,1,2 Elisa Mejía-Mejía,1,2 Viviana Paniagua,1,2 Víctor González3 1Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad EIA, Envigado, 2Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad CES, 3Neonathology Department, Hospital General de Medellín Luz Castro de Gutiérrez, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia Introduction: An apnea episode is defined as the cessation of breathing for ≥15 seconds or as any suspension of breathing accompanied by hypoxia and bradycardia. Obtaining information about the respiratory system in a neonate can be accomplished using electromyography signals from the diaphragm muscle.Objective: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a method by which the respiratory and electrocardiographic signals from neonates can be obtained using diaphragmatic electromyography.Materials and methods: The system was developed using single-supply, micropower components, which deliver a low-power consumption system appropriate for the development of portable devices. The stages of the system were tested in both adult and neonate patients.Results: The system delivers signals as those expected in both patients and allows the acquisition of respiratory signals directly from the diaphragmatic electromyography.Conclusion: This low-power system may present a good alternative for monitoring the cardiac and respiratory activity in newborn babies, both in the hospital and at home.Significance: The system delivers good signals but needs to be validated for its use in neonates. It is being used in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital General de Medellín Luz Castro de Gutiérrez. Keywords: apnea, diaphragm, electromyography, neonates, respiratory signal

  2. Contactless respiratory monitoring system for magnetic resonance imaging applications using a laser range sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Johannes W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI exam, a respiratory signal can be required for different purposes, e.g. for patient monitoring, motion compensation or for research studies such as in functional MRI. In addition, respiratory information can be used as a biofeedback for the patient in order to control breath holds or shallow breathing. To reduce patient preparation time or distortions of the MR imaging system, we propose the use of a contactless approach for gathering information about the respiratory activity. An experimental setup based on a commercially available laser range sensor was used to detect respiratory induced motion of the chest or abdomen. This setup was tested using a motion phantom and different human subjects in an MRI scanner. A nasal airflow sensor served as a reference. For both, the phantom as well as the different human subjects, the motion frequency was precisely measured. These results show that a low cost, contactless, laser-based approach can be used to obtain information about the respiratory motion during an MRI exam.

  3. Overlap articles of respiratory system in databases Scopus and Web of Science: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Ghazimirsaeed

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Because of overlaping the contents of two information databases such as scopus and web of sciences searching for accessing to respiratory system from scopus is better due to containing unique papers ,However it is highly recommended to pay to this point while buying and sharing the mentioned resources.

  4. STABILITY AND BIFURCATION OF A HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM MODEL WITH TIME DELAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈启宏; 魏俊杰

    2004-01-01

    The stability and bifurcation of the trivial solution in the two-dimensional differential equation of a model describing human respiratory system with time delay were investigated. Formulas about the stability of bifurcating periodic solution and the direction of Hopf bifurcation were exhibited by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Furthermore, numerical simulation was carried out.

  5. Two systems of desinclusion of retained teeth: system means crossbow and mouse trap system

    OpenAIRE

    Soldevilla Galarza, Luciano; Departamento Académico de Estomatología Pediátrica,Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Alarcón Olivera, Rolando; Rodríguez Varas, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    The presence of retained teeth is very common in children, excluding third molars, they are the most frequently. Most of these teeth are exposed surgically following its orthodontic direction within the dental arches. In orthodontic treatrnent we have the system "Ballista Spring" and the "Mouse Trap" that will allow us the solve limitations of another systems. La presencia de un diente retenido es muy común en niños, excluyendo las terceras molares son los más frecuentemente impactados. Co...

  6. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a pregnant woman with systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-J A; Tseng, J-J; Yang, M-J; Tsao, Y-P; Lin, H-Y

    2014-12-01

    When the disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is controlled appropriately, a pregnant woman who has lupus is able to carry safely to term and deliver a healthy infant. While the physiology of a healthy pregnancy itself influences ventilatory function, acute pulmonary distress may decrease oxygenation and influence both mother and fetus. Though respiratory failure in pregnancy is relatively rare, it remains one of the leading conditions requiring intensive care unit admission in pregnancy and carries a high risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, not to mention the complexity caused by lupus flare. We report a case of SLE complicated with lupus pneumonitis and followed by acute respiratory distress during pregnancy. Though there is a high risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, maternal respiratory function improved after cesarean section and treatment of the underlying causes. The newborn had an extremely low birth weight but was well at discharge.

  7. Induced respiratory system modeling by high frequency chest compression using lumped system identification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Lee, Yong Wan; O'Clock, George; Zhu, Xiaoming; Parhi, Keshab K; Warwick, Warren J

    2009-01-01

    High frequency chest compression (HFCC) treatment systems are used to promote mucus transport and mitigate pulmonary system clearance problems to remove sputum from the airways in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and at risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Every HFCC system consists of a pump generator, one or two hoses connected to a vest, to deliver the pulsation. There are three different waveforms in use; symmetric sine, the asymmetric sine and the trapezoid waveforms. There have been few studies that compared the efficacy of a sine waveform with the HFCC pulsations. In this study we present a model of the respiratory system for a young normal subject who is one of co-authors. The input signal is the pressure applied by the vest to chest, at a frequency of 6Hz. Using the system model simulation, the effectiveness of different source waveforms is evaluated and compared by observing the waveform response associated with air flow at the mouth. Also the study demonstrated that the ideal rectangle wave produced the maximum peak air flow, and followed by the trapezoid, triangle and sine waveform. The study suggests that a pulmonary system evaluation or modeling effort for CF patient might be useful as a method to optimize frequency and waveform structure choices for HFCC therapeutic intervention.

  8. The feasibility of the auto tuning respiratory compensation system with ultrasonic image tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Nieh, Shu-Kan; Tien, Der-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of using the analytical technique of ultrasound images in combination with an auto tumor localization system. During respiration, the activity of breathing in and out causes organs displacement at the lower lobe of the lung, and the maximum displacement range happens in the Superior-Inferior (SI) direction. Therefore, in this study all the tumor positioning is in SI direction under respiratory compensation, in which the compensations are carried out to the organs at the lower lobe and adjacent to the lower lobe of lung.In this research, due to the processes of ultrasound imaging generation, image analysis and signal transmission, when the captured respiratory signals are sent to auto tumor localization system, there was a signal time delay. The total delay time of the entire signal transmission process was 0.254 ± 0.023 seconds (with the lowest standard deviation) after implementing a series of analyses. To compensate for this signal delay time (0.254 ± 0.023 sec), a phase lead compensator (PLC) was designed and built into the auto tumor localization system. By analyzing the impact of the delay time and the respiratory waveforms under different frequencies on the phase lead compensator, an overall system delay time can be configured. Results showed as the respiratory frequency increased, variable value ``a'' and the subsequent gain ``k'' in the controller becomes larger. Moreover, value ``a'' and ``k'' increased as the system delay time increased when the respiratory frequency was fixed. The relationship of value ``a'' and ``k'' to the respiratory frequency can be obtained by using the curve fitting method to compensate for the respiratory motion for tumor localization. Through the comparison of the uncompensated signal and the compensated signal performed by the auto tumor localization system on the simulated respiratory signal, the feasibility of using ultrasound image analysis technology combined with the

  9. SU-D-17A-07: Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Ultrasonography Respiratory Monitoring System for 4DCT Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, P; Cheng, S; Chao, C [Columbia University Medical Center, NY, NY (United States); Jain, A [New York Presbyterian Hospital, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion artifacts are commonly seen in the abdominal and thoracic CT images. A Real-time Position Management (RPM) system is integrated with CT simulator using abdominal surface as a surrogate for tracking the patient respiratory motion. The respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is then reconstructed by GE advantage software. However, there are still artifacts due to inaccurate respiratory motion detecting and sorting methods. We developed an Ultrasonography Respiration Monitoring (URM) system which can directly monitor diaphragm motion to detect respiratory cycles. We also developed a new 4DCT sorting and motion estimation method to reduce the respiratory motion artifacts. The new 4DCT system was compared with RPM and the GE 4DCT system. Methods: Imaging from a GE CT scanner was simultaneously correlated with both the RPM and URM to detect respiratory motion. A radiation detector, Blackcat GM-10, recorded the X-ray on/off and synchronized with URM. The diaphragm images were acquired with Ultrasonix RP system. The respiratory wave was derived from diaphragm images and synchronized with CT scanner. A more precise peaks and valleys detection tool was developed and compared with RPM. The motion is estimated for the slices which are not in the predefined respiratory phases by using block matching and optical flow method. The CT slices were then sorted into different phases and reconstructed, compared with the images reconstructed from GE Advantage software using respiratory wave produced from RPM system. Results: The 4DCT images were reconstructed for eight patients. The discontinuity at the diaphragm level due to an inaccurate identification of phases by the RPM was significantly improved by URM system. Conclusion: Our URM 4DCT system was evaluated and compared with RPM and GE 4DCT system. The new system is user friendly and able to reduce motion artifacts. It also has the potential to monitor organ motion during

  10. Coronavirus Infections in the Central Nervous System and Respiratory Tract Show Distinct Features in Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Haipeng; Fan, Ruyan; Wen, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Cao, Xiaoying; Wang, Chengwu; Song, Zhanyi; Li, Shuochi; Li, Xiaojie; Lv, Xinjun; Qu, Xiaowang; Huang, Renbin; Liu, Wenpei

    2016-01-01

    Coronavirus (CoV) infections induce respiratory tract illnesses and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. We aimed to explore the cytokine expression profiles in hospitalized children with CoV-CNS and CoV-respiratory tract infections. A total of 183 and 236 hospitalized children with acute encephalitis-like syndrome and respiratory tract infection, respectively, were screened for anti-CoV IgM antibodies. The expression profiles of multiple cytokines were determined in CoV-positive patients. Anti-CoV IgM antibodies were detected in 22/183 (12.02%) and 26/236 (11.02%) patients with acute encephalitis-like syndrome and respiratory tract infection, respectively. Cytokine analysis revealed that the level of serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was significantly higher in both CoV-CNS and CoV-respiratory tract infection compared with healthy controls. Additionally, the serum level of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was significantly higher in CoV-CNS infection than in CoV-respiratory tract infection. In patients with CoV-CNS infection, the levels of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and GM-CSF were significantly higher in their cerebrospinal fluid samples than in matched serum samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing a high incidence of CoV infection in hospitalized children, especially with CNS illness. The characteristic cytokine expression profiles in CoV infection indicate the importance of host immune response in disease progression. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA Respiratory Monitoring System Using a Flow Microsensor and an Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellal Idir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non-invasive system for respiratory monitoring using a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS flow sensor and an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit accelerometer. The designed system is intended to be wearable and used in a hospital or at home to assist people with respiratory disorders. To ensure the accuracy of our system, we proposed a calibration method based on ANN (Artificial Neural Network to compensate the temperature drift of the silicon flow sensor. The sigmoid activation functions used in the ANN model were computed with the CORDIC (COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer algorithm. This algorithm was also used to estimate the tilt angle in body position. The design was implemented on reconfigurable platform FPGA.

  12. Administration of CoQ10 analogue ameliorates dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Katrina J; Nalbandian, Angèle; Gomez, Arianna; Wei, Don; Walker, Naomi; Kimonis, Virginia E

    2015-04-01

    Genetic defects in the UBE3A gene, which encodes for the imprinted E6-AP ubiquitin E3 ligase (UBE3A), is responsible for the occurrence of Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodegenerative disorder which arises in 1 out of every 12,000-20,000 births. Classical symptoms of AS include delayed development, impaired speech, and epileptic seizures with characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) readings. We have previously reported impaired mitochondrial structure and reduced complex III in the hippocampus and cerebellum in the Ube3a(m-/p+) mice. CoQ10 supplementation restores the electron flow to the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) to ultimately increase mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. A number of recent studies with CoQ10 analogues seem promising in providing therapeutic benefit to patients with a variety of disorders. CoQ10 therapy has been reported to be safe and relatively well-tolerated at doses as high as 3000mg/day in patients with disorders of CoQ10 biosynthesis and MRC disorders. Herein, we report administration of idebenone, a potent CoQ10 analogue, to the Ube3a(m-/p+) mouse model corrects motor coordination and anxiety levels, and also improves the expression of complexes III and IV in hippocampus CA1 and CA2 neurons and cerebellum in these Ube3a(m-/p+) mice. However, treatment with idebenone illustrated no beneficial effects in the reduction of oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest an improvement in mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction via bioenergetics modulation with a CoQ10 analogue. These findings may further elucidate possible cellular and molecular mechanism(s) and ultimately a clinical therapeutic approach/benefit for patients with Angelman syndrome.

  13. Evidence and control of bifurcations in a respiratory system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldin, Matías A., E-mail: mgoldin@df.uba.ar; Mindlin, Gabriel B. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Dinámicos, IFIBA y Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-12-15

    We studied the pressure patterns used by domestic canaries in the production of birdsong. Acoustically different sound elements (“syllables”) were generated by qualitatively different pressure gestures. We found that some ubiquitous transitions between syllables can be interpreted as bifurcations of a low dimensional dynamical system. We interpreted these results as evidence supporting a model in which different timescales interact nonlinearly.

  14. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of the PeTrack motion tracking system for respiratory gating in cardiac PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Spencer; Chamberland, Marc J. P.; Klein, Ran; Xu, Tong; deKemp, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory gating is a common technique used to compensate for patient breathing motion and decrease the prevalence of image artifacts that can impact diagnoses. In this study a new data-driven respiratory gating method (PeTrack) was compared with a conventional optical tracking system. The performance of respiratory gating of the two systems was evaluated by comparing the number of respiratory triggers, patient breathing intervals and gross heart motion as measured in the respiratory-gated image reconstructions of rubidium-82 cardiac PET scans in test and control groups consisting of 15 and 8 scans, respectively. We found evidence suggesting that PeTrack is a robust patient motion tracking system that can be used to retrospectively assess patient motion in the event of failure of the conventional optical tracking system.

  15. On the respiratory mechanics measured by forced oscillation technique in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Almeida Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications are the most common cause of death and morbidity in systemic sclerosis (SSc. The forced oscillation technique (FOT offers a simple and detailed approach to investigate the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that SSc may introduce changes in the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system, and that FOT may help the diagnosis of these abnormalities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested these hypotheses in controls (n = 30 and patients with abnormalities classified using spirometry (n = 52 and pulmonary volumes (n = 29. Resistive data were interpreted with the zero-intercept resistance (Ri and the slope of the resistance (S as a function of frequency. Reactance changes were evaluated by the mean reactance between 4 and 32 Hz (Xm and the dynamic compliance (Crs,dyn. The mechanical load was evaluated using the absolute value of the impedance in 4 Hz (Z4Hz. A compartmental model was used to obtain central (R and peripheral (Rp resistances, and alveolar compliance (C. The clinical usefulness was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. The presence of expiratory flow limitation (EFL was also evaluated. For the groups classified using spirometry, SSc resulted in increased values in Ri, R, Rp and Z4Hz (p0.90. In groups classified by pulmonary volume, SSc resulted in reductions in S, Xm, C and Crs,dyn (p0.80. It was also observed that EFL is not common in patients with SSc. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that the respiratory resistance and reactance are changed in SSc. This analysis provides a useful description that is of particular significance for understanding respiratory pathophysiology and to ease the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in these patients.

  16. Polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 delays motor function defects in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Frank; Elflein, Nicole; Saenger, Stefanie; Wirthgen, Elisa; Rak, Kristen; Frantz, Stefan; Hoeflich, Andreas; Toyka, Klaus V; Metzger, Friedrich; Jablonka, Sibylle

    2014-05-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of the diaphragm and skeletal muscles, leading to death in childhood. No effective treatment is available. The neuromuscular degeneration (Nmd(2J)) mouse shares a crucial mutation in the immunoglobulin mu-binding protein 2 gene (Ighmbp2) with spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 patients and also displays some basic features of the human disease. This model serves as a promising tool in understanding the complex mechanisms of the disease and in exploring novel treatment modalities such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) which supports myogenic and neurogenic survival and stimulates differentiation during development. Here we investigated the treatment effects with polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 and its mechanisms of action in neurons and muscles. Polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 was applied subcutaneously every second day from post-natal Day 14 to post-natal Day 42 and the outcome was assessed by morphology, electromyography, and molecular studies. We found reduced IGF1 serum levels in Nmd(2J) mice 2 weeks after birth, which was normalized by polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 treatment. Nmd(2J) mice showed marked neurogenic muscle fibre atrophy in the gastrocnemius muscle and polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 treatment resulted in muscle fibre hypertrophy and slowed fibre degeneration along with significantly higher numbers of functionally active axonal sprouts. In the diaphragm with predominant myogenic changes a profound protection from muscle fibre degeneration was observed under treatment. No effects of polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 were monitored at the level of motor neuron survival. The beneficial effects of polyethylene glycol-coupled IGF1 corresponded to a marked activation of the IGF1 receptor, resulting in enhanced phosphorylation of Akt (protein kinase B) and the ribosomal protein S6 kinase in

  17. Evaluation of integrated respiratory gating systems on a Novalis Tx system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Liu, Tonghai; Cai, Jing; Chen, Qing; Wang, Zhiheng; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2011-04-04

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of motion tracking and radiation delivery control of integrated gating systems on a Novalis Tx system. The study was performed on a Novalis Tx system, which is equipped with Varian Real-time Position Management (RPM) system, and BrainLAB ExacTrac gating systems. In this study, the two systems were assessed on accuracy of both motion tracking and radiation delivery control. To evaluate motion tracking, two artificial motion profiles and five patients' respiratory profiles were used. The motion trajectories acquired by the two gating systems were compared against the references. To assess radiation delivery control, time delays were measured using a single-exposure method. More specifically, radiation is delivered with a 4 mm diameter cone within the phase range of 10%-45% for the BrainLAB ExacTrac system, and within the phase range of 0%-25% for the Varian RPM system during expiration, each for three times. Radiochromic films were used to record the radiation exposures and to calculate the time delays. In the work, the discrepancies were quantified using the parameters of mean and standard deviation (SD). Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis was used to test correlation of the data, which is quantified using a parameter of r. The trajectory profiles acquired by the gating systems show good agreement with those reference profiles. A quantitative analysis shows that the average mean discrepancies between BrainLAB ExacTrac system and known references are 1.5 mm and 1.9 mm for artificial and patient profiles, with the maximum motion amplitude of 28.0 mm. As for the Varian RPM system, the corresponding average mean discrepancies are 1.1 mm and 1.7 mm for artificial and patient profiles. With the proposed single-exposure method, the time delays are found to be 0.20 ± 0.03 seconds and 0.09 ± 0.01 seconds for BrainLAB ExacTrac and Varian RPM systems, respectively. The results indicate the systems can

  18. Spatial distribution of mortality by diseases of the respiratory system in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bitencourt de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, consistent evidences relating the increase in the incidence of diseases of the respiratory system and the intensification of air pollution were described, therefore, the investigation of the mortality by those diseases can be useful in public health programs. In the present study the spatial distribution of mortality by diseases of the respiratory system in Brazil was investigated, based on data on deaths registered in the Information System (SIM of the Ministry of Health. Bayesian statistical method was applied. The results indicate that, between 2003 and 2007, the higher rates of deaths by those diseases were found in the states of RS, SP, AC, RJ, GO, PR, MG and SC, and from 54 to 56% of all victims of those diseases registered in Brazil were men.

  19. The bactericidal effects of the respiratory burst and the myeloperoxidase system isolated in neutrophil cytoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, E W; Segal, A W

    1988-10-07

    Neutrophil polymorphonuclear leucocytes kill bacteria by oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms. Many potentially toxic mechanisms have been described, but the complexity of the phagosomal environment and the synergy between oxidative and non-oxidative systems hamper the investigation of individual bactericidal mechanism in whole cells. Neutrophil cytoplasts are greatly depleted of granule proteins and permit the investigation of the bactericidal effects of the respiratory burst in isolation. In this study they have been used to examine the role of the respiratory burst and myeloperoxidase in oxygen-dependent killing of Staphylococcus aureus. Cytoplasts generated oxygen radicals at comparable rates to human neutrophils and phagocytosed but did not kill S. aureus. The selective reconstitution of the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system by coating bacteria with myeloperoxidase conferred on cytoplasts the ability to kill intracellular bacteria. However, extracellular killing by diffusible bactericidal factors was not detected in this system.

  20. Mouse Models of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Review of Analytical Approaches, Pathologic Features, and Common Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeffner, Famke; Bolon, Brad; Davis, Ian C

    2015-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary reaction requiring hospitalization, which is incited by many causes, including bacterial and viral pneumonia as well as near drowning, aspiration of gastric contents, pancreatitis, intravenous drug use, and abdominal trauma. In humans, ARDS is very well defined by a list of clinical parameters. However, until recently no consensus was available regarding the criteria of ARDS that should be evident in an experimental animal model. This lack was rectified by a 2011 workshop report by the American Thoracic Society, which defined the main features proposed to delineate the presence of ARDS in laboratory animals. These should include histological changes in parenchymal tissue, altered integrity of the alveolar capillary barrier, inflammation, and abnormal pulmonary function. Murine ARDS models typically are defined by such features as pulmonary edema and leukocyte infiltration in cytological preparations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or lung sections. Common pathophysiological indicators of ARDS in mice include impaired pulmonary gas exchange and histological evidence of inflammatory infiltrates into the lung. Thus, morphological endpoints remain a vital component of data sets assembled from animal ARDS models.

  1. Megacomplex organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system by structural analysis of respiratory supercomplexes from potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultema, Jelle B; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J; Kouril, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The individual protein complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complexes I to V) specifically interact and form defined supramolecular structures, the so-called "respiratory supercomplexes". Some supercomplexes appear to associate into larger structures, or megacomplexes, such as a string of dimeric ATP synthase (complex V(2)). A row-like organization of OXPHOS complexes I, III and IV into respiratory strings has also been proposed. These transient strings cannot be purified after detergent solubilization. Hence the shape and composition of the respiratory string was approached by an extensive structural characterization of all its possible building blocks, which are the supercomplexes. About 400,000 molecular projections of supercomplexes from potato mitochondria were processed by single particle electron microscopy. We obtained two-dimensional projection maps of at least five different supercomplexes, including the supercomplex I+III(2), III(2)+IV(1), V(2), I+III(2)+IV(1) and I(2)+III(2) in different types of position. From these maps the relative position of the individual complexes in the largest unit, the I(2)+III(2)+IV(2) supercomplex, could be determined in a coherent way. The maps also show that the I+III(2)+IV(1) supercomplex, or respirasome, differs from its counterpart in bovine mitochondria. The new structural features allow us to propose a consistent model of the respiratory string, composed of repeating I(2)+III(2)+IV(2) units, which is in agreement with dimensions observed in former freeze-fracture electron microscopy data.

  2. Inverse Modeling of Respiratory System during Noninvasive Ventilation by Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Saatci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to estimate the model parameters of presented nonlinear Resistance-Capacitance (RC and the widely used linear Resistance-Inductance-Capacitance (RIC models of the respiratory system by Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE. The measurement noise is assumed to be Generalized Gaussian Distributed (GGD, and the variance and the shape factor of the measurement noise are estimated by MLE and Kurtosis method, respectively. The performance of the MLE algorithm is also demonstrated by the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB with artificially produced respiratory signals. Airway flow, mask pressure, and lung volume are measured from patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD under the noninvasive ventilation and from healthy subjects. Simulations show that respiratory signals from healthy subjects are better represented by the RIC model compared to the nonlinear RC model. On the other hand, the Patient group respiratory signals are fitted to the nonlinear RC model with lower measurement noise variance, better converged measurement noise shape factor, and model parameter tracks. Also, it is observed that for the Patient group the shape factor of the measurement noise converges to values between 1 and 2 whereas for the Control group shape factor values are estimated in the super-Gaussian area.

  3. A wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on generalized body sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Zheng; Huang, Bang-Yu; Wang, Lei

    2011-06-01

    Wearable medical devices have enabled unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. This article describes a wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on a generalized body sensor network (BSN) platform. The compact BSN platform was tailored for the strong requirements of overall system optimizations. A waist-worn biofeedback device was designed using the BSN. Extensive bench tests have shown that the generalized BSN worked as intended. In-situ experiments with 22 subjects indicated that the biofeedback device was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering wearable respiratory trainings. Pilot studies on wearable training patterns and resultant heart rate variability suggested that paced respirations at abdominal level and with identical inhaling/exhaling ratio were more appropriate for decreasing sympathetic arousal and increasing parasympathetic activities.

  4. Neuroendocrine diffuse system of the respiratory tract of Rana temporaria: an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodegas, M E; Montuenga, L M; Sesma, P

    1995-11-01

    The neuroendocrine cell population of the respiratory system of Rana temporaria has been studied by means of immunocytochemical methods at the light-microscopic level. Isolated or clustered endocrine cells have been found in the epithelium of the buccal cavity, glottis, larynx, and lung. Nine different types of endocrine isolated cell types can be distinguished according to their immunoreactivity to several regulatory peptides [calcitonin, substance P, bombesin, peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), cholecystokinin (CCK), and endothelin 1] and neuroendocrine markers (7B2, chromogranin, and serotonin). Neuroepithelial bodies are innervated clusters of cells simultaneously immunoreactive for serotonin and 7B2. Nerves and/or neurons have been detected in different regions of the respiratory system using antibodies against protein gene product 9.5, serotonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, PHI, helodermin, and CCK.

  5. Evaluation of an automated analytical system for rapid screening of lower respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamanta Grosso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections are relevant causes of morbidity and mortality. It has been demonstrated that an appropriate initial antimicrobial regimen, or its early modification based on microbiological results, leads to a higher survival rate. Automation in microbiology is of utmost importance in obtaining results in a shorter time, allowing an appropriate antimicrobial regimen to be started promptly. Uro4 HB&L is an automated tool that uses light scattering technology to detect the growth of bacteria. The system is largely diffused for bacteriuria screening and the residual antimicrobial activity test (RAA in urinary samples. In this study, the application of the Uro4 HB&L system for the automation of respiratory samples analysis was tested to evaluate the concordance with the standard culture methods. Results of this study suggest that Uro4 HB&L can be able to speed up the laboratory procedures and grant reliable presumptive results for the clinician in very short time.

  6. A Wearable Respiratory Biofeedback System Based on Generalized Body Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Zheng; Huang, Bang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Wearable medical devices have enabled unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. This article describes a wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on a generalized body sensor network (BSN) platform. The compact BSN platform was tailored for the strong requirements of overall system optimizations. A waist-worn biofeedback device was designed using the BSN. Extensive bench tests have shown that the generalized BSN worked as intended. In-situ experiments with 22 subjects indicated that the biofeedback device was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering wearable respiratory trainings. Pilot studies on wearable training patterns and resultant heart rate variability suggested that paced respirations at abdominal level and with identical inhaling/exhaling ratio were more appropriate for decreasing sympathetic arousal and increasing parasympathetic activities. PMID:21545293

  7. GlyT2-Dependent Preservation of MECP2-Expression in Inhibitory Neurons Improves Early Respiratory Symptoms but Does Not Rescue Survival in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsmann, Swen; Mesuret, Guillaume; Dannenberg, Julia; Arnoldt, Mauricio; Niebert, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene have been shown to manifest in a neurodevelopmental disorder that is called Rett syndrome. A typical problem that occurs during development is a disturbance of breathing. To address the role of inhibitory neurons, we generated a mouse line that restores MECP2 in inhibitory neurons in the brainstem by crossbreeding a mouse line that expresses the Cre-recombinase (Cre) in inhibitory neurons under the control of the glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2, slc6a5) promotor (GlyT2-Cre) with a mouse line that has a floxed-stop mutation of the Mecp2 gene (Mecp2stop/y). Unrestrained whole-body-plethysmography at postnatal day P60 revealed a low respiratory rate and prolonged respiratory pauses in Mecp2stop/y mice. In contrast, GlyT2-Cre positive Mecp2stop/y mice (Cre+; Mecp2stop/y) showed greatly improved respiration and were indistinguishable from wild type littermates. These data support the concept that alterations in inhibitory neurons are important for the development of the respiratory phenotype in Rett syndrome. PMID:27672368

  8. Influence of pneumoperitoneum and postural change on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of pneumoperitoneum#(PP) and postural change under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane, which is routinely used in dogs, on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As test animals, 6 adult beagles were used. To induce anesthesia, atropine, butorphanol and propofol were intravenously injected. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 MAC (1.7%) isoflurane. The following were the experiment conditions: I:E ratio, 1:1.9; tidal air exchange, 20 ml/kg; and ventilation...

  9. Systems Biology and Clinical Practice in Respiratory Medicine. The Twain Shall Meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamrin, Cindy; Frey, Urs; Kaminsky, David A; Reddel, Helen K; Seely, Andrew J E; Suki, Béla; Sterk, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Respiratory diseases are highly complex, being driven by host-environment interactions and manifested by inflammatory, structural, and functional abnormalities that vary over time. Traditional reductionist approaches have contributed vastly to our knowledge of biological systems in health and disease to date; however, they are insufficient to provide an understanding of the behavior of the system as a whole. In this Pulmonary Perspective, we discuss systems biology approaches, especially but not limited to the study of the lung as a complex system. Such integrative approaches take into account the large number of dynamic subunits and their interactions found in biological systems. Borrowing methods from physics and mathematics, it is possible to study the collective behavior of these systems over time and in a multidimensional manner. We first examine the physiological basis for complexity in the respiratory system and its implications for disease. We then expand on the potential applications of systems biology methods to study complex systems, within the context of diagnosis and monitoring of respiratory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and critical illness. We summarize the significant advances made in recent years using systems approaches for disease phenotyping, applied to data ranging from the molecular to clinical level, obtained from large-scale asthma and COPD networks. We describe new studies using temporal complexity patterns to characterize asthma and COPD and predict exacerbations as well as predict adverse outcomes in critical care. We highlight new methods that are emerging with this approach and discuss remaining questions that merit greater attention in the field.

  10. [Respiratory distress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, D; Garfunkel, A; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Kaufman, E

    2002-01-01

    Dental treatment is usually conducted in the oral cavity and in very close proximity to the upper respiratory airway. The possibility of unintentionally compromising this airway is high in the dental environment. The accumulation of fluid (water or blood) near to the upper respiratory airway or the loosening of teeth fragmentations and fallen dental instruments can occur. Also, some of the drugs prescribed in the dental practice are central nervous system depressants and some are direct respiratory drive depressors. For this reason, awareness of the respiratory status of the dental patient is of paramount importance. This article focuses on several of the more common causes of respiratory distress, including airway obstruction, hyperventilation, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and cardiac insufficiency. The common denominator to all these conditions described here is that in most instances the patient is conscious. Therefore, on the one hand, valuable information can be retrieved from the patient making diagnosis easier than when the patient is unconscious. On the other hand, the conscious patient is under extreme apprehension and stress under such situations. Respiratory depression which occurs during conscious sedation or following narcotic analgesic medication will not be dealt with in this article. Advanced pain and anxiety control techniques such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia should be confined only to operators who undergo special extended training.

  11. Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an enlarged view of the airways, alveoli (air sacs), and capillaries (tiny blood vessels). Figure C is a closeup view of gas ... alveoli (al-VEE-uhl-eye). Each of these air sacs is covered in a mesh of tiny blood vessels called capillaries. The capillaries connect to a network ...

  12. Respiratory system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    7.1 Bronchial asthma 2006058 The clinical study of the relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma in patients with autumnal pollinosis YI Jia(尹佳 ) ,et al. Dept Allerg, PUMC Hosp CAMS & PUMC,Beijing 100730, Natl Med J China 2005; 85 (24) :1683 -1687. Objective: To investigate the relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma in patients with autumnal pollinosis. Methods: 1120 patients with autumnal pollinosis, aged 5 - 75, excluding those with typical symptoms of seasonal rhinitis or asthma but with positive skin test and serum IgE specific to dustmite and fungi, underwent standardized clinical questionnaire survey, including the onset age, onset time, and symptoms as well as the sever-

  13. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011324 Clinical features of pulmonary involvement in patients with microscopic polyangitis. JIN Jianjun(靳建軍),et al. Dept Respir Med,PUMC & CAMS,Beijing 100730. Abstract:Objective To explore the clinical features of pulmonary involvement in patients with microscopic polyangitis(MPA). Methods We retrospectively investigated the clinical data of 50 patients hospitalized

  14. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    7.1 Bronchial asthma2004362 The effects of anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic agents on CD34+ hematopoietic cells in bone marrow of asthmatic mice. MAO Hui(毛辉) ,et al. Dept Respir, West China Hosp, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2004; 27 (4):229-233.

  15. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    7.1 Asthma2003423 Inhibition of antisense-endothelin converting enzyme RNA on interleukin-5 released from dust mitechallenged peripheral blood mononuciear cells in patients with allergic asthma. LI Li (李理), Instit Respir Dis, Affili 1st Hosp, Guangzhou Med Coll, Guangzhou 510120. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2003;26

  16. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005468 The effect of gamma interferon gene trans-fer on airway inflammation in asthmatic.LI Jianguo(李建国),et al.Dept Respir Med,2nd Affili Hosp,SunYat-Sen Univ,Guangzhou 510120.Chin J Tubere Re-spit Dis 2005;28(8):530-532.

  17. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    2006205 The analysis of risk factors correlated to pulmonary hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients during awake state. FENG Xuewei (冯学威),et al. Instit Respir Dis, 1st Affili Host ,Chi- na Med Univ, Shengyang 110001. Chin J Intern Med 2006;45(5):382-385. Objective: To investigate the development of pulmonary hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome ( OS-AS) patients and to analyze the correlated factors. Methods: Pulmonary arterial pressure was monitored by right

  18. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008531 Anti-tumor effect of 131I labeled 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin on human non-small cell lung cancer in xenograft-bearing nude mice. SUN Jin(孙晋),et al.Nucl Med,Instit Southeast Univ,Nanjing 210009. Chin J Nucl Med 2008;28(5):299-303. Objective 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin(17-AAG)has been developed as a novel heat shock protein 90(HSP90)inhibitor being used in clinical trials.

  19. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009063 T-bet gene modified dendritic cells abrogate and reverse the airway inflammation in allergic asthma:experiment with mice. LIU Guoliang(刘国梁), et al. Dept Respir Dis, China-Japan Friendship Hosp, Beijing 100029. Natl Med J China 2009;89(8):519-523. Objective To explore the feasibility of the therapeutic strategy by using T-bet gene modified dendrite cells (DCs) to reverse the course of asthma.

  20. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    9.1 Lung function2003204 Study on the changes in circulating endothe-lial cells and hemorheology of lung in rats with acute lung injury by chemicals.LIU Heliang(刘和亮), et al. Dept Occup Dis, 3rd Clin Hosp, Peking Univ, Beijing 100083.Chin J Ind Hyg Occup Dis 2003;21(11):37 -40.

  1. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    7.1.Lung function2005346 Effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia onhypoxia inducible factor-l(?)in mice.CHEN Xiaoyang(陈晓阳),et al.Dept Respir Med,2nd Affill Hosp,Fujian Med Univ,Quanzhou 360200.Chin J Tuberc Re-spir Dis 2005;28(2):93-96.Objective:To explore the mechanism of the effect of

  2. BPEX Pig Health Scheme: a useful monitoring system for respiratory disease control in pig farms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Hannah R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory diseases account for significant economic losses to the UK pig industry. Lesions indicative of respiratory disease in pig lungs at slaughter e.g. pneumonia and pleuritis are frequently recorded to assess herd health or provide data for epidemiological studies. The BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS is a monitoring system, which informs producers of gross lesions in their pigs' carcasses at slaughter, enabling farm-level decisions to be made. The aim of the study was to assess whether information provided by the BPHS regarding respiratory lesions was associated with respiratory pathogens in the farm, farm management practices and each other. Results BPHS reports were obtained from a subset of 70 pig farms involved in a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-09 investigating the epidemiology of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome. The reports were combined with data regarding the presence/absence of several pathogens in the herd and potential farm-level risk factors for respiratory disease. Principal component analysis (PCA performed on BPHS reports generated three principal components, explaining 71% of the total variance. Enzootic pneumonia score, severe pleurisy and acute pleuropneumonia had the highest loadings for the principal component which explained the largest percentage of the total variance (35% (BPHS component 1, it was thought that this component identifies farms with acute disease. Using the factor loadings a score for each farm for BPHS component 1 was obtained. As farms' score for BPHS component 1 increased, average carcass weight at slaughter decreased. In addition, farms positive for H1N2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV were more likely to have higher levels of severe and mild pleurisy reported by the BPHS, respectively. Conclusions The study found statistical associations between levels of pleurisy recorded by BPHS at slaughter and the presence H1N2 and PRRSV in

  3. MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications (MERESSINA project: a novel bioengineering goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaramuzzo RT

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosa T Scaramuzzo,1,2 Massimiliano Ciantelli,1 Ilaria Baldoli,3 Lisa Bellanti,3 Marzia Gentile,1 Francesca Cecchi,3 Emilio Sigali,1 Selene Tognarelli,3 Paolo Ghirri,1–4 Stefano Mazzoleni,3 Arianna Menciassi,3 Armando Cuttano,1 Antonio Boldrini,1–4 Cecilia Laschi,3 Paolo Dario3 1Centro di Formazione e Simulazione Neonatale "NINA," UO Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy; 2Istituto di Scienze della Vita, 3The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy; 4Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Respiratory function is mandatory for extrauterine life, but is sometimes impaired in newborns due to prematurity, congenital malformations, or acquired pathologies. Mechanical ventilation is standard care, but long-term complications, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are still largely reported. Therefore, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage devices for assistance. Commercially available breathing function simulators are rarely suitable for the anatomical and physiological realities. The aim of this study is to develop a high-fidelity mechatronic simulator of neonatal airways and lungs for staff training and mechanical ventilator testing. The project is divided into three different phases: (1 a review study on respiratory physiology and pathophysiology and on already available single and multi-compartment models; (2 the prototyping phase; and (3 the on-field system validation. Keywords: simulation, lung, newborn, continuous medical education, respiratory system

  4. MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications (MERESSINA) project: a novel bioengineering goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Baldoli, Ilaria; Bellanti, Lisa; Gentile, Marzia; Cecchi, Francesca; Sigali, Emilio; Tognarelli, Selene; Ghirri, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuttano, Armando; Boldrini, Antonio; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory function is mandatory for extrauterine life, but is sometimes impaired in newborns due to prematurity, congenital malformations, or acquired pathologies. Mechanical ventilation is standard care, but long-term complications, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are still largely reported. Therefore, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage devices for assistance. Commercially available breathing function simulators are rarely suitable for the anatomical and physiological realities. The aim of this study is to develop a high-fidelity mechatronic simulator of neonatal airways and lungs for staff training and mechanical ventilator testing. The project is divided into three different phases: (1) a review study on respiratory physiology and pathophysiology and on already available single and multi-compartment models; (2) the prototyping phase; and (3) the on-field system validation. PMID:23966804

  5. Consecutive Food and Respiratory Allergies Amplify Systemic and Gut but Not Lung Outcomes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Gregory; Gourbeyre, Paxcal; Bihouée, Tiphaine; Aubert, Phillippe; Lair, David; Cheminant, Marie-Aude; Denery-Papini, Sandra; Neunlist, Michel; Magnan, Antoine; Bodinier, Marie

    2015-07-22

    Epidemiological data suggest a link between food allergies and the subsequent development of asthma. Although this progression may result from the additional effects of exposure to multiple allergens, whether both allergies amplify each other's effects remains unknown. This study investigated whether oral exposure to food allergens influences the outcomes of subsequent respiratory exposure to an asthma-inducing allergen. Mice were sensitized and orally challenged with wheat (FA) and then exposed to house dust mite (HDM) extract (RA). Immunoglobulin (Ig), histamine, and cytokine levels were assayed by ELISA. Intestinal and lung physiology was assessed. Ig levels, histamine release, and cytokine secretion were higher after exposure to both allergens than after separate exposure to each. Intestinal permeability was higher, although airway hyper-responsiveness and lung inflammation remained unchanged. Exposure to food and respiratory allergens amplifies systemic and gut allergy-related immune responses without any additional effect on lung function and inflammation.

  6. Color structured light system of chest wall motion measurement for respiratory volume evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huijun; Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jue; Que, Chengli; Wang, Guangfa; Fang, Jing

    2010-01-01

    We present a structured light system to dynamically measure human chest wall motion for respiratory volume estimation. Based on a projection of an encoded color pattern and a few active markers attached to the trunk, respiratory volumes are obtained by evaluating the 3-D topographic changes of the chest wall in an anatomically consistent measuring region during respiration. Three measuring setups are established: a single-sided illuminating-recording setup for standing posture, an inclined single-sided setup for supine posture, and a double-sided setup for standing posture. Results are compared with the pneumotachography and show good agreement in volume estimations [correlation coefficient: R>0.99 (Pevaluation with high accuracy, but also regional pulmonary function assessment in different chest wall behaviors, with the advantage of whole-field measurement.

  7. FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of mouse hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Ross, Jason T; Itkin, Tomer; Perry, John M; Venkatraman, Aparna; Haug, Jeffrey S; Hembree, Mark J; Deng, Chu-Xia; Lapidot, Tsvee; He, Xi C; Li, Linheng

    2012-08-30

    Previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in vitro. However, it is unknown whether FGF promotes HSPC expansion in vivo. Here we examined FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) expression and investigated its in vivo function in HSPCs. Conditional knockout (CKO) of Fgfr1 did not affect phenotypical number of HSPCs and homeostatic hematopoiesis, but led to a reduced engraftment only in the secondary transplantation. When treated with 5-fluorouracil (5FU), the Fgfr1 CKO mice showed defects in both proliferation and subsequent mobilization of HSPCs. We identified megakaryocytes (Mks) as a major resource for FGF production, and further discovered a novel mechanism by which Mks underwent FGF-FGFR signaling dependent expansion to accelerate rapid FGF production under stress. Within HSPCs, we observed an up-regulation of nuclear factor κB and CXCR4, a receptor for the chemoattractant SDF-1, in response to bone marrow damage only in control but not in Fgfr1 CKO model, accounting for the corresponding defects in proliferation and migration of HSPCs. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of the mouse hematopoietic system by promoting proliferation and facilitating mobilization of HSPCs.

  8. The effects of particulate matter on inflammation of respiratory system: Differences between male and female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Kelly; Brito, Jôse Mára; Silva, Luiz Fernando; Lino-Dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Frias, Daniela Perroni; E Silva, Renata Calciolari Rossi; Amato-Lourenço, Luís Fernando; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; de Fátima Lopes Calvo Tibério, Iolanda; Mauad, Thais; Macchione, Mariangela

    2017-05-15

    Air pollution is known to exacerbate respiratory diseases and epidemiological studies have shown that women present more chronic respiratory symptoms than man exposed to traffic pollution, however, the reason why is unclear. This study evaluated the inflammatory differences in BALB/c mouse males (n=34) and females (n=111) in three phases of the estrous cycle that were exposed to ambient air (AA) or concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Tracheal hyperreactivity to methacholine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and immunohistochemical of airways and lung parenchyma were studied. Hyperreactivity increased in CAPs-exposed female mice compared with AA-exposed mice in estrus (pCAPs-exposed males compared with those exposed to AA (pCAPs exposure increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (p=0.024) and isoprostane (p=0.003) expression in the airways of both, males and females. The level of substance P (SP) (p=0.001) increased in lung parenchyma in males compared with females, while IL-17 levels in airways (p=0.042) and in lung parenchyma (p=0.008) increased in females. MMP-9 levels (p=0.024) were significantly lower in the lung parenchyma of CAPs-exposed females. TGF-α (p=0.007) levels increased in the lung parenchyma of CAPs-exposed females compared to AA-exposed females. These results suggest that inflammatory markers differentially expressed in male mice were mostly linked to acute inflammation (IL-1β, IL-8Rα, COX-2), whereas in females, markers that may lead to a chronic inflammatory process such as IL-17 and remodeling (MMP-9) were increased.

  9. Effects of nasal or pulmonary delivered treatments with an adenovirus vectored interferon (mDEF201 on respiratory and systemic infections in mice caused by cowpox and vaccinia viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald F Smee

    Full Text Available An adenovirus 5 vector encoding for mouse interferon alpha, subtype 5 (mDEF201 was evaluated for efficacy against lethal cowpox (Brighton strain and vaccinia (WR strain virus respiratory and systemic infections in mice. Two routes of mDEF201 administration were used, nasal sinus (5-µl and pulmonary (50-µl, to compare differences in efficacy, since the preferred treatment of humans would be in a relatively small volume delivered intranasally. Lower respiratory infections (LRI, upper respiratory infections (URI, and systemic infections were induced by 50-µl intranasal, 10-µl intranasal, and 100-µl intraperitoneal virus challenges, respectively. mDEF201 treatments were given prophylactically either 24 h (short term or 56d (long-term prior to virus challenge. Single nasal sinus treatments of 10(6 and 10(7 PFU/mouse of mDEF201 protected all mice from vaccinia-induced LRI mortality (comparable to published studies with pulmonary delivered mDEF201. Systemic vaccinia infections responded significantly better to nasal sinus delivered mDEF201 than to pulmonary treatments. Cowpox LRI infections responded to 10(7 mDEF201 treatments, but a 10(6 dose was only weakly protective. Cowpox URI infections were equally treatable by nasal sinus and pulmonary delivered mDEF201 at 10(7 PFU/mouse. Dose-responsive prophylaxis with mDEF201, given one time only 56 d prior to initiating a vaccinia virus LRI infection, was 100% protective from 10(5 to 10(7 PFU/mouse. Improvements in lung hemorrhage score and lung weight were evident, as were decreases in liver, lung, and spleen virus titers. Thus, mDEF201 was able to treat different vaccinia and cowpox virus infections using both nasal sinus and pulmonary treatment regimens, supporting its development for humans.

  10. Effects of High Frequency Chest Compression on Respiratory System Mechanics in Normal Subjects and Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Jones

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short term effects of high frequency chest compression (HFCC on several indices of respiratory system mechanics in normal subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF.

  11. School absence and treatment in school children with respiratory symptoms in the Netherlands: Data from the Child Health Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee-van Der Wekke, J.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To assess the prevalence of respiratory problems, and the relation of these problems with school attendance, medicine use, and medical treatment. Design - The Child Health Monitoring System. Setting - Nineteen public health services across the Netherlands. Participants - 5186

  12. Differences of respiratory function according to level of the gross motor function classification system in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] The current study was designed to investigate the difference in lung capacity and muscle strengthening related to respiration depending on the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) through tests of respiratory function and respiratory pressure. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 49 children with CP who were classified as below level III of the GMFCS were recruited for this study. They were divided into three groups (i.e., GMFCS level I, GMFCS level II, and GMFCS level III). All children took the pulmonary function test (PFT) and underwent respiratory pressure testing for assessment of respiratory function in terms of lung capacity and respiratory muscle strength. [Results] The GMFCS level III group showed significantly lower scores for all tests of the PFT (i.e., forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), and slow vital capacity (SVC)) and testing for respiratory pressures (maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP)) compared with the other two groups. The results of post hoc analysis indicated that the GMFCS level III group differed significantly from the other two groups in terms of FVC, FEV1, MIP, and MEP. In addition, a significant difference in SVC was observed between GMFCS level II and III. [Conclusion] Children with CP who had relatively low motor function showed poor pulmonary capacity and respiratory muscle weakness. Therefore, clinical manifestations regarding lung capacity and respiratory muscle will be required in children with CP who demonstrate poor physical activity.

  13. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 37. Competency Curricula for Respiratory Therapy Assistant and Respiratory Therapy Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-31

    ef- fectiveness of professionals and sub-professionals alike. Aacc ~ssipia For INTIS iJt DOC TAI U.nka ounced Justification £’: V"u. r utoi O...implemented to a level of methodology determination. These methods and curriculum materials constitluted a third (instructional) sub-system. Thus, as...Stabilize patient’s ventilation when destination is reached KNOWLLDGES AND SKILLS Methods of moving/positioning patients for respiratory therapy

  14. Pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: when and how to explore the immune system? (About 53 cases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azami-El-Idrissi, Mohammed; Lakhdar-Idrissi, Mounia; Chaouki, Sanae; Atmani, Samir; Bouharrou, Abdelhak; Hida, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory tract infections are one of the most frequent reasons for pediatric visits and hospitalization. Causes of this pathology are multiple ranging from congenital to acquired and local to general. Immune deficiencies are considered as underlying conditions predisposing to this pathology. Our work is about to determine when and how to explore the immune system when facing recurrent respiratory infections. This was based on the records of 53 children hospitalized at the pediatrics unit of Hassan II University Hospital, Fez Morocco. Thirty boys and 23 girls with age ranging from 5 months to 12 years with an average age of 2 years were involved in this study. Bronchial foreign body was the main etiology in children of 3 to 6 year old. Gastro-esophageal reflux, which in some cases is a consequence of chronic cough, as well as asthma were most frequent in infants (17 and 15% respectively). Immune deficiency was described in 7.5% of patients and the only death we deplored in our series belongs to this group. Recurrent respiratory tract infections have multiple causes. In our series they are dominated by foreign body inhalation and gastroesophageal reflux, which in some cases is a consequence of a chronic cough. Immune deficiency is not frequent but could influence the prognosis. Therefore immune explorations should be well codified. PMID:27642394

  15. Cardio-respiratory effects of systemic neurotensin injection are mediated through activation of neurotensin NTS₁ receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Szereda-Przestaszewska, Małgorzata

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of our study was to determine the cardio-respiratory pattern exerted by the systemic injection of neurotensin, contribution of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors and the neural pathways mediating the responses. The effects of an intravenous injection (i.v.) of neurotensin were investigated in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats in following experimental schemes: (i) control animals before and after midcervical vagotomy; (ii) in three separate subgroups of rats: neurally intact, vagotomized at supranodosal level and initially midcervically vagotomized exposed to section of the carotid sinus nerves (CSNs); (iii) in the intact rats 2 minutes after blockade of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors with SR 142948. Intravenous injection of 10 μg/kg of neurotensin in the intact rats evoked prompt increase in the respiratory rate followed by a prolonged slowing down coupled with augmented tidal volume. Midcervical vagotomy precluded the effects of neurotensin on the frequency of breathing, while CSNs section reduced the increase in tidal volume. In all the neural states neurotensin caused significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure preceded by prompt hypertensive response. The cardio-respiratory effects of neurotensin were blocked by pre-treatment with NTS(1) receptor antagonist. The results of this study showed that neurotensin acting through NTS(1) receptors augments the tidal component of the breathing pattern in a large portion via carotid body afferentation whereas the respiratory timing response to neurotensin depends entirely on the intact midcervical vagi. Blood pressure effects evoked by an intravenous neurotensin occur outside vagal and CSNs pathways and might result from activation of the peripheral vascular NTS(1) receptors.

  16. MIMO Radar System for Respiratory Monitoring Using Tx and Rx Modulation with M-Sequence Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Takashi; Ogiwara, Shun; Yamakoshi, Yoshiki

    The importance of respiratory monitoring systems during sleep have increased due to early diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in the home. This paper presents a simple respiratory monitoring system suitable for home use having 3D ranging of targets. The range resolution and azimuth resolution are obtained by a stepped frequency transmitting signal and MIMO arrays with preferred pair M-sequence codes doubly modulating in transmission and reception, respectively. Due to the use of these codes, Gold sequence codes corresponding to all the antenna combinations are equivalently modulated in receiver. The signal to interchannel interference ratio of the reconstructed image is evaluated by numerical simulations. The results of experiments on a developed prototype 3D-MIMO radar system show that this system can extract only the motion of respiration of a human subject 2m apart from a metallic rotatable reflector. Moreover, it is found that this system can successfully measure the respiration information of sleeping human subjects for 96.6 percent of the whole measurement time except for instances of large posture change.

  17. [Basic types of respiratory system structure in insect egg envelopes, and genes controlling their formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelina, E S; Baricheva, É M; Fedorova, E V

    2012-01-01

    Insects is a taxon surprisingly rich with species and varieties, and its representatives are considered as the most fitted and "evolutionary successful" living things. Insects are distinguished by diversity and abundance of adaptations to environmental conditions, representatives of this class inhabit different ecological niches, they can be found practically in every corner of the Earth and, in particular, in close adjacency to man. Among them are those who man benefits from and those who man struggles against. This determines man's interest in studying peculiarities of their development as well as adaptations formed by them in the course of evolution to become more viable. In the paper, data are presented on morphological structure of respiratory systems in insect egg envelopes that ensure respiration process of developing embryo. Variability of these systems and their dependence on environmental conditions are demonstrated for different insect species. The information about genes controlling development of respiratory systems in fruit fly eggs is brought together, and occurrence of evolutionary conservative genes participating in development of such systems in other insect species is ascertained.

  18. Next Generation Respiratory Viral Vaccine System: Advanced and Emerging Bioengineered Human Lung Epithelia Model (HLEM) Organoid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Schneider, Sandra L.; MacIntosh, Victor; Gibbons, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia and influenza, are the S t" leading cause of United States and worldwide deaths. Newly emerging pathogens signaled the need for an advanced generation of vaccine technology.. Human bronchial-tracheal epithelial tissue was bioengineered to detect, identify, host and study the pathogenesis of acute respiratory viral disease. The 3-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesechymal tissue-like assemblies (HLEM TLAs) share characteristics with human respiratory epithelium: tight junctions, desmosomes, microvilli, functional markers villin, keratins and production of tissue mucin. Respiratory Syntial Virus (RSV) studies demonstrate viral growth kinetics and membrane bound glycoproteins up to day 20 post infection in the human lung-orgainoid infected cell system. Peak replication of RSV occurred on day 10 at 7 log10 particles forming units per ml/day. HLEM is an advanced virus vaccine model and biosentinel system for emergent viral infectious diseases to support DoD global surveillance and military readiness.

  19. Optimal Determination of Respiratory Airflow Patterns Using a Nonlinear Multicompartment Model for a Lung Mechanics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancao Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop optimal respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system. Specifically, we use classical calculus of variations minimization techniques to derive an optimal airflow pattern for inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. The physiological interpretation of the optimality criteria used involves the minimization of work of breathing and lung volume acceleration for the inspiratory phase, and the minimization of the elastic potential energy and rapid airflow rate changes for the expiratory phase. Finally, we numerically integrate the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value problems to determine the optimal airflow patterns over the inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles.

  20. Optimal determination of respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hancao; Haddad, Wassim M

    2012-01-01

    We develop optimal respiratory airflow patterns using a nonlinear multicompartment model for a lung mechanics system. Specifically, we use classical calculus of variations minimization techniques to derive an optimal airflow pattern for inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles. The physiological interpretation of the optimality criteria used involves the minimization of work of breathing and lung volume acceleration for the inspiratory phase, and the minimization of the elastic potential energy and rapid airflow rate changes for the expiratory phase. Finally, we numerically integrate the resulting nonlinear two-point boundary value problems to determine the optimal airflow patterns over the inspiratory and expiratory breathing cycles.

  1. Differences of Respiratory Function According to Level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The current study was designed to investigate the difference in lung capacity and muscle strengthening related to respiration depending on the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) through tests of respiratory function and respiratory pressure. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 49 children with CP who were classified as below level III of the GMFCS were recruited for this study. They were divided into three groups (i.e.,...

  2. SU-E-J-190: Development of Abdominal Compression & Respiratory Guiding System Using Gas Pressure Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Cho, M; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Abdominal compression is known to be effective but, often makes external-marker-based monitoring of breathing motion not feasible. In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that enables both abdominal compression and monitoring of residual abdominal motion simultaneously. The system can also provide visual-biofeedback capability. Methods: The system developed consists of a compression belt, an abdominal motion monitoring sensor (gas pressure sensor) and a visual biofeedback device. The compression belt was designed to be able to compress the frontal side of the abdomen. The pressure level of the belt is controlled by air volume and monitored in real time using the gas pressure sensor. The system displays not only the real-time monitoring curve but also a guiding respiration model (e.g., a breath hold or shallow breathing curve) simultaneously on the head mounted display to help patients keep their breathing pattern as consistent as possible. Three healthy volunteers were enrolled in this pilot study and respiratory signals (pressure variations) were obtained both with and without effective abdominal compression to investigate the feasibility of the developed system. Two guidance patterns, breath hold and shallow breathing, were tested. Results: All volunteers showed smaller abdominal motion with compression (about 40% amplitude reduction compared to without compression). However, the system was able to monitor residual abdominal motion for all volunteers. Even under abdominal compression, in addition, it was possible to make the subjects successfully follow the guide patterns using the visual biofeedback system. Conclusion: The developed abdominal compression & respiratory guiding system was feasible for residual abdominal motion management. It is considered that the system can be used for a respiratory motion involved radiation therapy while maintaining the merit of abdominal compression. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R

  3. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Hussain, Saber M. [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory/RHBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Rowe, John J. [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Nielsen, Mark G., E-mail: Mark.Nielsen@notes.udayton.edu [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  4. Pediatric respiratory and systemic effects of chronic air pollution exposure: nose, lung, heart, and brain pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Reed, William

    2007-01-01

    Exposures to particulate matter and gaseous air pollutants have been associated with respiratory tract inflammation, disruption of the nasal respiratory and olfactory barriers, systemic inflammation, production of mediators of inflammation capable of reaching the brain and systemic circulation of particulate matter. Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to significant amounts of ozone, particulate matter and associated lipopolysaccharides. MC dogs exhibit brain inflammation and an acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by air pollutants. MC children, adolescents and adults have a significant upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in olfactory bulb and frontal cortex, as well as neuronal and astrocytic accumulation of the 42 amino acid form of beta -amyloid peptide (Abeta 42), including diffuse amyloid plaques in frontal cortex. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain inflammation and the accumulation of Abeta 42, which precede the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the pathological hallmarks of AD. Our findings of nasal barrier disruption, systemic inflammation, and the upregulation of COX2 and IL-1beta expression and Abeta 42 accumulation in brain suggests that sustained exposures to significant concentrations of air pollutants such as particulate matter could be a risk factor for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase sustains a fatty acid-dependent remote signal to waterproof the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Napal, Laura; Rubin, Thomas; Poidevin, Mickael; Perrin, Laurent; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Montagne, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA-interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA-interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles-the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA) within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes.

  6. Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase sustains a fatty acid-dependent remote signal to waterproof the respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Parvy

    Full Text Available Fatty acid (FA metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC, the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA-interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA-interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles-the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes.

  7. Macroscopic anatomy of the lower respiratory system in mole rats (Spalax leucodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlgun, R; Yoldas, A; Kuru, N; Özkan, Z E

    2014-12-01

    The morphologic and morphometric features of the lower respiratory system in mole rats were examined. It was seen that the low respiratory system of this species leading a special life under highly hypoxic/hypercapnic conditions underground is structurally similar to other mammals living on land in terms of the parts examined; trachea was formed by 29.5 ± 4 oval-formed cartilaginous tracheals arranged backwards and became gradually more stenotic diameter from cranial to the caudal of the neck. The trachea was separated in two principal bronchus at the fourth thoracal intercostal spatium level. The angle between the two main principal bronchi was 60.5 ± 2.35°. The lung constituted 1.29 ± 0.03% of the body weight and the right lung was heavier than the left lung. Fissura inter-lobaris was deep and separated the lung lobes wholly, and the right lung was separated in four lobes, whereas the left lung was not separated into the lobes. Also, the medial lobe of the left lung was the lightest lobe.

  8. Parameter estimation of an artificial respiratory system under mechanical ventilation following a noisy regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Henrique Victor Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: This work concerns the assessment of a novel system for mechanical ventilation and a parameter estimation method in a bench test. The tested system was based on a commercial mechanical ventilator and a personal computer. A computational routine was developed do drive the mechanical ventilator and a parameter estimation method was utilized to estimate positive end-expiratory pressure, resistance and compliance of the artificial respiratory system. Methods The computational routine was responsible for establishing connections between devices and controlling them. Parameters such as tidal volume, respiratory rate and others can be set for standard and noisy ventilation regimes. Ventilation tests were performed directly varying parameters in the system. Readings from a calibrated measuring device were the basis for analysis. Adopting a first-order linear model, the parameters could be estimated and the outcomes statistically analysed. Results Data acquisition was effective in terms of sample frequency and low noise content. After filtering, cycle detection and estimation took place. Statistics of median, mean and standard deviation were calculated, showing consistent matching with adjusted values. Changes in positive end-expiratory pressure statistically imply changes in compliance, but not the opposite. Conclusion The developed system was satisfactory in terms of clinical parameters. Statistics exhibited consistent relations between adjusted and estimated values, besides precision of the measurements. The system is expected to be used in animals, with a view to better understand the benefits of noisy ventilation, by evaluating the estimated parameters and performing cross relations among blood gas, ultrasonography and electrical impedance tomography.

  9. Mathematical modeling and validation in physiology applications to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bachar, Mostafa; Kappel, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This volume synthesizes theoretical and practical aspects of both the mathematical and life science viewpoints needed for modeling of the cardiovascular-respiratory system specifically and physiological systems generally.  Theoretical points include model design, model complexity and validation in the light of available data, as well as control theory approaches to feedback delay and Kalman filter applications to parameter identification. State of the art approaches using parameter sensitivity are discussed for enhancing model identifiability through joint analysis of model structure and data. Practical examples illustrate model development at various levels of complexity based on given physiological information. The sensitivity-based approaches for examining model identifiability are illustrated by means of specific modeling  examples. The themes presented address the current problem of patient-specific model adaptation in the clinical setting, where data is typically limited.

  10. Experimental evidence for phase synchronization transitions in human cardio-respiratory system

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, R; Kantelhardt, J W; Penzel, T; Bartsch, Ronny; Havlin, Shlomo; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Penzel, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Transitions in the dynamics of complex systems can be characterized by changes in the synchronization behavior of their components. Taking the human cardio-respiratory system as an example and using an automated procedure for screening the synchrograms of 112 healthy subjects we study the frequency and the distribution of synchronization episodes under different physiological conditions that occur during sleep. We find that phase synchronization between heartbeat and breathing is significantly enhanced during non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep (deep sleep and light sleep) and reduced during REM sleep. Our results suggest that the synchronization is mainly due to a weak influence of the breathing oscillator upon the heartbeat oscillator, which is disturbed in the presence of long-term correlated noise, superimposed by the activity of higher brain regions during REM sleep.

  11. Depletion of putative chemosensitive respiratory neurons in the ventral medullary surface in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarroch, Eduardo E; Schmeichel, Ann M; Low, Phillip A; Parisi, Joseph E

    2007-02-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a disorder that may manifest with reduced respiratory chemosensitivity and central sleep apnoea. Chemosensitive glutamatergic and serotonergic neurons located just beneath the ventral medullary surface, corresponding to the human arcuate nucleus (ArcN), have recently been implicated in control of automatic breathing in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia. We sought to determine whether these neurons were affected in MSA. Medullae were obtained at post-mortem from 11 patients (8 men, 3 women, age 64 +/- 3 years) with neuropathologically confirmed MSA and 11 control subjects (6 men and 5 women, age 66 +/- 4 years). Fifty micrometre sections obtained throughout the medulla were processed for vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (VGLUT-2), tryptophan-hydroxylase (TrOH), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity. Cell counts, GFAP immunoreactivity and presence of glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) were assessed in the ArcN. In MSA, compared with controls, there was a marked depletion of ArcN neurons immunoreactive for either VGLUT-2 (74 +/- 21 versus 342 +/- 84 cells/section, P section, P medullary surface in all cases. Our results indicate that there is severe loss of putative chemosensitive glutamatergic and serotonergic neurons as well as marked astrocytic gliosis in the ventral medullary surface in MSA. This may provide a possible morphological basis for impaired respiratory chemosensitivity and central sleep apnoea in this disorder.

  12. Bacterial Respiratory Tract Infections are Promoted by Systemic Hyperglycemia after Severe Burn Injury in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Cox, Robert A; Williams, Felicia N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injuries are associated with hyperglycemia leading to increased incidence of infections with pneumonia being one of the most prominent and adverse complication. Recently, various studies in critically ill patients indicated that increased pulmonary glucose levels with airway/blood glucose threshold over 150 mg/dl lead to an overwhelming growth of bacteria in the broncho-pulmonary system, subsequently resulting in an increased risk of pulmonary infections. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a similar cutoff value exists for severely burned pediatric patients. Methods One-hundred six severely burned pediatric patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided in two groups: high (H) defined as daily average glucose levels >75% of LOS >150 mg/dl), and low (L) with daily average glucose levels >75% of the LOS pneumonia, atelectasis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were assessed. Incidence of infections, sepsis, and respiratory parameters were recorded. Blood was analyzed for glucose and insulin levels. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test and chi-square test. Significance was set at pPatient groups were similar in demographics and injury characteristics. Pneumonia in patients on the mechanical ventilation (L: 21% H: 32%) and off mechanical ventilation (L: 5% H: 15%), as well as ARDS were significantly higher in the high group (L: 3% H: 19%), pPatients in the high group required significantly longer ventilation compared to low patients (ppneumonia confirming the previous studies in critically ill patients. PMID:24074819

  13. Microfabricated engineered particle systems for respiratory drug delivery and other pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andres; Mack, Peter; Williams, Stuart; Fromen, Catherine; Shen, Tammy; Tully, Janet; Pillai, Jonathan; Kuehl, Philip; Napier, Mary; Desimone, Joseph M; Maynor, Benjamin W

    2012-01-01

    Particle Replication in Non-Wetting Templates (PRINT(®)) is a platform particle drug delivery technology that coopts the precision and nanoscale spatial resolution inherently afforded by lithographic techniques derived from the microelectronics industry to produce precisely engineered particles. We describe the utility of PRINT technology as a strategy for formulation and delivery of small molecule and biologic therapeutics, highlighting previous studies where particle size, shape, and chemistry have been used to enhance systemic particle distribution properties. In addition, we introduce the application of PRINT technology towards respiratory drug delivery, a particular interest due to the pharmaceutical need for increased control over dry powder characteristics to improve drug delivery and therapeutic indices. To this end, we have produced dry powder particles with micro- and nanoscale geometric features and composed of small molecule and protein therapeutics. Aerosols generated from these particles show attractive properties for efficient pulmonary delivery and differential respiratory deposition characteristics based on particle geometry. This work highlights the advantages of adopting proven microfabrication techniques in achieving unprecedented control over particle geometric design for drug delivery.

  14. Inhaled Pollutants: The Molecular Scene behind Respiratory and Systemic Diseases Associated with Ultrafine Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Traboulsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution of anthropogenic origin is largely from the combustion of biomass (e.g., wood, fossil fuels (e.g., cars and trucks, incinerators, landfills, agricultural activities and tobacco smoke. Air pollution is a complex mixture that varies in space and time, and contains hundreds of compounds including volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene, metals, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, ozone and particulate matter (PM. PM0.1 (ultrafine particles (UFP, those particles with a diameter less than 100 nm (includes nanoparticles (NP are considered especially dangerous to human health and may contribute significantly to the development of numerous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and atherosclerosis. Some of the pathogenic mechanisms through which PM0.1 may contribute to chronic disease is their ability to induce inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death by molecular mechanisms that include transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. Epigenetic mechanisms including non-coding RNA (ncRNA may also contribute towards the development of chronic disease associated with exposure to PM0.1. This paper highlights emerging molecular concepts associated with inhalational exposure to PM0.1 and their ability to contribute to chronic respiratory and systemic disease.

  15. Microfabricated Engineered Particle Systems for Respiratory Drug Delivery and Other Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle Replication in Non-Wetting Templates (PRINT® is a platform particle drug delivery technology that coopts the precision and nanoscale spatial resolution inherently afforded by lithographic techniques derived from the microelectronics industry to produce precisely engineered particles. We describe the utility of PRINT technology as a strategy for formulation and delivery of small molecule and biologic therapeutics, highlighting previous studies where particle size, shape, and chemistry have been used to enhance systemic particle distribution properties. In addition, we introduce the application of PRINT technology towards respiratory drug delivery, a particular interest due to the pharmaceutical need for increased control over dry powder characteristics to improve drug delivery and therapeutic indices. To this end, we have produced dry powder particles with micro- and nanoscale geometric features and composed of small molecule and protein therapeutics. Aerosols generated from these particles show attractive properties for efficient pulmonary delivery and differential respiratory deposition characteristics based on particle geometry. This work highlights the advantages of adopting proven microfabrication techniques in achieving unprecedented control over particle geometric design for drug delivery.

  16. Distribution and respiratory activity of mycobacteria in household water system of healthy volunteers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichijo, Tomoaki; Izumi, Yoko; Nakamoto, Sayuri; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

    2014-01-01

    The primary infectious source of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), which are known as opportunistic pathogens, appears to be environmental exposure, and it is important to reduce the frequency of exposure from environmental sources for preventing NTM infections. In order to achieve this, the distribution and respiratory activity of NTM in the environments must be clarified. In this study, we determined the abundance of mycobacteria and respiratory active mycobacteria in the household water system of healthy volunteers using quantitative PCR and a fluorescent staining method, because household water has been considered as one of the possible infectious sources. We chose healthy volunteer households in order to lessen the effect of possible residential contamination from an infected patient. We evaluated whether each sampling site (bathroom drain, kitchen drain, bath heater pipe and showerhead) have the potential to be the sources of NTM infections. Our results indicated that drains in the bathroom and kitchen sink are the niche for Mycobacterium spp. and M. avium cells were only detected in the bathtub inlet. Both physicochemical and biologic selective pressures may affect the preferred habitat of Mycobacterium spp. Regional differences also appear to exist as demonstrated by the presence (US) or absence (Japan) of Mycobacterium spp. on showerheads. Understanding of the country specific human activities and water usage will help to elucidate the infectious source and route of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

  17. Study on respiratory electron transport system (ETS) of phytoplankton in Taiwan Strait and Xiamen Harbour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bangqin; HONG Huasheng; XU Xiangzhong; LIU Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Phytoplankton respiratory electron transport system (P-ETS) activities were studied in two cruises in Taiwan Strait (Aug. 1997 and Feb. -Mar. 1998) and two cruises in Xiamen Harbour (Oct., 1997 and Apr.,1998). Results showed that P-ETS activity in the surface water of southern Taiwan Strait in summer was homogeneous [mean value of 0.106 μlO2/(L.h)], inhomogeneous in northern Taiwan Strait in winter. Variation of P-ETS activity in middle part of the Strait was not obvious between summer and winter. Mean P-ETS activity of Xiamen Harbour in autumn was 0.255 μlO2/(L.h) with a little higher value in Jiulong River estuary areas. In spring, P-ETS activity was more homogeneously distributed and the mean value was 1.076 μlO2/(L.h). P-ETS activity in spring was obviously higher than in autumn in Xiamen Harbour. Vertical distribution of P-ETS in Taiwan Strait was homogeneous at some stations in winter and in summer. An obvious daily variation of P-ETS activity was recorded at Stn 9837, high at midnight and low in the early morning. Significant correlation between P-ETS activity and Chl-a was observed. Results also showed that the ratio of estimated respiratory rate to photosynthetic rate varied seasonally, high in winter (0.41) and low in summer (0.12).

  18. Inhaled Pollutants: The Molecular Scene behind Respiratory and Systemic Diseases Associated with Ultrafine Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Hussein; Guerrina, Necola; Iu, Matthew; Maysinger, Dusica; Ariya, Parisa; Baglole, Carolyn J.

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution of anthropogenic origin is largely from the combustion of biomass (e.g., wood), fossil fuels (e.g., cars and trucks), incinerators, landfills, agricultural activities and tobacco smoke. Air pollution is a complex mixture that varies in space and time, and contains hundreds of compounds including volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene), metals, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, ozone and particulate matter (PM). PM0.1 (ultrafine particles (UFP)), those particles with a diameter less than 100 nm (includes nanoparticles (NP)) are considered especially dangerous to human health and may contribute significantly to the development of numerous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and atherosclerosis. Some of the pathogenic mechanisms through which PM0.1 may contribute to chronic disease is their ability to induce inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death by molecular mechanisms that include transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Epigenetic mechanisms including non-coding RNA (ncRNA) may also contribute towards the development of chronic disease associated with exposure to PM0.1. This paper highlights emerging molecular concepts associated with inhalational exposure to PM0.1 and their ability to contribute to chronic respiratory and systemic disease. PMID:28125025

  19. Buying Time—The Immune System Determinants of the Incubation Period to Respiratory Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Moran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus recognition by elements of the innate immune response, early virus replication must go largely undetected. The interval between infection and the emergence of symptoms is called the incubation period and is widely used as a clinical score. While incubation periods have been described for many virus infections the underlying mechanism for this asymptomatic phase has not been comprehensively documented. Here we review studies of the interaction between human pathogenic respiratory RNA viruses and the host with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms used by viruses to inhibit immunity. We discuss the concept of the “stealth phase”, defined as the time between infection and the earliest detectable inflammatory response. We propose that the “stealth phase” phenomenon is primarily responsible for the suppression of symptoms during the incubation period and results from viral antagonism that inhibits major pathways of the innate immune system allowing an extended time of unhindered virus replication.

  20. Distribution and respiratory activity of mycobacteria in household water system of healthy volunteers in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Ichijo

    Full Text Available The primary infectious source of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM, which are known as opportunistic pathogens, appears to be environmental exposure, and it is important to reduce the frequency of exposure from environmental sources for preventing NTM infections. In order to achieve this, the distribution and respiratory activity of NTM in the environments must be clarified. In this study, we determined the abundance of mycobacteria and respiratory active mycobacteria in the household water system of healthy volunteers using quantitative PCR and a fluorescent staining method, because household water has been considered as one of the possible infectious sources. We chose healthy volunteer households in order to lessen the effect of possible residential contamination from an infected patient. We evaluated whether each sampling site (bathroom drain, kitchen drain, bath heater pipe and showerhead have the potential to be the sources of NTM infections. Our results indicated that drains in the bathroom and kitchen sink are the niche for Mycobacterium spp. and M. avium cells were only detected in the bathtub inlet. Both physicochemical and biologic selective pressures may affect the preferred habitat of Mycobacterium spp. Regional differences also appear to exist as demonstrated by the presence (US or absence (Japan of Mycobacterium spp. on showerheads. Understanding of the country specific human activities and water usage will help to elucidate the infectious source and route of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

  1. Amyloidosis involving the respiratory system: 5-year′s experience of a multi-disciplinary group′s activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Scala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis may involve the respiratory system with different clinical-radiological-functional patterns which are not always easy to be recognized. A good level of knowledge of the disease, an active integration of the pulmonologist within a multidisciplinary setting and a high level of clinical suspicion are necessary for an early diagnosis of respiratory amyloidosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the number and the patterns of amyloidosis involving the respiratory system. We searched the cases of amyloidosis among patients attending the multidisciplinary rare and diffuse lung disease outpatients′ clinic of Pulmonology Unit of the Hospital of Arezzo from 2007 to 2012. Among the 298 patients evaluated during the study period, we identified three cases of amyloidosis with involvement of the respiratory system, associated or not with other extra-thoracic localizations, whose diagnosis was histo-pathologically confirmed after the pulmonologist, the radiologist, and the pathologist evaluation. Our experience of a multidisciplinary team confirms that intra-thoracic amyloidosis is an uncommon disorder, representing 1.0% of the cases of rare and diffuse lung diseases referred to our center. The diagnosis of the disease is not always easy and quick as the amyloidosis may involve different parts of the respiratory system (airways, pleura, parenchyma. It is therefore recommended to remind this orphan disease in the differential diagnosis of the wide clinical scenarios the pulmonologist may intercept in clinical practice.

  2. Effect of a botanical composition, UP446, on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in beagle dogs and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Extensive safety evaluation of UP446, a botanical composition comprised of standardized extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been reported previously. Here we carried out additional studies to assess the effect of UP446 on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. A Functional observational battery (FOB) and whole body plethysmography system in rats and implanted telemetry in dogs were utilized to evaluate the potential CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. UP446 was administered orally at dose levels of 800, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg to SpragueDawley rats and at 4 ascending dose levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) to beagle dogs. No abnormal effects were observed on the cage side, open field, hand held, and sensori-motor observations suggestive of toxicity in respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. Rectal temperatures were comparable for each treatment groups. Similarly, respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume were unaffected by any of the treatment groups. No UP446 related changes were observed on blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram in beagle dogs at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Some minor incidental, non-dose correlated changes were observed in the FOB assessment. These data suggest that UP446 has minimal or no pharmaco-toxicological effect on the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems.

  3. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as pulmonary fibrosis , ...

  4. Respiratory Protection against Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Although the respiratory (breathing) system tolerates exposure to a limited degree, some chemicals can impair or destroy portions of it. For many pesticides, the respiratory system is the quickest and most direct route into the circulatory system, allowing rapid transport throughout the body. Thus, it is important to follow the pesticide label and follow directions for control of exposure, especially when respiratory protection is specified. A respirator is a safety device covering at least t...

  5. Comparison of visual biofeedback system with a guiding waveform and abdomen-chest motion self-control system for respiratory motion management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yujiro; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Kanai, Takayuki; Ito, Kengo; Sato, Kiyokazu; Dobashi, Suguru; Yamamoto, Takaya; Ishikawa, Yojiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-07-01

    Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of 4D computed tomography imaging and cause artifacts. Visual biofeedback systems associated with a patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches) (representing simpler visual coaching techniques without a guiding waveform) are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching in reducing respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. We collected data from 11 healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared with free-breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86 and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18 and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with the wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to the other techniques. Our results showed that visual biofeedback combined with a wave model could potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management, although all techniques were able to reduce respiratory irregularities.

  6. Impact of exacerbations on respiratory system impedance measured by a forced oscillation technique in COPD: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Takahiro; Kaneko, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hiromi

    2017-01-01

    Background Forced oscillation technique (FOT) has been reported to be useful in the evaluation and management of obstructive lung disease, including COPD. To date, no data are available concerning long-term changes in respiratory system impedance measured by FOT. Additionally, although exacerbations have been reported to be associated with excessive lung function decline in COPD, the impact of exacerbations on the results of FOT has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes in respiratory system impedance and the influence of exacerbations thereon. Methods Between March 2011 and March 2012, outpatients who attended Kobe City Medical Center West Hospital with a diagnosis of COPD were assessed for eligibility. Baseline patient characteristics (age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, current smoking status, COPD stage), lung function (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]), blood tests (neutrophils and eosinophils), FOT, and COPD assessment test results were collected at enrollment. Lung function and FOT were examined every 6 months until March 2016. Annual changes in FEV1 and FOT parameters were obtained from the slope of the linear regression curve. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on exacerbation history. Results Fifty-one of 58 patients with COPD were enrolled in this study. The median follow-up period was 57 (52–59) months. Twenty-five (49%) patients experienced exacerbations. A significant annual decline in FEV1 and respiratory system impedance were shown. Additionally, annual changes in FEV1, respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz, respiratory system reactance at 5 Hz, and resonant frequency were greater in patients with exacerbations than in those without exacerbations. Conclusion Exacerbations of COPD lead not only to a decline in lung function but also to an increase in respiratory system impedance.

  7. Patterns of mouse reticulon 3 mRNA and protein expression in the mouse central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin; QIANG Boqin; YUAN Jiangang; HUANG Xiaowei; PENG Xiaozhong; YANG Hongbo; YIN Bin; TAN Xinyu; FAN Ming; FAN Wenhong; LIU Bingyan

    2003-01-01

    Reticulons (RTN) are endoplasmic reticulumassociated protein complexes, which are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and identified as markers for neuroendocrine differentiation. At least four different RTN genes have been identified in mammals, but in most cases,the functions of the encoded proteins except mammalian RTN4-A and RTN4-B are still elusive. In the present study,mouse reticulon 3 (mRTN3) is cloned and its expression pattern in a variety of tissues is investigated. Three alternatively spliced transcripts of 1.8, 2.8 and 4.2 kb are revealed by Northern blotting hybridization. The 1.8 and 2.8 kb transcripts are expressed in many tissues. The 2.8 kb transcript has a high level in brain and the 4.2 kb transcript is only found in brain. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis indicated its high expression in non-glial cells in some particular region of mouse central nervous system, such as hippocampus, sub-thalamus nucleus, thalamus nucleus and cerebrum cortex.

  8. Adenosine transport systems on dissociated brain cells from mouse, guinea-pig, and rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, M.E.; Geiger, J.D. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada))

    1990-09-01

    The kinetics and sodium dependence of adenosine transport were determined using an inhibitor-stop method on dissociated cell body preparations obtained from mouse, guinea-pig and rat brain. Transport affinity (KT) values for the high affinity adenosine transport systems KT(H) were significantly different between these three species; mean +/- SEM values were 0.34 +/- 0.1 in mouse, 0.9 +/- 0.2 in rat, and 1.5 +/- 0.5 microM in guinea-pig. The KT values for the low affinity transport system KT(L) were not different between the three species. Brain cells from rat displayed a significantly greater maximal capacity to accumulate (3H)adenosine (Vmax) than did mouse or guinea-pig for the high affinity system, or than did mouse for the low affinity system. When sodium chloride was replaced in the transport medium with choline chloride, the KT(H) values for guinea-pig and rat were both increased by approximately 100%; only in rat did the change reach statistical significance. The sodium-dependence of adenosine transport in mouse brain was clearly absent. The differences between KT(H) values in mouse and those in guinea-pig or rat were accentuated in the absence of sodium. The differences in kinetic values, ionic requirements, and pharmacological characteristics between adenosine transporters in CNS tissues of mouse, guinea-pig and rat may help account for some of the variability noted among species in terms of their physiological responses to adenosine.

  9. Wearable interrupter module for home-based applications in a telemedical system dedicated to respiratory mechanics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Ireneusz

    2011-03-01

    The mobile interrupter module, dedicated to the enhanced interrupter (EIT) measurement of respiratory mechanics in a home environment and capable of cooperation with a telemedical system, is presented. Characterized by noninvasiveness and minimal requirements regarding patient cooperation, the EIT algorithm is especially suitable for newborns, preschool children, and patients suffering from respiratory muscle impairment. Furthermore, this device enables access to raw data--without initial preprocessing--in a fully flexible measurement protocol (which is not available in any commercial apparatus), and the EIT procedure improves insight (the number and precision of assessed parameters) into the physiological system with respect to the classical occlusive methods.

  10. Nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic sclerosis: two systemic diseases involving the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mękal, D; Doboszyńska, A; Kądalska, E; Świetlik, E; Rudnicka, L

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional status and life quality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Thirty patients with stable COPD and 32 patients with SSc were examined. In all patients, the following parameters were measured: fat mass, fat-free mass, total body water, FEV1, and blood gases. COPD patients' life quality was assessed with St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, and in SSc patients with a Quality of Life Questionnaire. The results show that among COPD patients 13% had normal body weight, 60% were obese, and 27% were overweight. In SSc patients, 59% had normal body weight, 31% were overweight, 1 patient was obese, and 2 were underweight. The mean life quality score in COPD patients was 57.3±16.5, while that in SSc patients was 35.8±18.2. COPD patients had a statistically significant lower life quality than SSc patients. The mean value of FEV1 was 45.5±12.2% pred. in COPD patients, and 86.8±21.2% pred. in the SSc group. We conclude that nutritional disorders are more frequent in COPD patients compared to those with SSc.

  11. A system for respiratory motion detection using optical fibers embedded into textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, L T; Weber, S; Honda, Y; Thiel, T; Narbonneau, F; Luth, T C

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, a first prototype for mobile respiratory motion detection using optical fibers embedded into textiles is presented. The developed system consists of a T-shirt with an integrated fiber sensor and a portable monitoring unit with a wireless communication link enabling the data analysis and visualization on a PC. A great effort is done worldwide to develop mobile solutions for health monitoring of vital signs for patients needing continuous medical care. Wearable, comfortable and smart textiles incorporating sensors are good approaches to solve this problem. In most of the cases, electrical sensors are integrated, showing significant limits such as for the monitoring of anaesthetized patients during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). OFSETH (Optical Fibre Embedded into technical Textile for Healthcare) uses optical sensor technologies to extend the current capabilities of medical technical textiles.

  12. The pulmonary anatomy of Alligator mississippiensis and its similarity to the avian respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, R Kent; Farmer, C G

    2012-04-01

    Using gross dissections and computed tomography we studied the lungs of juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Our findings indicate that both the external and internal morphology of the lungs is strikingly similar to the embryonic avian respiratory system (lungs + air sacs). We identified bronchi that we propose are homologous to the avian ventrobronchi (entobronchi), laterobronchi, dorsobronchi (ectobronchi), as well as regions of the lung hypothesized to be homologous to the cervical, interclavicular, anterior thoracic, posterior thoracic, and abdominal air sacs. Furthermore, we suggest that many of the features that alligators and birds share are homologous and that some of these features are important to the aerodynamic valve mechanism and are likely plesiomorphic for Archosauria.

  13. MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Møller, Morten

    2008-01-01

    distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ hybridization uncovered 44 miRNAs displaying more than threefold enrichment in the spinal cord, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons......RNA-related gene regulatory networks in the mammalian central nervous system. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  14. An ultrahigh resolution SPECT system for I-125 mouse brain imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, L.J. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)], E-mail: ljmeng@umich.edu; Fu, G. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States); Roy, E.J.; Suppe, B. [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States); Chen, C.T. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents some initial experimental results obtained with a dual-head prototype single photon emission microscope system (SPEM) that is dedicated to mouse brain studies using I-125 labeled radiotracers. In particular, this system will be used for in vivo tacking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain. This system is based on the use of the intensified electron multiplying charge-coupled device (I-EMCCD) camera that offers the combination of an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution, a good signal-to-noise ratio, a large active area and a reasonable detection efficiency over an energy range between 27-140 keV. In this study, the dual-head SPEM system was evaluated using both resolution phantoms and a mouse with locally injected T cells labeled with I-125. It was demonstrated that for a relatively concentrated source object, the current dual-head SPEM system is capable of visualizing the tiny amount of radioactivity ({approx}12 nCi) carried by a very small number (<1000) of T cells. The current SPEM system design allows four or six camera heads to be installed in a stationary system configuration that offers a doubled or tripled sensitivity at a spatial resolution similar to that obtained with the dual-head system. This development would provide a powerful tool for in vivo and non-invasive tracking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain and potentially for other rodent brain imaging studies.

  15. An ultrahigh resolution SPECT system for I-125 mouse brain imaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L. J.; Fu, G.; Roy, E. J.; Suppe, B.; Chen, C. T.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents some initial experimental results obtained with a dual-head prototype single photon emission microscope system (SPEM) that is dedicated to mouse brain studies using I-125 labeled radiotracers. In particular, this system will be used for in vivo tacking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain. This system is based on the use of the intensified electron multiplying charge-coupled device (I-EMCCD) camera that offers the combination of an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution, a good signal-to-noise ratio, a large active area and a reasonable detection efficiency over an energy range between 27-140 keV. In this study, the dual-head SPEM system was evaluated using both resolution phantoms and a mouse with locally injected T cells labeled with I-125. It was demonstrated that for a relatively concentrated source object, the current dual-head SPEM system is capable of visualizing the tiny amount of radioactivity (˜12 nCi) carried by a very small number (<1000) of T cells. The current SPEM system design allows four or six camera heads to be installed in a stationary system configuration that offers a doubled or tripled sensitivity at a spatial resolution similar to that obtained with the dual-head system. This development would provide a powerful tool for in vivo and non-invasive tracking of radiolabeled T cells in mouse brain and potentially for other rodent brain imaging studies.

  16. Respiratory Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  17. New Combined Scoring System for Predicting Respiratory Failure in Iraqi Patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Noah Hasan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is an acute post-infective autoimmune polyradiculoneuropathy, it is the commonest peripheral neuropathy causing respiratory failure. The aim of the study is to use the New Combined Scoring System in anticipating respiratory failure in order to perform elective measures without waiting for emergency situations to occur.
    Patients and methods: Fifty patients with GBS were studied. Eight clinical parameters (including progression of patients to maximum weakness, respiratory rate/minute, breath holding
    count (the number of digits the patient can count in holding his breath, presence of facial muscle weakness (unilateral or bilateral, presence of weakness of the bulbar muscle, weakness of the neck flexor muscle, and limbs weakness were assessed for each patient and a certain score was given to
    each parameter, a designed combined score being constructed by taking into consideration all the above mentioned clinical parameters. Results and discussion: Fifteen patients (30% that were enrolled in our study developed respiratory failure. There was a highly significant statistical association between the development of respiratory failure and the lower grades of (bulbar muscle weakness score, breath holding count scores, neck muscle weakness score, lower limbs and upper limbs weakness score , respiratory rate score and the total sum score above 16 out of 30 (p-value=0.000 . No significant statistical difference was found regarding the progression to maximum weakness (p-value=0.675 and facial muscle weakness (p-value=0.482.
    Conclusion: The patients who obtained a combined score (above 16’30 are at great risk of having respiratory failure.

  18. Illuminating cancer systems with genetically engineered mouse models and coupled luciferase reporters in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2013-06-01

    Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful noninvasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMM) of cancer, which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, posttranslational processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation, and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a noninvasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiologic means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal.

  19. [Diagnostic values of bronchoscopy and multi-slice spiral CT for congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system in infants: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Lu; Huang, Ying; Li, Qu-Bei; Dai, Ji-Hong

    2013-09-01

    To investigate and compare the diagnostic values of bronchoscopy and multi-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) for congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system in infants. Analysis was performed on the clinical data, bronchoscopic findings and multi-slice spiral CT findings of 319 infants (≤1 years old) who underwent bronchoscopy and/or multi-slice spiral CT and were diagnosed with congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system. A total of 476 cases of congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system were found in the 319 infants, including primary dysplasia of the respiratory system (392 cases) and compressive dysplasia of the respiratory system (84 cases). Of the 392 cases of primary dysplasia of the respiratory system, 225 (57.4%) were diagnosed by bronchoscopy versus 167 (42.6%) by multi-slice spiral CT. There were significant differences in etiological diagnosis between bronchoscopy and multi-slice spiral CT in infants with congenital dysplasia of the respiratory system (Pdysplasia of the respiratory system caused by tracheobronchomalacia were diagnosed by bronchoscopy and all 17 cases of primary dysplasia of the respiratory system caused by lung tissue dysplasia were diagnosed by multi-slice spiral CT. Of the 84 cases of compressive dysplasia of the respiratory system, 74 cases were diagnosed by multi-slice spiral CT and only 10 cases were diagnosed by bronchoscopy. Compared with multi-slice spiral CT, bronchoscopy can detect primary dysplasia of the respiratory system more directly. Bronchoscopy is valuable in the confirmed diagnosis of tracheobronchomalacia. Multi-slice spiral CT has a higher diagnostic value for lung tissue dysplasia than bronchoscopy.

  20. Janus-faced Acrolein prevents allergy but accelerates tumor growth by promoting immunoregulatory Foxp3+ cells: Mouse model for passive respiratory exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Walter, Franziska; Bergmayr, Cornelia; Meitz, Sarah; Buchleitner, Stefan; Stremnitzer, Caroline; Fazekas, Judit; Moskovskich, Anna; Müller, Mario A.; Roth, Georg A.; Manzano-Szalai, Krisztina; Dvorak, Zdenek; Neunkirchner, Alina; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, is generated in large amounts during smoking and is best known for its genotoxic capacity. Here, we aimed to assess whether acrolein at concentrations relevant for smokers may also exert immunomodulatory effects that could be relevant in allergy or cancer. In a BALB/c allergy model repeated nasal exposure to acrolein abrogated allergen-specific antibody and cytokine formation, and led to a relative accumulation of regulatory T cells in the lungs. Only the acrolein-treated mice were protected from bronchial hyperreactivity as well as from anaphylactic reactions upon challenge with the specific allergen. Moreover, grafted D2F2 tumor cells grew faster and intratumoral Foxp3+ cell accumulation was observed in these mice compared to sham-treated controls. Results from reporter cell lines suggested that acrolein acts via the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor which could be inhibited by resveratrol and 3′-methoxy-4′-nitroflavone Acrolein- stimulation of human PBMCs increased Foxp3+ expression by T cells which could be antagonized by resveratrol. Our mouse and human data thus revealed that acrolein exerts systemic immunosuppression by promoting Foxp3+ regulatory cells. This provides a novel explanation why smokers have a lower allergy, but higher cancer risk. PMID:28332605

  1. Multiple roles and interactions of Tbx4 and Tbx5 in development of the respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripla Arora

    Full Text Available Normal development of the respiratory system is essential for survival and is regulated by multiple genes and signaling pathways. Both Tbx4 and Tbx5 are expressed throughout the mesenchyme of the developing lung and trachea; and, although multiple genes are known to be required in the epithelium, only Fgfs have been well studied in the mesenchyme. In this study, we investigated the roles of Tbx4 and Tbx5 in lung and trachea development using conditional mutant alleles and two different Cre recombinase transgenic lines. Loss of Tbx5 leads to a unilateral loss of lung bud specification and absence of tracheal specification in organ culture. Mutants deficient in Tbx4 and Tbx5 show severely reduced lung branching at mid-gestation. Concordant with this defect, the expression of mesenchymal markers Wnt2 and Fgf10, as well as Fgf10 target genes Bmp4 and Spry2, in the epithelium is downregulated. Lung branching undergoes arrest ex vivo when Tbx4 and Tbx5 are both completely lacking. Lung-specific Tbx4 heterozygous;Tbx5 conditional null mice die soon after birth due to respiratory distress. These pups have small lungs and show severe disruptions in tracheal/bronchial cartilage rings. Sox9, a master regulator of cartilage formation, is expressed in the trachea; but mesenchymal cells fail to condense and consequently do not develop cartilage normally at birth. Tbx4;Tbx5 double heterozygous mutants show decreased lung branching and fewer tracheal cartilage rings, suggesting a genetic interaction. Finally, we show that Tbx4 and Tbx5 interact with Fgf10 during the process of lung growth and branching but not during tracheal/bronchial cartilage development.

  2. A robust optical respiratory trigger for small rodents in clinical whole-body MR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Wagner, Enrico; Deistung, Andreas; Hilger, Ingrid; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2008-06-01

    An increasing number of animal experiments are currently conducted on clinical MR systems. Motion artefacts due to breathing can become quite apparent, in particular with abdominal examinations. These artefacts can be reduced by using a triggered acquisition. However, the built-in detectors in human whole-body scanners are usually not sensitive enough to detect the tiny movements of small rodents. Therefore, a sensitive optical motion detector was developed together with a simple, robust analogue circuit. This circuit converts the original optical signal into an electrical one, compensates slow drifts and offsets, and finally generates a transistor-transistor logic trigger signal as input for the clinical whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. The trigger was successfully applied in mouse experiments.

  3. Research on curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyun

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection. Sixty children who suffered low-grade fever caused by respiratory system infection were selected and divided into treatment group and control group randomly, each with 30 cases. Control group was treated with conventional methods including oxygen uptake, nebulization and anti-infection, etc, while treatment group was given boil-free granules of traditional Chinese medicine besides the treatment which control group received. Then clinical curative effect of two groups was compared. Results showed that 28 cases (93.3%) were cured in treatment group; while 21 cases (70.0%) were cured in control group. Compared with control group, the treatment group showed up better treatment efficiency and the difference between groups was of statistical significance (Pfever of children caused by respiratory system infection; characterized by short treatment cycle and effective treatment effect, Chinese medicine granules in the combination with oxygen atomization inhalation is proved to be able to efficiently remit symptoms such as coughing, gasp and labored breathing, with outstanding curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection, thus it is worthy of popularization and application clinically.

  4. [Clinical and physiological methods of examination for cardiac and respiratory systems in aluminium production workers of Kolsky North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashchin, M V; Skripal', B A; Torgovanov, B A; Zotov, A M; Seden'kov, D A

    2004-01-01

    The authors presented clinical and physiologic studies of cardiac and respiratory systems and peripheral circulation among workers having various professions at aluminium production in Kolsky North. Multiple functional study methods were used including tachooscillography, electrocardiography, rheovasography, rheoencephalography, thermovision. The results enabled to specify duration and character of health disorders caused by occupational environment.

  5. Low-Power Wearable Systems for Continuous Monitoring of Environment and Health for Chronic Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieffenderfer, James; Goodell, Henry; Mills, Steven; McKnight, Michael; Yao, Shanshan; Lin, Feiyan; Beppler, Eric; Bent, Brinnae; Lee, Bongmook; Misra, Veena; Zhu, Yong; Oralkan, Omer; Strohmaier, Jason; Muth, John; Peden, David; Bozkurt, Alper

    2016-09-01

    We present our efforts toward enabling a wearable sensor system that allows for the correlation of individual environmental exposures with physiologic and subsequent adverse health responses. This system will permit a better understanding of the impact of increased ozone levels and other pollutants on chronic asthma conditions. We discuss the inefficiency of existing commercial off-the-shelf components to achieve continuous monitoring and our system-level and nano-enabled efforts toward improving the wearability and power consumption. Our system consists of a wristband, a chest patch, and a handheld spirometer. We describe our preliminary efforts to achieve a submilliwatt system ultimately powered by the energy harvested from thermal radiation and motion of the body with the primary contributions being an ultralow-power ozone sensor, an volatile organic compounds sensor, spirometer, and the integration of these and other sensors in a multimodal sensing platform. The measured environmental parameters include ambient ozone concentration, temperature, and relative humidity. Our array of sensors also assesses heart rate via photoplethysmography and electrocardiography, respiratory rate via photoplethysmography, skin impedance, three-axis acceleration, wheezing via a microphone, and expiratory airflow. The sensors on the wristband, chest patch, and spirometer consume 0.83, 0.96, and 0.01 mW, respectively. The data from each sensor are continually streamed to a peripheral data aggregation device and are subsequently transferred to a dedicated server for cloud storage. Future work includes reducing the power consumption of the system-on-chip including radio to reduce the entirety of each described system in the submilliwatt range.

  6. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4.......7) min(-1), P PET...

  7. A biophysical model of the mitochondrial respiratory system and oxidative phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Beard

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A computational model for the mitochondrial respiratory chain that appropriately balances mass, charge, and free energy transduction is introduced and analyzed based on a previously published set of data measured on isolated cardiac mitochondria. The basic components included in the model are the reactions at complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport system, ATP synthesis at F1F0 ATPase, substrate transporters including adenine nucleotide translocase and the phosphate-hydrogen co-transporter, and cation fluxes across the inner membrane including fluxes through the K+/H+ antiporter and passive H+ and K+ permeation. Estimation of 16 adjustable parameter values is based on fitting model simulations to nine independent data curves. The identified model is further validated by comparison to additional datasets measured from mitochondria isolated from rat heart and liver and observed at low oxygen concentration. To obtain reasonable fits to the available data, it is necessary to incorporate inorganic-phosphate-dependent activation of the dehydrogenase activity and the electron transport system. Specifically, it is shown that a model incorporating phosphate-dependent activation of complex III is able to reasonably reproduce the observed data. The resulting validated and verified model provides a foundation for building larger and more complex systems models and investigating complex physiological and pathophysiological interactions in cardiac energetics.

  8. A Biophysical Model of the Mitochondrial Respiratory System and Oxidative Phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A computational model for the mitochondrial respiratory chain that appropriately balances mass, charge, and free energy transduction is introduced and analyzed based on a previously published set of data measured on isolated cardiac mitochondria. The basic components included in the model are the reactions at complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport system, ATP synthesis at F(1F(0 ATPase, substrate transporters including adenine nucleotide translocase and the phosphate-hydrogen co-transporter, and cation fluxes across the inner membrane including fluxes through the K/H antiporter and passive H and K permeation. Estimation of 16 adjustable parameter values is based on fitting model simulations to nine independent data curves. The identified model is further validated by comparison to additional datasets measured from mitochondria isolated from rat heart and liver and observed at low oxygen concentration. To obtain reasonable fits to the available data, it is necessary to incorporate inorganic-phosphate-dependent activation of the dehydrogenase activity and the electron transport system. Specifically, it is shown that a model incorporating phosphate-dependent activation of complex III is able to reasonably reproduce the observed data. The resulting validated and verified model provides a foundation for building larger and more complex systems models and investigating complex physiological and pathophysiological interactions in cardiac energetics.

  9. The microbiota of the respiratory tract: gatekeeper to respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wing Ho; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-05-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity. The ecological and environmental factors that direct the development of microbial communities in the respiratory tract and how these communities affect respiratory health are the focus of current research. Concurrently, the functions of the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in the physiology of the human host are being studied in detail. In this Review, we will discuss the epidemiological, biological and functional evidence that support the physiological role of the respiratory microbiota in the maintenance of human health.

  10. Variations of the Respiration Signals for Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy Using the Video Coached Respiration Guiding System

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Oh, Se An

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) has been used to minimize the dose to normal tissue in lung-cancer radiotherapy. The present research aims to improve the regularity of respiration in RGRT using a video coached respiration guiding system. In the study, 16 patients with lung cancer were evaluated. The respiration signals of the patients were measured by a real-time position management (RPM) Respiratory Gating System (Varian, USA) and the patients were trained using the video coached respiration guiding system. The patients performed free breathing and guided breathing, and the respiratory cycles were acquired for ~5 min. Then, Microsoft Excel 2010 software was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation for each phase. The standard deviation was computed in order to analyze the improvement in the respiratory regularity with respect to the period and displacement. The standard deviation of the guided breathing decreased to 65.14% in the inhale peak and 71.04% in the exhale peak compared with the...

  11. Isolation and identification of antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from respiratory system infections in shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Reisi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of pathogenic agents in humans, that engages different body parts including respiratory system and causes to spend lots of costs and extending patient’s treatment period. This study which is performed to separate and investigate the pattern of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from upper respiratory system infections in Shahrekord.   Materials and methods: This study was done by sectional-descriptive method On 200 suspicious persons to the upper respiratory system infections who were referred to the Imam Ali clinic in Shahrekord in 2012. After isolation of Staphylococcus aureus from cultured nose discharges, antibiotic resistance genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR by using defined primer pairs .   Results : Among 200 investigated samples in 60 cases (30% Staphylococcus aureus infection (by culturing and PCR method was determined. Isolates showed the lowest amount of antibiotic resistance to vancomycin (0.5% and the highest amount of resistance to the penicillin G and cefotaxime (100%. mecA gene (encoding methicillin resistance with frequency of 85.18% and aacA-D gene (encoding resistance to aminoglycosides with frequency of 28.33% showed the highest and lowest frequency of antibiotic resistance genes coding in Staphylococcus aureus isolates respectively .   Discussion and conclusion : Notable prevalence of resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in community acquired respiratory infections, recommend continuous control necessity to impede the spreading of these bacteria and their infections.  

  12. A Physiological Systems Approach to Modeling and Resetting of Mouse Thermoregulation under Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    of mice with consider- ation of passive ( conduction , convection , and radiation) and active systems. The passive system was developed using dif...attained during heat exposure, as well as recovery Ta. MATERIALS AND METHODS Mouse heat transfer mechanisms were modeled with consideration of conduction ... convection , and radiation through the skin to the environment as a passive system. In addition, metabolic heat produc- tion, blood flow, saliva

  13. A microfluidic system supports single mouse embryo culture leading to full-term development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteves, Telma Cristina; Rossem, van Fleur; Nordhoff, Verena; Schlatt, Stefan; Boiani, Michele; Le Gac, Séverine

    2013-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the feasibility of application of a microfluidic system for in vitro culture of pre-implantation mouse embryos, with subsequent development to full-term upon embryo transfer. Specifically, embryos cultured in groups in nL volume chambers achieve pre-implantation develo

  14. Gene editing in mouse zygotes using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Benedikt; Bashir, Sanum; Rossius, Jana; Wurst, Wolfgang; Kühn, Ralf

    2017-03-02

    The generation of targeted mouse mutants is a key technology for biomedical research. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for induction of targeted double-strand breaks, gene editing can be performed in a single step directly in mouse zygotes. This article covers the design of knockout and knockin alleles, preparation of reagents, microinjection or electroporation of zygotes and the genotyping of pups derived from gene editing projects. In addition we include a section for the control of experimental settings by targeting the Rosa26 locus and PCR based genotyping of blastocysts.

  15. Reprogramming of mouse amniotic fluid cells using a PiggyBac transposon system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated from mouse and human somatic cells by forced expression of defined transcription factors using different methods. Amniotic fluid (AF cells are easy to obtain from routinely scheduled procedures for prenatal diagnosis and iPS cells have been generated from human AF. Here, we generated iPS cells from mouse AF cells, using a non-viral-based approach constituted by the PiggyBac (PB transposon system. All iPS cell lines obtained exhibited characteristics of pluripotent cells, including the ability to differentiate toward derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Understanding mammalian genetic systems: the challenge of phenotyping in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve D M Brown

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mammalian genetic systems is predicated on the determination of the relationship between genetic variation and phenotype. Several international programmes are under way to deliver mutations in every gene in the mouse genome. The challenge for mouse geneticists is to develop approaches that will provide comprehensive phenotype datasets for these mouse mutant libraries. Several factors are critical to success in this endeavour. It will be important to catalogue assay and environment and where possible to adopt standardised procedures for phenotyping tests along with common environmental conditions to ensure comparable datasets of phenotypes. Moreover, the scale of the task underlines the need to invest in technological development improving both the speed and cost of phenotyping platforms. In addition, it will be necessary to develop new informatics standards that capture the phenotype assay as well as other factors, genetic and environmental, that impinge upon phenotype outcome.

  17. Transmissibility of the monkeypox virus clades via respiratory transmission: investigation using the prairie dog-monkeypox virus challenge system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV is endemic within Africa where it sporadically is reported to cause outbreaks of human disease. In 2003, an outbreak of human MPXV occurred in the US after the importation of infected African rodents. Since the eradication of smallpox (caused by an orthopoxvirus (OPXV related to MPXV and cessation of routine smallpox vaccination (with the live OPXV vaccinia, there is an increasing population of people susceptible to OPXV diseases. Previous studies have shown that the prairie dog MPXV model is a functional animal model for the study of systemic human OPXV illness. Studies with this model have demonstrated that infected animals are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple routes of exposure causing subsequent infection, but were not able to prove that infected animals could transmit the virus exclusively via the respiratory route. Herein we used the model system to evaluate the hypothesis that the Congo Basin clade of MPXV is more easily transmitted, via respiratory route, than the West African clade. Using a small number of test animals, we show that transmission of viruses from each of the MPXV clade was minimal via respiratory transmission. However, transmissibility of the Congo Basin clade was slightly greater than West African MXPV clade (16.7% and 0% respectively. Based on these findings, respiratory transmission appears to be less efficient than those of previous studies assessing contact as a mechanism of transmission within the prairie dog MPXV animal model.

  18. Anatomy of Respiratory Rhythmic Systems in Brain Stem and Cerebellum of the Carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jüch, P.J.W.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of two respiratory rhythmic loci in the dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum were studied by retrograde and anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. The injection areas were determined with extracellular activity recording using HRP filled glass micropipettes,

  19. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenesis and interaction with the immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis and control. Worldwide PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic...

  20. Efficacy of a low-cost bubble CPAP system in treatment of respiratory distress in a neonatal ward in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondwani Kawaza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated the performance of a new bCPAP system to treat severe respiratory distress in a low resource setting, comparing it to nasal oxygen therapy, the current standard of care. METHODS: We conducted a non-randomized convenience sample study to test the efficacy of a low-cost bCPAP system treating newborns with severe respiratory distress in the neonatal ward of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Blantyre, Malawi. Neonates weighing >1,000 g and presenting with severe respiratory distress who fulfilled inclusion criteria received nasal bCPAP if a device was available; if not, they received standard care. Clinical assessments were made during treatment and outcomes compared for the two groups. FINDINGS: 87 neonates (62 bCPAP, 25 controls were recruited. Survival rate for neonates receiving bCPAP was 71.0% (44/62 compared with 44.0% (11/25 for controls. 65.5% (19/29 of very low birth weight neonates receiving bCPAP survived to discharge compared to 15.4% (1/13 of controls. 64.6% (31/48 of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, compared to 23.5% (4/17 of controls. 61.5% (16/26 of neonates with sepsis receiving bCPAP survived to discharge, while none of the seven neonates with sepsis in the control group survived. INTERPRETATION: Use of a low-cost bCPAP system to treat neonatal respiratory distress resulted in 27% absolute improvement in survival. The beneficial effect was greater for neonates with very low birth weight, RDS, or sepsis. Implementing appropriate bCPAP devices could reduce neonatal mortality in developing countries.

  1. The Transport and Deposition of Nanoparticles in Respiratory System by Inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiting Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhaled nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention, since they are more easily to enter the deep part of respiratory system. Some nanoparticles were reported to cause pulmonary inflammation. The toxicity of nanoparticles depends not only on its chemical component but also on the quantity and position of the deposition. The deposition of nanoparticles is not uniform and is influenced by airflow transport. The high deposition mainly occurs at the carinal ridges and the inside walls around the carinal ridges. Many factors could affect the transport and deposition of nanoparticles, such as particle size, flow rate, structure of airway, pulmonary function, and age. In this review, we discussed the methods and technique involved in particle transport and deposition studies. The features of particles deposition could be observed in clinic experiments and animal experiments. The mechanism of transport could be studied by numerical simulation. Numerical model and experiment study supplement each other. Some techniques such as medical imaging may support the study of nanoparticles transport and deposition. The knowledge of particles transport and deposition may be helpful both to defend the toxicity of inhaled particles and to direct inhaled drug delivery.

  2. Phase synchronization of oscillations in cardiovascular and respiratory systems in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankanag, Arina V.; Grinevich, Andrey A.; Tikhonova, Irina V.; Chaplygina, Alina V.; Chemeris, Nikolay K.

    2017-04-01

    Phase synchronization between blood flow oscillations of left and right forearm skin sites, heart rate variability (HRV) and breath rate were studied from healthy volunteers at rest. The degree of synchronization between the phases of the analyzed signals was estimated from the value of the wavelet phase coherence. High medians of values of phase wavelet coherence function were obtained for the endothelial, neurogenic, myogenic and cardiac intervals. Significant phase synchronization were demonstrated between HRV and skin blood flow oscillations in both left and right forearms in a wide frequency range from 0.04 to 0.4 Hz. Six participants exhibited low phase synchronization (rate and HRV, while nine participants had high phase synchronization (> 0.5). This distribution was not affected by the sex or sympathovagal status of volunteers. Participants with low phase synchronization between breath rate and HRV featured low phase synchronization (rate and blood flow oscillations in both forearms. Contrariwise, in subjects with high phase synchronization between respiratory rhythm and HRV both low and high phase synchronization between breath rate and blood flow oscillations in both forearms was observed. The results obtained allow us to suggest that the organism possesses a mechanism mediating the synchronization of blood flow oscillations in the skin microvasculature with all other periodical processes across the cardiovascular system, in particular, with HRV and breath rate over a wide frequency range.

  3. Development of a Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography Module Supporting Multiple Sensors for Wearable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbo Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring.

  4. Development of a respiratory inductive plethysmography module supporting multiple sensors for wearable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengbo; Zheng, Jiewen; Wu, Hao; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Buqing; Liu, Hongyun

    2012-09-27

    In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring.

  5. Effect of particles of ashes produced from sugarcane burning on the respiratory system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L E N; Muniz, B V; Bittar, T O; Berto, L A; Figueroba, S R; Groppo, F C; Pereira, A C

    2014-11-01

    The practice of burning sugarcane obtained by non-mechanized harvesting exposes workers and the people of neighboring towns to high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) that is harmful to health, and may trigger a series of cardiorespiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the micro-particles coming from sugarcane burning residues and to verify the effects of this micro-particulate matter on lung and tracheal tissues. Micro-particulate matter (PM10) was obtained by dissolving filter paper containing burnt residues in NaCl solution. This material was instilled into the Wistar rats' nostrils. Histological analyses (hematoxylin and eosin - HE) of cardiac, lung and tracheal tissues were performed. Inflammatory mediators were measured in lung tissues by using ELISA. The chemical composition of the particulate material revealed a large quantity of the phthalic acid ester, high concentrations of phenolic compounds, anthracene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Histological analysis showed a reduction in subjacent conjunctive tissue in the trachea, lung inflammation with inflammatory infiltrate formation and reduction of alveolar spaces and a significant increase (p<0.05) in the release of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and INF-γ in the group treated with PM10 when compared to the control group. We concluded that the burning sugarcane residues release many particles, which have toxic chemical compounds. The micro-particulate matter can induce alterations in the respiratory system.

  6. Occupational exposure to poultry dust and effects on the respiratory system in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, S; Faísca, V M; Dias, H; Clérigo, A; Carolino, E; Viegas, C

    2013-01-01

    Farmers are occupationally exposed to many respiratory hazards at work and display higher rates of asthma and respiratory symptoms than other workers. Dust is one of the components present in poultry production that increases risk of adverse respiratory disease occurrence. Dust originates from poultry residues, molds, and feathers and is biologically active as it contains microorganisms. Exposure to dust is known to produce a variety of clinical responses, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic airways obstructive disease (COPD), allergic alveolitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). A study was developed to determine particle contamination in seven poultry farms and correlate this with prevalence rate of respiratory defects and record by means of a questionnaire the presence of clinical symptoms associated with asthma and other allergy diseases by European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Poultry farm dust contamination was found to contain higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM5 and PM10. Prevalence rate of obstructive pulmonary disorders was higher in individuals with longer exposure regardless of smoking status. In addition, a high prevalence for asthmatic (42.5%) and nasal (51.1%) symptoms was noted in poultry workers. Data thus show that poultry farm workers are more prone to suffer from respiratory ailments and this may be attributed to higher concentrations of PM found in the dust. Intervention programs aimed at reducing exposure to dust will ameliorate occupational working conditions and enhance the health of workers.

  7. Time-varying respiratory system elastance: a physiological model for patients who are spontaneously breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Shiong Chiew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory mechanics models can aid in optimising patient-specific mechanical ventilation (MV, but the applications are limited to fully sedated MV patients who have little or no spontaneously breathing efforts. This research presents a time-varying elastance (E(drs model that can be used in spontaneously breathing patients to determine their respiratory mechanics. METHODS: A time-varying respiratory elastance model is developed with a negative elastic component (E(demand, to describe the driving pressure generated during a patient initiated breathing cycle. Data from 22 patients who are partially mechanically ventilated using Pressure Support (PS and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA are used to investigate the physiology relevance of the time-varying elastance model and its clinical potential. E(drs of every breathing cycle for each patient at different ventilation modes are presented for comparison. RESULTS: At the start of every breathing cycle initiated by patient, E(drs is 25 cmH2Os/l and thus can be used as an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS severity indicator. CONCLUSION: The E(drs model captures unique dynamic respiratory mechanics for spontaneously breathing patients with respiratory failure. The model is fully general and is applicable to both fully controlled and partially assisted MV modes.

  8. Optimisations and evolution of the mammalian respiratory system : A suggestion of possible gene sharing in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapoval, Bernard; Filoche, Marcel

    2013-09-01

    The respiratory system of mammalians is made of two successive branched structures with different physiological functions. The upper structure, or bronchial tree, is a fluid transportation system made of approximately 15 generations of bifurcations leading to the order of about 2(15) = 30, 000 terminal bronchioles with a diameter of approximately 0.5mm in the human lung. The branching pattern continues up to generation 23 but the structure and function of each of the subsequent structures, called acini, is different. Each acinus consists in a branched system of ducts surrounded by alveoli and plays the role of a diffusion cell where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged with blood across the alveolar membrane. We show here that the bronchial tree simultaneously presents several different optimal properties. It is first energy efficient, second, it is space filling and third it is also "rapid". This physically based multi-optimality suggests that, in the course of evolution, an organ selected against one criterion could have been used later for a totally different purpose. For example, once selected for its energetic efficiency for the transport of a viscous fluid like blood, the same genetic material could have been used for its optimized rapidity. This would have allowed the emergence of atmospheric respiration made of inspiration-expiration cycles. For this phenomenon to exist, rapidity is essential as fresh air has to reach the gas exchange organs, the pulmonary acini, before the beginning of expiration. We finally show that the pulmonary acinus is optimized in the sense that the acinus morphology is directly related to the notion of a "best possible" extraction of entropic energy by a diffusion exchanger that has to feed oxygen efficiently from air to blood across a membrane of finite permeability.

  9. On purposefulness of application of physical culture-health related technology for prophylaxis of students’ respiratory system disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondakov V.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To give scientific foundation and experimental proof of physical culture-health related technology for prophylaxis of respiratory system disorders. Material: in the research students: girls (n= 43 and boys (n=40 participated. In process of academic physical culture classes students practices: dozed health walks as warming up, respiratory exercises by methodic of A.N. Strelnikova and G. Childers (which were used as main corrective mean of respiratory system’s functional state, health swimming (for motor functioning intensification outdoor games (as mean of active leisure. Results: The conducted research witness about general positive influence of the worked out technology of disorders’ prophylaxis on students’ somatic health. The technology was constructed on the base of synthesis of the most effective means of health related physical culture. In its basis we put generalized data about their impact. Main characteristic of this technology is its orientation on definite health improvement tasks in compliance with peculiarities of trainees’ contingent. The technology permits to present its content and orientation as integral mean of strengthening of organism’s functional potentials as well as ensuring of high effectiveness of students’ educational process. It permits to significantly reduce impacts of respiratory system’s disorders. Conclusions: The worked out technology permits to present its content and orientation as integral mean of strengthening of organism’s functional potentials.

  10. Quality assurance of {sup 137}Cs Photons for Vivo Mouse Irradiation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, S. J. [Inje Univ., Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. J.; Jeong, D. H.; Yang, K. M.; Son, T. G.; Kang, Y. R. [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, S. G.; Kye, Y. U. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The multi-purpose irradiation apparatus using a {sup 137}Cs, which can be used for the blood test, can be affected by the other components of the experiments such as the size and shape of the beaker and the maximum variation of more than 35% has been reported. The mount of the absorbed dose is determined by the distance between irradiation target and the source and the irradiation time with the irradiator (Gamma Irradiator, Chiyoda Technol Co, Japan) for this experiment. The low-dose irradiation has been used in this study is advantageous for irradiating the cell culture vessel or the small animal. However, radiation is performed by placing the 3-5 mice in each mouse cage (polycarbonate cage). In this case, overlapping often happens to the target during irradiation. Irradiating without considering the geometrical aspect of the irradiation device can occur as well. To solve the problems, the mouse apartment with the 45 mouse cages is built and the device is assessed by being compared with the conventional method in 2 different ways. Firstly, the glass dosimeters were inserted into the head and the body of the lab mice for 2 methods. Secondly, MCNP simulation was performed for absorbed dose and air kerma measurements in each mouse apartment chamber. In this study, the system that allows the accurate irradiation using the {sup 137}Cs gamma irradiator mainly used in Radiation Biology was developed and the accuracy of the system has been confirmed by the experiments. The dose delivery using the conventional system had the variation of 42% at most whereas the variation was less than 6% for the mouse apartment. From the MCNP simulation, the difference between each chamber was less than 0.1% and 0.4% for the air kerma and the absorbed dose respectively. Considering the statistical error of MCNP and the assumption from the simulation, the accuracy of the simulation was matched well with the measurements with the glass dosimeters.

  11. Physiological and pathophysiological interactions between the respiratory central pattern generator and the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Zoccal, Daniel B; Baekey, David M; Abdala, Ana P L; Machado, Benedito H; Dick, Thomas E; Paton, Julian F R; Rybak, Ilya A

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory modulation seen in the sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) implies that the respiratory and sympathetic networks interact. During hypertension elicited by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the SNA displays an enhanced respiratory modulation reflecting strengthened interactions between the networks. In this chapter, we review a series of experimental and modeling studies that help elucidate possible mechanisms of sympatho-respiratory coupling. We conclude that this coupling significantly contributes to both the sympathetic baroreflex and the augmented sympathetic activity after exposure to CIH. This conclusion is based on the following findings. (1) Baroreceptor activation results in perturbation of the respiratory pattern via transient activation of postinspiratory neurons in the Bötzinger complex (BötC). The same BötC neurons are involved in the respiratory modulation of SNA, and hence provide an additional pathway for the sympathetic baroreflex. (2) Under hypercapnia, phasic activation of abdominal motor nerves (AbN) is accompanied by synchronous discharges in SNA due to the common source of this rhythmic activity in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN). CIH conditioning increases the CO2 sensitivity of central chemoreceptors in the RTN which results in the emergence of AbN and SNA discharges under normocapnic conditions similar to those observed during hypercapnia in naïve animals. Thus, respiratory-sympathetic interactions play an important role in defining sympathetic output and significantly contribute to the sympathetic activity and hypertension under certain physiological or pathophysiological conditions, and the theoretical framework presented may be instrumental in understanding of malfunctioning control of sympathetic activity in a variety of disease states.

  12. Application of Novel Rotation Angular Model for 3D Mouse System Based on MEMS Accelerometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Li; CHEN Wen-yuan; XU Guo-ping

    2009-01-01

    A new scheme is proposed to model 3D angular motion of a revolving regular object with miniature, low-cost micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers (instead of gyroscope), which is employed in 3D mouse system. To sense 3D angular motion, the static property of MEMS accelerometer, sensitive to gravity acceleration, is exploited. With the three outputs of configured accelerometers, the proposed model is implemented to get the rotary motion of the rigid object. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model, an input device is developed with the configuration of the scheme. Experimental results show that a simulated 3D cube can accurately track the rotation of the input device. The result indicates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model in the 3D mouse system.

  13. A model for gas and nutrient exchange in the chorionic vasculature system of the mouse placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Sled, John

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical model for the oxygen and nutrient transport from the umbilical cord to the small villous capillaries. The nutrient and carbon dioxide removal from the fetal cotyledons in the mouse placental system has also been considered. This model describes the mass transfer between the fetal and the maternal red blood cells in the chorionic arterial vasculature system. The model reveals the detail fetal vasculature system and its geometry and the precise mechanisms of mass transfer through the placenta. The dimensions of the villous capillaries, the total length of the villous trees, the total villi surface area, and the total resistance to mass transport in the fetal villous trees has also been defined. This is the first effort to explain the reason why there are at least 7 lobules in the mouse placenta from the fluid dynamics point of view.

  14. Organ culture-cell culture system for studying multistage carcinogenesis in respiratory epithelium. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Vernon E.; Marchok, Ann C.; Nettesheim, Paul

    1977-01-01

    An organ culture-cell culture system was used to demonstrate carcinogen dose-dependent transformation of tracheal epithelial cells in vitro. Tracheal explants were exposed to MNNG (N-methyl-N/sup 1/-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) in organ culture. Outgrowths from these explants provided epithelial cell cultures. The numbers of long term epithelial cell cultures and cell lines that were established per explant increased as MNNG exposure concentration increased. At the present time, more cell lines derived from explants exposed to the highest MNNG concentration have produced palpable tumors than cell lines derived from explants exposed to lower MNNG concentrations. No cell lines were established from primaries derived from control explants. TPA (12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate), stimulates DNA synthesis in tracheal epithelium in organ culture in a manner simular to that described for mouse skin. Short exposures to TPA not only stimulated DNA synthesis earlier, but the stimulation was greater than that obtained with continuous exposure. At the present time, exposure of tracheal organ cultures to MNNG followed by TPA has resulted in an enhanced production of morphologically altered cells in primary epithelial cell cultures, than exposure to either agent alone.

  15. A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kron

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2. In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to

  16. Regulation of embryonic size in early mouse development in vitro culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaki, Tomoka; Kawai, Ikuma; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko; Kano, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Mammals self-regulate their body size throughout development. In the uterus, embryos are properly regulated to be a specific size at birth. Previously, size and cell number in aggregated embryos, which were made from two or more morulae, and half embryos, which were halved at the 2-cell stage, have been analysed in vivo in preimplantation and post-implantation development in mice. Here, we examined whether or not the mouse embryo has the capacity to self-regulate growth using an in vitro culture system. To elucidate embryonic histology, cells were counted in aggregated or half embryos in comparison with control embryos. Both double- and triple-aggregated embryos contained more cells than did control embryos during all culture periods, and the relative growth ratios showed no growth inhibition in an in vitro culture system. Meanwhile, half embryos contained fewer cells than control embryos, but the number grew throughout the culture period. Our data suggest that the growth of aggregated embryos is not affected and continues in an in vitro culture system. On the other hand, the growth of half embryos accelerates and continues in an in vitro culture system. This situation, in turn, implied that post-implantation mouse embryos might have some potential to regulate their own growth and size as seen by using an in vitro culture system without uterus factors. In conclusion, our results indicated that embryos have some ways in which to regulate their own size in mouse early development.

  17. Morphological study of the respiratory system of the brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Flavio Panattoni Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to describe, macroscopically and with light microscopy, the respiratory organs of the brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua. Five animals were euthanized, fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and stored for dissection. The respiratory tracts of the coati were examined, measured and photographed. For the light microscopy study, fragments were collected from the respiratory organs, processed using standard techniques for histology and stained with HE and toluidine blue. The nose of the coati is pointed and turned upward. Internally it has ethmoidal, dorsal nasal and ventral nasal conchae that are separated by the dorsal and ventral nasal meatuses. The larynx has four cartilaginous structures: arytenoid, cricoid, epiglottis and thyroid. The trachea contains 34 tracheal rings and tracheal ligaments that are covered with ciliated pseudostratified epithelial tissue. The lungs are divided into lobes by interlobular fissures. The right lung is divided into four lobes and is larger than the left lung, whereas the left lung has only two lobes. Microscopically, the primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi have epithelial tissue that is similar to the trachea. We conclude that the respiratory tract of the brown-nosed coati resembles the respiratory tracts described for domestic carnivores.

  18. Effects of High Frequency Chest Compression on Respiratory System Mechanics in Normal Subjects and Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Richard L; Richard T Lester; Neil E Brown

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short term effects of high frequency chest compression (HFCC) on several indices of respiratory system mechanics in normal subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).DESIGN: Comparative physiological approach. Subjects were blinded to 10 randomized HFCC settings (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Hz) with each applied at the lowest and at the highest background vest pressure.SETTING: Pulmonary function and lung mechanics laboratory, University of Alberta.PARTICIPANTS: Te...

  19. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-03-09

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM(+) mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarly, we induce CSR in all human B cell lines tested with high efficiency to targeted IgH subclass. Finally, we engineer mouse hybridomas to secrete Fab' fragments instead of the whole Ig. Our results indicate that Ig genes in mouse and human cells can be edited to obtain any desired IgH switching helpful to study the biology of normal and lymphoma B cells. We also propose applications that could transform the technology of antibody production.

  20. Low-Flow Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal Using the Hemolung Respiratory Dialysis System(®) to Facilitate Lung-Protective Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkanti, Bindu; Rajagopal, Keshava; Patel, Kirti P; Aravind, Sangeeta; Nunez-Centanu, Emmanuel; Hussain, Rahat; Shabari, Farshad Raissi; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Banjac, Igor S; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor D; Loyalka, Pranav

    2017-06-01

    Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) permits reductions in alveolar ventilation requirements that the lungs would otherwise have to provide. This concept was applied to a case of hypercapnia refractory to high-level invasive mechanical ventilator support. We present a case of an 18-year-old man who developed post-pneumonectomy acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after resection of a mediastinal germ cell tumor involving the left lung hilum. Hypercapnia and hypoxemia persisted despite ventilator support even at traumatic levels. ECCO2R using a miniaturized system was instituted and provided effective carbon dioxide elimination. This facilitated establishment of lung-protective ventilator settings and lung function recovery. Extracorporeal lung support increasingly is being applied to treat ARDS. However, conventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) generally involves using large cannulae capable of carrying high flow rates. A subset of patients with ARDS has mixed hypercapnia and hypoxemia despite high-level ventilator support. In the absence of profound hypoxemia, ECCO2R may be used to reduce ventilator support requirements to lung-protective levels, while avoiding risks associated with conventional ECMO.

  1. Advanced lung ventilation system (ALVS) with linear respiratory mechanics assumption for waveform optimization of dual-controlled ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecchia, F; Guerrisi, M; Canichella, A

    2007-03-01

    The present paper describes the functional features of an advanced lung ventilation system (ALVS) properly designed for the optimization of conventional dual-controlled ventilation (DCV), i.e. with pressure-controlled ventilation with ensured tidal or minute volume. Considering the particular clinical conditions of patients treated with controlled ventilation the analysis and synthesis of ALVS control have been performed assuming a linear respiratory mechanics. Moreover, new airways pressure waveforms with more physiological shape can be tested on simulators of respiratory system in order to evaluate their clinical application. This is obtained through the implementation of a compensation procedure making the desired airways pressure waveform independent on patient airways resistance and lung compliance variations along with a complete real-time monitoring of respiratory system parameters leading the ventilator setting. The experimental results obtained with a lung simulator agree with the theoretical ones and show that ALVS performance is useful for the research activity aiming at the improvement of both diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic outcome relative to mechanical ventilation treatments.

  2. Respiratory Homeostasis and Exploitation of the Immune System for Lung Cancer Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagui-Beltrán, Adam; Coussens, Lisa M; Jablons, David M

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of all cancer deaths in the US. The international scientific and clinical community has made significant advances toward understanding specific molecular mechanisms underlying lung carcinogenesis; however, despite these insights and advances in surgery and chemoradiotherapy, the prognosis for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor. Nonetheless, significant effort is being focused on advancing translational research evaluating the efficacy of novel targeted therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. Illustrative examples of this include antagonists of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib and erlotinib, and a diverse assortment of anti-angiogenic compounds targeting growth factors and/or their receptors that regulate tumor-associated angiogenic programs. In addition, with the increased awareness of the significant role chronically activated leukocytes play as potentiators of solid-tumor development, the role of innate and adaptive immune cells as regulators of lung carcinogenesis is being examined. While some of these studies are examining how novel therapeutic strategies may enhance the efficacy of lung cancer vaccines, others are evaluating the intrinsic characteristics of the immune response to lung cancer in order to identify rate-limiting molecular and/or cellular programs to target with novel anticancer therapeutics. In this article, we explore important aspects of the immune system and its role in regulating normal respiratory homeostasis compared with the immune response accompanying development of lung cancer. These hallmarks are then discussed in the context of recent efforts to develop lung cancer vaccines, where we have highlighted important concepts that must be taken into consideration for future development of novel therapeutic strategies and clinical trials assessing their efficacy.

  3. Behavioral Assessment of the Aging Mouse Vestibular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Dababneh, Edward; Quail, Stephanie L.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    Age related decline in balance performance is associated with deteriorating muscle strength, motor coordination and vestibular function. While a number of studies show changes in balance phenotype with age in rodents, very few isolate the vestibular contribution to balance under either normal conditions or during senescence. We use two standard behavioral tests to characterize the balance performance of mice at defined age points over the lifespan: the rotarod test and the inclined balance beam test. Importantly though, a custom built rotator is also used to stimulate the vestibular system of mice (without inducing overt signs of motion sickness). These two tests have been used to show that changes in vestibular mediated-balance performance are present over the murine lifespan. Preliminary results show that both the rotarod test and the modified balance beam test can be used to identify changes in balance performance during aging as an alternative to more difficult and invasive techniques such as vestibulo-ocular (VOR) measurements. PMID:25045963

  4. Pivotal debates and controversies on the structure and function of the avian respiratory system: setting the record straight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, John N

    2017-08-01

    Among the extant air-breathing vertebrates, the avian respiratory system is structurally the most complex and functionally the most efficient gas exchanger. Having been investigated for over four centuries, some aspects of its biology have been extremely challenging and highly contentious and others still remain unresolved. Here, while assessing the most recent findings, four notable aspects of the structure and function of the avian respiratory system are examined critically to highlight the questions, speculations, controversies and debates that have arisen from past research. The innovative techniques and experiments that were performed to answer particular research questions are emphasised. The features that are outlined here concern the arrangement of the airways, the path followed by the inspired air, structural features of the lung and the air and blood capillaries, and the level of cellular defence in the avian respiratory system. Hitherto, based on association with the proven efficiency of naturally evolved and human-made counter-current exchange systems rather than on definite experimental evidence, a counter-current gas exchange system was suggested to exist in the avian respiratory system and was used to explain its exceptional efficiency. However, by means of an elegant experiment in which the direction of the air-flow in the lung was reversed, a cross-current system was shown to be in operation instead. Studies of the arrangement of the airways and the blood vessels corroborated the existence of a cross-current system in the avian lung. While the avian respiratory system is ventilated tidally, like most other invaginated gas exchangers, the lung, specifically the paleopulmonic parabronchi, is ventilated unidirectionally and continuously in a caudocranial (back-to-front) direction by synchronized actions of the air sacs. The path followed by the inspired air in the lung-air sac system is now known to be controlled by a mechanism of aerodynamic valving

  5. Macroscopic anatomy of the lower respiratory system in a nocturnal burrowing rodent: African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse 1840).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, C S; Salami, S O; Onyeanusi, B I

    2011-04-01

    Cricetomys gambianus is a rat that lives principally in burrows, coming out at night in search of food. The design and structure of the lower respiratory system reflects its oxygen and metabolic demand which can be attributed to its habitat. A morphological and morphometric investigation of its lower respiratory system was undertaken to document the normal anatomical features and assess its morpho-functional paradigm. Specifically, an anatomical detail of the lungs and conductive airway was described, the structures being elucidated by dissection and radiography. Evaluation of dissected specimens showed that tracheal cartilages ranged from 21 to 33 rings with an average of 25.5. They exhibited a random pattern of anastomoses between adjacent rings. Transverse diameters of the principal bronchus in the male and female rats were 3.767 and 3.759 mm respectively. The right lung consisted of four lobes while the left lung was not lobed. Bronchogram revealed that lung lobation corresponded with bronchial tree division. Inter-lobar fissures were absent on the right lung except for the ventral boarder separating the cranial lobe from the caudal lobe. The entire lungs provided stability to the heart in situ, through the cardiac notch. This study also included correlation analysis of the dimensions, weights and volumes of the lower respiratory organs with the nose-rump length and body weight of 18 African giant pouched rats of both sexes. The relationship of the anatomy of the lower respiratory system of the rodent to the oxygen tension in their burrow and to their energy utilization is discussed.

  6. Vanadium Inhalation in a Mouse Model for the Understanding of Air-Suspended Particle Systemic Repercussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Fortoul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased concern about the health effects that air-suspended particles have on human health which have been dissected in animal models. Using CD-1 mouse, we explore the effects that vanadium inhalation produce in different tissues and organs. Our findings support the systemic effects of air pollution. In this paper, we describe our findings in different organs in our conditions and contrast our results with the literature.

  7. A chimeric virus-mouse model system for evaluating the function and inhibition of papain-like proteases of emerging coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xufang; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Mielech, Anna M; Nichols, Daniel B; Wilson, Michael W; StJohn, Sarah E; Larsen, Scott D; Mesecar, Andrew D; Lenschow, Deborah J; Baric, Ralph S; Baker, Susan C

    2014-10-01

    To combat emerging coronaviruses, developing safe and efficient platforms to evaluate viral protease activities and the efficacy of protease inhibitors is a high priority. Here, we exploit a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) chimeric Sindbis virus system to evaluate protease activities and the efficacy of inhibitors directed against the papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) pathogen. We engineered Sindbis virus to coexpress PLpro and a substrate, murine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), and found that PLpro mediates removal of ISG15 (deISGylation) from cellular proteins. Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue of PLpro or addition of a PLpro inhibitor blocked deISGylation in virus-infected cells. Thus, deISGylation is a marker of PLpro activity. Infection of alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) mice with these chimeric viruses revealed that PLpro deISGylation activity removed ISG15-mediated protection during viral infection. Importantly, administration of a PLpro inhibitor protected these mice from lethal infection, demonstrating the efficacy of a coronavirus protease inhibitor in a mouse model. However, this PLpro inhibitor was not sufficient to protect the mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV MA15, suggesting that further optimization of the delivery and stability of PLpro inhibitors is needed. We extended the chimeric-virus platform to evaluate the papain-like protease/deISGylating activity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to provide a small-animal model to evaluate PLpro inhibitors of this recently emerged pathogen. This platform has the potential to be universally adaptable to other viral and cellular enzymes that have deISGylating activities. Importance: Evaluating viral protease inhibitors in a small-animal model is a critical step in the path toward antiviral drug development. We modified a biosafety level 2 chimeric virus system to

  8. Rescue of a Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy With Respiratory Distress Type 1 by AAV9-IGHMBP2 Is Dose Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shababi, Monir; Feng, Zhihua; Villalon, Eric; Sibigtroth, Christine M; Osman, Erkan Y; Miller, Madeline R; Williams-Simon, Patricka A; Lombardi, Abby; Sass, Thalia H; Atkinson, Arleigh K; Garcia, Michael L; Ko, Chien-Ping; Lorson, Christian L

    2016-05-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is an autosomal recessive disease occurring during childhood. The gene responsible for disease development is a ubiquitously expressed protein, IGHMBP2. Mutations in IGHMBP2 result in the loss of α-motor neurons leading to muscle atrophy in the distal limbs accompanied by respiratory complications. Although genetically and clinically distinct, proximal SMA is also caused by the loss of a ubiquitously expressed gene (SMN). Significant preclinical success has been achieved in proximal SMA using viral-based gene replacement strategies. We leveraged the technologies employed in SMA to demonstrate gene replacement efficacy in an SMARD1 animal model. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of single-stranded AAV9 expressing the full-length cDNA of IGHMBP2 in a low dose led to a significant level of rescue in treated SMARD1 animals. Consistent with drastically increased survival, weight gain, and strength, the rescued animals demonstrated a significant improvement in muscle, NMJ, motor neurons, and axonal pathology. In addition, increased levels of IGHMBP2 in lumbar motor neurons verified the efficacy of the virus to transduce the target tissues. Our results indicate that AAV9-based gene replacement is a viable strategy for SMARD1, although dosing effects and potential negative impacts of high dose and ICV injection should be thoroughly investigated.

  9. The effect of body temperature on the dynamic respiratory system compliance-breathing frequency relationship in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Alessandro; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical inhomogeneity of the respiratory system is frequently investigated by measuring the frequency dependence of dynamic compliance, but no data are currently available describing the effects of body temperature variations. The aim of the present report was to study those effects in vivo. Peak airway pressure was measured during positive pressure ventilation in eight anesthetized rats while breathing frequency (but not tidal volume) was altered. Dynamic compliance was calculated as the tidal volume/peak airway pressure, and measurements were taken in basal conditions (mean rectal temperature 37.3 °C) as well as after total body warming (mean rectal temperature 39.7 °C). Due to parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation-linked effects, the normal rat respiratory system exhibited frequency dependence of dynamic lung compliance. Even moderate body temperature increments significantly reduced the decrements in dynamic compliance linked to breathing rate increments. The results were analyzed using Student's and Wilcoxon's tests, which yielded the same results (p temperature variations are known to influence respiratory mechanics. The frequency dependence of dynamic compliance was found, in the experiments described, to be temperature-dependent as temperature variations affected parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation. These results suggest that body temperature variations should be taken into consideration when the dynamic compliance-breathing frequency relationship is being examined during clinical assessment of inhomogeneity of lung parenchyma in patients.

  10. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Yamamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders.

  11. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Morino, Katsutaro; Mengistu, Lemecha; Ishibashi, Taishi; Kiriyama, Kohei; Ikami, Takao; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders. PMID:27340504

  12. Functional and structural optimization of the respiratory system of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae): does airway geometry matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Mauricio; Atala, Cristian; Olivares, Ricardo; Guajardo, Francisco; Figueroa, Daniela P; Sabat, Pablo; Rosenmann, Mario

    2005-10-01

    We studied structure and function of the respiratory system in the bat Tadarida brasiliensis and compared it with those of two species of rodents, Abrothrix andinus and A. olivaceus. Tadarida brasiliensis had lower resting oxygen consumption, but higher maximum oxygen consumption and aerobic scope, than the rodents. The blood-gas barrier of the bat was thinner and its relative lung size was larger; however, alveolar surface density was similar among the three species. In consequence, T. brasiliensis has an oxygen diffusion capacity two or three times higher than that of the rodents. In Tadarida brasiliensis the characteristics of the lung were accompanied by geometrical changes in the proximal airway, such as high physical optimization as a consequence of small variations in the symmetry and the scaling ratio of the bronchial diameters. These may constitute an efficient way to save energy in respiratory mechanics and are the first report of airway adjustments to decrease entropy generation in bats.

  13. 78 FR 7967 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Respiratory System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... business hours, by arranging with the contact person identified below. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... terminology for this disorder. We explain the nature of the disorder and our documentation requirements under...), to Chronic respiratory disorders, to simplify our terminology. We also propose to clarify that...

  14. Images of the Respiratory System in Ancient Egypt: Trachea, Bronchi and Pulmonary Lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kwiecinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of ancient Egyptians’ depictions of the respiratory tract, dating back to the 30th century BC, reveals their awareness of the pulmonary anatomy: reinforced with cartilaginous rings, the trachea is split into two main bronchi, which then enter the lungs (lungs being divided into pulmonary lobes.

  15. The impact of turnover among respiratory care practitioners in a health care system: frequency and associated costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, J K; Orens, D K; Kester, L

    2001-03-01

    Retention of respiratory therapists (RTs) is a desired institutional goal that reflects department loyalty and RTs' satisfaction. When RTs leave a department, services are disrupted and new therapists must undergo orientation and training, which requires time and expense. Despite the widely shared goal of minimal turnover, neither the annual rate nor the associated expense of turnover for RTs has been described. Determine the rate of RT turnover and the costs related to training new staff members. The Cleveland Clinic Health System is composed of 9 participating hospitals, which range from small, community-based institutions to large, tertiary care institutions. To elicit information about annual turnover among RTs throughout the system, we conducted a survey of key personnel in each of the hospitals' respiratory therapy departments. To calculate the costs of training, we reviewed the training schedule for an RT joining the Respiratory Therapy Section at the Cleveland Clinic Hospital. Cost estimates reflect the duration of training by various supervisory RTs, their respective wages (including benefit costs), and educational materials used in training and orientation. Turnover rates ranged from 3% to 18% per year. Five of the 8 institutions from which rates were available reported rates greater than 8% per year. The rate of annual turnover correlated significantly with the ratio of hospital beds to RT staff (Pearson r = 0.784, r(2) = 0.61, p = 0.02). The cost of training an RT at the Cleveland Clinic Hospital totaled $3,447.11. Turnover among respiratory therapists poses a substantial problem because of its frequency and expense. Greater attention to issues affecting turnover and to enhancing retention of RTs is warranted.

  16. Expression pattern and functional analysis of mouse Stam2 in the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furić Cunko, Vesna; Mitrecić, Dinko; Mavrić, Sandra; Gajović, Srećko

    2008-01-01

    Gene trap mutant mice Stam(gt1Gaj) were investigated in order to elucidate in vivo function of Stam2 (signal transducing adaptor molecule 2) gene, which was in vitro implicated in sorting cargo marked by monoubiquitination toward degradation in the lysosomes. The expression analysis showed high Stam2 expression in the brain including the regions related to olfaction, and in the olfactory epithelium, but not in the respiratory part of nasal mucosa. To test mouse olfaction, ability to find chocolate hidden under the sawdust in the cage was examined. When food was given ad libitum before trials, mutants needed more time and failed more frequently to find the chocolate. In contrast, when the mice were fasted overnight before trial, there were no differences between mutants and wild type mice. No changes in morphology of olfactory mucosa were observed. The obtained results showed the existence of phenotype differences between mutants and wild type mice. However, different results of two approaches aimed to test olfaction, with and without food deprivation, currently do not enable to assign the particular function of Stam2 to olfaction. This emphasizes how slight modification of experimental setup in behavioural testing can cause important differences on the obtained results.

  17. Cloning and characterization of an apolipoprotein C2 promoter in the mouse central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoyang Li; Bing Du; Shengyang Li; Xiangchuan Lv; Shenglai Zhou; Yang Yu; Wei Wang; Zhihong Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C2 is an important member of the apolipoprotein C family, and is a potent activator of lipoprotein lipase. In the central nervous system, apolipoprotein C2 plays an important role in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Studies into the exact regulatory mechanism of mouse apolipoprotein C2 expression have not been reported. In this study, seven luciferase expression vectors, which contained potential mouse apolipoprotein C2 gene promoters, were constructed and co-transfected with pRL-TK into HEK293T cells to investigate apolipoprotein C2 promoter activity. Luciferase assays indicated that the apolipoprotein C2 promoter region was mainly located in the +104 bp to +470 bp region. The activity of the different lengths of apolipoprotein C2 promoter region varied. This staggered negative-positive-negative arrangement indicates the complex regulation of apolipoprotein C2 expression and provides important clues for elucidating the regulatory mechanism of apolipoprotein C2 gene transcription.

  18. Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve P. Crampton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease.

  19. Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

  20. [Comparative radiography of the respiratory tract of snakes using conventional high-resolution film-screen-system and a digital detector system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, Michael; Bochmann, Monika; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Schmidt, Volker; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    A conventional high-resolution screen-film-system (film Kodak MIN-R S, screen Kodak MIN-R 2000) was compared to a digital detector system (Varian PaxScan 4030E) for the evaluation of the respiratory tract in snakes. Digital radiographs were taken with the same dose as well as with half the dose used for the conventional radiographs. A total of 20 Burmese pythons (Python molurus) were examined in dorsoventral and lateral projection. Four criteria (three features, one overall assessment) were defined for each of the anatomical structures lung, trachea and spinal column and assessed by five veterinarians in a semi-blinded study using a score system. Comparison of the ratings between the techniques used was done using a visual grading analysis. For the lung, two of the three features as well as the overall assessment were rated significantly superior using the digital system. The trachea was rated significantly superior using the conventional system for the overall assessment as well as for one feature. For the spinal column, the overall assessment was significantly superior using the digital system with the full dose. Conventional radiography as well as digital radiography using half the dose was rated significantly inferior for one feature each. The of the relatively low-contrast respiratory tract. A limiting factor is the demonstration of particularly small structures. Generally, a dose reduction (compared to a conventional high-resolution film-screen-system) is possible for the evaluation of the respiratory system.

  1. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P algorithm has been developed.

  2. Development and Function of the Mouse Vestibular System in the Absence of Gravity Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, Debra J.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that was tested in this research was that the absence of gravity perception, such as would occur in space, would affect the development and function of the vestibular and central nervous systems. Further, we postulated that these effects would be more significant at specific stages of post-natal development of the animal. We also proposed the use of molecular genetic approaches that would provide important information as to the hierarchy of gene function during the development and subsequent function of the vestibular system. The tilted (tlt) mutant mouse has been characterized as lacking the ability to provide sensory input to the gravity receptors. The tlt/tlt mutant mice were a particularly attractive model for the study of vestibular function since the primary defect was limited to the receptor part of the vestibular system, and there were no detectable abnormal phenotypes in other organ systems. The goal of the proposed studies was to assess immediate and delayed effects of the lack of gravity perception on the vestibular system. Particular attention was paid to characterizing primarily affected periods of vestibular morphogenesis, and to identifying downstream genetic pathways that are altered in the CNS of the tlt/tlt mutant mouse. The specific aims were: (1) to characterize the postnatal morphogenesis of the CNS in the tlt mutant mouse, using detailed morphometric analysis of isolated vestibular ganglia and brain tissue at different stages of postnatal development and assessment of apoptotic cell death; (2) to examine the expression of selected genes implicated by mutational analysis to be important in vestibular development or function by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry in the mutant mice; and (3) to identify other genes involved in vestibular development and function, using differential cloning strategies to isolate genes whose expression is changed in the mutant versus normal vestibular system.

  3. An Automated Mouse Tail Vascular Access System by Vision and Pressure Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chi; Berry-Pusey, Brittany; Yasin, Rashid; Vu, Nam; Maraglia, Brandon; Chatziioannou, Arion X; Tsao, Tsu-Chin

    2015-08-01

    This paper develops an automated vascular access system (A-VAS) with novel vision-based vein and needle detection methods and real-time pressure feedback for murine drug delivery. Mouse tail vein injection is a routine but critical step for preclinical imaging applications. Due to the small vein diameter and external disturbances such as tail hair, pigmentation, and scales, identifying vein location is difficult and manual injections usually result in poor repeatability. To improve the injection accuracy, consistency, safety, and processing time, A-VAS was developed to overcome difficulties in vein detection noise rejection, robustness in needle tracking, and visual servoing integration with the mechatronics system.

  4. Pointright: a system to redirect mouse and keyboard control among multiple machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Bradley E.; Winograd, Terry A.; Hutchins, Gregory M.

    2008-09-30

    The present invention provides a software system, PointRight, that allows for smooth and effortless control of pointing and input devices among multiple displays. With PointRight, a single free-floating mouse and keyboard can be used to control multiple screens. When the cursor reaches the edge of a screen it seamlessly moves to the adjacent screen and keyboard control is simultaneously redirected to the appropriate machine. Laptops may also redirect their keyboard and pointing device, and multiple pointers are supported simultaneously. The system automatically reconfigures itself as displays go on, go off, or change the machine they display.

  5. The nucleocapsid proteins of mouse hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus share the same IFN-β antagonizing mechanism: attenuation of PACT-mediated RIG-I/ MDA5 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhen; Fang, Liurong; Yuan, Shuangling; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Xunlei; Long, Siwen; Wang, Mohan; Wang, Dang; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-07-25

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a huge threat to both humans and animals and have evolved elaborate mechanisms to antagonize interferons (IFNs). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant viral protein in CoV-infected cells, and has been identified as an innate immunity antagonist in several CoVs, including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain unclear. In this study, we found that MHV N protein inhibited Sendai virus and poly(I:C)-induced IFN-β production by targeting a molecule upstream of retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation gene 5 (MDA5). Further studies showed that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins directly interacted with protein activator of protein kinase R (PACT), a cellular dsRNA-binding protein that can bind to RIG-I and MDA5 to activate IFN production. The N-PACT interaction sequestered the association of PACT and RIG-I/MDA5, which in turn inhibited IFN-β production. However, the N proteins from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which are also classified in the order Nidovirales, did not interact and counteract with PACT. Taken together, our present study confirms that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins can perturb the function of cellular PACT to circumvent the innate antiviral response. However, this strategy does not appear to be used by all CoVs N proteins.

  6. LOCAL AND GLOBAL HOPF BIFURCATIONS IN A DELAYED HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers a delayed human respiratory model. Firstly, the stability of the equilibrium of the model is investigated and the occurrence of a sequence of Hopf bifurcations of the model is proved. Secondly, the explicit algorithms which determine the direction of the Hopf bifurcations and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are derived by applying the normal form method and the center manifold theory. Finally, the existence of the global periodic solutions is showed under some ass...

  7. EFFECTS CLASS OBESE I, II, III HOUSEWIFES ON THE SYSTEM CARDIO-RESPIRATORY CAPACITY

    OpenAIRE

    Zerf Mohammed; Mokkedes Moulay Idriss; Attouti Nouredine; Bengoua Ali,

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study are to find ways to determine the risks cardiovascular and respiratory capacity in class obese I, II, III housewife based on them adaptation to effort. Since obesity has reached epidemic as levels in cholesterol fractions, and triglyceride as risk factors of metabolic health track into adulthood which confirmed that the body physical fitness has a significant modifying effect on other risk factors as cardiovascular disease. Our role is to expose the impact of the class...

  8. The impact of commercial rapid respiratory virus diagnostic tests on patient outcomes and health system utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fiona; Drews, Steven J

    2017-10-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections due to influenza A/B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Rapid tests for detection of these pathogens include antigen detection point of care tests (POC) and newer easy to use molecular tests. From experience, these assays improve both laboratory workflow and assay interpretation issues. However, the question of the benefits of using rapid test technology compared to routine laboratory testing for respiratory viral pathogens is still often asked. Areas covered: Specifically, this review aims to; 1) identify clinical/patient indicators that can be measured prior to and following the implementation of rapid diagnostic test for influenza and RSV, 2) provide multiple perspectives on the extent of impact of a rapid diagnostic test, including direct and indirect outcomes, and 3) identify the technological advancements in the development of rapid testing, demonstrating a timeline that transitions from antigen-based assays to molecular assays. Expert commentary: Key benefits to the use of either antigen-based or molecular rapid tests for patient care, patient flow within institutions, as well as laboratory utilization are identified. Due to improved test characteristics, the authors feel that rapid molecular tests have greater benefits than antigen-based detection methods.

  9. Distribution of adrenergic receptors in the enteric nervous system of the guinea pig, mouse, and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Yasmin; Ho, Winnie; Sharkey, Keith A

    2006-04-10

    Adrenergic receptors in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are important in control of the gastrointestinal tract. Here we describe the distribution of adrenergic receptors in the ENS of the ileum and colon of the guinea pig, rat, and mouse by using single- and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. In the myenteric plexus (MP) of the rat and mouse, alpha2a-adrenergic receptors (alpha2a-AR) were widely distributed on neurons and enteric glial cells. alpha2a-AR mainly colocalized with calretinin in the MP, whereas submucosal alpha2a-AR neurons colocalized with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y, and calretinin in both species. In the guinea pig ileum, we observed widespread alpha2a-AR immunoreactivity on nerve fibers in the MP and on VIP neurons in the submucosal plexus (SMP). We observed extensive beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1-AR) expression on neurons and nerve fibers in both the MP and the SMP of all species. Similarly, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) was expressed on neurons and nerve fibers in the SMP of all species, as well as in the MP of the mouse. In the MP, beta1- and beta2-AR immunoreactivity was localized to several neuronal populations, including calretinin and nitrergic neurons. In the SMP of the guinea pig, beta1- and beta2-AR mainly colocalized with VIP, whereas, in the rat and mouse, beta1- and beta2-AR were distributed among the VIP and calretinin populations. Adrenergic receptors were widely localized on specific neuronal populations in all species studied. The role of glial alpha2a-AR is unknown. These results suggest that sympathetic innervation of the ENS is directed toward both enteric neurons and enteric glia.

  10. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  11. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    Full Text Available Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise the postcranial skeleton, unidirectional ventilation of the lungs, and efficient crosscurrent gas exchange. Crocodilians, the only other living archosaurs, also possess unidirectional lung ventilation, but lack true air sacs and postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP. PSP can be used to infer the presence of avian-like pulmonary air sacs in several extinct archosaur clades (non-avian theropod dinosaurs, sauropod dinosaurs and pterosaurs. However, the evolution of respiratory systems in other archosaurs, especially in the lineage leading to crocodilians, is poorly documented. Here, we use µCT-scanning to investigate the vertebral anatomy of Triassic archosaur taxa, from both the avian and crocodilian lineages as well as non-archosaurian diapsid outgroups. Our results confirm previous suggestions that unambiguous evidence of PSP (presence of internal pneumatic cavities linked to the exterior by foramina is found only in bird-line (ornithodiran archosaurs. We propose that pulmonary air sacs were present in the common ancestor of Ornithodira and may have been subsequently lost or reduced in some members of the clade (notably in ornithischian dinosaurs. The development of these avian-like respiratory features might have been linked to inferred increases in activity levels among ornithodirans. By contrast, no crocodile-line archosaur (pseudosuchian exhibits evidence for unambiguous PSP, but many of these taxa possess the complex array of vertebral laminae and fossae that always accompany the presence of air sacs in ornithodirans. These laminae and fossae are likely homologous with those in ornithodirans, which suggests the need for further investigation of the hypothesis that a reduced, or non-invasive, system of pulmonary air sacs may be have

  12. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Vest, Zachary G.; Li, Joseph K.-K.; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 µg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 hours before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (pSARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for inhibition of virus replication was partially characterized. When UDA was exposed to N-acetylglucosamine and then UDA was added to cells just prior to adsorption, UDA did not inhibit the virus infection. These data support the conclusion that UDA might bind to N-acetylglucosamine-like residues present on the glycosylated envelope glycoproteins, thereby preventing virus attachment to cells. PMID:21338626

  13. The dynamics of polycomb group proteins in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu; Cao, Jing-Li; Hu, Yi; Yang, Ji-Gao; Ji, Yuan; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Da-Guang; Xia, Hong-Fei; Ma, Xu

    2013-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcription regulatory proteins that control the expression of a variety of genes and the antero-posterior neural patterning from early embryogenesis. Although expression of PcG genes in the nervous system has been noticed, but the expression pattern of PcG proteins in early embryonic nervous system is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of PRC1 complex members (BMI-1 and RING1B) and PRC2 complex members (EED, SUZ12 and EZH2) in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human by Western blot and Immunohistochemistry. The results of Western blot showed that EED protein was significantly up-regulated with the increase of the day of pregnancy during the early embryogenesis in mouse. BMI-1 protein level was significantly increased from the day 10 of pregnancy, when compared with the day 9 of pregnancy. But the SUZ12, EZH2 and RING1B protein level did not change significantly. From the results of Immunohistochemistry, we found that the four PcG proteins were all expressed in the fetal brain and fetal spinal cord in mouse. In human, the expression of EED, SUZ12, and EZH2 was not significantly different in cerebral cortex and sacral spinal cord, but BMI-1 and RING1B expression was enhanced with the development of embryos in early pregnancy. Collectively, our findings showed that PRC1 and PRC2 were spatiotemporally expressed in brain and spinal cord of early embryos.

  14. Development, structure, and function of a novel respiratory organ, the lung-air sac system of birds: to go where no other vertebrate has gone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, John N

    2006-11-01

    Among the air-breathing vertebrates, the avian respiratory apparatus, the lung-air sac system, is the most structurally complex and functionally efficient. After intricate morphogenesis, elaborate pulmonary vascular and airway (bronchial) architectures are formed. The crosscurrent, countercurrent, and multicapillary serial arterialization systems represent outstanding operational designs. The arrangement between the conduits of air and blood allows the respiratory media to be transported optimally in adequate measures and rates and to be exposed to each other over an extensive respiratory surface while separated by an extremely thin blood-gas barrier. As a consequence, the diffusing capacity (conductance) of the avian lung for oxygen is remarkably efficient. The foremost adaptive refinements are: (1) rigidity of the lung which allows intense subdivision of the exchange tissue (parenchyma) leading to formation of very small terminal respiratory units and consequently a vast respiratory surface; (2) a thin blood-gas barrier enabled by confinement of the pneumocytes (especially the type II cells) and the connective tissue elements to the atria and infundibulae, i.e. away from the respiratory surface of the air capillaries; (3) physical separation (uncoupling) of the lung (the gas exchanger) from the air sacs (the mechanical ventilators), permitting continuous and unidirectional ventilation of the lung. Among others, these features have created an incredibly efficient gas exchanger that supports the highly aerobic lifestyles and great metabolic capacities characteristic of birds. Interestingly, despite remarkable morphological heterogeneity in the gas exchangers of extant vertebrates at maturity, the processes involved in their formation and development are very similar. Transformation of one lung type to another is clearly conceivable, especially at lower levels of specialization. The crocodilian (reptilian) multicameral lung type represents a Bauplan from which the

  15. The role of respiratory failure caused by congenital central nervous system abnormalities and the effect of β-casomorphins in sudden infant death syndrome pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sumińska-Ziemann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to discuss the role of respiratory failure caused by endogenous (both structural and functional abnormalities in the central nervous system and exogenous food-derived opioid-like peptides in the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. By stimulating μ-opioid receptors, opioid-like peptides may suppress the tonic activity of the respiratory centre in the brain stem.

  16. Validity of Outcome Prediction Scoring Systems in Korean Patients with Severe Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yeo, Hye Ju; Yoon, Seong Hoon; Lee, Seung Eun; Cho, Woo Hyun; Jeon, Doo Soo; Kim, Yun Seong; Son, Bong Soo; Kim, Do Hyung

    2016-06-01

    Recently, several prognostic scoring systems for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been published. The aim of this study was to validate the established scoring systems for outcome prediction in Korean patients. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 50 patients on ECMO therapy in our center from 2012 to 2014. A calculation of outcome prediction scoring tools was performed and the comparison across various models was conducted. In our study, the overall hospital survival was 46% and successful weaning rate was 58%. The Predicting Death for Severe ARDS on V-V ECMO (PRESERVE) score showed good discrimination of mortality prediction for patients on ECMO with AUC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.66-0.90). The respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survival prediction (RESP) score and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II score also showed fair prediction ability with AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.65-0.89) and AUC of 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.88), respectively. However, the ECMOnet score failed to predict mortality with AUC of 0.51 (95% CI 0.37-0.66). When evaluating the predictive accuracy according to optimal cut-off point of each scoring system, RESP score had a best specificity of 91.3% and 66.7% of sensitivity, respectively. This study supports the clinical usefulness of the prognostic scoring tools for severe ARDS with ECMO therapy when applying to the Korean patients receiving ECMO.

  17. Evaluation of a Decision Support System for Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Nonlinear Analysis of Respiratory Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Kaimakamis

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is a common sleep disorder requiring the time/money consuming polysomnography for diagnosis. Alternative methods for initial evaluation are sought. Our aim was the prediction of Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI in patients potentially suffering from OSA based on nonlinear analysis of respiratory biosignals during sleep, a method that is related to the pathophysiology of the disorder.Patients referred to a Sleep Unit (135 underwent full polysomnography. Three nonlinear indices (Largest Lyapunov Exponent, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Approximate Entropy extracted from two biosignals (airflow from a nasal cannula, thoracic movement and one linear derived from Oxygen saturation provided input to a data mining application with contemporary classification algorithms for the creation of predictive models for AHI.A linear regression model presented a correlation coefficient of 0.77 in predicting AHI. With a cutoff value of AHI = 8, the sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 71.4% in discrimination between patients and normal subjects. The decision tree for the discrimination between patients and normal had sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 60%, respectively. Certain obtained nonlinear values correlated significantly with commonly accepted physiological parameters of people suffering from OSA.We developed a predictive model for the presence/severity of OSA using a simple linear equation and additional decision trees with nonlinear features extracted from 3 respiratory recordings. The accuracy of the methodology is high and the findings provide insight to the underlying pathophysiology of the syndrome.Reliable predictions of OSA are possible using linear and nonlinear indices from only 3 respiratory signals during sleep. The proposed models could lead to a better study of the pathophysiology of OSA and facilitate initial evaluation/follow up of suspected patients OSA utilizing a practical low cost methodology

  18. Reference values for respiratory system impedance using impulse oscillometry in healthy preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye Hae Park

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The normal values for lung resistance and lung capacity of children, as determined by impulse oscillometry (IOS, are different for children of different ethnicities. However, reference values there is no available reference value for Korean preschool children have yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the normal ranges of IOS parameters in Korean preschool children. Methods : A total of 133 healthy Korean preschool children were selected from 639 children (aged 3 to 6 years who attended kindergarten in Seongnam, Gyeonggi province, Korea. Healthy children were defined according to the European Respiratory Society (ERS criteria. All subjects underwent lung function tests using IOS. The relationships between IOS value (respiratory resistance (Rrs and reactance (Xrs at 5 and 10 Hz and resonance frequency (RF and age, height, and weight were analyzed by simple linear and multiple linear regression analyses. Results : The IOS success rate was 89.5%, yielding data on 119 children. Linear regression identified height as the best predictor of Rrs and Xrs. Using stepwise multiple linear regressions based on age, height, and weight, we determined regression equations and coefficients of determination (R2 for boys (Rrs5=1.934&#8211; 0.009¡¿Height, R2=12.1%; Xrs5=0.774+0.006¡¿Height&#8211;0.002¡¿Age, R2=20.2% and for girls (Rrs5=2.201&#8211;0.012¡¿Height, R2=18.2%; Xrs5=-0.674+0.004¡¿Height, R2=10.5%. Conclusion : This study provides reference values for IOS measurements of normal Korean preschool children. These provide a basis for the diagnosis and monitoring of preschool children with a variety of respiratory diseases.

  19. Adaptive Evolution of the Insulin Two-Gene System in Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Insulin genes in mouse and rat compose a two-gene system in which Ins1 was retroposed from the partially processed mRNA of Ins2. When Ins1 originated and how it was retained in genomes still remain interesting problems. In this study, we used genomic approaches to detect insulin gene copy number variation in rodent species and investigated evolutionary forces acting on both Ins1 and Ins2. We characterized the phylogenetic distribution of the new insulin gene (Ins1) by Southern analyses and co...

  20. Contrasting quiescent G0 phase with mitotic cell cycling in the mouse immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Tomura

    Full Text Available A transgenic mouse line expressing Fucci (fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator probes allows us to monitor the cell cycle in the hematopoietic system. Two populations with high and low intensities of Fucci signals for Cdt1(30/120 accumulation were identified by FACS analysis, and these correspond to quiescent G0 and cycling G1 cells, respectively. We observed the transition of immune cells between quiescent and proliferative phases in lymphoid organs during differentiation and immune responses.

  1. Effects of Asian sand dust particles on the respiratory and immune system.

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Akiko; Matsuda, Yugo; Murayama, Rumiko; Tsuji, Kenshi; Nishikawa, Masataka; Koike, Eiko; Yoshida, Seiichi; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that Asian sand dust (ASD) particles can affect respiratory health; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ASD on airway epithelial cells and immune cells, and their contributing factors to the effects. Human airway epithelial cells were exposed to ASD collected on 1-3 May (ASD1) and on 12-14 May (ASD2) 2011 in Japan and heat-treated ASD1 for excluding heat-sensitive substances (H-ASD) at a concentration of 0, 3, 30 or 90 µg ...

  2. [The effect of wood dust on the respiratory system. Medical examination of furniture factory workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, G; Cholewa, G; Sitkowska, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Fafrowicz

    1996-01-01

    The medical-environmental questionnaire, physical examination and pre-shift and post-shift spirometry have been performed in 48 furniture factory workers. The workers showed the work-related symptoms: cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, headache, general malaise, skin symptoms, eye symptoms, rhinitis. No relationship was found between the spirometry values and the frequency of the symptoms. The exposed workers showed a significant post-shift reduction of the FVC, FEV1, FEV1%VC and PEF (p wood may be associated with the work-related respiratory symptoms and diseases in exposed workers.

  3. Functional respiratory imaging to assess the interaction between systemic roflumilast and inhaled ICS/LABA/LAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos W

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wim Vos,1 Bita Hajian,2 Jan De Backer,1 Cedric Van Holsbeke,1 Samir Vinchurkar,1 Rita Claes,2 Annemie Hufkens,2 Paul M Parizel,3 Lieven Bedert,4 Wilfried De Backer2 1FLUIDDA nv, Groeningenlei, Kontich, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat, Edegem, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, ZNA Middelheim Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium Background: Patients with COPD show a significant reduction of the lobar hyperinflation at the functional residual capacity level in the patients who improved >120 mL in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 after 6 months of treatment with roflumilast in addition to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs/long-acting beta-2 agonists (LABAs/long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs.Methods: Functional respiratory imaging was used to quantify lobar hyperinflation, blood vessel density, ventilation, aerosol deposition, and bronchodilation. To investigate the exact mode of action of roflumilast, correlations between lobar and global measures have been tested using a mixed-model approach with nested random factors and Pearson correlation, respectively.Results: The reduction in lobar hyperinflation appears to be associated with a larger blood vessel density in the respective lobes (t=−2.154, P=0.040; lobes with a higher percentage of blood vessels reduce more in hyperinflation in the responder group. Subsequently, it can be observed that lobes that reduce in hyperinflation after treatment are better ventilated (t=−5.368, P<0.001. Functional respiratory imaging (FRI-based aerosol deposition showed that enhanced ventilation leads to more peripheral particle deposition of ICS/LABA/LAMA in the better-ventilated areas (t=2.407, P=0.024. Finally, the study showed that areas receiving more particles have increased FRI-based bronchodilation (t=2.564, P=0.017, leading to an increase in FEV1 (R=0.348, P=0.029.Conclusion: The study demonstrated that orally administered

  4. Obesity and respiratory system diseases%肥胖与呼吸系统疾病的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洪志; 杜钟珍; 吴琦

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century,obesity has became a chronic and metabolic disease,its incidence is rising.Obesity is not only a health-damaging disease,but also are risk factors of many diseases.It can lead to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.It also has relations with respiratory system diseases,such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,bronchial asthma,pulmonary thromboembolism,aspiration pneumonia,and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.A study at Columbia University demonstrated that obesity is a threaten to the health of Americans,and it has been reached the extent of smoking on the respiratory system effects at the same time,the relationship between obesity and respiratory diseases can not be ignored.%自21世纪初,肥胖已成为一种重要的慢性、代谢性疾病,其发病率呈上升趋势.肥胖不仅是一种损害健康的疾病,且是多种疾病的危险因素,其可导致代谢性疾病和心血管疾病;在呼吸系统,肥胖(体质量指数)与慢性阻塞性肺疾病、支气管哮喘、肺血栓栓塞症、吸人性肺炎、阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征等有关.美国哥伦比亚大学研究发现,肥胖对美国人健康的威胁已达到与吸烟并驾齐驱的程度,所以在重视吸烟对呼系统影响的同时,肥胖与呼吸系统疾病的关系也不容忽视.

  5. Mouse newborn cells allow highly productive mouse cytomegalovirus replication, constituting a novel convenient primary cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh; Trilling, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian cell culture is indispensable for most aspects of current biomedical research. Immortalized cell lines are very convenient, but transforming principles (e.g. oncogenic viruses or their oncogenes) can heavily influence the experimental outcome. Primary cells do not share this apparent disadvantage but are more laborious to generate. Certain viruses (e.g. mouse cytomegalovirus) do not replicate efficiently in most transformed cell lines. In the past, such viruses have been routinely propagated on primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) established around day 17 (d17) of gestation. According to new regulations of the European Union, experiments using gravid mammals and/or their embryos in the last trimester (>d14 in the case of mice) of gestation do require explicit permission of the local authorities responsible for animal care and use. Applying for such permission is time-consuming and often inflexible. Embryonic fibroblasts could also be produced at earlier time points of pregnancy from younger and smaller embryos. Obviously, this approach consumes more pregnant mice and embryos. Newborn mice are larger thus yielding more cells per sacrificed animal and the new Directive (2010/63/EU) excludes the killing of animals solely for the use of their organs or tissues. We established a convenient protocol to generate adherent mouse newborn cells (MNC). A direct comparison of MNC with MEF revealed that MNC fully recapitulate all tested aspects of a broad panel of virological parameters (plaque size, final titers, viral replication kinetics, viral gene expression, drug and interferon susceptibility as well as species specificity). The herein described approach allows researchers the legal use of primary cells and contributes to the 3R (replace, reduce, refine) guiding principles-especially the 'reduce' aspect-for the use of animals in scientific research. Additionally, it offers the option to directly compare in vitro and in vivo experiments when MNC are

  6. Curcumin modulates the inflammatory response and inhibits subsequent fibrosis in a mouse model of viral-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi Avasarala

    Full Text Available Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS is a clinical syndrome characterized by diffuse alveolar damage usually secondary to an intense host inflammatory response of the lung to a pulmonary or extrapulmonary infectious or non-infectious insult often leading to the development of intra-alveolar and interstitial fibrosis. Curcumin, the principal curcumoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, has been demonstrated as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in a broad spectrum of diseases. Using our well-established model of reovirus 1/L-induced acute viral pneumonia, which displays many of the characteristics of the human ALI/ARDS, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of curcumin. Female CBA/J mice were treated with curcumin (50 mg/kg 5 days prior to intranasal inoculation with 10(7pfu reovirus 1/L and daily, thereafter. Mice were evaluated for key features associated with ALI/ARDS. Administration of curcumin significantly modulated inflammation and fibrosis, as revealed by histological and biochemical analysis. The expression of IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, and MCP-1, key chemokines/cytokines implicated in the development of ALI/ARDS, from both the inflammatory infiltrate and whole lung tissue were modulated by curcumin potentially through a reduction in the phosphorylated form of NFκB p65. While the expression of TGFß1 was not modulated by curcumin, TGFß Receptor II, which is required for TGFß signaling, was significantly reduced. In addition, curcumin also significantly inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and Tenascin-C, key markers of myofibroblast activation. This data strongly supports a role for curcumin in modulating the pathogenesis of viral-induced ALI/ARDS in a pre-clinical model potentially manifested through the alteration of inflammation and myofibroblast differentiation.

  7. Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon W Blumstein

    Full Text Available Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, the psychoactive component of marijuana, is known to suppress the immune responses to bacterial, viral and protozoan infections, but its effects on fungal infections have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic Δ9-THC treatment on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans (C. albicans infection. To determine the outcome of chronic Δ9-THC treatment on primary, acute systemic candidiasis, c57BL/6 mice were given vehicle or Δ9-THC (16 mg/kg in vehicle on days 1-4, 8-11 and 15-18. On day 19, mice were infected with 5×10(5 C. albicans. We also determined the effect of chronic Δ9-THC (4-64 mg/kg treatment on mice infected with a non-lethal dose of 7.5×10(4 C. albicans on day 2, followed by a higher challenge with 5×10(5 C. albicans on day 19. Mouse resistance to the infection was assessed by survival and tissue fungal load. Serum cytokine levels were determine to evaluate the immune responses. In the acute infection, chronic Δ9-THC treatment had no effect on mouse survival or tissue fungal load when compared to vehicle treated mice. However, Δ9-THC significantly suppressed IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 as well as marginally suppressed IL-17 versus vehicle treated mice. In comparison, when mice were given a secondary yeast infection, Δ9-THC significantly decreased survival, increased tissue fungal burden and suppressed serum IFN-γ and IL-12p40 levels compared to vehicle treated mice. The data showed that chronic Δ9-THC treatment decreased the efficacy of the memory immune response to candida infection, which correlated with a decrease in IFN-γ that was only observed after the secondary candida challenge.

  8. Long Term Effects of Tear Gases on Respiratory System: Analysis of 93 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peri Arbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to assess the long-term respiratory effects of tear gases among the subjects with history of frequent exposure. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire by NIOSH and pulmonary function tests was performed in 93 males exposed to the tear gases frequently and 55 nonexposed subjects. Results. The mean numbers of total exposure and last 2 years exposure were 8.4±6.4 times, 5.6±5.8 times, respectively. Tear gas exposed subjects were presented with a higher rate for cough and phlegm more than 3 months (24.7% versus 11.3%, P>0.05. Mean FEV1/FVC and % predicted MMFR in smoker exposed subjects are significantly lower than those in smoker controls (81.7% versus 84.1%, P=0.046 and 89.9% versus 109.6%, P=0.0004, resp.. % predicted MMFR in nonsmoker exposed subjects is significantly lower than that in nonsmoker controls (99.4% versus 113.1%, P=0.05. Odds ratios for chest tightness, exercise dyspnea, dyspnea on level ground, winter morning cough, phlegm, and daily phlegm were increased almost 2 to 2.5 folds among tear gas exposed subjects. Conclusion. The rates for respiratory complaints were high in the case of the exposure to the tear gases previously. Tears gas exposed subjects were found to be under the risk for chronic bronchitis.

  9. Adaptive SLICE method: an enhanced method to determine nonlinear dynamic respiratory system mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Guttmann, Josef; Möller, Knut

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce and evaluate the adaptive SLICE method (ASM) for continuous determination of intratidal nonlinear dynamic compliance and resistance. The tidal volume is subdivided into a series of volume intervals called slices. For each slice, one compliance and one resistance are calculated by applying a least-squares-fit method. The volume window (width) covered by each slice is determined based on the confidence interval of the parameter estimation. The method was compared to the original SLICE method and evaluated using simulation and animal data. The ASM was also challenged with separate analysis of dynamic compliance during inspiration. If the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the respiratory data decreased from +∞ to 10 dB, the relative errors of compliance increased from 0.1% to 22% for the ASM and from 0.2% to 227% for the SLICE method. Fewer differences were found in resistance. When the SNR was larger than 40 dB, the ASM delivered over 40 parameter estimates (42.2 ± 1.3). When analyzing the compliance during inspiration separately, the estimates calculated with the ASM were more stable. The adaptive determination of slice bounds results in consistent and reliable parameter values. Online analysis of nonlinear respiratory mechanics will profit from such an adaptive selection of interval size.

  10. Modulation of ceramide-induced cell death and superoxide production by mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory chain defects in Rattus xenocybrid mouse cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trounce, Ian A; Crouch, Peter J; Carey, Kirstyn T; McKenzie, Matthew

    2013-07-01

    Mitochondria play an integral role in cell death signaling, yet how mitochondrial defects disrupt this important function is not well understood. We have used a mouse L-cell fibroblast model harboring Rattus norvegicus mtDNA (Rn xenocybrids) to examine the effects of multiple oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell death signaling. Blue native-PAGE analyses of Rn xenocybrids revealed defects in OXPHOS complex biogenesis with reduced steady-state levels of complexes I, III and IV. Isolated Rn xenocybrid mitochondria exhibited deficiencies in complex II+III and III activities, with CIII-stimulated ROS generation 66% higher than in control mitochondria. Rn xenocybrid cells were resistant to staurosporine-induced cell death, but exhibited a four-fold increase in sensitivity to ceramide-induced cell death that was caspase-3 independent and did not induce chromosomal DNA degradation. Furthermore, ceramide directly inhibited Rn xenocybrid complex II+III activity by 97%, although this inhibition could be completely abolished by exogenous decylubiquinone. Ceramide also induced a further increase in ROS output from Rn xenocybrid complex III by 42%. These results suggest that the interaction of ceramide with OXPHOS complex III is significantly enhanced by the presence of the xenotypic Rattus cytochrome b in complex III, likely due to the increased affinity for ceramide at the ubiquinone binding site. We propose a novel mechanism of altered mitochondrial cell death signaling due to mtDNA mutations whereby ceramide directly induces OXPHOS complex ROS generation to initiate cell death pathways.

  11. Molecular mechanisms underlying postoperative peritoneal tumor dissemination may differ between a laparotomy and carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum: a syngeneic mouse model with controlled respiratory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Sachiko; Bourdel, Nicolas; Darcha, Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre J; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Pouly, Jean-Luc; Mage, Gérard; Canis, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The mechanisms promoting postoperative peritoneal tumor dissemination are unclear. This study aimed to investigate postoperative tumor dissemination over time on both tissue and molecular levels. For this study, C57BL6 mice were randomized into four groups: anesthesia alone (control), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) pneumoperitoneum at low (2 mmHg) or high (8 mmHg) intraperitoneal pressure (IPP), and laparotomy. A mouse ovarian cancer cell line (ID8) was injected intraperitoneally just before surgery. The groups were further subdivided into three groups, and a laparotomy was performed to evaluate tumor dissemination on postoperative day (POD) 7, 14, or 42. The incidence of cancer cell invasion into the muscle layers of the abdominal wall was significantly higher in the laparotomy and high-IPP groups than in the low-IPP and control groups on PODs 7 and 42. Expression levels of beta 1 integrin, cMet, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), and type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) mRNA in the disseminated nodules were not significantly different among the four groups on POD 7. However, the expression levels of all these genes in the disseminated nodules in the laparotomy group were significantly higher on POD 14 than on POD 7. They then returned to control levels on POD 42. There were no significant differences in the expression levels of any of these genes among the groups on POD 42. The current study suggests that the molecular mechanisms underlying postoperative peritoneal tumor dissemination may differ between a laparotomy and CO(2) pneumoperitoneum. Therefore, strategies targeting postoperative tumor dissemination likely will need to account for the surgical environment.

  12. Technical Note: A respiratory monitoring and processing system based on computer vision: prototype and proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Nicolas; Atallah, Vincent; Escarmant, Patrick; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-09-08

    Monitoring and controlling respiratory motion is a challenge for the accuracy and safety of therapeutic irradiation of thoracic tumors. Various commercial systems based on the monitoring of internal or external surrogates have been developed but remain costly. In this article we describe and validate Madibreast, an in-house-made respiratory monitoring and processing device based on optical tracking of external markers. We designed an optical apparatus to ensure real-time submillimetric image resolution at 4 m. Using OpenCv libraries, we optically tracked high-contrast markers set on patients' breasts. Validation of spatial and time accuracy was performed on a mechanical phantom and on human breast. Madibreast was able to track motion of markers up to a 5 cm/s speed, at a frame rate of 30 fps, with submillimetric accuracy on mechanical phantom and human breasts. Latency was below 100 ms. Concomitant monitoring of three different locations on the breast showed discrepancies in axial motion up to 4 mm for deep-breathing patterns. This low-cost, computer-vision system for real-time motion monitoring of the irradiation of breast cancer patients showed submillimetric accuracy and acceptable latency. It allowed the authors to highlight differences in surface motion that may be correlated to tumor motion.v.

  13. Technical Note: A respiratory monitoring and processing system based on computer vision: prototype and proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Nicolas; Atallah, Vincent; Escarmant, Patrick; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring and controlling respiratory motion is a challenge for the accuracy and safety of therapeutic irradiation of thoracic tumors. Various commercial systems based on the monitoring of internal or external surrogates have been developed but remain costly. In this article we describe and validate Madibreast, an in-house-made respiratory monitoring and processing device based on optical tracking of external markers. We designed an optical apparatus to ensure real-time submillimetric image resolution at 4 m. Using OpenCv libraries, we optically tracked high-contrast markers set on patients' breasts. Validation of spatial and time accuracy was performed on a mechanical phantom and on human breast. Madibreast was able to track motion of markers up to a 5 cm/s speed, at a frame rate of 30 fps, with submillimetric accuracy on mechanical phantom and human breasts. Latency was below 100 ms. Concomitant monitoring of three different locations on the breast showed discrepancies in axial motion up to 4 mm for deep-breathing patterns. This low-cost, computer-vision system for real-time motion monitoring of the irradiation of breast cancer patients showed submillimetric accuracy and acceptable latency. It allowed the authors to highlight differences in surface motion that may be correlated to tumor motion. PACS number(s): 87.55.km.

  14. Role of beta2 agonists in respiratory medicine with particular attention to novel patents and effects on endocrine system and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Nancy E; Moreno, Dolores; Garmendia, Jenny V; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2011-09-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors are very important in respiratory medicine. Traditionally, the stimulation of beta adrenergic receptors by beta2-agonists is commonly used for giving bronchodilation in chronic airflow obstruction However; the wide distribution of these receptors in cells and tissues other than airway smooth muscle suggests that beta agonists should offer other beneficial effects in respiratory disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of these receptors in the modulation of endocrine and immune system that affect respiratory function and may decrease therapy effectiveness in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New patented compound and uses have provided new insights in future therapeutics of respiratory diseases in which genetic, endocrine and immune response should be considered.

  15. Immunodeficient mouse model for human hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and immune system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryee, Ken-Edwin; Shultz, Leonard D; Brehm, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice engrafted with human immune systems provide an exciting model to study human immunobiology in an in vivo setting without placing patients at risk. The essential parameter for creation of these "humanized models" is engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that will allow for optimal development of human immune systems. However, there are a number of strategies to generate humanized mice and specific protocols can vary significantly among different laboratories. Here we describe a protocol for the co-implantation of human HSC with autologous fetal liver and thymic tissues into immunodeficient mice to create a humanized model with optimal human T cell development. This model, often referred to as the Thy/Liv or BLT (bone marrow, liver, thymus) mouse, develops a functional human immune system, including HLA-restricted human T cells, B cells, and innate immune cells.

  16. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: immunohistochemichal detection in mouse and bovine tissues using a Mab against human respiratory syncytial virus Vírus respiratório sincicial bovino: detecção por imunoistoquímica em tecidos de camundongos e bovinos usando AcM contra o vírus respiratório sincicial humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An immunoistochemical (IHC test was developed to detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV in cell cultures and tissues of experimentally infected mice and calves, using a commercial monoclonal antibody (Mab against human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, as a less expensive alternative, instead of producing specific monoclonal antibodies to BRSV. Clinical samples from calves suffering respiratory disease were also submitted to this test. IHC detected BRSV antigens in mouse tracheas (3, 5 and 7 days post-infection and lungs (5 and 7 days post-infection, and in one of three lungs from experimentally infected calves. Lungs samples from two naturally infected calves were tested and resulted positive for BRSV by the IHC test. These results suggest that this test may be used in the future for diagnosis as well as a useful tool to assess the distribution of BRSV infections in Brazilian herds.Desenvolveu-se um teste de imunohistoquímica (IHQ para detecção do vírus respiratório sincicial bovino (BRSV multiplicado em cultivo celular e em tecidos de camundongos e bezerros infectados experimentalmente, utilizando um anticorpo monoclonal comercial contra o vírus respiratório sincicial humano (HRSV, como uma alternativa para eliminar os custos de produção de anticorpos monoclonais específicos para o BRSV. Amostras clínicas de bezerros com sintomatologia respiratória foram analisadas. A técnica mostrou-se eficiente na detecção de antígenos do BRSV em traquéias (3, 5 e 7 dias pós-infecção e pulmões (5 e 7 dias pós-infecção dos camundongos infectados e em uma das três amostras de pulmões dos bezerros infectados experimentalmente. Amostras de pulmões de dois animais com infecção natural foram positivas para BRSV. Conclui-se que o teste de IHQ pode ser usado no diagnóstico das infecções por BRSV e na avaliação da distribuição dessas infecções nos rebanhos bovinos brasileiros.

  17. Microecological succession in respiratory system and human health%呼吸系统微生态演替与人类健康

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯辰侠; 辛毅; 张翠丽; 曹雪姣; 吴大畅

    2014-01-01

    Microecology of respiratory system is an important part of human microecology.The normal microbiota in respiratory tract are the natural barrier of human organism,which not only play an important role in resisting invade of foreign bacteria,but also involve in local immunological reactions.Normally the species and quantity of microbes in each part of the respiratory tract are relatively stable.Our research on the succession and variation of the normal flora in respiratory tract will provide theoretical basis for understanding the mechanisms of inflammation in respiratory system,and developing novel respiratory probiotics.%呼吸系统微生态是人体微生态重要组成部分.呼吸道正常菌群相当于机体的天然屏障,这些固有的微生物群在抵御外籍菌入侵方面具有重要的作用,同时还发挥着局部免疫功能.正常情况下,呼吸道各部位的微生物种类和数量相对稳定.对呼吸道正常菌群演替次序和变化特征的深入研究是认识呼吸系统炎症本质、开发呼吸道益生菌的理论基础.

  18. The relationship between clinical signs of respiratory system disorders and lung lesions at slaughter in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruste, H; Brscic, M; Heutinck, L F M; Visser, E K; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M; Bokkers, E A M; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Cozzi, G; Gottardo, F; Lensink, B J; van Reenen, C G

    2012-06-01

    The presence and severity of lung lesions recorded post-mortem is commonly used as an indicator to assess the prevalence of respiratory problems in batches of bovines. In the context of a welfare monitoring based on on-farm measures, the recording of clinical signs on calves at the farm would be more convenient than the recording of lung lesions at slaughter. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between clinical respiratory signs at farm and post-mortem analyses of lung lesions observed at slaughter in veal calves. If clinical signs were a good predictor of lung lesions it could be possible to integrate only those measures in a welfare monitoring system. One-hundred-and-seventy-four batches of calves were observed 3 times: at 3 and 13 weeks after arrival of the calves at the unit and at 2 weeks before slaughter. For each batch a maximum of 300 calves was observed and the proportions of calves showing abnormal breathing, nasal discharge and coughing were recorded. Post-mortem inspection was carried out on a sample of lungs belonging to calves from the observed batches. Each examined lung was classified according to a 4-point scale for pneumonia from healthy lung (score 0) to severe lesions (score 3). The clinical signs recorded infra vitam were significantly correlated with moderate and severe lung lesions for observations at 13 weeks and 2 weeks before slaughter and the level of the correlation was highly variable (r(sp) from 0.16 to 0.40). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created and the area under the curves showed that batches with a high proportion of lungs with moderate or severe lesions could not be accurately detected by the three clinical signs of respiratory disorders. These results suggest that both clinical signs and post-mortem inspection of lung lesions must be included in a welfare monitoring schemes for veal calves.

  19. Changes of respiratory system mechanics in ventilated lungs of preterm infants with two different schedules of surfactant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, J P; Merth, I T; van Bel, F; Egberts, J; Brand, R; Quanjer, P H

    1994-05-01

    We investigated the time course of changes in the static respiratory system compliance and resistance in relationship to surfactant administration by means of single-breath and multiple-occlusion techniques. The study comprised 12 infants receiving a high-dose schedule (200 mg/kg, maximum 600 mg/kg) and 13 infants receiving a low-dose schedule (100 mg/kg, maximum 300 mg/kg) of porcine surfactant. Eight healthy preterm infants served as a comparison group. Respiratory mechanics were studied before and at 1.5, 8, and 72 h after surfactant administration. Results were related to changes in gas transfer, including an estimate of venous admixture. Static compliance improved after surfactant instillation, and changes were similar in the two treatment groups during the first eight h (0.8 In.(hour + 1) mL.kPa-1). The compliance values remained below the values of the healthy comparison group during the whole study period, but resistance remained at the same level. There was a considerable delay in changes of respiratory mechanics in relationship to the rapid fall of the venous admixture, from 27 to 19%, and the rapid increase of the transcutaneous oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio from 13 to 27 kPa within the hour. There were no clues that short-term changes in compliance were masked by breathing at a higher and flatter portion of the pressure-volume curve. Both treatment schedules resulted in a similar improvement of compliance within 72 h and the two groups benefited similarly in terms of venous admixture.

  20. Insights into the genetic basis of systemic sclerosis: immunity in human disease and in mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Minghua Wu, Maureen D Mayes Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunogenetics, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by vasculopathy, fibrosis, and autoantibodies. In the past decade, great efforts have been made to investigate genetic susceptibility for SSc. To date, over 20 gene loci have been identified as risk factors for SSc in large genome-wide association studies and confirmed by independent replication studies. However, the biological relevance of these genetic associations is still largely unknown. Exploring the mechanism behind these risk loci is essential to better understand disease pathogenesis and to identify novel therapeutic targets. Mouse model studies including knockout, knockin and knockdown of these genes can advance our understanding of pathogenic cellular and molecular mechanisms in human disease. Although such mouse model systems do not exactly correspond to human disease, they can provide insight into pathological mechanisms that influence disease pathways. In this review, we discuss recent findings regarding the genetic basis of SSc in the setting of genetic manipulation of these pathways in murine models. Keywords: GWAS, Immunochip study, type I interferon pathway, genetic mutation animal models

  1. Dog and mouse: Towards a balanced view of the mammalian olfactory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Arthur Barrios Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the most intensively studied mammalian olfactory system is that of the mouse, in which olfactory chemical cues of one kind or another are detected in four different nasal areas (the main olfactory epithelium, the septal organ, Grüneberg’s ganglion, and the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ, the extraordinarily sensitive olfactory system of the dog is also an important model that is increasingly used, for example in genomic studies of species evolution. Here we describe the topography and extent of the main olfactory and vomeronasal sensory epithelia of the dog, and we report finding no structures equivalent to the Grüneberg ganglion and septal organ of the mouse. Since we examined adults, newborns and foetuses we conclude that these latter structures are absent in dogs, possibly as the result of regression or involution.The absence of a vomeronasal component based on VR2 receptors suggests that the vomeronasal organ may be undergoing a similar involutionary process.

  2. Establishment of an exogenous LIF-free culture system for mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumei; Mo, Lijuan; Wu, Rongrong; Chen, Xiaopan; Zhang, Ming

    2009-09-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have played a key role in the newly emerging fields of stem cell research. The traditional derivation and culture of mESCs have been based on the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) treated with exogenous leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). However, the rapid senescence of MEFs, coupled with the high cost of LIF, has significantly hampered the widespread use of mESCs in stem cell research. Thus, we present a novel exogenous LIF-free culture system for general mESCs applications, comprising fibroblast-like cells derived from the rabbit spleen (RSFs). We demonstrated that mESCs cultured on RSFs (mESCs-RSFs) maintained all mESC features after prolonged LIF-free culture, including alkaline phosphatase, cell surface markers (SSEA-1), molecular markers (OCT-4, NANOG, TERT, REX-1), karyotype, and pluripotency. The high expression level of both LIF and WNT3A in the RSFs may account for their ability to maintain mESCs without exogenous LIF. Moreover, this exogenous LIF-free culture system was verified to be of microbiological quality through analysis with electron transmission microscopy.

  3. Systemic and local injections of lupeol inhibit tumor growth in a melanoma-bearing mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Makiko; Azuma, Kazuo; Hata, Keishi; Takahashi, Saori; Ogiwara, Kikumi; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Yokoe, Inoru; Osaki, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2013-07-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and it is procured from activated or genetically altered epidermal melanocytes. In the present study, the tumor-suppressive effects of systemic and local injections of lupeol, a triterpene extracted from Indian lettuce (Lactuca indica), in a melanoma-bearing mouse model were evaluated. Mice were injected once with lupeol or olive oil (solvent control) subcutaneously into the skin of the back or into the tumor tissue. Seven days after the injection, the tumor growth rates were calculated and the tumor tissues were collected. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed. The tumor growth rates in the lupeol-injected group were significantly decreased compared to those observed in the non-treated (NT) and solvent control groups. Lupeol also significantly decreased the areas positively stained for Ki-67 and PCNA in the tumor tissues compared to those in the NT and solvent control groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that systemic and local injections of lupeol suppress tumor growth and induce cell cycle arrest in a melanoma-bearing mouse model. These data suggest that lupeol may be effective as a novel therapeutic option for melanoma patients.

  4. The gross structure of the respiratory complex I: a Lego System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Thorsten; Böttcher, Bettina

    2004-01-30

    The proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, also called complex I, is the entry point for electrons into the respiratory chains of many bacteria and mitochondria of most eucaryotes. It couples electron transfer with the translocation of protons across the membrane, thus providing the proton motive force essential for energy-consuming processes. Electron microscopy revealed the 'L'-shaped structure of the bacterial and mitochondrial complex with two arms arranged perpendicular to each other. Recently, we showed that the Escherichia coli complex I takes on another stable conformation with the two arms arranged side by side resulting in a horseshoe-shaped structure. This model reflects the evolution of complex I from pre-existing modules for electron transfer and proton translocation.

  5. The effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory system mechanics and hemodynamics in postoperative cardiac surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O.C. Auler Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We prospectively evaluated the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP on the respiratory mechanical properties and hemodynamics of 10 postoperative adult cardiac patients undergoing mechanical ventilation while still anesthetized and paralyzed. The respiratory mechanics was evaluated by the inflation inspiratory occlusion method and hemodynamics by conventional methods. Each patient was randomized to a different level of PEEP (5, 10 and 15 cmH2O, while zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP was established as control. PEEP of 15-min duration was applied at 20-min intervals. The frequency dependence of resistance and the viscoelastic properties and elastance of the respiratory system were evaluated together with hemodynamic and respiratory indexes. We observed a significant decrease in total airway resistance (13.12 ± 0.79 cmH2O l-1 s-1 at ZEEP, 11.94 ± 0.55 cmH2O l-1 s-1 (P<0.0197 at 5 cmH2O of PEEP, 11.42 ± 0.71 cmH2O l-1 s-1 (P<0.0255 at 10 cmH2O of PEEP, and 10.32 ± 0.57 cmH2O l-1 s-1 (P<0.0002 at 15 cmH2O of PEEP. The elastance (Ers; cmH2O/l was not significantly modified by PEEP from zero (23.49 ± 1.21 to 5 cmH2O (21.89 ± 0.70. However, a significant decrease (P<0.0003 at 10 cmH2O PEEP (18.86 ± 1.13, as well as (P<0.0001 at 15 cmH2O (18.41 ± 0.82 was observed after PEEP application. Volume dependence of viscoelastic properties showed a slight but not significant tendency to increase with PEEP. The significant decreases in cardiac index (l min-1 m-2 due to PEEP increments (3.90 ± 0.22 at ZEEP, 3.43 ± 0.17 (P<0.0260 at 5 cmH2O of PEEP, 3.31 ± 0.22 (P<0.0260 at 10 cmH2O of PEEP, and 3.10 ± 0.22 (P<0.0113 at 15 cmH2O of PEEP were compensated for by an increase in arterial oxygen content owing to shunt fraction reduction (% from 22.26 ± 2.28 at ZEEP to 11.66 ± 1.24 at PEEP of 15 cmH2O (P<0.0007. We conclude that increments in PEEP resulted in a reduction of both airway resistance and respiratory elastance. These results

  6. Mouse phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Da Silva-Buttkus, Patricia; Neff, Frauke; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Kemter, Elisabeth; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Matloka, Mikolaj; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Rozman, Jan; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Schrewe, Anja; Stöger, Claudia; Tost, Monica; Adamski, Jerzy; Aigner, Bernhard; Beckers, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Illig, Thomas; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mempel, Martin; Neschen, Susanne; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Suhre, Karsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Model organisms like the mouse are important tools to learn more about gene function in man. Within the last 20 years many mutant mouse lines have been generated by different methods such as ENU mutagenesis, constitutive and conditional knock-out approaches, knock-down, introduction of human genes, and knock-in techniques, thus creating models which mimic human conditions. Due to pleiotropic effects, one gene may have different functions in different organ systems or time points during development. Therefore mutant mouse lines have to be phenotyped comprehensively in a highly standardized manner to enable the detection of phenotypes which might otherwise remain hidden. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) has been established at the Helmholtz Zentrum München as a phenotyping platform with open access to the scientific community (www.mousclinic.de; [1]). The GMC is a member of the EUMODIC consortium which created the European standard workflow EMPReSSslim for the systemic phenotyping of mouse models (http://www.eumodic.org/[2]). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Human cell tropism and innate immune system interactions of human respiratory coronavirus EMC compared to those of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielecki, Florian; Weber, Michaela; Eickmann, Markus; Spiegelberg, Larissa; Zaki, Ali Moh; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Becker, Stephan; Weber, Friedemann

    2013-05-01

    Infections with human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC) are associated with severe pneumonia. We demonstrate that HCoV-EMC resembles severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in productively infecting primary and continuous cells of the human airways and in preventing the induction of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-mediated antiviral alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) responses. However, HCoV-EMC was markedly more sensitive to the antiviral state established by ectopic IFN. Thus, HCoV-EMC can utilize a broad range of human cell substrates and suppress IFN induction, but it does not reach the IFN resistance of SARS-CoV.

  8. The organization of the brainstem and spinal cord of the mouse : Relationships between monoaminergic, cholinergic, and spinal projection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, VGJM; Ulfhake, B

    2006-01-01

    Information regarding the organization of the CNS in terms of neurotransmitter systems and spinal connections in the mouse is sparse, especially at the level of the brainstem. An overview is presented of monoaminergic and cholinergic systems in the brainstem and spinal cord that were visualized immu

  9. Passive leg-raising and end-expiratory occlusion tests perform better than pulse pressure variation in patients with low respiratory system compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Xavier; Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Ferré, Alexis; Dres, Martin; Gharbi, Rim; Richard, Christian; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether the poor ability of pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome was related to low lung compliance. We also tested whether the changes in cardiac index induced by passive leg-raising and by an end-expiratory occlusion test were better than pulse pressure variation at predicting fluid responsiveness in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Prospective study. Medical intensive care unit. We included 54 patients with circulatory shock (63 ± 13 yrs; Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 63 ± 24). Twenty-seven patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (compliance of the respiratory system, 22 ± 3 mL/cm H2O). In nonacute respiratory distress syndrome patients, the compliance of the respiratory system was 45 ± 9 mL/cm H2O. We measured the response of cardiac index (transpulmonary thermodilution) to fluid administration (500 mL saline). Before fluid administration, we recorded pulse pressure variation and the changes in pulse contour analysis-derived cardiac index induced by passive leg-raising and end-expiratory occlusion. Fluid increased cardiac index ≥ 15% (44% ± 39%) in 30 "responders." Pulse pressure variation was significantly correlated with compliance of the respiratory system (r = .58), but not with tidal volume. The higher the compliance of the respiratory system, the better the prediction of fluid responsiveness by pulse pressure variation. A compliance of the respiratory system of 30 mL/cm H2O was the best cut-off for discriminating patients regarding the ability of pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness. If compliance of the respiratory system was >30 mL/cm H2O, then the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve for predicting fluid responsiveness was not different for pulse pressure variation and the passive leg-raising and end-expiratory occlusion tests (0.98 ± 0.03, 0.91 ± 0.06, and 0.97 ± 0.03, respectively). By contrast

  10. 3-dimensional resin casting and imaging of mouse portal vein or intrahepatic bile duct system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Teagan J; Sparks, Erin E; Huppert, Stacey S

    2012-10-25

    In organs, the correct architecture of vascular and ductal structures is indispensable for proper physiological function, and the formation and maintenance of these structures is a highly regulated process. The analysis of these complex, 3-dimensional structures has greatly depended on either 2-dimensional examination in section or on dye injection studies. These techniques, however, are not able to provide a complete and quantifiable representation of the ductal or vascular structures they are intended to elucidate. Alternatively, the nature of 3-dimensional plastic resin casts generates a permanent snapshot of the system and is a novel and widely useful technique for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional structures and networks. A crucial advantage of the resin casting system is the ability to determine the intact and connected, or communicating, structure of a blood vessel or duct. The structure of vascular and ductal networks are crucial for organ function, and this technique has the potential to aid study of vascular and ductal networks in several ways. Resin casting may be used to analyze normal morphology and functional architecture of a luminal structure, identify developmental morphogenetic changes, and uncover morphological differences in tissue architecture between normal and disease states. Previous work has utilized resin casting to study, for example, architectural and functional defects within the mouse intrahepatic bile duct system that were not reflected in 2-dimensional analysis of the structure(1,2), alterations in brain vasculature of a Alzheimer's disease mouse model(3), portal vein abnormalities in portal hypertensive and cirrhotic mice(4), developmental steps in rat lymphatic maturation between immature and adult lungs(5), immediate microvascular changes in the rat liver, pancreas, and kidney in response in to chemical injury(6). Here we present a method of generating a 3-dimensional resin cast of a mouse vascular or ductal network

  11. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kolahian

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase

  12. Evaluation of the RapID NH system for identification of Haemophilus somnus, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from cattle and pigs with respiratory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, S A; Watts, J L; Yancey, R J

    1993-01-01

    Haemophilus somnus, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from cattle and pigs with respiratory disease were used to evaluate the RapID NH system (Innovative Diagnostics, Atlanta, Ga.). Minor modifications of the RapID NH system to include animal source and growth requirements would permit the identification of all isolates tested.

  13. Macroscopic anatomy of the ringed seal [Pusa (Phoca) hispida] lower respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smodlaka, H; Henry, R W; Reed, R B

    2009-06-01

    This investigation serves to document the normal anatomical features of the lower respiratory tract of the ringed seal [Pusa (phoca) hispida]. Evaluation of embalmed specimens and tracheobronchial casts showed that the right lung of this seal consists of four lobes while the left has only three lobes. The ventral margins of the lungs do not reach the sternum causing them to form the boundary of the broad recessus costomediastinalis. Lung lobation corresponds with bronchial tree division. Pulmonary venous drainage includes right and left common veins draining ipsilateral cranial and middle lung lobes, and one common caudal vein draining both caudal lobes and the accessory lobe. The right and left pulmonary arteries divide into cranial and caudal branches at the level of the principal bronchus. The ringed seal has three tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The trachea has an average of 87 cartilages that exhibit a pattern of random anastomoses between adjacent rings. The trachea exhibits to a small degree the dorsoventrally flattened pattern that is described in other pinnipeds. The tracheal diameter is smaller than that of the canine.

  14. Diagnosis of bronchdyskinetic syndrome of patients with dust-induced respiratory system diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaya, V.L.

    1987-12-01

    Bronchospastic syndrome aggravates non-specific, chronic diseases of lungs. Methods of pneumotachography and registration of parameters of flux/content loop enhances diagnosis of ventilatory insufficiency of patients with dust-related diseases. The flux/content loop presents a graphic record of speed of flow of inhaled and exhaled air depending on volume of lungs. Seventy Donbass miners with pneumoconiosis and chronic bronchitis were investigated. Measurements were made of following parameters: speed of inhaled and exhaled air, vital capacity and speed of air at 75%, 50% and 25% of vital capacity. Miners were then treated with salbutamol, an antispasmodic, and same parameters measured. Results are presented in a table showing change in parameters of pneumotachography of exhalation during salbutamol tests. Following salbutamol course, patients with pneumconiosis had a positive reaction in 67% of cases, negative in 24%, none in 9%; those with chronic bronchitis had a positive reaction in 79% and negative in 21% of cases. Respiratory disturbances of lung diseases are due to dyskinesia of bronchioles. Failure to respond to salbutamol, a sympathomimetic, may be due to heightened tone of bronchioles due to parasympathetic innervation requiring a cholinolytic to open bronchiole pathways. Method of pneumotachography with registration of parameter of flow/content loop is combined with pharmacologic tests with antispasmodic preparations to reveal location and mechanism of disturbance of bronchial tone and to determine choice of adequate treatment. 8 refs.

  15. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C

    1980-04-10

    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present.

  16. Long-Range Cortical Dynamics: A Perspective from the Mouse Sensorimotor Whisker System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianguang; Chen, Jerry L

    2017-09-16

    In the mammalian neocortex, the capacity to dynamically route and coordinate the exchange of information between areas is a critical feature of cognitive function, enabling processes such as higher-level sensory processing and sensorimotor integration. Despite the importance attributed to long-range connections between cortical areas, their exact operations and role in cortical function remain an open question. In recent years, progress has been made in understanding long-range cortical circuits through work focused on the mouse sensorimotor whisker system. In this review, we examine recent studies dissecting long-range circuits involved in whisker sensorimotor processing as an entry point for understanding the rules that govern long-range cortical circuit function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanog Dynamics in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells: Results from Systems Biology Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Marucci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs, derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, are pluripotent stem cells having self-renewal capability and the potential of differentiating into every cell type under the appropriate culture conditions. An increasing number of reports have been published to uncover the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate pluripotency and cell fate specification using combined computational and experimental methodologies. Here, we review recent systems biology approaches to describe the causes and functions of gene expression heterogeneity and complex temporal dynamics of pluripotency markers in mESCs under uniform culture conditions. In particular, we focus on the dynamics of Nanog, a key regulator of the core pluripotency network and of mESC fate. We summarize the strengths and limitations of different experimental and modeling approaches and discuss how various strategies could be used.

  18. A Silicon SPECT System for Molecular Imaging of the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; Fritz, Mark A; McDonald, Benjamin S; Durko, Heather L; Furenlid, Lars R; Wilson, Donald W; Peterson, Todd E

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the feasibility of using silicon double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) for SPECT imaging of the activity distribution of iodine-125 using a 300-micrometer thick detector. Based on this experience, we now have developed fully customized silicon DSSDs and associated readout electronics with the intent of developing a multi-pinhole SPECT system. Each DSSD has a 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm active area and is 1 mm thick. The strip pitch is 59 micrometers, and the readout of the 1024 strips on each side gives rise to a detector with over one million pixels. Combining four high-resolution DSSDs into a SPECT system offers an unprecedented space-bandwidth product for the imaging of single-photon emitters. The system consists of two camera heads with two silicon detectors stacked one behind the other in each head. The collimator has a focused pinhole system with cylindrical-shaped pinholes that are laser-drilled in a 250 μm tungsten plate. The unique ability to collect projection data at two magnifications simultaneously allows for multiplexed data at high resolution to be combined with lower magnification data with little or no multiplexing. With the current multi-pinhole collimator design, our SPECT system will be capable of offering high spatial resolution, sensitivity and angular sampling for small field-of-view applications, such as molecular imaging of the mouse brain.

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of sexual dimorphism in human thoracic vertebrae: implications for the respiratory system and spine morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; Higuero, Antonio; Ríos, Luís; García Martínez, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Sexual dimorphism is important for intraspecific variation and well studied in the human skeleton. In the thoracic part of the spine sexual dimorphism is expected for differences in the respiratory system related to body mass, lung capacity, and energetics, and in the reproductive system for adaptations to pregnancy (lower spine lordosis, posture). However, little is known about sexual dimorphism in this anatomical region. We use three-dimensional (3D)-geometric morphometrics to test hypotheses on sexual dimorphism in the first 10 thoracic vertebrae (T1-T10). Forty-six 3D-landmarks were measured on vertebrae of 24 adult females and males of known age and sex. Results confirm that male vertebrae are consistently larger than female ones. Males show more dorsally oriented transverse processes and relatively larger vertebral bodies in upper and lower thoracic vertebrae. Sexual dimorphism in lower thoracic vertebrae affects the orientation of the spinous processes, which is more horizontal in females but more caudal in males. Such regional pattering of sexual dimorphism emerges also from principal component analyses reflecting a complex interaction between the effects of sex and serial position on shape variation. Greater dorsal orientation of male transverse processes reorients the ribs and could lead to greater radial thorax diameters. This fits with greater male respiratory capacities, but may indicate also greater invagination of the male spine within the thorax. Horizontal orientation of the spinous processes in females could allow for a greater thoraco-lumbar lordosis during pregnancy, but more comparative research is necessary to test these hypotheses.

  20. Five Years' Evaluation of the BD ProbeTec System for the Direct Molecular Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Respiratory and Nonrespiratory Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicmen, Can; Karaman, Onur; Gunduz, Ayriz T; Erer, Onur F; Coskun, Meral; Kaftan, Osman; Demirel, Mahmut M; Senol, Gunes; Akarca, Tulay; Dereli, Sevket; Ozsoz, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was detected by BD ProbeTec ET system in 4716 respiratory and 167 nonrespiratory samples [mostly (98%) smear negative). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 81.8%, 98.3, 85.1 and 97.9 for respiratory and 100%, 96.2, 64.7 and 100, for nonrespiratory samples, respectively. Among 149 (3.1%) ProbeTec DTB positive and culture negative samples, 72 (65 respiratory and seven nonrespiratory) (48.3%) were recovered from the patients who were evaluated as having TB infection. The system has been found as useful in early diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in association with the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings.

  1. A mouse model for pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, George; Kramer, Carolyn D; Slocum, Connie S; Weinberg, Ellen O; Hua, Ning; Gudino, Cynthia V; Hamilton, James A; Genco, Caroline A

    2014-08-08

    Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies

  2. Adherent primary cultures of mouse intercostal muscle fibers for isolated fiber studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Patrick; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O; Schneider, Martin F

    2011-01-01

    Primary culture models of single adult skeletal muscle fibers dissociated from locomotor muscles adhered to glass coverslips are routine and allow monitoring of functional processes in living cultured fibers. To date, such isolated fiber cultures have not been established for respiratory muscles, despite the fact that dysfunction of core respiratory muscles leading to respiratory arrest is the most common cause of death in many muscular diseases. Here we present the first description of an adherent culture system for single adult intercostal muscle fibers from the adult mouse. This system allows for monitoring functional properties of these living muscle fibers in culture with or without electrical field stimulation to drive muscle fiber contraction at physiological or pathological respiratory firing patterns. We also provide initial characterization of these fibers, demonstrating several common techniques in this new model system in the context of the established Flexor Digitorum Brevis muscle primary culture model.

  3. Adherent Primary Cultures of Mouse Intercostal Muscle Fibers for Isolated Fiber Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Robison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary culture models of single adult skeletal muscle fibers dissociated from locomotor muscles adhered to glass coverslips are routine and allow monitoring of functional processes in living cultured fibers. To date, such isolated fiber cultures have not been established for respiratory muscles, despite the fact that dysfunction of core respiratory muscles leading to respiratory arrest is the most common cause of death in many muscular diseases. Here we present the first description of an adherent culture system for single adult intercostal muscle fibers from the adult mouse. This system allows for monitoring functional properties of these living muscle fibers in culture with or without electrical field stimulation to drive muscle fiber contraction at physiological or pathological respiratory firing patterns. We also provide initial characterization of these fibers, demonstrating several common techniques in this new model system in the context of the established Flexor Digitorum Brevis muscle primary culture model.

  4. Adherent Primary Cultures of Mouse Intercostal Muscle Fibers for Isolated Fiber Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Patrick; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O.; Schneider, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Primary culture models of single adult skeletal muscle fibers dissociated from locomotor muscles adhered to glass coverslips are routine and allow monitoring of functional processes in living cultured fibers. To date, such isolated fiber cultures have not been established for respiratory muscles, despite the fact that dysfunction of core respiratory muscles leading to respiratory arrest is the most common cause of death in many muscular diseases. Here we present the first description of an adherent culture system for single adult intercostal muscle fibers from the adult mouse. This system allows for monitoring functional properties of these living muscle fibers in culture with or without electrical field stimulation to drive muscle fiber contraction at physiological or pathological respiratory firing patterns. We also provide initial characterization of these fibers, demonstrating several common techniques in this new model system in the context of the established Flexor Digitorum Brevis muscle primary culture model. PMID:21869860

  5. Respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970318 A study on evoked potentials in cor pul-monale patients with chronic respiratory failure.QIAO Hui(乔慧), et al. Beijing Neurosurg Instit,Beijing, 100050. Chin J Geriatr 1997; 16(1): 43-45. Objective: Evoked protential was used to detect thechange of brain function in cor pulmonale patients with

  6. Polydatin protects the respiratory system from PM2.5 exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Qi-Ming; Tie, Cai; Jin, Hong-Tao; Han, Yan-Xing; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Yu, Xiao-Ming; Hou, Qi; Zhang, Piao-Piao; Wang, Ai-Ping; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Gao, Zhonggao; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric particle is one of the risk factors for respiratory disease; however, their injury mechanisms are poorly understood, and prevention methods are highly desirable. We constructed artificial PM2.5 (aPM2.5) particles according to the size and composition of actual PM2.5 collected in Beijing. Using these artificial particles, we created an inhalation-injury animal model. These aPM2.5 particles simulate the physical and chemical characteristics of the actual PM2.5, and inhalation of the aPM2.5 in rat results in a time-dependent change in lung suggesting a declined lung function, injury from oxidative stress and inflammation in lung. Thus, this aPM2.5-caused injury animal model may mimic that of the pulmonary injury in human exposed to airborne particles. In addition, polydatin (PD), a resveratrol glucoside that is rich in grapes and red wine, was found to significantly decrease the oxidative potential (OP) of aPM2.5 in vitro. Treating the model rats with PD prevented the lung function decline caused by aPM2.5, and reduced the level of oxidative damage in aPM2.5-exposed rats. Moreover, PD inhibited aPM2.5-induced inflammation response, as evidenced by downregulation of white blood cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammation-related lipids and proinflammation cytokines in lung. These results provide a practical means for self-protection against particulate air pollution.

  7. Systemic and respiratory oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J; Po, E; Celi, P; Muscatello, G

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is most simply defined as an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants. Oxidative stress has been suggested to play roles in various equine respiratory diseases and the significance of OS in the pathogenesis of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia is unknown. To measure and relate biomarkers of OS to lesions consistent with R. equi pneumonia. Case-control study. Various OS biomarkers were measured from blood and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples collected from 26 foals between 1 and 2 months of age (n = 12 cases and n = 14 controls) on 2 Thoroughbred farms endemically affected by R. equi pneumonia. Foals were defined as cases (positive) or controls (negative) based on ultrasonographic evidence of pulmonary abscessation (>15 mm in diameter). Haematology and biochemistry testing was also performed on blood samples collected from the foals. Comparison of biomarkers and key haematological and biochemical markers of inflammation between the groups was performed using 2 sample t tests. Derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) were significantly greater in case foals than in control foals (P = 0.027) and the oxidative stress index (OSI) was higher in case foals (P = 0.014). Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) concentrations in EBC were significantly greater in case foals than in control foals (P = 0.002). Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in traditional measures of inflammation between the 2 groups. Measuring OS in both blood and EBC provided useful information in the early diagnosis of R. equi pneumonia. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Effects of Asian sand dust particles on the respiratory and immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Akiko; Matsuda, Yugo; Murayama, Rumiko; Tsuji, Kenshi; Nishikawa, Masataka; Koike, Eiko; Yoshida, Seiichi; Ichinose, Takamichi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that Asian sand dust (ASD) particles can affect respiratory health; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ASD on airway epithelial cells and immune cells, and their contributing factors to the effects. Human airway epithelial cells were exposed to ASD collected on 1-3 May (ASD1) and on 12-14 May (ASD2) 2011 in Japan and heat-treated ASD1 for excluding heat-sensitive substances (H-ASD) at a concentration of 0, 3, 30 or 90 µg ml(-1) for 4 or 24 h. Furthermore, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from atopic prone mice were differentiated by culture with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) then these BMDC were exposed to the ASD for 24 h. Also splenocytes as mixture of immune cells were exposed to the ASD for 72 h. All ASD dose dependently reduced viability of airway epithelial cells. Non-heated ASD showed a dose-dependent increase in the protein release of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. The raises induced by ASD1 were higher than those by ASD2. ASD1 and ASD2 also elevated ICAM-1 at the levels of mRNA, cell surface protein and soluble protein in culture medium. In contrast, H-ASD did not change most of these biomarkers. Non-heated ASD showed enhancement in the protein expression of DEC205 on BMDC and in the proliferation of splenocytes, whereas H-ASD did not. These results suggest that ASD affect airway epithelial cells and immune cells such as BMDC and splenocytes. Moreover, the difference in ASD events and components adhered to ASD can contribute to the health effects.

  9. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  10. Bronchoscopic findings in Down syndrome children with respiratory problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pravit, Jetanachai

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) can affect the upper and lower respiratory tract in a number of ways and disorders of other systems can impact upon respiratory function, giving rise to a wide variety of respiratory manifestations...

  11. Nanog reporter system in mouse embryonic stem cells based on highly efficient BAC homologous recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nanog is a novel transcription factor specifically expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (mES cells). It has been reported that Nanog plays an essential role in maintaining multi-potency of ES cells. The expression of Nanog is very sensitive to ES cells differentiation, making Nanog one of the best markers to indicate the status of ES cells. In this study, we developed an efficient method to construct Nanog promoter driven EGFP reporter system based on the BAC homologous recombination. We further generated a Nanog-EGFP reporter mES cell line. This reporter mES cell line exhibited features similar to those of normal mES cells, and the EGFP reporter efficiently reflected the expression of Nanog, indicating the differentiation status of mES cells. We achieved a reliable experimental reporter system to research self-renewal and differentiation of mES cells. The system could facilitate research on culture system of mES cells and researches on the expression and regulation of Nanog and other related factors in mES cells.

  12. An endocannabinoid system is present in the mouse olfactory epithelium but does not modulate olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutch, C R; Hillard, C J; Jia, C; Hegg, C C

    2015-08-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate a diverse array of functions including progenitor cell proliferation in the central nervous system, and odorant detection and food intake in the mammalian central olfactory system and larval Xenopus laevis peripheral olfactory system. However, the presence and role of endocannabinoids in the peripheral olfactory epithelium have not been examined in mammals. We found the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor protein and mRNA in the olfactory epithelium. Using either immunohistochemistry or calcium imaging we localized CB1 receptors on neurons, glia-like sustentacular cells, microvillous cells and progenitor-like basal cells. To examine the role of endocannabinoids, CB1- and CB2- receptor-deficient (CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-)) mice were used. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) was present at high levels in both C57BL/6 wildtype and CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice. 2-AG synthetic and degradative enzymes are expressed in wildtype mice. A small but significant decrease in basal cell and olfactory sensory neuron numbers was observed in CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice compared to wildtype mice. The decrease in olfactory sensory neurons did not translate to impairment in olfactory-mediated behaviors assessed by the buried food test and habituation/dishabituation test. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of an endocannabinoid system in the mouse olfactory epithelium. However, unlike in tadpoles, endocannabinoids do not modulate olfaction. Further investigation on the role of endocannabinoids in progenitor cell function in the olfactory epithelium is warranted.

  13. Immune System Modifications Induced in a Mouse Model of Chronic Exposure to (90)Sr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synhaeve, Nicholas; Musilli, Stefania; Stefani, Johanna; Nicolas, Nour; Delissen, Olivia; Dublineau, Isabelle; Bertho, Jean-Marc

    2016-03-01

    Strontium 90 ((90)Sr) remains in the environment long after a major nuclear disaster occurs. As a result, populations living on contaminated land are potentially exposed to daily ingesting of low quantities of (90)Sr. The potential long-term health effects of such chronic contamination are unknown. In this study, we used a mouse model to evaluate the effects of (90)Sr ingestion on the immune system, the animals were chronically exposed to (90)Sr in drinking water at a concentration of 20 kBq/l, for a daily ingestion of 80-100 Bq/day. This resulted in a reduced number of CD19(+) B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and spleen in steady-state conditions. In contrast, the results from a vaccine experiment performed as a functional test of the immune system showed that in response to T-dependent antigens, there was a reduction in IgG specific to tetanus toxin (TT), a balanced Th1/Th2 response inducer antigen, but not to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), a strong Th2 response inducer antigen. This was accompanied by a reduction in Th1 cells in the spleen, consistent with the observed reduction in specific IgG concentration. The precise mechanisms by which (90)Sr acts on the immune system remain to be elucidated. However, our results suggest that (90)Sr ingestion may be responsible for some of the reported effects of internal contamination on the immune system in civilian populations exposed to the Chernobyl fallout.

  14. Three-dimensional flow patterns in the feto-placental vasculature system of the mouse placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Alexander T; Mirbod, Parisa

    2017-05-01

    In this study, three-dimensional (3D) blood flow of the feto-placental vasculature system of the mouse placenta was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods and finite element analysis. Micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) images were used to acquire the 3D geometry of the feto-placental vasculature system, and image-processing software has been used to calculate the 3D morphology of the placenta. The flow was analyzed numerically and compared to the experimental data received from the same model. The numerical and experimental results agree well. Experimentally measured time dependent blood velocity data, available in the literature, was used as the inlet boundary condition to represent the fetal blood pulsatile flow. Velocity profiles and pressure distributions are investigated during different phases of the unsteady flow. The results clearly illustrate the important role of the vasculature structure (e.g., diameter and curvature) in the fetal hemodynamics, which to our knowledge has not been examined previously. The data also show that, at each bifurcation, the blood flow velocity decreases significantly in the transition from the parent vessel (i.e., umbilical artery) to the daughter vessels because of the higher total cross-sectional area of the daughter vessels compared to the parent vessel. It can also be observed that pressure drop at the umbilical artery and pressure drop across the arterial trees obtained in this study agree well with the physiological data reported in the literature. Moreover, the velocity profiles after each bifurcation are symmetric. Finally, from the results no secondary flow has been observed in the vasculature system. This study provides a foundation in understanding and modeling the complex structure of the feto-placental vasculature system and serves as a first step towards developing new concepts for computational analysis of the feto-placental vasculature systems of both human and mouse to better

  15. The impact of the environmental and socio-economic factors to the occurrence of symptoms and diseases of the respiratory system in school children from Sosnowiec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Skiba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective of the study was to assess the impact of environmental and socio-economic factors to the occurrence of symptoms and diseases of the respiratory system in school children from Sosnowiec, based on the questionnaire data. Materials and methods: The crosssectional epidemiological questionnaire study was performed in the years 2005–2006. Parents of 709 primary school children aged 7–12 years took part in the study. Questionnaire was completed by parents to collect information on children health status, particularly respiratory symptoms, chronic diseases of respiratory system, allergic diseases, use of medical services, children dietary habits and family socio-economic status. Results: In the study group the statistical significance was found for the incidence of respiratory symptoms in children and housing conditions, i.e.: the number of people sleeping together with a child in the same room and dampness in the dwelling. Results of the study showed, that incidence of whizzing differed statistically significantly in the groups of different professional status of the parents. It is difficult to estimate if this is only the influence of socio-economic conditions or any other environmental factors as well. Conclusions: Results of the study demonstrated statistical significance between the status of respiratory system in children and housing occupancy rate (the number of people sleeping together with a child in the same room and dampness in the dwelling. Relation between respiratory symptoms in children, parents education and professional status was analyzed, but findings of the conducted studies do not give explicit evidence of such a relation.

  16. Systems for the management of respiratory disease in primary care--an international series: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Eric; Feldman, Charles; Mash, Robert; Fairall, Lara; English, Rene; Jithoo, Anamika

    2009-06-01

    Progress to democracy in South Africa in 1994 was followed by the adoption of a primary health care approach with free access for all. State health facilities serve 80% of the population, and a private sector comprising general practitioners, specialists and private hospitals, serves the remainder. NATIONAL POLICIES AND MODELS: There are national prescribing guidelines for common diseases, and these specify the medicines on the Essential Drugs List that are available at primary care facilities for respiratory diseases including asthma, COPD, pneumonia and tuberculosis. Asthma prevalence is average among children (13%) but morbidity is high. COPD rates are high owing to concurrent risk factors of smoking (in both men and women), occupational exposures, biomass fuel use and previous lung infections including tuberculosis. Tuberculosis and HIV are rampant, and together with pneumococcal co-infection account for considerable mortality. Primary care facilities are within reach of most communities, but major barriers to care include loss of income, waiting times in clinics, cost of transportation, and inconvenient hours. The country is divided into districts each served by a hospital, several community health centres and many fixed or mobile clinics. The latter provide predominantly nurse-led care by nurse practitioners with additional qualifications. Some clinics and most community health centres are served by doctors. Referrals are made to secondary and tertiary hospitals served by specialists. Innovations to address staff shortages include the creation of the specialty of family medicine for physicians and development of the clinical associate who is trained to perform a limited clinical role, as well as in-service on-site training of nurses through programmes of integrated care for infectious and chronic diseases. There is an urgent need to address low staff morale and medical migration resulting from a decade of poor leadership and AIDS denialism. The structures and

  17. Dysregulated Lymphoid Cell Populations in Mouse Models of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groof, Aurélie; Hémon, Patrice; Mignen, Olivier; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Wakeland, Edward K; Renaudineau, Yves; Lauwerys, Bernard R

    2017-05-13

    Biases in the distribution and phenotype of T, B, and antigen-presenting cell populations are strongly connected to mechanisms of disease development in mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we describe longitudinal changes in lymphoid and antigen-presenting cell subsets in bone marrow, blood and spleen from two lupus-prone strains (MRL/lpr and B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 tri-congenic mice), and how they integrate in our present understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, we focus on (autoreactive) T cell activation patterns in lupus-prone mice. Break of T cell tolerance to chromatin constituents (histone peptides) is key to the development of the disease and is related to T cell intrinsic defects, contributed by genetic susceptibility factors and by extrinsic amplificatory mechanisms, in particular over-stimulation by antigen-presenting cells. We also describe shifts in B cell sub-populations, going from skewed immature B cell populations as an indication of disturbed central and peripheral tolerance checkpoints, to enriched long-lived plasma cells, which are key to persistent autoantibody production in the disease. B cell activation mechanisms in SLE are both T cell-dependent (break of tolerance and production of specific autoantibodies) and -independent (polyclonal B cell activation, production of autoantibodies by long-lived plasma cells). By providing a comprehensive evaluation of B and T cell surface markers in two major mouse models of SLE and a description of their changes before and after disease onset, this review illustrates how the study of lymphoid cell phenotype delivers key information regarding pathogenic pathways and supplies tools to assess the beneficial effects of novel therapeutic interventions.

  18. Global gene expression profiling in infants with acute respiratory syncytial virus broncholitis demonstrates systemic activation of interferon signaling networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract infections and has a high impact on pediatric emergency department utilization. Variation in host response may influence the pathogenesis and disease severity. We evaluated global gene expression profiles to be...

  19. Influence of outdoor games on functional condition of the respiratory system at girls of the younger school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlena Potapova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study influence of outdoor games on functional condition of the respiratory system of girls of the younger school age in the groups of 6–8 and 9–10 years old. Material & Methods: the problem of functional condition of external breath at girls of the younger school age (in the age groups of 6–8 and 9–10 years old, who were divided into the control group (CG in number of 32persons (CS No. 58 and the experimental (EG in number of 29 persons (OTEC No. 109 of Zaporozhe, is considered. Results: it is defined that the studied girls of both groups at the beginning of the research had mainly below average and average levels of functional condition of the system of external breath. Conclusions: the effective impact of outdoor games on functional condition of the whole organism in general and on the system of external breath, in particular, at girls of the experimental group in comparison with the studied girls of the same age of the control group is proved experimentally. Application of the large number of various outdoor games allowed diversifying the program of training at physical education classes emotionally and physically, than promoted the activation of functions of the whole organism of girls of the younger school age.

  20. Respiratory problems in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrant, N J; Gatland, D J

    1990-01-01

    Death from respiratory causes in acromegaly is three times more common than in the general population and is most often the result of upper airways obstruction, although less commonly pulmonary dysfunction and disturbance of the central nervous system may occur. These factors may be found alone or in combination. Despite several reports of laryngeal involvement, upper airway obstruction in acromegaly is usually regarded as being due to macroglossia and pharyngeal soft tissue hypertrophy. We present four cases of acromegaly in which tracheostomy was required for laryngeal obstruction, with a review of the literature concerning the nature of respiratory problems in acromegaly.

  1. THE MOUSE THERMOREGULATORY SYSTEM:ITS IMPACT ON TRANSLATING BIOMEDICAL DATA TO HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The laboratory mouse has become the predominant test species in biomedical research. The number of papers that translate or extrapolate data from mouse to human has grown exponentially since the year 2000. There are many physiological and anatomical factors to consider in the pro...

  2. Respiratory manifestations in amyloidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling; CAI Bai-qiang; ZHONG Xu; ZHU Yuan-jue

    2005-01-01

    Background Amyloidosis is a collection of diseases in which different proteins are deposited. Amyloid deposits occur in systemic and organ-limited forms. In both systemic and localized forms of the disease, lung can be involved. The aim of this study was to explore the different respiratory manifestations of amyloidosis. Methods Chest radiology, clinical presentations, bronchoscopic/laryngoscopic findings and lung function data of 59 patients with amyloidosis involving respiratory tract collected during January 1986 to March 2005, were analysed.Results Of the 16 cases with localized respiratory tract amyloidosis, 8 had the lesions in the trachea and the bronchi, 2 in the larynx and the trachea, 5 in the larynx and/or the pharynx, and 1 in the lung parenchyma. Of 43 systemic amyloidosis with respiratory tract involvement, 3 had the lesions in bronchi, 13 in lung parenchyma, 33 in pleura, 8 in mediastina, 1 in nose and 1 in pharynx. Chest X-rays were normal in most cases of tracheobronchial amyloidosis. CT, unlike chest X-rays, showed irregular luminal narrowing, airway wall thickening with calcifications and soft tissue shadows in airway lumen. Localized lung parenchymal amyloidosis presented as multiple nodules. Multiple nodular opacities, patch shadows and reticular opacities were the main radiological findings in systemic amyloidosis with lung parenchymal involvement. In pleural amyloidosis, pleural effusions and pleural thickening were detected. Mediastinal and/or hilar adenopathy were also a form of lung involvement in systemic amyloidosis. The major bronchoscopic findings of tracheobronchial amyloidosis were narrowing of airway lumen, while nodular, 'tumour like' or 'bubble like' masses, with missing or vague cartilaginous rings, were detected in about half of the patients.Conclusions Localized respiratory tract amyloidosis mostly affects the trachea and the bronchi. Chest X-rays are not sensitive to detect these lesions. Systemic amyloidosis often involves

  3. Combining Healthcare-Based and Participatory Approaches to Surveillance: Trends in Diarrheal and Respiratory Conditions Collected by a Mobile Phone System by Community Health Workers in Rural Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Meyers

    Full Text Available Surveillance systems are increasingly relying upon community-based or crowd-sourced data to complement traditional facilities-based data sources. Data collected by community health workers during the routine course of care could combine the early warning power of community-based data collection with the predictability and diagnostic regularity of facility data. These data could inform public health responses to epidemics and spatially-clustered endemic diseases. Here, we analyze data collected on a daily basis by community health workers during the routine course of clinical care in rural Nepal. We evaluate if such community-based surveillance systems can capture temporal trends in diarrheal diseases and acute respiratory infections.During the course of their clinical activities from January to December 2013, community health workers recorded healthcare encounters using mobile phones. In parallel, we accessed condition-specific admissions from 2011-2013 in the hospital from which the community health program was based. We compared diarrhea and acute respiratory infection rates from both the hospital and the community, and assigned three categories of local disease activity (low, medium, and high to each week in each village cluster with categories determined by tertiles. We compared condition-specific mean hospital rates across categories using ANOVA to assess concordance between hospital and community-collected data.There were 2,710 cases of diarrhea and 373 cases of acute respiratory infection reported by community health workers during the one-year study period. At the hospital, the average weekly incidence of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections over the three-year period was 1.8 and 3.9 cases respectively per 1,000 people in each village cluster. In the community, the average weekly rate of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections was 2.7 and 0.5 cases respectively per 1,000 people. Both diarrhea and acute respiratory infections

  4. SU-E-T-247: Determinations of the Optimal Phase for Respiratory Gated Radiotherapy From Statistical Analysis Using a Visible Guidance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S; Yea, J; Kang, M; Lee, H; Kim, S [Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Respiratory gated radiation therapy (RGRT) is used to minimize the radiation dose to normal tissue in lung cancer patients. Determination of the optimal point in the respiratory phase of a patient is important in RGRT but it is not easy. The goal of the present study was to see if a visible guidance system is helpful in determining the optimal phase in respiratory gated therapy. Methods: The breathing signals of 23 lung cancer patients were recorded with a Real-time Position Management (RPM) respiratory gating system (Varian, USA). The patients underwent breathing training with our visible guidance system, after which their breathing signals were recorded during 5 min of free breathing and 5 min of guided breathing. The breathing signals recorded between 3 and 5 min before and after training were compared. We performed statistical analysis of the breathing signals to find the optimal duty cycle in guided breathing for RGRT. Results: The breathing signals aided by the visible guidance system had more regular cycles over time and smaller variations in the positions of the marker block than the free breathing signals. Of the 23 lung cancer patients, 19 showed statistically significant differences by time when the values obtained before and after breathing were compared (p < 0.05); 30% and 40% of the duty cycle, respectively, was determined to be the most effective, and the corresponding phases were 30 60% (duty cycle, 30%; p < 0.05) and 30 70% (duty cycle, 40%; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Respiratory regularity was significantly improved with the use of the RPM with our visible guiding system; therefore, it would help improve the accuracy and efficiency of RGRT.

  5. Decreased respiratory system compliance on the sixth day of mechanical ventilation is a predictor of death in patients with established acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthay Michael A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have identified single variables or composite scores that help risk stratify patients at the time of acute lung injury (ALI diagnosis. However, few studies have addressed the important question of how changes in pulmonary physiologic variables might predict mortality in patients during the subacute or chronic phases of ALI. We studied pulmonary physiologic variables, including respiratory system compliance, P/F ratio and oxygenation index, in a cohort of patients with ALI who survived more than 6 days of mechanical ventilation to see if changes in these variables were predictive of death and whether they are informative about the pathophysiology of subacute ALI. Methods Ninety-three patients with ALI who were mechanically ventilated for more than 6 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Patients were enrolled at two medical centers in the US, a county hospital and a large academic center. Bivariate analyses were used to identify pulmonary physiologic predictors of death during the first 6 days of mechanical ventilation. Predictors on day 1, day 6 and the changes between day 1 and day 6 were compared in a multivariate logistic regression model. Results The overall mortality was 35%. In multivariate analysis, the PaO2/FiO2 (OR 2.09, p th day of acute lung injury. In addition, a decrease in respiratory system compliance between days 1 and days 6 (OR 2.14, p Conclusions A low respiratory system compliance on day 6 or a decrease in the respiratory system compliance between the 1st and 6th day of mechanical ventilation were associated with increased mortality in multivariate analysis of this cohort of patients with ALI. We suggest that decreased respiratory system compliance may identify a subset of patients who have persistent pulmonary edema, atelectasis or the fibroproliferative sequelae of ALI and thus are less likely to survive their hospitalization.

  6. Evaluation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation system using polarography and spectrophotometric enzyme assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Antoni; Fontanesi, Flavia; Díaz, Francisca

    2009-10-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system consists of five multimeric complexes embedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane. They work in concert to drive the aerobic synthesis of ATP. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA mutations affecting the accumulation and function of these enzymes are the most common cause of mitochondrial diseases and have also been associated with neurodegeneration and aging. For this reason, several approaches for the assessment of the OXPHOS system enzymes have been developed. Based on the methods described elsewhere, the assays describe methods that form a biochemical characterization of the OXPHOS system in cells and mitochondria isolated from cultured cells or tissues.

  7. High frequency mechanical ventilation affects respiratory system mechanics differently in C57BL/6J and BALB/c adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Hélène

    2013-01-15

    We tested the hypothesis that high frequency ventilation affects respiratory system mechanical functions in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. We measured respiratory mechanics by the forced oscillation technique over 1h in anesthetized, intubated, ventilated BALB/c and C57BL/6J male mice. We did not detect any change in airway resistance, Rn, tissue damping, G, tissue elastance, H and hysteresivity, eta in BALB/c mice during 1h of ventilation at 150 or at 450 breaths/min; nor did we find a difference between BALB/c mice ventilated at 150 breaths/min compared with 450 breaths/min. Among C57BL/6J mice, except for H, all parameters remained unchanged over 1h of ventilation in mice ventilated at 150 breaths/min. However, after 10 and 30 min of ventilation at 450 breaths/min, Rn, and respiratory system compliance were lower, and eta was higher, than their starting value. We conclude that high frequency mechanical ventilation affects respiratory system mechanics differently in C57BL/6J and BALB/c adult mice.

  8. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following Acute Acrolein Inhalation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ozone, a pulmonary irritant, causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects that are attributed to neuronal and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models...

  9. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following Acute Acrolein Inhalation in Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set is an Excel file pertaining to the study that examined nasal, pulmonary, and systemic effects of acrolein in rats acutely exposed to a range of...

  10. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following Acute Acrolein Inhalation in Rats#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We e...

  11. An ECG electrode-mounted heart rate, respiratory rhythm, posture and behavior recording system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Takahiro; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Morton Caldwell, W

    2004-01-01

    R-R interval, respiration rhythm, posture and behavior recording system has been developed for monitoring a patient's cardiovascular regulatory system in daily life. The recording system consists of three ECG chest electrodes, a variable gain instrumentation amplifier, a dual axis accelerometer, a low power 8-bit single-chip microcomputer and a 1024 KB EEPROM. The complete system is mounted on the chest electrodes. R-R interval and respiration rhythm are calculated by the R waves detected from the ECG. Posture and behavior such as walking and running are detected from the body movements recorded by the accelerometer. The detected data are stored by the EEPROM and, after recording, are downloaded to a desktop computer for analysis.

  12. Primo Vascular System in the Subarachnoid Space of a Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ho Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Recently, a novel circulatory system, the primo vascular system (PVS, was found in the brain ventricles and in the central canal of the spinal cord of a rat. The aim of the current work is to detect the PVS along the transverse sinuses between the cerebrum and the cerebellum of a mouse brain. Materials and Methods. The PVS in the subarachnoid space was analyzed after staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI and phalloidin in order to identify the PVS. With confocal microscopy and polarization microscopy, the primo vessel underneath the sagittal sinus was examined. The primo nodes under the transversal sinuses were observed after peeling off the dura and pia maters of the brain. Results. The primo vessel underneath the superior sagittal sinus was observed and showed linear optical polarization, similarly to the rabbit and the rat cases. The primo nodes were observed under the left and the right transverse sinuses at distances of 3,763 μm and 5,967 μm. The average size was 155 μm × 248 μm. Conclusion. The observation of primo vessels was consistent with previous observations in rabbits and rats, and primo nodes under the transverse sinuses were observed for the first time in this work.

  13. Mouse hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin responses to probes of signal transduction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Downs, T R; Frohman, L A

    1993-01-01

    Signal transduction mechanisms involved in mouse growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) and somatostatin (SRIH) release were investigated using an in vitro perifusion system. Hypothalamic fragments were exposed to depolarizing agents, protein kinase A and C activators, and a calcium ionophore. The depolarizing agents, KCl (60 mM) and veratridine (50 microM), induced similar patterns of GRH and SRIH release. Somatostatin release in response to both agents was twofold greater than that of GRH. Forskolin (10 microM and 100 microM), an adenylate cyclase activator, stimulated both GRH and SRIH release, though with different secretory profiles. The SRIH response was prolonged and persisted beyond removal of the drug from the system, while the GRH response was brief, ending even prior to forskolin removal. Neither GRH nor SRIH were stimulated by 1,9-dideoxy-forskolin (100 microM), a forskolin analog with cAMP-independent actions. A23187 (5 microM), a calcium ionophore, stimulated the release of SRIH to a much greater extent than that of GRH. The GRH and SRIH secretory responses to PMA (1 microM), a protein kinase C activator, were similar, though delayed. The results suggest that 1) GRH and SRIH secretion are regulated by both protein kinase A and C pathways, and 2) depolarizing agents are important for the release of both hormones.

  14. Handling, genetic and housing effects on the mouse stress system, dopamine function, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariépy, Jean-Louis; Rodriguiz, Ramona Marie; Jones, Byron C

    2002-08-01

    This research was designed to examine how early stimulation (i.e., handling), subsequent housing conditions and genetic factors interact to produce adult differences in stress regulation. High-aggressive (NC900) and low-aggressive (NC100) mice were handled for 3 weeks potspartum and were subsequently isolated or grouped until observed as adults in an open field or a dyadic test. In NC100, handling abolished the temporal variations seen in open-field activity among the nonhandled subjects and reduced corticosterone (CORT) activation. In NC900, these two measures were unaffected by handling. Only among handled NC100 did subsequent group rearing further reduce CORT activation. By contrast, handling caused an up-regulation of D1 dopamine receptors in both lines, and, in NC100, this effect was increased by group rearing. In a dyadic encounter with another male mouse, subjects of both lines showed handling effects. NC100 froze less rapidly and NC900 attacked more rapidly. This multifactorial design showed that the systemic effects of handling are modulated by genetic background, and that measures of these effects are affected by experience beyond infancy. Our findings also showed that the effects of handling vary when assessed across different physiological systems and across social and nonsocial testing conditions.

  15. Partial neurorescue effects of DHA following a 6-OHDA lesion of the mouse dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombe, Katherine; Saint-Pierre, Martine; Cisbani, Giulia; St-Amour, Isabelle; Gibrat, Claire; Giguère-Rancourt, Ariane; Calon, Frédéric; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Pre-clinical data collected in mouse models of Parkinson's disease (PD) support the neuroprotective potential of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA)-enriched diet on the dopaminergic (DAergic) system. In this study, we investigated the effects of an n-3 PUFA-rich diet using a neurorescue/neurorestorative paradigm. C57BL/6 adult mice were submitted to a striatal stereotaxic injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to induce striatal DAergic denervation and subsequent nigral DAergic cell loss. Three weeks post-lesion, mice received either a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched or a control diet for a period of 6 weeks. HPLC analyses revealed a 111% post-lesion increase in striatal dopamine levels in the DHA-fed animals compared to controls (ctrl, PDHA treatment led to a 89% rise in tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive terminals within the striatum (PDHA did not change the number of TH+ neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), morphological analyses revealed an increased in perimeters (+7%) and areas (+21%) of DAergic cell bodies in treated animals. Collectively, our results suggest that DHA induces a partial neurorescue/neurorestoration of the DAergic system and support further studies to investigate the potential of a diet-based intervention, or at least the combination of such approach, to current treatments in PD.

  16. Hypothalamic neurosecretory and circadian vasopressinergic neuronal systems in the blind cone-rod homeobox knock out mouse (Crx(-/-) ) and the 129sv wild type mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Møller, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Vasopressin (AVP) is both a neuroendocrine hormone located in magnocellular neurosecretory neurons of the hypothalamus of mammals but also a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the parvocellular suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN is the endogenous clock of the brain and exhibits a prominent...... magnocellular and parvocellular vasopressinergic systems in both genotypes. We here present a detailed mapping of all classical hypothalamo-pituitary and accessory magnocellular nuclei and neurons in the hypothalamus by use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in both genotypes. Semiquantitative...... at late day time and nadir during the dark in both the Crx(-/-) and the wild type mouse. None of the magnocellular neurosecretory neurons exhibited a diurnal vasopressin expression. Light stimulation of both genotypes during the dark period did not change the Avp-expression in the SCN. This shows that Avp...

  17. The effect of carrying a portable respiratory gas analysis system on energy expenditure during incremental running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, S Andy; Orme, Duncan; Mc Naughton, Lars R

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of portable gas analysis system carriage on energy expenditure (EE) during incremental treadmill running. Eight males (Mean ± SD) age 25.0 ± 9.47 y, body mass 78.5 ± 8.39 kg, completed an experimental trial (PT) during which they wore the system in a chest harness and a control trial (CT) when the system was externally supported. Each protocol consisted of 4 min stages at speeds of 0, 4, 7, 10, 12, 14 km h(-1). Increments continued until volitional exhaustion. The EE was greater (3.95 and 7.02% at 7 and 14 km h(-1) respectively) during PT (p gas analysis systems therefore only increase EE when running sub-maximally, but VO(2max) is unaffected, suggesting that using portable gas analysis systems in field-based situations is appropriate for maximal aerobic capacity measurement, but the effects of prolonged use on EE remains unclear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. A compartmentalized mathematical model of the β1-adrenergic signaling system in mouse ventricular myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E Bondarenko

    Full Text Available The β1-adrenergic signaling system plays an important role in the functioning of cardiac cells. Experimental data shows that the activation of this system produces inotropy, lusitropy, and chronotropy in the heart, such as increased magnitude and relaxation rates of [Ca(2+]i transients and contraction force, and increased heart rhythm. However, excessive stimulation of β1-adrenergic receptors leads to heart dysfunction and heart failure. In this paper, a comprehensive, experimentally based mathematical model of the β1-adrenergic signaling system for mouse ventricular myocytes is developed, which includes major subcellular functional compartments (caveolae, extracaveolae, and cytosol. The model describes biochemical reactions that occur during stimulation of β1-adrenoceptors, changes in ionic currents, and modifications of Ca(2+ handling system. Simulations describe the dynamics of major signaling molecules, such as cyclic AMP and protein kinase A, in different subcellular compartments; the effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases on cAMP production; kinetics and magnitudes of phosphorylation of ion channels, transporters, and Ca(2+ handling proteins; modifications of action potential shape and duration; magnitudes and relaxation rates of [Ca(2+]i transients; changes in intracellular and transmembrane Ca(2+ fluxes; and [Na(+]i fluxes and dynamics. The model elucidates complex interactions of ionic currents upon activation of β1-adrenoceptors at different stimulation frequencies, which ultimately lead to a relatively modest increase in action potential duration and significant increase in [Ca(2+]i transients. In particular, the model includes two subpopulations of the L-type Ca(2+ channels, in caveolae and extracaveolae compartments, and their effects on the action potential and [Ca(2+]i transients are investigated. The presented model can be used by researchers for the interpretation of experimental data and for the developments of

  19. Efficacy of oral cochleate-amphotericin B in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, R; Paderu, P; Delmas, G; Chen, Z W; Mannino, R; Zarif, L; Perlin, D S

    2000-09-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) remains the principal therapeutic choice for deep mycoses. However, its application is limited by toxicity and a route of administration requiring slow intravenous injection. An oral formulation of this drug is desirable to treat acute infections and provide prophylactic therapy for high-risk patients. Cochleates are a novel lipid-based delivery system that have the potential for oral administration of hydrophobic drugs. They are stable phospholipid-cation crystalline structures consisting of a spiral lipid bilayer sheet with no internal aqueous space. Cochleates containing AMB (CAMB) inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of CAMB administered orally was evaluated in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The results indicate that 100% of the mice treated at all CAMB doses, including a low dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight/day, survived the experimental period (16 days). In contrast, 100% mortality was observed with untreated mice by day 12. The fungal tissue burden in kidneys and lungs was assessed in parallel, and a dose-dependent reduction in C. albicans from the kidneys was observed, with a maximum 3.5-log reduction in total cell counts at 2.5 mg/kg/day. However, complete clearance of the organism from the lungs, resulting in more than a 4-log reduction, was observed at the same dose. These results were comparable to a deoxycholate AMB formulation administered intraperitoneally at 2 mg/kg/day (P cochleates are an effective oral delivery system for AMB in a model of systemic candidiasis.

  20. Efficacy of Oral Cochleate-Amphotericin B in a Mouse Model of Systemic Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Rosaria; Paderu, Padmaja; Delmas, Guillaume; Chen, Zi-Wei; Mannino, Raphael; Zarif, Leila; Perlin, David S.

    2000-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) remains the principal therapeutic choice for deep mycoses. However, its application is limited by toxicity and a route of administration requiring slow intravenous injection. An oral formulation of this drug is desirable to treat acute infections and provide prophylactic therapy for high-risk patients. Cochleates are a novel lipid-based delivery system that have the potential for oral administration of hydrophobic drugs. They are stable phospholipid-cation crystalline structures consisting of a spiral lipid bilayer sheet with no internal aqueous space. Cochleates containing AMB (CAMB) inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of CAMB administered orally was evaluated in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The results indicate that 100% of the mice treated at all CAMB doses, including a low dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight/day, survived the experimental period (16 days). In contrast, 100% mortality was observed with untreated mice by day 12. The fungal tissue burden in kidneys and lungs was assessed in parallel, and a dose-dependent reduction in C. albicans from the kidneys was observed, with a maximum 3.5-log reduction in total cell counts at 2.5 mg/kg/day. However, complete clearance of the organism from the lungs, resulting in more than a 4-log reduction, was observed at the same dose. These results were comparable to a deoxycholate AMB formulation administered intraperitoneally at 2 mg/kg/day (P cochleates are an effective oral delivery system for AMB in a model of systemic candidiasis. PMID:10952579

  1. Ghrelin-related peptides do not modulate vasodilator nitric oxide production or superoxide levels in mouse systemic arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jacqueline M; Sleeman, Mark W; Sobey, Christopher G; Andrews, Zane B; Miller, Alyson A

    2016-04-01

    The ghrelin gene is expressed in the stomach where it ultimately encodes up to three peptides, namely, acylated ghrelin, des-acylated ghrelin and obestatin, which all have neuroendocrine roles. Recently, the authors' reported that these peptides have important physiological roles in positively regulating vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) production in the cerebral circulation, and may normally suppress superoxide production by the pro-oxidant enzyme, Nox2-NADPH oxidase. To date, the majority of studies using exogenous peptides infer that they may have similar roles in the systemic circulation. Therefore, this study examined whether exogenous and endogenous ghrelin-related peptides modulate NO production and superoxide levels in mouse mesenteric arteries and/or thoracic aorta. Using wire myography, it was found that application of exogenous acylated ghrelin, des-acylated ghrelin or obestatin to mouse thoracic aorta or mesenteric arteries failed to elicit a vasorelaxation response, whereas all three peptides elicited vasorelaxation responses of rat thoracic aorta. Also, none of the peptides modulated mouse aortic superoxide levels as measured by L-012-enhanced chemiluminescence. Next, it was found that NO bioactivity and superoxide levels were unaffected in the thoracic aorta from ghrelin-deficient mice when compared with wild-type mice. Lastly, using novel GHSR-eGFP reporter mice in combination with double-labelled immunofluorescence, no evidence was found for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR1a) in the throracic aorta, which is the only functional ghrelin receptor identified to date. Collectively these findings demonstrate that, in contrast to systemic vessels of other species (e.g. rat and human) and mouse cerebral vessels, ghrelin-related peptides do not modulate vasodilator NO production or superoxide levels in mouse systemic arteries.

  2. Evaluation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation system using yeast models of OXPHOS deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, Flavia; Diaz, Francisca; Barrientos, Antoni

    2009-10-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system consists of five multimeric complexes embedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane. They work in concert to drive the aerobic synthesis of ATP. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA mutations affecting the accumulation and function of these enzymes are the most common cause of mitochondrial diseases and have also been associated with neurodegeneration and aging. Several approaches for the assessment of the OXPHOS system enzymes have been developed. Based on the methods described elsewhere, this unit describes the creation and study of yeast models of mitochondrial OXPHOS deficiencies.

  3. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency and the elderly patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobarzan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Chronic respiratory failure is a complex entity of varied etiology and physio-pathological mechanisms. It is mainly characterised by the respiratory system's difficulty in ensuring correct aeration at rest, resulting initially in insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood. Treatment is adapted to each etiology and aims to compensate for respiratory failure and to ensure the oxygenation of the organism.

  4. A neuroanatomical and physiological study of the non-image forming visual system of the cone-rod homeobox gene (Crx) knock out mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Rath, Martin F; Lund-Andersen, Casper

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy and physiology of the non-image forming visual system was investigated in a visually blind cone-rod homeobox gene (Crx) knock-out mouse (Crx(-)(/)(-)), which lacks the outer segments of the photoreceptors. We show that the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the Crx(-/-) mouse exhibit...

  5. Obesity and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-10-20

    The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.

  6. A Self-regulatory System of Interlinked Signaling Feedback Loops Controls Mouse Limb Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazet, Jean-Denis; Bischofberger, Mirko; Tiecke, Eva; Gonalves, Alexandre; Martin, James F.; Zuniga, Aime; Naef, Felix; Zeller, Rolf

    Developmental pathways need to be robust against environmental and genetic variation to enable reliable morphogenesis. Here, we take a systems biology approach to explain how robustness is achieved in the developing mouse limb, a classical model of organogenesis. By combining quantitative genetics with computational modeling we established a computational model of multiple interlocked feedback modules, involving sonic hedgehog (SHH) morphogen, fibroblast growth factor (FGFs) signaling, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and its antagonist GREM1. Earlier modeling work had emphasized the versatile kinetic characteristics of interlocked feedback loops operating at different time scales. Here we develop and then validate a similar computational model to show how BMP4 first initiates and SHH then propagates feedback in the network through differential transcriptional regulation of Grem1 to control digit specification. This switch occurs by linking a fast BMP4/GREM1 module to a slower SHH/GREM1/FGF feedback loop. Simulated gene expression profiles modeled normal limb development as well those of single-gene knockouts. Sensitivity analysis showed how the model was robust and insensitive to variability in parameters. A surprising prediction of the model was that an early Bmp4 signal is essential to kick-start Grem1 expression and the digit specification system. We experimentally validated the prediction using inducible alleles and showed that early, but not late, removal of Bmp4 dramatically disrupted limb development. Sensitivity analysis showed how robustness emerges from this circuitry. This study shows how modeling and computation can help us understand how self-regulatory signaling networks achieve robust regulation of limb development, by exploiting interconnectivity among the three signaling pathways. We expect that similar computational analyses will shed light on the origins of robustness in other developmental systems, and I will discuss some recent examples from

  7. Molecular components and functions of the endocannabinoid system in mouse prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lafourcade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids have deleterious effects on prefrontal cortex (PFC-mediated functions and multiple evidences link the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid system, cannabis use and schizophrenia, a disease in which PFC functions are altered. Nonetheless, the molecular composition and the physiological functions of the endocannabinoid system in the PFC are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, using electron microscopy we found that key proteins involved in endocannabinoid signaling are expressed in layers v/vi of the mouse prelimbic area of the PFC: presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R faced postsynaptic mGluR5 while diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DGL-alpha, the enzyme generating the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG was expressed in the same dendritic processes as mGluR5. Activation of presynaptic CB1R strongly inhibited evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents. Prolonged synaptic stimulation at 10Hz induced a profound long-term depression (LTD of layers V/VI excitatory inputs. The endocannabinoid -LTD was presynaptically expressed and depended on the activation of postsynaptic mGluR5, phospholipase C and a rise in postsynaptic Ca(2+ as predicted from the localization of the different components of the endocannabinoid system. Blocking the degradation of 2-AG (with URB 602 but not of anandamide (with URB 597 converted subthreshold tetanus to LTD-inducing ones. Moreover, inhibiting the synthesis of 2-AG with Tetrahydrolipstatin, blocked endocannabinoid-mediated LTD. All together, our data show that 2-AG mediates LTD at these synapses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show that the endocannabinoid -retrograde signaling plays a prominent role in long-term synaptic plasticity at the excitatory synapses of the PFC. Alterations of endocannabinoid -mediated synaptic plasticity may participate to the etiology of PFC-related pathologies.

  8. Deletion of mouse FXR gene disturbs multiple neurotransmitter systems and alters neurobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Wang, Tingting; Lan, Yunyi; Yang, Li; Pan, Weihong; Zhu, Yonghui; Lv, Boyang; Wei, Yuting; Shi, Hailian; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Jie; Duan, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhibi; Wu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in bile acid synthesis and homeostasis. Dysfunction of FXR is involved in cholestasis and atherosclerosis. FXR is prevalent in liver, gallbladder, and intestine, but it is not yet clear whether it modulates neurobehavior. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that mouse FXR deficiency affects a specific subset of neurotransmitters and results in an unique behavioral phenotype. The FXR knockout mice showed less depressive-like and anxiety-related behavior, but increased motor activity. They had impaired memory and reduced motor coordination. There were changes of glutamatergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, and norepinephrinergic neurotransmission in either hippocampus or cerebellum. FXR deletion decreased the amount of the GABA synthesis enzyme GAD65 in hippocampus but increased GABA transporter GAT1 in cerebral cortex. FXR deletion increased serum concentrations of many bile acids, including taurodehydrocholic acid, taurocholic acid, deoxycholic acid (DCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), tauro-α-muricholic acid, tauro-ω-muricholic acid, and hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA). There were also changes in brain concentrations of taurocholic acid, taurodehydrocholic acid, tauro-ω-muricholic acid, tauro-β-muricholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and lithocholic acid (LCA). Taken together, the results from studies with FXR knockout mice suggest that FXR contributes to the homeostasis of multiple neurotransmitter systems in different brain regions and modulates neurobehavior. The effect appears to be at least partially mediated by bile acids that are known to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) inducing potential neurotoxicity.

  9. Combined mucoactive therapy of diseases of the respiratory system associated with formation of a viscous secretion in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Kryvopustov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers in detail the mechanisms of therapeutic action of various mucoactive agents. Modern approaches to mucoactive therapy of respiratory diseases in children are presented, they are accompanied by the formation of a viscous secretion. At the same time, the expediency of combined use of drugs having different mechanism of mucoactive action — ambroxol and carbocysteine is justified. In addition, it helps to increase the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy for respiratory diseases.

  10. Effects of pressure-controlled and volume-controlled ventilation on respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response during prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Oznur; Bakan, Mefkur; Umutoglu, Tarik; Aydın, Nurdan; Toptas, Mehmet; Akkoc, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Prone position during general anesthesia for special surgical operations may be related with increased airway pressure, decreased pulmonary and thoracic compliance that may be explained by restriction of chest expansion and compression of abdomen. The optimum ventilation mode for anesthetized patients on prone position was not described and studies comparing volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) during prone position are limited. We hypothesized that PCV instead of VCV during prone position could achieve lower airway pressures and reduce the systemic stress response. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of PCV and VCV modes during prone position on respiratory mechanics, oxygenation, and hemodynamics, as well as blood cortisol and insulin levels, which has not been investigated before. Fifty-four ASA I-II patients, 18-70 years of age, who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy on prone position, were randomly selected to receive either the PCV (Group PC, n = 27) or VCV (Group VC, n = 27) under general anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl. Blood sampling was made for baseline arterial blood gases (ABG), cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels. After anesthesia induction and endotracheal intubation, patients in Group PC were given pressure support to form 8 mL/kg tidal volume and patients in Group VC was maintained at 8 mL/kg tidal volume calculated using predicted body weight. All patients were maintained with 5 cmH2O PEEP. Respiratory parameters were recorded during supine and prone position. Assessment of ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin and glucose levels were repeated during surgery and 60 min after extubation. P-peak and P-plateau levels during supine and prone positions were significantly higher and P-mean and compliance levels during prone position were significantly lower in Group VC when compared with Group PC. Postoperative PaO2 level was significantly higher in Group PC compared with Group

  11. Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease secondary to electronic nicotine delivery system use confirmed with open lung biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Mark; Nandakumar, Lakshmy; Singh, Mahendra; Wyld, David; Windsor, Morgan; Fielding, David

    2017-05-01

    As a modern phenomenon, there is currently limited understanding of the possible toxic effects and broader implications of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Large volumes of aerosolized particles are inhaled during "vaping" and there are now an increasing number of case reports demonstrating toxic effects of ENDS, as well as human studies demonstrating impaired lung function in users. This article presents a case of respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) precipitated by vaping in a 33-year-old male with 10 pack years of traditional cigarette and prior treatment for mixed germ cell tumour. The patient had started vaping 10-15 times per day while continuing to smoke 10 traditional cigarettes per day. After 3 months of exposure to e-cigarette vapour, chest computed tomography demonstrated multiple new poorly defined pulmonary nodules with fluffy parenchyma opacification centred along the terminal bronchovascular units. Video-assisted thoracoscopy with lung biopsy of the right upper and right middle lobes was undertaken. The microscopic findings were overall consistent with RB-ILD. This case demonstrates toxicity with use of ENDS on open lung biopsy with resolution of radiographic findings on cessation. We believe that this is the first case where open lung biopsy has demonstrated this and our findings are consistent with RB-ILD.

  12. Oscillating perceptions: the ups and downs of the CLOCK protein in the mouse circadian system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jason P. Debruyne

    2008-12-01

    A functional mouse CLOCK protein has long been thought to be essential for mammalian circadian clockwork function, based mainly on studies of mice bearing a dominant negative, antimorphic mutation in the Clock gene. However, new discoveries using recently developed Clock-null mutant mice have shaken up this view. In this review, I discuss how this recent work impacts and alters the previous view of the role of CLOCK in the mouse circadian clockwork.

  13. Respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930118 Facial or nasal mask pressure supportventilation in managing acute exacerbation ofchronic respiratory failure in COPD patients.CHEN Rongchang(陈荣昌),et al.GuangzhouInstit Respir Dis,Guangzhou 510120.Chin Tu-berc & Respir Dis 1992;15(5)285-287.Eleven COPD patients(age:65±9 yrs)withacute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure(PaCO2 11.3±1.1kPa)were treated with maskpressure support ventilation,another 10 similarpatients(age:68±12yrs)served as controls.Bi-PAP ventilator was used with the followingmodifications:(1)Non-rehreathing valve set-in proximal to mask;(2)5 LPM oxygen flow de-livered into mask to reduce the dead space ef-fect.Mask ventilation was given 2-3 hours ev-ery time and 1-2 times daily for 7 days.Syn-

  14. Effect of Systemic Iron Overload and a Chelation Therapy in a Mouse Model of the Neurodegenerative Disease Hereditary Ferritinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Goodwin, Charles B.; Richine, Briana; Acton, Anthony; Chan, Rebecca J.; Peacock, Munro; Muhoberac, Barry B.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene cause the neurodegenerative disease neuroferritinopathy or hereditary ferritinopathy (HF). HF is characterized by a severe movement disorder and by the presence of nuclear and cytoplasmic iron-containing ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs) in glia and neurons throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and in tissues of multiple organ systems. Herein, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts from a mouse model of HF, we show significant intracellular accumulation of ferritin and an increase in susceptibility to oxidative damage when cells are exposed to iron. Treatment of the cells with the iron chelator deferiprone (DFP) led to a significant improvement in cell viability and a decrease in iron content. In vivo, iron overload and DFP treatment of the mouse model had remarkable effects on systemic iron homeostasis and ferritin deposition, without significantly affecting CNS pathology. Our study highlights the role of iron in modulating ferritin aggregation in vivo in the disease HF. It also puts emphasis on the potential usefulness of a therapy based on chelators that can target the CNS to remove and redistribute iron and to resolubilize or prevent ferritin aggregation while maintaining normal systemic iron stores. PMID:27574973

  15. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  16. Accelerating discovery for complex neurological and behavioral disorders through systems genetics and integrative genomics in the laboratory mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jason A; Chesler, Elissa J

    2012-04-01

    Recent advances in systems genetics and integrative functional genomics have greatly improved the study of complex neurological and behavioral traits. The methods developed for the integrated characterization of new, high-resolution mouse genetic reference populations and systems genetics enable behavioral geneticists an unprecedented opportunity to address questions of the molecular basis of neurological and psychiatric disorders and their comorbidities. Integrative genomics augment these strategies by enabling rapid informatics-assisted candidate gene prioritization, cross-species translation, and mechanistic comparison across related disorders from a wealth of existing data in mouse and other model organisms. Ultimately, through these complementary approaches, finding the mechanisms and sources of genetic variation underlying complex neurobehavioral disease related traits is becoming tractable. Furthermore, these methods enable categorization of neurobehavioral disorders through their underlying biological basis. Together, these model organism-based approaches can lead to a refinement of diagnostic categories and targeted treatment of neurological and psychiatric disease.

  17. Efficacy of caspofungin in a juvenile mouse model of central nervous system candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flattery, Amy M; Hickey, Emily; Gill, Charles J; Powles, Mary Ann; Misura, Andrew S; Galgoci, Andrew M; Ellis, Joan D; Zhang, Rena; Sandhu, Punam; Ronan, John; Abruzzo, George K

    2011-07-01

    Neonatal candidiasis is an increasingly common occurrence causing significant morbidity and mortality and a higher risk of dissemination to the central nervous system (CNS) than that seen with older patients. The current understanding of optimal antifungal therapy in this setting is limited. We have developed a model of disseminated candidiasis with CNS involvement in juvenile mice to assess the efficacy of the echinocandin caspofungin relative to amphotericin B (AmB). Juvenile mice were inoculated intravenously with 5.64 × 10(4) CFU of Candida albicans MY1055. Treatment with caspofungin at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg of body weight/day, AmB at 1 mg/kg/day, or a vehicle control (VC) was initiated 30 h after infection and continued for 7 days. Pharmacokinetic parameters for caspofungin were also determined. Culture and histology showed evidence of disseminated candidiasis with multifocal encephalitis at the start of antifungal therapy. Survival was 100% in all treated groups, while mortality was 100% in the VC by day 11 after infection. By day 5, all mice in the caspofungin treatment (four doses) groups showed reductions in kidney and brain burden relative to the VC, while AmB treatment reduced kidney burden but gave no reduction of brain fungal burden. Systemic levels of caspofungin were similar in infected and uninfected mice, while brain levels were higher in infected animals. In this juvenile mouse model, caspofungin demonstrated dose-dependent activity, equivalent to or better than that of AmB at 1 mg/kg, against disseminated candidiasis with CNS involvement.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy: immunomodulation and neuroprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Stemberger

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are currently strong candidates for cell-based therapies. They are well known for their differentiation potential and immunoregulatory properties and have been proven to be potentially effective in the treatment of a large variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Currently there is no treatment that provides consistent long-term benefits for patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA, a fatal late onset α-synucleinopathy. Principally neuroprotective or regenerative strategies, including cell-based therapies, represent a powerful approach for treating MSA. In this study we investigated the efficacy of intravenously applied MSCs in terms of behavioural improvement, neuroprotection and modulation of neuroinflammation in the (PLP-αsynuclein (αSYN MSA model.MSCs were intravenously applied in aged (PLP-αSYN transgenic mice. Behavioural analyses, defining fine motor coordination and balance capabilities as well as stride length analysis, were performed to measure behavioural outcome. Neuroprotection was assessed by quantifying TH neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc. MSC treatment on neuroinflammation was analysed by cytokine measurements (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, GM-CSF, INFγ, MCP-1, TGF-β1, TNF-α in brain lysates together with immunohistochemistry for T-cells and microglia. Four weeks post MSC treatment we observed neuroprotection in the SNc, as well as downregulation of cytokines involved in neuroinflammation. However, there was no behavioural improvement after MSC application.To our knowledge this is the first experimental approach of MSC treatment in a transgenic MSA mouse model. Our data suggest that intravenously infused MSCs have a potent effect on immunomodulation and neuroprotection. Our data warrant further studies to elucidate the efficacy of systemically administered MSCs in transgenic MSA models.

  19. Therapeutic impact of systemic AAV-mediated RNA interference in a mouse model of myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, Darren R; Stepniak-Konieczna, Ewa A; Zavaljevski, Maja; Wei, Jessica; Carter, Gregory T; Weiss, Michael D; Chamberlain, Joel R

    2015-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) offers a promising therapeutic approach for dominant genetic disorders that involve gain-of-function mechanisms. One candidate disease for RNAi therapy application is myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), which results from toxicity of a mutant mRNA. DM1 is caused by expansion of a CTG repeat in the 3' UTR of the DMPK gene. The expression of DMPK mRNA containing an expanded CUG repeat (CUG(exp)) leads to defects in RNA biogenesis and turnover. We designed miRNA-based RNAi hairpins to target the CUG(exp) mRNA in the human α-skeletal muscle actin long-repeat (HSA(LR)) mouse model of DM1. RNAi expression cassettes were delivered to HSA(LR) mice using recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors injected intravenously as a route to systemic gene therapy. Vector delivery significantly reduced disease pathology in muscles of the HSA(LR) mice, including a reduction in the CUG(exp) mRNA, a reduction in myotonic discharges, a shift toward adult pre-mRNA splicing patterns, reduced myofiber hypertrophy and a decrease in myonuclear foci containing the CUG(exp) mRNA. Significant reversal of hallmarks of DM1 in the rAAV RNAi-treated HSA(LR) mice indicate that defects characteristic of DM1 can be mitigated with a systemic RNAi approach targeting the nuclei of terminally differentiated myofibers. Efficient rAAV-mediated delivery of RNAi has the potential to provide a long-term therapy for DM1 and other dominant muscular dystrophies.

  20. Effects of High Altitude on Sleep and Respiratory System and Theirs Adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude (HA environments have adverse effects on the normal functioning body of people accustomed to living at low altitudes because of the change in barometric pressure which causes decrease in the amount of oxygen leading to hypobaric hypoxia. Sustained exposure to hypoxia has adverse effects on body weight, muscle structure and exercise capacity, mental functioning, and sleep quality. The most important step of acclimatization is the hyperventilation which is achieved by hypoxic ventilatory response of the peripheral chemoreceptors. Hyperventilation results in increase in arterial carbondioxide concentration. Altitude also affects sleep and cardiac output, which is the other determinant of oxygen delivery. Upon initial exposure to HA, the resting pulse rate increases rapidly, but with acclimatization, heart rate and cardiac output tend to fall. Another important component that leads to decrease in cardiac output is the reduction in the stroke volume with acclimatization. During sleep at HA, the levels of CO2 in the blood can drop very low and this can switch off the drive to breathe. Only after the body senses a further drop in O2 levels breathing is started again. Periodic breathing is thought to result from instability in the control system through the hypoxic drive or the response to CO2.

  1. Evidence Suggesting a Role of Iron in a Mouse Model of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhanda Bose

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is associated with gadolinium contrast exposure in patients with reduced kidney function and carries high morbidity and mortality. We have previously demonstrated that gadolinium contrast agents induce in vivo systemic iron mobilization and in vitro differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into ferroportin (iron exporter-expressing fibrocytic cells. In the present study we examined the role of iron in a mouse model of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Chronic kidney disease was induced in 8-week-old male Balb/C mice with a two-step 5/6 nephrectomy surgery. Five groups of mice were studied: control (n = 5, sham surgery control (n = 5, chronic kidney disease control (n = 4, chronic kidney disease injected with 0.5 mmol/kg body weight of Omniscan 3 days per week, for a total of 10 injections (n = 8, and chronic kidney disease with Omniscan plus deferiprone, 125 mg/kg, in drinking water (n = 9. Deferiprone was continued for 16 weeks until the end of the experiment. Mice with chronic kidney disease injected with Omniscan developed skin changes characteristic of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis including hair loss, reddening, ulceration, and skin tightening by 10 to 16 weeks. Histopathological sections demonstrated dermal fibrosis with increased skin thickness (0.25±0.06 mm, sham; 0.34±+0.3 mm, Omniscan-injected. Additionally, we observed an increase in tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells accompanied by tissue iron accumulation in the skin of the Omniscan-treated mice. The deferiprone-treated group had significantly decreased skin thickness (p<0.05 and significantly decreased dermal fibrosis compared to the Omniscan-only group. In addition, iron chelation prevented tissue infiltration of ferroportin-expressing, fibrocyte-like cells. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to Omniscan resulted in the release of catalytic iron and this was prevented by the iron chelator

  2. Usability Evaluation of Windows 8 with Keyboard and Mouse: Challenges Related to Operating System Migration in Large Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Nikolas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the usability of Windows 8 when using keyboard and mouse. Sub goals have been to uncover the usability problems and to generate recommendations for organizations upgrading to Windows 8.Usability testing according to ISO/IEC 25062:2006 was performed on users that had experience from Windows 7. Tests were performed on both Windows 7 and 8 for comparison purposes. Interviews with administrators involved in the operating system migration process were...

  3. Sub-Chronic Neuropathological and Biochemical Changes in Mouse Visual System after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Radouil Tzekov; Clint Dawson; Megan Orlando; Benoit Mouzon; Jon Reed; James Evans; Gogce Crynen; Michael Mullan; Fiona Crawford

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) results in neuropathological and biochemical consequences in the human visual system. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, with control mice receiving repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham) we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology, immunohistochemistry, proteomic and lipidomic analyses at 3 weeks post injury. Retina tissue was used to determine retinal ganglion cell (RGC) number, while optic nerve tissue w...

  4. General Pharmacology of Artesunate, a Commonly used Antimalarial Drug:Effects on Central Nervous, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang-Ae; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Eun-Joo

    2010-09-01

    Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, is used primarily as a treatment for malaria. Its effects on the central nervous system, general behavior, and cardiovascular, respiratory, and other organ systems were studied using mice, rats, guinea pigs, and dogs. Artesunate was administered orally to mice at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg and to rats and guinea pigs at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg. In dogs, test drugs were administered orally in gelatin capsules at doses of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg. Artesunate induced insignificant changes in general pharmacological studies, including general behavior, motor coordination, body temperature, analgesia, convulsion modulation, blood pressure, heart rate (HR) , and electrocardiogram (ECG) in dogs in vivo; respiration in guinea pigs; and gut motility or direct effects on isolated guinea pig ileum, contractile responses, and renal function. On the other hand, artesunate decreased the HR and coronary flow rate (CFR) in the rat in vitro; however, the extent of the changes was small and they were not confirmed in in vivo studies in the dog. Artesunate increased hexobarbital-induced sleeping time in a dose-related manner. Artesunate induced dose-related decreases in the volume of gastric secretions and the total acidity of gastric contents, and induced increases in pH at a dose of 400 mg/kg. However, all of these changes were observed at doses much greater than clinical therapeutic doses (2.4 mg/kg in humans, when used as an anti-malarial) . Thus, it can be concluded that artesunate is safe at clinical therapeutic doses.

  5. Exposure assessment by physiologic sampling pump--prediction of minute ventilation using a portable respiratory inductive plethysmograph system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-I; Groves, William A; Freivalds, Andris; Lee, Eun Gyung; Harper, Martin; Slaven, James E; Lee, Larry

    2008-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate a portable respiratory inductive plethysmograph (RIP) as a means to estimate minute ventilation (V(E)) for use in controlling the flow rate of a physiologic sampling pump (PSP). Specific aims were to: (1) evaluate the ability of the portable RIP system to measure V(E) using a direct (individual) fixed-volume calibration method (Direct RIP model), (2) develop and evaluate the performance of indirect (group) regression models for V(E) prediction using output data from the portable RIP and subject demographic characteristics (Indirect RIP model), and (3) compare V(E) estimates from indirect and direct portable RIP calibration with indirect estimation models published previously. Nine subjects (19-44 years) were divided into calibration (n = 6) and test (n = 3) datasets and performed step-tests on three different days while wearing the portable RIP and breathing through a pneumotachometer (reference). Minute ventilation and portable RIP output including heart rate, breathing rate, and a motion index were recorded simultaneously during the 80 minute sessions. Calibration data were used to develop a regression model for V(E) prediction that was subsequently applied to the test dataset. Direct calibration of the portable RIP system produced highly variable estimates of V(E) (R2 = 0.62, average % error = 15 +/- 50) while Indirect RIP model results were highly correlated with the reference (R2 = 0.80-0.88) and estimates of total volume were within 10% of reference values on average. Although developed from a limited dataset, the Indirect RIP model provided an alternative approach to estimation of V(E) and total volume with accuracy comparable to previously published models.

  6. [Respiratory complications after transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records.

  7. Jellyfish blooms result in a major microbial respiratory sink of carbon in marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Robert H; Steinberg, Deborah K; del Giorgio, Paul A; Bouvier, Thierry C; Bronk, Deborah A; Graham, William M; Ducklow, Hugh W

    2011-06-21

    Jellyfish blooms occur in many estuarine and coastal regions and may be increasing in their magnitude and extent worldwide. Voracious jellyfish predation impacts food webs by converting large quantities of carbon (C), fixed by primary producers and consumed by secondary producers, into gelatinous biomass, which restricts C transfer to higher trophic levels because jellyfish are not readily consumed by other predators. In addition, jellyfish release colloidal and dissolved organic matter (jelly-DOM), and could further influence the functioning of coastal systems by altering microbial nutrient and DOM pathways, yet the links between jellyfish and bacterioplankton metabolism and community structure are unknown. Here we report that jellyfish released substantial quantities of extremely labile C-rich DOM, relative to nitrogen (25.6 ± 31.6 C:1N), which was quickly metabolized by bacterioplankton at uptake rates two to six times that of bulk DOM pools. When jelly-DOM was consumed it was shunted toward bacterial respiration rather than production, significantly reducing bacterial growth efficiencies by 10% to 15%. Jelly-DOM also favored the rapid growth and dominance of specific bacterial phylogenetic groups (primarily γ-proteobacteria) that were rare in ambient waters, implying that jelly-DOM was channeled through a small component of the in situ microbial assemblage and thus induced large changes in community composition. Our findings suggest major shifts in microbial structure and function associated with jellyfish blooms, and a large detour of C toward bacterial CO(2) production and away from higher trophic levels. These results further suggest fundamental transformations in the biogeochemical functioning and biological structure of food webs associated with jellyfish blooms.

  8. [Determination of the contents of trace elements in chinese herbal medicines for treating respiratory system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2008-02-01

    There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory.

  9. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Pat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC and augmented RIC (aRIC models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B and post- bronchodilation (post-B conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI. The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp and peripheral resistance (Rp tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle" showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In

  10. Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika; Klingel, Karin; Kowalczuk, Sonja; Rasko, John E J; Cavanaugh, Juleen; Bröer, Stefan

    2004-06-04

    Resorption of amino acids in kidney and intestine is mediated by transporters, which prefer groups of amino acids with similar physico-chemical properties. It is generally assumed that most neutral amino acids are transported across the apical membrane of epithelial cells by system B(0). Here we have characterized a novel member of the Na(+)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family (B(0)AT1) isolated from mouse kidney, which shows all properties of system B(0). Flux experiments showed that the transporter is Na(+)-dependent, electrogenic, and actively transports most neutral amino acids but not anionic or cationic amino acids. Superfusion of mB(0)AT1-expressing oocytes with neutral amino acids generated inward currents, which were proportional to the fluxes observed with labeled amino acids. In situ hybridization showed strong expression in intestinal microvilli and in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Expression of mouse B(0)AT1 was restricted to kidney, intestine, and skin. It is generally assumed that mutations of the system B(0) transporter underlie autosomal recessive Hartnup disorder. In support of this notion mB(0)AT1 is located on mouse chromosome 13 in a region syntenic to human chromosome 5p15, the locus of Hartnup disorder. Thus, the human homologue of this transporter is an excellent functional and positional candidate for Hartnup disorder.

  11. [A case of bladder cancer producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 causing respiratory failure treated with neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy along with sivelestat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Kyosuke; Okumi, Masayoshi; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Yazawa, Koji; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Uchida, Kinya; Nonomura, Norio

    2013-07-01

    A 67-year-old man visited an urological clinic with a chief complaint of urination pain. Cystourethroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed a bladder tumor (cT3bN0M0). Marked leukocytosis and respiratory distress with pleural effusion appeared. Pulse steroid therapy improved the general condition partially. The patient was sent to our hospital for further examination. Serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were high and the pathological findings of bladder tumor obtained by transurethral resection (TUR) revealed an urothelial carcinoma that produced G-CSF and IL-6. Neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy was performed along with use of steroid and sivelestat, which ameliorated the respiratory distress. After three courses of systemic chemotherapy, serum G-CSF and IL-6 normalized and cystoprostatectomy was performed. The patient has been in good health at 20 months after the surgery with no evidence of recurrence.

  12. Assessing the impact of technology of the physical rehabilitation on functionality of the respiratory system of the children with functional single ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Vitomskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the effectiveness of technology in physical rehabilitation of children with functional single ventricle after hemodynamic correction. Material and Methods: 35 patients were examined, aimed at conducting hemodynamic correction including 23 boys and 12 girls aged from 6 to 14 years. A study was conducted using spirography at various stages of physical rehabilitation. The data were processed by adequate methods of mathematical statistics. Results: found reduced function of the respiratory system prior to the surgery. Operation led to a deterioration of most indicators of external respiration. After the rehabilitation course marked by recovery and improvement condition of the respiratory system. Conclusions: the applied technology of physical rehabilitation was effective

  13. Respiratory paradoxical adverse drug reactions associated with acetylcysteine and carbocysteine systemic use in paediatric patients: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Mallet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report pediatric cases of paradoxical respiratory adverse drug reactions (ADRs after exposure to oral mucolytic drugs (carbocysteine, acetylcysteine that led to the withdrawal of licenses for these drugs for infants in France and then Italy. DESIGN: The study followed the recommendations of the European guidelines of pharmacovigilance for medicines used in the paediatric population. SETTING: Cases voluntarily reported by physicians from 1989 to 2008 were identified in the national French pharmacovigilance public database and in drug company databases. PATIENTS: The definition of paradoxical respiratory ADRs was based on the literature. Exposure to mucolytic drugs was arbitrarily defined as having received mucolytic drugs for at least 2 days (>200 mg and at least until the day before the first signs of the suspected ADR. RESULTS: The non-exclusive paradoxical respiratory ADRs reported in 59 paediatric patients (median age 5 months, range 3 weeks to 34 months, 98% younger than 2 years old were increased bronchorrhea or mucus vomiting (n = 27, worsening of respiratory distress during respiratory tract infection (n = 35, dyspnoea (n = 18, cough aggravation or prolongation (n = 11, and bronchospasm (n = 1. Fifty-one (86% children required hospitalization or extended hospitalization because of the ADR; one patient died of pulmonary oedema after mucus vomiting. CONCLUSION: Parents, physicians, pharmacists, and drug regulatory agencies should know that the benefit risk ratio of mucolytic drugs is at least null and most probably negative in infants according to available evidence.

  14. Respiratory paradoxical adverse drug reactions associated with acetylcysteine and carbocysteine systemic use in paediatric patients: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Pauline; Mourdi, Nadjette; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Bavoux, Françoise; Boyer-Gervoise, Marie-José; Jean-Pastor, Marie-Josèphe; Chalumeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    To report pediatric cases of paradoxical respiratory adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after exposure to oral mucolytic drugs (carbocysteine, acetylcysteine) that led to the withdrawal of licenses for these drugs for infants in France and then Italy. The study followed the recommendations of the European guidelines of pharmacovigilance for medicines used in the paediatric population. Cases voluntarily reported by physicians from 1989 to 2008 were identified in the national French pharmacovigilance public database and in drug company databases. The definition of paradoxical respiratory ADRs was based on the literature. Exposure to mucolytic drugs was arbitrarily defined as having received mucolytic drugs for at least 2 days (>200 mg) and at least until the day before the first signs of the suspected ADR. The non-exclusive paradoxical respiratory ADRs reported in 59 paediatric patients (median age 5 months, range 3 weeks to 34 months, 98% younger than 2 years old) were increased bronchorrhea or mucus vomiting (n = 27), worsening of respiratory distress during respiratory tract infection (n = 35), dyspnoea (n = 18), cough aggravation or prolongation (n = 11), and bronchospasm (n = 1). Fifty-one (86%) children required hospitalization or extended hospitalization because of the ADR; one patient died of pulmonary oedema after mucus vomiting. Parents, physicians, pharmacists, and drug regulatory agencies should know that the benefit risk ratio of mucolytic drugs is at least null and most probably negative in infants according to available evidence.

  15. Use of a feline respiratory epithelial cell culture system grown at the air-liquid interface to characterize the innate immune response following feline herpesvirus 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelli, Rahul K; Maes, Roger; Kiupel, Matti; Hussey, Gisela Soboll

    2016-03-02

    Infection with feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) accounts for 50% of viral upper respiratory diseases in domestic cats and is a significant cause of ocular diseases. Despite the clinical significance and high prevalence of FHV-1 infection, currently available vaccines cannot completely protect cats from infection and lifelong latency. FHV-1 infects via the mucous membranes and replicates in respiratory epithelial cells, but very little is known about the early innate immunity at this site. To address questions about immunity to FHV-1, feline respiratory epithelial cells cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI-FRECs) were established by collecting respiratory tracts from 6 healthy cats after euthanasia. Cells were isolated, cultured and characterized histologically and immunologically before infection with FHV-1. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokine and chemokine responses were measured by real time PCR. ALI-FRECs morphologically resembled the natural airways of cats with multilayered columnar epithelial cells and cilia. Immunological properties of the natural airways were maintained in ALI-FRECs, as evidenced by the expression of TLRs, cytokines, chemokines, interferons, beta-defensins, and other regulatory genes. Furthermore, ALI-FRECs were able to support infection and replication of FHV-1, as well as modulate transcriptional regulation of various immune genes in response to infection. IL-1β and TNFα were increased in ALI-FRECs by 24hpi, whereas expression levels of IFN-α and TLR9 were not increased until 36hpi. In contrast, TLR3, GM-CSF and TGF-1β expression was down-regulated at 36hpi. The data presented show the development of a system ideal for investigating the molecular pathogenesis and immunity of FHV-1 or other respiratory pathogens.

  16. Mild systemic inflammation and moderate hypoxia transiently alter neuronal excitability in mouse somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordel, Jérôme; Sheikh, Aminah; Tsohataridis, Simeon; Kanold, Patrick O; Zehendner, Christoph M; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-04-01

    During the perinatal period, the brain is highly vulnerable to hypoxia and inflammation, which often cause white matter injury and long-term neuronal dysfunction such as motor and cognitive deficits or epileptic seizures. We studied the effects of moderate hypoxia (HYPO), mild systemic inflammation (INFL), or the combination of both (HYPO+INFL) in mouse somatosensory cortex induced during the first postnatal week on network activity and compared it to activity in SHAM control animals. By performing in vitro electrophysiological recordings with multi-electrode arrays from slices prepared directly after injury (P8-10), one week after injury (P13-16), or in young adults (P28-30), we investigated how the neocortical network developed following these insults. No significant difference was observed between the four groups in an extracellular solution close to physiological conditions. In extracellular 8mM potassium solution, slices from the HYPO, INFL, and HYPO+INFL group were more excitable than SHAM at P8-10 and P13-16. In these two age groups, the number and frequency of spontaneous epileptiform events were significantly increased compared to SHAM. The frequency of epileptiform events was significantly reduced by the NMDA antagonist D-APV in HYPO, INFL, and HYPO+INFL, but not in SHAM, indicating a contribution of NMDA receptors to this pathophysiological activity. In addition, the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist CNQX suppressed the remaining epileptiform activity. Electrical stimulation evoked prominent epileptiform activity in slices from HYPO, INFL and HYPO+INFL animals. Stimulation threshold to elicit epileptiform events was lower in these groups than in SHAM. Evoked events spread over larger areas and lasted longer in treated animals than in SHAM. In addition, the evoked epileptiform activity was reduced in the older (P28-30) group indicating that cortical dysfunction induced by hypoxia and inflammation was transient and compensated during early development.

  17. Nonlinear optical techniques for imaging and manipulating the mouse central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Matthew John

    The spinal cord of vertebrates serves as the conduit for somatosensory information and motor control, as well as being the locus of neural circuits that govern fast reflexes and patterned behaviors, such as walking in mammals or swimming in fish. Consequently, pathologies of the spinal cord -such as spinal cord injury (SCI)- lead to loss of motor control and sensory perception, with accompanying decline in life expectancy and quality of life. Despite the devastating effects of these diseases, few therapies exist to substantially ameliorate patient outcome. In part, studies of spinal cord pathology have been limited by the inability to perform in vivo imaging at the level of cellular processes. The focus of this thesis is to present the underlying theory for and demonstration of novel multi-photon microscopy (MPM) and optical manipulation techniques as they apply to studies the mouse central nervous system (CNS), with an emphasis on the spinal cord. The scientific findings which have resulted from the implementation of these techniques are also presented. In particular, we have demonstrated that third harmonic generation is a dye-free method of imaging CNS myelin, a fundamental constituent of the spinal cord that is difficult to label using exogenous dyes and/or transgenic constructs. Since gaining optical access to the spinal cord is a prerequisite for spinal cord imaging, we review our development of a novel spinal cord imaging chamber and surgical procedure which allowed us to image for multiple weeks following implantation without the need for repeated surgeries. We also have used MPM to characterize spinal venous blood flow before and after point occlusions. We review a novel nonlinear microscopy technique that may serve to show optical interfaces in three dimensions inside scattering tissue. Finally, we discuss a model and show results of optoporation, a means of transfecting cells with genetic constructs. Brief reviews of MPM and SCI are also presented.

  18. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV, is a ... States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In the United ...

  19. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs between days ...

  20. Computational modeling as part of alternative testing strategies in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems: inhaled nanoparticle dose modeling based on representative aerosol measurements and corresponding toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilou, Marika; Mavrofrydi, Olga; Housiadas, Christos; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Papazafiri, Panagiota

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of modeling in this work were (a) the integration of two existing numerical models in order to connect external exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) with internal dose through inhalation, and (b) to use computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) to analyze the behavior of NPs in the respiratory and the cardiovascular system. Regarding the first objective, a lung transport and deposition model was combined with a lung clearance/retention model to estimate NPs dose in the different regions of the human respiratory tract and some adjacent tissues. On the other hand, CFPD was used to estimate particle transport and deposition of particles in a physiologically based bifurcation created by the third and fourth lung generations (respiratory system), as well as to predict the fate of super-paramagnetic particles suspended in a liquid under the influence of an external magnetic field (cardiovascular system). All the above studies showed that, with proper refinement, the developed computational models and methodologies may serve as an alternative testing strategy, replacing transport/deposition experiments that are expensive both in time and resources and contribute to risk assessment.

  1. Effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on structural and functional parameters in the respiratory system of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Thiago Brasileiro de; Araújo, Fernanda Yvelize Ramos de; Pinho, João Paulo Melo de; Soares, Pedro Marcos Gomes; Bastos, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on the respiratory system of guinea pigs. Male guinea pigs were divided into two groups: control and passive smoking, the latter being exposed to the smoke of ten cigarettes for 20 min in the morning, afternoon and evening (30 cigarettes/day) for five days. After that period, inflammatory parameters were studied by quantifying mesenteric mast cell degranulation, as well as oxidative stress, in BAL fluid. In addition, we determined MIP, MEP, and mucociliary transport (in vivo), as well as tracheal contractility response (in vitro). In comparison with the control group, the passive smoking group showed a significant increase in mast cell degranulation (19.75 ± 3.77% vs. 42.53 ± 0.42%; p glutationa reduzida (293,9 ± 19,21 vs. 723,7 ± 67,43 nM/g de tecido; p < 0,05) e uma redução significativa no transporte mucociliar (p < 0,05), provocando alterações significativas na função pulmonar, tanto na PImáx como na PEmáx (p < 0,05 para ambas), e hiper-reatividade nas vias aéreas. A inalação passiva da fumaça de cigarro ocasionou aumentos significativos na degranulação de mastócitos e no estresse oxidativo. Esse processo inflamatório parece ter influenciado a diminuição do transporte mucociliar e causado alterações na função pulmonar, proporcionando um quadro de hiper-reatividade traqueal.

  2. Respiratory diseases in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases are one of the major indirect causes of maternal deaths. Pregnancy is a unique physiological state during which changes occur in all systems of the body to meet metabolic needs of both the mother and growing foetus. Enlarging uterus and increasing hormonal levels cause changes in volumes and mechanics of lungs. Understanding the basic physiology of the cardiovascular and respiratory changes during pregnancy along with the pathology of disease processes are vital in makin...

  3. fMRI mapping of the visual system in the mouse brain with interleaved snapshot GE-EPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Arun; Christie, Isabel N; Solomon, Samuel G; Wells, Jack A; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2016-06-10

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in mice is increasingly prevalent, providing a means to non-invasively characterise functional abnormalities associated with genetic models of human diseases. The predominant stimulus used in task-based fMRI in the mouse is electrical stimulation of the paw. Task-based fMRI in mice using visual stimuli remains underexplored, despite visual stimuli being common in human fMRI studies. In this study, we map the mouse brain visual system with BOLD measurements at 9.4T using flashing light stimuli with medetomidine anaesthesia. BOLD responses were observed in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the superior colliculus and the primary visual area of the cortex, and were modulated by the flashing frequency, diffuse vs focussed light and stimulus context. Negative BOLD responses were measured in the visual cortex at 10Hz flashing frequency; but turned positive below 5Hz. In addition, the use of interleaved snapshot GE-EPI improved fMRI image quality without diminishing the temporal contrast-noise-ratio. Taken together, this work demonstrates a novel methodological protocol in which the mouse brain visual system can be non-invasively investigated using BOLD fMRI.

  4. An interspecies conserved motif of the mouse immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) induces proliferative effects on human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Safa; Fathallah, Mohamed Dahmani; Bakhiet, Moiz

    2014-07-01

    We have recently described an immune system-released activating agent (ISRAA) as a nervous system-induced factor that stimulates immune responses in the mouse spleen. However, the human ISRAA has not yet been identified. In this study, we examined the effects of the mouse ISRAA protein on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), to observe if the biological activity of this molecule is consistent between the two different species. Mouse ISRAA demonstrated dose-dependent dualistic effects on human cells, as 5 µg exhibited positive apoptosis and 50 pg exhibited significant proliferation (P<0.05). Furthermore, immunosuppressed cells from patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy demonstrated significant proliferation to 50 pg ISRAA (P<0.05). Studies to compare sequences in different species revealed a preserved motif, exhibiting 72% similarity with the interspecies conserved signal peptide motif of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1). A mutant ISRAA lacking this motif was produced and tested for its biological effects. The mutant ISRAA demonstrated neither apoptotic nor proliferative effects compared with wild type. Therefore, an interspecies conserved domain of ISRAA constitutes the active site of the molecule, and its effects on immunocompromised cells should be investigated for future therapies in the treatment of immunosuppressive disorders.

  5. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  6. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even smaller tubes called bronchioles. Bronchioles end in tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide actually takes place. Each lung houses about 300-400 million alveoli. The lungs also ...

  7. 11.RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    11.1.Lung function930671 The effects of persantine on pulmonary arte-rial pressure of rats exposed to hypoxia.RAN Pixin,Respir Dis Instit,Tongji Hosp,TongjiMed Univ,Wuhan,430030.Chin J Tuberc & RespirDis 1993;16(4):216—217.In the chronic hypoxic model of pulmonary hyper-

  8. [Consequences of short term fluctuations of environmental temperatures in calves--Part 1: Immediate reactions of the respiratory system, the cardiovascular system, metabolism and thermal regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, S; Reinhold, P

    2002-04-01

    Clinically healthy calves (aged 3-6 weeks) were exposed to defined ambient temperature for 4 hours (cold: 5 degrees C, 60% humidity, n = 12; warm: 35 degrees C, 60% humidity, n = 11). During the exposure of each animal in a climatic chamber, certain parameters of lung function, respiratory mechanics, blood gas analysis, circulation, metabolism and thermal regulation were registered simultaneously in order to study immediate physiological consequences of different environmental conditions. In comparison to control calves (18-20 degrees C, 60% humidity, n = 13) an insufficient adaptation of these young calves was noticed in both cold and warm conditions. At 5 degrees C, marked changes in lung function were observed, i.e. airway constriction, pulmonary hypertension, and ventilation-perfusion-mismatching leading to hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Due to compensation by the circulatory system, a sufficient O2-consumption of the organism as well as an unchanged body temperature were maintained. At 35 degrees C, the respiratory pattern changed to panting and a higher dead space ventilation. No changes were observed in pulmonary gas exchange and blood arterialisation. Due to hyperventilation, the partial pressure for CO2 decreased in blood. Since the body temperature increased continuously, thermal regulation was insufficient. This situation would have led to animals collapsing after a period of heat stress lasting longer than 4 hours. In conclusion, young calves up to the age of 6 weeks were not able to tolerate acute changes in ambient temperature. This was true for cold conditions (5 degrees C) as well as for hot conditions (35 degrees C). The results of this study should be taken into account in order to optimise transport and farming conditions.

  9. Verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with new real-time tumour-tracking radiotherapy system using cine EPID images and a log file

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiinoki, Takehiro; Hanazawa, Hideki; Yuasa, Yuki; Fujimoto, Koya; Uehara, Takuya; Shibuya, Keiko

    2017-02-01

    A combined system comprising the TrueBeam linear accelerator and a new real-time tumour-tracking radiotherapy system, SyncTraX, was installed at our institution. The objectives of this study are to develop a method for the verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with SyncTraX using cine electronic portal image device (EPID) images and a log file and to verify this treatment in clinical cases. Respiratory-gated radiotherapy was performed using TrueBeam and the SyncTraX system. Cine EPID images and a log file were acquired for a phantom and three patients during the course of the treatment. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were created for each treatment beam using a planning CT set. The cine EPID images, log file, and DRRs were analysed using a developed software. For the phantom case, the accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated to verify the respiratory-gated radiotherapy. For the clinical cases, the intra- and inter-fractional variations of the fiducial marker used as an internal surrogate were calculated to evaluate the gating accuracy and set-up uncertainty in the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and left-right (LR) directions. The proposed method achieved high accuracy for the phantom verification. For the clinical cases, the intra- and inter-fractional variations of the fiducial marker were  ⩽3 mm and  ±3 mm in the SI, AP, and LR directions. We proposed a method for the verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with SyncTraX using cine EPID images and a log file and showed that this treatment is performed with high accuracy in clinical cases. This work was partly presented at the 58th Annual meeting of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with new real-time tumour-tracking radiotherapy system using cine EPID images and a log file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiinoki, Takehiro; Hanazawa, Hideki; Yuasa, Yuki; Fujimoto, Koya; Uehara, Takuya; Shibuya, Keiko

    2017-02-21

    A combined system comprising the TrueBeam linear accelerator and a new real-time tumour-tracking radiotherapy system, SyncTraX, was installed at our institution. The objectives of this study are to develop a method for the verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with SyncTraX using cine electronic portal image device (EPID) images and a log file and to verify this treatment in clinical cases. Respiratory-gated radiotherapy was performed using TrueBeam and the SyncTraX system. Cine EPID images and a log file were acquired for a phantom and three patients during the course of the treatment. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were created for each treatment beam using a planning CT set. The cine EPID images, log file, and DRRs were analysed using a developed software. For the phantom case, the accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated to verify the respiratory-gated radiotherapy. For the clinical cases, the intra- and inter-fractional variations of the fiducial marker used as an internal surrogate were calculated to evaluate the gating accuracy and set-up uncertainty in the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and left-right (LR) directions. The proposed method achieved high accuracy for the phantom verification. For the clinical cases, the intra- and inter-fractional variations of the fiducial marker were  ⩽3 mm and  ±3 mm in the SI, AP, and LR directions. We proposed a method for the verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with SyncTraX using cine EPID images and a log file and showed that this treatment is performed with high accuracy in clinical cases.

  11. Respiratory monitor system for 4D CT image acquisition based on accelerometer. Design and implementation; Sistema de monitorizacion respiratoria para adquisicion de imagenes 4D de TC basado en un acelerometro. Diseno e implementacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorente Manso, M.; Vivela Serrano, S.; Viera Jorge, J. C.; Garran del Rio, C.; Ferrer Gracia, C.; Carballo Gonzalez, N.

    2013-07-01

    The use of 4D CT images in Radiotherapy planning is increasing. Some commercial systems use abdominal movement to correlate images with respiratory phase. An in-house developed system based on an accelerometer to register patient's abdominal movement and a software to group 4D images in their corresponding respiratory phase is presented. A phantom test evaluates the capacity of the system to properly identify respiratory phases. A volunteers study compares breathing curves acquired by the accelerometer with those obtained using a commercial system. In the phantom images, maximum difference between real and calculated phase is 0.2 s. In the volunteer study, position of the curve maxima found by both systems differs, on average, around 2% (SD=2%) of the respiratory cycle period when volunteer's breathing is regular. Only when breathe is very irregular, differences of up to 10% in the phase assignment are found. (Author)

  12. The IRP/IRE system in vivo: insights from mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eWilkinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2 post-transcriptionally control the expression of several mRNAs encoding proteins of iron, oxygen and energy metabolism. The mechanism involves their binding to iron responsive elements (IREs in the untranslated regions of target mRNAs, thereby controlling mRNA translation or stability. Whereas IRP2 functions solely as an RNA-binding protein, IRP1 operates as either an RNA-binding protein or a cytosolic aconitase. Early experiments in cultured cells established a crucial role of IRPs in regulation of cellular iron metabolism. More recently, studies in mouse models with global or localized Irp1 and/or Irp2 deficiencies uncovered new physiological functions of IRPs in the context of systemic iron homeostasis. Thus, IRP1 emerged as a key regulator of erythropoiesis and iron absorption by controlling hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF2α mRNA translation, while IRP2 appears to dominate the control of iron uptake and heme biosynthesis in erythroid progenitor cells by regulating the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1 and 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2 mRNAs, respectively. Targeted disruption of either Irp1 or Irp2 in mice is associated with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. Thus, Irp1-/- mice develop polycythemia and pulmonary hypertension, while Irp2-/- mice present with microcytic anemia, iron overload in the intestine and the liver, and neurologic defects. Combined disruption of both Irp1 and Irp2 is incombatible with life and leads to early embryonic lethality. Mice with intestinal- or liver-specific disruption of both Irps are viable at birth but die later on due to malabsorption or liver failure, respectively. Adult mice lacking both Irps in the intestine exhibit a profound defect in dietary iron absorption due to a mucosal block that is caused by the de-repression of ferritin mRNA translation. Herein, we discuss the physiological function of the IRE/IRP regulatory system.

  13. Large scale expression and purification of mouse melanopsin-L in the baculovirus expression system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirzad-Wasei, N.; Oostrum, J. van; Bovee-Geurts, P.H.M.; Wasserman, M.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Degrip, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Melanopsin is the mammalian photopigment that primarily mediates non-visual photoregulated physiology. So far, this photopigment is poorly characterized with respect to structure and function. Here, we report large-scale production and purification of the intact long isoform of mouse melanopsin (mel

  14. Mild hypothermia attenuates changes in respiratory system mechanics and modifies cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, P; Senkeřík, M; Pařízková, R; Bareš, D; Zivný, P; Zivná, H; Cerný, V

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia was shown to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury due to large tidal volumes. It is unclear if the protective effect of hypothermia is maintained under less injurious mechanical ventilation in animals without previous lung injury. Tracheostomized rats were randomly allocated to non-ventilated group (group C) or ventilated groups of normothermia (group N) and mild hypothermia (group H). After two hours of mechanical ventilation with inspiratory fraction of oxygen 1.0, respiratory rate 60 min(-1), tidal volume 10 ml x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 2 cm H2O or immediately after tracheostomy in non-ventilated animals inspiratory pressures were recorded, rats were sacrificed, pressure-volume (PV) curve of respiratory system constructed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and aortic blood samples obtained. Group N animals exhibited a higher rise in peak inspiratory pressures in comparison to group H animals. Shift of the PV curve to right, higher total protein and interleukin-6 levels in BAL fluid were observed in normothermia animals in comparison with hypothermia animals and non-ventilated controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was lower in the hypothermia group in comparison with normothermia and non-ventilated groups. Mild hypothermia attenuated changes in respiratory system mechanics and modified cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation in animals without previous lung injury.

  15. The relationship between clinical signs of respiratory system disorders and lung lesions at slaughter in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leruste, H.; Brscic, M.; Ruis-Heutinck, L.F.M.; Visser, E.K.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Cozzi, G.; Gottardo, F.; Lensink, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence and severity of lung lesions recorded post-mortem is commonly used as an indicator to assess the prevalence of respiratory problems in batches of bovines. In the context of a welfare monitoring based on on-farm measures, the recording of clinical signs on calves at the farm would be mor

  16. The relationship between clinical signs of respiratory system disorders and lung lesions at slaughter in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leruste, H.; Brscic, M.; Ruis-Heutinck, L.F.M.; Visser, E.K.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Cozzi, G.; Gottardo, F.; Lensink, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence and severity of lung lesions recorded post-mortem is commonly used as an indicator to assess the prevalence of respiratory problems in batches of bovines. In the context of a welfare monitoring based on on-farm measures, the recording of clinical signs on calves at the farm would be

  17. Functional, radiological and biological markers of alveolitis and infections of the lower respiratory tract in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danza Francesco

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A progressive lung disease and a worse survival have been observed in patients with systemic sclerosis and alveolitis. The objective of this study was to define the functional, radiological and biological markers of alveolitis in SSc patients. Methods 100 SSc patients (76 with limited and 24 with diffuse disease underwent a multistep assessment of cardiopulmonary system: pulmonary function tests (PFTs every 6–12 months, echocardiography, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, if clinically advisable. Alveolar and interstitial scores on HRCT and IL-6 plasma levels were also assessed as lung disease activity indices. Results 90 SSc patients with abnormal PFTs and 3 with signs and/or symptoms of lung involvement and normal PFTs underwent HRCT and echocardiography. HRCT revealed evidence of fibrosis in 87 (93.5% patients, with 55 (59.1% showing both ground glass attenuation and fibrosis. In 42 patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and consented to undergo BAL, 16 (38.1% revealed alveolitis. 12 (75% of these patients had restrictive lung disease (p 14 (OR(95%CIs:7.03(1.40–34.33. The alveolar score showed a significant correlation with IL-6 plasma levels (r = 0.36, p = 0.001 and with the skin score (r = 0.33, p = 0.001. Cultures of BAL fluid resulted positive in 10 (23.8% of the 42 patients that underwent BAL and after one year a deterioration in PFTs occurred in 8 (80% of these patients (p = 0.01. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure ≥ 40 mmHg was found in 6 (37.5% patients with alveolitis. Conclusion We found alveolitis only in 38.1% of the patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and then underwent BAL, probably because the concomitant fibrosis influenced results. A diffuse skin involvement and a restrictive pattern on PFTs together with ground glass on HRCT were judged possible markers of alveolitis, a BAL examination being indicated as the next step. Nevertheless BAL

  18. Functional, radiological and biological markers of alveolitis and infections of the lower respiratory tract in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Maria; Bosello, Silvia; La Torre, Giuseppe; Capuano, Anna; Tolusso, Barbara; Pagliari, Gabriella; Pistelli, Riccardo; Danza, Francesco Maria; Zoli, Angelo; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2005-08-17

    A progressive lung disease and a worse survival have been observed in patients with systemic sclerosis and alveolitis. The objective of this study was to define the functional, radiological and biological markers of alveolitis in SSc patients. 100 SSc patients (76 with limited and 24 with diffuse disease) underwent a multistep assessment of cardiopulmonary system: pulmonary function tests (PFTs) every 6-12 months, echocardiography, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), if clinically advisable. Alveolar and interstitial scores on HRCT and IL-6 plasma levels were also assessed as lung disease activity indices. 90 SSc patients with abnormal PFTs and 3 with signs and/or symptoms of lung involvement and normal PFTs underwent HRCT and echocardiography. HRCT revealed evidence of fibrosis in 87 (93.5%) patients, with 55 (59.1%) showing both ground glass attenuation and fibrosis. In 42 patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and consented to undergo BAL, 16 (38.1%) revealed alveolitis. 12 (75%) of these patients had restrictive lung disease (p 14 (OR(95%CIs):7.03(1.40-34.33)). The alveolar score showed a significant correlation with IL-6 plasma levels (r = 0.36, p = 0.001) and with the skin score (r = 0.33, p = 0.001). Cultures of BAL fluid resulted positive in 10 (23.8%) of the 42 patients that underwent BAL and after one year a deterioration in PFTs occurred in 8 (80%) of these patients (p = 0.01). Pulmonary artery systolic pressure > or = 40 mmHg was found in 6 (37.5%) patients with alveolitis. We found alveolitis only in 38.1% of the patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and then underwent BAL, probably because the concomitant fibrosis influenced results. A diffuse skin involvement and a restrictive pattern on PFTs together with ground glass on HRCT were judged possible markers of alveolitis, a BAL examination being indicated as the next step. Nevertheless BAL would be necessary to detect any infections of the

  19. Quorum-sensing systems LuxS/autoinducer 2 and Com regulate Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilms in a bioreactor with living cultures of human respiratory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jorge E; Howery, Kristen E; Ludewick, Herbert P; Nava, Porfirio; Klugman, Keith P

    2013-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae forms organized biofilms in the human upper respiratory tract that may play an essential role in both persistence and acute respiratory infection. However, the production and regulation of biofilms on human cells is not yet fully understood. In this work, we developed a bioreactor with living cultures of human respiratory epithelial cells (HREC) and a continuous flow of nutrients, mimicking the microenvironment of the human respiratory epithelium, to study the production and regulation of S. pneumoniae biofilms (SPB). SPB were also produced under static conditions on immobilized HREC. Our experiments demonstrated that the biomass of SPB increased significantly when grown on HREC compared to the amount on abiotic surfaces. Additionally, pneumococcal strains produced more early biofilms on lung cells than on pharyngeal cells. Utilizing the bioreactor or immobilized human cells, the production of early SPB was found to be regulated by two quorum-sensing systems, Com and LuxS/AI-2, since a mutation in either comC or luxS rendered the pneumococcus unable to produce early biofilms on HREC. Interestingly, while LuxS/autoinducer 2 (AI-2) regulated biofilms on both HREC and abiotic surfaces, Com control was specific for those structures produced on HREC. The biofilm phenotypes of strain D39-derivative ΔcomC and ΔluxS QS mutants were reversed by genetic complementation. Of note, SPB formed on immobilized HREC and incubated under static conditions were completely lysed 24 h postinoculation. Biofilm lysis was also regulated by the Com and LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing systems.

  20. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  1. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mansour Razavi; Mostafa Ghanei; Payman Salamati; Mehdi Safiabadi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone IraqIran war.Electronic databases of Scopus,Medline,ISI,IranMedex,and Irandoc sites.were searched.We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators.Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%.The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea.Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,bronchiectasis,and asthma.Spirometry resuits can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease.Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases.High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi.There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung.The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration,use of vaporized moist air,respiratory physiotherapy,administration of mucolytic agents,bronchodilators,corticosteroids,and long-acting beta-2 agonists,antioxidants,surfactant,magnesium ions,therapeutic bronchoscopy,laser therapy,placement of respiratory stents,early tracheostomy in laryngospasm,and ultimately lung transplantation.High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi.The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic,upper or lower respiratory tract involvement).There are various treatment protocols,but unfortunately none of them is defmitely curable.

  2. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  3. Development of system using beam's eye view images to measure respiratory motion tracking errors in image-guided robotic radiosurgery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Shiomi, Hiroya; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Taguchi, Junichi; Okawa, Kohei; Kikuchi, Chie; Inada, Kosaku; Iwabuchi, Michio; Murai, Taro; Koike, Izumi; Tatewaki, Koshi; Ohta, Seiji; Inoue, Tomio

    2015-01-08

    The accuracy of the CyberKnife Synchrony Respiratory Tracking System (SRTS) is considered to be patient-dependent because the SRTS relies on an individual correlation between the internal tumor position (ITP) and the external marker position (EMP), as well as a prediction method to compensate for the delay incurred to adjust the position of the linear accelerator (linac). We aimed to develop a system for obtaining pretreatment statistical measurements of the SRTS tracking error by using beam's eye view (BEV) images, to enable the prediction of the patient-specific accuracy. The respiratory motion data for the ITP and the EMP were derived from cine MR images obtained from 23 patients. The dynamic motion phantom was used to reproduce both the ITP and EMP motions. The CyberKnife was subsequently operated with the SRTS, with a CCD camera mounted on the head of the linac. BEV images from the CCD camera were recorded during the tracking of a ball target by the linac. The tracking error was measured at 15 Hz using in-house software. To assess the precision of the position detection using an MR image, the positions of test tubes (determined from MR images) were compared with their actual positions. To assess the precision of the position detection of the ball, ball positions measured from BEV images were compared with values measured using a Vernier caliper. The SRTS accuracy was evaluated by determining the tracking error that could be identified with a probability of more than 95% (Ep95). The detection precision of the tumor position (determined from cine MR images) was < 0.2 mm. The detection precision of the tracking error when using the BEV images was < 0.2mm. These two detection precisions were derived from our measurement system and were not obtained from the SRTS. The median of Ep95 was found to be 1.5 (range, 1.0-3.5) mm. The difference between the minimum and maximum Ep95 was 2.5mm, indicating that this provides a better means of evaluating patient-specific SRTS

  4. A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system to use arbitrary Windows applications by directly controlling mouse and keyboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuler, Martin

    2015-08-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) allows to control a computer by brain activity only, without the need for muscle control. In this paper, we present an EEG-based BCI system based on code-modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEPs) that enables the user to work with arbitrary Windows applications. Other BCI systems, like the P300 speller or BCI-based browsers, allow control of one dedicated application designed for use with a BCI. In contrast, the system presented in this paper does not consist of one dedicated application, but enables the user to control mouse cursor and keyboard input on the level of the operating system, thereby making it possible to use arbitrary applications. As the c-VEP BCI method was shown to enable very fast communication speeds (writing more than 20 error-free characters per minute), the presented system is the next step in replacing the traditional mouse and keyboard and enabling complete brain-based control of a computer.

  5. Distinct human and mouse membrane trafficking systems for sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system.

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  7. Effects of pressure-controlled and volume-controlled ventilation on respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Oznur; Umutoglu, Tarik; Aydın, Nurdan; Toptas, Mehmet; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur

    2016-01-01

    Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) is less frequently employed in general anesthesia. With its high and decelerating inspiratory flow, PCV has faster tidal volume delivery and different gas distribution. The same tidal volume setting, delivered by PCV versus volume-controlled ventilation (VCV), will result in a lower peak airway pressure and reduced risk of barotrauma. We hypothesized that PCV instead of VCV during laparoscopic surgery could achieve lower airway pressures and reduce the systemic stress response. Forty ASA I-II patients were randomly selected to receive either the PCV (Group PC, n = 20) or VCV (Group VC, n = 20) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Blood sampling was made for baseline arterial blood gases (ABG), cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels. General anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl was employed to all patients. After anesthesia induction and endotracheal intubation, patients in Group PC were given pressure support to form 8 mL/kg tidal volume and patients in Group VC was maintained at 8 mL/kg tidal volume calculated using predicted body weight. All patients were maintained with 5 cmH2O positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP). Respiratory parameters were recorded before and 30 min after pneumoperitonium. Assessment of ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin and glucose levels were repeated 30 min after pneumoperitonium and 60 min after extubation. The P-peak levels observed before (18.9 ± 3.8 versus 15 ± 2.2 cmH2O) and during (23.3 ± 3.8 versus 20.1 ± 2.9 cmH2O) pneumoperitoneum in Group VC were significantly higher. Postoperative partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) values are higher (98 ± 12 versus 86 ± 11 mmHg) in Group PC. Arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) values (41.8 ± 5.4 versus 36.7 ± 3.5 mmHg) during pneumoperitonium and post-operative mean cortisol and insulin levels were higher in Group VC. When compared to VCV mode, PCV mode may improve compliance during pneumoperitoneum

  8. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencu, Codruţa; Alexescu, Teodora; Petrulea, Mirela; Lencu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary - cortical, and involuntary - metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection. The respiratory abnormalities in hyperthyroidism as a result of the hypermetabolic action of thyroid hormones are hyperventilation, myopathy and cardiovascular involvement; recent studies have reported pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves' disease, as a result of the association of several mechanisms. Thyroid hypertrophy can induce through compression of the upper airways dyspnea, stridor, wheezing and cough. The respiratory disorders in acromegaly are ventilatory dysfunction and sleep apnea, which contribute to an unfavorable evolution of the disease. Respiratory changes in parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive system diseases have been described. Respiratory disorders should be recognized, investigated and monitored by medical practitioners of various specialties (family physicians, internists, endocrinologists, pneumologists, cardiologists). They are frequently severe, causing an unfavorable evolution of the associated endocrine and respiratory disease.

  9. Expression patterns of Slit and Robo family members in adult mouse spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lauren; Parkinson, David B; Dun, Xin-Peng

    2017-01-01

    The secreted glycoproteins, Slit1-3, are classic axon guidance molecules that act as repulsive cues through their well characterised receptors Robo1-2 to allow precise axon pathfinding and neuronal migration. The expression patterns of Slit1-3 and Robo1-2 have been most characterized in the rodent developing nervous system and the adult brain, but little is known about their expression patterns in the adult rodent peripheral nervous system. Here, we report a detailed expression analysis of Slit1-3 and Robo1-2 in the adult mouse sciatic nerve as well as their expression in the nerve cell bodies within the ventral spinal cord (motor neurons) and dorsal root ganglion (sensory neurons). Our results show that, in the adult mouse peripheral nervous system, Slit1-3 and Robo1-2 are expressed in the cell bodies and axons of both motor and sensory neurons. While Slit1 and Robo2 are only expressed in peripheral axons and their cell bodies, Slit2, Slit3 and Robo1 are also expressed in satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglion, Schwann cells and fibroblasts of peripheral nerves. In addition to these expression patterns, we also demonstrate the expression of Robo1 in blood vessels of the peripheral nerves. Our work gives important new data on the expression patterns of Slit and Robo family members within the peripheral nervous system that may relate both to nerve homeostasis and the reaction of the peripheral nerves to injury.

  10. Respiratory system of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5. Evidence for a cyanide-sensitive cytochrome bb and cyanide-resistant cytochrome ba quinol oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, B; Martínez, S; Chávez, J L; Lee, S; Castro, N A; Domínguez, M A; Gómez, S; Contreras, M L; Kennedy, C; Escamilla, J E

    2006-12-01

    In highly aerobic environments, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus uses a respiratory protection mechanism to preserve nitrogenase activity from deleterious oxygen. Here, the respiratory system was examined in order to ascertain the nature of the respiratory components, mainly of the cyanide sensitive and resistant pathways. The membranes of G. diazotrophicus contain Q(10), Q(9) and PQQ in a 13:1:6.6 molar ratios. UV(360 nm) photoinactivation indicated that ubiquinone is the electron acceptor for the dehydrogenases of the outer and inner faces of the membrane. Strong inhibition by rotenone and capsaicin and resistance to flavone indicated that NADH-quinone oxidoreductase is a NDH-1 type enzyme. KCN-titration revealed the presence of at least two terminal oxidases that were highly sensitive and resistant to the inhibitor. Tetrachorohydroquinol was preferentially oxidized by the KCN-sensitive oxidase. Neither the quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase nor its associated cytochromes c were instrumental components of the cyanide resistant pathway. CO-difference spectrum and photodissociation of heme-CO compounds suggested the presence of cytochromes b-CO and a(1)-CO adducts. Air-oxidation of cytochrome b (432 nm) was arrested by concentrations of KCN lower than 25 microM while cytochrome a(1) (442 nm) was not affected. A KCN-sensitive (I(50)=5 microM) cytochrome bb and a KCN-resistant (I(50)=450 microM) cytochrome ba quinol oxidases were separated by ion exchange chromatography.

  11. Immediate and long-term effects in the hematopoietic system and the morphology of the respiratory system in experimental animals under chronic combined action of external gamma exposure and inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarkin, Sergey; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Aleksandr, Shafirkin; Barantseva, Maria; Ivanova, Svetlana

    The need to solve hygiene problems valuation of environmental factors in the implementation of the projected manned interplanetary missions, determined the relevance of studying the effect of external gamma-irradiation with inhalation of mixtures of chemicals on the parameters of major critical body systems: hematopoiesis and respiratory (morphological and morphometric parameters) in the short and long periods. The study conducted on 504 male mice F1 (CBA × C57BL6) under chronic fractional gamma-irradiation (within 10 weeks at a total dose 350sGr) and then under inhalation by mixtures of chemicals in low concentrations. Duration of the experiment (124 days) and 90 -day recovery period. Displaying adaptive reorganization in hematopoietic system, which was characterized by a tension of regulatory systems of animals and by a proliferation of bone marrow cells and by dynamic changes in amount of lymphoid cells in peripheral blood, elevated levels of the antioxidant activity of red blood cells, and morphological manifestations of "incomplete recovery " of the spleen, which are retained in the recovery period. Morphological changes in the respiratory organs of animals testified about immunogenesis activation and development of structural changes as a chronic inflammatory process. Increase of fibrous connective tissue in the walls of the trachea, bronchus and lung, against reduction of loose fibrous connective tissue (more pronounced in respiratory parts of the respiratory system) in experimental animals, which may indicate a reduction of the functional reserves of the body and increase the risk of adverse long-term effects.

  12. Validation of a mouse xenograft model system for gene expression analysis of human acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Richard W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-clinical models that effectively recapitulate human disease are critical for expanding our knowledge of cancer biology and drug resistance mechanisms. For haematological malignancies, the non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID mouse is one of the most successful models to study paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. However, for this model to be effective for studying engraftment and therapy responses at the whole genome level, careful molecular characterisation is essential. Results Here, we sought to validate species-specific gene expression profiling in the high engraftment continuous ALL NOD/SCID xenograft. Using the human Affymetrix whole transcript platform we analysed transcriptional profiles from engrafted tissues without prior cell separation of mouse cells and found it to return highly reproducible profiles in xenografts from individual mice. The model was further tested with experimental mixtures of human and mouse cells, demonstrating that the presence of mouse cells does not significantly skew expression profiles when xenografts contain 90% or more human cells. In addition, we present a novel in silico and experimental masking approach to identify probes and transcript clusters susceptible to cross-species hybridisation. Conclusions We demonstrate species-specific transcriptional profiles can be obtained from xenografts when high levels of engraftment are achieved or with the application of transcript cluster masks. Importantly, this masking approach can be applied and adapted to other xenograft models where human tissue infiltration is lower. This model provides a powerful platform for identifying genes and pathways associated with ALL disease progression and response to therapy in vivo.

  13. Three-dimensional atlas system for mouse and rat brain imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Hjornevik

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomographic neuroimaging techniques allow visualization of functionally and structurally specific signals in the mouse and rat brain. The interpretation of the image data relies on accurate determination of anatomical location, which is frequently obstructed by the lack of structural information in the data sets. Positron emission tomography (PET generally yields images with low spatial resolution and little structural contrast, and many experimental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI paradigms give specific signal enhancements but often limited anatomical information. Side-by-side comparison of image data with conventional atlas diagram is hampered by the 2-D format of the atlases, and by the lack of an analytical environment for accumulation of data and integrative analyses. We here present a method for reconstructing 3-D atlases from digital 2-D atlas diagrams, and exemplify 3-D atlas-based analysis of PET and MRI data. The reconstruction procedure is based on two seminal mouse and brain atlases, but is applicable to any stereotaxic atlas. Currently, 30 mouse brain structures and 60 rat brain structures have been reconstructed. To exploit the 3-D atlas models, we have developed a multi-platform atlas tool (available via The Rodent Workbench, http://rbwb.org which allows combined visualization of experimental image data within the 3-D atlas space together with 3-D viewing and user-defined slicing of selected atlas structures. The tool presented facilitates assignment of location and comparative analysis of signal location in tomographic images with low structural contrast.

  14. [Research progress of adventitious respiratory sound signal processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2013-10-01

    Adventitious respiratory sound signal processing has been an important researching topic in the field of computerized respiratory sound analysis system. In recent years, new progress has been achieved in adventitious respiratory sound signal analysis due to the applications of techniques of non-stationary random signal processing. Algorithm progress of adventitious respiratory sound detections is discussed in detail in this paper. Then the state of art of adventitious respiratory sound analysis is reviewed, and development directions of next phase are pointed out.

  15. Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Shyam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upper respiratory tract functions to protect lower respiratory structures from chemical and biological agents in inspired air. Cellular oxidative stress leading to acute and chronic inflammation contributes to the resultant pathology in many of these exposures and is typical of allergic disease, chronic sinusitis, pollutant exposure, and bacterial and viral infections. Little is known about the effective means by which topical treatment of the nose can strengthen its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses. The present study was undertaken to determine if naturally-occurring plant oils with reported antioxidant activity can provide mechanisms through which upper respiratory protection might occur. Methods Controlled exposure of the upper respiratory system to ozone and nasal biopsy were carried out in healthy human subjects to assess mitigation of the ozone-induced inflammatory response and to assess gene expression in the nasal mucosa induced by a mixture of five naturally-occurring antioxidant oils - aloe, coconut, orange, peppermint and vitamin E. Cells of the BEAS-2B and NCI-H23 epithelial cell lines were used to investigate the source and potential intracellular mechanisms of action responsible for oil-induced anti-inflammatory activity. Results Aerosolized pretreatment with the mixed oil preparation significantly attenuated ozone-induced nasal inflammation. Although most oil components may reduce oxidant stress by undergoing reduction, orange oil was demonstrated to have the ability to induce long-lasting gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes linked to Nrf2, including HO-1, NQO1, GCLm and GCLc, and to mitigate the pro-inflammatory signaling of endotoxin in cell culture systems. Nrf2 activation was demonstrated. Treatment with the aerosolized oil preparation increased baseline levels of nasal mucosal HO-1 expression in 9 of 12 subjects. Conclusions These data indicate that selected oil-based antioxidant

  16. The Immune System as a New Possible Cell Target for AFP 464 in a Spontaneous Mammary Cancer Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callero, Mariana A; Rodriguez, Cristina E; Sólimo, Aldana; Bal de Kier Joffé, Elisa; Loaiza Perez, Andrea I

    2017-02-16

    Aminoflavone (AFP 464, NSC 710464), an antitumor agent which recently entered phase II clinical trials, acts against estrogen-positive breast cancer (ER +). AFP 464, which has a unique mechanism of action by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling pathway, decreased tumor size and growth rate in the estrogen dependent, Tamoxifen-sensitive spontaneous M05 mouse model. Considering that AhR has recently emerged as a physiological regulator of the innate and adaptive immune responses, we investigated whether AFP 464 modulates the immune response in our mouse model. Studies on the effect of AFP 464 on the immune system were carried in BALB/c mice bearing M05 semi-differentiated mammary adenocarcinomas that express estrogen and progesterone receptors. Splenic cells and tumor inflammatory infiltrates were studied by cytometric analyses. The modulation of splenocytes cytotoxic activity by AFP 464 was also evaluated. We further investigated the effects of AFP 464 on peritoneal macrophages by evaluating metalloproteinase, arginase and iNOS activities. We found that AFP 464 increased splenic cytotoxic activity, diminished the number of systemic and local Treg lymphocytes and MDSCs, and induced a M1 phenotype in peritoneal macrophages of M05 tumor bearing mice. Therefore, we conclude that AFP 464 modulates immune response which collaborates with its anti-tumor activity. Our results place the immune system as a novel target for this anti-cancer agent to strengthen the rationale for its inclusion in breast cancer treatment regimens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Allergy to house dust mites in primary health care subjects with chronic or recurrent inflammatory states of respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkowski, Jacek; Łopatyński, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent respiratory tract disorders are a frequent problem in general practice. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of hypersensitivity to house dust mites in respiratory tract diseases in general practice patients. We tried to assess the influence of determined risk factors exposure on development of respiratory tract allergy. Patients from family practitioners surgeries with chronic or recurrent respiratory tract symptoms who had no diagnosis of allergy were recruited to the study (n = 89). All patients responded to a questionnaire focused on history of symptoms, atopic conditions in family and exposure to determined environmental factors like dwelling conditions, obstetrician history, diet in the first year of life. All patients underwent skin prick test with common inhalant allergens. Families of the patients were asked to participate in the study. Families who agreed to take part also responded to the questionnaire and underwent skin tests. In patients and their families blood samples were taken to determine total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to mites allergens. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming of patients' bedroom carpets and mattresses to determine house dust mites allergens concentration. Data on 30 complete patients family sets of their brotherhood, mother and father were collected. Total and specific serum IgE antibodies were determined by disc enzyme-immunoassay (Analco). Mites allergens concentration in dust was measured by simple Acarex strip test (Nexter). The results of the assays (positive skin tests and/or elevated levels of specific IgE) showed allergy to house dust mites in 24 of 89 study patients from general practitioners surgeries (27%). The prevalence of chronic rhinitis, recurrent bronchitis, chronic or recurrent cough, wheezing, dyspnoea was higher in allergic than in nonallergic subjects. Patients with the diagnosis of allergy to house dust mites had usually worse dwelling conditions. Especially

  18. Mouse genome database 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  19. Respiratory Disease: Diagnostic Approaches in the Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Joanne; Arroyo, Luis G

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses requires strategic selection of possible diagnostic tests based on location of suspected pathologic lesions and purpose of testing and must also include consideration of patient status. This article discusses the various diagnostic modalities that may be applied to the respiratory system of horses under field conditions, indications for use, and aspects of sample collection, handling, and laboratory processing that can impact test results and ultimately a successful diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease.

  20. Pyridoxine enhances cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by upregulating the GABAergic system in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Kim, Dae Won; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Chung, Jin Young; Youn, Hwa Young; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Choi, Soo Young; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the effects of pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) on cell death, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and the GABAergic system in the mouse dentate gyrus. We administered pyridoxine (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to 8 week old mice twice a day for 14 days and sacrificed them at 10 weeks of age. Pyridoxine treatment did not induce neuronal death or activate microglia in the dentate gyrus, while glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were significantly increased in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The increase in GFAP-positive cells was confirmed to be due to proliferating cells based on double immunofluorescence staining. GFAP-positive cells, which were also labeled with Ki67, a marker for cell proliferation, and doublecortin, a marker for neuroblast differentiation, were significantly increased in the pyridoxine-treated group compared to those in the vehicle-treated group. Pyridoxine treatment also increased the protein levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67, an enzyme for GABA synthesis, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PNP) oxidase, an enzyme for pyridoxal phosphate synthesis, in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that pyridoxine treatment distinctly increases cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and upregulated the GABAergic system, as revealed by the increases of GAD67 and PNP oxidase in the mouse dentate gyrus.

  1. Auditory sensitivity and the outer hair cell system in the CBA mouse model of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2010-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss is a highly prevalent sensory disorder, from both the clinical and animal model perspectives. Understanding of the neurophysiologic, structural, and molecular biologic bases of age-related hearing loss will facilitate development of biomedical therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse its progression. Thus, increased understanding of relationships between aging of the cochlear (auditory portion of the inner ear) hair cell system and decline in overall hearing ability is necessary. The goal of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that there would be correlations between physiologic measures of outer hair cell function (otoacoustic emission levels) and hearing sensitivity (auditory brainstem response thresholds), starting in middle age. For the CBA mouse, a useful animal model of age-related hearing loss, it was found that correlations between these two hearing measures occurred only for high sound frequencies in middle age. However, in old age, a correlation was observed across the entire mouse range of hearing. These findings have implications for improved early detection of progression of age-related hearing loss in middle-aged mammals, including mice and humans, and distinguishing peripheral etiologies from central auditory system decline.

  2. Gene therapy and respiratory neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Carlos B

    2017-01-01

    Breathing is a life-sustaining behavior that in mammals is accomplished by activation of dedicated muscles responsible for inspiratory and expiratory forces acting on the lung and chest wall. Motor control is exerted by specialized pools of motoneurons in the medulla and spinal cord innervated by projections from multiple centers primarily in the brainstem that act in concert to generate both the rhythm and pattern of ventilation. Perturbations that prevent the accomplishment of the full range of motor behaviors by respiratory muscles commonly result in significant morbidity and increased mortality. Recent developments in gene therapy and novel targeting strategies have contributed to deeper understanding of the organization of respiratory motor systems. Gene therapy has received widespread attention and substantial progress has been made in recent years with the advent of improved tools for vector design. Genes can be delivered via a variety of plasmids, synthetic or viral vectors and cell therapies. In recent years, adeno-associated viruses (AAV) have become one of the most commonly used vector systems, primarily because of the extensive characterization conducted to date and the versatility in targeting strategies. Recent studies highlight the power of using AAV to selectively and effectively transduce respiratory motoneurons and muscle fibers with promising therapeutic effects. This brief review summarizes current evidence for the use of gene therapy in respiratory disorders with a primary focus on interventions that address motor control and neuroplasticity, including regeneration, in the respiratory system.

  3. Respiratory monitoring with an acceleration sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Takegawa, Hideki; Ageishi, Tatsuya; Takashina, Masaaki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Matsumoto, Masao; Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 1-7, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Respiratory gating radiotherapy is used to irradiate a local area and to reduce normal tissue toxicity. There are certain methods for the detection of tumor motions, for example, using internal markers or an external respiration signal. However, because some of these respiratory monitoring systems require special or expensive equipment, respiratory monitoring can usually be performed only in limited facilities. In this study, the feasibility of using an acceleration sensor for respiratory monitoring was evaluated. The respiratory motion was represented by means of a platform and measured five times with the iPod touch (registered) at 3, 4 and 5 s periods of five breathing cycles. For these three periods of the reference waveform, the absolute means {+-} standard deviation (SD) of displacement were 0.45 {+-} 0.34 mm, 0.33 {+-} 0.24 mm and 0.31 {+-} 0.23 mm, respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding absolute means {+-} SD for the periods were 0.04 {+-} 0.09 s, 0.04 {+-} 0.02 s and 0.06 {+-} 0.04 s. The accuracy of respiratory monitoring using the acceleration sensor was satisfactory in terms of the absolute means {+-} SD. Using the iPod touch (registered) for respiratory monitoring does not need special equipment and makes respiratory monitoring easier. For these reasons, this system is a viable alternative to other respiratory monitoring systems.

  4. A cohort study of the impact of tooth loss and periodontal disease on respiratory events among COPD subjects: modulatory role of systemic biomarkers of inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana P Barros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In COPD patients, fatal and non-fatal respiratory-related events are influenced by age, severity of respiratory disease, and comorbidities. OBJECTIVES: Analyze the effects of edentulism, periodontal disease and systemic biomarkers of inflammation on the occurrence of serious fatal and non-fatal respiratory-related events among subjects with COPD. METHODS: Cases were identified from Dental Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Edentulism was defined as study participants without any natural teeth or implants. Participants with one or more natural teeth (comprising 11,378 subjects were studied as dentate subjects. Periodontal disease status among dentate individuals was determined using the consensus definitions published by the joint Center for Disease Control/American Association of Periodontology working group. Adjusted Hazard Models are developed to evaluate the relationship between edentulism/periodontal disease and COPD Related Events. Models were then stratified by GOLD Stage I, II and III/IV. Serum biomarkers were also evaluated to explore the effect of systemic inflammation. RESULTS: A statistically significant association was found between oral health status and COPD-related events, even adjusting for conditions such as hypertension, smoking and diabetes. Edentulous individuals who had been diagnosed with COPD had a higher incidence and were at greater risk of having a COPD related event (hospitalization and death than individuals who had teeth and whose mouths had healthy periodontal status. However, being edentulous did not convey excess risk for COPD-related events for those study participants who were classified as GOLD III/IV at baseline. Finally, we showed that individuals who had levels of serum IL-6 in the highest two quartiles were at even higher risk for COPD-related events. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the risk for COPD-related events after adjusting for potential confounders may be attributable to

  5. Inclusion of thin target and source regions in alimentary and respiratory tract systems of mesh-type ICRP adult reference phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sung; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Tat Nguyen, Thang; Choi, Chansoo; Han, Min Cheol; Lee, Jai Ki; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Zankl, Maria; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Lee, Choonsik; Qiu, Rui; Eckerman, Keith; Chung, Beom Sun

    2017-03-01

    It is not feasible to define very small or complex organs and tissues in the current voxel-type adult reference computational phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which limit dose coefficients for weakly penetrating radiations. To address the problem, the ICRP is converting the voxel-type reference phantoms into mesh-type phantoms. In the present study, as a part of the conversion project, the micrometer-thick target and source regions in the alimentary and respiratory tract systems as described in ICRP Publications 100 and 66 were included in the mesh-type ICRP reference adult male and female phantoms. In addition, realistic lung airway models were simulated to represent the bronchial (BB) and bronchiolar (bb) regions. The electron specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for the alimentary and respiratory tract systems were then calculated and compared with the values calculated with the stylized models of ICRP Publications 100 and 66. The comparisons show generally good agreement for the oral cavity, oesophagus, and BB, whereas for the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, extrathoracic region, and bb, there are some differences (e.g. up to ~9 times in the large intestine). The difference is mainly due to anatomical difference in these organs between the realistic mesh-type phantoms and the simplified stylized models. The new alimentary and respiratory tract models in the mesh-type ICRP reference phantoms preserve the topology and dimensions of the voxel-type ICRP phantoms and provide more reliable SAF values than the simplified models adopted in previous ICRP Publications.

  6. The immunomodulatory effects of shark cartilage on the mouse and human immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali Sheikhian

    2007-01-01

    Materials and methods: In an experimental study, the effects of different doses of shark cartilage on humoral (antibody titer immune response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC, were measured in mouse. In addition, we evaluated the modulatory effects of the shark cartilage on the natural killer (NK activity of the peritoneal cells of mouse against a tumor cell line called K562, according to the standard methods. The proliferative response of the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured under the influence of shark cartilage. Results: Pure shark cartilage enhanced antibody response against SRBC in vivo. The hemagglutination titer which was 1/147 in the control group (injected with hen cartilage, increased to 1/1355 in the test group. The optimal dose was 100 mg/ml. both type of cartilage had blastogenic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (the blastogenic index was 6.7 and 4.9 for impure shark cartilage and hen cartilage, respectively. NK activity was inhibited completely by pure shark cartilage (the amount of the killing activity of the effector peritoneal cells for the control and test groups against target cells was 25.9% and 5.5% respectively. Conclusion: Shark cartilage has a potent immunomodulatory effect on the specific immune mechanisms and some inhibitory effects on the innate immune mechanisms such as NC activity. Since the specific immunity has a more pivotal role against tumor formation, shark cartilage can be used as a cancer immunotherapeutic.

  7. The transformation of synaptic to system plasticity in motor output from the sacral cord of the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingchen C; Elbasiouny, Sherif M; Collins, William F; Heckman, C J

    2015-09-01

    Synaptic plasticity is fundamental in shaping the output of neural networks. The transformation of synaptic plasticity at the cellular level into plasticity at the system level involves multiple factors, including behavior of local networks of interneurons. Here we investigate the synaptic to system transformation for plasticity in motor output in an in vitro preparation of the adult mouse spinal cord. System plasticity was assessed from compound action potentials (APs) in spinal ventral roots, which were generated simultaneously by the axons of many motoneurons (MNs). Synaptic plasticity was assessed from intracellular recordings of MNs. A computer model of the MN pool was used to identify the middle steps in the transformation from synaptic to system behavior. Two input systems that converge on the same MN pool were studied: one sensory and one descending. The two synaptic input systems generated very different motor outputs, with sensory stimulation consistently evoking short-term depression (STD) whereas descending stimulation had bimodal plasticity: STD at low frequencies but short-term facilitation (STF) at high frequencies. Intracellular and pharmacological studies revealed contributions from monosynaptic excitation and stimulus time-locked inhibition but also considerable asynchronous excitation sustained from local network activity. The computer simulations showed that STD in the monosynaptic excitatory input was the primary driver of the system STD in the sensory input whereas network excitation underlies the bimodal plasticity in the descending system. These results provide insight on the roles of plasticity in the monosynaptic and polysynaptic inputs converging on the same MN pool to overall motor plasticity.

  8. Respiratory Development and Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubarth, Lori Baas; Quinn, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory development is crucial for all newborn infants. Premature infants may be born at an early stage of development and lack sufficient surfactant production. This results in respiratory distress syndrome. This article reviews the normal fetal development of the lung as well as the disorder that develops because of an early birth.

  9. Advantages of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system of genome editing to investigate male reproductive mechanisms using mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. M. Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene disruption technology has long been beneficial for the study of male reproductive biology. However, because of the time and cost involved, this technology was not a viable method except in specialist laboratories. The advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 system of gene disruption has ushered in a new era of genetic investigation. Now, it is possible to generate gene-disrupted mouse models in very little time and at very little cost. This Highlight article discusses the application of this technology to study the genetics of male fertility and looks at some of the future uses of this system that could be used to reveal the essential and nonessential genetic components of male reproductive mechanisms.

  10. Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord

    CERN Document Server

    Fratini, Michela; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Spadon, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    Defaults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal systems is a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with neither contrast agent nor a destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is a crucial tool for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries. In particular, it s...

  11. Multi-Scale Human Respiratory System Simulations to Study Health Effects of Aging, Disease, and Inhaled Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Robert; Haworth, Daniel; Dogan, Gulkiz; Kriete, Andres

    2006-11-01

    Three-dimensional, unsteady simulations of multiphase flow, gas exchange, and particle/aerosol deposition in the human lung are reported. Surface data for human tracheo-bronchial trees are derived from CT scans, and are used to generate three- dimensional CFD meshes for the first several generations of branching. One-dimensional meshes for the remaining generations down to the respiratory units are generated using branching algorithms based on those that have been proposed in the literature, and a zero-dimensional respiratory unit (pulmonary acinus) model is attached at the end of each terminal bronchiole. The process is automated to facilitate rapid model generation. The model is exercised through multiple breathing cycles to compute the spatial and temporal variations in flow, gas exchange, and particle/aerosol deposition. The depth of the 3D/1D transition (at branching generation n) is a key parameter, and can be varied. High-fidelity models (large n) are run on massively parallel distributed-memory clusters, and are used to generate physical insight and to calibrate/validate the 1D and 0D models. Suitably validated lower-order models (small n) can be run on single-processor PC’s with run times that allow model-based clinical intervention for individual patients.

  12. Effects of various extremely low frequency magnetic fields on the free radical processes, natural antioxidant system and respiratory burst system activities in the heart and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseven, Ayse Gulnihal; Coskun, Sule; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2008-10-01

    Magnetic fields (MFs) can affect biological systems by increasing the release of free radicals that are able to alter cell defense systems and breakdown tissue homeostasis. In the present study, the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) were investigated on free radical levels, natural antioxidant systems and respiratory burst system activities in heart and liver tissues of guinea pigs exposed to 50 Hz MFs of 1, 2 and 3 mT for 4 h/day and 8 h/day for 5 days by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. A total of sixty-two male guinea pigs, 10-12 weeks old were studied in seven groups as control and exposure groups: Group I (control), II (1 mT, 4 h/day), III (1 mT, 8 h/day), IV (2 mT, 4 h/day), V (2 mT, 8 h/day), VI (3 mT, 4 h/day), and VII (3 mT, 8 h/day). Controls were kept under the same conditions without any exposure to MF. MDA levels increased in liver in groups II and IV, but decreased in group VII for both liver and heart tissues. NOx levels declined in heart in groups II and III and in liver in groups III, V, and VI, but increased in liver in group VII. GSH levels increased in heart in groups II, IV, V, and in liver in groups V and VI and VI, but decreased in groups II and IV in liver. MPO activity decreased in liver in groups III, IV, VI and VII with respect to controls and in heart tissues in groups II, III and IV; however, there was a significant increase MPO activity in heart in group VII. From the results, it can be concluded that the intensity and exposure duration of MFs are among the effective conditions on the formation of free radicals and behaviour of antioxidant enzymes.

  13. Technology in respiratory medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Respiratory medicine is the subspecialty in medicine which ... The very nature of respiratory physiology ... of this essential step with resultant loss of accuracy in .... intensity of treatment, or for medicolegal .... likened to trying to manage dia-.

  14. Effect of sequential mechanical ventilation therapy on alveolar oxygenation function and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in patients with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Hu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of sequential mechanical ventilation therapy on alveolar oxygenation function and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in patients with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure.Methods:A total of 92 patients who were diagnosed with severe pneumonia and required mechanical ventilation therapy in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, sequential group received invasive-non-invasive sequential mechanical ventilation therapy and routine group received conventional invasive mechanical ventilation therapy. Three days after treatment, blood gas analysis parameters, mechanical ventilation parameters, the levels of inflammatory cytokines, cardiac function injury molecules, kidney damage molecules in serum and the levels of kidney damage molecules in the urine were compared between two groups of patients. Results:Three day after treatment, PaO2, HCO3-, TI, TE and TPTEF of sequential group were significantly higher than those of routine group; serum IL-6, TNF-α, sTREM-1, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, ANP, BNP, NPY, cTnI, CYS, NGAL and KIM-1 levels of sequential group were significantly lower than those of routine group, and urine NGAL, KIM-1 and Netrin-1 levels were significantly lower than those of routine group.Conclusions: Invasive-non-invasive sequential mechanical ventilation therapy can improve the alveolar oxygenation function and reduce the systemic inflammatory response as well as cardiac function and renal function injury in patients with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure.

  15. Effects of manual rib-cage compression versus PEEP-ZEEP maneuver on respiratory system compliance and oxygenation in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Flavio Renato Antunes Dos; Schneider Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Forgiarini Junior, Luiz Alberto; Veronezi, Jefferson

    2009-06-01

    Patients unable to perform breathing functions may be submitted to invasive mechanical ventilation. Chest physiotherapy acts directly on the treatment of these patients for the purpose of improving their lung function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of manual rib-cage compression versus the positive end expiratory pressure-zero end expiratory pressure (PEEP-ZEEP) maneuver, on compliance of the respiratory system and oxygenation in patients under invasive mechanical ventilation. A double centric, prospective, randomized and crossover study, with patients under invasive mechanical ventilation, in controlled mode for more than 48 hours was carried out. The protocols of chest physiothe-rapy were randomly applied at an interval of 24 hours. Data of respiratory system compliance and oxygenation were collected before application of the protocols and 30 minutes after. Twelve patients completed the study. Intragroup analysis, for both techniques showed a statistically significant difference in tidal volume (p=0.002), static compliance (p=0.002) and dynamic compliance (p=0.002). In relation to oxygenation, in the group of manual rib-cage compression, peripheral oxygen saturation increased with a significant difference (p=0.011). Manual rib-cage compression and PEEP-ZEEP maneuver have positive clinical effects. In relation to oxygenation we found a favorable behavior of peripheral oxygen saturation in the group of manual rib-cage compression.

  16. New reliable scoring system, Toyama mouse score, to evaluate locomotor function following spinal cord injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigyo, Michiko; Tanabe, Norio; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Choi, Song-Hyen; Tohda, Chihiro

    2014-06-03

    Among the variety of methods used to evaluate locomotor function following a spinal cord injury (SCI), the Basso Mouse Scale score (BMS) has been widely used for mice. However, the BMS mainly focuses on hindlimb movement rather than on graded changes in body support ability. In addition, some of the scoring methods include double or triple criteria within a single score, which likely leads to an increase in the deviation within the data. Therefore we aimed to establish a new scoring method reliable and easy to perform in mice with SCI. Our Toyama Mouse Score (TMS) was established by rearranging and simplifying the BMS score and combining it with the Body Support Scale score (BSS). The TMS reflects changes in both body support ability and hindlimb movement. The definition of single score is made by combing multiple criteria in the BMS. The ambiguity was improved in the TMS. Using contusive SCI mice, hindlimb function was measured using the TMS, BMS and BSS systems. The TMS could distinguish changes in hindlimb movements that were evaluated as the same score by the BMS. An analysis of the coefficient of variation (CV) of score points recorded for 11 days revealed that the CV for the TMS was significantly lower than the CV obtained using the BMS. A variation in intra evaluators was lower in the TMS than in the BMS. These results suggest that the TMS may be useful as a new reliable method for scoring locomotor function for SCI models.

  17. Systemically Transplanted Bone Marrow-derived Cells Contribute to Dental Pulp Regeneration in a Chimeric Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenan; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Qiuyue; Ye, Yanyan; Chen, Jiajing; Heng, Boon Chin; Jiang, Qianli; Wu, Buling; Ding, Zihai; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-02-01

    Migratory cells via blood circulation or cells adjacent to the root apex may potentially participate in dental pulp tissue regeneration or renewal. This study investigated whether systemically transplanted bone marrow cells can contribute to pulp regeneration in a chimeric mouse model. A chimeric mouse model was created through the injection of bone marrow cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic C57BL/6 mice into the tail veins of recipient wild-type C57BL/6 mice that had been irradiated with a lethal dose of 8.5 Gy from a high-frequency linear accelerator. These mice were subjected to pulpectomy and pulp revascularization. At 1, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery, in vivo animal imaging and histologic analyses were conducted. In vivo animal imaging showed that the green biofluorescence signal from the transplanted GFP+ cells increased significantly and was maintained at a high level during the first 4 weeks after surgery. Immunofluorescence analyses of tooth specimens collected at 8 weeks postsurgery showed the presence of nestin+/GFP+, α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)/GFP+, and NeuN/GFP+ cells within the regenerated pulplike tissue. These data confirm that transplanted bone marrow-derived cells can contribute to dental pulp regeneration. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of colony formation in adult mouse spermatogonial stem cells developed in Sertoli and STO coculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, S M; Movahedin, M; Koruji, S M; Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Makoolati, Z

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the in vitro effects of coculture with Sertoli and SIM mouse embryo-derived thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant (STO) feeder layer cells on the efficiency of adult mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) colony formation. Sertoli and SSCs were isolated from testes, and their identity was confirmed using immunocytochemistry against Oct4, CDH1, PLZF and C-kit for SSCs and vimentin for Sertoli cells. SSCs were cultured in a simple culture system (control group) and on top of the Sertoli and STO feeder layers for 2 weeks. The number and diameter of colonies were evaluated during third, 7th, 10th and 14th day of culture, and the expression of the Oct-4, α6 and β1 integrins was assessed using quantitative RT-PCR. Significant differences were observed between the three groups, separately for each time (P < 0.05), with higher mean in number and diameter for Sertoli cells (P < 0.05). The results of RT-PCR showed higher gene expression of β1 integrin in Sertoli group, but no significant differences were observed in Oct-4 and α6 integrin gene expression among the three groups. Based the on the optimal effect of Seroli cells on the colony formation of SSCs, it is suggested to use these cells for better colonisation of SSCs. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Indicators of moisture and ventilation system contamination in U.S. office buildings as risk factors for respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms: analyses of the EPA BASE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Mark J; Cozen, Myrna; Lei-Gomez, Quanhong; Brightman, Howard S; Erdmann, Christine A; Girman, John R; Womble, Susan E

    2006-05-01

    We assessed associations between indicators for moisture in office buildings and weekly, building-related lower respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms in office workers, using the U.S. EPA BASE data, collected in a representative sample of 100 U.S. office buildings. We estimated the strength of associations between the symptom outcomes and moisture indicators in multivariate logistic regression models as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for potential confounding factors and adjusting for correlation among workers in buildings. This analysis identified associations between building-related symptoms and several indicators of moisture or contamination in office buildings. One set of models showed almost a tripling of weekly building-related lower respiratory symptoms in association with lack of cleaning of the drip pans under air-conditioning cooling coils (OR [CI] = 2.8 (1.2-6.5)). Other models found that lack of cleaning of either drip pans or cooling coils was associated with increased mucous membrane symptoms (OR [CI] = 1.4 (1.1-1.9)). Slightly increased symptoms were also associated with other moisture indicators, especially mucous membrane symptoms and past water damage to building mechanical rooms (OR [CI] = 1.3 (1.0-1.7)). Overall, these findings suggest that the presence of moisture or contamination in ventilation systems or occupied spaces in office buildings may have adverse respiratory or irritant effects on workers. The analysis, however, failed to confirm several risks identified in a previous study, such as condition of drain pans or outdoor air intakes, and other hypothesized moisture risks. Studies with more rigorous measurement of environmental risks and health outcomes will be necessary to define moisture-related risks in buildings.

  20. Retinal lesions induce fast intrinsic cortical plasticity in adult mouse visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Katrien; Vreysen, Samme; Laramée, Marie-Eve; Cuyvers, Annemie; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Van Brussel, Leen; Eysel, Ulf T; Nys, Julie; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2016-09-01

    Neuronal activity plays an important role in the development and structural-functional maintenance of the brain as well as in its life-long plastic response to changes in sensory stimulation. We characterized the impact of unilateral 15° laser lesions in the temporal lower visual field of the retina, on visually driven neuronal activity in the afferent visual pathway of adult mice using in situ hybridization for the activity reporter gene zif268. In the first days post-lesion, we detected a discrete zone of reduced zif268 expression in the contralateral hemisphere, spanning the border between the monocular segment of the primary visual cortex (V1) with extrastriate visual area V2M. We could not detect a clear lesion projection zone (LPZ) in areas lateral to V1 whereas medial to V2M, agranular and granular retrosplenial cortex showed decreased zif268 levels over their full extent. All affected areas displayed a return to normal zif268 levels, and this was faster in higher order visual areas than in V1. The lesion did, however, induce a permanent LPZ in the retinorecipient layers of the superior colliculus. We identified a retinotopy-based intrinsic capacity of adult mouse visual cortex to recover from restricted vision loss, with recovery speed reflecting the areal cortical magnification factor. Our observations predict incomplete visual field representations for areas lateral to V1 vs. lack of retinotopic organization for areas medial to V2M. The validation of this mouse model paves the way for future interrogations of cortical region- and cell-type-specific contributions to functional recovery, up to microcircuit level.

  1. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on