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Sample records for mouse bronchoalveolar lavage

  1. The impact of surfactant protein-A on ozone-induced changes in the mouse bronchoalveolar lavage proteome

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    Floros Joanna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ozone is a major component of air pollution. Exposure to this powerful oxidizing agent can cause or exacerbate many lung conditions, especially those involving innate immunity. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A plays many roles in innate immunity by participating directly in host defense as it exerts opsonin function, or indirectly via its ability to regulate alveolar macrophages and other innate immune cells. The mechanism(s responsible for ozone-induced pathophysiology, while likely related to oxidative stress, are not well understood. Methods We employed 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE, a discovery proteomics approach, coupled with MALDI-ToF/ToF to compare the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL proteomes in wild type (WT and SP-A knockout (KO mice and to assess the impact of ozone or filtered air on the expression of BAL proteins. Using the PANTHER database and the published literature most identified proteins were placed into three functional groups. Results We identified 66 proteins and focused our analysis on these proteins. Many of them fell into three categories: defense and immunity; redox regulation; and protein metabolism, modification and chaperones. In response to the oxidative stress of acute ozone exposure (2 ppm; 3 hours there were many significant changes in levels of expression of proteins in these groups. Most of the proteins in the redox group were decreased, the proteins involved in protein metabolism increased, and roughly equal numbers of increases and decreases were seen in the defense and immunity group. Responses between WT and KO mice were similar in many respects. However, the percent change was consistently greater in the KO mice and there were more changes that achieved statistical significance in the KO mice, with levels of expression in filtered air-exposed KO mice being closer to ozone-exposed WT mice than to filtered air-exposed WT mice. Conclusion We postulate that SP-A plays a role

  2. Translational research in pediatrics III: bronchoalveolar lavage.

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    Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka; Yamashita, Cory; Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Fraser, Douglas D

    2014-07-01

    The role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for the care of children with airway and pulmonary diseases is well established, with collected BAL fluid most often used clinically for microbiologic pathogen identification and cellular analyses. More recently, powerful analytic research methods have been used to investigate BAL samples to better understand the pathophysiological basis of pediatric respiratory disease. Investigations have focused on the cellular components contained in BAL fluid, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells, as well as the noncellular components such as serum molecules, inflammatory proteins, and surfactant. Molecular techniques are frequently used to investigate BAL fluid for the presence of infectious pathologies and for cellular gene expression. Recent advances in proteomics allow identification of multiple protein expression patterns linked to specific respiratory diseases, whereas newer analytic techniques allow for investigations on surfactant quantification and function. These translational research studies on BAL fluid have aided our understanding of pulmonary inflammation and the injury/repair responses in children. We review the ethics and practices for the execution of BAL in children for translational research purposes, with an emphasis on the optimal handling and processing of BAL samples. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Molecular analysis of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage in a mouse model of influenza reveals markers of disease severity that can be clinically useful in humans.

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    Yadunanda Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of influenza, a major contributor to the worldwide disease burden, is complicated by lack of reliable methods for early identification of susceptible individuals. Identification of molecular markers that can augment existing diagnostic tools for prediction of severity can be expected to greatly improve disease management capabilities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have analyzed cytokines, proteome flux and protein adducts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and sera from mice infected with influenza A virus (PR8 strain using a previously established non-lethal model of influenza infection. Through detailed cytokine and protein adduct measurements of murine BAL, we first established the temporal profile of innate and adaptive responses as well as macrophage and neutrophil activities in response to influenza infection. A similar analysis was also performed with sera from a longitudinal cohort of influenza patients. We then used an iTRAQ-based, comparative serum proteome analysis to catalog the proteome flux in the murine BAL during the stages correlating with "peak viremia," "inflammatory damage," as well as the "recovery phase." In addition to activation of acute phase responses, a distinct class of lung proteins including surfactant proteins was found to be depleted from the BAL coincident with their "appearance" in the serum, presumably due to leakage of the protein following loss of the integrity of the lung/epithelial barrier. Serum levels of at least two of these proteins were elevated in influenza patients during the febrile phase of infection compared to healthy controls or to the same patients at convalescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings from this study provide a molecular description of disease progression in a mouse model of influenza and demonstrate its potential for translation into a novel class of markers for measurement of acute lung injury and improved case management.

  4. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

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    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens...

  5. Cloning of T lymphocytes from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, B. E.; Krouwels, F. H.; Bruinier, B.; Reijneke, R. M.; Mengelers, H. J.; Koenderman, L.; Jansen, H. M.; Out, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    We have prepared T-cell clones from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from four healthy, nonsmoking persons and from four patients with allergic asthma. T cells were cloned by direct limiting dilution and with the use of a fluorescent activated cell sorter with an automated cell deposition unit.

  6. A Fast, Easy, and Customizable Eight-Color Flow Cytometric Method for Analysis of the Cellular Content of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in the Mouse.

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    Daubeuf, François; Becker, Julien; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Ebel, Claudine; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Hérault, Yann; Frossard, Nelly

    2017-06-19

    The cell composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) is an important indicator of airway inflammation. It is commonly determined by cytocentrifuging leukocytes on slides, then staining, identifying, and counting them as eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, or lymphocytes according to morphological criteria under light microscopy, where it is not always easy to distinguish macrophages from lymphocytes. We describe here a one-step, easy-to-use, and easy-to-customize 8-color flow cytometric method for performing differential cell count and comparing it to morphological counts on stained cytospins. This method identifies BAL cells by a simultaneous one-step immunolabeling procedure using antibodies to identify T cells, B cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. Morphological analysis of flow-sorted cell subsets is used to validate this protocol. An important advantage of this basic flow cytometry protocol is the ability to customize it by the addition of antibodies to study receptor expression at leukocyte cell surfaces and identify subclasses of inflammatory cells as needed. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage with Conventional Treatment in Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the role of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage in addition to conventional treatment among two groups, with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, in terms of regression in serum IgE levels and clinical recurrence at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Study Design: Aquasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2010 to December 2013. Methodology: The study was carried out on 132 patients who fulfilled the Greenberger and Patterson criteria and underwent a chest X-ray, an HRCT chest and classified radiologically as with Central Bronchiectasis (CB), High Attenuation Mucus (HAM) or Other Radiological Features (ORF). Baseline serum IgE levels were noted. All patients were given treatment including prednisolone and antifungal agent itraconazole for 4 months. Patients with ORF on HRCT chest and just received the medical treatment were labeled as conventional group. Those patients who had CB or HAM radiological features also underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL), labeled as BAL group. Clinical recurrence and serum IgE levels were noted at 3 and 6 months. Values were compared using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests respectively. Results: Around 78 (59.1 percentage) of patients underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage to remove the mucus plugs. The mean serum IgE levels at baseline were 3312.04 ± 2526.217 and 3486.15 ± 2528.324 IU/ml in the BAL and conventional groups respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in the mean serum IgE levels at 3 (p < 0.00) and 6 months (p < 0.001) of follow-up in BALas compared to conventional group. There was no significant difference in the clinical recurrence rate in both the groups (p=0.078 at 3 and 0.343 at 6 months respectively). Conclusion: Therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage may be a useful adjunct to treatment in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary

  8. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined

  9. QPCR detection of Mucorales DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to diagnose pulmonary mucormycosis.

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    Scherer, Emeline E; Iriart, Xavier; Bellanger, Anne Pauline; Dupont, Damien; Guitard, Juliette; Gabriel, Frederic; Cassaing, Sophie; Charpentier, Eléna; Guenounou, Sarah; Cornet, Murielle; Botterel, Françoise; Rocchi, Steffi; Berceanu, Ana; Millon, Laurence

    2018-06-06

    Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improving the outcome of mucormycosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the contribution of quantitative PCR detection of Mucorales DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids for early diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis.Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (n=450) from 374 patients with pneumonia and immunosuppressive conditions were analyzed using a combination of 3 quantitative PCR assays targeting the main genera involved in mucormycosis in France ( Rhizomucor, Mucor/Rhizopus, Lichtheimia ).Among these 374 patients, 24 had at least one bronchoalveolar lavage with a positive PCR; 23/24 patients had radiological criteria for invasive fungal infections according to consensual criteria : 10 patients with probable or proven mucormycosis, and 13 additional patients with other invasive fungal infections (4 probable aspergillosis, 1 proven fusariosis, and 8 possible invasive fungal infections). Only 2/24 patients with a positive PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage had a positive Mucorales culture.PCR was also positive on serum in 17/24 patients. In most cases, PCR was first detected positive on sera (15/17). However, a positive PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage was the earliest and/or the only biological test revealing mucormycosis in 4 patients with a final diagnosis of probable or proven mucormycosis, 3 patients with probable aspergillosis and one patient with a possible invasive fungal infection.Mucorales PCR performed on bronchoalveolar lavage could provide additional arguments for earlier administration of Mucorales-directed antifungal therapy, thus improving the outcome of lung mucormycosis. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum: detection with a nested polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, J; Lerche, A G; Kolmos, H J

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, 117 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, from HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy, were processed and a nested PCR, followed by Southern blot and hybridization with a P32-labelled probe......, but sensitivity dropped markedly with this system. A further 33 patients had both induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage performed and the induced sputum was analysed using PCR and routine microbiological methods. The PCR sensitivity on induced sputum was equal to that of routine methods. At present...... the evaluated PCR cannot replace routine microbiological methods for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, on either BAL fluid or induced sputum....

  11. Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay and Quantitative PCR for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis with Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

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    Musher, Benjamin; Fredricks, David; Leisenring, Wendy; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Smith, Caitlin; Marr, Kieren A.

    2004-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is frequent and often fatal in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathologic demonstration of the organism in tissues; however, cultivation of Aspergillus species from respiratory secretions has low diagnostic sensitivity. Assays to detect Aspergillus antigen or DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid could facilitate earlier diagnosis, thereby guiding optimal therapy and obviating the need for addit...

  12. Cytomegalovirus Viral Load in Bronchoalveolar Lavage to Diagnose Lung Transplant Associated CMV Pneumonia

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    Lodding, Isabelle Paula; Schultz, Hans Henrik; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic yield for cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR viral load in Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) or in plasma to diagnose CMV pneumonia in lung transplant recipients remains uncertain, and was investigated in a large cohort of consecutive lung transplant recipients. METHODS: Bronchoscopi...

  13. Evidence for an intracellular niche for Bordetella pertussis in broncho-alveolar lavage cells of mice

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    Hellwig, SMM; Hazenbos, WLW; van de Winkel, JGJ; Mooi, FR

    1999-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis can attach, invade and survive intracellularly in human macrophages in vitro. To study the significance of this bacterial feature in vivo, we analyzed the presence of viable bacteria in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) cells of mice infected with B, pertussis. We found B. pertussis

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage: role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniele, R.P.; Elias, J.A.; Epstein, P.E.; Rossman, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage has emerged as a useful technique for the study of pulmonary interstitial disorders. Several types of information are provided by the evaluation of lavage fluid. First, the identification of cellular constituents helps to separate inflammatory processes in which lymphocytes predominate (for example, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and berylliosis) from those in which neutrophils or macrophages predominate (for example, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and histiocytosis X). Second, the cells removed during lavage can be studied for their immune properties and function; tested with specific antigens, in diseases such as berylliosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis; and examined for the presence of unique surface antigens with monoclonal antibodies (for example, histiocytosis X). Third, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and electron probe analysis, lavage makes possible the identification of inorganic particles in alveolar macrophages of patients with pneumoconiotic lung disease. Finally, although lavage is still an investigative procedure for most pulmonary disorders, it has an established role in the diagnosis of opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised patient

  15. Gallium-67 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauth, H.A.; Heimes, K.; Schubotz, R.; von Wichert, P.

    1986-01-01

    Roentgenograms and gallium-67 scans and gallium-67 counts of BAL fluid samples, together with differential cell counts, have proved to be useful in assessing activity and lung involvement in sarcoidosis. In active pulmonary sarcoidosis gallium-67 scans are usually positive. Quantitation of gallium-67 uptake in lung scans, however, may be difficult. Because gallium-67 uptake and cell counts in BAL fluid may be correlated, we set out to investigate gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid recovered from patient of different groups. Sixteen patients with recently diagnosed and untreated sarcoidosis, nine patients with healthy lungs, and five patients with CFA were studied. Gallium-67 uptake of the lung, gallium-67 activity in the lavage fluid, SACE and LACE levels, and alpha 1-AT activity were measured. Significantly more gallium-67 activity was found in BAL fluid from sarcoidosis patients than in that from CFA patients (alpha = .001) or patients with healthy lungs (alpha = .001). Gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid could be well correlated with the number of lymphocytes in BAL fluid, but poorly with the number of macrophages. Subjects with increased levels of SACE or serum alpha 1-AT showed higher lavage gallium-67 activity than did normals, but no correlation could be established. High gallium-67 activity in lavage fluid may be correlated with acute sarcoidosis or physiological deterioration; low activity denotes change for the better. The results show that gallium-67 counts in BAL fluid reflects the intensity of gallium-67 uptake and thus of activity of pulmonary sarcoidosis

  16. The clinical significance of the substance P in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Bangping; Jiang Changbin

    2003-01-01

    Using radioimmunoassay to measure the substance P (SP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in thirty patients with bronchial asthma and thirty healthy persons. Compered with healthy group (33.4±24.5 pmol/L), the SP in bronchial asthma group (240.2±18.7 pmol/L) increased significantly (p < 0.01). SP may play a role in the development of bronchial asthma

  17. Bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with interstitial lung diseases: side effects and factors affecting fluid recovery.

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    Dhillon, D P; Haslam, P L; Townsend, P J; Primett, Z; Collins, J V; Turner-Warwick, M

    1986-05-01

    One hundred and seventy patients with interstitial lung diseases undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), were contrasted with 51 patients undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy alone to define the factors which predispose to post-lavage side-effects. Transient post-bronchoscopy fall in the peak expired flow (PEF) greater than or equal to 20% occurred in both groups (24% and 23% respectively), and thus was probably related to the bronchoscopy procedure. Post-lavage pyrexia (greater than or equal to 1 degree C) occurred only in the patients undergoing BAL (26%), p less than 0.001. Only 4% with pyrexia required antibiotics, and only 2% with falls in PEF needed bronchodilator therapy. The only significant clinical association was more frequent pyrexia in patients on treatment with prednisolone, particularly in women (p less than 0.01). Pyrexia was also associated with higher lavage fluid introduction volumes (greater than 240 ml). Side effects did not relate to the percentages of lavage fluid recovered, although smokers had lower recoveries and, recoveries tended to be higher in sarcoidosis than cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Serial lavages in 25 patients caused no significant increase in side effects.

  18. Respiratory mechanics and results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in healthy adult alpacas.

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    Pacheco, Ana P; Bedenice, Daniela; Mazan, Melissa R; Hoffman, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory mechanical function and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytologic results in healthy alpacas. 16 client-owned adult alpacas. Measurements of pulmonary function were performed, including functional residual capacity (FRC) via helium dilution, respiratory system resistance via forced oscillatory technique (FOT), and assessment of breathing pattern by use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) in standing and sternally recumbent alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed orotracheally during short-term anesthesia. Mean ± SD measurements of respiratory function were obtained in standing alpacas for FRC (3.19 ± 0.53 L), tidal volume (0.8 ± 0.13 L), and respiratory system resistance at 1 Hz (2.70 ± 0.88 cm H(2)O/L/s), 2 Hz (2.98 ± 0.70 cm H(2)O/L/s), 3 Hz (3.14 ± 0.77 cm H(2)O/L/s), 5 Hz (3.45 ± 0.91 cm H(2)O/L/s), and 7 Hz (3.84 ± 0.93 cm H(2)O/L/s). Mean phase angle, as a measurement of thoracoabdominal asynchrony, was 19.59 ± 10.06°, and mean difference between nasal and plethysmographic flow measurements was 0.18 ± 0.07 L/s. Tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow were significantly higher in sternally recumbent alpacas than in standing alpacas. Cytologic examination of BAL fluid revealed 58.52 ± 12.36% alveolar macrophages, 30.53 ± 13.78% lymphocytes, 10.95 ± 9.29% neutrophils, 0% mast cells, and several ciliated epithelial cells. Pulmonary function testing was tolerated well in nonsedated untrained alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage in alpacas yielded samples with adequate cellularity that had a greater abundance of neutrophils than has been reported in horses.

  19. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

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    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  20. Bronchoalveolar lavage, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme, and 67Ga scanning in extrathoracic sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Fournier, E.; Tonnel, A.B.; Voisin, C.

    1982-01-01

    Results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), 67Ga scanning, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) assay are compared in the assessment of pulmonary involvement in ten cases of extrathoracic sarcoidosis. Standard clinical, radiologic, and pulmonary function tests detected no pulmonary changes in these patients, but BAL demonstrated an increased alveolar lymphocytosis in eight of ten cases. SACE levels were increased in two cases, and the thoracic gallium uptake was normal in all cases. BAL appears to be the best technique for diagnosing latent pulmonary involvement in extrathoracic sarcoidosis

  1. A case of radiation pneumonitis with eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Seiko; Baba, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Daisuke; Yagi, Takeo; Hattori, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Etsuro

    2008-01-01

    A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for irradiation therapy of non-resectable primary lung squamous cell carcinoma of the right middle lobe (T3N2M0). The Linac irradiation through opposing 2 gates (2 Gy per day and 60 Gy in total) was performed to the affected area including the metastatic right hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. One week after completing the irradiation therapy, fever developed with infiltrates in the area from the right middle lobe to the right lower lobe, which did not necessarily coincide with the irradiated area Antibiotic therapies were not effective. Both the serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level and eosinophil count in the peripheral blood increased. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at the right B 8 , and differential cell counts of the lavage fluid were macrophages, 17%; lymphocytes, 60%; neutrophils, 5%; and eosinophils, 18%. No significant organisms were obtained by culture of the lavage fluid. The %VC and D LCO /VA became lower than before the irradiation therapy. Thus, the patient was given a diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis. Treatment with 40 mg/day oral prednisolone was commenced with a stepwise dose-reduction (5 mg every two weeks) until reaching the maintenance dose of 15 mg/day. The serum LDH level and blood eosinophil count recovered promptly to the normal range. The pulmonary infiltrates and the lung functions substantially improved. There have been few reports of radiation pneumonitis in which eosinophil counts increased in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after irradiation therapy. In the present case report, the possible mechanisms for the irradiation-induced eosinophilia were also reviewed. (author)

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Solid Phases of Bronchoalveolar Lavage and Oral Fluid in Children with Acute Necrotizing Pneumonia

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    V.N. Grona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of acute lung abscesses, and pleural empyema, high invalidization and mortality determine the necessity for search of new methods of its diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this research was to study the morphological characteristics of in bronchoalveolar lavage and oral fluid facies in children with acute destructive pneumonias and to find out correlations between them. We examined 24 patients of department of purulent surgery in age from 1 to 14 years. Collection of mixed unstimulated oral fluid was carried out by spitting into special tubes, bronchoalveolar lavage was obtained by bronchoscopy. There has been revealed a correlation between morphological pattern of bronchoalveolar lavage and oral fluid in children depending on the pathological condition of the body.

  3. Euthanasia and Lavage Mediated Effects on Bronchoalveolar Measures of Lung Injury and Inflammation.

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    Tighe, Robert M; Birukova, Anastasiya; Yeager, Michael J; Reece, Sky W; Gowdy, Kymberly M

    2018-02-26

    Accurate and reproducible assessments of experimental lung injury and inflammation are critical to basic and translational research. In particular, investigators use varied methods of bronchoalveolar lavage and euthanasia but their impact to assessments of injury and inflammation are unknown. To define potential effects, we compared methods of lavage and euthanasia in uninjured mice and following a mild lung injury model (ozone). C57BL/6J male mice age 8-10 weeks underwent BAL following euthanasia with ketamine/xylazine, carbon dioxide (C0 2 ), or isoflurane. BAL methods included 800-μL instilled and withdrawn three times, and 1 or 3 passive fill(s) and drainage to 20cm H20. Parallel experiments were performed 24hr following 3hr of ozone (O 3 ) exposure at 2 parts per million (ppm). BAL total cell counts/differentials and total protein/albumin were determined. Lung histology was evaluated for lung inflammation/injury. BAL cells were cultured and stimulated with PBS, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 4hr and supernatants were evaluated for cytokine content. In uninjured mice, we observed differences due to the lavage and euthanasia methods. The lavage method increased uninjured and O 3 exposure total cells and total protein/albumin with 800-μL instillation having the highest values. Isoflurane increased uninjured total BAL cells, while C0 2 euthanasia increased the uninjured total protein/albumin levels. These effects limited the ability to detect differences in BAL injury measures following O 3 exposure. In conclusion, the method of lavage and euthanasia affects measures of lung inflammation/injury and should be considered a variable in model assessment.

  4. Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum: detection with a nested polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, J; Lerche, A G; Kolmos, H J

    1995-01-01

    was performed. The sensitivity and specificity were 85 and 100% 934/40 and 77/77) respectively. A non-radioactive labelling system BluGENE was evaluated on all specimens, and found to be as effective as P32-labelling. To increase the speed and convenience of detection, a dot blot system was tested......To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, 117 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, from HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy, were processed and a nested PCR, followed by Southern blot and hybridization with a P32-labelled probe...... the evaluated PCR cannot replace routine microbiological methods for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, on either BAL fluid or induced sputum....

  5. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of pigs by PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, A.K.; Runge, M.; Ganter, Martin

    1998-01-01

    In the present investigation we developed a method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs by PCR with a primer pair flanking a DNA fragment of 853 bp specific for M. hyopneumoniae. Several methods were tested to eliminate the amplification...... other mycoplasma species and 17 cell-walled bacterial species colonizing the respiratory tracts of pigs was not amplified. In a field study BALFs from 40 pigs from farms with a history of chronic pneumonia were tested for M. hyopneumoniae by cultivation and by PCR (i) with BALFs incubated in Frus medium...... inhibitors present in BALFs. The best results were obtained by the extraction of the DNA from the BALFs. By the PCR performed with the extracted DNA, 10(2) CFU of M. hyopneumoniae could be detected in 1 ml of BALF from specific-pathogen-free swine experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae. DNA from 11...

  6. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a tool for evaluation of cellular alteration during Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats

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    Vitor M. Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.

  7. Detection of plant DNA in the bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Bousbia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections such as nosocomial pneumonia are a serious cause of mortality for hospitalized patients, especially for those admitted to intensive care units (ICUs. Despite the number of the studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely known. Herein, we found by molecular technique that vegetable and tobacco DNA may be detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we studied bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL from patients admitted to ICUs with ventilator-associated pneumonia. BAL fluids were assessed with molecular tests, culture and blood culture. We successfully identified plant DNA in six patients out of 106 (6% with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Inhalation was confirmed in four cases and suspected in the other two cases. Inhalation was significantly frequent in patients with plant DNA (four out of six patients than those without plant DNA (three out of 100 patients (P<0.001. Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast DNA was identified in three patients who were smokers (cases 2, 3 and 6. Cucurbita pepo, Morus bombycis and Triticum aestivum DNA were identified in cases 1, 4 and 5 respectively. Twenty-three different bacterial species, two viruses and five fungal species were identified from among these six patients by using molecular and culture techniques. Several of the pathogenic microorganisms identified are reported to be food-borne or tobacco plant-associated pathogens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that plants DNA may be identified in the BAL fluid of pneumonia patients, especially when exploring aspiration pneumonia, but the significance of the presence of plant DNA and its role in the pathogenesis of pneumonia is unknown and remains to be investigated. However, the identification of these plants may be a potential marker of aspiration in patients with pneumonia.

  8. Mycoplasma detection by triplex real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from bovine respiratory disease complex cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Jan B.W.J.; Bree, de Freddy M.; Wal, van der Fimme J.; Kooij, Engbert A.; Koene, Miriam G.J.; Bossers, Alex; Smid, Bregtje; Antonis, Adriaan F.; Wisselink, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In this study we evaluated the RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCR for the detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Mycoplasma (M.) dispar, M. bovis and M. bovirhinis, all three associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Primers and probes of the RespoCheck

  9. Lung malignancy: Diagnostic accuracies of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing, and fine needle aspiration cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Rateesh; Pandey, C L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of lung cancer plays a pivotal role in reducing lung cancer death rate. Cytological techniques are safer, economical and provide quick results. Bronchoscopic washing, brushing and fine needle aspirations not only complement tissue biopsies in the diagnosis of lung cancer but also comparable. Objectives: (1) To find out diagnostic yields of bronchioalveolar lavage, bronchial brushings, FNAC in diagnosis of lung malignancy. (2) To compare relative accuracy of these three cytological techniques. (3) To correlate the cytologic diagnosis with clinical, bronchoscopic and CT findings. (4) Cytological and histopathological correlation of lung lesions. Methods: All the patients who came with clinical or radiological suspicion of lung malignancy in two and a half year period were included in study. Bronchoalveolar lavage was the most common type of cytological specimen (82.36%), followed by CT guided FNAC (9.45%) and bronchial brushings (8.19%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for all techniques and correlation with histopathology was done using standard formulas. Results: The most sensitive technique was CT FNAC – (87.25%) followed by brushings (77.78%) and BAL (72.69%). CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield (90.38%), followed by brushings (86.67%) and BAL (83.67%). Specificity and positive predictive value were 100 % each of all techniques. Lowest false negatives were obtained in CT FNAC (12.5%) and highest in BAL (27.3%). Highest negative predictive value was of BAL 76.95 % followed by BB 75.59% and CT FNAC 70.59%. Conclusion: Before administering antitubercular treatment every effort should be made to rule out malignancy. CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield among three cytological techniques. BAL is an important tool in screening central as well as in accessible lesions. It can be used at places where CT guided FNAC is not available or could not be done due to technical or financial limitations PMID:27890992

  10. Role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, J A; Adams, J A; Saldana, M A; Mavunda, K; Goldfinger, S; Vernon, D; Holzman, B; McKey, R M

    1991-06-01

    Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 16 pediatric patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and deterioration in pulmonary function suggestive of opportunistic infection. In 62% of the patients Pneumocystis carinii was identified. Culture results showed a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for one patient in addition to the Pneumocystis carinii. Bronchoscopy with lavage was well tolerated, with few complications even among patients with significant tachypnea and hypoxia. Because of its relative safety and effectiveness, this procedure should be considered the first invasive measurement used for evaluation of parenchymal lung disease in this population of patients.

  11. Detection of Bacterial Pathogens from Broncho-Alveolar Lavage by Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Stefano; Gaïa, Nadia; Ruppé, Etienne; Emonet, Stephane; Girard, Myriam; Lazarevic, Vladimir; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2017-09-20

    The applications of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMGS) in routine clinical analysis are still limited. A combination of a DNA extraction procedure, sequencing, and bioinformatics tools is essential for the removal of human DNA and for improving bacterial species identification in a timely manner. We tackled these issues with a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sample from an immunocompromised patient who had developed severe chronic pneumonia. We extracted DNA from the BAL sample with protocols based either on sequential lysis of human and bacterial cells or on the mechanical disruption of all cells. Metagenomic libraries were sequenced on Illumina HiSeq platforms. Microbial community composition was determined by k-mer analysis or by mapping to taxonomic markers. Results were compared to those obtained by conventional clinical culture and molecular methods. Compared to mechanical cell disruption, a sequential lysis protocol resulted in a significantly increased proportion of bacterial DNA over human DNA and higher sequence coverage of Mycobacterium abscessus , Corynebacterium jeikeium and Rothia dentocariosa , the bacteria reported by clinical microbiology tests. In addition, we identified anaerobic bacteria not searched for by the clinical laboratory. Our results further support the implementation of WMGS in clinical routine diagnosis for bacterial identification.

  12. Clinical significance of determination of 3 tumor markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui; Hu Huacheng; Hu Yunzhu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of 3 tumor markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for diagnosis and evaluation of disease extent in patients with lung cancer. Methods: The level of CEA, CYFRA21-1 and NSE in BALF was measured in 92 patients with lung cancer and 40 patients with benign lung diseases by using chemoluminescence, RIA and ELISA methods respectively. Results: The level of all 3 tumor markers measured in BALF was much higher in lung cancer group than that in benign lung disease group (P<0.01 or P<0.05), and it was higher in patients with advanced disease (stage III and IV) than that in stage I and II. These tumor markers increased in different degrees among the patients in various pathological classifications. It was also found the level of these tumor markers was higher and more sensitive in BALF than that in serum. Conclusion: The measurement of the tumor markers in BALF has more significant value than the measurement in serum, which contribute to the early diagnosis, pathological classification and prognosis evaluation of lung cancer

  13. Effects of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage and partial liquid ventilation on meconium-aspirated newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Mei-Jy; Soong, Wen-Jue; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Hua-Lun; Shen, Chung-Min; Wang, Chua-Ho; Yang, Shyh-Sheng; Hwang, Betau

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with either diluted surfactant (SBAL) or perfluorochemical liquid (PBAL), followed by either conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) or partial liquid ventilation (PLV), on lung injury and proinflammatory cytokine production induced by meconium aspiration in newborn piglets. A prospective, randomized, experimental study. An animal research laboratory at a medical center. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated newborn piglets (n = 27). The animals were instilled with 3-5 mL/kg 25% human meconium via an endotracheal tube to induce meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). After stabilization, animals were randomly assigned to either CMV group (no BAL) or one of the treatment groups (SBAL-CMV, SBAL-PLV, PBAL-CMV, and PBAL-PLV). Cardiopulmonary variables were monitored, and interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 content of the serum and lung tissue was measured. The animals without any treatment (CMV group) displayed the worst outcome; the animals in the PBAL-PLV group had the best gas exchange, lung compliance, and least pulmonary damage; and the SBAL-CMV, PBAL-CMV, and SBAL-PLV groups had intermediate effects. The serum interleukin-1beta concentration of the CMV group was significantly higher than all other groups over time (p CMV group and lowest in the PBAL-PLV group. Initial therapeutic BAL and therapeutic BAL followed by PLV with the same perfluorochemical liquid provided significant therapeutic effects in treating an animal model with severe MAS and therefore warrant consideration in cases that are intractable to other therapies.

  14. Immune complexes, gallium lung scans, and bronchoalveolar lavage in idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis-fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelb, A.F.; Dreisen, R.B.; Epstein, J.D.; Silverthorne, J.D.; Bickel, Y.; Fields, M.; Border, W.A.; Taylor, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    We obtained results of lung immune complexes (LIC), circulating immune complexes (CIC), 48-hour gallium lung scans (scans), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and pulmonary function tests in 20 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis-fibrosis. Sixteen patients had predominantly interstitial (13 cases UIP) and/or intraalveolar (3 cases DIP) cellular disease (group 1). Prior to corticosteroid therapy in group 1, scans were positive in 75 percent, CIC were elevated in 86 percent, LIC were present in 64 percent, and BAL was abnormal in 90 percent. Duration of follow-up after treatment was 3.5 +/- 1.0 year. In group 1 after treatment with corticosteroids in 13 patients and corticosteroids and penicillamine (three patients) and plasmapheresis (one patient), only four patients remain stable or improved. After corticosteroid therapy, elevated CIC returned to normal values despite progressive patient deterioration. In three patients, lung immune complexes were still detected after circulating immune complexes had returned to normal after corticosteroid therapy. In group 2 were four patients with fibrotic disease; scans and CIC were uniformly negative, LIC were weakly present in only one patient, and BAL was abnormal in all. Despite corticosteroid therapy, all have died or deteriorated. These results suggest that positive gallium lung scans, BAL, circulating immune complexes, and to a lesser extent, lung immune complexes are associated with the cellular phase of interstitial pneumonia, but do not reliably identify a corticosteroid-responsive group

  15. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value <0.05, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing. Categorical enrichment analysis indicated that expression of the hypoxia-responsive DosR regulon was higher in BAL than in sputum. M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum was distinct from both aerobic growth and NRP-2, with a range of 396-1020 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after multiple testing correction. Collectively, our results indicate that M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum approximates M. tuberculosis transcription in the lung. Minor differences between M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum suggested lower oxygen concentrations or higher nitric oxide concentrations in BAL. M. tuberculosis-targeted transcriptional profiling of sputa may be a powerful tool for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage with diluted porcine surfactant in mechanically ventilated term infants with meconium aspiration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Gianluca; Bianchi, Silvia; Castoldi, Francesca; Fontana, Paola; Cavigioli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with diluted porcine surfactant in mechanically ventilated term infants with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Eight consecutive mechanically ventilated term infants with severe ARDS due to MAS underwent BAL with 15 mL/kg of diluted (5.3mg phospholipid/mL) surfactant saline suspension (porcine surfactant [Curosurf]). Treatment was administered slowly in aliquots of 2.5 mL. The mean age of neonates at treatment was 3.5 (range 1-8) hours. Heart rate, systemic blood pressure and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously. Arterial blood gases were measured immediately before treatment, and again at 3 and 6 hours post-treatment. Chest x-rays were taken 6 and 24 hours after treatment. Radiological improvement was evident in all eight patients 6 hours post-treatment. Compared with pre-BAL values, significant improvements (p fluids that had been meconium-stained prior to BAL were clear of meconium after BAL. Only one patient required nitric oxide therapy for transient pulmonary hypertension. No adverse sequelae of treatment occurred during the study. BAL with dilute porcine surfactant administered slowly in 2.5 mL aliquots improved oxygenation and chest x-ray findings, without causing major adverse effects, in mechanically ventilated term infants with ARDS due to MAS.

  17. The study of the lung accumulation of I-123 IMP by the broncho-alveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itasaka, Miyoko; Ikeda, Hideki; Yakuwa, Naoshi; Kato, Shuichi; Takahashi, Keiji; Yasui, Shoji

    1989-01-01

    We studied the accumulated portion and the movement of I-123 IMP in the lung. Ten subjects were studied. They were four patients with fibrosing lung disease, two with lung cancer, and four with other lung disease. They underwent the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) for the diagnosis of their diseases. l.5 mCi of I-123 IMP was injected into the ante-cubital vein. The BAL examination was carried out about 40 minutes after the injection of I-123 IMP. The subjects' blood was sampled at the same time. The total BAL liquid (BAL-T) was divided into the fluid component (BAL-F) and the cell component (BAL-C) by centrifugation. The radioactivities in BAL-T, BAL-F, BAL-C, and serum (B-S) were measured by the well-counter. The average of BAL-T/B-S, BAL-F/B-S and BAL-C/B-S were 6.86, 4.26 and 2.71 respectively. It was confirmed that I-123 IMP was transported from the pulmonary capillary to the alveolar space and was taken up by the alveolar cells. It was considered that the analysis of the I-123 IMP release from the lung showed not only the endothelial cell uptake function but also the interstitial and material cells' amine transport and uptake function. (author)

  18. Determination of albumin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by flow-injection fluorometry using chromazurol S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaji; Saito, Yoshihiro; Chikuma, Masahiko; Saito, Yutaka; Nagai, Sonoko

    2008-03-01

    A highly sensitive flow injection fluorometry for the determination of albumin was developed and applied to the determination of albumin in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). This method is based on binding of chromazurol S (CAS) to albumin. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5-200 microg/ml of albumin. A highly linear correlation (r=0.986) was observed between the albumin level in BALF samples (n=25) determined by the proposed method and by a conventional fluorometric method using CAS (CAS manual method). The IgG interference was lower in the CAS flow injection method than in the CAS manual method. The albumin level in BALF collected from healthy volunteers (n=10) was 58.5+/-13.1 microg/ml. The albumin levels in BALF samples obtained from patients with sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were increased. This finding shows that the determination of albumin levels in BALF samples is useful for investigating lung diseases and that CAS flow injection method is promising in the determination of trace albumin in BALF samples, because it is sensitive and precise.

  19. Asbestosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins and their relationship to pulmonary epithelial permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellert, A.R.; Perry, D.; Langford, J.A.; Riches, P.G.; Rudd, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors measured levels of albumin and immunoglobulins in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in 28 men with asbestosis and 11 control subjects. The half-time clearance of inhaled diethylene triamine pentacetate labelled with technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) from the lungs (t1/2LB) was measured in 26 patients with asbestosis and in 31 normal nonsmoking controls. In those individuals in whom immunoglobulins were detected in BAL fluid, the mean IgG:albumin ratio in BAL fluid was 0.30, significantly less than the ratio of 0.43 in control subjects. There was no significant difference in IgA:albumin ratios between patients and control subjects. The mean BAL:serum albumin ratio in patients with asbestosis was 2.3 X 10(-3). The t1/2LB was significantly shorter in both smokers and nonsmokers with asbestosis, compared with 31 normal nonsmoking controls, but there were no relationships between t1/2LB and BAL:serum albumin ratio or any other BAL protein levels in either smokers or nonsmokers with asbestosis

  20. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susanna K; Burgener, Elizabeth B; Waggoner, Jesse J; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results.  Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions.  Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis.

  1. Utility of galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownback, Kyle R; Pitts, Lucas R; Simpson, Steven Q

    2013-09-01

    Diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a challenging process in immunocompromised patients. Galactomannan (GM) antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a method to detect IPA with improved sensitivity over conventional studies. We sought to determine the diagnostic yield of BAL GM assay in a diverse population of immunocompromised patients. A retrospective review of 150 fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) with BAL for newly diagnosed pulmonary infiltrate in immunocompromised patients was performed. Patient information, procedural details and laboratory studies were collected. BAL and serum samples were evaluated for GM using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Of 150 separate FOB with BAL, BAL GM was obtained in 143 samples. There were 31 positive BAL GM assays. In those 31 positive tests, 13 were confirmed as IPA, giving a positive predictive value of 41.9%. There was one false negative BAL GM. Of the 18 false positive BAL GM, 4 were receiving piperacillin-tazobactam and 11 were receiving an alternative beta-lactam antibiotic. BAL GM assay shows excellent sensitivity for diagnosing IPA. There was a significant number of false positive BAL GM assays and several of those patients were receiving beta-lactam antibiotics at the time of bronchoscopy. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  3. Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma diagnosed in a bronchoalveolar lavage specimen: An unusual presentation of a common tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne E Moul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma presenting as a primary lung disease is rare. We present a 52-year-old male with a 3-month history of cough, shortness of breath, and weight loss with clinical and radiological findings suggestive of a primary lung disease: Bilateral interstitial and alveolar opacities with blunting of the costophrenic angles, multiple diffuse foci of consolidations and nodules, predominantly subpleural and located in the lower lobes, and diffuse interlobular septal thickening and peribronchial thickening. The patient underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was obtained. Cytospin smears were diagnostic for a low-grade adenocarcinoma. Clinically, the patient had elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels greater than 5,000 ng/mL. Because of this, immunocytochemistry for PSA was performed which was positive, confirming the diagnosis of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. This unusual case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate first diagnosed by BAL highlights the significance of available clinical information and the use of immunocytochemistry for proper diagnosis.

  4. Airway Microbiota in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Clinically Well Infants with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Laguna

    Full Text Available Upper airway cultures guide the identification and treatment of lung pathogens in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF; however, this may not fully reflect the spectrum of bacteria present in the lower airway. Our objectives were to characterize the airway microbiota using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF from asymptomatic CF infants during the first year of life and to investigate the relationship between BALF microbiota, standard culture and clinical characteristics.BALF, nasopharyngeal (NP culture and infant pulmonary function testing data were collected at 6 months and one year of age during periods of clinical stability from infants diagnosed with CF by newborn screening. BALF was analyzed for total bacterial load by qPCR and for bacterial community composition by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Clinical characteristics and standard BALF and NP culture results were recorded over five years of longitudinal follow-up.12 BALF samples were collected from 8 infants with CF. Streptococcus, Burkholderia, Prevotella, Haemophilus, Porphyromonas, and Veillonella had the highest median relative abundance in infant CF BALF. Two of the 3 infants with repeat BALF had changes in their microbial communities over six months (Morisita-Horn diversity index 0.36, 0.38. Although there was excellent percent agreement between standard NP and BALF cultures, these techniques did not routinely detect all bacteria identified by sequencing.BALF in asymptomatic CF infants contains complex microbiota, often missed by traditional culture of airway secretions. Anaerobic bacteria are commonly found in the lower airways of CF infants.

  5. Predictive Role of ADA in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Making the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Halvani, Abolhassan

    2013-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) are time-consuming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of ADA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary TB. A cross-sectional study was performed in Yazd, Iran, between 2009 and 2010. Patients suspected of pulmonary TB with negative sputum smear for AFB were included in the study. Mean ADA levels in BAL fluids were measured and compared between study groups. Sixty-three patients were enrolled in the study among which 15 cases had pulmonary TB, 33 had pulmonary diseases other than TB, and 15 subjects with normal bronchoscopy results were considered as controls. Mean ADA levels in BAL fluid were 4.13 ± 2.55, 2.42 ± 1.06, and 1.93 ± 0.88, respectively. This rate was significantly higher in the pulmonary TB group compared to the other two groups (P = 0.001). Using ROC curve with a cut-off value of 3.5 IU/L, the highest sensitivity (57%) and specificity (84%) were obtained in diagnosis of TB. The results showed that although ADA activity in BAL fluid of pulmonary TB patients was higher than those seen in other diseases, a negative test does not rule out pulmonary TB.

  6. Evaluation of optimized bronchoalveolar lavage sampling designs for characterization of pulmonary drug distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewe, Oskar; Karlsson, Mats O; Simonsson, Ulrika S H

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a pulmonary sampling technique for characterization of drug concentrations in epithelial lining fluid and alveolar cells. Two hypothetical drugs with different pulmonary distribution rates (fast and slow) were considered. An optimized BAL sampling design was generated assuming no previous information regarding the pulmonary distribution (rate and extent) and with a maximum of two samples per subject. Simulations were performed to evaluate the impact of the number of samples per subject (1 or 2) and the sample size on the relative bias and relative root mean square error of the parameter estimates (rate and extent of pulmonary distribution). The optimized BAL sampling design depends on a characterized plasma concentration time profile, a population plasma pharmacokinetic model, the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the BAL method and involves only two BAL sample time points, one early and one late. The early sample should be taken as early as possible, where concentrations in the BAL fluid ≥ LOQ. The second sample should be taken at a time point in the declining part of the plasma curve, where the plasma concentration is equivalent to the plasma concentration in the early sample. Using a previously described general pulmonary distribution model linked to a plasma population pharmacokinetic model, simulated data using the final BAL sampling design enabled characterization of both the rate and extent of pulmonary distribution. The optimized BAL sampling design enables characterization of both the rate and extent of the pulmonary distribution for both fast and slowly equilibrating drugs.

  7. [Microbiology of bronchoalveolar lavage in infants with bacterial community-acquired pneumonia with poor outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Palma-Alaniz, Laura; García-Bolaños, Carlos; Ruelas-Vargas, Consuelo; Méndez-Tovar, Socorro; Del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious causes of morbidity and mortality in children <5 years of age. The aim of the study was to clarify the bacterial etiologic diagnosis in infants with CAP. A prospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study in patients 6 months to 2 years 11 months of age with CAP with poor outcome was conducted. Patients were admitted to the Pediatric Pneumology Service and underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), taking appropriate measures during the procedure to limit the risk of contamination. Aerobic bacteria isolated were Moraxella sp. 23%, Streptococcus mitis 23%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 18%, Haemophilus influenzae 12%, Streptococcus oralis 12%, and Streptococcus salivarius 12%. In contrast to other reports, we found Moraxella sp. to be a major bacterial pathogen, possibly because of improved detection with bronchoscopy plus BAL. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of spontaneous respiratory tract disease in dogs: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, E.C.; DeNicola, D.B.; Plier, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Results of cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were compared with clinical diagnoses in dogs that presented with signs of respiratory disease to referral hospitals. Of 68 dogs in which a clinical diagnosis was possible, BAL cytological findings were considered definitive for the diagnosis in 17 cases (25%), supportive of the diagnosis in 34 cases (50%), and not helpful in 17 cases (25%). Findings were most often considered supportive of or definitive for the clinical diagnosis in dogs with alveolar or bronchial radiographic patterns, or the presence of pulmonary masses. BAL results among lung lobes differed in 23 of 63 dogs (37%) with diffuse radiographic patterns. Tracheal wash cytology differed from BAL fluid cytology in 45 of 66 dogs (68%). Bronchoalveolar lavage was a clinically useful procedure for the diagnostic evaluation of dogs with signs of respiratory disease

  9. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2011-02-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated.

  10. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    of KS. We hypothesized that these sequences are present in samples obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with pulmonary KS. Utilizing a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 7/12 BAL cell samples from HIV-infected patients with endobronchial KS were positive for HHV-8 DNA. In contrast......, and PCR amplification of HHV-8 in BAL cells provides a non-invasive method with a high positive predictive value....

  11. Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay and Quantitative PCR for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis with Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher, Benjamin; Fredricks, David; Leisenring, Wendy; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Smith, Caitlin; Marr, Kieren A.

    2004-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is frequent and often fatal in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathologic demonstration of the organism in tissues; however, cultivation of Aspergillus species from respiratory secretions has low diagnostic sensitivity. Assays to detect Aspergillus antigen or DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid could facilitate earlier diagnosis, thereby guiding optimal therapy and obviating the need for additional costly and potentially morbid diagnostic evaluation. We evaluated the performance of a galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GM EIA; Bio-Rad) by using a range of index cutoffs to define positivity and a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection of Aspergillus species from BAL samples of patients with proven and probable IPA (case patients; n = 49) and without IPA (control patients; n = 50). The sensitivity of the GM EIA was 61% with an index cutoff of 1.0 and 76% with an index cutoff of 0.5; the corresponding specificities were 98 and 94%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of qPCR assay were 67 and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity with 22 culture-negative BAL specimens from patients with IPA was 41% for GM EIA with an index cutoff of 1.0, 59% for GM EIA with an index cutoff of 0.5, and 36% for qPCR assay. GM EIA indices and DNA quantities corresponded to BAL fungal burdens, with culture-positive samples having larger amounts of antigen and DNA compared to culture-negative samples. GM EIA and qPCR assay add to the sensitivity of BAL for diagnosing IPA in high-risk patients, with excellent specificity. Adjunctive use of these tests may reduce dependence on invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:15583275

  12. Changes in surfactant in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after hemithorax irradiation in patients with mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, M.; Maasilta, P.; Kivisaari, L.; Mattson, K.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the surfactant system of the lung is affected shortly after irradiation. It is unclear, however, whether surfactant plays a role in the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. In the present study surfactant components (saturated phosphatidylcholine, surfactant protein A, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol) and other phospholipids of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were studied in four patients with pleural mesothelioma before and during hemithorax irradiation (70 Gy) as well as zero, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months following irradiation. The concentrations of these same components and of soluble proteins were also estimated in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) using urea as a marker of dilution. After radiotherapy, the concentrations of the surfactant components in ELF decreased to 12 to 55% of the control values before radiation, whereas the concentration of sphingomyelin in ELF increased ninefold. There were small changes in the other phospholipids. The concentration of soluble protein in ELF increased sevenfold. The minimum surface activity of crude BAL increased from 12 +/- 4 to 32 +/- 6 mN/m, and that of the sediment fraction of BAL increased from 7 +/- 4 to 22 +/- 6 mN/m, p less than 0.001. The protein-rich supernatant fraction of BAL from irradiated lung had a inhibitory effect on normal surfactant. There were significant correlations between the increasing severity of the radiologic changes on the one hand and, on the other, the saturated phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio (p less than 0.001), the concentrations of soluble protein (p less than 0.001), and the concentrations of the surfactant components (p less than 0.02-0.001) in ELF

  13. Inhaled concentrated ambient particles are associated with hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage changes in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W; Coull, B; Reinisch, U; Catalano, P; Killingsworth, C R; Koutrakis, P; Kavouras, I; Murthy, G G; Lawrence, J; Lovett, E; Wolfson, J M; Verrier, R L; Godleski, J J

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammatory and hematologic responses of canines were studied after exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) using the Harvard ambient particle concentrator (HAPC). For pulmonary inflammatory studies, normal dogs were exposed in pairs to either CAPs or filtered air (paired studies) for 6 hr/day on 3 consecutive days. For hematologic studies, dogs were exposed for 6 hr/day for 3 consecutive days with one receiving CAPs while the other was simultaneously exposed to filtered air; crossover of exposure took place the following week (crossover studies). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs exposure samples included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. No statistical differences in biologic responses were found when all CAPs and all sham exposures were compared. However, the variability in biologic response was considerably higher with CAPs exposure. Subsequent exploratory graphical analyses and mixed linear regression analyses suggested associations between CAPs constituents and biologic responses. Factor analysis was applied to the compositional data from paired and crossover experiments to determine elements consistently associated with each other in CAPs samples. In paired experiments, four factors were identified; in crossover studies, a total of six factors were observed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and hematologic data were regressed on the factor scores. Increased BAL neutrophil percentage, total peripheral white blood cell (WBC) counts, circulating neutrophils, and circulating lymphocytes were associated with increases in the aluminum/silicon factor. Increased circulating neutrophils and increased BAL macrophages were associated with the vanadium/nickel factor. Increased BAL neutrophils were associated with the bromine/lead factor when only the compositional data from the third day of CAPs exposure were used. Significant decreases in red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels were correlated with the sulfur

  14. The Diagnosis of Invasive and Noninvasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Galactomannan Assay

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    Shuzhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA are rising, particularly in critically ill patients and patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Noninvasive aspergillosis occurring in these patients requires special attention because of the possibility of developing subsequent IPA, given the poor health and worsened immune state of these patients. We compared the performance of the Platelia galactomannan (GM enzyme immunoassay in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum. The sensitivity, and specificity of BALF-GM were 85.4% and 62.4%, and those of serum-GM were 67.9% and 93.5% at the cutoff index of 0.5. As the cutoff index increased, the specificity of BALF-GM detection was increased with the detriment of sensitivity. The area under the ROC curves was 0.817 (95% CI: 0.718–0.916 for BALF-GM and 0.819 (95% CI: 0.712–0.926 for serum-GM. The optimal cutoff index was 1.19 for BALF-GM, and the sensitivity and specificity were 67.9% and 89.2%. The BALF-GM assay is more sensitive in detecting pulmonary aspergillosis than serum-GM assay and fungal cultures. However, BALF-GM assay has a high false-positive rate at the cutoff index of 0.5. Hence, the diagnostic cutoff index of the BALF-GM assay should be improved to avoid the overdiagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in clinic.

  15. A Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Manual and Wall Suction in the Performance of Bronchoalveolar Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, Luis M; Flandes, Javier; Somiedo, Maria V; Naya, Alba; Manjón, Josefina; Álvarez, Susana; Fernández-Navamuel, Iker

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) may be performed using a hand-held syringe or wall suction. The aim was to study BAL volume and diagnostic yields based on BAL technique. A total of 220 consecutive patients undergoing BAL at our center were included. Manual aspiration was performed in 115 patients (group 1), and wall suction (<50 mm Hg of negative pressure) was used in 105 patients (group 2). All bronchoscopies were performed under conscious sedation applying topical anesthesia with lidocaine. Three 50-ml sterile saline aliquots were instilled in all patients. The mean total amount of fluid recovered was 67 ± 20 ml in group 1 and 55 ± 22 ml in group 2 (p < 0.001). More patients in the manual aspiration group met American Thoracic Society criteria (recovery of ≥30% of instilled fluid) for an optimal BAL (81 vs. 59%; p < 0.001). The quantity of recovered fluid was also related to BAL location (p < 0.001) and radiologic findings (p = 0.002). Forty-eight (22%) BALs were diagnostic (23 in group 1 and 25 in group 2), including 37 positive bacterial cultures, 6 positive stains for Pneumocystis, and 5 cases of malignancy. No statistically significant difference in diagnostic yield was observed between the two groups. A BAL diagnosis was more likely in patients with certain radiologic (p = 0.033) and endoscopic findings (p = 0.001). When taking into account all bronchoscopic techniques performed during the procedure (e.g. biopsies, brushing, etc.), bronchoscopy was diagnostic in 37% of patients. Manual aspiration is superior to wall suction during BAL yielding a larger quantity of aspirate. Diagnostic yields are similar for both techniques. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of patients with interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branley, Howard M.; Bois, Roland M. du; Wells, Athol U.; Jones, Hazel A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: PK11195 is a ligand with high affinity for peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs), which are present in large numbers in macrophages. PBRs play a role in antioxidant pathways and apoptosis, key factors in control of lung health. Intrapulmonary PBRs, assessed in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET), are decreased in interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite increased macrophage numbers. We wished to ascertain whether the observed decrease in in vivo expression of PBRs in the PET scans could be accounted for by a reduction in PBRs per cell by saturation-binding assays of R-PK11195 in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Methods: We performed receptor saturation-binding assays with [ 3 H]-R-PK11195 on a mixed population of cells recovered by BAL to quantify the number of R-PK11195 binding sites per macrophage in 10 subjects with ILD and 10 normal subjects. Results: Receptor affinity [dissociation constant (Kd)] was similar in ILD patients and controls. However, R-PK11195 binding sites per cell [(maximal binding sites available (B max )] were decreased in macrophages obtained by BAL from subjects with ILD compared to normal (P<.0005). Microautoradiography confirmed localization of R-PK11195 to macrophages in a mixed inflammatory cell population obtained by BAL. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that in vitro PBR expression per cell on macrophages obtained by BAL is reduced in patients with ILD indicating a potentially functionally different macrophage phenotype. As PBRs are involved in the orchestration of lung inflammatory responses, this finding offers further insight into the role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of ILDs and offers a potential avenue for pharmacological strategy

  17. Gene Expression Profiling of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cells Preceding a Clinical Diagnosis of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Samuel Weigt

    Full Text Available Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction (CLAD is the main limitation to long-term survival after lung transplantation. Although CLAD is usually not responsive to treatment, earlier identification may improve treatment prospects.In a nested case control study, 1-year post transplant surveillance bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples were obtained from incipient CLAD (n = 9 and CLAD free (n = 8 lung transplant recipients. Incipient CLAD cases were diagnosed with CLAD within 2 years, while controls were free from CLAD for at least 4 years following bronchoscopy. Transcription profiles in the BAL cell pellets were assayed with the HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray (Affymetrix. Differential gene expression analysis, based on an absolute fold change (incipient CLAD vs no CLAD >2.0 and an unadjusted p-value ≤0.05, generated a candidate list containing 55 differentially expressed probe sets (51 up-regulated, 4 down-regulated.The cell pellets in incipient CLAD cases were skewed toward immune response pathways, dominated by genes related to recruitment, retention, activation and proliferation of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CD8+ T-cells and natural killer cells. Both hierarchical clustering and a supervised machine learning tool were able to correctly categorize most samples (82.3% and 94.1% respectively into incipient CLAD and CLAD-free categories.These findings suggest that a pathobiology, similar to AR, precedes a clinical diagnosis of CLAD. A larger prospective investigation of the BAL cell pellet transcriptome as a biomarker for CLAD risk stratification is warranted.

  18. Usefulness of FTA® cards as a Pneumocystis-DNA extraction method in bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiño, Jenniffer M; Aguilar, Yudy A; Rueda, Zulma Vanessa; Vélez, Lázaro A

    2016-01-01

    FTA® cards (Fast Technology for Analysis of Nucleic Acids) are an alternative DNA extraction method in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples for Pneumocystis jirovecii molecular analyses. The goal was to evaluate the usefulness of FTA® cards to detect P. jirovecii-DNA by PCR in BAL samples compared to silica adsorption chromatography (SAC). This study used 134 BAL samples from immunocompromised patients previously studied to establish microbiological aetiology of pneumonia, among them 15 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) documented by staining and 119 with other alternative diagnoses. The FTA® system and SAC were used for DNA extraction and then amplified by nested PCR to detect P. jirovecii. Performance and concordance of the two DNA extraction methods compared to P. jirovecii microscopy were calculated. The influence of the macroscopic characteristics, transportation of samples and the duration of the FTA® card storage (1, 7, 10 or 12 months) were also evaluated. Among 134 BAL samples, 56% were positive for P. jirovecii-DNA by SAC and 27% by FTA®. All 15 diagnosed by microscopy were detected by FTA® and SAC. Specificity of the FTA® system and SAC were 82.4% and 49.6%, respectively. Compared to SAC, positivity by FTA® decreased with the presence of blood in BAL (62% vs 13.5%). The agreement between samples at 7, 10 and 12 months was 92.5% for FTA®. Positive cases by FTA® remained the same after shipment by mail. Results suggest that FTA® is a practical, safe and economical method to preserve P. jirovecii-DNA in BAL samples for molecular studies.

  19. Analysis of Trace Elements in Rat Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Wajhul; Al-Ghadeer, Abdul Rahman; Ali, Raisuddin; Abuelizz, Hatem A

    2017-08-01

    The main objective was to determine the elemental profile of the lung lining fluid of rats which are used as model animals in various experiments. Lung lining fluid elemental constitution obtained after bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the biological trace elements along with calcium and magnesium. BALF was collected from healthy rats using a tracheal cannula. However, cells in BALF were counted to monitor any underlying inflammatory lung condition. Cell free BALF samples were processed and analyzed for the elements including magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), bromine (Br), and iodine (I). In view of this, calcium concentration was the highest (6318.08 ± 3094.3 μg/L) and copper concentration was the lowest (0.89 ± 0.21 μg/L). The detected elements, from high to low concentration, include Ca > Mg > Fe > Br > I > Cr > Ni > Zn > Mn > Se > Cu. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed no significant correlation between cell count and concentration of any of the element detected in BALF. Correlation analysis also revealed significant positive correlation among Fe, I, Cr, Ni, and Mn. Ca was found to be correlated negatively with Cu and positively with Se. Br and Mg found to be positively correlated with each other. Zn remained the only element that was not found to be correlated with any of the elements in the rat BALF.

  20. Endopulmonary Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cytogram in the Prediction of Infective Pulmonary Complications in Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kartavenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the time course of changes in the cellular composition of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid to assess the possibilities of using the values of an endopulmonary cytogram (EPC for the prediction of the development of infectious pulmonary complications and death in victims with severe concomitant injury. Sixty-three victims divided into 2 groups by the injury severity scale (ISS (Beaker et al., 1974 were examined. For BAL sampling, a BF-XT40 endoscope (Olympus, Japan was applied to bronchofibroscopy. To study BAL, the authors used the routine cyto-logical techniques and compared the latter’s results with those of EPC. The data were statistically processed, by employing the Statistica 6.0 programs; p Kozlov I. A., Poptsov V. N. Combined Therapy with Nitric Oxide and Surfactant-BL for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome After Operations Using Extracorporeal Circulation ….15 Abstract Выбрать Показать The present study was undertaken to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of inhalational nitric oxide alone and in combination with surfactant-BL in the complex therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS after surgery under extracorporeal circulation (EC. The study included 53 patients aged 21 to 76 years. It has revealed that in ARDS that complicates operations under EC, the use of surfactant-BL during therapy with inhalational nitric oxide enhances the latter’s effects on arterial oxygenation, accelerates the regression of pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction, and reduces the duration of artificial ventilation and the length of stay in an intensive care unit.

  1. CYFRA 21.1 in bronchoalveolar lavage of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercauteren, Inge M; Verleden, Stijn E; McDonough, John E; Vandermeulen, Elly; Ruttens, David; Lammertyn, Elise J; Bellon, Hannelore; De Dycker, Els; Dooms, Christophe; Yserbyt, Jonas; Verleden, Geert M; Vanaudenaerde, Bart M; Wuyts, Wim A

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is one of the most aggressive forms of interstitial lung diseases, however, clinically relevant biomarkers of diagnosis or prognosis are lacking. In this study, we investigated the levels of a fragment of Cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA 21.1) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of IPF patients at time of diagnosis. We further evaluated associations between CYFRA 21.1, pulmonary function evolution, mortality, and BAL cell count. Using the Lumipulse® G1200, CYFRA 21.1 was measured in BAL samples of 81 IPF patients and 9 controls. Based upon the median detected level (1.2 ng/mL) of CYFRA 21.1 in IPF patients, they were subdivided into an IPF CYFRA 21.1 low group (≤ 1.2 ng/mL) and IPF CYFRA 21.1 high group (> 1.2 ng/mL). The CYFRA 21.1 levels were significantly higher in BAL of IPF patients compared to controls (P = .0015).Worse survival was observed, but no changes in pulmonary function, for IPF patients with high CYFRA 21.1 levels versus patients with low CYFRA 21.1 levels [P = .030, HR: 0.41, (0.18-0.92)[. The CYFRA 21.1 level correlated with both neutrophils (%: R = 0.60, P < .0001; #: R = 0.47, P < .0001) and eosinophils (%: R = 0.38, P = .0005; #: R = 0.30, P < .0072). CYFRA 21.1 is increased in BAL of IPF patients. IPF patients with a high CYFRA 21.1 concentration have a worse survival. CYFRA 21.1 levels correlate with eosinophils and neutrophils. Further studies are warranted in using CYFRA 21.1 as a biomarker for IPF prognosis.

  2. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal rats stimulates DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proliferation of alveolar type II cells after lung injury is important for the restoration of the alveolar epithelium. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) may represent an important source of growth factors for alveolar type II cells. To test this possibility, BALF fluid was collected from normal rats, concentrated 10-fold by Amicon filtration, and tested for its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. BALF induced a dose-dependent increase in type II cell DNA synthesis resulting in a 6-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation. Similar doses also stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into rat lung fibroblasts by 6- to 8-fold. Removal of pulmonary surface active material by centrifugation did not significantly reduce the stimulatory activity of BALF for type II cells. The stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by BALF was reduced by 100% after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min, and by approximately 80% after reduction with dithiothreitol, and after trypsin treatment. Dialysis of BALF against 1 N acetic acid resulted in a 27% reduction in stimulatory activity. The effect of BALF in promoting type II cell DNA synthesis was more pronounced when tested in the presence of serum, although serum itself has very little effect on type II cell DNA synthesis. When BALF was tested in combination with other substances that stimulate type II cell DNA synthesis (cholera toxin, insulin, epidermal growth factor, and acidic fibroblast growth factor), additive effects or greater were observed. When BALF was chromatographed over Sephadex G150, the activity eluted with an apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa

  3. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluids of Pigs by PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, A. Katrin; Runge, Martin; Ganter, Martin; Feenstra, Anne A.; Delbeck, Friedrich; Kirchhoff, Helga

    1998-01-01

    In the present investigation we developed a method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs by PCR with a primer pair flanking a DNA fragment of 853 bp specific for M. hyopneumoniae. Several methods were tested to eliminate the amplification inhibitors present in BALFs. The best results were obtained by the extraction of the DNA from the BALFs. By the PCR performed with the extracted DNA, 102 CFU of M. hyopneumoniae could be detected in 1 ml of BALF from specific-pathogen-free swine experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae. DNA from 11 other mycoplasma species and 17 cell-walled bacterial species colonizing the respiratory tracts of pigs was not amplified. In a field study BALFs from 40 pigs from farms with a history of chronic pneumonia were tested for M. hyopneumoniae by cultivation and by PCR (i) with BALFs incubated in Friis medium and (ii) with DNA extracted from the BALFs. In addition, PCR was performed with postmortem lung washings from 19 of the 40 pigs, and immunofluorescence tests were carried out with sections of lungs from 18 of the 40 pigs. M. hyopneumoniae could not be detected in 18 of the 40 pigs by any of the five methods tested. The remaining 22 pigs showed a positive reaction by the PCR with DNA extracted from the BALFs and variable positive reactions by the other tests. A complete correspondence could be observed between the immunofluorescence test result and the result of PCR with DNA. The investigation shows that the PCR with DNA extracted from BALFs is a suitable technique for the sensitive and specific in vivo detection of M. hyopneumoniae. PMID:9650949

  4. Concentrations of cysteinyl leukotrienes in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of cats with experimentally induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Berghaus, Londa J; Berghaus, Roy D; Walby, William F; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate changes in cysteinyl leukotriene (LT) concentrations in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in cats with experimentally induced asthma. 19 cats with experimentally induced asthma and 5 control cats. Cats were sensitized to Bermuda grass or house dust mite allergen, and phenotypic features of asthma were confirmed with intradermal skin testing, evaluation of BALF eosinophil percentages, and pulmonary function testing. A competitive ELISA kit for LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 was used for quantitative analysis of LTs. Urinary creatinine concentrations and BALF total protein (TP) concentrations were measured, and urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios and BALF LT-to-TP ratios were calculated. Mean urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios did not differ significantly between control cats and allergen-sensitized cats before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or allergen, respectively. In BALF the mean LT-to-TP ratio of control cats did not differ significantly before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline. Asthmatic cats had BALF LT-to-TP ratios that were significantly lower than control cats at all time points, whereas ratios for asthmatic cats did not differ significantly among the various time points. Although LTs were readily detectable in urine, no significant increases in urinary LT concentrations were detected after challenge in allergen-sensitized cats. Spot testing of urinary LT concentrations appears to have no clinical benefit for use in monitoring the inflammatory asthmatic state in cats. The possibility that cysteinyl LTs bind effectively to their target receptors in BALF and, thus, decrease free LT concentrations deserves further study.

  5. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, gallium-67 lung scanning and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in asbestos exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delclos, G.L.; Flitcraft, D.G.; Brousseau, K.P.; Windsor, N.T.; Nelson, D.L.; Wilson, R.K.; Lawrence, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined different markers of lung immunologic and inflammatory responses to previous asbestos exposure. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) lung scans and measured serum and BAL soluble interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels in 32 subjects with a history of significant asbestos exposure, 14 without (EXP) and 18 with (ASB) radiographic evidence of asbestosis. BAL analysis revealed increases in neutrophils in both ASB and EXP when compared to controls (P less than 0.01), which persisted after adjustment for smoking category. Although significant abnormalities of macrophage and total lymphocyte profiles were not found in the study population, lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed elevation of BAL T4/T8 ratios in the entire study group (ASB + EXP) when compared to controls (P less than 0.05), independent of smoking category. 67 Ga lung scan activity was increased in 56% of ASB and in 36% of EXP: no correlations between positive scans and different radiological and functional parameters could be found. There was no significant elevation of mean SACE, serum, or BAL IL-2R levels in any of the study categories. These data suggest that asbestos exposure may be associated with parenchymal inflammation, even in the absence of clinical criteria for asbestosis. Abnormalities of gallium uptake and of BAL analysis reflect the clinically inapparent inflammation. The increased BAL T4/T8 ratios observed suggest that abnormal local pulmonary immunoregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung diseases

  6. Toxic-oil syndrome. Gallium-67 scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage studies in patients with abnormal lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cruz, J.L.; Oteo, L.A.; Lopez, C.; Curto, L.M.; Burgaleta, C.; Campos, A.; Sueiro, A.

    1985-01-01

    The toxic-oil syndrome (TOS) is a multisystem disorder whose etiology and pathogenesis are as yet unknown. Lung alterations persist in a significant number of TOS patients due to the underlying vascular lesion. Computer-assisted 67 Ga scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) studies were performed in 14 TOS patients with sustained abnormal diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (Dco). No significant difference was observed between the 67 Ga uptake index of the TOS and control populations. Likewise, there was no significant difference in the number of effector cells recovered from the lungs of TOS patients and controls by bronchoalveolar lavage. However, a rise in IgA and IgG concentrations (p less than 0.002) and a fall in alpha 1-antitrypsin (p less than 0.05) and transferrin (p less than 0.01) were observed in the TOS group. Phospholipid and lecithin concentrations in the lavage fluid were similar for patients and controls. The alveolar macrophage function assayed in three TOS patients was normal. These observations raise new questions about the outcome of lung pathology in TOS and warrant further follow-up studies of the lung abnormalities observed

  7. Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Gene Xpert in Smear-Negative and Sputum-Scarce Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K. F.; Butt, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the diagnostic yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) gene Xpert (Xpert MTB/RIF assay), to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance and compare it with that of mycobacterial cultures in a suspected case of pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi, from December 2012 to August 2013. Methodology: BAL specimens of 93 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis with smear-negative or sputumscarce disease, who presented to the Department of Pulmonology, FFH, Rawalpindi were inducted. A smear-negative case was one in whom three consecutive early morning sputum samples did not reveal acid fast bacilli when examined by microscopy with Zeihl Nelson (ZN) stain. Patients who had sputum amount less than 1 ml were defined to have sputumscarce disease. The same was evaluated with ZN stain, gene Xpert and mycobacterial cultures. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using culture as the gold standard. Results: The frequency of positive mycobacterial cultures was 85 (91.4%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of BAL gene Xpert to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis were 91.86%, 71.42%, 97.53% and 41.66% respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 83.33% and 100% to detect rifampicin resistance. Conclusion: Bronchoalveolar lavage gene Xpert had a superior diagnostic yield in patients with either smear-negative or sputum-scarce pulmonary tuberculosis. Hence a positive Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and detection of MDR-TB in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. (author)

  8. Soluble L-selectin concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from infants who develop chronic lung disease of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Kotecha, S; Silverman, M; Shaw, R; Klein, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To explore the changes in neutrophil adhesion molecule expression and release into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) obtained from infants who developed chronic lung disease (CLD).
METHODS—BAL fluid was obtained from 37 infants: 18 (median gestation 26 weeks, birthweight 835 g) who developed CLD, 12 (29 weeks, 1345 g) with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and seven control infants (33 weeks, 2190g).
RESULTS—Soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin) in BAL fluid from the CLD and no...

  9. An Uncommon Procedure for a Rare Ailment: Massive Bronchoalveolar Lavage in a Patient with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Samurkaşoğlu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As a rare procedure, massive bronchoalveolar lavage (MBAL is a large-volume lavage which necessitates general anesthesia and one-lung ventilation (OLV. During MBAL isotonic saline is instilled into one lung and drained through one lumen of a double-lumen tube. MBAL is the most effective treatment for symptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP. A 27-year-old male with PAP was scheduled for therapeutic MBALs. After standard preoxygenation, monitoring and anesthesia induction, a double-lumen tube was placed. Tube position was verified by a fiberoptic bronchoscope. The internal jugular vein, radial and pulmonary arteries were cannulated. A temperature probe and foley catheter were inserted. The nonventilated lung was filled with 1000 mL saline and then drained in each session. The left and right lung were lavaged with an interval of 2 weeks. A total of 20 L saline was used in each MBAL without retention. MBALs were terminated after the effluent became clear. Duration of the left and right MBALs were 325 and 275 minutes, respectively. Despite increased shunt fraction, oxygenation was within acceptable limits during OLV. The trachea was extubated in the operating room uneventfully after each MBAL. The patient’s clinical and laboratory findings were evidently improved. Consequently, if proper conditions are provided, MBAL is safe and beneficial despite its risks and the long duration.

  10. Investigation of the proinflammatory activity of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in lung cancer and inflammatory diseases of respiratory organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Makarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proinflammatory activity of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was investigated using the biological test system (donor blood in 71 patients with lung cancer and inflammatory disease of respiratory organs (lung abscess, infiltrative tuberculosis, tuberculoma, fibrocavernous tuberculosis. The supernatant of BALF was purified by filtration through millipores and added to blood, and a nitroblue tetrazolium recovery test (HBT was carried out. Hank’s balanced salt solution was used in the control. The proinflammatory effect of BALF was defined as a diformazan-positive neutrophil count ratio in the experimental and control samples (stimulation index. The inflammatory process developing in lung cancer was active, as suggested by the accumulation of neutrophils in the lung and by the high proinflammatory activity of BALF, which were comparable with the similar indicators in lung abscess and fibrocavernous tuberculosis.

  11. Independent risk of mechanical ventilation for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Emborg, J.; Elkjaer, J.

    2001-01-01

    The use of mechanical ventilation (MV) for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has varied over time. The introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy has changed the pathophysiology of PCP. In the present study, we attempted to identify factors predictive of severe respiratory......%). In a logistic regression analysis, higher age, increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophilia and a positive BAL cytomegalovirus CMV culture were associated with the need of MV. In multivariate analyses, only BAL neutrophilia remained independently predictive of mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, short......-term mortality remained high after the introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy. BAL neutrophilia may be a useful prognostic marker to identify patients at high risk of requiring mechanical ventilation Udgivelsesdato: 2001/8...

  12. Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia syndrome presenting with neutrophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after breast-conserving therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Sahoko; Jinta, Torahiko; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko; Fujie, Toshihide; Sumi, Yuki; Inase, Naohiko

    2012-01-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with a dry cough and fever 4 months after tangential radiation therapy (RT) following conserving surgery for breast cancer. Chest radiography and CT demonstrated consolidation with air bronchogram outside the irradiated area. Neutrophil granulocytes were abundant in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (39.6% of total cells), and transbronchial lung biopsy revealed organising pneumonia (OP) histologically. Antibiotic therapy had no effect, but corticosteroid therapy brought about clinical improvement. Her condition was diagnosed as bronchiolitis obliterans OP (BOOP) syndrome. Lymphocytic BALF has been identified as a characteristic of BOOP syndrome induced after RT for breast cancer. The BALF in this case, however, was neutrophilic. In our analysis of differential cell counts in the BALF of 24 patients with BOOP syndrome, the BALF was neutrophilic (>5%) in 16 (76%) cases, and the neutrophilia was severe in some of those patients. PMID:22605699

  13. Bacteriological Profile of Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery and Evaluation of a Bacterial Filter using Protected Broncho-Alveolar Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempe, D K; Mehta, N; Mishra, B; Tondon, M S; Tomar, A S; Budharaja, P; Nigam, M

    1998-01-01

    Twenty seven patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were included in this prospective study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group C (n = 12) constituted the control group in whom no breathing filter was used in the anaesthesia circuit in the operating room or in the ICU. Humidification of breathing gases was achieved with the help of conventional heated humidifier. In group F (n = 15), heat and moisture exahanging bacterial / viral filter was incorporated in the breathing circuit at the patient end between the catheter mount and Y connection of the breathing circuit. In both the groups, samples of throat swab, protected broncho-alveolar lavage with double catheter and Ryles tube aspirate were collected preoperatively (in the operation theatre) and postoperatively (in the Intensive Care Unit on day 1). All the samples were sent to the laboratory immediately after the collection for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity. Pathogenic organisms were isolated from a total of 9 patients (33%) preoperatively. Exogenous spread of the organisms to the lungs was considered to have occurred if new pathogenic organisms were isolated from the postoperative bronchoalveolar lavage and the simultaneous samples of the throat swab and Ryles tube did not contain the same organism. By this definition, the exogenous spread of the organisms occurred in one patient in group C and in no patient in group F (P = 0.46, Fishers test). The commonest organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. We conclude that colonization of the pathogenic organisms is common (33%) in orophrynx and gastrointestinal tract in hospitalized patients. There was no difference in the exogenous spread of the organisms between the two groups. The unity of the filter, therefore, appears to be limited to prevent contamination of anaesthesia machines or ventilators as has been shown by earlier studies.

  14. Comparison of methenamine silver nitrate and Giemsa stain for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, W; Kolmos, H J

    1989-01-01

    Seventy-seven bronchoalveolar lavages from human immunosuppressive virus infected patients with pulmonary symptoms were examined routinely for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii, using Giemsa stain to detect trophozoites and methenamine silver nitrate to detect cysts. Thirty-seven samples were...

  15. Radiation-induced increase in hyaluronan and fibronectin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from breast cancer patients is suppressed by smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjermer, L.; Nilsson, K.; Haellgren, R.; Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R.; Sandstroem, T.; Saernstrand, B.

    1992-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was analysed from 21 patients with breast cancer, stage T 1 N 0 M 0 , who had undergone tumour resection and postoperative local irradiation (accumulated dose 56 Gy). The lavage was performed two months after radiotherapy, in the anterior part of the lingula (left side) or of the right middle lobe (right side), depending on which side had been exposed to radiation. The patients had significantly increased concentrations of fibronectin (FN) (p<0.001), hyaluronan (HA) (p<0.01) and albumin (p<0.05) in BAL fluid compared with the healthy controls (n=19). However, when the patients were separated, according to smoking history, it was obvious that the inflammatory reaction occurred entirely in the nonsmoking patient group (n=10), whilst no difference could be found between the smoking patients (n=11) and the controls. In the nonsmoking patient group, there was a sevenfold increase in BAL concentrations of FN and a threefold increase in HA. Moreover, four patients had detectable levels of procollagen III peptide in BAL, all were nonsmokers. The smoking habits of the controls had no influence on the BAL measurements. These findings indicate that smoking interferes with the radiation-induced early inflammatory connective tissue reaction of the lung. Finally, the results justify further investigation of interaction of smoking with cancer treatment, both from the view of therapy effectiveness and reduction of adverse effects. (au)

  16. Corticosteroid therapy and airflow obstruction influence the bronchial microbiome, which is distinct from that of bronchoalveolar lavage in asthmatic airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denner, Darcy R.; Sangwan, Naseer; Becker, Julia B.; Hogarth, D. Kyle; Oldham, Justin; Castillo, Jamee; Sperling, Anne I.; Solway, Julian; Naureckas, Edward T.; Gilbert, Jack A.; White, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    The lung has a diverse microbiome that is modest in biomass. This microbiome differs in asthmatic patients compared with control subjects, but the effects of clinical characteristics on the microbial community composition and structure are not clear. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether the composition and structure of the lower airway microbiome correlated with clinical characteristics of chronic persistent asthma, including airflow obstruction, use of corticosteroid medications, and presence of airway eosinophilia. METHODS: DNA was extracted from endobronchial brushings and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from 39 asthmatic patients and 19 control subjects, along with negative control samples. 16S rRNA V4 amplicon sequencing was used to compare the relative abundance of bacterial genera with clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Differential feature selection analysis revealed significant differences in microbial diversity between brush and lavage samples from asthmatic patients and control subjects. Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Rickettsia species were significantly enriched in samples from asthmatic patients, whereas Prevotella, Streptococcus, and Veillonella species were enriched in brush samples from control subjects. Generalized linear models on brush samples demonstrated oral corticosteroid use as an important factor affecting the relative abundance of the taxa that were significantly enriched in asthmatic patients. In addition, bacterial α-diversity in brush samples from asthmatic patients was correlated with FEV1 and the proportion of lavage eosinophils. CONCLUSION: The diversity and composition of the bronchial airway microbiome of asthmatic patients is distinct from that of nonasthmatic control subjects and influenced by worsening airflow obstruction and corticosteroid use. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Procoagulant, tissue factor-bearing microparticles in bronchoalveolar lavage of interstitial lung disease patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Novelli

    Full Text Available Coagulation factor Xa appears involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Through its interaction with protease activated receptor-1, this protease signals myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibroblasts. Although fibrogenic stimuli induce factor X synthesis by alveolar cells, the mechanisms of local posttranslational factor X activation are not fully understood. Cell-derived microparticles are submicron vesicles involved in different physiological processes, including blood coagulation; they potentially activate factor X due to the exposure on their outer membrane of both phosphatidylserine and tissue factor. We postulated a role for procoagulant microparticles in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases. Nineteen patients with interstitial lung diseases and 11 controls were studied. All subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage; interstitial lung disease patients also underwent pulmonary function tests and high resolution CT scan. Microparticles were enumerated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with a solid-phase assay based on thrombin generation. Microparticles were also tested for tissue factor activity. In vitro shedding of microparticles upon incubation with H₂O₂ was assessed in the human alveolar cell line, A549 and in normal bronchial epithelial cells. Tissue factor synthesis was quantitated by real-time PCR. Total microparticle number and microparticle-associated tissue factor activity were increased in interstitial lung disease patients compared to controls (84±8 vs. 39±3 nM phosphatidylserine; 293±37 vs. 105±21 arbitrary units of tissue factor activity; mean±SEM; p<.05 for both comparisons. Microparticle-bound tissue factor activity was inversely correlated with lung function as assessed by both diffusion capacity and forced vital capacity (r² = .27 and .31, respectively; p<.05 for both correlations. Exposure of lung epithelial cells to H₂O₂ caused an increase in microparticle-bound tissue factor

  18. [Current possibilities of the biometrology of dust in specimens of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébastien, P

    1982-01-01

    This study attempts to present the current possibilities of investigation of an occupational risk, in particular that of asbestosis, by metrology of dusts in bronchoalveolar washings (BAW). This is a retrospective evaluation of metrological data obtained in a period of six years by study of almost all of the 1338 samples of BAW referred to this laboratory from various pulmonary medicine departments. With regard to the metrology of asbestos fibres in BAW samples, an explanation is given for the fact that routine analytical possibilities are limited to the numbering of asbestos bodies (AB). The specificity of the AB marker is discussed. Reference data are indicated concerning the efficacity of the collection of AB from washings, the relationship between concentrations of AB in BAW samples, parenchyma samples and sputum, and the interpretation of AB concentrations in BAW samples. Current data show that BAW samples are sensitive indications, but there is a lack of specificity. With regard to the biometrological investigation of BAW samples concerning occupational hazards other than asbestos, a large number of studies remain to be undertaken.

  19. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (Balf) from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Baughman, R.P. [Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Waide, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    The pathogenesis of ARDS is largely unknown, but many factors are known to predispose one to ARDS: sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, pneumonia, fracture, multiple transfusions, cardiopulmonary bypass, burn, dissemination intravascular coagulation, pulmonary contusion, near drowning, and pancreatitis. ARDS is characterized by severe hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Current treatment methods still result in 50% mortality. Studies are underway at the University of Cincinnati to determine if treatment with a synthetic pulmonary surfactant, Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} (contains dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline, Burroughs-Wellcome), improves the prognosis of these patients. BALF from these patients, before and after treatment, was analyzed to determine if the treatment resulted in an increase in disaturated phospholipids (surfactant phospholipids) in the epithelial lining fluid and if the treatments reduced the concentration of markers of inflammation and toxicity in the BALF. This study indicates that the method of administering Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} did not lead to an increase in surfactant lipid or protein in the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract.

  20. Identification of Oxidative Stress Related Proteins as Biomarkers for Lung Cancer and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amancio Carnero

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD commonly coexist in smokers, and the presence of COPD increases the risk of developing LC. Cigarette smoke causes oxidative stress and an inflammatory response in lung cells, which in turn may be involved in COPD and lung cancer development. The aim of this study was to identify differential proteomic profiles related to oxidative stress response that were potentially involved in these two pathological entities. Protein content was assessed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL of 60 patients classified in four groups: COPD, COPD and LC, LC, and control (neither COPD nor LC. Proteins were separated into spots by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and examined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF. A total of 16 oxidative stress regulatory proteins were differentially expressed in BAL samples from LC and/or COPD patients as compared with the control group. A distinct proteomic reactive oxygen species (ROS protein signature emerged that characterized lung cancer and COPD. In conclusion, our findings highlight the role of the oxidative stress response proteins in the pathogenic pathways of both diseases, and provide new candidate biomarkers and predictive tools for LC and COPD diagnosis.

  1. Correlation between Either Cupriavidus or Porphyromonas and Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis Found by Analysing the Microbiota in Patients' Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhua; Lin, Feishen; Cui, Zelin; Zhang, Xiangrong; Hu, Chunmei; Shen, Tian; Chen, Chunyan; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Xiaokui

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has gained attention in recent decades because of its rising incidence trend; simultaneously, increasing numbers of studies have identified the relationship between microbiota and chronic infectious diseases. In our work, we enrolled 32 patients with primary TB characterised by unilateral TB lesion formation diagnosed by chest radiographic exam. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was taken from both lungs. Twenty-four healthy people were chosen as controls. Pyrosequencing was performed on the V3 hypervariable region of 16S rDNA in all bacterial samples and used as a culture-independent method to describe the phylogenetic composition of the microbiota. Through pyrosequencing, 271,764 amplicons were detected in samples and analysed using tools in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and bioinformatics. These analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of TB patients compared with healthy controls; in contrast, the microbiota of intra/extra-TB lesions were similar. These results showed that the dominant bacterial genus in the LRT of TB patients was Cupriavidus and not Streptococcus, which resulted in a significant change in the microbiota in TB patients. The abundance of Mycobacteria and Porphyromonas significantly increased inside TB lesions when compared with non-lesion-containing contralateral lungs. From these data, it can be concluded that Cupriavidus plays an important role in TB's secondary infection and that in addition to Mycobacteria, Porphyromonas may also be a co-factor in lesion formation. The mechanisms underlying this connection warrant further research.

  2. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  3. Analysis of culture-dependent versus culture-independent techniques for identification of bacteria in clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R; Prescott, Hallie C; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Lama, Vibha N; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacteria were identified in 44 of 46 (95.7%) BAL fluid specimens by culture-independent sequencing, significantly more than the number of specimens in which bacteria were detected (37 of 46, 80.4%, P ≤ 0.05) or "pathogen" species reported (18 of 46, 39.1%, P ≤ 0.0001) via culture. Identification of bacteria by culture was positively associated with culture-independent indices of infection (total bacterial DNA burden and low bacterial community diversity) (P ≤ 0.01). In BAL fluid specimens with no culture growth, the amount of bacterial DNA was greater than that in reagent and rinse controls, and communities were markedly dominated by select Gammaproteobacteria, notably Escherichia species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Culture growth above the threshold of 10(4) CFU/ml was correlated with increased bacterial DNA burden (P Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Semi-quantitative X-ray microanalysis of bronchoalveolar lavage samples from silica-exposed and nonexposed subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusuardi, M.; Capelli, A.; Donner, C.F.; Capelli, O.; Velluti, G.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of quantifying alveolar dust burden in conditions of exposure to silica, four groups of subjects were submitted to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL): 10 healthy control subjects and 39 patients affected by diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD) never exposed to dust, 23 silicotic patients and 12 chronic bronchitis patients with a history of occupational exposure to silica dust. Five to ten million BAL recovered cells were analysed with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA) system to determine the silicon content, expressed in a semi-quantitative way as silicon to sulphur (Si/S) ratio. The results were independent of smoking habit. The Si/S median values (interquartile range in brackets) for the four groups were 0.53 (0.5-0.65), 0.60 (0.41-0.8), 1.23 (1.06-1.39); 1.31 (1.11-1.97), respectively. Silicotics and simply exposed individuals did not show a significant discrepancy, but they were both significantly different in comparison with normal and DILD patients without history of exposure (p<0.001). 14.3% false negative cases were found, and 4.1% false positive cases (none among normal subjects). We did not se any significant relationships between the amount of silicon and the duration of exposure or the degree of chest X-ray involvement. A study of cytocentrifuge slides from the same subjects by polarizing light microscopy revealed a lower sensitivity (34% false negative cases). (au)

  5. Detection and identification of Toxocara canis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage of infected mice using a novel real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, E; Roelfsema, J H; Brandes, S; Kortbeek, T

    2013-04-15

    Toxocarosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by Toxocara spp. of dogs and cats. In humans, diagnosis relies mainly on detection of parasite-specific antibodies. Although serological assays in current use have defined sensitivity and specificity, the problem of cross-reactivity still remains, particularly in areas of endemic polyparasitism. Microscopic detection of the parasite in tissue biopsies is not recommended for diagnosis because larvae can be difficult to locate, and finding the parasite eggs in faeces is not applicable since the larvae do not develop to the adult stage in the human host. In this study we describe a novel real-time PCR ('Nemo-PCR') that, in combination with DNA sequencing, allows the detection and identification of Toxocara canis and other nematodes in the Superfamily Ascaridoidea. Results indicate that this approach can detect Toxocara spp. DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of experimentally-infected mice. For diagnostic purposes further studies are necessary to evaluate this assay including testing human BAL fluid. The availability of such a direct assay would improve diagnosis of toxocarosis particularly for patients with pulmonary signs and symptoms. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Elevated IP-10 and IL-6 from bronchoalveolar lavage cells are biomarkers of non-cavitary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, A; Condos, R; Huie, M L; Dawson, R; Dheda, K; Bateman, E; Rom, W N; Weiden, M D

    2013-07-01

    Active TB disease can destroy lung parenchyma leading to cavities. Immune responses that predispose or protect individuals from lung damage during TB are poorly defined. To sample lung immune cells and assay bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell cytokine production. Enrolled subjects (n = 73) had bilateral infiltrates and underwent BAL. All had sputum culture demonstrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 22/73 (30%) had cavities on their chest radiograph. Those with cavities at presentation had a higher percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in BAL as well as lower inducible protein (IP) 10 (P IP-10 was negatively associated with BAL PMN. IP-10 and IL-6 expression above median reduces the odds of cavities by 79% and 78% in logistic regression models. IP-10 and IL-6 clustered with interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in a principal component analysis, while IL-4 clustered with PMN. Increasing IP-10 and IL-6 production by BAL cells is associated with non-cavitary TB in patients who present with radiographically advanced TB. IP-10 and IL-6 may reflect an effective T-helper 1 immune control pathway for TB, attenuating tuberculous lung destruction.

  7. Lung inflammation in sarcoidosis: comparison of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels with bronchoalveolar lavage and gallium-67 scanning assessment of the T lymphocyte alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberger, C.I.; Line, B.R.; Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Crystal, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is elevated in many patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and has been proposed as a measure of disease activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible relationship between serum ACE and direct measures of the intensity of the alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis as measured by bronchoalveolar lavage and gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scans. To accomplish this, 64 measurements of serum ACE, lavage T lymphocytes, and lung uptake of 67 Ga were performed in 41 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis. Elevations of serum ACE were found on at least one occasion in 17 patients (41%). However, serum ACE was found to be a poor predictor of the intensity of alveolitis in sarcoidosis as assessed by the quantitation of bronchoalveolar lavage cells that were T lymphocytes and by 67 Ga scanning. Elevated serum ACE did not predict which patients would have elevated proportions of lavage T lymphocytes, which patients would demonstrate increased pulmonary uptake of 67 Ga, or which patients would have high-intensity alveolitis as defined by a combination of these criteria. These observations suggest that while serum ACE may be useful in diagnosing sarcoidosis, it does not reflect accurately the intensity of the alveolitis of the pulmonary component of this disease. (author)

  8. Bronchoalveolar lavage is an ideal tool in evaluation of local immune response of pigs vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiney George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL technique in evaluating the local immune response of pig immunized with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine. Materials and Methods: Weaned piglets were immunized with formalin-inactivated P52 strain of P. multocida bacterin and evaluated for pulmonary immune response in BAL fluid. BAL was performed before vaccination and at different post vaccination days. The BAL fluid was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the development of P. multocida specific antibody isotypes and also evaluated for different cell populations using standard protocol. Results: The average recovery percentage of BAL fluid varies from 58.33 to 61.33 in vaccinated and control group of piglets. The BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs showed increase in antibody titer up to 60th days post vaccination (8.98±0.33, IgG being the predominant isotype reached maximum titer of 6.12±0.20 on 45th days post vaccination, followed by IgM and a meager concentration of IgA could be detected. An increased concentration of the lymphocyte population and induction of plasma cells was detected in the BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs. Conclusion: Though intranasal vaccination with P. multocida plain bacterin vaccine could not provoke a strong immune response, but is promising as lymphocyte population was increased and plasma cells were detected. BAL can be performed repeatedly up to 3/4 months of age in pigs to study pulmonary immune response without affecting their health.

  9. Functional and phenotypical comparison of myofibroblasts derived from biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage in mild asthma and scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Lennart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated fibroblasts, which have previously been obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, are proposed to be important cells in the fibrotic processes of asthma and scleroderma (SSc. We have studied the motility for BALF derived fibroblasts in patients with SSc that may explain the presence of these cells in the airway lumen. Furthermore, we have compared phenotypic alterations in activated fibroblasts from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc that may account for the distinct fibrotic responses. Methods Fibroblasts were cultured from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc. The motility was studied using a cell migration assay. Western Blotting was used to study the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, ED-A fibronectin, and serine arginine splicing factor 20 (SRp20. The protein expression pattern was analyzed to reveal potential biomarkers using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and sequencing dual matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF. The Mann-Whitney method was used to calculate statistical significance. Results Increased migration and levels of ED-A fibronectin were observed in BALF fibroblasts from both groups of patients, supported by increased expression of RhoA, Rac1, and the splicing factor SRp20. However, these observations were exclusively accompanied by increased expression of α-SMA in patients with mild asthma. Compared to BALF fibroblasts in mild asthma, fibroblasts in SSc displayed a differential protein expression pattern of cytoskeletal- and scavenger proteins. These identified proteins facilitate cell migration, oxidative stress, and the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix observed in patients with SSc. Conclusion This study demonstrates a possible origin for fibroblasts in the airway lumen in patients with SSc and important differences between fibroblast

  10. Diagnostic Performance of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid CD4/CD8 Ratio for Sarcoidosis: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongchun; Pang, Caishuang; Wu, Yanqiu; Li, Diandian; Wan, Chun; Liao, Zenglin; Yang, Ting; Chen, Lei; Wen, Fuqiang

    2016-06-01

    The usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) CD4/CD8 ratio for diagnosing sarcoidosis has been reported in many studies with variable results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the overall diagnostic accuracy of BALF CD4/CD8 ratio based on the bulk of published evidence. Studies published prior to June 2015 and indexed in PubMed, OVID, Web of Science, Scopus and other databases were evaluated for inclusion. Data on sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were pooled from included studies. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were used to summarize overall test performance. Deeks's funnel plot was used to detect publication bias. Sixteen publications with 1885 subjects met our inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Summary estimates of the diagnostic performance of the BALF CD4/CD8 ratio were as follows: sensitivity, 0.70 (95%CI 0.64-0.75); specificity, 0.83 (95%CI 0.78-0.86); PLR, 4.04 (95%CI 3.13-5.20); NLR, 0.36 (95%CI 0.30-0.44); and DOR, 11.17 (95%CI 7.31-17.07). The area under the SROC curve was 0.84 (95%CI 0.81-0.87). There was no evidence of publication bias. Measuring the BALF CD4/CD8 ratio may assist in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis when interpreted in parallel with other diagnostic factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of bronchoalveolar lavage in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia treated with a broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenadel, I; Kiworr, M; Genitsariotis, R; Zeidler, D; Lorenz, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In a retrospective study the value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in the diagnosis of pneumonia was investigated in 95 immunocompromised patients suffering from haematological disorders and receiving a regimen of broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungal agents (BSAR).
METHODS—With the exception of four afebrile patients, all had fever, raised C reactive protein (CRP) levels, and new infiltrates visible on chest radiography. All patients underwent BAL to identify the organism causing the pneumonia and surveillance cultures were performed regularly for pathogens at different sites. Following classification of the isolates, patients with positive cultures were subdivided into two groups, pathogenic or contaminated. We investigated whether relevant pathogens were cultured only from the BAL fluid and whether they were susceptible to BSAR.
RESULTS—Although 77 of the 95 patients were thrombocytopenic, bleeding during BAL occurred in only 15% of all patients. Ten days after the procedure the fever improved in 88% of patients, radiographic findings improved in 71%, and CRP levels improved in 75% of patients; 22% of patients died within 28 days. Pathologically relevant isolates were found in 65% of all patients. Respiratory pathogens were detected only in the BAL fluid of 29 of the 95 patients (35% Gram positive species, 40% Gram negative species, 11% Mycobacterium, 11% fungi, and 3% cytomegalovirus). In 16 of these 29 patients (55%) the pathogens cultured only from the BAL fluid were resistant to treatment. Pathogens detected only in the BAL fluid were not susceptible to a standard broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal regimen including teicoplanin, ceftriaxon, tobramycin, and amphotericin B in 12 of the 29 patients (41%).
CONCLUSIONS—Our data suggest that 12 patients were treated with broad spectrum antimicrobial agents which were not directed at the appropriate organism on in vitro sensitivity tests without BAL. BAL is a relatively safe

  12. Coinfection and Mortality in Pneumonia-Related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients with Bronchoalveolar Lavage: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kuo-Chin; Chiu, Li-Chung; Hung, Chen-Yiu; Chang, Chih-Hao; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Chung-Chi; Hu, Han-Chung

    2017-05-01

    Pneumonia is the leading risk factor of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is increasing studies in patients with pneumonia to reveal that coinfection with viral and bacterial infection can lead to poorer outcomes than no coinfection. This study evaluated the role of coinfection identified through bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) examination on the outcomes of pneumonia-related ARDS. We performed a prospective observational study at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from October 2012 to May 2015. Adult patients were included if they met the Berlin definition of ARDS. The indications for BAL were clinically suspected pneumonia-related ARDS and no definite microbial sample identified from tracheal aspirate or sputum. The presence of microbial pathogens and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Of the 19,936 patients screened, 902 (4.5%) fulfilled the Berlin definition of ARDS. Of these patients, 255 (22.7%) had pneumonia-related ARDS and were included for analysis. A total of 142 (55.7%) patients were identified to have a microbial pathogen through BAL and were classified into three groups: a virus-only group (n = 41 [28.9%]), no virus group (n = 60 [42.2%]), and coinfection group (n = 41 [28.9%]). ARDS severity did not differ significantly between the groups (P = 0.43). The hospital mortality rates were 53.7% in virus-only identified group, 63.3% in no virus identified group, and 80.5% in coinfection identified group. The coinfection group had significantly higher mortality than virus-only group (80.5% vs. 53.7%; P = 0.01). In patients with pneumonia-related ARDS, the BAL pathogen-positive patients had a trend of higher mortality rate than pathogen-negative patients. Coinfection with a virus and another pathogen was associated with increased hospital mortality in pneumonia-related ARDS patients.

  13. Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis Species Isolated from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples Using Genotypic and Phenotypic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Kianipour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida dubliniensis is a newly diagnosed species very similar to Candida albicans phenotypically and first discovered in the mouth of people with AIDS in 1995. Among the different phenotypic and genotypic methods, a cost-effective method should be selected which makes it possible to differentiate these similar species. Materials and Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism with MspI enzyme and the Duplex-PCR method were done by DNA extraction using boiling. The sequencing of the amplified ribosomal region was used to confirm the C. dubliniensis species. Direct examination and colony count of the yeasts were applied for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL samples and the growth rate of the yeasts were studied at 45°C. To understand the ability formation of chlamydoconidia in yeast isolates, they were separately cultured on the sunflower seed agar, wheat flour agar, and corn meal agar media. Results: Fifty-nine (49.2% yeast colonies were identified from the total of 120 BAL specimens. Twenty-nine isolated yeasts; including 17 (58.6% of C. albicans/dubliniensis complex and 12 (41.4% of nonalbicans isolates produced pseudohypha or blastoconidia in direct smear with a mean colony count of 42000 CFU/mL. C. albicans with the frequency of 15 (42.9% were the most common isolated yeasts, whereas C. dubliniensis was identified in two nonHIV patients. Conclusion: Sequencing of the replicated gene fragment is the best method for identifying the yeasts, but the determination of the species by phenotypic methods such as the creation of chlamydoconidia in sunflower seeds agar and wheat flour agar media can be cost-effective, have sensitivity and acceptable quality.

  14. Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis Species Isolated from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples Using Genotypic and Phenotypic Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianipour, Sahar; Ardestani, Mohammad Emami; Dehghan, Parvin

    2018-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a newly diagnosed species very similar to Candida albicans phenotypically and first discovered in the mouth of people with AIDS in 1995. Among the different phenotypic and genotypic methods, a cost-effective method should be selected which makes it possible to differentiate these similar species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism with MspI enzyme and the Duplex-PCR method were done by DNA extraction using boiling. The sequencing of the amplified ribosomal region was used to confirm the C. dubliniensis species. Direct examination and colony count of the yeasts were applied for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples and the growth rate of the yeasts were studied at 45°C. To understand the ability formation of chlamydoconidia in yeast isolates, they were separately cultured on the sunflower seed agar, wheat flour agar, and corn meal agar media. Fifty-nine (49.2%) yeast colonies were identified from the total of 120 BAL specimens. Twenty-nine isolated yeasts; including 17 (58.6%) of C. albicans / dubliniensis complex and 12 (41.4%) of nonalbicans isolates produced pseudohypha or blastoconidia in direct smear with a mean colony count of 42000 CFU/mL. C. albicans with the frequency of 15 (42.9%) were the most common isolated yeasts, whereas C. dubliniensis was identified in two nonHIV patients. Sequencing of the replicated gene fragment is the best method for identifying the yeasts, but the determination of the species by phenotypic methods such as the creation of chlamydoconidia in sunflower seeds agar and wheat flour agar media can be cost-effective, have sensitivity and acceptable quality.

  15. Correlation between HRCT findings, pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology in interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Reuter, M.; Schnabel, A.; Gross, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    A prospective study correlating high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), lung function tests (PFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty-three RA patients with suspected ILD (19 men, 34 women) underwent 71 HRCT (14 of 53 with sequential HRCT, mean follow-up 24.3 months). The HRCT evaluation by two observers on consensus included a semi-quantitative characterisation of lesion pattern and profusion on representative anatomical levels. Fifty-two HRCT were followed by PFT and BAL. Agreement or discordance of HRCT-, PFT- and BAL findings were analysed with Pearson's correlation, κ score and McNemar's test. Tobacco-fume exposure was estimated in pack years. Smoking/non-smoking groups were compared with Student's t test. In 49 of 53 patients, HRCT was suggestive of ILD associated with RA (66 of 71 HRCT). Reticular lesions were found in 40 of 53 patients, in 15 of 40 presenting as mixed pattern with ground-glass opacities (GGO). Pure reticular patterns predominated in patients with long duration of ILD (p>0.01). Pure GGO were not observed. Lesion profusion was highly variable and correlated moderately negative with diffusion capacity (mean 88.2% (SD±20.9%); r=-0.54; p 0.2), but not towards lymphocytosis (κ=0.10; p=0.23; McNemar test p>0.2). Differences in smoking history were not significant (p>0.1). The HRCT appears most appropriate for the detection and follow-up of ILD associated with RA. The PFT and BAL correlate only partially with lesion profusion or grading on HRCT, but they contribute valuable information about dynamic lung function and differential diagnoses (pneumonia, medication side effects). (orig.)

  16. Effects of Asian dust event particles on inflammation markers in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage in pulmonary hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.-C.; Chan, C.-C.; Wang, P.-Y.; Lee, C.-T.; Cheng, T.-J.

    2004-01-01

    The health impact of dust events from China has become a concern within China and in its neighboring countries. Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between particulate matter exposure and cardiopulmonary mortality. Here, we use pulmonary hypertensive rat models to examine inflammation markers in the lung and in peripheral blood after exposure to Asian dust storm particles. Using a nose-only inhalation system, eight pulmonary hypertensive rats were exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from an actual Asian dust storm that took place between March 18 and 19, 2002; four control rats were also exposed to room air. Four rats exposed to CAPs of 315.6 μg/m 3 for 6 h were classified as the low-exposure group, and another four rats exposed to CAPs of 684.5 μg/m 3 for 4.5 h were classified as the high-exposure group. The animals were sacrificed 36 h after exposure. Inflammation markers in the peripheral blood and in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were analyzed, and IL-6 in BAL was also determined using ELISA. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood increased with increased CAP exposure levels (P<0.001, test for trend). In BAL analysis, total cell numbers and the proportion of neutrophil also increased with increased CAP levels (P<0.001, test for trend for both markers). Positive dose-response relationships between CAP exposure and total protein (P<0.05) and between CAPs and LDH activity (P<0.05) were also observed. Moreover, IL-6 protein in BAL increasing with CAP levels (P<0.05, test for trend) was demonstrated. Our results revealed that exposure to particulate matters during an Asian dust storm could increase lung inflammation and injury in pulmonary hypertensive rats. Further studies are needed to determine the components of dust storm particles that may contribute to the particle toxicity

  17. The Prevalence of Pneumocystis jiroveci in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens of Lung Transplant Recipients Examined by the Nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Sadraei, Javid; Mahmoodzadeh Poornaki, Abbas; Rezavand, Babak; Zarrinfar, Hossein; Abdi, Jahangir; Mohammadi, Younes

    2014-12-01

    The use of immune suppressive drugs for organ transplant recipients predisposes them to opportunistic infections, especially by fungal agents. Pneumocystis jiroveci, as an opportunistic pathogen, endangers the patients' life in those with immune system disorders. Early detection of latent Pneumocystis infection in susceptible patients may help choose the optimal treatment for these patients. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the colonization of latent P. jiroveci infection among lung transplant recipients. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on lung transplant recipients. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens were collected from 32 patients undergoing bronchoscopy. The samples were aseptically homogenized by 10 mM dithiothreitol, and their DNA was extracted. The mtLSUrRNA gene of P. jiroveci was amplified using nested PCR in two stages. Nested PCR was performed using external primers of pAZ-102-E and pAZ102-H followed by using the PCR product of the first stage and internal primers of pAZ-102-E and pAZ102-L2. The genome of P. jiroveci was revealed by a 346 bp PCR product in the initial amplification and a 120 bp product in the nested PCR. The results showed that seven BAL specimens (21.9%) from lung transplant recipients were positive for P. jiroveci. In molecular epidemiology studies, nested PCR has higher sensitivity than PCR. Results of this study support the colonization of P. jiroveci in patients receiving lung transplantation. Patients who are carriers of P. jiroveci are at a higher risk of P. jiroveci pneumonia.

  18. Diagnostic usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage, Ga scintigraphy and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in granulomatous lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Ikuo; Tsuneta, Yasuhiro; Terai, Tsugio; Nishimura, Masaharu; Munakata, Mitsuru

    1983-01-01

    Cellular components of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were studied in 26 sarcoid patients, 8 patients with farmer's lung, 10 healthy controls and 10 control patients. The investigations by Ga scintigraphy or transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and measurement of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity were also carried out in 21 sarcoid patients and 8 patients with farmer's lung. 1) Percentage of foamy cells in alveolar ma crophage fraction, percentage of lymphocytes and number of mast cells were increased significantly in BLA fluid from patients with farmer's lung as compared with that from sarcoid patients. Analysis of cellular component of BAL flu id is useful for differential diagnosis of these diseases. 2) Granulomatous lung lesions were frequently observed in specimens obtained by TBLB from patients with sarcoidosis and farmer's lung who showed abnormal Ga uptake in lung. In contrast, there was no significant difference in percentage of lymphocytes in BAL fluid between patients whose pulmonary Ga uptake was positive and those in whom pulmonary Ga uptake was negative. To investigate the mechanism of pulmonary Ga accumulation in granulomatous lung disease, BAL was performed in 2 sarcoid patients and 3 patients with farmer's lung at 48 to 72 hrs after Ga injection. The radioactivity in cell fractions was evaluated at 96 hrs after Ga injection. Most of the radioactivity was found in macrophages, with little in lymphocytes. Pulmonary Ga uptake in patients with sarcoidosis and farmer' s lung reflects granuloma formation or accumulation of activated macrophages in lung, but not the intensity of T-cell alveolitis. 3) Some relationship among SACE, granulomatous lung lesions in specimens obtained by TBLB and abnormal Ga accumulation in lung or hilar lymphnodes in sarcoid patients was observed, suggesting that SACE might reflect the degree of granuloma formation in sarcoidosis. (J.P.N.)

  19. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes. RESULTS: The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng\\/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng\\/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng\\/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng\\/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status. CONCLUSIONS: Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.

  20. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid related cytokines in patients with IPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Chun Shi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF related cytokines in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Methods: A total of 60 patients with IPF who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 30 cases in each group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, bronchodilator agents, phlegm dissipating and asthma relieving, anti-infection, and other supporting treatments. The patients in the control group were orally given prednisone (0.5 mg/kg•d, continuously for 4 weeks, then in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg•d, continuously for 8 weeks, and finally the dosage was reduced to 0.125 mg/kg•d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional EGb, ie. ginkgo leaf capsule, 1 g/time, 3 times/d, continuously for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated after 12- week treatment. ELISA was used to detect the levels of TNF-毩, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in BALF. The radioimmunoassay was used to determine the levels of serum HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN. The pulmonary function detector was used to measure TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT. Results: After treatment, TNF-毩 level in the control group was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05, while HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN levels in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. After treatment, TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT in the two groups were significantly improved when compared with before treatment (P<0.05, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusions: EGb combined with prednisone can effectively enhance the levels of TNF-毩, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in BALF in patients with IPF, and

  1. Lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis. Assessment of interlobar variation by bronchoalveolar lavage and comparison with noninvasive evaluation of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.S.; Smith, E.A.; Kinsella, M.; Schabel, S.I.; Silver, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), or scleroderma, is a disease of unknown etiology that involves many organ systems, including the lungs. The interstitial lung disease of systemic sclerosis is becoming an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. This process has been previously evaluated with single-site bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium scanning, pulmonary function testing, and, occasionally, by open lung biopsy. As BAL has been shown to correlate well with open lung biopsy in systemic sclerosis, we sought to determine if single-site BAL accurately reflects alveolitis in a second site in the lung, and if BAL results correlate with other noninvasive tests of lung inflammation: gallium uptake, chest radiography, or arterial blood gas analysis. We performed 17 studies in 13 patients with scleroderma and found no significant lobar differences in lavage results or gallium scanning. By our criteria for normal versus active alveolitis, only two of 17 patient lavages would have been classified as normal by one side and abnormal by the other side. Although percent gallium uptake was equal bilaterally and supported the concept of alveolitis uniformity, gallium uptake intensity did not correlate with activity as measured by BAL. Furthermore, chest radiograph and arterial blood gas analysis did not correlate with BAL results or gallium scanning. We believe these data support the suitability of single-site lavage in the investigation of systemic-sclerosis-associated alveolitis and diminish the importance of gallium scanning in the investigation of systemic sclerosis pulmonary disease

  2. Mild hypothermia attenuates changes in respiratory system mechanics and modifies cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, P; Senkeřík, M; Pařízková, R; Bareš, D; Zivný, P; Zivná, H; Cerný, V

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia was shown to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury due to large tidal volumes. It is unclear if the protective effect of hypothermia is maintained under less injurious mechanical ventilation in animals without previous lung injury. Tracheostomized rats were randomly allocated to non-ventilated group (group C) or ventilated groups of normothermia (group N) and mild hypothermia (group H). After two hours of mechanical ventilation with inspiratory fraction of oxygen 1.0, respiratory rate 60 min(-1), tidal volume 10 ml x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 2 cm H2O or immediately after tracheostomy in non-ventilated animals inspiratory pressures were recorded, rats were sacrificed, pressure-volume (PV) curve of respiratory system constructed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and aortic blood samples obtained. Group N animals exhibited a higher rise in peak inspiratory pressures in comparison to group H animals. Shift of the PV curve to right, higher total protein and interleukin-6 levels in BAL fluid were observed in normothermia animals in comparison with hypothermia animals and non-ventilated controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was lower in the hypothermia group in comparison with normothermia and non-ventilated groups. Mild hypothermia attenuated changes in respiratory system mechanics and modified cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation in animals without previous lung injury.

  3. Comparison of gallium-67 scanning, bronchoalveolar lavage, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Predicting response to therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baughman, R.P.; Fernandez, M.; Bosken, C.H.; Mantil, J.; Hurtubise, P.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, gallium scan, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level determination prior to treatment with corticosteroids. Pulmonary function was tested before and after therapy. Increase in vital capacity after treatment ranged from 40 to 1,030 ml; 12 of the 16 patients studied had an increase of more than 200 ml. There was a close correlation between the percentage uptake of gallium scan and the increase of the vital capacity after therapy (r . 0.95, p less than 0.01). There was no relationship between the percentage of lymphocytes obtained on lavage and the changes in vital capacity with therapy (r . 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the changes in vital capacity and the ratio of T4(+):T8(+)lymphocytes (r . 0.62, p less than 0.05) and number of T4 (+) lymphocytes (r . 0.92, p less than 0.01) in the bronchoalveolar fluid. There was a low correlation between the pretreatment ACE level and the change in vital capacity (r . 0.368, p greater than 0.05)

  4. Measuring (1,3)-β-D-glucan in tracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum for detection of suspected Candida pneumonia in immunocompromised and critically ill patients: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kang-Cheng; Chou, Kun-Ta; Hsiao, Yi-Han; Tseng, Ching-Min; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Lee, Yu-Chin; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Kou, Yu Ru

    2017-04-08

    While Candida pneumonia is life-threatening, biomarker measurements to early detect suspected Candida pneumonia are lacking. This study compared the diagnostic values of measuring levels of (1, 3)-β-D-glucan in endotracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum to detect suspected Candida pneumonia in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. This prospective, observational study enrolled immunocompromised, critically ill, and ventilated patients with suspected fungal pneumonia in mixed intensive care units from November 2010 to October 2011. Patients with D-glucan confounding factors or other fungal infection were excluded. Endotracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were collected from each patient to perform a fungal smear, culture, and D-glucan assay. After screening 166 patients, 31 patients completed the study and were categorized into non-Candida pneumonia/non-candidemia (n = 18), suspected Candida pneumonia (n = 9), and non-Candida pneumonia/candidemia groups (n = 4). D-glucan levels in endotracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage were highest in suspected Candida pneumonia, while the serum D-glucan level was highest in non-Candida pneumonia/candidemia. In all patients, the D-glucan value in endotracheal aspirate was positively correlated with that in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. For the detection of suspected Candida pneumonia, the predictive performance (sensitivity/specificity/D-glucan cutoff [pg/ml]) of D-glucan in endotracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was 67%/82%/120 and 89%/86%/130, respectively, accounting for areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.833 and 0.939 (both P pneumonia in the absence of concurrent candidemia. D-glucan levels in both endotracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage, but not in serum, provide good diagnostic values to detect suspected Candida pneumonia and to serve as potential biomarkers for early detection in this patient population.

  5. Allergen-specific IgG and IgA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in a model of experimental feline asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, C R; Byerly, J R; Decile, K C; Berghaus, R D; Walby, W F; Schelegle, E S; Hyde, D M; Gershwin, L J

    2003-12-15

    Allergic asthma, a Th2 cell driven response to inhaled allergens, has classically been thought of as predominantly mediated by IgE antibodies. To investigate the role of other immunoglobulin classes (e.g., IgG and IgA) in the immunopathogenesis of allergic asthma, levels of these allergen-specific immunoglobulins were measured in serum and mucosal fluids. Bermuda grass allergen (BGA)-specific IgG and IgA ELISAs in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were developed and optimized in an experimental model of BGA-induced feline asthma. Levels of BGA-specific IgG and IgA significantly increased over time in serum and BALF after allergen sensitization. Additionally, these elevated levels of BGA-specific IgG and IgA were seen in conjunction with the development of an asthmatic phenotype indicated by positive intradermal skin tests, enhanced airways hyperreactivity, and increased eosinophil percentages in the BALF.

  6. Correlative analysis of longitudinal changes in bronchoalveolar lavage, 67Gallium scanning, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, chest x-ray, and pulmonary function tests in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Mitsuko; Takahashi, Hideki; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Matsuoka, Rokuro; Furuse, Makoto; Kitamura, Satoshi; Kira, Shiro.

    1987-01-01

    Despite the relatively high cost and complicated procedures, Gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) are increasingly advocated as more sensitive indicators of disease activity in sarcoidosis than chest X-ray and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (SACE). To evaluate the clinical usefulness of 67 Ga scanning and BAL, we followed 31 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, using these four parameters, at 9- to 24-month intervals over periods of 9 to 48 months. We obtained 68 complete evaluations. Close correlations were observed among chest X-ray, 67 Ga scanning, SACE, and the percent-age of lymphocytes in BAL fluid (p 67 Ga scanning and BAL are not necessarily indicated in the long-term management of pulmonary sarcoidosis. (author)

  7. Effects of smoking and irradiated volume on inflammatory response in the lung of irradiated breast cancer patients evaluated with bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjermer, L.; Franzen, L.; Littbrand, B.; Nilsson, K.; Angstroem, T.H.; Henriksson, R.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the effects of irradiation on normal tissues in humans have been hard to obtain because most tissues are inaccessible and/or direct responses are difficult to quantify in a nondestructive manner. Pneumonitis and fibrotic lung disease are adverse effects seen in varying intensity in patients treated with radiotherapy for carcinomas of the thorax, e.g., breast cancer. In the present study the aim was to evaluate the inflammatory reaction in the underlying parenchyma following postoperative irradiation with bronchoalveolar lavage technique. Twenty-one patients with breast cancer stage T1N0M0 received radiotherapy with photons to a target dose of 56 Gy following breast conservative surgery. Nineteen healthy controls were also included. The results showed a clear elevation of neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the total irradiated groups, compared to controls. When subclassifying the material according to smoking habit, it was obvious that the smokers displayed a significantly decreased inflammatory reaction, i.e., reduced levels of mast cells and lymphocytes, compared to both nonsmoking controls and patients. Eosinophils were seen in an elevated number in all irradiated patients. Radiological signs of pneumonitis were observed in three patients, all in the nonsmoking group. No correlation was found between the volume of lung irradiated and the inflammatory response. It is concluded that bronchoalveolar lavage is a suitable and sensitive method for investigating radiotherapy-induced reactions in the human lung. Furthermore, ongoing smoking during the treatment depressed the inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma induced by irradiation. The present study as well as earlier observations justify further studies concerning the possibility of interaction of smoking with cancer treatment

  8. A simple evaluation of numbers of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid under light microscopy. Analysis of 35 pulmonary nodular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Kawasumi, Hiromi; Nagano, Teruaki; Sasada, Shinji; Okamoto, Norio

    2008-01-01

    More than 1 asbestos body (AB) per ml of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) under light microscopy was defined as AB positive (ABP) and suggests an occupational asbestos exposure. We microscopically evaluated the AB number per one ml of BALF, which we defined as the AB concentration (ABC), using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytocentrifuge slides obtained from 35 patients having pulmonary nodular lesions (20 carcinoma and 15 nonneoplastic disease) and examined the correlation between ABC and clinicopathological data including findings on Helical computed tomography scan (HCTS) and occupational history of asbestos exposure (OHAE). BAL was performed by the standard technique without removing mucous with a gauze filter. AB was microscopically defined as a structure consisting of a core of transparent asbestos surrounded by an iron-protein coat. Twenty of 35 patients were ABP (ABP rate; 57%) and ABC ranged from 0 to 207.98/ml (mean ABC; 11.33/ml). Mean ABC was significantly higher in patients with OHAE (15.04/ml) compared to that in patients without OHAE (3.23/ml). Twenty-two of 35 patients (63%) lacked abnormality on HCTS and among these, 12 patients (55%) were ABP. In 20 pulmonary carcinoma patients, the ABP rate was 85% and ABC ranged from 0 to 31.1/ml (Mean ABC; 2.99/ml). The ABP rate of pulmonary carcinoma patients was 40% (8 patients) and among these, 5 patients (63%) did not show any abnormality on HCTS. In conclusion, our method was simple and useful and should be applied to patients with pulmonary nodular lesions and OHAE, even if there are no abnormalities on HCTS. (author)

  9. Adenosine monophosphate is elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice with acute respiratory toxicity induced by nanoparticles with high surface hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Lea Ann; Hernández-Prieto, Raquel; Casas-Ferreira, Ana Maria; Jones, Marie-Christine; Riffo-Vasquez, Yanira; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Spina, Domenico; Jones, Stuart A; Smith, Norman W; Forbes, Ben; Page, Clive; Legido-Quigley, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Inhaled nanomaterials present a challenge to traditional methods and understanding of respiratory toxicology. In this study, a non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to investigate relationships between nanoparticle hydrophobicity, inflammatory outcomes and the metabolic fingerprint in bronchoalveolar fluid. Measures of acute lung toxicity were assessed following single-dose intratracheal administration of nanoparticles with varying surface hydrophobicity (i.e. pegylated lipid nanocapsules, polyvinyl acetate nanoparticles and polystyrene beads; listed in order of increasing hydrophobicity). Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected from mice exposed to nanoparticles at a surface area dose of 220 cm(2) and metabolite fingerprints were acquired via ultra pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Particles with high surface hydrophobicity were pro-inflammatory. Multivariate analysis of the resultant small molecule fingerprints revealed clear discrimination between the vehicle control and polystyrene beads (p < 0.05), as well as between nanoparticles of different surface hydrophobicity (p < 0.0001). Further investigation of the metabolic fingerprints revealed that adenosine monophosphate (AMP) concentration in BAL correlated with neutrophilia (p < 0.01), CXCL1 levels (p < 0.05) and nanoparticle surface hydrophobicity (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that extracellular AMP is an intermediary metabolite involved in adenine nucleotide-regulated neutrophilic inflammation as well as tissue damage, and could potentially be used to monitor nanoparticle-induced responses in the lung following pulmonary administration.

  10. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analyses in conjunction with high-resolution computed tomography imaging as a diagnostic intervention for patients with suspected interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammaiyappan Chockalingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has gained acceptance for diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease (ILD. The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT has reduced the clinical utility of BAL. This work has utilized the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society (ATS to optimize BAL and the findings have been associated with clinical examination and HRCT to precisely narrow down the cause of ILD. Materials and Methods: BAL was performed on ILD suspects at the target site chosen based on HRCT. The procedure, transport, processing, and analysis of BAL fluid were performed as per the ATS guidelines. The clinical data, HRCT findings and BAL report were used to narrow down the diagnosis of ILD. The statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance. Results: The BAL procedure was optimized as per the recommendations of the ATS. In a cohort of 50 patients, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, (8 hypersensitivity pneumonitis, (17 connective tissue disorder, (9 sarcoidosis, (3 pneumoconiosis, (5 acute respiratory distress syndrome, (2 eosinophilic lung disease (2 and lymphangitic carcinomatosa, (2 aspiration bronchiolitis (1 and pulmonary histiocytosis (1 were diagnosed. Statistically significant variation in differential counts was found in different ILDs. The different ILDs were classified based on the criteria described by the ATS. Clinical Significance: BAL along with clinical and HRCT findings improved the diagnostic accuracy by incorporating, the acute or chronic nature of the disease and the cause for acute exacerbation, which helped in the better management of ILDs.

  11. Correlation of levels of alpha-defensins determined by HPLC-ESI-MS in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with the diagnosis of pneumonia in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirone, Chiara; Boccacci, Simona; Inzitari, Rosanna; Tana, Milena; Aurilia, Claudia; Fanali, Chiara; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo; Romagnoli, Costantino; Vento, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    The presence of alpha-defensins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was investigated in a cohort of preterm newborns with gestational age (GA) groups: pneumonia group of nine neonates suffering from pulmonary infection (GA: 26.1 +/- 2.1 wk; birth weight: 787.4 +/- 309.9 g), with or without associated bloodstream infection, and nonpneumonia group of 15 neonates (GA: 27.7 +/- 2.0 wk; birth weight: 1019.0 +/- 319.8 g). BALF culture was positive for CONS (n = 5), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 1), and Candida spp (n = 3). BALF samples were analyzed by HPLC-electrospray Ionization-mass spectrometer. The alpha-defensins 1-4 concentration, absolute and differential white cells count were measured. Relative amounts of alpha-defensins 1-4 and the absolute number of neutrophils were found significantly higher in the pneumonia group with respect to the nonpneumonia group (p < 0.05). Moreover, positive significant correlations between the number of neutrophils and the alpha-defensins 1-3 levels were observed. In conclusion, our data show that preterm newborns, also at the lower GA, are able to produce alpha-defensins, underlining that their innate defense system is already active before the at-term delivery date.

  12. Patients with collagen vascular disease and dyspnea. The value of gallium scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage in predicting response to steroid therapy and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.B.; Solinger, A.M.; Baughman, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with collagen vascular disease with or without pulmonary symptoms were studied to determine the value of gallium scan and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in predicting clinical outcome and response to steroid therapy. Thirty-six subjects, 20 with progressive dyspnea, were studied. Gallium uptake was seen in the lung in 17 of the 20 progressively dyspneic patient's and none of the 16 nonprogressive patients. The BAL fluid in the progressive patients had a higher percentage of neutrophils (13.4 percent +/- 2.88) and lymphocytes (16.1 percent +/- 2.75) than in the nonprogressive patients (neutrophils = 3.3 +/- 1.30 percent; lymphocytes = 5.6 +/- 1.57 percent. Of the 19 progressive patients who were treated with steroids or cyclophosphamide, six had only increased neutrophils in their BAL fluid and all died. The remaining 13 treated progressive patients had increased lymphocytes or a normal BAL (two patients): six had improvement in their vital capacity, six have had stable function, and one died. We found gallium scan and BAL useful in assessing progressive pulmonary fibrosis in collagen vascular disease

  13. Lower leukotriene C4 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatic subjects after 2.5 years of inhaled corticosteroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Oosterhoff

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids has been shown to result in improvement of symptoms and lung function in subjects with asthma. Arachidonic acid (AA metabolites are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma. It was assessed whether differences could be found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL AA metabolite levels between subjects with asthma who were treated for 2.5 years with inhaled bronchodilators alone or in combination with inhaled corticosteroids. Prostaglandin (PGD2, PGF2α, 6-keto-PGF1α, thromboxane B2, leukotriene (LTC4 and LTB4 levels and cell numbers were assessed in BAL fluid from 22 non-smoking asthmatic subjects. They were participating in a randomized, double-blind multicentre drug trial over a period of 2.5 years. Results of the group treated with inhaled corticosteroids (CS+: beclomethasone 200 μg four times daily were compared with the other group (CS− which was treated with either ipratropium bromide (40 μg four times daily or placebo. BAL LTC4 levels of asthmatic subjects were significantly lower after 2.5 years inhaled corticosteroid therapy (CS+, 9(1–17 pg/ml vs. CS−, 16(6-53 pg/ml; p = 0.01. The same trend was observed for the PGD2 levels. The results suggest that inhaled corticosteroids may exert their beneficial effect on lung function via a mechanism in which inhibition of LTC4 synthesis in the airways is involved.

  14. Anti-citrullinated heat shock protein 90 antibodies identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are a marker of lung-specific immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Lisa; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Rosas, Ivan O; Doyle, Tracy J; Osorio, Juan C; Travers, Timothy S; Camacho, Carlos C; Oddis, Chester V; Ascherman, Dana P

    2014-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a correlation between serum anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibodies and rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). To further investigate this potential pathogenic relationship, we used ELISA-based techniques to assess anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibody profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with different stages of RA-ILD. 9/21 RA-derived BALF specimens demonstrated IgG and/or IgA antibodies targeting citrullinated HSP90 proteins/peptides, highlighting disease specific responses (with a predilection for RA-ILD) that did not occur in IPF patients (0/5) or healthy control subjects (0/5). Comparison of antibody profiles between BALF and matching serum specimens revealed various recognition patterns favoring predominant production of anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibodies within the lung microenvironment-further supporting the connection between this antibody specificity and parenchymal lung disease. Equally important, qualitative as well as quantitative differences in anti-citrullinated HSP90 profiles between BALF and serum indicate that the lung plays a direct role in shaping the immune repertoire of RA/RA-ILD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Performance of 2 commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of Aspergillus and Pneumocystis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from critical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Carlotta Francesca; Gennari, William; Venturelli, Claudia; La Regina, Annunziata; Pecorari, Monica; Righi, Elena; Machetti, Marco; Blasi, Elisabetta

    2012-06-01

    This article investigates the performance of 2 commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, MycAssay™ Aspergillus (Myc(Asp)Assay) and MycAssay™ Pneumocystis (Myc(PCP)Assay), on the ABI 7300 platform for the detection of Aspergillus (Asp) or Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pj) DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 20 patients. Operationally, patients enrolled were clustered into 3 groups: invasive aspergillosis group (IA, 7 patients), Pj pneumonia group (PCP, 8 patients), and negative control group (5 patients). All the IA patients were Myc(Asp)Assay positive, whereas 12 non-IA patients returned negative PCR results. Furthermore, 7 of 8 PCP patients were Myc(PCP)Assay positive, while 9 non-PCP patients were PCR negative. In conclusion, these data provide an early indication of the effectiveness of both the Myc(Asp)Assay and Myc(PCP)Assay on the ABI 7300 platform for the detection of either Asp or Pj DNA in BAL from patients with deep fungal infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of endotracheal aspirate and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız-Atıkan, Başak; Karapınar, Bülent; Aydemir, Şöhret; Vardar, Fadıl

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia occuring in any period of mechanical ventilation. There is no optimal diagnostic method in current use and in this study we aimed to compare two non-invasive diagnostic methods used in diagnosis of VAP in children. This prospective study was conducted in 8 bedded Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at Ege University Children´s Hospital. Endotracheal aspiration (ETA) and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed in case of developing VIP after 48 hours of ventilation. Quantitative cultures were examined in Ege University Department of Diagnostic Microbiology, Bacteriology Laboratory. Fourty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of study subjects was 47.2±53.6 months. A total of 28 in 82 specimens taken with both methods were negative/negative; 28 had positive result with ETA and a negative result with non-bronchoscopic BAL and both results were negative in 26 specimens. There were no patients whose respiratory specimen culture was negative with ETA and positive with non-bronchoscopic BAL. These results imply that there is a significant difference between two diagnostic methods (p VAP; therefore, ETA results were compared with this method. ETA's sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values were 100%, 50%, 100% and 48% respectively. The study revealed the ease of usability and the sensitivity of non-bronchoscopic BAL, in comparison with ETA.

  17. Assessment of pulmonary antibodies with induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage induced by nasal vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a clinical phase I/II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freihorst Joachim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a desirable albeit challenging strategy for prevention of airway infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. We assessed the immunogenicity of a nasal vaccine based on the outer membrane proteins F and I from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lower airways in a phase I/II clinical trial. Methods N = 12 healthy volunteers received 2 nasal vaccinations with an OprF-OprI gel as a primary and a systemic (n = 6 or a nasal booster vaccination (n = 6. Antibodies were assessed in induced sputum (IS, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, and in serum. Results OprF-OprI-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were found in both BAL and IS at comparable rates, but differed in the predominant isotype. IgA antibodies in IS did not correlate to the respective serum levels. Pulmonary antibodies were detectable in all vaccinees even 1 year after the vaccination. The systemic booster group had higher IgG levels in serum. However, the nasal booster group had the better long-term response with bronchial antibodies of both isotypes. Conclusion The nasal OprF-OprI-vaccine induces a lasting antibody response at both, systemic and airway mucosal site. IS is a feasible method to non-invasively assess bronchial antibodies. A further optimization of the vaccination schedule is warranted.

  18. Lung fibrosis-associated soluble mediators and bronchoalveolar lavage from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients promote the expression of fibrogenic factors in subepithelial lung myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouros, Evangelos; Filidou, Eirini; Arvanitidis, Konstantinos; Mikroulis, Dimitrios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Bamias, George; Bouros, Demosthenes; Kolios, George

    2017-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, excessive collagen production and accumulation of myofibroblasts. We explored the possible role of subepithelial lung myofibroblasts (SELMs) in the development of fibrosis in IPF. SELMs, isolated from surgical specimens of healthy lung tissue, were cultured with pro-inflammatory factors or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with IPF or idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (iNSIP) and their fibrotic activity was assessed. Stimulation of SELMs with pro-inflammatory factors induced a significant increase of Tissue Factor (TF) and Tumor necrosis factor-Like cytokine 1 A (TL1A) expression and collagen production in culture supernatants. Stimulation with BALF from IPF patients with mild to moderate, but not severe disease, and from iNSIP patients induced a significant increase of TF expression. BALF from all IPF patients induced a significant increase of TL1A expression and collagen production, while BALF from iNSIP patients induced a significant increase of TL1A, but not of collagen production. Interestingly, TGF-β1 and BALF from all IPF, but not iNSIP patients, induced a significant increase in SELMs migration. In conclusion, BALF from IPF patients induces fibrotic activity in lung myofibroblasts, similar to mediators associated with lung fibrosis, indicating a key role of SELMs in IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Usefulness of Two Aspergillus PCR Assays and Aspergillus Galactomannan and β-d-Glucan Testing of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Diagnosis of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Naohisa; Sakamoto, Susumu; Sano, Go; Suzuki, Junko; Hebisawa, Akira; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Koyama, Kazuya; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Homma, Sakae

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of an Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) test, a β-d-glucan (βDG) test, and two different Aspergillus PCR assays of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples for the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). BALF samples from 30 patients with and 120 patients without CPA were collected. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio for each test individually and in combination with other tests. The optical density index values, as determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, for the diagnosis of CPA were 0.5 and 100 for GM and βDG testing of BALF, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the GM test, βDG test, and PCR assays 1 and 2 were 77.8% and 90.0%, 77.8% and 72.5%, 86.7% and 84.2%, and 66.7% and 94.2%, respectively. A comparison of the PCR assays showed that PCR assay 1 had a better sensitivity, a better negative predictive value, and a better negative likelihood ratio and PCR assay 2 had a better specificity, a better positive predictive value, and a better positive likelihood ratio. The combination of the GM and βDG tests had the highest diagnostic odds ratio. The combination of the GM and βDG tests on BALF was more useful than any single test for diagnosing CPA. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. A prospective study to evaluate the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage by fiberoptic bronchoscopy in sputum smear negative patients with high suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL by flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB in sputum smear negative patients with clinical and radiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 30 sputum smear negative patients of age group 20 to 70 years, who were highly suspicious for PTB by clinical and radiographic criteria. All patients were subjected to sputum culture, BAL stains and cultures, and cytopathology. Patients with moderate to massive pleural effusion, obvious accessible lymph node, history of antitubercular therapy (ATT, and contraindication to FOB were excluded. Results: Sputum culture for acid fast bacilli (AFB was positive in four (12% patients, BAL fluid was positive for Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN stain in nine (27% patients, including four sputum culture patients, while BAL culture for AFB on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ medium was positive in 18 (60%, including 9 BAL fluid ZN stain positive patients. Six (20% patients had growth on pyogenic culture, while two (7% patients had malignant cell on cytological examination of BAL fluid. Remaining four (13% patients were empirically started on ATT. They had complete response to ATT at 2 months and were retrospectively diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. All the bacteriologically confirmed PTB patients were given ATT for 6 months and all patients had complete response. Conclusion: We concluded that FOB guided BAL is extremely useful for establishing diagnosis of PTB or other pulmonary diseases in sputum smear negative patients, who have high suspicion for PTB by clinical and radiographic criteria.

  1. Prediction of therapeutic response in steroid-treated pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of clinical parameters, bronchoalveolar lavage, gallium-67 lung scanning, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollinger, W.M.; Staton, G.W. Jr.; Fajman, W.A.; Gilman, M.J.; Pine, J.R.; Check, I.J.

    1985-01-01

    To find a pretreatment predictor of steroid responsiveness in pulmonary sarcoidosis the authors studied 21 patients before and after steroid treatment by clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium-67 lung scan, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) level. Although clinical score, forced vital capacity (FVC), BAL percent lymphocytes (% lymphs), quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels all improved with therapy, only the pretreatment BAL % lymphs correlated with the improvement in FVC (r = 0.47, p less than 0.05). Pretreatment BAL % lymphs of greater than or equal to 35% predicted improvement in FVC of 10/11 patients, whereas among 10 patients with BAL % lymphs less than 35%, 5 patients improved and 5 deteriorated. Clinical score, pulmonary function parameters, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE level used alone, in combination with BAL % lymphs or in combination with each other, did not improve this predictive value. The authors conclude that steroid therapy improves a number of clinical and laboratory parameters in sarcoidosis, but only the pretreatment BAL % lymphs are useful in predicting therapeutic responsiveness

  2. Periodontitis-associated septic pulmonary embolism caused by Actinomyces species identified by anaerobic culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shun; Mishima, Eikan; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Ohi, Takashi; Ishida, Masatsugu; Yanai, Masaru; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Nagasawa, Tasuku; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Periodontal disease is a less common but important cause of septic pulmonary embolism (SPE). However, the pathogens causing periodontal disease-associated SPE (PD-SPE) have been poorly understood. Actinomyces species are resident microbiota in the oral cavity. Here we report a case of PD-SPE caused by Actinomyces species, which was identified by anaerobic culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). A 64-year-old Asian man, complicated with severe chronic periodontitis, was admitted with chest pain and fever. Chest CT revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules located subpleurally. We diagnosed the case as SPE associated with periodontitis. Although blood cultures were negative for the usual 5-day incubation, anaerobic culture of the BAL fluid sample yielded Actinomyces species. Antibacterial therapy alone did not ameliorate the symptoms; however, additional dental treatment, including tooth extraction, promptly did. The patient was discharged 23 days after admission. The 3-month follow-up revealed no recurrence of the symptoms and complete resolution of the lung lesions. This case demonstrated that Actinomyces species can cause PD-SPE. Additionally, clinicians should consider performing appropriate anaerobic culture of BAL fluid to identify the pathogen of SPE, and to ordering dental treatment, if necessary, in addition to antibiotics for the initial management of PD-SPE.

  3. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from lung cancer patients using label-free mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmmier, Abduladim; O'Brien, Michael Emmet; Lynch, Vincent; Clynes, Martin; Morgan, Ross; Dowling, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women throughout the world. The need to detect lung cancer at an early, potentially curable stage, is essential and may reduce mortality by 20%. The aim of this study was to identify distinct proteomic profiles in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and plasma that are able to discriminate individuals with benign disease from those with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using label-free mass spectrometry analysis of BALF during discovery-phase analysis, a significant number of proteins were found to have different abundance levels when comparing control to adenocarcinoma (AD) or squamous cell lung carcinoma (SqCC). Validation of candidate biomarkers identified in BALF was performed in a larger cohort of plasma samples by detection with enzyme-linked immunoassay. Four proteins (Cystatin-C, TIMP-1, Lipocalin-2 and HSP70/HSPA1A) were selected as a representative group from discovery phase mass spectrometry BALF analysis. Plasma levels of TIMP-1, Lipocalin-2 and Cystatin-C were found to be significantly elevated in AD and SqCC compared to control. The results presented in this study indicate that BALF is an important proximal biofluid for the discovery and identification of candidate lung cancer biomarkers. There is good correlation between the trend of protein abundance levels in BALF and that of plasma which validates this approach to develop a blood biomarker to aid lung cancer diagnosis, particularly in the era of lung cancer screening. The protein signatures identified also provide insight into the molecular mechanisms associated with lung malignancy.

  4. Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum samples by polymerase chain reaction: correlation of virus isolation and clinical outcome for patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K K; Vestbo, Jørgen; Benfield, T

    1997-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and serum samples from 153 patients with pulmonary symptoms who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and underwent BAL were examined for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by conventional culture and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR...... technique than conventional culture. Detection of CMV DNA in BAL fluid or serum predicted subsequent development of extrapulmonary CMV disease but not death for HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms....

  5. Metabolic profiling of potential lung cancer biomarkers using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the integrated direct infusion/ gas chromatography mass spectrometry platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón-Leblic, Belén; García-Barrera, Tamara; Grávalos-Guzmán, Jesús; Pereira-Vega, Antonio; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2016-08-11

    Lung cancer is one of the ten most common causes of death worldwide, so that the search for early diagnosis biomarkers is a very challenging task. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) provides information on cellular and biochemical epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract constituents and no previous metabolomic studies have been performed with BALF samples from patients with lung cancer. Therefore, this fluid has been explored looking for new contributions in lung cancer metabolism. In this way, two complementary metabolomics techniques based on direct infusion high resolution mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-QTOF-MS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been applied to compare statistically differences between lung cancer (LC) and control (C) BALF samples, using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) in order to find and identify potential biomarkers of the disease. A total of 42 altered metabolites were found in BALF from LC. The metabolic pathway analysis showed that glutamate and glutamine metabolism pathway was mainly altered by this disease. In addition, we assessed the biomarker specificity and sensitivity according to the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, indicating that glycerol and phosphoric acid were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The search for early diagnosis of lung cancer is a very challenging task because of the high mortality associated to this disease and its critical linkage to the initiation of treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid provides information on cellular and biochemical epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract constituents and no previous metabolomic studies have been performed with BALF samples from patients with lung cancer. Since BALF is in close interaction with lung tissue it is a more representative sample of lung status than other peripheral biofluids as blood or urine studied in previous works

  6. Increased production of IL-4 and IL-12p40 from bronchoalveolar lavage cells are biomarkers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nolan

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB causes 1.45 million deaths annually world wide, the majority of which occur in the developing world. Active TB disease represents immune failure to control latent infection from airborne spread. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB seen on sputum smear is a biomarker for contagiousness.We enrolled 73 tuberculosis patients with extensive infiltrates into a research study using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL to sample lung immune cells and assay BAL cell cytokine production. All patients had sputum culture demonstrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 59/73 (81% had AFB identified by microscopy of the sputum. Compared with smear negative patients, smear positive patients at presentation had a higher proportion with smoking history, a higher proportion with temperature >38.5(0 C, higher BAL cells/ml, lower percent lymphocytes in BAL, higher IL-4 and IL-12p40 in BAL cell supernatants. There was no correlation between AFB smear and other BAL or serum cytokines. Increasing IL-4 was associated with BAL PMN and negatively associated with BAL lymphocytes. Each 10-fold increase in BAL IL-4 and IL-12p40 increased the odds of AFB smear positivity by 7.4 and 2.2-fold, respectively, in a multi-variable logistic model.Increasing IL-4 and IL-12p40 production by BAL cells are biomarkers for AFB in sputum of patients who present with radiographically advanced TB. They likely reflect less effective immune control of pathways for controlling TB, leading to patients with increased infectiousness.

  7. Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis. HRCT findings as their correlation with the clinical data, with function tests and with bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosda, R.; Domingo, M. L.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Rodrigo, C.; Torregrosa, A.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in rheumatoid arthritis and their correlation with clinical data, respiratory function tests (RFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nineteen patients were studied by inspiratory and expiratory HRCT scan and clinical examination: 17 also underwent RFT and 12 were also subjected to BAL. The χ''2 test was used to analyze the correlation among the clinical data, RAFT, BAL and the HRCT images. Six patients had no respiratory symptoms and seven were smokers. The most common findings was bronchiectasis (37%), followed by nodules (26%), ground glass (26%), non septal lines (21%), septal lines (16%), emphysema (21%), lymph nodes (21%), pleural changes (16%), pericardial changes (11%) and enlarged pulmonary artery (5%). All the patients presented a mosaic pattern on expiration. The RFT disclosed obstructive lung disease in 74% of cases, normal in 41% and restrictive disease in 12%. BAL was normal in 50% of the patients, containing a high neutrophil count in 42% and high lymphocyte count in 8%. Only the correlations between smoking and emphysema and between the results of RFT and bronchiectasis, septal and non septal lines, ground glass and honey combing were found to be statistically significant. HRCT detects pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis even in the absence of respiratory symptoms. The most common finding is bronchiectasis. Air trapping is always present in expiration, obstructive lung disease being the most common finding in RFT. The only significant associations were those between smoking and emphysema and between the results of RFT and the HRCT findings, as indicated by the high incidence of restrictive lung disease in these patients. (Author) 10 refs

  8. Bacteriological incidence in pneumonia patients with pulmonary emphysema: a bacterial floral analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Keisuke; Yamasaki, Kei; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Akata, Kentaro; Noguchi, Shingo; Kawanami, Toshinori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is an important radiological finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, but bacteriological differences in pneumonia patients according to the severity of emphysematous changes have not been reported. Therefore, we evaluated the bacteriological incidence in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pneumonia patients using cultivation and a culture-independent molecular method. Japanese patients with community-acquired pneumonia (83) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (94) between April 2010 and February 2014 were evaluated. The BALF obtained from pneumonia lesions was evaluated by both cultivation and a molecular method. In the molecular method, ~600 base pairs of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes in the BALF were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and clone libraries were constructed. The nucleotide sequences of 96 randomly selected colonies were determined, and a homology search was performed to identify the bacterial species. A qualitative radiological evaluation of pulmonary emphysema based on chest computed tomography (CT) images was performed using the Goddard classification. The severity of pulmonary emphysema based on the Goddard classification was none in 47.4% (84/177), mild in 36.2% (64/177), moderate in 10.2% (18/177), and severe in 6.2% (11/177). Using the culture-independent molecular method, Moraxella catarrhalis was significantly more frequently detected in moderate or severe emphysema patients than in patients with no or mild emphysematous changes. The detection rates of Haemophilus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were unrelated to the severity of pulmonary emphysematous changes, and Streptococcus species - except for the S. anginosus group and S. pneumoniae - were detected more frequently using the molecular method we used for the BALF of patients with pneumonia than using culture methods. Our findings suggest that M. catarrhalis is more frequently detected in pneumonia patients with moderate or

  9. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of bacterial culture of nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capik, Sarah F; White, Brad J; Lubbers, Brian V; Apley, Michael D; DeDonder, Keith D; Larson, Robert L; Harhay, Greg P; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Harhay, Dayna M; Kalbfleisch, Ted S; Schuller, Gennie; Clawson, Michael L

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare predictive values, extent of agreement, and gamithromycin susceptibility between bacterial culture results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). ANIMALS 28 beef calves with clinical BRD. PROCEDURES Pooled bilateral NPS samples and BALF samples were obtained for bacterial culture from calves immediately before and at various times during the 5 days after gamithromycin (6 mg/kg, SC, once) administration. For each culture-positive sample, up to 12 Mannheimia haemolytica, 6 Pasteurella multocida, and 6 Histophilus somni colonies underwent gamithromycin susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on all M haemolytica isolates. For paired NPS and BALF samples collected 5 days after gamithromycin administration, the positive and negative predictive values for culture results of NPS samples relative to those of BALF samples and the extent of agreement between the sampling methods were determined. RESULTS Positive and negative predictive values of NPS samples were 67% and 100% for M haemolytica, 75% and 100% for P multocida, and 100% and 96% for H somni. Extent of agreement between results for NPS and BALF samples was substantial for M haemolytica (κ, 0.71) and H somni (κ, 0.78) and almost perfect for P multocida (κ, 0.81). Gamithromycin susceptibility varied within the same sample and between paired NPS and BALF samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated culture results of NPS and BALF samples from calves with BRD should be interpreted cautiously considering disease prevalence within the population, sample collection relative to antimicrobial administration, and limitations of diagnostic testing methods.

  10. Diagnostic value of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in ICU patients with bacterial lung infections: a bivariate meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia-Xin; Li, Jia-Shu; Hu, Rong; Li, Chun-Hua; Wen, Yan; Zheng, Hong; Zhang, Feng; Li, Qin

    2013-01-01

    The serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) is a useful biomarker in differentiating bacterial infections from others. However, the diagnostic value of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in lung infections has not been well established. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of sTREM-1 in BALF for diagnosis of bacterial lung infections in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We searched PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge (from January 1966 to October 2012) databases for relevant studies that reported diagnostic accuracy data of BALF sTREM-1 in the diagnosis of bacterial lung infections in ICU patients. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated by a bivariate regression analysis. Measures of accuracy and Q point value (Q*) were calculated using summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. The potential between-studies heterogeneity was explored by subgroup analysis. Nine studies were included in the present meta-analysis. Overall, the prevalence was 50.6%; the sensitivity was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-0.95); the specificity was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.56-0.92); the positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was 4.18 (95% CI, 1.78-9.86); the negative likelihood ratio (NLR) was 0.16 (95% CI, 0.07-0.36), and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 25.60 (95% CI, 7.28-89.93). The area under the SROC curve was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.93), with a Q* of 0.83. Subgroup analysis showed that the assay method and cutoff value influenced the diagnostic accuracy of sTREM-1. BALF sTREM-1 is a useful biomarker of bacterial lung infections in ICU patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the optimized cutoff value.

  11. Correlation between viral loads of cytomegalovirus in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from lung transplant recipients determined by histology and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaly, Roy F; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Castilla, Elias A; Reilly, Amy; Arrigain, Susana; Farver, Carol; Avery, Robin K; Gordon, Steven M; Procop, Gary W

    2004-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in lung transplant recipients. Early detection of CMV end-organ disease should help with treatment management. We determined the CMV viral load by hybrid capture in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from patients who had undergone lung transplantation. For 39 of these samples (from 25 patients), corresponding transbronchial biopsy samples were available for CMV immunohistochemistry (IHC). The CMV IHC results were interpreted and categorized as positive or negative, and the positive results were subcategorized as typical if cells with both significant nuclear enlargement or Cowdry A-type inclusions and positive staining were present or as atypical if definitive nuclear staining was seen but significant nuclear enlargement was not. Diagnostic CMV viral inclusions were reported in the anatomic diagnosis, based on hematoxylin-eosin staining alone, for three (8%) of the biopsy samples. CMV was detected by IHC in 13 (33%) samples (5 typical, 8 atypical). The median CMV viral load in BAL samples was 0 copies/ml for BAL samples from patients with IHC-negative biopsy samples; 47,678 copies/ml for BAL samples from patients with biopsy samples with positive, atypical staining; and 1,548,827 copies/ml for BAL samples from patients with biopsy samples with positive, typical staining (P < 0.001). Compared to routine pathology of biopsy samples, the use of IHC increased the diagnostic yield of CMV. Also, the CMV viral load in BAL fluid samples increased along with immunoreactivity from negative to positive, atypical staining to positive, typical staining. The CMV viral load determined with the end-organ sample, the BAL fluid sample, was higher than the corresponding viral load determined with blood. Both IHC and determination of the CMV viral load in BAL samples may be useful for the detection of individuals at risk for the development of fulminant invasive CMV disease.

  12. Assessment of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples from dogs affected with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Elodie; Krafft, Emilie; Farnir, Frederic; Holopainen, Saila; Laurila, Henna P; Rajamäki, Minna M; Day, Michael J; Antoine, Nadine; Pirottin, Dimitri; Clercx, Cecile

    2015-10-01

    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive disease of the lung parenchyma that is more prevalent in dogs of the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Since the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis in humans, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these same chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were measured by ELISA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from healthy dogs and WHWTs affected with CIPF. Expression of the genes encoding CCL2 and CXCL8 and their respective receptors, namely (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) and (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), was compared in unaffected lung tissue and biopsies from dogs affected with CIPF by quantitative PCR and localisation of CCL2 and CXCL8 proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry. Significantly greater CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were found in the BALF from WHWTs affected with CIPF, compared with healthy dogs. Significantly greater serum concentrations of CCL2, but not CXCL8, were found in CIPF-affected dogs compared with healthy WHWTs. No differences in relative gene expression for CCL2, CXCL8, CCR2 or CXCR2 were observed when comparing lung biopsies from control dogs and those affected with CIPF. In affected lung tissues, immunolabelling for CCL2 and CXCL8 was observed in bronchial airway epithelial cells in dogs affected with CIPF. The study findings suggest that both CCL2 and CXCL8 are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. Further studies are required to determine whether these chemokines might have a clinical use as biomarkers of fibrosis or as targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comparison of Aspergillus and Mucorales PCR Testing of Different Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Fractions from Patients with Suspected Invasive Pulmonary Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Jan; White, P Lewis; Kessel, Johanna; Wieters, Imke; Teschner, Daniel; Korczynski, Daniel; Liebregts, Tobias; Cornely, Oliver A; Schwartz, Stefan; Elgeti, Thomas; Meintker, Lisa; Krause, Stefan W; Posso, Raquel B; Heinz, Werner J; Fuhrmann, Sandra; Vehreschild, Jörg Janne; Einsele, Hermann; Rickerts, Volker; Loeffler, Juergen

    2018-02-01

    In patients with hematological malignancies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens are commonly used for the diagnosis of mold infections. However, it is not clear whether the cell pellet (P) or the supernatant fraction (S) of the BALF specimen is optimal for molecular diagnostic testing. Thus, 99 BALF specimens were collected from 96 hematology patients with or without allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The cell pellets and supernatants were processed alone and in combination (S/P) for testing by two fungus-specific real-time PCR assays compliant with international recommendations. The results achieved with S/P were revealed to be superior in comparison to those achieved with S and P alone, with the use of each single fraction showing a reduced sensitivity for the detection of Aspergillus DNA (82% and 43% for S and P, respectively). In 57% of the samples, testing of the combination of S and P generated a lower quantification cycle value than testing of S or P alone. Molds would have been missed in 5 and 16 out of 28 samples if only S or P, respectively, was analyzed. No sample was positive by testing of S or P only. Similar results were obtained for the detection of Mucorales DNA in BALF specimens (reduced sensitivity of 67% and 50% for S and P, respectively). Study patients were categorized according to the current European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group classification for invasive fungal disease (IFD), revealing that 35 patients had proven/probable IFD (36%), 47 patients had possible IFD (49%), and 14 patients had undetermined IFD (15%). Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid Modulates Inflammatory Mediator Release in Human Alveolar Cells Exposed to Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of ARDS Patients

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    Paolo Cotogni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated whether the 1 : 2 ω-3/ω-6 ratio may reduce proinflammatory response in human alveolar cells (A549 exposed to an ex vivo inflammatory stimulus (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS patients. Methods. We exposed A549 cells to the BALF collected from 12 ARDS patients. After 18 hours, fatty acids (FA were added as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ω-3 and arachidonic acid (AA, ω-6 in two ratios (1 : 2 or 1 : 7. 24 hours later, in culture supernatants were evaluated cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGE3 release. The FA percentage content in A549 membrane phospholipids, content of COX-2, level of PPARγ, and NF-κB binding activity were determined. Results. The 1 : 2 DHA/AA ratio reversed the baseline predominance of ω-6 over ω-3 in the cell membranes (P < 0.001. The proinflammatory cytokine release was reduced by the 1 : 2 ratio (P < 0.01 to <0.001 but was increased by the 1 : 7 ratio (P < 0.01. The 1 : 2 ratio reduced COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.001 as well as NF-κB translocation into the nucleus (P < 0.01, while it increased activation of PPARγ and IL-10 release (P < 0.001. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that shifting the FA supply from ω-6 to ω-3 decreased proinflammatory mediator release in human alveolar cells exposed to BALF of ARDS patients.

  15. The microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage from young children with chronic lung disease includes taxa present in both the oropharynx and nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R L; Kaestli, M; Chang, A B; Binks, M J; Pope, C E; Hoffman, L R; Smith-Vaughan, H C

    2016-07-07

    Invasive methods requiring general anaesthesia are needed to sample the lung microbiota in young children who do not expectorate. This poses substantial challenges to longitudinal study of paediatric airway microbiota. Non-invasive upper airway sampling is an alternative method for monitoring airway microbiota; however, there are limited data describing the relationship of such results with lung microbiota in young children. In this study, we compared the upper and lower airway microbiota in young children to determine whether non-invasive upper airway sampling procedures provide a reliable measure of either lung microbiota or clinically defined differences. The microbiota in oropharyngeal (OP) swabs, nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 78 children (median age 2.2 years) with and without lung disease were characterised using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) detected significant differences between the microbiota in BAL and those in both OP swabs (p = 0.0001, Pseudo-F = 12.2, df = 1) and NP swabs (p = 0.0001; Pseudo-F = 21.9, df = 1) with the NP and BAL microbiota more different than the OP and BAL, as indicated by a higher Pseudo-F value. The microbiota in combined OP and NP data (upper airways) provided a more comprehensive representation of BAL microbiota, but significant differences between the upper airway and BAL microbiota remained, albeit with a considerably smaller Pseudo-F (PERMANOVA p = 0.0001; Pseudo-F = 4.9, df = 1). Despite this overall difference, paired BAL and upper airway (OP and NP) microbiota were >50 % similar among 69 % of children. Furthermore, canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP analysis) detected significant differences between the microbiota from clinically defined groups when analysing either BAL (eigenvalues >0.8; misclassification rate 26.5 %) or the combined OP and NP data (eigenvalues >0

  16. Bacteriological incidence in pneumonia patients with pulmonary emphysema: a bacterial floral analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito K

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Keisuke Naito,1 Kei Yamasaki,1 Kazuhiro Yatera,1 Kentaro Akata,1 Shingo Noguchi,1 Toshinori Kawanami,1 Kazumasa Fukuda,2 Takashi Kido,1 Hiroshi Ishimoto,3 Hiroshi Mukae3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2Department of Microbiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, 3Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki City, Nagasaki, Japan Abstract: Pulmonary emphysema is an important radiological finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, but bacteriological differences in pneumonia patients according to the severity of emphysematous changes have not been reported. Therefore, we evaluated the bacteriological incidence in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of pneumonia patients using cultivation and a culture-independent molecular method. Japanese patients with community-acquired pneumonia (83 and healthcare-associated pneumonia (94 between April 2010 and February 2014 were evaluated. The BALF obtained from pneumonia lesions was evaluated by both cultivation and a molecular method. In the molecular method, ~600 base pairs of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes in the BALF were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and clone libraries were constructed. The nucleotide sequences of 96 randomly selected colonies were determined, and a homology search was performed to identify the bacterial species. A qualitative radiological evaluation of pulmonary emphysema based on chest computed tomography (CT images was performed using the Goddard classification. The severity of pulmonary emphysema based on the Goddard classification was none in 47.4% (84/177, mild in 36.2% (64/177, moderate in 10.2% (18/177, and severe in 6.2% (11/177. Using the culture-independent molecular method, Moraxella catarrhalis was significantly more frequently detected in moderate or severe emphysema patients than in patients with no or mild emphysematous changes. The

  17. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies

  18. Análise do lavado broncoalveolar em vítimas de queimaduras faciais graves Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis in victims of severe facial burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eucir Rabello

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o lavado broncoalveolar (LBA de vítimas de queimaduras que inalaram fumaça a fim de identificar alterações que possam estar associadas à morte ou à sobrevida. MÉTODOS: Dezoito vítimas de queimaduras faciais foram submetidas a LBA até 24 h após o evento, sendo realizadas a análise do conteúdo celular e proteico, incluindo TNF-α, HLA-DR, CD14, CD68 e iNOS. RESULTADOS: Dos 18 pacientes submetidos à broncoscopia, 8 (44,4% morreram durante o seguimento. A média de idade dos pacientes que morreram foi significativamente maior (44,7 vs. 31,5 anos. A superfície corporal queimada foi em média de 60,1% nos pacientes que morreram e de 26,1% nos sobreviventes (p OBJECTIVE: To analyze bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL specimens of burn victims who inhaled smoke, in order to identify alterations associated with mortality or survival. METHODS: Eighteen victims of facial burns were submitted to BAL up to 24 h after the event. We investigated cell and protein content, including TNF-α, HLA-DR, CD14, CD68 and iNOS. RESULTS: Of the 18 patients submitted to bronchoscopy, 8 (44.4% died during the follow-up period. The mean age of patients who died was significantly higher (44.7 vs. 31.5 years. On average, the patients who died had burns covering 60.1% of the total body surface area, compared with 26.1% in the survivors (p < 0.0001. Of the 18 patients submitted to bronchoscopy, 11 (61.1% showed endoscopic signs of smoke inhalation injury, and 4 (36.4% of those 11 died. Of the 7 patients with no signs of smoke inhalation injury, 4 (57.1% died. The mean number of ciliated epithelial cells in the BAL fluid was significantly higher in the patients who died than in the survivors (6.6% vs. 1.4%; p = 0.03. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of any of the other parameters evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The total body surface area burned was a predictive factor for mortality. Increased numbers of ciliated epithelial cells

  19. Expression of T helper cell-associated inflammatory mediator mRNAs in cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and oxygen concentration in arterial blood samples from healthy horses exposed to hyperbaric oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looijen, Maty G P; New, Dallas J; Fischer, Carrie D; Dardari, Rkia; Irwin, Karyn M; Berezowski, Christopher J; Bond, Stephanie L; Léguillette, Renaud

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the mRNA expression of T helper (Th)1, Th2, and Th17 cell-associated inflammatory mediators in cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from healthy horses exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and to monitor blood oxygen concentration during and following HBO therapy. ANIMALS 8 healthy horses. PROCEDURES In a randomized controlled crossover design study, each horse was exposed (beginning day 1) to 100% oxygen at a maximum of 3 atmospheres absolute (304 kPa) daily for 10 days or ambient air at atmospheric pressure in the HBO chamber for an equivalent amount of time (control). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected on days 0 and 10. After validation of candidate reference genes, relative mRNA expressions of various innate inflammatory, Th1 cell-derived, Th2 cell-derived (including eotaxin-2), Th17 cell-derived, and regulatory cytokines were measured by quantitative PCR assays. For 3 horses, arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis during a separate HBO session. RESULTS The optimal combination of reference genes was glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase, and ribosomal protein L32. Compared with day 0 findings, expression of eotaxin-2 mRNA was significantly lower (0.12-fold reduction) and the percentage of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples was significantly lower on day 10 when horses received HBO therapy. Values of Pao2 rapidly increased (> 800 mm Hg) but immediately decreased to pretreatment values when HBO sessions ended. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that HBO therapy does not increase mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, but reduces eotaxin-2 mRNA transcription. The Pao2 increase was transient with no cumulative effects of HBO.

  20. Effect of a syringe aspiration technique versus a mechanical suction technique and use of N-butylscopolammonium bromide on the quantity and quality of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Jacquelyn E; Costa, Lais R R; Rodil, Alba U; Lopp, Christine T; Johnson, Melanie E; Wills, Robert W; Swiderski, Cyprianna E

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of 2 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) sampling techniques and the use of N-butylscopolammonium bromide (NBB) on the quantity and quality of BAL fluid (BALF) samples obtained from horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma. ANIMALS 8 horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma. PROCEDURES BAL was performed bilaterally (right and left lung sites) with a flexible videoendoscope passed through the left or right nasal passage. During lavage of the first lung site, a BALF sample was collected by means of either gentle syringe aspiration or mechanical suction with a pressure-regulated wall-mounted suction pump. The endoscope was then maneuvered into the contralateral lung site, and lavage was performed with the alternate fluid retrieval technique. For each horse, BAL was performed bilaterally once with and once without premedication with NBB (21-day interval). The BALF samples retrieved were evaluated for volume, total cell count, differential cell count, RBC count, and total protein concentration. RESULTS Use of syringe aspiration significantly increased total BALF volume (mean volume increase, 40 mL [approx 7.5% yield]) and decreased total RBC count (mean decrease, 142 cells/μL), compared with use of mechanical suction. The BALF nucleated cell count and differential cell count did not differ between BAL procedures. Use of NBB had no effect on BALF retrieval. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that retrieval of BALF by syringe aspiration may increase yield and reduce barotrauma in horses at increased risk of bronchoconstriction and bronchiolar collapse. Further studies to determine the usefulness of NBB and other bronchodilators during BAL procedures in horses are warranted.

  1. Effect of clarithromycin on the cell profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in mice with neutrophil-predominant lung disease Efeito da claritromicina na celularidade do lavado broncoalveolar em camundongos com doença pulmonar neutrofílica induzida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Araújo Pinto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Macrolide antibiotics have anti-inflammatory properties in lung diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clarithromycin in pulmonary cellular inflammatory response in mice. METHOD: Eight adult Swiss mice were studied. All animals received an intranasal challenge (80 µL with dead Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.0 x 10(12 CFU/mL. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 2 days later, with total cell count and differential cell analysis. The study group (n = 4 received clarithromycin treatment (50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal for 5 days. Treatment was initiated 2 days before intranasal challenge. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in total cell count between the groups (mean: 2.0 x 10(6 and 1.3 x 10(6, respectively. In both groups, there was a predominance of neutrophils. However, the study group had a higher percentage of lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage than the control group (median of 19% vs 2.5%, P = .029. CONCLUSION: Clarithromycin alters the cytological pattern of bronchoalveolar lavage of Swiss mice with neutrophil pulmonary inflammation, significantly increasing the percentage of lymphocytes.OBJETIVO: Os antibióticos macrolídeos podem apresentar um efeito antiinflamatório em doenças pulmonares. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar o efeito da claritromicina na resposta inflamatória celular pulmonar em camundongos Swiss. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 8 camundongos Swiss adultos (6-8 semanas. Todos os animais receberam um desafio intranasal (80 µL com Pseudomonas aeruginosa mortas (1 x 10(12 UFC/mL. Dois dias após o desafio, foi realizado lavado broncoalveolar (LBA com contagem total de células (CTC e exame citológico diferencial. O grupo em estudo (n=4 recebeu tratamento com claritromicina (50mg/kg/dia, intraperitoneal por 5 dias, sendo iniciado o tratamento 2 dias antes do desafio intranasal. O grupo controle (n=4 não recebeu tratamento com claritromicina. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferen

  2. The clinical significance of measurement of TXB2 and 6-K-PGF1α of plasma and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Nanhua; Shang Weimin; Qin Jian

    2002-01-01

    In order to observe the changes in thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F 1α (6-K-PGF 1α ) levels in bronchial asthma, asthmatic chronic bronchitis as well as simple chronic bronchitis, the TXB 2 and 6-K-PGF 1α levels in plasma and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for control and patients with bronchial asthma, asthmatic chronic bronchitis and simple chronic bronchitis, 30 in each group, were measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the TXB 2 and 6-K-PGF 1α levels in plasma and BALF in patients of the three groups increased and those in patients with bronchial asthma increased markedly with significant difference, as compared with those in patients with chronic bronchitis (P 2 and 6-K-PGF 1α levels in BALF in patients with asthmatic chronic bronchitis were much higher than those in patients with simple chronic bronchitis (P 2 and 6-K-PGF 1α play an important role in pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and asthmatic chronic bronchitis. Consequently, the changes of the two parameters in BALF provide certain reference basis for differential diagnosis of the two types of chronic bronchitis

  3. Caracterização imunofenotípica das subpopulações de linfócitos do lavado broncoalveolar de pacientes com silicose Phenotypic characterization of lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with silicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÂNGELA FERREIRA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A lavagem broncoalveolar é um procedimento simples e seguro, na avaliação das pneumopatias relacionadas à exposição a poeiras minerais. O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar as subpopulações celulares no lavado broncoalveolar (LBA de pacientes silicóticos. A lavagem broncoalveolar foi realizada em 26 trabalhadores com diferentes formas de silicose: forma simples (n = 12, complicada (n = 13 e um paciente com a forma aguda da doença. Como grupo controle, foram incluídos sete indivíduos sadios. Os pacientes com silicose apresentaram intensa pleocitose com predomínio de macrófagos alveolares e tendência à linfocitose. As subpopulações de linfócitos presentes no lavado broncoalveolar (LBA dos indivíduos sadios apresentaram fenótipo de células maduras. A grande maioria era constituída por células CD2+TCRab (87,3% e somente 2,9% das células T apresentaram marcação CD2+TCRgd. A relação CD4/CD8 foi de 1,8, com poucas (16% células T imaturas duplo-negativas CD4-CD8-. Em contraste, pacientes com silicose apresentaram redução acentuada das subpopulações dos linfócitos maduros CD2+CD4+, CD2+CD8+ e aumento marcante (47% de células imaturas (DN duplo-negativas (CD4-CD8-. Não foi observado aumento das células NK (CD56+. A análise do conteúdo protéico e a determinação da relação Ig/albumina permitiram caracterizar produção local de imunoglobulinas no microambiente pulmonar. Como não foi observado aumento percentual de plasmócitos e linfócitos B (CD19+ no LBA desses pacientes, é possível concluir que as células produtoras de imunoglobulinas estão possivelmente localizadas no interstício pulmonar. Estes resultados sugerem que, durante a evolução da silicose, ocorre o desenvolvimento de linfopoese extratímica e surgimento de órgão linfóide terciário, no microambiente pulmonar desses pacientes.Bronchoalveolar lavage is a safe and simple technique to evaluate lung disease related to exposure to mineral

  4. Empiric antibiotics pending bronchoalveolar lavage data in patients without pneumonia significantly alters the flora, but not the resistance profile, if a subsequent pneumonia develops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Rajan K; Monaghan, Sean F; Adams, Charles A; Stephen, Andrew; Connolly, Michael D; Gregg, Shea; Cioffi, William G; Heffernan, Daithi S

    2013-05-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs in up to 25% of mechanically ventilated patients, with an associated mortality up to 50%. Early diagnosis and appropriate empiric antibiotic coverage of VAP are crucial. Given the multitude of noninfectious clinical and radiographic anomalies within trauma patients, microbiology from bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) is often needed. Empiric antibiotics are administered while awaiting BAL culture data. Little is known about the effects of these empiric antibiotics on patients with negative BAL microbiology if a subsequent VAP occurs during the same hospital course. This is a retrospective chart review of intubated trauma patients undergoing BAL for suspected pneumonia over a 3-y period at a Level 1 trauma center. All patients with suspected VAP undergoing a BAL receive empiric antibiotics. If microbiology data are negative at 72 h, all antibiotics are stopped; however, if the BAL returns with ≥10(5) colony-forming units per milliliter, the diagnosis of VAP is confirmed. We divided patients into three groups. Group 1 consisted of patients in whom the initial BAL was positive for VAP. Group 2 consisted of patients with an initial negative BAL, who subsequently developed VAP at a later point in the hospital course. Group 3 consisted of patients with negative BAL who did not develop a subsequent VAP. We obtained 499 BAL specimens in 185 patients over the 3-y period. A total of 14 patients with 23 BAL specimens initially negative for VAP subsequently developed VAP later during the same hospital stay. These patients did not have an increase in the hospital length of stay, intensive care unit days, ventilator days, or mortality compared with those who had a positive culture on the first suspicion of VAP. There was a significant increase in the percentage of Enterobacter (21% versus 8%) and Morganella (8% versus 0%) as the causative organism in these 14 patients when the VAP occurred. Furthermore, the profile of the top two

  5. Long-term smoking alters abundance of over half of the proteome in bronchoalveolar lavage cell in smokers with normal spirometry, with effects on molecular pathways associated with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxing; Kohler, Maxie; Heyder, Tina; Forsslund, Helena; Garberg, Hilde K; Karimi, Reza; Grunewald, Johan; Berven, Frode S; Magnus Sköld, C; Wheelock, Åsa M

    2018-03-08

    Smoking represents a significant risk factor for many chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To identify dysregulation of specific proteins and pathways in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells associated with smoking, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based shotgun proteomics analyses were performed on BAL cells from healthy never-smokers and smokers with normal lung function from the Karolinska COSMIC cohort. Multivariate statistical modeling, multivariate correlations with clinical data, and pathway enrichment analysis were performed. Smoking exerted a significant impact on the BAL cell proteome, with more than 500 proteins representing 15 molecular pathways altered due to smoking. The majority of these alterations occurred in a gender-independent manner. The phagosomal- and leukocyte trans endothelial migration (LTM) pathways significantly correlated with FEV 1 /FVC as well as the percentage of CD8 + T-cells and CD8 + CD69 + T-cells in smokers. The correlations to clinical parameters in healthy never-smokers were minor. The significant correlations of proteins in the phagosome- and LTM pathways with activated cytotoxic T-cells (CD69+) and the level of airway obstruction (FEV 1 /FVC) in smokers, both hallmarks of COPD, suggests that these two pathways may play a role in the molecular events preceding the development of COPD in susceptible smokers. Both pathways were found to be further dysregulated in COPD patients from the same cohort, thereby providing further support to this hypothesis. Given that not all smokers develop COPD in spite of decades of smoking, it is also plausible that some of the molecular pathways associated with response to smoking exert protective mechanisms to smoking-related pathologies in resilient individuals. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02627872 ; Retrospectively registered on December 9, 2015.

  6. Detection of Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants and Hematological Malignancies Patients by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Nested PCR and Mycological Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrinfar, Hossein; Mirhendi, Hossein; Fata, Abdolmajid; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kordbacheh, Parivash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) is one of the most serious complications in immunocompromised patients, in particular among hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) and patients with hematological malignancies. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the incidence of PA and utility of molecular methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, four methods including direct examination, culture, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: During 16 months, 46 BAL specimens were obtained from individuals with allogeneic HSCT (n = 18) and patients with hematological malignancies (n = 28). Direct wet mounts with 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture on mycological media were performed. The molecular detection of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus was done by amplifying the conserved sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal DNA by nested-PCR and the β-tubulin gene by TaqMan real-time PCR. Results: Seven (15.2%) out of 46 specimens were positive in direct examination and showed branched septate hyphae; 11 (23.9%) had positive culture including eight (72.7%) A. flavus and three (27.3%) A. fumigatus; 22 (47.8%) had positive nested-PCR and eight (17.4%) had positive real-time PCR. The incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in these patients included proven IPA in 1 (2.2%), probable IPA in 10 (21.7%), possible IPA in 19 (41.3%) and not IPA in 16 cases (34.8%). Conclusions: The incidence of IPA in allogeneic HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies was relatively high and A. flavus was the most common cause of PA. As molecular methods had higher sensitivity, it may be useful as screening methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, or to determine when empirical antifungal therapy can be withheld. PMID:25763133

  7. The diagnostic value of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and detection of pepsin and bile acids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Nicholas P; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Fisichella, P Marco

    2014-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is thought to lead to aspiration and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. Unfortunately, the identification of patients with GERD who aspirate still lacks clear diagnostic indicators. The authors hypothesized that symptoms of GERD and detection of pepsin and bile acids in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are effective for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration. From November 2009 to November 2010, 85 lung transplantation patients undergoing surveillance bronchoscopy were prospectively enrolled. For these patients, self-reported symptoms of GERD were correlated with levels of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC and with GERD status assessed by 24-h pH monitoring. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC also were compared with the presence of GERD in 24-h pH monitoring. The typical symptoms of GERD (heartburn and regurgitation) had modest sensitivity and specificity for detecting GERD and aspiration. The atypical symptoms of GERD (aspiration and bronchitis) showed better identification of aspiration as measured by detection of pepsin and bile acids in BAL. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin in BAL compared with GERD by 24-h pH monitoring were respectively 60 and 45 %, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of bile acids in BAL were 67 and 80 %. These data indicate that the measurement of pepsin and bile acids in BAL can provide additional data for identifying lung transplantation patients at risk for GERD-induced aspiration compared with symptoms or 24-h pH monitoring alone. These results support a diagnostic role for detecting markers of aspiration in BAL, but this must be validated in larger studies.

  8. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cellular and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Haematological indices and BALf cells were analysed from 300 goats randomly selected from 700 goats .... MQ-N ratio macrophage:neutrophil ratio, EOS- eosinophil, MAST- Mast cells. ... are suggestive of tissue injury and or inflammation.

  9. Changes of bronchoalveolar cell pattern and lecithin content in experimental interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Hideki; Yasuoka, Susumu; Tsubura, Eiro

    1978-01-01

    The pathogenesis of diffuse interstitial fibrosing pneumonitis (DIFP) was studied by histological observations and analysis of the cells and lecithin content of bronchoalveolar lavage of rats with cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced pneumonitis or irradiation pneumonitis. The rats developed diffuse interstitial pneumonitis one week after the last of 5 intraperitoneal injections of 50 mg/kg of CY and gradually recovered in the next 14 weeks. The number of alveolar macrophages and the lecithin content in the bronchoalveolar lavage from these rats corresponded to the degree of inflammatory change of the lung tissue. The results of cell counts and analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage from rats with irradiated pneumonitis were similar to those on rats with CY-induced pneumonitis, except that in irradiated rats the lecithin content of the lavage decreased with increase in severity of pulmonary fibrosis. These results indicate that the cell number and lecithin content of bronchoalveolar lavage are good parameters for use in diagnosis of DIFP. (auth.)

  10. ALLERGEN-INDUCED RECRUITMENT OF INFLAMMATORY CELLS IN LAVAGE 3 AND 24 H AFTER CHALLENGE IN ALLERGIC ASTHMATIC LUNGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFFMAN, HF; VRUGT, B; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR

    To determine whether a link exists between the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the airways on a bronchial and bronchoalveolar level and the development of allergen-induced increase in bronchial hyperresponsiveness after allergen challenge, we used bronchial lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage to

  11. Estudo da Incidência de Fungos Isolados de Amostras de Lavado Bronco Alveolar, Biópsia Transbrônquica e de Escarro / Study of the incidence of fungi isolated from samples of bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial biopsy and sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thays Gabrielle Lins de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar a incidência de fungos isolados de amostras de lavado bronco alveolar, fragmentos de tecido pulmonar e escarro de pacientes assistidos no Hospital Otávio de Freitas. Materiais e métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo descritivo com análise dos registros de 756 pacientes que realizaram exame direto e culturas de lavado bronco alveolar, fragmentos de tecido pulmonar e/ou escarro no Laboratório de Micologia Médica do Hospital Otávio de Freitas em Recife-PE, no período de março de 2012 a maio de 2015. Foram também analisados os resultados das sorologias para Aspergillus realizadas no mesmo período no Laboratório de Imunodiagnóstico de Micoses Sistêmicas do Departamento de Micologia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Resultados: Foram isolados 248 (54,14% Candida albicans, 119 (25,98% Candida sp. e 41 (10,04% espécies Candida não albicans, 33 (7,21% Aspergillus fumigatus, dois (0,44% A. niveus, um (0,22% A. niger, 3 (0,65% A. japonicus, dois (0,44% A. flavus, duas (0,44% Paecilomyces variotii, um (0,22% Rhizomucor sp. e um (0,22% Rhizopus sp. Conclusões: Candida albicans e Aspergillus fumigatus continuam sendo as espécies mais comumente isoladas nas amostras estudadas, entretanto C. kefyr, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, A. niveus, A. japonicus, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor sp. e Rhizopus sp. indicam sua importância como patógenos oportunistas, sendo relatadas pela primeira vez em estudo realizado com pacientes acompanhados neste hospital. Houve comprovação de doença em cinco pacientes que realizaram cultura de fragmento de tecido pulmonar das quais foram isolados Candida albicans, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus fumigatus. Objective: To study the incidence of fungi isolated from samples of bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue fragments and sputum of patients from Hospital Otavio de Freitas. Materials and methods: Descriptive retrospective observational study with analysis of records

  12. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms, fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. It is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loefffers Syndrome)

  13. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms. Fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood a treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. it is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loeffler's syndrome)

  14. BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID BACTERIAL ISOLATION AND SENSIBILITY IN HEALTH AND SICK DOGS La identificación bacteriana y sensibilidad antimicrobiana de líquido de lavado tracheobronchial de sanos y enfermos perros IDENTIFICAÇÃO BACTERIANA E SENSIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA DO FLUIDO DE LAVAGEM TRAQUEOBRÔNQUICA DE CÃES SADIOS E DOENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Basso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Research of antimicrobials use and resistance in food animals have been developed in various countries, although few studies include the bacteria prevalence in respiratory tract of companion animal. The aim of this paper was to verify antimicrobial resistance profile from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of health and sick dogs. Twenty animals were evaluated, 10 in the health group (group 1 and 10 in respiratory distress group (group 2. The bronchoalveolar lavage was performed through an endotracheal tube or guided by a rigid endoscope. Culture, identification and bacterial sensibility of the fluid were performed through agar diffusion method. The bacterial isolated were: Haemophilus aphrophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosas e Proteus mirabilis. Of all samples, 63% showed resistance to at least one class of antibiotics. Therefore antibiotic resistance is present in sick as well in health animals and ceftriaxone and amoxicilin associated with clavulanic acid are effective against respiratory tract bacteria.

    KEY WORDS: Antibiotic resistance, bacteria, respiratory distress.

    Nacional de Encuestas sobre el uso de antibióticos y la resistencia a los antibióticos en la producción animal se llevan a cabo en varios países, sin embargo pocos estudios que incluyen agentes bacterianos asociados con las vías respiratorias de los animales domésticos. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar el perfil de resistencia a los antimicrobianos en el líquido de lavado tracheobronchial sanos y enfermos perros. Hemos utilizado 20 animales, 10 clínicamente sanos (grupo 1 y 10 con trastorno respiratorio (grupo 2. La colecci��n de la tracheobronchial lavado se realizó con el tubo endotraqueal o guiado con la ayuda de un endoscopio rígido. Se han realizado el cultivo y la identificaci

  15. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage: volume of lavage effluent needed for accurate determination of a negative lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, J F; Albrink, M H; Bischof, E; McAllister, E W; Rosemurgy, A S

    1994-12-01

    While the ability of diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) to 'rule out' occult intra-abdominal injuries has been well established, the volume of lavage effluent necessary for accurate prediction of a negative lavage has not been determined. To address this, 60 injured adults with blunt (N = 45) or penetrating (N = 15) trauma undergoing DPL were evaluated prospectively through protocol. After infusion of 1l of Ringer's lactate solution, samples of lavage effluent were obtained at 100 cm3, 250 cm3, 500 cm3, and 759 cm3, and when no more effluent could be returned (final sample). DPL was considered negative if final sample RBC count was < or = 100,000/mm3 for blunt injury and < 50,000/mm3 for penetrating injury. The conclusion is that at 100 cm3 of lavage effluent returned, negative results are highly predictive of a negative DPL (98 per cent), though 250 cm3 of lavage effluent is required to predict a negative DPL uniformly (100 per cent).

  16. Cell recovery in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in smokers is dependent on cumulative smoking history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for various lung diseases in which BAL may be used as a part of a clinical investigation. Interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity is however difficult due to high variability, in particular among smokers. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on BAL cellular components in asymptomatic smokers. The effects of smoking cessation, age and gender were also investigated in groups of smokers and exsmokers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of BAL findings, to our knowledge the largest single center investigation, in our department from 1999 to 2009. One hundred thirty two current smokers (48 males and 84 females and 44 ex-smokers (16 males and 28 females were included. A group of 295 (132 males and 163 females never-smokers served as reference. RESULT: The median [5-95 pctl] total number of cells and cell concentration in current smokers were 63.4 [28.6-132.1]×10(6 and 382.1 [189.7-864.3]×10(6/L respectively and correlated positively to the cumulative smoking history. Macrophages were the predominant cell type (96.7% [90.4-99.0] followed by lymphocytes (2% [0.8-7.7] and neutrophils (0.6% [0-2.9]. The concentration of all inflammatory cells was increased in smokers compared to never smokers and ex-smokers. BAL fluid recovery was negatively correlated with age (p<0.001. Smoking men had a lower BAL fluid recovery than smoking women. CONCLUSION: Smoking has a profound effect on BAL fluid cellularity, which is dependent on smoking history. Our results performed on a large group of current smokers and ex-smokers in a well standardized way, can contribute to better interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity in clinical context.

  17. Neutrophil chemotactic activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with AIDS-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Kharazmi, A; Larsen, C G

    1997-01-01

    been shown to confer a poor prognosis in PCP. We therefore investigated the potential of BAL fluid from 17 patients with PCP to induce neutrophil chemotaxis. BAL fluid from patients induced considerable neutrophil chemotactic activity compared to normal controls. Elevated levels of IL-8 were detected...... in patient samples as compared to controls. A specific anti-IL-8 antibody significantly reduced chemotactic activity of patient samples by more than 50%. In conclusion, IL-8 appears to be a significant participant of neutrophil chemotaxis in AIDS-associated PCP, and may participate in the recruitment...

  18. Thrombin contributes to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mitogenicity in lung disease of the premature infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Willem A.; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.; Naber, Brigitta A.; Janssen, Daphne J.; van Kaam, Anton H. L. C.; Versnel, Marjan A.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is a common consequence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and is characterized by pulmonary fibrosis. Increased thrombin activity in the alveolar compartment is associated with pulmonary fibrosis in adults and animals, and contributes to

  19. Association of bronchoalveolar lavage yield with chest computed tomography findings and symptoms in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R Brownback

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: CT findings of reticular and nodular infiltrates portend a worse diagnostic yield from BAL than those that are alveolar in nature. Symptomatic patients are more likely to have diagnostic FOB with BAL than asymptomatic patients.

  20. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... secretion to be carried out on the whole sample of lavage fluid, thereby avoiding the necessity of complete admixture between marker and lavage fluid which would be pertinent to marker molecules measured chemically. The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  1. [Detection of metals and metalloids in the lavage fluid of whole-lung lavage of the cases of pneumoconiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, K; Ding, C G; Chen, G; Ma, G X; Wang, H Q

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To detect of the components and concentration of the metals and metalloids in the lavage fluid of whole-lung lavage (WLL) of the cases of pneumoconiosis, and analyze the characteristics, and explore the method to sample and process the samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) . Methods: The samples of urine and serum of three cases of pneumoconiosis were collected before WLL, and the samples of BAL were collected during the WLL from the left and right lungs according to the sequence of four pressured gas flow and five negative pressure drainage. Each of 10ml original samples of WLL was collected firstly, and the left was centrifuged to acquire all the sediment samples and each of 10 ml samples from the centrifuge clear liquids, The components and concentration of the metals and metalloids in the samples were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) . Results: The average volume of BAL from unilat-eral lung for 3 patients was 10 758.3±1518 ml, and the average recovery rate was 89.7%. The average dry weight of sediment samples of BAL of three cases of pneumoconiosis was 0.292 gram with the right lung sam-ples slightly higher than the left lung samples. The detectable elements from the samples included Barium (Ba) , Strontium (Sr) , Calcium (Ca) , Magnesium (Mg) , Manganum (Mn) , Ferrum (Fe) , Cuprum (Cu) , Zinc (Zn) , Kalium (K) , Natrium (Na) , Selenium (Se) , Silicon (Si) and Uranium (U) . Each of concentration dis-tributions of these elements were not normal. Except for Cuprum, Selenium and Uranium, the concentrations of the other ten elements in the supernatant samples, mixture samples and sediments samples were statistical-ly different with the nonparametric test of Kruskal-Wallis. The concentrations of Natrium, Kalium and Barium in supernatant samples were higher, while the others in precipitation samples were higher. The concentration of elements in the sample from the right lung was slightly higher than that from the

  2. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... as marker molecule, since only negligible amounts were absorbed or adsorbed to the mucosa during the nasal lavage. 3. Labelling of the albumin with 99mTc ensured an accuracy of measurements only limited by the precision of the weighing. The isotope allowed for the determination of the amount of admixed...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  3. Acute complicated diverticulitis managed by laparoscopic lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamili, Mahdi; Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    with antibiotics and laparoscopic lavage. Conversion to laparotomy was made in six (3%) patients and the mean hospital stay was nine days. Ten percent of the patients had complications. During the mean follow-up of 38 months, 38% of the patients underwent elective sigmoid resection with primary anastomosis....... CONCLUSION: Primary laparoscopic lavage for complicated diverticulitis may be a promising alternative to more radical surgery in selected patients. Larger studies have to be made before clinical recommendations can be given....

  4. A study on the effects of herbal acupuncture with Liriopis Tuber extract on airway inflammation in the mouse induced with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Whan Park

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Herbal acupuncture has been administered with Liriopis Tuber extract on the point of BL 13 (Pyesu to treat bronchial asthma and a certain degree of clinical benefits have been observed but lacking scientific substantiation. Methods: The present report describes on Th1 cytokine (Interleukin-2, Interferon-gamma, Th2 cytokine, (Interleukin-4, Interleukin-5, and IL-12 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (ELISA. Five groups were devised to study the effects of herbal acupuncture with Liriopis Tuber extract at BL 13 (Pyesu for airway inflammation in the mouse model with bronchial asthma. Results shows that herbal acupuncture with Liriopis Tuber extract at BL 13 increased Th1 cytokine (Interleukin-2 in allergic sensitization and allergic challenge, and decreased Th2 cytokine (Interleukin-2, Interleukin-5 in allergic sensitization.

  5. Inhibition of Pyk2 blocks lung inflammation and injury in a mouse model of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yingli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 is essential in neutrophil degranulation and chemotaxis in vitro. However, its effect on the process of lung inflammation and edema formation during LPS induced acute lung injury (ALI remains unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of inhibiting Pyk2 on LPS-induced acute lung inflammation and injury in vivo. Methods C57BL6 mice were given either 10 mg/kg LPS or saline intratracheally. Inhibition of Pyk2 was effected by intraperitoneal administration TAT-Pyk2-CT 1 h before challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis of cell counts, lung histology and protein concentration in BAL were analyzed at 18 h after LPS treatment. KC and MIP-2 concentrations in BAL were measured by a mouse cytokine multiplex kit. The static lung compliance was determined by pressure-volume curve using a computer-controlled small animal ventilator. The extravasated Evans blue concentration in lung homogenate was determined spectrophotometrically. Results Intratracheal instillation of LPS induced significant neutrophil infiltration into the lung interstitium and alveolar space, which was attenuated by pre-treatment with TAT-Pyk2-CT. TAT-Pyk2-CT pretreatment also attenuated 1 myeloperoxidase content in lung tissues, 2 vascular leakage as measured by Evans blue dye extravasation in the lungs and the increase in protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage, and 3 the decrease in lung compliance. In each paradigm, treatment with control protein TAT-GFP had no blocking effect. By contrast, production of neutrophil chemokines MIP-2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine in the bronchoalveolar lavage was not reduced by TAT-Pyk2-CT. Western blot analysis confirmed that tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 in LPS-challenged lungs was reduced to control levels by TAT-Pyk2-CT pretreatment. Conclusions These results suggest that Pyk2 plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury in mice and

  6. Análise da celularidade do lavado bronco-alveolar em pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea: relato de três casos Análisis de la celularidad del lavado bronco-alveolar en pacientes sometidos a revascularización del miocardio con circulación extracorpórea: relato de tres casos Broncho-alveolar lavage cellularity in patients submitted to myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Brandão Machado

    2006-06-01

    response (SIRS during cardiac procedures. It has been shown in an experimental model that CPB may increase cytokine production. This study aimed at evaluating post-CPB lung cell activation by investigating broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL cellularity in patients submitted to myocardial revascularization (MR with CPB. CASE REPORTS: Participated in this prospective study 3 adult patients submitted to MR with CPB. After general anesthesia induction and tracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation was installed with valve circle system; except during CPB, tidal volume was maintained between 8 and 10 mL.kg-1 with 50% O2 and air. Before aortic unclamping, 40 cmH2O pulmonary inflations were performed. Two BAL samples were collected from all patients at beginning and end of procedure, after anticoagulation reversion. BAL was aspired after 60 mL infusion of 0.9% saline through the bronchofibroscope tube. Material was then referred to laboratorial processing. Analysis has evidenced mean increase in total number of cells from 0.6 × 10(6cel.dL-1 to 6.8 × 10(6 cel.dL-1 with increased neutrophils from 0.8% to 4.7%; 0.6% to 6.2% and 0.5% to 5.3% for each patient, respectively. There has been increased pulmonary fluid cellularity after CPB. CONCLUSIONS: Leukocyte inflow is described in different clinical pulmonary inflammatory conditions, such as adult respiratory distress syndrome. It is known that CPB is related to systemic and pulmonary inflammation with increased number of cells after CPB and predominance of macrophages.

  7. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  8. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cytokines as Biomarkers for Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in At-Risk Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Samuel M.; Lagrou, Katrien; Rodrigues, Cláudia S.; Campos, Cláudia F.; Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Rodrigues, Fernando; Silvestre, Ricardo; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Maertens, Johan A.; Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho

    2017-01-01

    Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an infection that primarily affects immunocompromised hosts, including hematological patients and stem-cell transplant recipients. The diagnosis of IPA remains challenging, making desirable the availability of new specific biomarkers. High-throughput methods now allow us to interrogate the immune system for multiple markers of inflammation with enhanced resolution. Methods: To determine whether a signature of alveolar cytokines could be associated with the development of IPA and used as a diagnostic biomarker, we performed a nested case-control study involving 113 patients at-risk. Results: Among the 32 analytes tested, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-23, and TNFα were significantly increased among patients with IPA, defining two clusters able to accurately differentiate cases of infection from controls. Genetic variants previously reported to confer increased risk of IPA compromised the production of specific cytokines and impaired their discriminatory potential toward infection. Collectively, our data indicated that IL-8 was the best performing cytokine, with alveolar levels ≥904 pg/mL predicting IPA with elevated sensitivity (90%), specificity (73%), and negative predictive value (88%). Conclusions: These findings highlight the existence of a specific profile of alveolar cytokines, with IL-8 being the dominant discriminator, which might be useful in supporting current diagnostic approaches for IPA. PMID:29238334

  10. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...

  11. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF from lung cancer patients using label-free mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abduladim Hmmier

    2017-06-01

    General significance: There is good correlation between the trend of protein abundance levels in BALF and that of plasma which validates this approach to develop a blood biomarker to aid lung cancer diagnosis, particularly in the era of lung cancer screening. The protein signatures identified also provide insight into the molecular mechanisms associated with lung malignancy.

  12. Down modulation of L-Selectin expression on eosinophils recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after allergen provocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengelers, H. J.; Maikoe, T.; Hooibrink, B.; Kuypers, T. W.; Kreukniet, J.; Lammers, J. W.; Koenderman, L.

    1993-01-01

    In allergic asthma eosinophils infiltrate into the lung after allergen challenge. The mechanism of this cellular infiltration is not fully understood. L-Selectin is involved in leucocyte-endothelial cell recognition and participates in homing of leucocytes into sites of inflammation. To find

  13. Residues of Pharmaceuticals in Gastric Lavage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2009), s. 483-483 ISSN 1556-3650. [The International Congress of the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists /29./. 12.05.2009-15.05.2009, Stockholm] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Toxicologica Information Centre * gastric lavage Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  14. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have not provi......AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have...... kg(-1) in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h.......6--34.4). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that combination treatment may be no better than activated charcoal alone in patients presenting early after large overdoses. The effect of activated charcoal given 2 h post ingestion is substantially less than at 1 h, emphasizing the importance of early intervention....

  15. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Poole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability

  16. Overexpression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 attenuates airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla G Kinker

    Full Text Available Levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, are increased in lung, sputum, exhaled breath condensate and plasma samples from asthma patients. ADMA is metabolized primarily by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1 and DDAH2. We determined the effect of DDAH1 overexpression on development of allergic inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. The expression of DDAH1 and DDAH2 in mouse lungs was determined by RT-quantitative PCR (qPCR. ADMA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum samples were determined by mass spectrometry. Wild type and DDAH1-transgenic mice were intratracheally challenged with PBS or house dust mite (HDM. Airway inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL total and differential cell counts. The levels of IgE and IgG1 in BALF and serum samples were determined by ELISA. Gene expression in lungs was determined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR. Our data showed that the expression of DDAH1 and DDAH2 was decreased in the lungs of mice following HDM exposure, which correlated with increased ADMA levels in BALF and serum. Transgenic overexpression of DDAH1 resulted in decreased BAL total cell and eosinophil numbers following HDM exposure. Total IgE levels in BALF and serum were decreased in HDM-exposed DDAH1-transgenic mice compared to HDM-exposed wild type mice. RNA-Seq results showed downregulation of genes in the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS signaling pathway in PBS-treated DDAH1-transgenic mice versus PBS-treated wild type mice and downregulation of genes in IL-13/FOXA2 signaling pathway in HDM-treated DDAH1-transgenic mice versus HDM-treated wild type mice. Our findings suggest that decreased expression of DDAH1 and DDAH2 in the lungs may contribute to allergic asthma and overexpression of DDAH1 attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation through modulation of Th2 responses.

  17. Effect of bronchoscopic ambroxol lavage on inflammatory factors in lavage fluid of patients with bronchiectasis complicated by infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen1

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of bronchoscopic ambroxol lavage on inflammatory factors in lavage fluid of patients with bronchiectasis complicated by infection. Methods: 100 patients with bronchiectasis complicated by infection who were treated in our hospital between May 2012 and January 2016 were divided into the control group (n=54 who received conventional treatment and the observation group (n=46 who received intravenous anti-infection combined with bronchoscopic ambroxol lavage after the therapies were reviewed. The contents of inflammatory factors, adhesion molecules and acute phase proteins in lavage fluid were compared between the two groups. Results: Before treatment, the differences in contents of inflammatory factors, adhesion molecules and acute phase proteins in lavage fluid were not statistically significant between two groups of patients. After treatment, inflammatory factors IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α contents in lavage fluid of observation group were lower than those of control group; adhesion molecules sICAM-1 and VCAM-1 contents in lavage fluid were lower than those of control group; acute phase proteins CRP, AAG, HPT and CER contents in lavage fluid were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Bronchoscopic ambroxol lavage can reduce airway inflammation in patients with bronchiectasis complicated by infection.

  18. Use of urethral catheters for diagnostic peritoneal lavage in blunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) has been reported to be a reliable diagnostic tool in assessing the need for liparotomy in blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) with a diagnostic accuracy of more thin 95% when using a peritoneal lavage catheter (PLC). The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic ...

  19. Modulation of gene expression in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exposed to bronchoalveolar fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul G Lone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, is an important pathogen of swine throughout the world. It must rapidly overcome the innate pulmonary immune defenses of the pig to cause disease. To better understand this process, the objective of this study was to identify genes that are differentially expressed in a medium that mimics the lung environment early in the infection process. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF contains innate immune and other components found in the lungs, we examined gene expression of a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae after a 30 min exposure to BALF, using DNA microarrays and real-time PCR. The functional classes of genes found to be up-regulated most often in BALF were those encoding proteins involved in energy metabolism, especially anaerobic metabolism, and in cell envelope, DNA, and protein biosynthesis. Transcription of a number of known virulence genes including apxIVA and the gene for SapF, a protein which is involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptides, was also up-regulated in BALF. Seventy-nine percent of the genes that were up-regulated in BALF encoded a known protein product, and of these, 44% had been reported to be either expressed in vivo and/or involved in virulence. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that in early stages of infection, A. pleuropneumoniae may modulate expression of genes involved in anaerobic energy generation and in the synthesis of proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis, as well as established virulence factors. Given that many of these genes are thought to be expressed in vivo or involved in virulence, incubation in BALF appears, at least partially, to simulate in vivo conditions and may provide a useful medium for the discovery of novel vaccine or therapeutic targets.

  20. An assay for the assessment of lipocortin 1 levels in human lung lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S F; Goulding, N J; Godolphin, J L; Tetley, T D; Roberts, C M; Guz, A; Flower, R J

    1990-07-20

    The physiological function of the lipocortins, proteins which are thought to be glucocorticoid-regulated, is unclear. An improved assay for lipocortins might help to elucidate their role. A rapid and specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for lipocortin 1 with a working range of 1-2000 ng/ml and an interrun coefficient of variation of less than 10% is described and used in this pilot study to quantify human lipocortin 1 for the first time in acellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and in media conditioned by BAL cells, from control patients and those with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Using this assay a statistically significant relationship, not previously observed in man, has been demonstrated between concentrations of lipocortin 1/ml of BALF and serum cortisol levels (n = 10, rs = 0.6939, P less than 0.05). Although lipocortin 1 levels in acellular BALF were the same in control and sarcoid patients, significantly more lipocortin 1 was released from sarcoid BAL cells in culture (median 21.6, range 8.1-45.4 ng lipocortin/10(6) cells/h in culture) than from control cells (2.5, 1.5-7.6 ng lipocortin/10(6) cells/h in culture). The possible clinical significance of these data is discussed, but remains to be established.

  1. Benefits and risks of bronchopulmonary lavage: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Chretien, J.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted in beagle dogs and baboons over a period of 20 years to determine the efficiency of treatment by lung lavage after inhalation of insoluble radioactive particles. The radionuclides tested were 144 Ce in fused clay, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, Pu-TBP, Pu0 2 , UO 2 , and (Pu,U)0 2 . After inhalation of any of these radionuclides, a single lavage of the two lungs removed almost a quarter of the intitial lung burden (ILB) in the two species. When lavage was repeated five times, it removed up to half of the ILB. However, the individual variation was large. For the same radionuclide, lavage efficiency was independent of the ILB. Particle removal was better and continued longer for particles with a long retention half-time. The use of lavage can be combined with that of chelating agents like DTPA. The removal of radioactive particles lenghtened survival time and reduced the severity of pathology. The lavage in itself is safe, and does not induce permanent or progressive pathology. The biomedical risk of the lavage mainly depends on the risks inherent in anaesthesia and the health status of the patient. (author)

  2. Motavizumab, A Neutralizing Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv Monoclonal Antibody Significantly Modifies The Local And Systemic Cytokine Responses Induced By Rsv In The Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafri Hasan S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motavizumab (MEDI-524 is a monoclonal antibody with enhanced neutralizing activity against RSV. In mice, motavizumab suppressed RSV replication which resulted in significant reduction of clinical parameters of disease severity. We evaluated the effect of motavizumab on the local and systemic immune response induced by RSV in the mouse model. Balb/c mice were intranasally inoculated with 106.5 PFU RSV A2 or medium. Motavizumab was given once intraperitoneally (1.25 mg/mouse as prophylaxis, 24 h before virus inoculation. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and serum samples were obtained at days 1, 5 (acute and 28 (long-term post inoculation and analyzed with a multiplex assay (Beadlyte Upstate, NY for simultaneous quantitation of 18 cytokines: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, KC (similar to human IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1, RANTES, IFN-γ and GM-CSF. Overall, cytokine concentrations were lower in serum than in BAL samples. By day 28, only KC was detected in BAL specimens at low concentrations in all groups. Administration of motavizumab significantly reduced (p

  3. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment - A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Koli

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung.

  4. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment - A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Katri; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; Rantakari, Pia; Fortino, Vittorio; Pulkkinen, Ville; Greco, Dario; Sipilä, Petra; Myllärniemi, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung.

  5. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment – A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Katri; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; Rantakari, Pia; Fortino, Vittorio; Pulkkinen, Ville; Greco, Dario; Sipilä, Petra; Myllärniemi, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung. PMID:27428020

  6. MWCNTs of different physicochemical properties cause similar inflammatory responses, but differences in transcriptional and histological markers of fibrosis in mouse lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Williams, Andrew; Andersen, Ole; Købler, Carsten; Atluri, Rambabu; Pozzebon, Maria E.; Mucelli, Stefano P.; Simion, Monica; Rickerby, David; Mortensen, Alicja; Jackson, Petra; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are an inhomogeneous group of nanomaterials that vary in lengths, shapes and types of metal contamination, which makes hazard evaluation difficult. Here we present a toxicogenomic analysis of female C57BL/6 mouse lungs following a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of a small, curled (CNT Small , 0.8 ± 0.1 μm in length) or large, thick MWCNT (CNT Large , 4 ± 0.4 μm in length). The two MWCNTs were extensively characterized by SEM and TEM imaging, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. Lung tissues were harvested 24 h, 3 days and 28 days post-exposure. DNA microarrays were used to analyze gene expression, in parallel with analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung histology, DNA damage (comet assay) and the presence of reactive oxygen species (dichlorodihydrofluorescein assay), to profile and characterize related pulmonary endpoints. Overall changes in global transcription following exposure to CNT Small or CNT Large were similar. Both MWCNTs elicited strong acute phase and inflammatory responses that peaked at day 3, persisted up to 28 days, and were characterized by increased cellular influx in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, interstitial pneumonia and gene expression changes. However, CNT Large elicited an earlier onset of inflammation and DNA damage, and induced more fibrosis and a unique fibrotic gene expression signature at day 28, compared to CNT Small . The results indicate that the extent of change at the molecular level during early response phases following an acute exposure is greater in mice exposed to CNT Large , which may eventually lead to the different responses observed at day 28. - Highlights: • We evaluate the toxicogenomic response in mice following MWCNT instillation. • Two MWCNTs of different properties were examined and thoroughly characterized. • MWCNT exposure leads to increased pulmonary inflammation and acute phase

  7. MWCNTs of different physicochemical properties cause similar inflammatory responses, but differences in transcriptional and histological markers of fibrosis in mouse lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Købler, Carsten, E-mail: carko@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Atluri, Rambabu, E-mail: rba@nrcwe.dk [Nanologica AB, SE-114 28 Stockholm (Sweden); Pozzebon, Maria E., E-mail: mariaelena.pozzebon@yahoo.it [Veneto Nanotech SCpA, ECSIN — European Centre for the Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology, I-45100 Rovigo (Italy); Mucelli, Stefano P., E-mail: stefano.pozzimucelli@venetonanotech.it [Veneto Nanotech SCpA, ECSIN — European Centre for the Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology, I-45100 Rovigo (Italy); Simion, Monica, E-mail: moni304ro@gmail.com [Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology, National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Rickerby, David, E-mail: david.rickerby@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Environment and Sustainability, I-21027 Ispra, VA (Italy); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Jackson, Petra, E-mail: pja@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Kyjovska, Zdenka O., E-mail: zky@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); and others

    2015-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are an inhomogeneous group of nanomaterials that vary in lengths, shapes and types of metal contamination, which makes hazard evaluation difficult. Here we present a toxicogenomic analysis of female C57BL/6 mouse lungs following a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of a small, curled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm in length) or large, thick MWCNT (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm in length). The two MWCNTs were extensively characterized by SEM and TEM imaging, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. Lung tissues were harvested 24 h, 3 days and 28 days post-exposure. DNA microarrays were used to analyze gene expression, in parallel with analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung histology, DNA damage (comet assay) and the presence of reactive oxygen species (dichlorodihydrofluorescein assay), to profile and characterize related pulmonary endpoints. Overall changes in global transcription following exposure to CNT{sub Small} or CNT{sub Large} were similar. Both MWCNTs elicited strong acute phase and inflammatory responses that peaked at day 3, persisted up to 28 days, and were characterized by increased cellular influx in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, interstitial pneumonia and gene expression changes. However, CNT{sub Large} elicited an earlier onset of inflammation and DNA damage, and induced more fibrosis and a unique fibrotic gene expression signature at day 28, compared to CNT{sub Small}. The results indicate that the extent of change at the molecular level during early response phases following an acute exposure is greater in mice exposed to CNT{sub Large}, which may eventually lead to the different responses observed at day 28. - Highlights: • We evaluate the toxicogenomic response in mice following MWCNT instillation. • Two MWCNTs of different properties were examined and thoroughly characterized. • MWCNT exposure leads to increased pulmonary

  8. Laparoscopic lavage for perforated diverticulitis: a population analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rogers, Ailín C

    2012-09-01

    Laparoscopic lavage has shown promising results in nonfeculent perforated diverticulitis. It is an appealing strategy; it avoids the complications associated with resection. However, there has been some reluctance to widespread uptake because of the scarcity of large-scale studies.

  9. Plaidoyer pour le lavage de nez dans les pathologies naso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le lavage de nez permet l'humidification des muqueuses partant favorise le nettoyage mucociliaire en enlevant voire diminuant les croutes favorise leur élimination et ainsi la guérison en réduisant le recours aux antibiotiques [4-10]. Sans danger, le lavage de nez est bien tolérée tant chez les enfants que chez les adultes.

  10. The Effect of Serine Protease Inhibitors on Airway Inflammation in a Chronic Allergen-Induced Asthma Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Che Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine protease inhibitors reportedly attenuated airway inflammation and had antioxidant in multiorgan. However, the effects of the serine protease inhibitors nafamostat mesilate (FUT, gabexate mesilate (FOY, and ulinastatin (UTI on a long-term challenged mouse model of chronic asthma are unclear. BALB/c mice (6 mice/group were intratracheally inoculated with five doses of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p; 50 μL, 1 mg/mL at one-week intervals. Therapeutic doses of FUT (0.0625 mg/kg, FOY (20 mg/kg, or UTI (10,000 U/kg were, respectively, injected intraperitoneally into these mice. Control mice received sterile PBS. At 3 days after the last challenge, mice were sacrificed to assess airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR, remodeling, and inflammation; lung histological features; and cytokine expression profiles. Compared with untreated controls, mice treated with FUT, FOY, and UTI had decreased AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia, decreased eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration, decreased Der p-induced IL-4 levels in serum and IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, and IL-17 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and inhibited nuclear factor (NF-κB activity in lung tissues. The serine protease inhibitors FUT, FOY, and UTI have potential therapeutic benefits for treating asthma by downregulating Th2 cytokines and Th17 cell function and inhibiting NF-κB activation in lung tissue.

  11. Protective effect of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 on ovalbumin-induced airway asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced intestinal food allergy mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Yun; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Dai, Wen-Kui; Huang, Jian-Qiong; Li, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Juan; Qiu, Chuang-Zhao; Wei, Chun; Zhou, Qian; Sun, Xin; Feng, Xin; Li, Dong-Fang; Wang, He-Ping; Zheng, Yue-Jie

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether oral administration of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 (B. infantis CGMCC313-2) inhibits allergen-induced airway inflammation and food allergies in a mouse model. METHODS Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced food allergy mouse models were used in this study. Following oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization, histopathologic changes in the lung and intestine were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. In the allergic asthma mouse model, we evaluated the proportion of lung-infiltrating inflammatory cells. OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also assessed. In the food allergy mouse model, the levels of total IgE and cytokines in serum were measured. RESULTS Oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization suppressed allergic inflammation in lung and intestinal tissues, while the proportion of infiltrating inflammatory cells was significantly decreased in the BALF of allergic asthma mice. Moreover, B. infantis CGMCC313-2 decreased the serum levels of total IgE in food allergy mice, and reductions in IgE and IgG1 were also observed in OVA-induced allergic asthma mice. The expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in both serum and BALF was suppressed following the administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2, while an effect on serum IL-10 levels was not observed. CONCLUSION B. infantis CGMCC313-2 inhibits the secretion of allergen-induced IgE, IL-4 and IL-13, and attenuates allergic inflammation. PMID:28405142

  12. Whole lung lavage in comparison with bronchoscopic lobar lavage using the rigid bronchoscope in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: Is it time to change strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Alkady

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Whole-lung lavage is more efficient than bronchoscopic lobar lavage in treating PAP as it provides larger lavage volumes in shorter time periods and is also associated with lower rate of recurrence of symptoms and the need of relavage.

  13. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage: our experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Amilcare; Gemini, Alessandro; Desiderio, Jacopo; Petrina, Adolfo; Trastulli, Stefano; Grassi, Veronica; Sani, Marco; Pironi, Daniele; Santoro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Over the years various therapeutic techniques for diverticulitis have been developed. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage (LPL) appears to be a safe and useful treatment, and it could be an effective alternative to colonic resection in emergency surgery. This prospective observational study aims to assess the safety and benefits of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage in perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. We surgically treated 70 patients urgently for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis. Thirty-two (45.7%) patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colostomy (Hartmann technique); 21 (30%) patients underwent peritoneal laparoscopic lavage; 4 (5.7%) patients underwent colostomy by the Mikulicz technique; and the remaining 13 (18.6%) patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colorectal anastomosis with a protective ileostomy. The 66 patients examined were divided into 3 groups: 32 patients were treated with urgent surgery according to the Hartmann procedure; 13 patients were treated with resection and colorectal anastomosis; 21 patients were treated urgently with laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. We had no intraoperative complications. The overall mortality was 4.3% (3 patients). In the LPL group the morbidity rate was 33.3%. Currently it cannot be said that LPL is better in terms of mortality and morbidity than colonic resection. These data may, however, be proven wrong by greater attention in the selection of patients to undergo laparoscopic peritoneal lavage.

  14. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage: our experience and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcare Parisi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Over the years various therapeutic techniques for diverticulitis have been developed. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage (LPL appears to be a safe and useful treatment, and it could be an effective alternative to colonic resection in emergency surgery. Aim : This prospective observational study aims to assess the safety and benefits of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage in perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. Material and methods : We surgically treated 70 patients urgently for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis. Thirty-two (45.7% patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colostomy (Hartmann technique; 21 (30% patients underwent peritoneal laparoscopic lavage; 4 (5.7% patients underwent colostomy by the Mikulicz technique; and the remaining 13 (18.6% patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colorectal anastomosis with a protective ileostomy. Results : The 66 patients examined were divided into 3 groups: 32 patients were treated with urgent surgery according to the Hartmann procedure; 13 patients were treated with resection and colorectal anastomosis; 21 patients were treated urgently with laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. We had no intraoperative complications. The overall mortality was 4.3% (3 patients. In the LPL group the morbidity rate was 33.3%. Conclusions : Currently it cannot be said that LPL is better in terms of mortality and morbidity than colonic resection. These data may, however, be proven wrong by greater attention in the selection of patients to undergo laparoscopic peritoneal lavage.

  15. Increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake on positron emission tomography-computed tomography postbronchoalveolar lavage: a potential cause of radiologic misinterpretation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum

    2011-08-01

    Cytologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is used for lung cancer diagnosis. We describe a patient with a history of rectal carcinoma who presented with a new lung mass. BAL was performed, with positron emission tomography-computed tomography the following day. There was mildly increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in areas of the lung parenchyma with new ground-glass opacification. This created ambiguity in staging, clarified 2 weeks later by a computed tomography showing complete resolution of the ground-glass opacity. Clinicians should be aware that BAL may cause increased pulmonary fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake, making accurate radiologic interpretation problematic. We suggest that to optimize positron emission tomography-computed tomography, studies should not be performed within 24 hours of BAL.

  16. Laparoscopic lavage for perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornell, Anders; Angenete, Eva; Bisgaard, Thue

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis has traditionally been treated with open colon resection and stoma formation with risk for reoperations, morbidity, and mortality. Laparoscopic lavage alone has been suggested as definitive treatment. Objective: To compare laparoscopic...... lavage with open colon resection and colostomy (Hartmann procedure) for perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis. Design: Randomized, controlled, multicenter, open-label trial. (ISRCTN registry number: ISRCTN82208287) Setting: 9 hospitals in Sweden and Denmark. Patients: Patients who have...... confirmed Hinchey grade III perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis at diagnostic laparoscopy. Intervention: Randomization between laparoscopic lavage and the Hartmann procedure. Measurements: Primary outcome was the percentage of patients having 1 or more reoperations within 12 months. Key...

  17. Multi-platform metabolomics assays for human lung lavage fluids in an air pollution exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Wu, Junfang; Unosson, Jon; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Trygg, Johan; Nording, Malin L

    2016-07-01

    Metabolomics protocols are used to comprehensively characterize the metabolite content of biological samples by exploiting cutting-edge analytical platforms, such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) assays, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays. We have developed novel sample preparation procedures combined with GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR metabolomics profiling for analyzing bronchial wash (BW) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 15 healthy volunteers following exposure to biodiesel exhaust and filtered air. Our aim was to investigate the responsiveness of metabolite profiles in the human lung to air pollution exposure derived from combustion of biofuels, such as rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel, which are increasingly being promoted as alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Our multi-platform approach enabled us to detect the greatest number of unique metabolites yet reported in BW and BAL fluid (82 in total). All of the metabolomics assays indicated that the metabolite profiles of the BW and BAL fluids differed appreciably, with 46 metabolites showing significantly different levels in the corresponding lung compartments. Furthermore, the GC-MS assay revealed an effect of biodiesel exhaust exposure on the levels of 1-monostearylglycerol, sucrose, inosine, nonanoic acid, and ethanolamine (in BAL) and pentadecanoic acid (in BW), whereas the LC-MS assay indicated a shift in the levels of niacinamide (in BAL). The NMR assay only identified lactic acid (in BW) as being responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Our findings demonstrate that the proposed multi-platform approach is useful for wide metabolomics screening of BW and BAL fluids and can facilitate elucidation of metabolites responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract illustrating the study workflow. NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, LC-TOFMS Liquid chromatography-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry, GC Gas

  18. Sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells prevent allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting type I NKT cell function in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guqin; Nie, Hanxiang; Yang, Jiong; Ding, Xuhong; Huang, Yi; Yu, Hongying; Li, Ruyou; Yuan, Zhuqing; Hu, Suping

    2011-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease involving many different cell types. Recently, type I natural killer T (NKT) cells have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the development of asthma. However, the roles of type II NKT cells in asthma have not been investigated before. Interestingly, type I and type II NKT cells have been shown to have opposing roles in antitumor immunity, antiparasite immunity, and autoimmunity. We hypothesized that sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells could prevent allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting type I NKT cell function in asthma. Strikingly, in our mouse model, activation of type II NKT cells by sulfatide administration and adoptive transfer of sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells result in reduced-inflammation cell infiltration in the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, decreased levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in the BALF; and decreased serum levels of ovalbumin-specific IgE and IgG1. Furthermore, it is found that the activation of sulfatide-reactive type II NKT cells leads to the functional inactivation of type I NKT cells, including the proliferation and cytokine secretion. Our data reveal that type II NKT cells activated by glycolipids, such as sulfatide, may serve as a novel approach to treat allergic diseases and other disorders characterized by inappropriate type I NKT cell activation.

  19. Anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G monoclonal antibodies reduce lung inflammation and viral lung titers when delivered therapeutically in a BALB/c mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caidi, Hayat; Miao, Congrong; Thornburg, Natalie J; Tripp, Ralph A; Anderson, Larry J; Haynes, Lia M

    2018-06-01

    RSV continues to be a high priority for vaccine and antiviral drug development. Unfortunately, no safe and effective RSV vaccine is available and treatment options are limited. Over the past decade, several studies have focused on the role of RSV G protein on viral entry, viral neutralization, and RSV-mediated pathology. Anti-G murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) 131-2G treatment has been previously shown to reduce weight loss, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell number, airway reactivity, and Th2-type cytokine production in RSV-infected mice more rapidly than a commercial humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) against RSV F protein (Palivizumab). In this study, we have tested two human anti-RSV G mAbs, 2B11 and 3D3, by both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for RSV in the BALB/c mouse model. Both anti-G mAbs reduced viral load, leukocyte infiltration and IFN-γ and IL-4 expression in cell-free BAL supernatants emphasizing the potential of anti-G mAbs as anti-inflammatory and antiviral strategies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Picroside II Attenuates Airway Inflammation by Downregulating the Transcription Factor GATA3 and Th2-Related Cytokines in a Mouse Model of HDM-Induced Allergic Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    Full Text Available Picroside II isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum has been used as traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. In this study, we assessed whether picroside II has inhibitory effects on airway inflammation in a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM-induced asthma. In the HDM-induced asthmatic model, picroside II significantly reduced inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, the levels of total immunoglobulin (Ig E and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 in serum, airway inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion in the lung tissues. ELISA analysis showed that picroside II down-regulated the levels of Th2-related cytokines (including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and asthma-related mediators, but it up-regulated Th1-related cytokine, IFNγ in BALF. Picroside II also inhibited the expression of Th2 type cytokine genes and the transcription factor GATA3 in the lung tissues of HDM-induced mice. Finally, we demonstrated that picroside II significantly decreased the expression of GATA3 and Th2 cytokines in developing Th2 cells, consistent with in vivo results. Taken together, these results indicate that picroside II has protective effects on allergic asthma by reducing GATA3 expression and Th2 cytokine bias.

  1. Treatment of acute diverticulitis laparoscopic lavage vs. resection (DILALA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornell, Anders; Angenete, Eva; Gonzales, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    , randomised trial, comparing laparoscopic lavage (LL) to the traditional Hartmann’s Procedure (HP). Primary endpoint is the number of re-operations within 12 months. Secondary endpoints consist of mortality, quality of life (QoL), re-admission, health economy assessment and permanent stoma. Patients...

  2. Biomedical risks of multiple lung lavages in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; Slauson, D.O.; Halliwell, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The biomedical risk of a series of 10 lung lavages was evaluated in 10 Beagle dogs. The dogs were divided into three groups: one group of six dogs was given 10 lung lavages over a 49-day period and sacrificed at 77 days of the study; the second group contained two dogs that were controls that were not treated, but sacrificed on day 77 of the study; and the third group contained two dogs that were control dogs that were sacrificed 56 days into the study. The dogs were evaluated by cardiopulmonary function tests, clinical studies, and studies of the tissues at sacrifice. No significant changes were detected in the cardiopulmonary function tests of the dogs in the study. Clinical studies revealed a very mild, transient reaction to some of the lavage procedures. The reaction was mainly mild, scattered, moist rales heard on auscultation of the chest and a slight rise in body temperature. A mild, scattered tissue reaction was also observed on histologic examination of selected lung tissues. The observed tissue reactions did not appear to be chronic, permanent or progressive. Results of this study indicate that multiple lung lavages carry little biomedical risk and that the primary risk is that associated with general anesthesia

  3. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for perforated colonic diverticulitis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R.; Swank, Hilko; Schoones, Jan W.; Hamming, Jaap F.; Bemelman, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy, morbidity and mortality of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for patients with perforated diverticulitis. Method We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and CINAHL databases, Google Scholar and five major publisher

  4. Value of gastric lavage for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbar, M.; Hajia, M.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of gastric lavage specimen for observation of acid fast bacilli and isolation of mycobacterium in patients proved to be suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. A total number of 886 hospitalized patients in different hospitals of Urmia City were tested for pulmonary tuberculosis. Fifty-three patients were eventually enrolled in the study and one gastric lavage specimen was taken from each patient. Among these fifty three, 44 had positive gastric lavage results and 43 were positive on culture, while both positive results of smear and culture were matched in all patients proved to be suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. The highest positive rate was in 20 to 49 and 20 to 29 years for the culture and smear respectively but the lowest culture positive rate was in those patients who were in children and those over 60 years of age. Gastric lavage can be a valuable alternative specimen instead of sputum for diagnosis of tuberculosis in children and elderly patients if both smear and culture results are applied. (author)

  5. The effect of intestinal colonization of germ-free pigs with Escherichia coli on calprotectin levels in plasma, intestinal and bronchoalveolar lavages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchal, Igor; Fagerhol, M. K.; Trebichavský, Ilja; Šplíchalová, Alla; Schulze, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 209, - (2005), s. 681-687 ISSN 0171-2985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/1217; GA MŠk ME 580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : calprotectin * probiotic s * inflammatory bowel disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2005

  6. PAR-2, IL-4R, TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in bronchoalveolar lavage distinguishes extrinsic allergic alveolitis from sarcoidosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, R.; Smětáková, M.; Vašáková, M.; Nováková, J.; Šterclová, M.; Kukal, J.; Olejár, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), s. 533-538 ISSN 1792-0981 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sarcoidosis * extrinsic allergic alveolitis * interleukin 4 receptor * transforming growth factor beta * tumor necrosis factor alpha * proteinase activated receptor 2 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2014

  7. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction reverse hybridization line probe assay for the detection and identification of medically important fungi in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meletiadis, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Hurk, P.J.J.C. van den; Jannes, G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    An assay system in which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the ITS-1 region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is combined with a reverse-hybridization line probe assay (LiPA) was used for the identification of six Candida species and four Aspergillus species in pure cultures of clinical

  8. Effect of inhaled hydrosoluble curcumin on inflammatory markers in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid of horses with LPS-induced lung neutrophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Sandersen, Charlotte; Bienzle, Dorothee; Cerri, Simona; Franck, Thierry; Derochette, Sandrine; Neven, Philippe; Mouytis-Mickalad, Ange; Serteyn, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Background Horses commonly suffer from chronic respiratory disease and are also used in large animal models of spontaneous or induced airway inflammation. The anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin are largely described but its low bioavailability precludes its clinical use. NDS27, a lysin salt of curcumin incorporated in beta-cyclodextrine, has high bioavailability and can be administered by inhalation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhaled NDS27 on inflammatory c...

  9. Screening for PTLD in lung and heart-lung transplant recipients by measuring EBV DNA load in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Peter; Watkins, Bradley; Webber, Steven A; Wadowsky, Robert; Michaels, Marian G

    2008-06-01

    Pediatric L-HLTx recipients are at risk for developing PTLD with the lung being a primary site of disease. We hypothesized that BALF is a better sample than peripheral blood for measuring EBV DNA load in this high-risk population. Archived BALF specimens from pediatric L-HLTx recipients with and without PTLD were assayed for EBV DNA load using a quantitative real time TaqMan PCR assay. These values were compared with values determined in peripheral blood by a competitive PCR assay. Fifty-five BALF specimens from 16 L-HLTx patients were evaluated. Three patients with PTLD had mean BALF EBV DNA load values almost 50-fold higher than subjects without PTLD (4.6 x 10(5) copies/mL vs. 1.0 x 10(4) copies/mL). Patients who were EBV seronegative pretransplantation (i.e., high risk for PTLD) had elevated EBV DNA load values vs. patients who were EBV seropositive pretransplantation, regardless of the diagnosis of PTLD (mean values of 3.2 x 10(5) copies/mL vs. 1.1 x 10(4) copies/mL). Lastly, BALF analysis identified all subjects with PTLD, whereas peripheral blood analysis identified only one of these cases. Therefore, it can be concluded that monitoring EBV DNA load in BALF following L-HLTx facilitates detection of PTLD in high-risk patients and may be superior to peripheral blood assays.

  10. Metabolism of styrene to styrene oxide and vinylphenols in cytochrome P450 2F2- and P450 2E1-knockout mouse liver and lung microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuijie; Li, Lei; Ding, Xinxin; Zheng, Jiang

    2014-01-21

    Pulmonary toxicity of styrene is initiated by cytochromes P450-dependent metabolic activation. P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are considered to be two main cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for styrene metabolism in mice. The objective of the current study was to determine the correlation between the formation of styrene metabolites (i.e., styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol) and pulmonary toxicity of styrene, using Cyp2e1- and Cyp2f2-null mouse models. A dramatic decrease in the formation of styrene glycol and 4-vinylphenol was found in Cyp2f2-null mouse lung microsomes relative to that in the wild-type mouse lung microsomes; however, no significant difference in the production of the styrene metabolites was observed between lung microsomes obtained from Cyp2e1-null and the wild-type mice. The knockout and wild-type mice were treated with styrene (6.0 mmol/kg, ip), and cell counts and LDH activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were monitored to evaluate the pulmonary toxicity induced by styrene. Cyp2e1-null mice displayed a susceptibility to lung toxicity of styrene similar to that of the wild-type animals; however, Cyp2f2-null mice were resistant to styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. In conclusion, both P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are responsible for the metabolic activation of styrene. The latter enzyme plays an important role in styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. Both styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol are suggested to participate in the development of lung injury induced by styrene.

  11. Genetically engineered Lactococcus lactis protect against house dust mite allergy in a BALB/c mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqing Ai

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccine based on lactic acid bacteria is an attractive concept for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, but their mechanisms of action in vivo are poorly understood. Therefore, we sought to investigate how recombinant major dust mite allergen Der p2-expressing Lactococcus lactis as a mucosal vaccine induced the immune tolerance against house dust mite allergy in a mouse model.Three strains of recombinant L. lactis producing Der p2 in different cell components (extracellular, intracellular and cell wall were firstly constructed. Their prophylactic potential was evaluated in a Der p2-sensitised mouse model, and immunomodulation properties at the cellular level were determined by measuring cytokine production in vitro.Der p2 expressed in the different recombinant L. lactis strains was recognized by a polyclonal anti-Der p2 antibody. Oral treatment with the recombinant L. lactis prior sensitization significantly prevented the development of airway inflammation in the Der p2-sensitized mice, as determined by the attenuation of inflammatory cells infiltration in the lung tissues and decrease of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage. In addition, the serum allergen-specific IgE levels were significantly reduced, and the levels of IL-4 in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes cell cultures were also markedly decreased upon allergen stimulation in the mice fed with the recombinant L. lactis strains. These protective effects correlated with a significant up-regulation of regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes.Oral pretreatment with live recombinant L. lactis prevented the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation primarily by the induction of specific mucosal immune tolerance.

  12. Perinatal maternal administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 prevents allergic inflammation in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Schabussova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis implies that microbial agents including probiotic bacteria may modulate foetal/neonatal immune programming and hence offer effective strategies for primary allergy prevention; however their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 to mothers during gestation/lactation can protect against airway inflammation in offspring in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, and examined the immune mechanisms involved. METHODS: BALB/c mice were treated daily with L. paracasei in drinking water or drinking water alone in the last week of gestation and during lactation. Their offspring were sensitized with recombinant Bet v 1, followed by aerosol challenge with birch pollen extract. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to L. paracasei prevented the development of airway inflammation in offspring, as demonstrated by attenuation of eosinophil influx in the lungs; reduction of IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage, and in lung and mediastinal lymph node cell cultures; and reduced peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate and mucus hypersecretion. While allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibody levels remained unchanged by the treatment, IL-4 and IL-5 production in spleen cell cultures were significantly reduced upon allergen stimulation in offspring of L. paracasei treated mice. Offspring of L. paracasei supplemented mothers had significantly reduced Bet v 1-specific as well as Concanavalin A-induced responses in spleen and mesenteric lymph node cell cultures, suggesting the modulation of both antigen-specific and mitogen-induced immune responses in offspring. These effects were associated with increased Foxp3 mRNA expression in the lungs and increased TGF-beta in serum. CONCLUSION: Our data show that in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, perinatal administration of L. paracasei NCC 2461 to pregnant/lactating mothers protects against the development of airway

  13. Muc1 deficiency exacerbates pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model of silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kosuke; Zemskova, Marina A; Hanss, Alec D; Kim, Marianne M; Summer, Ross; Kim, Kwang Chul

    2017-11-25

    MUC1 (MUC in human and Muc in animals) is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the apical surface of lung epithelial cells. However, in the lungs of patients with interstitial lung disease, MUC1 is aberrantly expressed in hyperplastic alveolar type II epithelial (ATII) cells and alveolar macrophages (AM), and elevated levels of extracellular MUC1 are found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and the serum of these patients. While pro-fibrotic effects of extracellular MUC1 have recently been described in cultured fibroblasts, the contribution of MUC1 to the pathobiology of pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that MUC1 deficiency would reduce susceptibility to pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model of silicosis. We employed human MUC1 transgenic mice, Muc1 deficient mice and wild-type mice on C57BL/6 background in these studies. Some mice received a one-time dose of crystalline silica instilled into their oropharynx in order to induce pulmonary fibrosis and assess the effects of Muc1 deficiency on fibrotic and inflammatory responses in the lung. As previously described in other mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis, we found that extracellular MUC1 levels were markedly increased in whole lung tissues, BALF and serum of human MUC1 transgenic mice after silica. We also detected an increase in total MUC1 levels in the lungs of these mice, indicating that production as well as release contributed to elevated levels after lung injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that increased MUC1 expression was mostly confined to ATII cells and AMs in areas of fibrotic remodeling, illustrating a pattern similar to the expression of MUC1 in human fibrotic lung tissues. However, contrary to our hypothesis, we found that Muc1 deficiency resulted in a worsening of fibrotic remodeling in the mouse lung as judged by an increase in number of silicotic nodules, an increase in lung collagen deposition and an increase in the severity of pulmonary inflammation

  14. Silicosis and Silica-Induced Autoimmunity in the Diversity Outbred Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Mayeux

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have confidently linked occupational crystalline silica exposure to autoimmunity, but pathogenic mechanisms and role of genetic predisposition remain poorly defined. Although studies of single inbred strains have yielded insights, understanding the relationships between lung pathology, silica-induced autoimmunity, and genetic predisposition will require examination of a broad spectrum of responses and susceptibilities. We defined the characteristics of silicosis and autoimmunity and their relationships using the genetically heterogeneous diversity outbred (DO mouse population and determined the suitability of this model for investigating silica-induced autoimmunity. Clinically relevant lung and autoimmune phenotypes were assessed 12 weeks after a transoral dose of 0, 5, or 10 mg crystalline silica in large cohorts of DO mice. Data were further analyzed for correlations, hierarchical clustering, and sex effects. DO mice exhibited a wide range of responses to silica, including mild to severe silicosis and importantly silica-induced systemic autoimmunity. Strikingly, about half of PBS controls were anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA positive, however, few had disease-associated specificities, whereas most ANAs in silica-exposed mice showed anti-ENA5 reactivity. Correlation and hierarchical clustering showed close association of silicosis, lung biomarkers, and anti-ENA5, while other autoimmune characteristics, such as ANA and glomerulonephritis, clustered separately. Silica-exposed males had more lung inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells, IL-6, and autoantibodies. DO mice are susceptible to both silicosis and silica-induced autoimmunity and show substantial individual variations reflecting their genetic diverseness and the importance of predisposition particularly for autoimmunity. This model provides a new tool for deciphering the relationship between silica exposure, genes, and disease.

  15. Intraoperative colonic lavage and primary anastomosis in peritonitis and obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, S; Jaurrieta, E; Jorba, R; Moreno, P; Farran, L; Borobia, F; Bettonica, C; Poves, I; Ramos, E; Alcobendas, F

    1997-02-01

    The surgical management of left colonic emergencies has evolved in the past few decades. Recently, there has been increasing interest in resection with primary anastomosis in selected cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in outcome in patients with peritonitis or obstruction treated by resection, on-table lavage and primary anastomosis of the left colon. Between January 1992 and August 1995, 212 patients underwent emergency operation for a distal colonic lesion: 97 presented with peritonitis, 113 with obstruction and two with other indications. Intraoperative colonic lavage was performed in 37 patients with obstruction and in 24 with an acute intra-abdominal inflammatory process. The postoperative mortality rate was 5 per cent. The incidence of clinical anastomotic leakage was 5 per cent. Wound infection was observed in ten patients (16 per cent), more often in those with peritonitis (P = 0.03). The overall mean(s.d.) hospital stay was 15(9) days. Resection, on-table lavage and primary anastomosis constitute the operation of choice for selected patients with left colonic emergency.

  16. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao YuPing

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine overdoses in developed countries and may be irrelevant to OP poisoning in Asia. Chinese clinical experience suggests that OP remains in the stomach for several hours or even days after ingestion. Thus, there may be reasons for doing single or multiple gastric lavages for OP poisoning. There have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs to assess this practice of multiple lavages. Since it is currently standard therapy in China, we cannot perform a RCT of no lavage vs. a single lavage vs. multiple lavages. We will compare a single gastric lavage with three gastric lavages as the first stage to assess the role of gastric lavage in OP poisoning. Methods/Design We have designed an RCT assessing the effectiveness of multiple gastric lavages in adult OP self-poisoning patients admitted to three Chinese hospitals within 12 hrs of ingestion. Patients will be randomised to standard treatment plus either a single gastric lavage on admission or three gastric lavages at four hour intervals. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. On the basis of the historical incidence of OP at the study sites, we expect to enroll 908 patients over three years. This projected sample size provides sufficient power to evaluate the death rate; and a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including particular OPs and ingestion time. Changes of OP level will be analyzed in order to provide some toxic kinetic data. Discussion the GLAOP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will explore to the toxic

  17. Activation of lavage lymphocytes in lung injuries caused by radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Makino, Shigeki; Fukuda, Yasuki; Min, Kyong-Yob; Shimizu, Akira; Ohsawa, Nakaaki

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis sometimes extends beyond the irradiated area of a lung and can also affect the opposite lung. Some immunological mechanisms, in addition to simple direct injury of the lungs by radiation, seem to be involved in the onset of radiation pneumonitis. To clarify such mechanisms, the effects of radiation on local inflammatory cells in lungs, in particular, lymphocytes, were examined. Methods and Materials: A comparison was made of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) findings from 13 irradiated patients (RT group) and 15 nonirradiated patients (non-RT group) with lung cancer. Patients who later developed radiation pneumonitis (RP group) and those who did not (RP-free group) were also compared. Using a two-color flowcytometer, radiation-induced changes in local inflammatory cells in lungs were analyzed. This included analyses of human leukocyte-associated antigen (HLADR) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression on T-cells, which are thought to be involved in cell activation and interactions between cells. Results: The following aspects of BALF were higher in the RT group than in the non-RT group: (a) the percentage of lymphocytes and eosinophiles; (b) the incidence of HLADR-positive CD4+T-cells and HLADR-positive CD8+T-cells; and (c) the incidence of ICAM-1-positive T-cells. The following aspects of BALF were higher in the RP group than in the RP-free group: (a) the total cell counts; (b) the percentage of lymphocytes; and (c) the incidence of ICAM-1-positive T-cells. A significant relationship was seen between the incidence of ICAM-1 expression on T-cells and the number of days from the initiation of radiotherapy to the onset of radiation pneumonitis. Conclusion: These data suggest that irradiation can induce accumulation of activated T-cells (HLADR and ICAM-1-positive T-cells) in the lung. This accumulation may be closely linked to radiation-induced lung injury. It is also suggested that the incidence of ICAM-1-positive T

  18. AAV8-mediated expression of glucocerebrosidase ameliorates the storage pathology in the visceral organs of a mouse model of Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Kerry Anne; Nietupski, Jennifer B; Chuang, Wei-Lien; Armentano, Donna; Johnson, Jennifer; Hutto, Elizabeth; Grabowski, Gregory A; Cheng, Seng H; Marshall, John

    2006-06-01

    Gaucher disease is the most common of the lysosomal storage disorders. The primary manifestation is the accumulation of glucosylceramide (GL-1) in the macrophages of liver and spleen (Gaucher cells), due to a deficiency in the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase (GC). A Gaucher mouse model (D409V/null) exhibiting reduced GC activity and accumulation of GL-1 was used to evaluate adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated gene therapy. A recombinant AAV8 serotype vector bearing human GC (hGC) was administered intravenously to the mice. The levels of hGC in blood and tissues were determined, as were the effects of gene transfer on the levels of GL-1. Histopathological evaluation was performed on liver, spleen and lungs. Vector administration to pre-symptomatic Gaucher mice resulted in sustained hepatic secretion of hGC at levels that prevented GL-1 accumulation and the appearance of Gaucher cells in the liver, spleen and lungs. AAV administration to older mice with established disease resulted in normalization of GL-1 levels in the spleen and liver and partially reduced that in the lung. Analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from treated mice showed significant correction of the abnormal cellularity and cell differentials. No antibodies to the expressed hGC were detected following a challenge with recombinant enzyme suggesting the animals were tolerized to human enzyme. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of AAV-mediated gene therapy at preventing and correcting the biochemical and pathological abnormalities in a Gaucher mouse model, and thus support the continued consideration of this vector as an alternative approach to treating Gaucher disease. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Circulating and broncho-alveolar interleukin-6 in relation to body temperature in an experimental model of bovine Chlamydia psittaci infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Prohl

    Full Text Available In rodent models of experimentally induced fever, the important role of interleukin-6 (IL-6 as a circulating endogenous pyrogen is well established. Studies employing larger animal species and real infections are scarce. Therefore, we assessed bioactive IL-6 in peripheral blood and in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF of calves after intra-bronchial inoculation with vital Chlamydia psittaci (Cp, with inactivated Cp, or with BGM cells. Only calves inoculated with vital Cp developed fever (peak at 2-3 days after challenge and significantly increased IL-6 activity. Controls inoculated with either inactivated Cp or BGM cells also expressed increased bioactive IL-6, but no fever developed. Activity of IL-6 in BALF was significantly higher compared to blood serum. This experimental model of Cp infection revealed no apparent relation between IL-6 in blood and body temperature, but did reveal a relation between IL-6 and other markers of inflammation in BALF. We conclude that a local inflammatory response in the lungs of infected calves caused fever, which developed by mechanisms including other mediators besides IL-6.

  20. Influence of lavage therapy on the distribution patterns of inhaled, relatively insoluble particles in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Runkle, G.E.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    Four Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to a polydisperse fused aluminosilicate aerosol labeled with 147 Pm and 169 Yb. The left or right lung of each dog was lavaged one or five times to remove a portion of the lung burden. Autoradiographic and computer techniques were combined to determine the dispersion pattern of radioactive particles still in the lung after lavage therapy. For all four dogs the dispersion pattern of particles in the lung was the same for the lavaged and non-lavaged lung lobes. Examination of the autoradiograms indicated that lavage therapy did not preferentially remove particles from some areas of the lung. The similarity of particle dispersion patterns suggests that a minimal relocation of particles in lung results from lavage therapy

  1. Platelet CLEC-2 protects against lung injury via effects of its ligand podoplanin on inflammatory alveolar macrophages in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Siân; Rayes, Julie; Wichaiyo, Surasak; Haining, Elizabeth J; Lowe, Kate; Grygielska, Beata; Laloo, Ryan; Flodby, Per; Borok, Zea; Crandall, Edward D; Thickett, David R; Watson, Steve P

    2017-12-01

    There is no therapeutic intervention proven to prevent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Novel mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of ARDS are therefore required. Platelets are implicated in regulating many of the pathogenic processes that occur during ARDS; however, the mechanisms remain elusive. The platelet receptor CLEC-2 has been shown to regulate vascular integrity at sites of acute inflammation. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish the role of CLEC-2 and its ligand podoplanin in a mouse model of ARDS. Platelet-specific CLEC-2-deficient, as well as alveolar epithelial type I cell (AECI)-specific or hematopoietic-specific podoplanin deficient, mice were established using cre-loxP strategies. Combining these with intratracheal (IT) instillations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we demonstrate that arterial oxygen saturation decline in response to IT-LPS in platelet-specific CLEC-2-deficient mice is significantly augmented. An increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophils and protein was also observed 48 h post-IT-LPS, with significant increases in pro-inflammatory chemokines detected in BAL of platelet-specific CLEC-2-deficient animals. Deletion of podoplanin from hematopoietic cells but not AECIs also reduces lung function and increases pro-inflammatory chemokine expression following IT-LPS. Furthermore, we demonstrate that following IT-LPS, platelets are present in BAL in aggregates with neutrophils, which allows for CLEC-2 interaction with podoplanin expressed on BAL inflammatory alveolar macrophages. Taken together, these data suggest that the platelet CLEC-2-podoplanin signaling axis regulates the severity of lung inflammation in mice and is a possible novel target for therapeutic intervention in patients at risk of developing ARDS. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Diagnostic double guarded low-volume uterine lavage in mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Brandis, Louise; Samuelsson, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Endometritis constitutes a major problem in the management of broodmares; hence diagnostic tests with a high sensitivity and specificity are desired. We hypothesize that a double guarded uterine flush technique for bacterial culture and cytology is comparable to standard diagnostic tests, the end......Endometritis constitutes a major problem in the management of broodmares; hence diagnostic tests with a high sensitivity and specificity are desired. We hypothesize that a double guarded uterine flush technique for bacterial culture and cytology is comparable to standard diagnostic tests...... (lavage: 11%, swab: 8%, biopsy: 7%) (positive bacterial growth > 4 Colony forming units (CFU)). Positive cytology was less likely to occur when E. coli was isolated from the diagnostic tests compared to the growth of β-hemolytic streptococci. Isolation of pathogens from uterine samples was highly...

  3. Histamine and tryptase in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine...... the effect of intranasal azelastine or systemic cetirizine (both potent antihistamines) on the allergen-induced release of mast-cell mediators from the human nasal mucosa in vivo. METHODS: Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 11) and control subjects not allergic to birch pollen (n = 5) were included......, nasal allergen challenges were performed, and the number of sneezes were counted. In addition, nasal lavage fluid was collected, and the levels of mast-cell mediators (histamine and tryptase) were measured. RESULTS: The allergen challenge of patients allergic to pollen produced sneezing...

  4. Propofol Attenuates Airway Inflammation in a Mast Cell-Dependent Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma by Inhibiting the Toll-like Receptor 4/Reactive Oxygen Species/Nuclear Factor κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yi; Meng, Jing-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Jing

    2018-06-01

    Propofol, an intravenous anesthetic agent widely used in clinical practice, is the preferred anesthetic for asthmatic patients. This study was designed to determine the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of propofol on airway inflammation in a mast cell-dependent mouse model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) without alum and challenged with OVA three times. Propofol was given intraperitoneally 0.5 h prior to OVA challenge. The inflammatory cell count and production of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected. The changes of lung histology and key molecules of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/reactive oxygen species (ROS)/NF-κB signaling pathway were also measured. The results showed that propofol significantly decreased the number of eosinophils and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, and TNF-α in BALF. Furthermore, propofol significantly attenuated airway inflammation, as characterized by fewer infiltrating inflammatory cells and decreased mucus production and goblet cell hyperplasia. Meanwhile, the expression of TLR4, and its downstream signaling adaptor molecules--myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and NF-κB, were inhibited by propofol. The hydrogen peroxide and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde levels were decreased by propofol, and the superoxide dismutase activity was increased in propofol treatment group. These findings indicate that propofol may attenuate airway inflammation by inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/ROS/NF-κB signaling pathway in a mast cell-dependent mouse model of allergic asthma.

  5. The effects of heated and room-temperature abdominal lavage solutions on core body temperature in dogs undergoing celiotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Michael A; McLaughlin, Ron; Hendrix, P K

    2005-01-01

    To document the magnitude of temperature elevation obtained with heated lavage solutions during abdominal lavage, 18 dogs were lavaged with sterile isotonic saline intraoperatively (i.e., during a celiotomy). In nine dogs, room-temperature saline was used. In the remaining nine dogs, saline heated to 43+/-2 degrees C (110+/-4 degrees F) was used. Esophageal, rectal, and tympanic temperatures were recorded every 60 seconds for 15 minutes after initiation of the lavage. Temperature levels decreased in dogs lavaged with room-temperature saline. Temperature levels increased significantly in dogs lavaged with heated saline after 2 to 6 minutes of lavage, and temperatures continued to increase throughout the 15-minute lavage period.

  6. Comparison of direct sampling and brochoalveolar lavage for determining active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of calves injected with enrofloxacin or tilmicosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D M; Sylvester, H J; Papich, M G

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotic distribution to interstitial fluid (ISF) and pulmonary epithelial fluid (PELF) was measured and compared to plasma drug concentrations in eight healthy calves. Enrofloxacin (Baytril ® 100) was administered at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg subcutaneously (SC), and tilmicosin (Micotil ® 300) was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg SC. PELF, sampled by two different methods-bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and direct sampling (DS)-plasma, and ISF were collected from each calf and measured for tilmicosin, enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on the concentrations in each fluid, for each drug. The enrofloxacin/ciprofloxacin concentration as measured by AUC in DS samples was 137 ± 72% higher than in plasma, but in BAL samples, this value was 535 ± 403% (p enrofloxacin/ciprofloxacin concentrations collected by DS were significantly different than those collected by BAL, but the tilmicosin concentrations were not significantly different between the two methods. Concentrations of enrofloxacin/ciprofloxacin exceeded the MIC values for bovine respiratory disease pathogens but tilmicosin did not reach MIC levels for these pathogens in any fluids. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cyclic PaO2 oscillations assessed in the renal microcirculation: correlation with tidal volume in a porcine model of lung lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rainer; Möllmann, Christian; Ziebart, Alexander; Liu, Tanghua; David, Matthias; Hartmann, Erik K

    2017-07-11

    Oscillations of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen induced by varying shunt fractions occur during cyclic alveolar recruitment within the injured lung. Recently, these were proposed as a pathomechanism that may be relevant for remote organ injury following acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study examines the transmission of oxygen oscillations to the renal tissue and their tidal volume dependency. Lung injury was induced by repetitive bronchoalveolar lavage in eight anaesthetized pigs. Cyclic alveolar recruitment was provoked by high tidal volume ventilation. Oscillations of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen were measured in real-time in the macrocirculation by multi-frequency phase fluorimetry and in the renal microcirculation by combined white-light spectrometry and laser-Doppler flowmetry during tidal volume down-titration. Significant respiratory-dependent oxygen oscillations were detected in the macrocirculation and transmitted to the renal microcirculation in a substantial extent. The amplitudes of these oscillations significantly correlate to the applied tidal volume and are minimized during down-titration. In a porcine model oscillations of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen are induced by cyclic alveolar recruitment and transmitted to the renal microcirculation in a tidal volume-dependent fashion. They might play a role in organ crosstalk and remote organ damage following lung injury.

  8. [Tracheobronchial lavage--a supplementary measure in the initial management of meconium aspiration syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosegger, H; Engele, H; Haas, J

    1987-12-18

    Pulmonary lavage - a supplementary measure of resuscitation in newborn infants with severe aspiration of meconium stained amniotic fluid. During 1984-1985 150 mature newborn infants who had aspirated heavily-stained or pea soup-like amniotic fluid were resuscitated at the University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Graz. In 109 of these infants (controls) routine aspiration of both the upper and lower airways was accomplished as soon as possible, whilst in the remaining 41 infants (lavaged) pulmonary lavage with saline was additionally performed via an endotracheal tube after aspiration to clear the trachea and the upper bronchi from thick meconium which could not have been removed as efficiently otherwise. The incidence of manifest meconium aspiration syndrome was significantly higher (22%) in the lavaged infants than in the controls (8%). Mechanical ventilation was performed in 36% of the lavaged infants, whereas only 5.5% of the controls had to be ventilated for more than 1 hour. The mean duration of ventilation, however, was shorter (Mh = 5.1 hrs vs Mh = 69 hrs) and the average age at discharge lower in the lavaged. Three infants died, two of whom had severe malformations. Only one death in the lavaged infants was attributable to severe meconium aspiration syndrome already manifest at birth. Three infants (two lavaged, one control) showed radiological evidence of pneumothorax, but without clinical appearance of respiratory distress. Since the lavaged group naturally contained the more severely distressed infants, with a high incidence of caesarean section on account of intrauterine asphyxia and lower Apgar scores at one and five minutes, the high incidence of radiologically confirmed meconium aspiration syndrome was not surprising.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Mast cell-dependent IL-33/ST2 signaling is protective against the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in a house dust mite mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowska Nilsson, A M; Lei, Y; Adner, M; Nilsson, G P

    2018-03-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its receptor ST2 have been influentially associated with the pathophysiology of asthma. Due to the divergent roles of IL-33 in regulating mast cell functions, there is a need to further characterize IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell responses and their significance in the context of asthma. This study aimed to investigate how IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell responses contribute to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation in a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma. Mast cell-deficient C57BL/6-Kit W-sh (Wsh) mice engrafted with either wild-type (Wsh + MC-WT) or ST2-deficient bone marrow-derived mast cells (Wsh + MC-ST2KO) were exposed to HDM delivered intranasally. An exacerbated development of AHR in response to HDM was seen in Wsh + MC-ST2KO compared with Wsh + MC-WT mice. The contribution of this IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell response to AHR seems to reside within the smaller airways in the peripheral parts of the lung, as suggested by the isolated yet marked effect on tissue resistance. Considering the absence of a parallel increase in cellular inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung, the aggravated AHR in Wsh + MC-ST2KO mice seems to be independent of cellular inflammation. We observed an association between the elevated AHR and reduced PGE 2 levels in BALF . Due to the protective properties of PGE 2 in airway responses, it is conceivable that IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell induction of PGE 2 could be responsible for the dampening effect on AHR. In conclusion, we reveal that IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell responses can have a protective, rather than causative role, in the development of AHR.

  10. Whole lung lavage with intermittent double lung ventilation. A modified technique for managing pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Raees; Iqbal, Mobeen; Kashef, Sayed H.; Almomatten, Mohammed I.

    2005-01-01

    Whole lung lavage is still the most effective treatment for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. We report a 21-year-old male diagnosed with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis by open lung biopsy and who underwent whole lung lavage with a modified technique. He showed significant improvement in clinical and functional parameters. The technique of intermittent double lung ventilation during lavage procedure keeps the oxygen saturation in acceptable limits in patients at risk for severe hypoxemia and allows the procedure to be completed in a single setting. (author)

  11. Variations of cytology, IL-8 and TNF-α of bronchoalveolar lavaage fluid after fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Weibing; Chu Chengchun; Zhang Yongjun; Gao Xiang; Liu Yajun; Tang Yanfen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate variations of cytology, IL-8 and TNF-α of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Methods: Sixty-eight patients with severe traumatic brain injury were divided into two groups: the FOB group and the control group. variations of cytology in BALF were observed by microscope, and the levels of IL-8 and TNF-α were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: Compared with the control group, the counts of cells of BALF were significantly lower at the 7th and 9th day after treatment in the FOB group (P<0.01, respectively); the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were significantly lower at the 5th, 7th, 9th day in the FOB group (P<0.01, respectively); the level of IL-8 was significantly lower at the 5th, 7th, 9th day in the FOB group (P<0.01, respectively); the level of TNF-α was significantly lower at the 5th , 7th, 9th day in the FOB group (P<0.01, respectively). Moreover, the level of IL-8 was positively correlated with the count of cells and the percentage of PMN of BALF (r=0.979, 0.982, P<0.01, respectively), and the level of TNF-α was also positively correlated with the count of cells and the percentage of PMN of BALF(r=0.953, 0.949, P<0.01, respectively). Conclusion: FOB could play an important role in ameliorating the inflammation of airway in the patients with severe traumatic brain injury, moreover, the level of IL-8 and TNF-α could reflect the status of inflammation of airway. (authors)

  12. The importance of pulsed lavage on interface temperature and ligament tension force in cemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarius, M; Seeger, J B; Jaeger, S; Mohr, G; Bitsch, R G

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical loosening is the most common cause of revision in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. We determined the effect of bone lavage on tibial cement penetration and interface temperature with controlled ligament tension forces. We presumed pulsed lavage would allow increased cement penetration compared with syringe lavage. Cemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasty was performed in 12 pairs of fresh-frozen knees. Lavage was performed using pulsed lavage on one side (A) and syringe lavage on the other (B). Cement penetration pressure, interface temperature, and ligament tension forces were continuously monitored during the operation. Screened radiographs were taken and cement penetration under the tibial plateau was measured. The pulsed lavage group showed a mean cement penetration area of 187.24 (SD 36.37) mm², whereas 144.29 (SD 35.74) mm(2) was measured in the group with syringe lavage. Cement penetration pressure was 13.29 (SD 8.69) kPa in Group A and 20.21 (SD 7.78) kPa in Group B. Maximum interface temperatures of 46.99°C were observed in Group A and 45.02°C in Group B. Our data showed pulsed lavage cleansing of the cancellous tibial bone substantially improved cement penetration compared with syringe lavage without reaching the temperature threshold for bone necrosis. We recommend the routine use of pulsed lavage to improve long-term fixation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo conjugation of nasal lavage proteins by hexahydrophthalic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Gunvor; Lindh, Christian; Nielsen, Joern; Bjoerk, Birgitta; Rosqvist, Seema; Joensson, Bo A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA), an industrially important chemical, is a highly allergenic compound. The aim of this work was to identify proteins in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) that form adducts with HHPA. Such bindings may induce production of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) or affect physiological mechanisms of the proteins. NLF was obtained from HHPA-exposed volunteers, workers and exposed guinea pigs. HHPA-binding proteins were visualized with immunoblotting using a polyclonal antiserum against HHPA. The proteins were excised from sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels, digested with trypsin and identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and database searches. The antiserum was found to be specific for HHPA-bound proteins. In vivo formed HHPA-binding proteins in humans were identified as antileukoproteinase, immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), serum albumin and lactoferrin. In addition, several proteins binding to HHPA were found in NLFs from guinea pigs but these could not be identified from database searches. Hypotheses for development of airways diseases by adduction of this allergenic compound to the NLF proteins in humans were established

  14. Gastric phytobezoars may be treated by nasogastric Coca-Cola lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, Spiros D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Tzathas, Charalabos; Tassios, Pericles; Rokkas, Theodore; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2002-07-01

    Large gastric phytobezoars may occur in patients with gastric dysmotility disorders. Treatment options include dissolution with enzymes, endoscopic fragmentation with removal or aspiration, and surgery. We report our experience with nasogastric cola lavage therapy. Over an 8-year period, five consecutive patients were referred to our unit for endoscopic treatment of large gastric phytobezoars. They included one patient with lobectomy for lung cancer and four patients with diabetic gastroparesis. An initial attempt of endoscopic fragmentation and removal was unsuccessful. Patients were treated with 3 l of Coca-Cola nasogastric lavage over 12 h. Nasogastric lavage was very well tolerated by the patients. Complete phytobezoar dissolution was achieved in one session in all cases. There were no procedure-related complications. The dissolution of large gastric phytobezoars with cola nasogastric lavage is a safe, rapid and effective method. Patients may be treated in the medical ward, avoiding therapeutic endoscopy or surgery.

  15. Health economic analysis of laparoscopic lavage versus Hartmann's procedure for diverticulitis in the randomized DILALA trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrman, J.; Angenete, E; Björholt, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Open surgery with resection and colostomy (Hartmann's procedure) has been the standard treatment for perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis. In recent years laparoscopic lavage has emerged as an alternative, with potential benefits for patients with purulent peritonitis...

  16. Association between the miRNA Signatures in Plasma and Bronchoalveolar Fluid in Respiratory Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Molina-Pinelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of new less invasive biomarkers is necessary to improve the detection and prognostic outcome of respiratory pathological processes. The measurement of miRNA expression through less invasive techniques such as plasma and serum have been suggested to analysis of several lung malignancies including lung cancer. These studies are assuming a common deregulated miRNA expression both in blood and lung tissue. The present study aimed to obtain miRNA representative signatures both in plasma and bronchoalveolar cell fraction that could serve as biomarker in respiratory diseases. Ten patients were evaluated to assess the expression levels of 381 miRNAs. We found that around 50% miRNAs were no detected in both plasma and bronchoalveolar cell fraction and only 20% of miRNAs showed similar expression in both samples. These results show a lack of association of miRNA signatures between plasma and bronchoalveolar cytology in the same patient. The profiles are not comparable; however, there is a similarity in the relative expression in a very small subset of miRNAs (miR-17, miR-19b, miR-195 and miR-20b between both biological samples in all patients. This finding supports that the miRNAs profiles obtained from different biological samples have to be carefully validated to link with respiratory diseases.

  17. Lung lecithin synthesis in Syrian hamster lung: effect of pulmonary lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A single pulmonary lavage in the Syrian hamster stimulated the synthesis of both the surface-active dipalmitoyl lecithin and its proposed precursor, the unsaturated lecithins. The rate of breakdown of the two types of lung lecithin did not appear to be greatly affected by the lavage. The data were consistent with the view that alveolar lecithins are secreted by the tissue into the alveoli and that unsaturated lecithins are the precursors of dipalmitoyl lecithin

  18. Retention of inhaled plutonium oxide. Elimination procedures by pulmonary lavage and effect of the alveolar macrophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, Daniel.

    1977-03-01

    A large fraction of the plutonium particles, reaching the deeper lung are retained in the alveolar macrophages during several months. Cell function changes were measured in vivo and in vitro. Stimulation of macrophage mobility and phagocytosis or natural clearance processes were uneffective on PuO 2 excretion. In vivo pulmonary lavage was the only effective therapy. The procedures of in toto pulmonary lavage in order to obtain the highest number of macrophages are described. A study of the physiological and histological consequences showed no long-term pathology, lesions observed during 48 h after lavage were restored quickly. A single lavage eliminated 12-25% only of the lung burden. A procedure of ten repeated lavages (1 per week) eliminated 60-90% of the lung burden. The action of lavage seemed twofold: direct elimination in the rinsing liquid and faster pulmonary clearance with low lymph node overload. Survivals in treated animals kept for long-term observations were compatible with the lung burdens remaining after treatment. Demontration of an inhibiting effect on pulmonary fibrosis should indicate a larger utilization [fr

  19. Improvements in lung lavage to increase its effectiveness in removing inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Romero, L.M.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Lung lavage has been shown to be an effective method to remove insoluble radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung, but the treatment has been limited to the effective removal of only about 50% of the retained material. Reported here is change in lavage technique that slightly increases the effectiveness and the addition of high-frequency chest wall oscillation. The latter increased the effectiveness of the lavage procedure but also caused significant physiological complications. These studies were conducted in adult male and female beagles. The aerosol in the first study was 239 PuO 2 heat-treated at 850 degrees C, obtained as powder from a commercial V-blending process. The dogs briefly inhaled the aerosol per nasi. The tissue content at death and the amount of 239 Pu excreted and in the recovered lung lavage fluid was determined by radiochemical methods 5 . These values were used to reconstruct the initial pulmonary burden of 239 and the amount of 239 Pu removed by lavage. In the second study, with the HFCWO, the aerosol was 85 Sr fused in aluminosilicate particles. The IPB of 85 Sr was determined by whole-body counting. The excreta and recovered lung lavage fluids were also assayed for 85 Sr activity

  20. Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang shows preventive effect of asthma in an allergic asthma mouse model through neurotrophin regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigates the effect of Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (XQLT) on neurotrophin in an established mouse model of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p)-induced acute allergic asthma and in a LA4 cell line model of lung adenoma. The effects of XQLT on the regulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and immunoglobulin E were measured. Methods LA4 cells were stimulated with 100 μg/ml Der p 24 h and the supernatant was collected for ELISA analysis. Der p-stimulated LA4 cells with either XQLT pre-treatment or XQLT co-treatment were used to evaluate the XQLT effect on neurotrophin. Balb/c mice were sensitized on days 0 and 7 with a base-tail injection of 50 μg Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) that was emulsified in 50 μl incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA). On day 14, mice received an intra-tracheal challenge of 50 μl Der p (2 mg/ml). XQLT (1g/Kg) was administered orally to mice either on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 as a preventive strategy or on day 15 as a therapeutic strategy. Results XQLT inhibited expression of those NGF, BDNF and thymus-and activation-regulated cytokine (TARC) in LA4 cells that were subjected to a Der p allergen. Both preventive and therapeutic treatments with XQLT in mice reduced AHR. Preventive treatment with XQLT markedly decreased NGF in broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and BDNF in serum, whereas therapeutic treatment reduced only serum BDNF level. The reduced NGF levels corresponded to a decrease in AHR by XQLT treatment. Reduced BALF NGF and TARC and serum BDNF levels may have been responsible for decreased eosinophil infiltration into lung tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed that p75NTR and TrkA levels were reduced in the lungs of mice under both XQLT treatment protocols, and this reduction may have been correlated with the prevention of the asthmatic reaction by XQLT. Conclusion XQLT alleviated allergic inflammation including AHR, Ig

  1. Nasal lavage cellularity, grain dust, and airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaski, C A; Watt, J L; Quinn, T J; Thorne, P S; Schwartz, D A

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of nasal lavage (NL), we performed post-work shift NL on 172 grain workers and 78 postal worker control subjects. The grain worker group included a higher percentage of current smokers (25.7% vs 16.7%) and a lower percentage of former smokers (21.15% vs 35.9%) compared with the postal workers. The control subjects included more female workers and were slightly older than the grain workers. Compared with the postal workers, the grain workers were exposed to significantly greater concentrations of total dust (0.1 +/- 0.0 vs 6.8 +/- 1.4 mg/m3; mean +/- SEM) and total endotoxin (4.3 +/- 0.8 vs 2,372.4 +/- 653.8 endotoxin units/m3). NL from gain workers showed a higher concentration of total cells (55,000 +/- 14,000 vs 25,000 +/- 5,000 cells per milliliter; p=0.03), a higher concentration of squamous epithelial cells (17,029.0 +/- 4,177 .0 vs 7,103.7 +/- 1,479.8 cells per milliliter; p=0.03), and a higher concentration of neutrophils (40,058.0 +/- 12,803.2 vs 17,891.0 +/- 3,822.3 cells per milliliter; p=0.10) compared with postal workers. Importantly, these differences in NL cellularity between grain workers and postal workers were observed within the three strata of smokers. To further assess the importance of total cells, squamous epithelial cells, and neutrophils in the NL fluid of grain workers, we investigated the relationship between these cell concentrations and (1) measures of dust and endotoxin exposure during the work shift. (2) spirometric measures of airflow obtained immediately before the NL, and (3) work-related respiratory symptoms. The concentration of total cells, the concentration of squamous epithelial cells, or the concentration of neutrophils in the NL was not associated with ambient levels of dust or endotoxin, with baseline or cross-shift changes in lung function, or with work-related respiratory symptoms. These findings suggest that increased NL cellularity may be seen in workers exposed to high dust levels

  2. Pulmonary lavage in a patient in status asthmaticus receiving mechanical ventilation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, M; Maxson, T R

    1982-09-01

    Allergy and/or contraindications for theophylline and adrenergic drugs can be a life-threatening problem for patients with respiratory failure resulting from status asthmaticus. Mucous plugs and secretions in smaller bronchi can further complicate the problem. A patient in status astmaticus complicated by mucous impaction is described in whom pulmonary lavage was performed through a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope using a solution containing 250 ml normal saline, 30 ml 20% acetylcysteine, 0.5 ml Bronkosol and 125 mgm Solu-Medrol. Lavage was done twice at 24-hour intervals; extubation was accomplished within 48 hours after first lavage. This treatment resulted in remarkable improvement and proved to be life saving. The result suggests that this procedure is a useful therapeutic method and can be life saving in selected patients with respiratory failure.

  3. Laparoscopic Lavage vs Primary Resection for Acute Perforated Diverticulitis: The SCANDIV Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Johannes Kurt; Yaqub, Sheraz; Wallon, Conny; Blecic, Ljiljana; Forsmo, Håvard Mjørud; Folkesson, Joakim; Buchwald, Pamela; Körner, Hartwig; Dahl, Fredrik A; Øresland, Tom

    2015-10-06

    Perforated colonic diverticulitis usually requires surgical resection, which is associated with significant morbidity. Cohort studies have suggested that laparoscopic lavage may treat perforated diverticulitis with less morbidity than resection procedures. To compare the outcomes from laparoscopic lavage with those for colon resection for perforated diverticulitis. Multicenter, randomized clinical superiority trial recruiting participants from 21 centers in Sweden and Norway from February 2010 to June 2014. The last patient follow-up was in December 2014 and final review and verification of the medical records was assessed in March 2015. Patients with suspected perforated diverticulitis, a clinical indication for emergency surgery, and free air on an abdominal computed tomography scan were eligible. Of 509 patients screened, 415 were eligible and 199 were enrolled. Patients were assigned to undergo laparoscopic peritoneal lavage (n = 101) or colon resection (n = 98) based on a computer-generated, center-stratified block randomization. All patients with fecal peritonitis (15 patients in the laparoscopic peritoneal lavage group vs 13 in the colon resection group) underwent colon resection. Patients with a pathology requiring treatment beyond that necessary for perforated diverticulitis (12 in the laparoscopic lavage group vs 13 in the colon resection group) were also excluded from the protocol operations and treated as required for the pathology encountered. The primary outcome was severe postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo score >IIIa) within 90 days. Secondary outcomes included other postoperative complications, reoperations, length of operating time, length of postoperative hospital stay, and quality of life. The primary outcome was observed in 31 of 101 patients (30.7%) in the laparoscopic lavage group and 25 of 96 patients (26.0%) in the colon resection group (difference, 4.7% [95% CI, -7.9% to 17.0%]; P = .53). Mortality at 90 days did not

  4. Peritoneal lavage with povidone-iodine solution in colorectal cancer-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hua-Li; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Wen, Heng; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Na; Gao, Yu-Hua; Ding, Ni

    2018-08-01

    Although peritoneal lavage with povidone-iodine (PVPI) is frequently performed after surgery on the gastrointestinal tract, the effects of PVPI on the intestinal epithelial barrier are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abdominal irrigation with PVPI on the intestinal epithelial barrier in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-induced rat model. The CRC model was induced in rats with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. Next, a total of 24 male CRC-induced rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8): (1) a sham-operated group, (2) an NS group (peritoneal lavage 0.9% NaCl), and (3) a PVPI group (peritoneal lavage with 0.45%-0.55% PVPI). The mean arterial pressure was continuously monitored throughout the experiment. The levels of plasma endotoxin and D-lactate, blood gases, and protein concentration were measured. The ultrastructural changes of the epithelial tight junctions were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The mean arterial pressure after peritoneal lavage was lower in the PVPI group than that in the NS group. The protein concentration and levels of endotoxin and D-lactate were higher in the PVPI group than they were in the PVPI group. In addition, PVPI treatment resulted in a markedly severe metabolic acidosis and intestinal mucosal injury compared with NS rats. Peritoneal lavage with PVPI dramatically compromises the integrity of the intestinal mucosa barrier and causes endotoxin shock in CRC rats. It is unsafe for clinical applications to include peritoneal lavage with PVPI in colorectal operations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lung lavage therapy to lessen the biological effects of inhaled 144Ce in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of removal of an internally deposited radionuclide on long-term biological effects, lung lavage was used to treat dogs that had inhaled 144Ce in a relatively insoluble form, in fused aluminosilicate particles. Either 10 lung lavages were performed between Days 2 and 56 after exposure or 20 lung lavages were performed between Days 2 and 84 after exposure. Approximately one-half of the 144Ce was removed by the lavages, resulting in a corresponding reduction in the total absorbed beta dose to lung. The mean survival time of the treated dogs was 1270 days compared to 370 days for untreated dogs whose initial pulmonary burdens of 144Ce were similar. Treated dogs died late from cancers of the lung or liver, whereas the untreated dogs died at much earlier times from radiation pneumonitis. Dogs treated with lung lavage but not exposed to 144Ce had a mean survival of 4770 days. We concluded that removal of 144Ce from the lung by lavage resulted in increased survival time and in a change in the biological effects from inhaled 144Ce from early-occurring inflammatory disease to late-occurring effects, principally cancer. In addition, the biological effects occurring in the treated dogs could be better predicted from the total absorbed beta dose in the lung and the dose rate after treatment rather than from the original dose rate to the lung. Therefore, we concluded that prompt treatment to remove radioactive materials could be of significant benefit to persons accidentally exposed to high levels of airborne, relatively insoluble, radioactive particles

  6. Effect of peritoneal lavage solution temperature on body temperature in anaesthetised cats and small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D C; Leece, E A; Trimble, T A; Demetriou, J L

    2017-05-20

    A prospective, randomised, non-blinded, clinical study to assess the effect of peritoneal lavage using warmed fluid on body temperature in anesthetised cats and dogs of less than 10 kg body mass undergoing coeliotomy. A standardised anaesthetic protocol was used. Oesophageal and rectal temperatures were measured at various time points. At the end of surgery, group 1 patients (n=10) were lavaged with 200 ml/kg sterile isotonic saline at 34±1°C and group 2 (n=10) at 40±1°C. Groups were similar with respect to age, mass, body condition and surgical incision length. Duration of anaesthesia, surgical procedures and peritoneal lavage was similar between groups. Linear regression showed no significant change in oesophageal temperature during the lavage period for group 1 (P=0.64), but a significant increase for group 2 patients (Ptemperature changes of -0.5°C (from (36.3°C to 35.9°C) and +0.9°C (from 35.4°C to 36.3°C), respectively. Similar results were found for rectal temperature, with mean changes of -0.5°C and +0.8°C (P=0.922 and 0.045), respectively. The use of isotonic crystalloid solution for peritoneal lavage at a temperature of 40±1°C significantly warms small animal patients, when applied in a clinical setting, compared with lavage solution at 34±1°C. British Veterinary Association.

  7. Pulsatile Lavage of Musculoskeletal Wounds Causes Muscle Necrosis and Dystrophic Calcification in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonti, Alexander M; Robertson, Astor D; Nguyen, Thao P; Jaffe, David E; Hanna, E Lex; Holmes, Robert; Barfield, William R; Fourney, William L; Stains, Joseph P; Pellegrini, Vincent D

    2017-11-01

    Adequate irrigation of open musculoskeletal injuries is considered the standard of care to decrease bacterial load and other contaminants. While the benefit of debris removal compared with the risk of further seeding by high-pressure lavage has been studied, the effects of irrigation on muscle have been infrequently reported. Our aim in the present study was to assess relative damage to muscle by pulsatile lavage compared with bulb-syringe irrigation. In an animal model of heterotopic ossification, 24 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent hindlimb blast amputation via detonation of a submerged explosive, with subsequent through-the-knee surgical amputation proximal to the zone of injury. All wounds were irrigated and underwent primary closure. In 12 of the animals, pulsatile lavage (20 psi [138 kPa]) was used as the irrigation method, and in the other 12 animals, bulb-syringe irrigation was performed. A third group of 6 rats did not undergo the blast procedure but instead underwent surgical incision into the left thigh muscle followed by pulsatile lavage. Serial radiographs of the animals were made to monitor the formation of soft-tissue radiopaque lesions until euthanasia at 6 months. Image-guided muscle biopsies were performed at 8 weeks and 6 months (at euthanasia) on representative animals from each group. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin and eosin, alizarin red, and von Kossa staining on interval biopsy and postmortem specimens. All animals managed with pulsatile lavage, with or without blast injury, developed soft-tissue radiopaque lesions, whereas no animal that had bulb-syringe irrigation developed these lesions (p = 0.001). Five of the 12 animals that underwent blast amputation with pulsatile lavage experienced wound complications, whereas no animal in the other 2 groups experienced wound complications (p = 0.014). Radiopaque lesions appeared approximately 10 days postoperatively, increased in density until approximately 16 weeks, then

  8. The Use of High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation for Whole-Lung Lavage: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinthala, Sudhakar; Liang, Mark; Khusid, Felix; Harrison, Sebron

    2018-04-23

    Whole-lung lavage (WLL) remains the gold standard in the treatment of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. However, anesthetic management during WLL can be challenging because of the risk of intraoperative hypoxemia and various cardiorespiratory complications of 1-lung ventilation. Here, we describe a novel strategy involving the application of high-frequency percussive ventilation using a volumetric diffusive respirator (VDR-4) during WLL in a 47-year-old woman with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Our observations suggest that high-frequency percussive ventilation is a potentially effective ventilation strategy during WLL that may reduce the risk of hypoxemia and facilitate lavage.

  9. Use of therapeutic surfactant lavage in a preterm infant with massive pulmonary hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Kanavaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a premature infant presenting with recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage in which we performed a therapeutic lavage with diluted surfactant after an acute episode of bleeding with severe intractable hypoxemia. Repeated small aliquots of diluted surfactant (10x2 mL allowed rapid improvement in oxygenation and reduction of required mean airway pressures during high frequency oscillatory ventilation. This observation may suggest that surfactant lavage could be beneficial in massive pulmonary hemorrhage in infants. A randomized controlled trial might be needed to clarify the potential benefit of this therapeutic intervention on outcome of infants suffering from this life-threatening complication.

  10. Two-year results of the randomized clinical trial DILALA comparing laparoscopic lavage with resection as treatment for perforated diverticulitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, A; Rosenberg, J; Bock, D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditionally, perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis was treated with resection and colostomy (Hartmann's procedure), with inherent complications and risk of a permanent stoma. The DILALA (DIverticulitis - LAparoscopic LAvage versus resection (Hartmann's procedure...... in the Hartmann's group had a colostomy at 24 months. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic lavage is a better option for perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis than open resection and colostomy....

  11. Allergen-induced increase of eosinophil cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Grønborg, H; Mygind, N

    1990-01-01

    It was our aim to study the effect of nasal allergen provocation on the concentration of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage fluid, with and without glucocorticoid pretreatment. Twenty grass-pollen sensitive volunteers were provoked outside the pollen season on 2 consecutive days...

  12. Distribution of endotracheally instilled surfactant protein SP-C in lung-lavaged rabbits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; de Leij, Louis; Curstedt, T; ter Haar, J G; Schoots, Coenraad; Wildevuur, Charles; Okken, Albert

    In lung-lavaged surfactant-deficient rabbits (n = 6) requiring artificial ventilation, porcine surfactant was instilled endotracheally. This resulted in improvement of lung function so that the animals could be weaned off artificial ventilation. The animals were killed 4 1/2 h after surfactant

  13. Is initial (24 hours) lavage necessary in treatment of CAPD peritonitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlersen, E; Brandi, L; Løkkegaard, H

    1991-01-01

    A randomized trial was conducted to examine the influence of initial lavage on treatment of CAPD peritonitis. Patients with hypotension and shock were excluded from the trial. Thirty-six CAPD patients with acute peritonitis were randomized to treatment with intraperitoneal antibiotics including...... benefit in treatment of CAPD peritonitis in patients without profound hypotension and shock....

  14. Peritoneal lavage for the evaluation of patients with equivocal signs after abdominal trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, B R; Hauch, O; Damm, P

    1986-01-01

    The value of peritoneal lavage (PL) in the evaluation of 82 patients with equivocal signs after abdominal trauma was studied. The closed technique using an Intracatch (R) was employed. Fifty-four patients had blunt trauma, the predictive value of a positive PL was 86% and the predictive value...

  15. Single systemic administration of Ag85B of mycobacteria DNA inhibits allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamatsu K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Katsuo Karamatsu,1,2 Kazuhiro Matsuo,3 Hiroyasu Inada,4 Yusuke Tsujimura,1 Yumiko Shiogama,1,2 Akihiro Matsubara,1,2 Mitsuo Kawano,5 Yasuhiro Yasutomi1,21Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Vaccine Research, Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Tsukuba, 2Division of Immunoregulation, Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, 3Department of Research and Development, Japan BCG Laboratory, Tokyo, 4Department of Pathology, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 5Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, JapanAbstract: The immune responses of T-helper (Th and T-regulatory cells are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation observed in asthma. The correction of immune response by these cells should be considered in the prevention and treatment of asthma. Native antigen 85B (Ag85B of mycobacteria, which cross-reacts among mycobacteria species, may play an important biological role in host–pathogen interaction since it elicits various immune responses by activation of Th cells. The current study investigated the antiallergic inflammatory effects of DNA administration of Ag85B from Mycobacterium kansasii in a mouse model of asthma. Immunization of BALB/c mice with alum-adsorbed ovalbumin followed by aspiration with aerosolized ovalbumin resulted in the development of allergic airway inflammation. Administration of Ag85B DNA before the aerosolized ovalbumin challenge protected the mice from subsequent induction of allergic airway inflammation. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage immunoglobulin E levels, extent of eosinophil infiltration, and levels of Th2-type cytokines in Ag85B DNA-administered mice were significantly lower than those in control plasmid-immunized mice, and levels of Th1- and T-regulatory-type cytokines were enhanced by Ag85B

  16. Correlation among the cytokines levels in the bronco-alveolar lavage in a cohort of patient of the Central Military Hospital, with systemic sclerosis (SS), with and without alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Rossana; Velez, Patricia; Avila, Luz Mabel; Pernett, Frank; Giraldo, Luis Fernando; Amaya, Betty; Mejia, Adriana; Londono J, John; Valle, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SS) is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized clinically by thickening and fibrosis of the skin and by distinctive forms of involvement of internal organs, notably the heart, lungs, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. We analyzed nineteen patients with SS 9 with SSI, 10 with SSd and two healthy controls. All patients were evaluated by comprise of skin, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Pulmonary assessments were performed with chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography, vital capacity, forced expiratory volume and bronchoalveolar lavage (cellular counts and measured interleukin). The interleukin's levels of IL 6, IL 1 β IL 8, and TNFα were found increased in all patients with SS, but not in healthy controls. The interleukin's level in SSd patients tended to be higher than in SSI patients, but this difference only reach statistical significance with interleukins 6. Lung involvement in SS is associated with an increase in interleukin's levels in BAL fluids, but this difference only reach statistical significance with the interleukins 6 lL 1β and TNFα

  17. Is the use of low-pressure pulsatile lavage for pressure ulcer management associated with environmental contamination with Acinetobacter baumannii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chester H; Johnson, Tova; Miklacic, Joan; Donskey, Curtis J

    2009-10-01

    Ho CH, Johnson T, Miklacic J, Donskey CJ. Is the use of low-pressure pulsatile lavage for pressure ulcer management associated with environmental contamination with Acinetobacter baumannii? To determine the extent of environmental contamination associated with low-pressure pulsatile lavage of stage III or IV pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) when routine infection control precautions are used for wounds colonized or infected with Acinetobacter baumannii. Prospective investigation in which pressure ulcer cultures and environmental cultures were obtained before and after low-pressure pulsatile lavage treatment, and before and after regular dressing changes. Environmental cultures included the patient's bedrail and settle plates placed 0.6, 1.5, and 2.4m from the wound to assess airborne spread of A. baumannii. SCI inpatient unit in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Inpatients (N=15) with SCI receiving daily low-pressure pulsatile lavage treatment for stage III or IV pressure ulcers with standard dressing change, as well as regular dressing changes without low-pressure pulsatile lavage at other times of the day. Standard, regular dressing changes and dressing changes with low-pressure pulsatile lavage. Comparison of frequency of environmental contamination with A. baumannii associated with low-pressure pulsatile lavage versus regular dressing changes. Of the 15 SCI inpatients meeting inclusion criteria, 9 (60%) grew A. baumannii from their wounds. Of the 9 patients with wound cultures positive for A. baumannii, only 1 (11%) had environmental contamination with this organism after performance of low-pressure pulsatile lavage, and the same patient had environmental contamination after a standard dressing change. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the wound and environmental A. baumannii isolates were identical. Low-pressure pulsatile lavage using the infection control methods described is not associated with an increased

  18. Mouse adhalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W

    1997-01-01

    . To analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin...... was specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation...

  19. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  20. Peritoneal cavity lavage reduces the presence of mitochondrial damage associated molecular patterns in open abdomen patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Quinones, Patricia A; McCarthy, Cameron G; Mentzer, Caleb J; Wenceslau, Camilla F; Holsten, Steven B; Webb, R Clinton; O'Malley, Keith

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs), such as mitochondrial DNA and N-formylated peptides, are endogenous molecules released from tissue after traumatic injury. mtDAMPs are potent activators of the innate immune system. They have similarities with bacteria, which allow mtDAMPs to interact with the same pattern recognition receptors and mediate the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Current recommendations for management of an open abdomen include returning to the operating room every 48 hours for peritoneal cavity lavage until definitive procedure. These patients are often critically ill and develop SIRS. We hypothesized that mitochondrial DAMPs are present in the peritoneal cavity fluid in this setting, and that they accumulate in the interval between washouts. We conducted a prospective pilot study of critically ill adult patients undergoing open abdomen management in the surgical and trauma intensive care units. Peritoneal fluid was collected daily from 10 open abdomen patients. Specimens were analyzed via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), via enzyme immunoassay for DNAse activity and via Western blot analysis for the ND6 subunit of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase, an N-formylated peptide. We observed a reduction in the expression of ND6 the day after lavage of the peritoneal cavity, that was statistically different from the days with no lavage (% change in ND6 expression, postoperative from washout: -50 ± 11 vs. no washout day, 42 ± 9; p abdomen. It is possible that increased frequency of peritoneal cavity lavage may lead to decreased systemic absorption of mtDAMPs, thereby reducing the risk of SIRS. Prospective study, Case Series, Level V.

  1. Arthroscopic lysis and lavage in patients with temporomandibular anterior disc displacement without reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machoň, V.; Šedý, Jiří; Klíma, K.; Hirjak, D.; Foltán, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2012), s. 109-113 ISSN 0901-5027 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GAP304/10/0320 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : temporomandibular joint * arthroscopic lysis * arthroscopic lavage Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2012

  2. Determination of thyroglobulin in the cytology needle lavage for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodríguez, María Teresa; Turcios Tristá, Silvia Elena

    2016-01-01

    The determination of thyroglobulin in the lavage of the biopsy needle has been incorporated as a new tool for the diagnosis of thyroid lymphadenopathy. Objective: To determine the value of thyroglobulin quantification in the biopsy needle lavage in the diagnosis of the thyroid nodule. Material and Method: The biological material obtained from the rinsing of the needles used in the biopsy of the patients with diagnosis of thyroid nodule was taken as the study sample. An Immunoradiometric method was used to determine thyroglobulin. The Mann-Whitney non-parametric test was used to compare the median values of the thyroglobulin variable between malignant and benign lesions according to histopathological diagnosis. Significant differences (p <0.01) were found between mean thyroglobulin levels between benign nodules (502.6 ng / mL) and malignant nodules (11.9 ng / mL). Conclusion: The determination of thyroglobulin in the lavage of the needle used in the biopsy proved to be a useful procedure for the differential diagnosis of the thyroid nodule, so it would be very useful as a support for cytology.

  3. The removal of inhaled 239Pu from beagle dogs by bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Slauson, D.O.; Miglio, J.J.; Ruoff, L.; Mersch, S.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The efficacy of bronchopulmonary lavage and chelatan therapy for removing 239 Pu from beagle dogs after inhalation of 239 Pu aerosols having different solubilities has been investigated. The four aerosols used were nebulized from a solution of 239 PuCl 4 and heat treated at temperatures of 325, 600, 900 and 1150 0 C. Groups of six beagle dogs were exposed to each of the aerosols. Subsequently, three dogs in each group were treated by lavage and intravenous injections of DTPA. The remaining three dogs in each group served as untreated controls. It was found that bronchopulmonary lavage treatment was effective in removing nearly half of the 239 Pu activity from the lung regardless of the aerosol production temperature. This early removal of 239 Pu activity resulted in a significant reduction in daily dose rate and therefore cumulative α dose to lung. The effectiveness of DTPA treatment depended on aerosol production temperature, and was effective in reducing accumulation of 239 Pu in liver and skeleton of the dogs that inhaled aerosols produced at 325 0 and 600 0 C by enhancing urinary excretion of 239 Pu. (U.K.)

  4. The role of ultrasound guided percutaneous needle aspiration and lavage (barbotage in the treatment of calcific tendinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Niazi

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasound guided aspiration and lavage (barbotage is a highly effective, less aggressive method of treatment in cases of calcific tendinosis, especially for cases with severe pain that does not respond to other conservative methods.

  5. Bronchoalveolar permeability changes in rats inhaling gas/particle combinations during rest or exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, D.K.; Phalen, R.F.; Mannix, R.C.; Lavan, S.M.; Crocker, T.T.

    1986-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar (BA) injury in rats exposed at rest or exercise to air pollutants was studied by changes in epithelial permeability. Rats exposed to air, single gases or pollutant combinations were anesthetized, tracheostomized, and placed on an incline. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was delivered directly to a major bronchus. Radioactivity measurements were made on blood samples collected during first 10 min. Exposure of resting rats to 0.6 ppm O 3 increased BA permeability just after exposure, but it was normal 24 hrs later; in exercising rats the increase was greater than in rats exposed at rest, and it persisted up to 24 hrs. NO 2 at 6 ppm did not affect permeability. Exposure of resting rats to 2.5 ppm NO 2 + 0.6 ppm O 3 only increased permeability right after the exposure, but in exercising rats this exposure resulted in a greater permeability which remained elevated up to 24 hrs. Exposure of exercising rats to 0.8 ppm O 3 + 10 ppm HCHO increased permeability. Exposure of resting rats to an atmosphere of 0.6 ppm O 3 + 2.5 ppm NO 2 + 5 ppm SO 2 + 1 mg/m 3 sulfates of ferric, ammonium and manganese also produced an increase in permeability that persisted up to 24 hrs. The results suggest potentiation of the pollutant effects by exercise, but there is no indication of synergistic effect of pollutant combinations on BA permeability

  6. A comparative study between use of arthroscopic lavage and arthrocentesis of temporomandibular joint based on computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xu

    Full Text Available Arthroscopic lavage and arthrocentesis, performed with different inner-diameter lavage needles, are the current minimally invasive techniques used in temporomandibular joint disc displacement (TMJ-DD for pain reduction and functional improvement. In the current study, we aimed to explore the biomechanical influence and explain the diverse clinical outcomes of these two approaches with computational fluid dynamics. Data was retrospectively analyzed from 78 cases that had undergone arthroscopic lavage or arthrocentesis for TMJ-DD from 2002 to 2010. Four types of finite volume models, featuring irrigation needles of different diameters, were constructed based on computed tomography images. We investigated the flow pattern and pressure distribution of lavage fluid secondary to caliber-varying needles. Our results demonstrated that the size of outflow portal was the critical factor in determining irrigated flow rate, with a larger inflow portal and a smaller outflow portal leading to higher intra-articular pressure. This was consistent with clinical data suggesting that increasing the mouth opening and maximal contra-lateral movement led to better outcomes following arthroscopic lavage. The findings of this study could be useful for choosing the lavage apparatus according to the main complaint of pain, or limited mouth opening, and examination of joint movements.

  7. The removal of inhaled 239Pu and 238Pu from beagle dogs by lung lavage and chelation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Miglio, J.J.; Slauson, D.O.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were conducted in beagle dogs to determine the efficiency of treatment by lung lavage and injections of chelating agents in removing inhaled plutonium of varied chemical forms and particle sizes. Polydisperse aerosols of 239 Pu were produced at different temperatures from 325 0 C to 1150 0 C to evaluate the effect of the chemical form of the particles. Aerosols of 238 Pu were produced at 1150 0 C only but were of different particle size or size distributions. Three dogs that inhaled each different plutonium aerosol were treated by lung lavages starting two days after the exposure. Subsequent lavages were performed on days 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 after exposure. Intravenous injections of 100 mg of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as the calcium salt were given on days 1, 2, 3 and 4 after exposure and twice weekly thereafter to the time of sacrifice, 56 days after exposure. The 10 lung lavages removed from 18 to 49% of the initial lung burden of plutonium. The recovery of plutonium by lavage was similar irrespective of the temperature at which the aerosol was produced, however, lavage recovery decreased somewhat with increasing particle size. The efficacy of DTPA treatment increased with decreasing production temperature of the 239 Pu. Treatment with DTPA was not affected by particle size of the 0.8- and 1.9-μm monodisperse 239 Pu aerosol. The effectiveness of lung lavage decreased as the solubility of the aerosol particles increased whereas the effectiveness of the DTPA treatment increased as the solubility of the inhaled aerosol increased as shown by the lowest temperature aerosol and the aerosol-containing soluble fraction. These findings correlated qualitatively with a 2-hour in-vitro solubility test on the exposure aerosols. (author)

  8. Removal of inhaled industrial mixed oxide aerosols from Beagle dogs by lung lavage and chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 15 adult Beagle dogs to evaluate lung lavage and chelation therapy for the removal of inhaled particles of mixed actinide oxides. The dogs were divided into three groups of five dogs each. Each group was exposed to an aerosol from a different industrial process. Group 1 was exposed to mixed oxide material which had been calcined at 750 0 C collected from a ball milling process. Group 2 was exposed to mixed oxide material from a centerless grinding operation which had been previously heat treated to 1750 0 C. The third group was exposed to 239 PuO 2 not containing uranium from a V-blending procedure which had been heat treated at 850 0 C. After exposure, three dogs in each group were given ten lung lavages and 18 intravenous injections of calcium trisodium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA). All dogs were sacrificed 64 days after inhalation exposure. The tissues were radioanalyzed for plutonium and americium. Fluorimetric analyses for uranium in the tissues are in progress. The urine, feces and lavage fluid are also being analyzed for plutonium, americium and uranium. The distribution of plutonium and americium expressed as percentages of the sacrifice body burden was similar in the tissues of the treated and unteated dogs. The lungs contained most of the radionuclides with a small amount in the liver, skeleton and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The percentage of the sacrifice body burden of americium and plutonium that was present in the lung was less in the treated dogs and was higher in the TBLN's and skeleton than in the untreated dogs. The ratio of Pu/Am was higher in the lungs than in the original material obtained from the industrial sites suggesting a shorter retention time for americium than plutonium to 64 days in the dog

  9. INTRAARTICULAR INJECTION OF HYALURONIC ACID AFTER ARTHROSCOPIC LAVAGE OF THE KNEE: LONG-TERM RESULTS

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    Lidia Vladimirovna Luchikhina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of arthroscopic lavage in combination with subsequent injection of hyaluronic acid into the joint cavity at shortand long-term follow-ups. Subjects and methods. Eighty-two patients with knee osteoarthrosis (OA were examined in accordance with the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Group 1 consisted of 40 patients only after arthroscopic lavage; Group 2 comprised 42 patients who were administered hyaluronic acid after arthroscopic lavage. Clinical evaluation encompassed pain while walking, resting, and moving (by a visual analogue scale, limited ability in covering 100 m (by a 5-point scale, general clinical evaluation (by a 5-point ordinal scale, the presence or absence of pain after 100-m walking, as well as resting pain (its presence or absence. Results. The treatment effect evaluated using different indicators was comparably positive in both groups within 3 months. Following 3 months of therapy, its effect remained stable and even better in Group 2. The latter showed a particularly noticeable superiority a year later. Thus, there were excellent and good results in 88 and 47.5% in Groups 2 and 1, respectively. The clinical symptoms of the disease were absent in 58% in Group 2 and in only 15% in Group 1. Moreover, Group 1 showed worsening and 20% of the patients had no effect. This trend was also seen while evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness in different periods. Thus, after therapy, no substantial difference was found in both groups, but 3 months later this difference was as many as 0.8 scores and a year later Group 2 had many points in its favor (1.2 scores. Conclusion. Arthroscopic lavage followed by the administration of hyaluronic acid makes it possible to prevent the negative effect of a washing liquid on the metabolism and structure of the articular cartilage and to achieve a long-term effect against the major clinical symptoms (joint pain and function affecting the quality of life. The

  10. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage as treatment for canine pyometra : clinical communication

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    K.G.M. De Cramer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is a common post-oestral syndrome in bitches. Classical treatment consists of either ovariohystorectomy or medical intervention. Surgical uterine drainage and lavage via direct trans-cervical catheterisation using a 5% povidone-iodine in saline solution was performed successfully in 8 bitches with pyometra. All bitches conceived and whelped without complications subsequent to this treatment. It is concluded that this method offers an effective alternative treatment for canine pyometra with shorter recovery times as well as good clinical recovery and pregnancy rates in bitches destined for further breeding.

  11. Tomatidine Attenuates Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation by Suppressing Th2 Cytokines in a Mouse Model of Asthma

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    Chieh-Ying Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatidine is isolated from the fruits of tomato plants and found to have anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. In the present study, we investigated whether tomatidine suppresses airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and eosinophil infiltration in asthmatic mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin and treated with tomatidine by intraperitoneal injection. Airway resistance was measured by intubation analysis as an indication of airway responsiveness, and histological studies were performed to evaluate eosinophil infiltration in lung tissue. Tomatidine reduced AHR and decreased eosinophil infiltration in the lungs of asthmatic mice. Tomatidine suppressed Th2 cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Tomatidine also blocked the expression of inflammatory and Th2 cytokine genes in lung tissue. In vitro, tomatidine inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and CCL11 production in inflammatory BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. These results indicate that tomatidine contributes to the amelioration of AHR and eosinophil infiltration by blocking the inflammatory response and Th2 cell activity in asthmatic mice.

  12. Hollow organ perforation in blunt abdominal trauma: the role of diagnostic peritoneal lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Fu, Chih-Yuan; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Wu, Shih-Chi; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2012-05-01

    With recent advances in radiologic diagnostic procedures, the use of diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) has markedly declined. In this study, we reviewed data to reevaluate the role of DPL in the diagnosis of hollow organ perforation in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Adult patients who had sustained blunt abdominal trauma and who were hemodynamically stable after initial resuscitation underwent an abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage was performed for patients who were indicated to receive nonoperative management and where hollow organ perforation could not be ruled out. During a 60-month period, 64 patients who had received abdominal CT scanning underwent DPL. Nineteen patients were diagnosed as having a positive DPL based on cell count ratio of 1 or higher. There were 4 patients who sustained small bowel perforation. The sensitivity and specificity of the cell count ratio for a hollow organ perforation in this study were 100% and 75%, respectively. No missed hollow organ perforations were detected. For patients with blunt abdominal trauma and hemoperitoneum who plan to receive nonoperative management, DPL is still a useful tool to exclude hollow organ perforation that is undetected by CT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of radiation pneumonitis from inhaled 144Ce by lung lavage in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy as a treatment method to prevent the development of radiation pneumonitis after inhalation of a radioactive aerosol. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to an aerosol of cerium-144 in fused clay particles resulting in initial lung burdens from 47 to 64 μCi of 144 Ce per kg of body weight. Eight of the dogs were treated with a series of 10 bronchopulmonary lavages and 10 intravenous injections of calcium diethylenetriamine pentaacetate acid during the first 56 days after exposure to remove the deposited 144 Ce; the remaining 4 exposed dogs received no treatment. An additional 4 dogs were exposed to stable cerium and were given the course of treatment as an additional control group. Three of the 4 untreated dogs and 2 of the 8 treated dogs died 171 to 246 days after exposure with radiation pneumonitis or pulmonary fibrosis, or both. All but one of the remaining dogs were alive and apparently in good clinical health 550 days after exposure; the one dog had radiographic indications of pulmonary fibrosis by 365 days after exposure. The relative distribution of 144 Ce in the lungs and other major organs was similar in the treated and untreated dogs that died

  14. [Therapy concepts for diffuse peritonitis: When laparoscopic lavage and when open abdomen?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsgen, C; Schwab, R; Willms, A

    2016-01-01

    Secondary diffuse peritonitis still has a high morbidity and mortality even now; therefore, the various strategies and options for the different surgical therapies are undergoing an evidence-based review. Laparoscopic lavage without resection of the focus of sepsis for example is a profoundly different approach in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis from the damage control-based strategy of surgery with initial laparostomy and deferred anastomosis. The evidential data for minimally invasive therapy are comparatively well-reviewed for appendicitis, cholecystitis and ulcerated perforation of the stomach and duodenum. In contrast, the evidence for laparoscopy and minimally invasive surgery with lavage and deferred anastomosis or damage control in secondary peritonitis has improved but is still low and cannot yet be clearly recommended. This article presents an overview of the currently available therapeutic methods for diffuse peritonitis and a critical consideration of the evidence-based data. The key recommendation is that the decision to use a surgical procedure based on the currently available data depends more on the severity of the abdominal sepsis, the duration, the age of the patient and comorbidities than on the individual technique.

  15. The development of lavage procedures for the upper and lower respiratory tract of the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Grainne; Quinn, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    New techniques for routine bronchopulmonary lavage (BPL) and nasal flushing in the anaesthetized cat which are safe, reproducible and simple to use have been developed. Five adult mixed-breed cats from a specific pathogen-free colony were selected, fasted overnight and weighed. The feeding tube was passed through the endotracheal tube and down the trachea until it became wedged in the bronchus. Nasal flushing was then immediately carried out after the BPL with the endotracheal tube in position. Radiological and fluoroscopic examinations were carried out to determine the position of the feeding tube in the lung. Lateral and dorsoventral views of the thorax of each cat were taken. These examinations identified the tube most frequently in the caudal lobe of the lung. The lavage techniques described provide a definite procedure for investigating the cellular and humoral mechanisms operating in the upper and lower respiratory tract of the cat. These methods can be used to sample directly the cellular and humoral constituents contributing to defence mechanisms in the feline respiratory tract and to monitor the local changes accompanying respiratory disease

  16. Standard colonic lavage alters the natural state of mucosal-associated microbiota in the human colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Harrell

    Full Text Available Past studies of the human intestinal microbiota are potentially confounded by the common practice of using bowel-cleansing preparations. We examined if colonic lavage changes the natural state of enteric mucosal-adherent microbes in healthy human subjects.Twelve healthy individuals were divided into three groups; experimental group, control group one, and control group two. Subjects in the experimental group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Within two weeks, subjects were given a standard polyethylene glycol-based bowel cleansing preparation followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy. Subjects in control group one underwent two un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopies within one week. Subjects in the second control group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy after a 24-hour clear liquid diet within one week. The mucosa-associated microbial communities from the two procedures in each subject were compared using 16S rRNA gene based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP, and library cloning and sequencing.Clone library sequencing analysis showed that there were changes in the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota in subjects after colonic lavage. These changes were not observed in our control groups. Standard bowel preparation altered the diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota. Taxonomic classification did not reveal significant changes at the phylum level, but there were differences observed at the genus level.Standard bowel cleansing preparation altered the mucosal-adherent microbiota in all of our subjects, although the degree of change was variable. These findings underscore the importance of considering the confounding effects of bowel preparation when designing experiments exploring the gut microbiota.

  17. Growth of four microorganisms in polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akly, T S; DiPiro, J T; Steele, J C; Kemp, G A

    1986-12-01

    The growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans in reconstituted polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) stored under refrigeration and at room temperature was studied. A standard inoculum of each organism was added to one of four 4-L containers (one organism per container). From each container 28 aliquots of 25-mL each were removed and stored under refrigeration or at room temperature. One container was not inoculated and served as a control. Duplicate aliquots of the inoculated and the control solutions were filtered and incubated for quantification of organisms on days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 30. Solutions stored at room temperature supported the growth of S. marcescens and Ps. aeruginosa. The counts of these organisms increased to approximately 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL over 16 days. The counts of Staph. epidermidis in solutions stored at room temperature increased slightly over the first 24 hours and declined steadily to zero after day 4. C. albicans reached a maximum colony count of 5.84 cfu/mL on day 16 and steadily declined to 0.92 cfu/mL on day 30. Solutions stored under refrigeration did not support the growth of any microorganisms. Microbial growth was not detected in any of the control solutions over the 30-day study period. The polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution studied here should be refrigerated after reconstitution to minimize microbial growth. This solution may be used for up to 30 days after reconstitution when it is stored under refrigeration.

  18. Removal of inhaled 241Am oxide of various particle sizes from beagle dogs by lung lavage and chelation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Mo, T.; Felicetti, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The removal of 241 Am oxide aerosols of various particle sizes from the lung was studied in 24 Beagle dogs. There were four groups of dogs with six dogs per group and each group inhaled an aerosol of 241 Am oxide of a different particle size or particle size distribution. The four aerosols had sizes of: 0.75 μm AD, sigma/sub g/ 1.1; 1.5 μm AD, sigma/sub g/ 1.1; 3.0 μm AD, sigma/sub g/ 1.1; or 1.5 μm AMAD and sigma/sub g/ of 1.6. Three of the dogs in each group were treated with 10 lung lavages, the first lavage performed 2 days after exposure and the last lavage on day 49 after exposure. Each of these treated dogs was also given 100 mg diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) intravenously daily for 4 days after 241 Am exposure and twice per week thereafter to the end of the study. Daily excreta collections were made on each of the dogs until sacrifice at 64 days after exposure. The sacrifice body burden (SBB) was much lower for all of the treated dogs compared to the untreated dogs. The 241 Am activity found in the recovered lavage fluid was two to four times greater than the sacrifice body burden. These results suggest that the treatment procedures were effective in reducing the lung and body burden of 241 Am

  19. Nasal lavage fluid nuclear factor kappa B and cytology in asthmatic children and their correlation with severity and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Fouda

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Despite that spirometry and clinical classification are the gold standards for grading of asthma, Nasal lavage NFκB and cells can be considered as a new less-invasive non-subjective inflammatory marker for assessment of different grades of asthma severity and control.

  20. Colectomy and immediate anastomosis versus on-table colonic lavage for the management of acutely obstructed left colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I Kassem

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: In favorable situations, omission of on-table lavage may be preferred for immediate anastomosis in obstructed left colonic emergencies. The technique is reliable and well-tolerated with no additional morbidity or mortality. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(3.000: 138-148

  1. Can MRI Observations Predict Treatment Outcome of Lavage in Patients with Painful TMJ Disc Displacement without Reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, EwaCarin; Hansson, Lars-Göran; List, Thomas; Eriksson, Lars; Sahlström, Lotta Englesson; Petersson, Arne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with painful disc displacement without reduction of the temporomandibular joint to determine whether the findings were able to predict treatment outcome of lavage and a control group treated with local anaesthesia without lavage in a short-term: 3-month perspective. Bilateral magnetic resonance images were taken of 37 patients with the clinical diagnosis of painful disc displacement without reduction. Twenty-three patients received unilateral extra-articular local anaesthetics and 14 unilateral lavage and extra-articular local anaesthetics. The primary treatment outcome defining success was reduction in pain intensity of at least 30% during jaw movement at the 3-month follow-up. Bilateral disc displacement was found in 30 patients. In 31 patients the disc on the treated side was deformed, and bilaterally in 19 patients. Osteoarthritis was observed in 28 patients, and 13 patients had bilateral changes. Thirty patients responded to treatment and 7 did not, with no difference between the two treated groups. In neither the treated nor the contralateral temporomandibular joint did treatment outcome depend on disc diagnosis, disc shape, joint effusion, or osseous diagnoses. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of disc position, disc shape, joint effusion or osseous diagnosis on the treated or contralateral side did not give information of treatment outcome. Magnetic resonance imaging findings could not predict treatment outcome in patients treated with either local anaesthetics or local anaesthetics and lavage.

  2. Removal of inhaled 241Am oxide particles from beagle dogs by combined treatment with lung lavage and a chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Mo, T.; Slauson, D.O.

    1978-01-01

    This experiment was performed to evaluate combined therapy of lung lavage and chelation treatments to remove inhaled particles of 241 Am oxide. Twenty-four Beagle dogs were divided into four groups of 6 dogs each. Each group was exposed to an aerosol of different-sized particles of 241 Am oxide: monodisperse particles with AD of 0.75, 1.5 or 3.0 μm; polydisperse particles with AMAD = 1.5 μm. Three dogs in each group were treated with 5 lung lavages of the right lung (day 2, 7, 14, 28 and 42), and 5 lavages of the left lung (days 2, 10, 21, 35, and 49). In addition, each of the treated dogs was given 22 μmoles of trisodium calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Na 3 Ca DTPA) by intravenous injection 18 times from day 1 to 52 after exposure. The remaining 3 dogs in each group were untreated control dogs. All of the dogs were sacrificed 64 days after exposure and tissues, excreta, and lavage fluids were analyzed for 241 Am activity. Tissue distribution of 241 Am activity at sacrifice varied with aerosol particle size. Less 241 Am activity was found in the lungs of the dogs exposed to 0.75 and 1.5 μm AD aerosols groups than in those exposed to 3.0 μm particles. Lung lavage removed from 24 to 58% of the initial lung burden (ILB). Particle size did not affect the usefulness of lung lavage but it did influence the effectiveness of Na 3 Ca DTPA treatment. Na 3 Ca DTPA enhanced urinary excretion of 241 Am; dogs exposed to 0.75 μm particles excreted 31% of the ILB, and those exposed to 3.0 μm particles excreted only 10%. This experiment showed the effectiveness of combined treatment with lung lavage and chelation therapy for the removal of 241 Am oxide in the first 64 days after exposure. (author)

  3. Management of Alveolar Proteinosis by Bronchopulmonary lavage under Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO

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    Tahereh Parsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA The gold standard of treating Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP is bronchopulmonary lavage (BPL. We describe a rare case of BPD for PAP, who underwent ECMO due to hypoventilation in the setting of one lung ventilation. First, the clinical course of the patient is presented; furthermore, the biomolcular basis of PAP and new treatment approaches is discussed. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:"B Nazanin";} Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA  

  4. Bronchopulmonary lavage and DTPA treatment for the removal of inhaled 239Pu of varied solubility in beagle dogs. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Miglio, J.J.; Slauson, D.O.; McClellan, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    The efficacy of bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy was determined for removing 239 Pu from Beagle dogs after inhalation of 239 Pu aerosols of differing in vivo solubility. The four aerosols used were nebulized from a solution of 239 PuCl 4 and heat treated at temperatures of 325, 600, 900, and 1150 0 C, respectively. Six dogs were exposed to each of the four aerosols and three dogs in each group were treated subsequently by lavage and intravenous diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); three dogs served as untreated controls. Tissue accumulation of 239 Pu in the untreated control dogs at sacrifice 56 days post-exposure, expressed as a percentage of the initial lung burden (ILB), was 6 percent in liver and 9 percent in skeleton for the 325 0 C aerosol group, 1 percent in liver and 2 percent in the skeleton for the 600 0 C group, and less than 0.6 percent in these tissues for the 900 0 and 1150 0 C aerosol groups. Tissue accumulation was 1.0 percent or less of the ILB for all organs in the treated groups of dogs. The urinary excretion of 239 Pu was increased in the treated dogs compared to the control dogs that inhaled the 325 0 C and 600 0 C aerosols and was low in all dogs exposed to the 900 0 and 1150 0 C treated aerosol particles. Ten bronchopulmonary lavage procedures removed a mean of 44 percent of the ILB of 239 Pu from the lungs. The aerosol temperature and resulting differences in solubility of the particles did not influence the efficacy of the lavage procedure. An in vitro solubility test predicted the relative in vivo solubility of the four aerosols. These results are discussed in relation to the choice of therapy and its timing. (U.S.)

  5. Experimental Justification of Enteral Lavage by Osmotically Active Solution in Acute Intestinal Obstruction Complicated by Intraabdominal Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Lukoyanychev E.E.; Ryabkov M.G.; Kudykin M.N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of intra-enteric pressure level on the mechanism causing decompensation of microcirculation defects in the wall of a small intestine and to assess the effectiveness of enteral lavage by hydroxyethyl amylum in case of an increased intra-enteric pressure in acute intestinal obstruction. Materials and Methods. The experiment was carried out on 54 laboratory animals. In I series of the experiment (36 non-pedigree dogs) the processes of microc...

  6. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  7. Musculoskeletal ultrasound: how to treat calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided single-needle lavage technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth S; Rosas, Humberto G

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this video article is to illustrate the ultrasound appearance of calcium deposition in the rotator cuff and provide a detailed step-by-step protocol for performing the ultrasound-guided single-needle lavage technique for the treatment of calcific tendinitis with emphasis on patient positioning, necessary supplies, real-time lavage technique, and steroid injection into the subacromial subdeltoid bursa. Musculoskeletal ultrasound is well established as a safe, cost-effective imaging tool in diagnosing and treating common musculoskeletal disorders. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff is a common disabling cause of shoulder pain. Although most cases are self-limiting, a subset of patients is refractory to conservative therapy and requires treatment intervention. Ultrasound-guided lavage is an effective and safe minimally-invasive treatment not readily offered in the United States as an alternative to surgery, perhaps because of the limited prevalence of musculoskeletal ultrasound programs and limited training. On completion of this video article, the participant should be able to develop an appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the treatment of calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff using ultrasound.

  8. Intracavity lavage and wound irrigation for prevention of surgical site infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Atkinson, Ross A; Smith, Tanya A; Rowlands, Ceri; Rithalia, Amber D; Crosbie, Emma J; Dumville, Jo C

    2017-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections (SSIs) are wound infections that occur after an operative procedure. A preventable complication, they are costly and associated with poorer patient outcomes, increased mortality, morbidity and reoperation rates. Surgical wound irrigation is an intraoperative technique, which may reduce the rate of SSIs through removal of dead or damaged tissue, metabolic waste, and wound exudate. Irrigation can be undertaken prior to wound closure or postoperatively. Intracavity lavage is a similar technique used in operations that expose a bodily cavity; such as procedures on the abdominal cavity and during joint replacement surgery. Objectives To assess the effects of wound irrigation and intracavity lavage on the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI). Search methods In February 2017 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched three clinical trials registries and references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions on language, date of publication or study setting. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants undergoing surgical procedures in which the use of a particular type of intraoperative washout (irrigation or lavage) was the only systematic difference between groups, and in which wounds underwent primary closure. The primary outcomes were SSI and wound dehiscence. Secondary outcomes were mortality, use of systemic antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, adverse events, re-intervention, length of hospital stay, and readmissions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion at each stage. Two review authors also undertook data extraction, assessment of risk of bias and GRADE assessment. We calculated risk ratios or differences in means with 95% confidence intervals where

  9. Alteration by lung lavage of the biological effects from inhalation of a relatively insoluble form of 144Ce by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    The efficacy of lung lavage to remove a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce from the lung as a means to prevent or alter serious biological effects was evaluated in 21 Beagle dogs. The dogs were divided into five groups. Eight dogs (Group 1) were treated with a series of ten lung lavages between day 2 and day 56 after exposure to 144 Ce. Three dogs (Group 2) were treated with 20 lung lavages from day 2 to day 82 after exposure to 144 Ce. The third group consisted of four dogs and was exposed to 144 Ce but was not treated. Four dogs (Group 4) were given ten lung lavages as in Group 1 but were not exposed to 144 Ce. Two dogs (Group 5) were given 20 lung lavages like the Group 2 dogs but were not exposed to 144 Ce. All but one of the exposed untreated dogs died between 209 to 240 days after inhalation exposure with radiation pneumonitis. The remaining dog died 1072 days after inhalation exposure with a pulmonary carcinoma. All of the treated dogs (Groups 1 and 2) have died except for one dog. Two dogs died with radiation pneumonitis at 170 and 296 days after 144 Ce exposure. The remaining dogs died from 815 to 1773 days after exposure with malignant tumors. The unexposed treated dogs are all alive. Lung lavage appeared to prolong life in the treated dogs and most dogs died with neoplasia rather than with any acute or chronic inflammatory disease

  10. Performance of swabs, lavage, and diluents to quantify biomarkers of female genital tract soluble mucosal mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene S Dezzutti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measurement of immune mediators and antimicrobial activity in female genital tract secretions may provide biomarkers predictive of risk for HIV-1 acquisition and surrogate markers of microbicide safety. However, optimal methods for sample collection do not exist. This study compared collection methods. METHODS: Secretions were collected from 48 women (24 with bacterial vaginosis [BV] using vaginal and endocervical Dacron and flocked swabs. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL was collected with 10 mL of Normosol-R (n = 20, saline (n = 14, or water (n = 14. The concentration of gluconate in Normosol-R CVL was determined to estimate the dilution factor. Cytokine and antimicrobial mediators were measured by Luminex or ELISA and corrected for protein content. Endogenous anti-HIV-1 and anti-E. coli activity were measured by TZM-bl assay or E. coli growth. RESULTS: Higher concentrations of protein were recovered by CVL, despite a 10-fold dilution of secretions, as compared to swab eluents. After protein correction, endocervical swabs recovered the highest mediator levels regardless of BV status. Endocervical and vaginal flocked swabs recovered significantly higher levels of anti-HIV-1 and anti-E. coli activity than Dacron swabs (P<0.001. BV had a significant effect on CVL mediator recovery. Normosol-R tended to recover higher levels of most mediators among women with BV, whereas saline or water tended to recover higher levels among women without BV. Saline recovered the highest levels of anti-HIV-1 activity regardless of BV status. CONCLUSIONS: Endocervical swabs and CVL collected with saline provide the best recovery of most mediators and would be the optimal sampling method(s for clinical trials.

  11. Repeated measurement of nasal lavage fluid chemokines in school-age children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Terry L; Tudor, Gail E; Ivins, Sally S; Murphy, Paula C; Peden, David B; Henderson, Frederick W

    2006-02-01

    Inflammatory processes at the mucosal surface may play a role in maintenance of asthma pathophysiology. Cross-sectional studies in asthmatic patients suggest that chemokines such as interleukin 8 (IL-8) are overproduced by respiratory epithelium. To test the hypothesis that chemokine levels are persistently elevated in the respiratory secretions of asthmatic children at a stable baseline. We measured nasal lavage fluid (NLF) levels of chemokines and other mediators at 3- to 4-month intervals in a longitudinal study of asthmatic children, with nonasthmatic siblings as controls. In a linear mixed-model analysis, both family and day of visit had significant effects on nasal mediators. Thus, data for 12 asthmatic-nonasthmatic sibling pairs who had 3 or more same-day visits were analyzed separately. For sibling pairs, median eosinophil cationic protein levels derived from serial measurements in NLF were elevated in asthmatic patients compared with nonasthmatic patients, with a near-significant tendency for elevation of total protein and eotaxin levels as well. However, no significant differences were found for IL-8 or several other chemokines. Ratios of IL-13 or IL-5 to interferon-gamma released by house dust mite antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, tested on a single occasion, were significantly increased for asthmatic patients. Substantial temporal and family-related variability exists in nasal inflammation in asthmatic children. Although higher levels of eosinophil cationic protein are usually present in NLF of patients with stable asthma compared with patients without asthma, chemokines other than eotaxin are not consistently increased. Eosinophil activation at the mucosal surface is a more consistent predictor of asthmatic symptoms than nonspecific elevation of epithelium-derived inflammatory chemokine levels.

  12. Analysis of Gastric Lavage Reported to a Statewide Poison Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, Jimmy; Armenian, Patil; Hartman, Isaac N; Vohra, Rais

    2016-10-01

    As decontamination trends have evolved, gastric lavage (GL) has become a rare procedure. The current information regarding use, outcomes, and complications of GL could help refine indications for this invasive procedure. We sought to determine case type, location, and complications of GL cases reported to a statewide poison control system. This is a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System (CPCS) records from 2009 to 2012. Specific substances ingested, results and complications of GL, referring hospital ZIP codes, and outcomes were examined. Nine hundred twenty-three patients who underwent GL were included in the final analysis, ranging in age from 9 months to 88 years. There were 381 single and 540 multiple substance ingestions, with pill fragment return in 27%. Five hundred thirty-six GLs were performed with CPCS recommendation, while 387 were performed without. Complications were reported for 20 cases. There were 5 deaths, all after multiple ingestions. Among survivors, 37% were released from the emergency department, 13% were admitted to hospital wards, and 48% were admitted to intensive care units. The most commonly ingested substances were nontricyclic antidepressant psychotropics (n = 313), benzodiazepines (n = 233), acetaminophen (n = 191), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 107), diphenhydramine (n = 70), tricyclic antidepressants (n = 45), aspirin (n = 45), lithium (n = 36), and antifreeze (n = 10). The geographic distribution was clustered near regions of high population density, with a few exceptions. Toxic agents for which GL was performed reflected a broad spectrum of potential hazards, some of which are not life-threatening or have effective treatments. Continuing emergency physician and poison center staff education is required to assist in patient selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of abdominal lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury and combined radiation-burn injury on growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.-P.; Cheng, T.-M.; Guo, C.-H.; Liu, X.-H.; Qu, J.-F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To observe the effects of abdominal lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury, burn injury and combined radiation-burn injury on growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Methods Rats were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy γ-ray of 60Co, combined with 30% of total body surface area (TBSA) generated under a 5 KW bromo-tungsten lamp for 25 s. Lavage fluid from the peritoneum was collected 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury. Then the lavage fluid was added to the culture media of erythrocyte progenitor cells (CFU-E, BFE-E) or of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) at 40 mg/ml final concentration. Results The formed clones of CFU-E, BFU-E and CFU-GM of the lavage fluid from rats with radiation injury or combined radiation-burn injury at 3h, 12h, 24h, 48h and 72h time points were significantly higher than those from normal. They reached their peaks at 24h after injury (215.7%, 202.3%, or 241.2% from burned rats and 188.1%, 202.3% or 204.6% from rats inflected with combined radiation-burn injury as compared with those from normal rats). However, few CFU-E, BFU-E or CFU-GM clones were found after addition of lavage fluid from irradiated rats. Conclusion Peritoneal lavage fluid from rats with burn injury or combined radiation-burn injury enhances the growth of erythrocytes and granulocyte progenitor cells. On the contrary, the lavage fluid from irradiated rats shows inhibitory effects

  14. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG producing IL-18 reduces IL-5 production and bronchoalveolar eosinophilia induced by an allergic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biet, F; Duez, C; Kremer, L; Marquillies, P; Amniai, L; Tonnel, A-B; Locht, C; Pestel, J

    2005-08-01

    Allergic reactions occur through the exacerbated induction of a Th2 cell type expression profile and can be prevented by agents favoring a Th1 profile. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is able to induce high IFN-gamma levels and has been shown to decrease experimentally induced allergy. The induction of IFN-gamma is mediated by interleukin (IL)-12 known to be secreted upon mycobacterial infections and can be enhanced by IL-18 acting in synergy with IL-12. We evaluated the ability of a recombinant BCG strain producing IL-18 (rBCG) to modify the Th2 type responses in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-dependent allergic reaction. Mice were injected intraperitoneally or intranasally with OVA at days 0 and 15 and exposed to an OVA aerosol challenge at days 29, 30, 31 and 34. At days 0 and 15, two additional groups of mice received OVA together with 5 x 10(6) colony forming units of either rBCG or nonrecombinant BCG. A time-course analysis of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG1 and IgG2a levels indicated no significant difference between the three groups of mice. However, following in vitro stimulation with OVA, lymph node cells from rBCG-treated mice produced less IL-5 and more IFN-gamma than those of mice injected with nonrecombinant BCG. In addition, 48 h after the last OVA challenge, a strong reduction of bronchoalveolar eosinophilia was found in the rBCG-injected mice compared to the nontreated or nonrecombinant BCG-treated groups. These results indicate that the production of IL-18 by rBCG may enhance the immunomodulatory properties of BCG that suppress pulmonary Th2 responses and, in particular, decrease airway eosinophilia.

  15. Pancreatic-duct-lavage cytology in candidates for surgical resection of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: should the International Consensus Guidelines be revised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Jin Kan; Suyama, Masafumi; Kubokawa, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Sumio; Maehara, Tadayuki

    2009-03-01

    The International Consensus Guidelines are helpful for the management of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), because they allow us to exclude malignancy. However, it is not possible to predict malignancy with certainty, and further preoperative differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs is required to avoid the false-positive results. To examine the usefulness of pancreatic-duct-lavage cytology by using an originally designed double-lumen catheter for discriminating benign and malignant IPMNs of the branch-duct type in candidates for surgical resection based on the International Consensus Guidelines. Pancreatic-duct-lavage cytology was investigated in 24 patients with branch-duct IPMNs who underwent surgical resection based on the International Consensus Guidelines, namely, they either had intramural nodules or the ectatic branch duct was >30 mm in diameter. Single-center retrospective study. Academic medical center. The sensitivity and specificity of pancreatic-duct-lavage cytology for discriminating benign from malignant IPMNs. More than 30 mL of pancreatic-duct-lavage fluid was obtained from each patient, and there were no patients with noninformative results. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the cytologic diagnosis were 78%, 93%, 88%, and 88%, respectively. Single-center and small number of patients. Pancreatic-duct-lavage cytology can improve differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs of the branch-duct type in candidates for surgical resection based on the International Consensus Guidelines.

  16. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in a ventilator-induced injury mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Cagle

    Full Text Available Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is an essential therapeutic intervention, yet it causes the clinical syndrome known as ventilator-induced lung injury. Various lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies have attempted to reduce or prevent ventilator-induced lung injury but few modalities have proven effective. A model that isolates the contribution of mechanical ventilation on the development of acute lung injury is needed to better understand biologic mechanisms that lead to ventilator-induced lung injury.To evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in reducing lung injury in a ventilator-induced lung injury murine model in short- and longer-term ventilation.5-12 week-old female BALB/c mice (n = 85 were anesthetized, placed on mechanical ventilation for either 2 hrs or 4 hrs with either low tidal volume (8 ml/kg or high tidal volume (15 ml/kg with or without positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers.Alteration of the alveolar-capillary barrier was noted at 2 hrs of high tidal volume ventilation. Standardized histology scores, influx of bronchoalveolar lavage albumin, proinflammatory cytokines, and absolute neutrophils were significantly higher in the high-tidal volume ventilation group at 4 hours of ventilation. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure resulted in significantly decreased standardized histology scores and bronchoalveolar absolute neutrophil counts at low- and high-tidal volume ventilation, respectively. Recruitment maneuvers were essential to maintain pulmonary compliance at both 2 and 4 hrs of ventilation.Signs of ventilator-induced lung injury are evident soon after high tidal volume ventilation (as early as 2 hours and lung injury worsens with longer-term ventilation (4 hrs. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are protective against worsening VILI across all time points. Dynamic compliance can be used guide

  17. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in a ventilator-induced injury mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Jerold A.; Adams, Jason Y.; Harper, Richart W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is an essential therapeutic intervention, yet it causes the clinical syndrome known as ventilator-induced lung injury. Various lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies have attempted to reduce or prevent ventilator-induced lung injury but few modalities have proven effective. A model that isolates the contribution of mechanical ventilation on the development of acute lung injury is needed to better understand biologic mechanisms that lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Objectives To evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in reducing lung injury in a ventilator-induced lung injury murine model in short- and longer-term ventilation. Methods 5–12 week-old female BALB/c mice (n = 85) were anesthetized, placed on mechanical ventilation for either 2 hrs or 4 hrs with either low tidal volume (8 ml/kg) or high tidal volume (15 ml/kg) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers. Results Alteration of the alveolar-capillary barrier was noted at 2 hrs of high tidal volume ventilation. Standardized histology scores, influx of bronchoalveolar lavage albumin, proinflammatory cytokines, and absolute neutrophils were significantly higher in the high-tidal volume ventilation group at 4 hours of ventilation. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure resulted in significantly decreased standardized histology scores and bronchoalveolar absolute neutrophil counts at low- and high-tidal volume ventilation, respectively. Recruitment maneuvers were essential to maintain pulmonary compliance at both 2 and 4 hrs of ventilation. Conclusions Signs of ventilator-induced lung injury are evident soon after high tidal volume ventilation (as early as 2 hours) and lung injury worsens with longer-term ventilation (4 hrs). Application of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are protective against worsening VILI across all time points

  18. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in a ventilator-induced injury mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Laura A; Franzi, Lisa M; Linderholm, Angela L; Last, Jerold A; Adams, Jason Y; Harper, Richart W; Kenyon, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is an essential therapeutic intervention, yet it causes the clinical syndrome known as ventilator-induced lung injury. Various lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies have attempted to reduce or prevent ventilator-induced lung injury but few modalities have proven effective. A model that isolates the contribution of mechanical ventilation on the development of acute lung injury is needed to better understand biologic mechanisms that lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. To evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in reducing lung injury in a ventilator-induced lung injury murine model in short- and longer-term ventilation. 5-12 week-old female BALB/c mice (n = 85) were anesthetized, placed on mechanical ventilation for either 2 hrs or 4 hrs with either low tidal volume (8 ml/kg) or high tidal volume (15 ml/kg) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers. Alteration of the alveolar-capillary barrier was noted at 2 hrs of high tidal volume ventilation. Standardized histology scores, influx of bronchoalveolar lavage albumin, proinflammatory cytokines, and absolute neutrophils were significantly higher in the high-tidal volume ventilation group at 4 hours of ventilation. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure resulted in significantly decreased standardized histology scores and bronchoalveolar absolute neutrophil counts at low- and high-tidal volume ventilation, respectively. Recruitment maneuvers were essential to maintain pulmonary compliance at both 2 and 4 hrs of ventilation. Signs of ventilator-induced lung injury are evident soon after high tidal volume ventilation (as early as 2 hours) and lung injury worsens with longer-term ventilation (4 hrs). Application of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are protective against worsening VILI across all time points. Dynamic compliance can be used guide the frequency

  19. Distribution patterns of inhaled polydisperse 147Pm fused clay particles in the beagle dog thorax with and without lavage therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Runkle, G.E.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hulbert, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment was designed to examine dispersion and retention patterns for polydisperse aerosols of fused montmorillonite clay particles labeled with 147 Pm. Fourteen dogs were exposed and scheduled for serial sacrifice at 0, 8, 64, and 365 days post-exposure. Experimental procedures included producing a series of slices through the thorax at approximately 1 cm intervals and obtaining a series of autoradiograms and 35 mm color transparencies for each set of thorax slices to define (1) the average doses to lung, lung lobes, and other tissues of interest, (2) the number of hot spots of activity per unit volume in the lung, and (3) a size distribution for these hot spots. Comparable data will be analyzed for 4 additional dogs subjected to lavage therapy to remove a portion of the burden from either the left or right lung using 1 or 5 treatments. Totals of 31 to 71 percent of the initial left or right lung burden were removed by the lavage therapy but only preliminary observations are completed on the autoradiography data. (U.S.)

  20. The Effectiveness of Local Hypothermia and Peritoneal Lavage-Dialysis in the Treatment of Patients with Acute Destructive Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniamin I. Shaposhnikov, PhD, ScD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the principles of the pathogenetic therapy of acute pancreatitis and assess the effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas, as well as peritoneal lavage-dialysis in the treatment of acute destructive pancreatitis. A total of 5889 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP were examined. The leading role played by the lesions of the pancreatic lymphatic system in the development of destructive processes was noted. In experiments done on eight dogs, the first day of experimental acute pancreatitis showed necrosis of the lumbar retroperitoneal lymph nodes with a violation of lymph drainage from the pancreas before the retroperitoneal fat necrosis was initiated. The effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas was experimentally demonstrated. In 32 patients with AP, the perioperative local hypothermia of the pancreas for 20-25 minutes was followed by the reduction of the alpha-amylase activity in the peripheral blood and in the portal system, as well as a significant reduction in the edema of the pancreas, that delayed the progression of the destructive lesions. An effective method of performing lavage-dialysis of the omental bursa, by using a transversely perforated tube with a pollution control device in the lumen, was developed.

  1. EBI3 regulates the NK cell response to mouse cytomegalovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Chen, Shih-Yu; Folkersen, Lasse Westergaard

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are key mediators in the control of cytomegalovirus infection. Here, we show that Epstein-Barr virus-induced 3 (EBI3) is expressed by human NK cells after NKG2D or IL-12 plus IL-18 stimulation and by mouse NK cells during mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. The induc......Natural killer (NK) cells are key mediators in the control of cytomegalovirus infection. Here, we show that Epstein-Barr virus-induced 3 (EBI3) is expressed by human NK cells after NKG2D or IL-12 plus IL-18 stimulation and by mouse NK cells during mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection....... The induction of EBI3 protein expression in mouse NK cells is a late activation event. Thus, early activation events of NK cells, such as IFNγ production and CD69 expression, were not affected in EBI3-deficient (Ebi3-/-) C57BL/6 (B6) mice during MCMV infection. Furthermore, comparable levels of early viral...... replication in spleen and liver were observed in MCMV-infected Ebi3-/- and wild-type (WT) B6 mice. Interestingly, the viral load in salivary glands and oral lavage was strongly decreased in the MCMV-infected Ebi3-/- B6 mice, suggesting that EBI3 plays a role in the establishment of MCMV latency. We detected...

  2. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...

  3. Polyethylene glycol intestinal lavage in addition to usual antibiotic treatment for severe Clostridium difficile colitis: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Greig; Jones, Philip M; Kidane, Biniam; DeMelo, Vanessa; Mele, Tina

    2017-07-31

    Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are common, costly and potentially life threatening. Most CDI will respond to antibiotic therapy, but 3%-10% of all patients with CDI will progress to a severe, life-threatening course. Complete removal of the large bowel is indicated for severe CDI. However, the 30-day mortality following surgical intervention for severe CDI ranges from 20% to 70%. A less invasive approach using surgical faecal diversion and direct colonic lavage with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and vancomycin has demonstrated a relative mortality reduction of approximately 50%. As an alternative to these operative approaches, we propose to treat patients with bedside intestinal lavage with PEG and vancomycin instillation via nasojejunal tube, in addition to usual antibiotic management. Preliminary data collected by our research group are encouraging. We will conduct a 1-year, single-centre, pilot randomised controlled trial to study this new treatment strategy for patients with severe CDI and additional risk factors for fulminant or complicated infection. After informed consent, patients with severe-complicated CDI without immediate indication for surgery will be randomised to either usual antibiotic treatment or usual antibiotic treatment with the addition of 8 L of PEG lavage via nasojejunal tube. This pilot trial will evaluate our eligibility and enrolment rate, protocol compliance and adverse event rates and provide further data to inform a more robust sample size calculation and protocol modifications for a definitive multicentre trial design. Based on historical data, we anticipate enrolling approximately 24 patients during the 1-year pilot study period.As a pilot study, data will be reported in aggregate. Between-group differences will be assessed in a blinded fashion for evidence of harm, and to further refine our sample size calculation. This study protocol has been reviewed and approved by our local institutional review board. Results of the pilot

  4. The ladies trial: Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage or resection for purulent peritonitisA and Hartmann's procedure or resection with primary anastomosis for purulent or faecal peritonitisB in perforated diverticulitis (NTR2037)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Swank (Dingeman); J. Vermeulen (Jefrey); J.F. Lange (Johan); I.M. Mulder (Irene); J.A.B. van der Hoeven (Joost); L.P. Stassen (Laurents); R.M.P.H. Crolla (Rogier); M.N. Sosef (Meindert); S.W. Nienhuijs (Simon); R.J.I. Bosker (Robbert); M.J. Boom (Maarten); Ph.M. Kruyt (Philip); W.H. Steup (Willem Hans); E.J.R. de Graaf (Eelco); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); R.E.G.J.M. Pierik (Robert); H.A. Prins (Hubert); H.B.A.C. Stockmann; R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); B.A. van Wagensveld (Bart); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); G.D. Slooter (Gerrit); E.C. Consten (Esther); E.B. van Duijn (Eino); M.F. Gerhards (Michael); A.G.M. Hoofwijk; T.M. Karsten (Thomas); P.A. Neijenhuis (Peter); C.F.J.M. Blanken-Peeters (Charlotte); H.A. Cense (Huib); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); S.C. Bruin (Sjoerd); Q.A. Eijsbouts (Quirijn); M.J. Wiezer (Marinus); E.J. Hazebroek (Eric Jasper); A.A. van Geloven (Anna); J.K. Maring (John); A. D'Hoore (André); A. Kartheuser (Alex); C. Remue (Christophe); H.M.U. van Grevenstein (Helma); J.L.M. Konsten (Joop); D.L. van der Peet (Donald); M.J.P.M. Govaert (Marc); A.F. Engel (Alexander); J.B. Reitsma (Johannes); W.A. Bemelman (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recently, excellent results are reported on laparoscopic lavage in patients with purulent perforated diverticulitis as an alternative for sigmoidectomy and ostomy. The objective of this study is to determine whether LaparOscopic LAvage and drainage is a safe and effective

  5. The Ladies trial: laparoscopic peritoneal lavage or resection for purulent peritonitis and Hartmann's procedure or resection with primary anastomosis for purulent or faecal peritonitis in perforated diverticulitis (NTR2037)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swank, Hilko A.; Vermeulen, Jefrey; Lange, Johan F.; Mulder, Irene M.; van der Hoeven, Joost A. B.; Stassen, Laurents P. S.; Crolla, Rogier M. P. H.; Sosef, Meindert N.; Nienhuijs, Simon W.; Bosker, Robbert J. I.; Boom, Maarten J.; Kruyt, Philip M.; Swank, Dingeman J.; Steup, Willem H.; de Graaf, Eelco Jr; Weidema, Wibo F.; Pierik, Robert E. G. J. M.; Prins, Hubert A.; Stockmann, Henricus B. A. C.; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; van Wagensveld, Bart A.; Coene, Peter-Paul L. O.; Slooter, Gerrit D.; Consten, Esther C. J.; van Duyn, Eino B.; Gerhards, Michael F.; Hoofwijk, Anton G. M.; Karsten, Thomas M.; Neijenhuis, Peter A.; Blanken-Peeters, Charlotte F. J. M.; Cense, Huib A.; Mannaerts, Guido H. H.; Bruin, Sjoerd C.; Eijsbouts, Quirijn A. J.; Wiezer, Marinus J.; Hazebroek, Eric J.; van Geloven, Anna A. W.; Maring, John K.; D'Hoore, Andre; Kartheuser, Alex; Remue, Christophe; van Grevenstein, Wilhelmina M. U.; Konsten, Joop L. M.; van der Peet, Donald L.; Govaert, Marc J. P. M.; Engel, Alexander F.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Bemelman, Willem A.; 3d, The Dutch Diverticular Disease Collaborative Study Group

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recently, excellent results are reported on laparoscopic lavage in patients with purulent perforated diverticulitis as an alternative for sigmoidectomy and ostomy. The objective of this study is to determine whether LaparOscopic LAvage and drainage is a safe and effective

  6. Platinum levels in nasal lavage fluid as a biomarker for traffic-related exposure and inflammation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schins, R.P.F.; Polat, D.; Begerow, J.; Turfeld, M.; Becker, A.; Borm, P.J.A

    2004-12-01

    Platinum (Pt) is a well-known constituent of particles emitted by catalytic converters during car operation. To evaluate Pt as a potential marker for traffic related particle exposure, we investigated Pt content along with metals vanadium (V) and chromium (Cr) in coarse and fine particulate matter (PM), sampled in four areas with different traffic density, as well as in the nasal lavage (NAL) of 67 children (average age: 6 years) living in these areas. The different sites were characterised by significant differences in air pollutants including PM, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO and Cr, but differences in V or Pt were absent. No significant differences in neutrophil and epithelial cell counts or concentrations of the neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8 (IL-8) were found in the NAL of children living in the different areas. In addition, the concentrations of V, Cr and Pt, which were detectable in 64%, 73% and 93% of the individuals, respectively, did not differ between the different locations. However, in the NAL of the children, a significant correlation between Pt and the number of neutrophils/ml (r=0.40, p<0.001) as well as of epithelial cells/ml (r=0.41, p<0.001) was found. No relation was present between nasal inflammation and nasal Cr levels, whereas a relatively weak association was observed between V and epithelial cells counts (r=0.30, p=0.018). In conclusion, our data suggests a role for nasal lavage Pt as a candidate biomarker for traffic-related PM, which is able to induce inflammation in the upper respiratory tract.

  7. [Application of continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring system "Paratrend 7" for pulmonary lavage of a patient with alveolar proteinosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, M; Hirose, Y; Gamo, M; Hirose, M; Fujiwara, C; Matsuo, K

    1999-03-01

    We applied a continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring system (Paratrend 7) to a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis during pulmonary lavage. Lavage was performed under general anesthesia with one lung ventilation. We inserted the sensor of Patatrend 7 through a 20 G catheter into the radial artery, and monitored pH, PaCO2 and PaO2 continuously throughout the procedure. SpO2 and EtCO2 were also monitored. Saline 1000-1500 ml was instilled and drained repeatedly by volume limited methods. PaO2 values by Paratrend 7 increased during instillation and decreased during drainage of the irrigating fluid. In contrast, PaCO2 value by Paratrend 7 decreased slightly during instillation and increased during drainage. The change of SpO2 was almost the same as that by Paratrend 7, but the response time of pulse oxymetry was a little quicker than Paratrend 7. During the lavage procedure, respiratory and circulatory condition changed very rapidly, and it is necessary to monitor blood gas change intensively. Paratrend 7 is useful as a perioperative monitoring system, but pulse oxymetry might be sufficient during pulmonary lavage considering its cost.

  8. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  9. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  10. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Value of Peritoneal Lavage Test in Intra Abdominal Injuries Due to Abdominal Trauma and Comparison with Laparotomy and Conservative Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Amoie

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of abdominal trauma is increasing during recent years. Abdomen is the third most affected part of body by trauma. Early diagnosis can help us select better methods for managing abdominal trauma. Even though newer imaging techniques such as CT scan are available, abdominal trauma is still a complex matter, which every doctor in the emergency department has to deal with. Physical examination for the evaluation of intra abdominal organ damage though impotant, is not enough. Material and Methods: This observational (cross-sectional study was done over a period of 24 months (1999-2001. 135 patients (99male and 36 female with abdominal trauma and no urgent laparotomy indication were included in this study. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive&negative predictive values of DPL test in our cases using SPSS software. Results: Mean age of patients was 28.6 years. All of the patients were evaluated with peritoneal lavage which resulted in 70 positive and 65 negative cases. All of the 70 cases with positive results were further evaluated with laparotomy of which 63 cases have intra peritoneal injuries that needed surgical treatment, while 7 cases didn’t have any intra peritoneal injuries (False positive results. All cases with negative results of peritoneal lavage test were treated conservatively for 3-5 days and during this period of time, 3 cases needed laparotomy and surgical treatment (False negative results. Conclusion : According to the results of this study, sensitivity of peritoneal lavage test in diagnosis of abdominal trauma was 95.5% and specificity was 90%. Negative predictive value of this test was 95.4% and positive predictive value of this test was 90%. Thus, peritoneal lavage test in abdominal trauma is sensitive, specific and has high specificity. It is therefore advisable that after initial evaluation of all penetrating and blunt abdominal traumas, peritoneal lavage test should be performed.

  11. Protective effects of valproic acid against airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling in a mouse model of allergic airways disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Simon G; Dang, William; Ververis, Katherine; De Sampayo, Nishika; El-Osta, Assam; Tang, Mimi L K; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-12-01

    Airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness are major aspects of asthma pathology that are not targeted optimally by existing anti-inflammatory drugs. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have a wide range of effects that may potentially abrogate aspects of remodeling. One such histone deacetylase inhibitor is valproic acid (2-propylvaleric acid). Valproic acid is used clinically as an anti-epileptic drug and is a potent inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases but also inhibits class II histone deacetylases. We used valproic acid as a molecular model of histone deacetylase inhibition in vivo in chronic allergic airways disease mice with airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness. Wild-type Balb/c mice with allergic airways disease were treated with valproic acid or vehicle control. Airway inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts and examination of lung tissue sections. Remodeling was assessed by morphometric analysis of histochemically stained slides and lung function was assessed by invasive plethysmography measurement of airway resistance. Valproic acid treatment did not affect inflammation parameters; however, valproic acid treatment resulted in reduced epithelial thickness as compared to vehicle treated mice (p < 0.01), reduced subepithelial collagen deposition (p < 0.05) and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 for the two highest doses of methacholine, respectively). These findings show that treatment with valproic acid can reduce structural airway remodeling changes and hyperresponsiveness, providing further evidence for the potential use of histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of asthma.

  12. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha D. W. Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA and house dust mite (HDM extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5–80 g protein 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0 g. MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential.

  13. Tracking vaginal, anal and oral infection in a mouse papillomavirus infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiafen; Budgeon, Lynn R; Cladel, Nancy M; Balogh, Karla; Myers, Roland; Cooper, Timothy K; Christensen, Neil D

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive and practical techniques to longitudinally track viral infection are sought after in clinical practice. We report a proof-of-principle study to monitor the viral DNA copy number using a newly established mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1) mucosal infection model. We hypothesized that viral presence could be identified and quantified by collecting lavage samples from cervicovaginal, anal and oral sites. Nude mice infected at these sites with infectious MmuPV1 were tracked for up to 23 weeks starting at 6 weeks post-infection. Viral DNA copy number was determined by SYBR Green Q-PCR analysis. In addition, we tracked viral DNA load through three complete oestrous cycles to pinpoint whether there was a correlation between the DNA load and the four stages of the oestrous cycle. Our results showed that high viral DNA copy number was reproducibly detected from both anal and cervicovaginal lavage samples. The infection and disease progression were further confirmed by histology, cytology, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, the viral copy number fluctuated over the oestrous cycle, with the highest level at the oestrus stage, implying that multiple sampling might be necessary to provide a reliable diagnosis. Virus DNA was detected in oral lavage samples at a later time after infection. Lower viral DNA load was found in oral samples when compared with those in anal and vaginal tracts. To our knowledge, our study is the first in vivo study to sequentially monitor papillomavirus infection from mucosal anal, oral and vaginal tracts in a preclinical model.

  14. Exosomal miRNAs from Peritoneum Lavage Fluid as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers of Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer.

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    Motohiko Tokuhisa

    Full Text Available Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent type of recurrence in patients with gastric cancer (GC and is associated with poor prognosis. Peritoneal lavage cytology, used to evaluate the risk of peritoneal metastasis, has low sensitivity. Here, we assessed the diagnostic potential of exosomal miRNA profiles in peritoneal fluid for the prediction of peritoneal dissemination in GC. Total RNA was extracted from exosomes isolated from six gastric malignant ascites (MA samples, 24 peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF samples, and culture supernatants (CM of two human gastric carcinoma cell lines that differ in their potential for peritoneal metastasis. Expression of exosomal miRNAs was evaluated with Agilent Human miRNA microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The microarray analysis indicated a low variability in the number and signal intensity of miRNAs detected among the samples. In the six MA fluids, miR-21 showed the highest signal intensity. We identified five miRNAs (miR-1225-5p, miR-320c, miR-1202, miR-1207-5p, and miR-4270 with high expression in MA samples, the PLF of serosa-invasive GC, and the CM of a highly metastatic GC cell line; these candidate miRNA species appear to be related to peritoneal dissemination. Differential expression of miR-21, miR-320c, and miR-1225-5p was validated in the PLF of serosa-invasive and non-invasive GC by qRT-PCR and miR-21 and miR-1225-5p were confirmed to be associated with serosal invasion in GC. PLF can be used to profile the expression of exosomal miRNAs. Our findings suggest that miR-21 and miR-1225-5p may serve as biomarkers of peritoneal recurrence after curative GC resection, thus providing a novel approach to early diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of GC.

  15. Single-stage epidural catheter lavage with posterior spondylodesis in lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis with multilevel epidural abscess formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschoeke, Sven K; Kayser, Ralph; Gulow, Jens; Hoeh, Nicolas von der; Salis-Soglio, Georg von; Heyde, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Despite significant advances in the conservative management of pyogenic spondylodiscitis, consecutive instability, deformity, and/or neurologic compromise demands a prompt surgical intervention. However, in rare cases involving additional multilevel epidural abscess formation, the appropriate surgical strategy remains controversial. In this retrospective cohort analyses, we evaluated the efficacy of a single-stage posterior approach with the addition of a one-time multilevel epidural lavage via the surgically exposed interlaminar fenestration of the infected segment. From January 2009 through December 2010, 73 patients presenting pyogenic spondylodiscitis with instability of the lumbar spine were admitted. In all cases, the surgical strategy included a radical resection of the affected intervertebral disc and stabilization by intervertebral fusion using a titanium cage with autologous bone grafting in a level-dependent posterior approach with additional pedicle screw-and-rod instrumentation. In cases where multilevel abscess formation was evident, the standard surgical procedure was complemented by drainage and irrigation of the abscess from posterior by carefully advancing a soft infant feeding tube via the surgically exposed epidural space under fluoroscopic guidance. All patients received complementary oral antibiotic therapy for 12 weeks and were followed-up for a minimum of 12 months postoperatively. Ten patients (three male and seven female patients; mean age: 64.9 ± 10.9 years) presented with an additional lumbar epidural abscess extending beyond three levels proximal or distal to the infected disc. In all 10 patients the laboratory-chemical inflammatory parameters (leukocyte count, C-reactive protein) remained within the physiologic range after completing antibiotic therapy throughout the 1-year follow-up period. The plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated solid fusion and the complete remission of the initial abscess formation after

  16. Immunostimulatory mouse granuloma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, E; Fauve, R M; Hevin, B; Jusforgues, H

    1983-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that from subcutaneous talc-induced granuloma in mice, a fraction could be extracted that fully protected mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Using standard biochemical procedures--i.e., ammonium sulfate fractionation, preparative electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis--we have now purified an active factor to homogeneity. A single band was obtained in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel with an apparent Mr of 55,000. It migrated with alpha 1-globulins and the isoelectric point was 5 +/- 0.1. The biological activity was destroyed with Pronase but not with trypsin and a monospecific polyclonal rabbit antiserum was obtained. The intravenous injection of 5 micrograms of this "mouse granuloma protein" fully protects mice against a lethal inoculum of L. monocytogenes. Moreover, after their incubation with 10 nM mouse granuloma protein, mouse peritoneal cells became cytostatic against Lewis carcinoma cells.

  17. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  18. Prognostic significance of pleural lavage cytology after thoracotomy and before closure of the chest in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yuji; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Miwa, Ken; Adachi, Yoshin; Fujioka, Shinji; Haruki, Tomohiro; Horie, Yasushi

    2009-07-01

    Some reports have described pleural lavage cytology (PLC) to be a prognostic factor for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, there have only been a few reports describing the findings both immediately after thoracotomy (PLC after thoracotomy) and before the closure of the chest (PLC before closure). From April 2002 to April 2008, both PLC after thoracotomy and PLC before closure were performed in 296 consecutive patients who underwent resections for NSCLC. PLC after thoracotomy was positive in 14 patients. The survival rate in the PLC after thoracotomy positive cases was significantly poorer than in PLC after thoracotomy negative cases (P=0.047). In contrast, there were 26 PLC before closure positive cases. The survival rate in the PLC before closure positive cases was significantly poorer than in the PLC before closure negative cases (PPLC after thoracotomy is not an independent prognostic factor in our study. However, PLC before closure was an independent prognostic factor based on multivariate analyses. We conclude that PLC before closure was found to be a better prognostic factor than PLC after thoracotomy for NSCLC patients.

  19. Fungi, beta-Glucan, and Bacteria in Nasal Lavage of Greenhouse Workers and Their Relation to Occupational Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, A. M.; Tendal, K.; Thilsing, T.

    2013-01-01

    occupational exposure to fungi, -glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, -glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n 135) were taken Monday morning....... The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, -glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays......, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of -glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL...

  20. Treatment of the calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle lavage. Two years prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-González, Federico Del; Ramos-Álvarez, Juan José; Rodríguez-Fabián, Guillermo; González-Pérez, José; Calderón-Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: to evaluate the short and long term effectiveness of ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous needle lavage in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To study the evolution of the size of calcifications and pain in the two years after treatment. Methods: study design: A 2 year longitudinal prospective study is carried out after applying the UGPL technique on a number of patients diagnosed with calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Clinical, ultrasound and radiology follow-up controls were performed, 3 months, 6 months, one year and two years after the treatment. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess the pain. The degree and point of pain is selected on a 10 cm line, arranged horizontally or vertically. The “0” represents no pain and “10” represents worst pain. The population studied was made up of 121 patients that required our service as a result of suffering from a painful shoulder. Results: the pain (VAS) and the size of the calcification significantly decreased with the application of the technique (ptendinitis of the shoulder. The intervention is simple, cost-effective, does not require hospitalization, involves no complications, rehabilitation treatment is not required and it shows very few side effects without sequelae, significantly reducing the size of the calcification and pain in the majority of patients. PMID:25332939

  1. Polyethylene Glycol Electrolyte Lavage Solution versus Colonic Hydrotherapy for Bowel Preparation before Colonoscopy: A Single Center, Randomized, and Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This single center, randomized, and controlled study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage (PEG-EL solution and colonic hydrotherapy (CHT for bowel preparation before colonoscopy. A total of 196 eligible outpatients scheduled for diagnostic colonoscopy were randomly assigned to the PEG-EL (n=102 or CHT (n=94 groups. Primary outcome measures included colonic cleanliness and adverse effects. Secondary outcome measures were patient satisfaction and preference, colonoscopic findings, ileocecal arrival rate, examiner satisfaction, and cecal intubation time. The results show that PEG-EL group was associated with significantly better colonic cleanliness than CHT group, fewer adverse effects, and increased examiner satisfaction. However, the CHT group had higher patient satisfaction and higher diverticulosis detection rates. Moreover, the results showed the same ileocecal arrival rate and patient preference between the two groups (P>0.05. These findings indicate that PEG-EL is the preferred option in patients who followed the preparation instructions completely.

  2. Depletion by styrene of glutathione in plasma and bronchioalveolar lavage fluid of non-Swiss albino (NSA) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Gary P

    2010-01-01

    Styrene is a widely used chemical, but it is known to produce lung and liver damage in mice. This may be related to oxidative stress associated with the decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the target tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of styrene and its primary metabolites R-styrene oxide (R-SO) and S-styrene oxide (S-SO) on GSH levels in the lung lumen, as determined by amounts of GSH in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in plasma. When non-Swiss albino (NSA) mice were administered styrene (600 mg/kg, ip), there was a significant fall in GSH levels in both BALF and plasma within 3 h. These returned to control levels by 12 h. The active metabolite R-SO (300 mg/kg, ip) also produced significant decreases in GSH in both BALF and plasma, but S-SO was without marked effect. Since GSH is a principal antioxidant in the lung epithelial lining fluid, this fall due to styrene may exert a significant influence on the ability of the lung to buffer oxidative damage.

  3. Differential effects of rapamycin and dexamethasone in mouse models of established allergic asthma.

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    Elizabeth M Mushaben

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR plays an important role in cell growth/differentiation, integrating environmental cues, and regulating immune responses. Our lab previously demonstrated that inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin prevented house dust mite (HDM-induced allergic asthma in mice. Here, we utilized two treatment protocols to investigate whether rapamycin, compared to the steroid, dexamethasone, could inhibit allergic responses during the later stages of the disease process, namely allergen re-exposure and/or during progression of chronic allergic disease. In protocol 1, BALB/c mice were sensitized to HDM (three i.p. injections and administered two intranasal HDM exposures. After 6 weeks of rest/recovery, mice were re-exposed to HDM while being treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone. In protocol 2, mice were exposed to HDM for 3 or 6 weeks and treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone during weeks 4-6. Characteristic features of allergic asthma, including IgE, goblet cells, airway hyperreactivity (AHR, inflammatory cells, cytokines/chemokines, and T cell responses were assessed. In protocol 1, both rapamycin and dexamethasone suppressed goblet cells and total CD4(+ T cells including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells in the lung tissue, with no effect on AHR or total inflammatory cell numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Rapamycin also suppressed IgE, although IL-4 and eotaxin 1 levels were augmented. In protocol 2, both drugs suppressed total CD4(+ T cells, including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells and IgE levels. IL-4, eotaxin, and inflammatory cell numbers were increased after rapamycin and no effect on AHR was observed. Dexamethasone suppressed inflammatory cell numbers, especially eosinophils, but had limited effects on AHR. We conclude that while mTOR signaling is critical during the early phases of allergic asthma, its role is much more limited once disease is established.

  4. Effect of mouse strain in a model of chemical-induced respiratory allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Risako; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Watanabe, Yuko; Kurosawa, Yoshimi; Ueda, Hideo; Kosaka, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    The inhalation of many types of chemicals is a leading cause of allergic respiratory diseases, and effective protocols are needed for the detection of environmental chemical-related respiratory allergies. In our previous studies, we developed a method for detecting environmental chemical-related respiratory allergens by using a long-term sensitization-challenge protocol involving BALB/c mice. In the current study, we sought to improve our model by characterizing strain-associated differences in respiratory allergic reactions to the well-known chemical respiratory allergen glutaraldehyde (GA). According to our protocol, BALB/c, NC/Nga, C3H/HeN, C57BL/6N, and CBA/J mice were sensitized dermally with GA for 3 weeks and then challenged with intratracheal or inhaled GA at 2 weeks after the last sensitization. The day after the final challenge, all mice were euthanized, and total serum IgE levels were assayed. In addition, immunocyte counts, cytokine production, and chemokine levels in the hilar lymph nodes (LNs) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were also assessed. In conclusion, BALB/c and NC/Nga mice demonstrated markedly increased IgE reactions. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF were increased in the treated groups of all strains, especially BALB/c, NC/Nga, and CBA/J strains. Cytokine levels in LNs were increased in all treated groups except for C3H/HeN and were particularly high in BALB/c and NC/Nga mice. According to our results, we suggest that BALB/c and NC/Nga are highly susceptible to respiratory allergic responses and therefore are good candidates for use in our model for detecting environmental chemical respiratory allergens.

  5. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Marques de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study. RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively. Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.

  6. A Case of Bilateral Acute Calcific Tendinitis of the Gluteus Medius, Treated by Ultrasound-guided Needle Lavage and Corticosteroid Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Vereecke, Elke; Mermuys, Koen; Casselman, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease is a common pathology, most frequently located in the rotator cuff tendons of the shoulder, for which different therapeutic approaches are used. Ultrasound guided needle lavage and injection of anesthetic/corticosteroid is a well-known and extensively described treatment for calcific tendinits of the rotator cuff. We present a case of bilateral calcific tendinitis of the gluteus medius tendon, both sides successfully treated using ultrasound guided ne...

  7. Effects of respiratory rate, plateau pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure on PaO2 oscillations after saline lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardner, James E; Markstaller, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Doebrich, Marcus; Otto, Cynthia M

    2002-12-15

    One of the proposed mechanisms of ventilator-associated lung injury is cyclic recruitment of atelectasis. Collapse of dependent lung regions with every breath should lead to large oscillations in PaO2 as shunt varies throughout the respiratory cycle. We placed a fluorescence-quenching PO2 probe in the brachiocephalic artery of six anesthetized rabbits after saline lavage. Using pressure-controlled ventilation with oxygen, ventilator settings were varied in random order over three levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), respiratory rate (RR), and plateau pressure minus PEEP (Delta). Dependence of the amplitude of PaO2 oscillations on PEEP, RR, and Delta was modeled by multiple linear regression. Before lavage, arterial PO2 oscillations varied from 3 to 22 mm Hg. After lavage, arterial PO2 oscillations varied from 5 to 439 mm Hg. Response surfaces showed markedly nonlinear dependence of amplitude on PEEP, RR, and Delta. The large PaO2 oscillations observed provide evidence for cyclic recruitment in this model of lung injury. The important effect of RR on the magnitude of PaO2 oscillations suggests that the static behavior of atelectasis cannot be accurately extrapolated to predict dynamic behavior at realistic breathing frequencies.

  8. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  9. Effect of peritoneal cavity lavage with 0.9% and 3.0% saline solution in the lung and spleen of gerbils with induced peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Vinícius Rodrigues Taranto; Barbuto, Rafael Calvão; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira; Pena, Guilherme Nogueira; Rocha, Silvia Lunardi; de Siqueira, Lucas Tourinho; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; de Araujo, Ivana Duval

    2014-04-01

    Peritoneal cavity lavage is used widely in the treatment of peritonitis. Nonetheless, some studies question its rationale and prove it to be deleterious to the mesothelium. The present study aims to determine whether 0.9% and 3.0% saline lavage of the peritoneal cavity have an effect on the early systemic inflammatory response, namely, in the lung injury and splenic cellularity of gerbils with induced peritonitis. Thirty-four male gerbils were divided into four groups: Control (n=9), submitted to laparotomy at time zero, re-laparotomy after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start; untreated (n=8), submitted to peritonitis induction through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for drying of abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrifice after a total of 6 h from start; saline (n=8), submitted to peritonitis induction through CLP at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for warm 0.9% saline lavage of the abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start; and hypertonic (n=9), submitted to peritonitis induction through CLP at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for warm hypertonic saline (3.0%) lavage of the abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start. After sacrifice, we collected the left lung and the spleen for morphometric analysis. In the both the saline and hypertonic groups, there was significant decrease in the mean nuclei count in the lungs, compared with the untreated group (p0.05). The present study demonstrated that the peritoneal lavage with large volumes of warm 0.9% and 3.0% saline has a beneficial effect on the early systemic inflammatory response in infected animals, modulating and reducing the lung injury but having no effect on splenic cell count.

  10. Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy with Sodium Phosphate Solution versus Polyethylene Glycol-Based Lavage: A Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schanz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate bowel preparation is essential for accurate colonoscopy. Both oral sodium phosphate (NaP and polyethylene glycol-based lavage (PEG-ELS are used predominantly as bowel cleansing modalities. NaP has gained popularity due to low drinking volume and lower costs. The purpose of this randomized multicenter observer blinded study was to compare three groups of cleansing (NaP, NaP + sennosides, PEG-ELS + sennosides in reference to tolerability, acceptance, and cleanliness. Patient and Methods: 355 outpatients between 18 and 75 years were randomized into three groups (A, B, C receiving NaP = A, NaP, and sennosides = B or PEG-ELS and sennosides = C. Gastroenterologists performing colonoscopies were blinded to the type of preparation. All patients documented tolerance and adverse events. Vital signs, premedication, completeness, discomfort, and complications were recorded. A quality score (0–4 of cleanliness was generated. Results: The three groups were similar with regard to age, sex, BMI, indication for colonoscopy, and comorbidity. Drinking volumes (L (A = 4.33 + 1.2, B = 4.56 + 1.18, C = 4.93 + 1.71 were in favor of NaP (P = .005. Discomfort from ingested fluid was recorded in A = 39.8% (versus C: P = .015, B = 46.6% (versus C: P = .147, and C = 54.6%. Differences in tolerability and acceptance between the three groups were statistically not significant. No differences in adverse events and the cleanliness effects occurred in the three groups (P = .113. The cleanliness quality scores 0–2 were calculated in A: 77.7%, B: 86.7%, and C: 85.2%. Conclusions: These data fail to demonstrate significant differences in tolerability, acceptance, and preparation quality between the three types of bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Cleansing with NaP was not superior to PEG-ELS.

  11. Studying the Effects of Reproductive Hormones and Bacterial Vaginosis on the Glycome of Lavage Samples from the Cervicovaginal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Chappell, Catherine; Moncla, Bernard J.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Mahal, Lara K.

    2015-01-01

    The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1) no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2) no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3) no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4) combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5) depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) injections for at least 6 months, (6) levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system. PMID:25993513

  12. Inhibition of cornifins and up-regulation of protease inhibitors in cervicovaginal lavage imparts resistance to heterosexual HIV transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama Rokade

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs are persons who remain seronegative despite repeated exposure to HIV, suggesting an in vivo resistance mechanism to HIV. Elucidation of endogenous factors responsible for this phenomenon may aid in the development of new classes of microbicides and therapeutics. The genital mucosal secretions of both men and women are known to contain a spectrum of antimicrobials and immune mediators that may contribute to resistance against HIV-1. Existence of HIV serodiscordant couples is a testimony to mucosal factors in the genital tract that prevent sexual transmission of the virus. We attempted to map such mucosal factors in female genital secretions of the serodiscordant couples in comparison with HIV infected and healthy participants using quantitative proteomics. The cervico vaginal lavage (CVL samples were collected from three groups of study participants (HIV infected, n=30; Un-infected Controls, n=10; Serodiscordant, n=24. Abundant proteins, albumin and globulins were removed from the pooled samples using multiple affinity removal spin cartridge (Agilent to enhance the sensitivity of iTRAQ proteomics analysis. Initial analysis identified a total of 135 proteins and associated 497 peptide matches. Serodiscordant females showed significantly down regulated levels of Cornifin A, B and C, Neutrophil gelatinase, myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. Cornifins are cross-linked envelope protein of keratinocytes and are upregulated during inflammation. Downregulation of oxidative stress inducing enzymes and cornifins suggests immune-quiescence in serodiscordant females. CVL of these women showed significantly upregulated levels of Mucin 5B, S100A7, Alpha-2-macroglobulin, Cystatin A (protease inhibitor, Lacto-transferrin, SLPI (anti-leukoproteinase inhibitor and SERPIN G1 (protease inhibitor.  Significantly elevated levels of Cystatin B and Elafin in the CVL of serodiscordant females were confirmed by ELISA

  13. Studying the effects of reproductive hormones and bacterial vaginosis on the glycome of lavage samples from the cervicovaginal cavity.

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    Wang, Linlin; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Chappell, Catherine; Moncla, Bernard J; Hillier, Sharon L; Mahal, Lara K

    2015-01-01

    The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1) no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2) no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3) no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4) combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5) depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) injections for at least 6 months, (6) levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system.

  14. Studying the effects of reproductive hormones and bacterial vaginosis on the glycome of lavage samples from the cervicovaginal cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1 no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2 no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3 no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4 combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5 depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera injections for at least 6 months, (6 levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV. Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system.

  15. The Mouse That Soared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Astronomers have used an X-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. The image, from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the X-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. It gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. "A few dozen pulsar wind nebulae are known, including the spectacular Crab Nebula, but none have the Mouse's combination of relatively young age and incredibly rapid motion through interstellar space," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and lead author of a paper on the Mouse that will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "We effectively are seeing a supersonic cosmic wind tunnel, in which we can study the effects of a pulsar's motion on its pulsar wind nebula, and test current theories." Illustration of the Mouse System Illustration of the Mouse System Pulsars are known to be rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron stars -- objects so dense that a mass equal to that of the Sun is packed into a

  16. Arctigenin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Mouse Model via Suppression of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-zhou; Jiang, Zheng-kui; He, Bao-xia; Liu, Xian-ben

    2015-08-01

    Arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa (Nubang), has anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we investigated the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS + DMSO, and LPS + Arctigenin. Mice in the LPS + Arctigenin group were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of arctigenin 1 h before an intratracheal administration of LPS (5 mg/kg). Lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) were collected. Histological changes of the lung were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Arctigenin decreased LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, infiltration of inflammatory cells into BALF, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, arctigenin pretreatment reduced the malondialdehyde level and increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione disulfide ratio in the lung. Mechanically, arctigenin significantly reduced the production of nitric oxygen and inducible nitric oxygen synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, and decreased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Arctigenin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on LPS-induced acute lung injury, which are associated with modulation of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS signaling.

  17. Effect of Kuwanon G isolated from the root bark of Morus alba on ovalbumin-induced allergic response in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, A Ryun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Park, Yong-Ki

    2014-11-01

    The root bark of Morus alba L. (Mori Cortex Radicis; MCR) is traditionally used in Korean medicine for upper respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the antiasthmatic effect of kuwanon G isolated from MCR on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Kuwanon G (1 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally in mice once a day for 7 days during OVA airway challenge. We measured the levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in the sera or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and also counted the immune cells in BAL fluids. Histopathological changes in the lung tissues were analyzed. Kuwanon G significantly decreased the levels of OVA-specific IgE and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the sera and BAL fluids of asthma mice. Kuwanon G reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids of asthma mice. Furthermore, the pathological feature of lungs including infiltration of inflammatory cells, thickened epithelium of bronchioles, mucus, and collagen accumulation was inhibited by kuwanon G. These results indicate that kuwanon G prevents the pathological progression of allergic asthma through the inhibition of lung destruction by inflammation and immune stimulation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. What Variables Are Associated With the Outcome of Arthroscopic Lysis and Lavage Surgery for Internal Derangement of the Temporomandibular Joint?

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    Haeffs, Tyler H; D'Amato, Lindsay N; Khawaja, Shehryar N; Keith, David A; Scrivani, Steven J

    2018-04-26

    Arthroscopic lysis and lavage surgery (AS) is an effective modality that can decrease pain and increase maximum interincisal opening (MIO) in patients with internal derangement (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). However, some patients remain in pain or have limited mandibular range of motion despite AS. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness, prevalence of adverse effects, and predictors of response to TMJ AS in patients with TMJ arthralgia and ID. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data of patients who had undergone AS by a single surgeon (D.A.K.) from September 2010 to April 2015 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA). Variables, including demographic data, medical history, and clinical presentation, were extracted and analyzed. Criteria for surgical success were defined as a postoperative MIO of at least 35 mm and a postoperative pain level no higher than 3 on an 11-point Likert-type numeric verbal pain rating scale. Appropriate descriptive and analytic statistics were computed and significance was set at a P value less than .05. Of the 247 participants, 226 (91.5%) were women. The mean age of the sample was 38 ± 15.4 years. Successful surgical outcome was achieved in 62.3% of patients. Based on logistic regression analysis, higher initial mean pain score and concurrent use of benzodiazepines were the only variables that predicted an unsuccessful surgical outcome (P < .001; P = .005). Adverse effects were reported by 13.4% of patients, the most common being postoperative increase in pain (13.4%), temporary malocclusion (1.2%), and temporary paresthesia in the preauricular region (0.4%). The results from this study indicate that in patients with ID of the TMJ unresponsive to noninvasive treatments, high initial pain scores and concurrent use of benzodiazepines are correlated with an unsuccessful outcome after AS. Copyright © 2018. Published by

  19. Changes in coagulation-fibrinolysis function in alveolar lavage fluid of endotoxemic dogs after partial removal of peripheral leukocytes

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    Shun-gang ZHOU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of partial removal of peripheral leucocytes on the coagulation-fibrinolysis function of alveolar lavage fluid(ALF in endotoxemic dogs,and explore the influence and mechanisms of activated leucocytes on lung injury in endotoxemic dogs.Methods Thirty male mongrel dogs were involved in present study and randomly divided into 3 groups(10 each: LPS group(group L,sham leukocytapheresis group(group S and leukocytapheresis group(group T.Endotoxemic model was reproduced in group L by administration of LPS(2mg/kg,but the animals did not receive leukocytapheresis.Animals in group T received leukocytapheresis using a continuous-flow blood cell separator 12-14 hours after administration of LPS.Animals in group S received sham leukocytapheresis(the end products were transfused back into the dogs at 12-14 hours after administration of LPS.At 36h after administration of LPS,the lung tissues were harvested to obtain ALF,and the levels of neutrophil elastase(NE,soluble thrombomodulin(sTM,activated protein C(APC and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1 in ALF were determined,the expression of thrombomodulin in lung tissue was observed by immunohistochemical staining,while the routine pathological examination and wet/dry ratio of lung tissue were performed.Results The APC level in ALF was significantly higher,while the NE,sTM and PAI-1 levels in ALF and wet/dry ratio of lung tissue were significantly lower in group T than in group L and group S(P < 0.05.Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the expression of thrombomodulin in lung tissue was higher in group T than in group L and group S.No significant difference was found between group L and group S in the indexes mentioned above.Pathological observation showed the incidence of acute lung injury was significantly lower in group T(2/10 than in group L(7/10 and group S(8/10,P < 0.05.Conclusion Partial removal of peripheral leukocytes may lower the level of NE in ALF

  20. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff: a randomized controlled trial of ultrasound-guided needling and lavage versus subacromial corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witte, Pieter Bas; Selten, Jasmijn W; Navas, Ana; Nagels, Jochem; Visser, Cornelis P J; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Reijnierse, Monique

    2013-07-01

    Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff (RCCT) is frequently diagnosed in patients with shoulder pain, but there is no consensus on its treatment. To compare 2 regularly applied RCCT treatments: ultrasound (US)-guided needling and lavage (barbotage) combined with a US-guided corticosteroid injection in the subacromial bursa (subacromial bursa injection [SAI]) (group 1) versus an isolated SAI (group 2). Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Patients were randomly assigned to the 2 groups. Shoulder function was assessed before treatment and at regular follow-up intervals (6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months) using the Constant shoulder score (CS, primary outcome), the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH). Additionally, calcification location, size, and Gärtner classification were assessed on radiographs. Results were analyzed using the t test, linear regression, and a mixed model for repeated measures. This study included 48 patients (25 female, 52.1%; mean age, 52.0 ± 7.3 years; 23 patients in group 1) with a mean baseline CS of 68.7 ± 11.9. No patients were lost to follow-up. Four patients in group 1 and 11 in group 2 (P = .06) had an additional barbotage procedure or surgery during the follow-up period because of persisting symptoms and no resorption. At 1-year follow-up, the mean CS in group 1 was 86.0 (95% CI, 80.3-91.6) versus 73.9 (95% CI, 67.7-80.1) in group 2 (P = .005). The mean calcification size decreased by 11.6 ± 6.4 mm in group 1 and 5.1 ± 5.7 mm in group 2 (P = .001). There was total resorption in 13 patients in group 1 and 6 patients in group 2 (P = .07). With regression analyses, correcting for baseline CS and Gärtner type, the mean treatment effect was 20.5 points (P = .05) in favor of barbotage. Follow-up scores were significantly influenced by baseline scores. Results for the DASH and WORC were similar. On average, there was improvement at 1-year follow

  1. The characteristics of patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex disease diagnosed by bronchial lavage culture compared to those diagnosed by sputum culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Koichi; Naka, Megumi; Shuto, Saki; Harada, Yuka; Ikegami, Yumiko

    2017-09-01

    The utility of bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) disease has been reported; however, which patients require bronchoscopy remains unclear. Our objective was to identify the characteristics of the patients in whom bronchoscopy is needed for the diagnosis of MAC disease. Fifty-four patients with pulmonary MAC disease were divided into two groups according to established diagnostic criteria: 39 patients were diagnosed by sputum culture and 15 patients were diagnosed by bronchial lavage culture. We analysed the differences in demographic and clinical characteristics as well as microbiological and radiological data between the two groups. There were no significant differences in age, sex, smoking status, MAC species, underlying diseases, or steroid use. Significantly more patients diagnosed by sputum culture than bronchial lavage culture had a positive sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli (79.5% vs. 0.0%, respectively; p disease, bronchiectasis, and cavities. However, more patients diagnosed by sputum culture than bronchial lavage culture had abnormalities in the left upper division (48.7% vs. 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.017) and higher numbers of affected lobes (4.3 ± 1.4 vs. 3.3 ± 1.6, respectively; p = 0.034). If patients suspected of having pulmonary MAC disease have a negative sputum smear, no symptoms, no abnormal findings in the left upper division, or fewer affected lobes on computed tomography, bronchoscopy might be needed for the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mycobacterium abscessus morphotype comparison in a murine model.

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    Lindsay J Caverly

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections with Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus are increasingly prevalent in patients with lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. M. abscessus exists in two morphotypes, smooth and rough, but the impact of morphotype on virulence is unclear. We developed an immune competent mouse model of pulmonary M. abscessus infection and tested the differences in host inflammatory response between the morphotypes of M. abscessus. Smooth and rough morphotypes of M. abscessus were isolated from the same American Type Culture Collection strain. Wild type and cystic fibrosis mice were intratracheally inoculated with known quantities of M. abscessus suspended in fibrin plugs. At the time of sacrifice lung and splenic tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were collected and cultured. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for leukocyte count, differential and cytokine expression. Pulmonary infection with M. abscessus was present at both 3 days and 14 days post-inoculation in all groups at greater levels than systemic infection. Inoculation with M. abscessus rough morphotype resulted in more bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophils compared to smooth morphotype at 14 days post-inoculation in both wild type (p = 0.01 and cystic fibrosis (p<0.01 mice. Spontaneous in vivo conversion from smooth to rough morphotype occurred in 12/57 (21% of mice. These mice trended towards greater weight loss than mice in which morphotype conversion did not occur. In the described fibrin plug model of M. abscessus infection, pulmonary infection with minimal systemic dissemination is achieved with both smooth and rough morphotypes. In this model M. abscessus rough morphotype causes a greater host inflammatory response than the smooth based on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophil levels.

  3. Validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cytology and HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: findings from a pilot study.

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    Heidi E Jones

    Full Text Available Self-sampling could increase cervical cancer screening uptake. While methods have been identified for human papillomavirus (HPV testing, to date, self-sampling has not provided adequate specimens for cytology. We piloted the validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cervical cytology and HPV testing. We enrolled 198 women in New York City in 2008-2009 from three ambulatory clinics where they received cervical cancer screening. All were asked to use the Delphi Screener™ to self-lavage 1-3 months after clinician-collected index cytological smear (100 normal; 98 abnormal. Women with abnormal cytology results from either specimen underwent colposcopy; 10 women with normal results from both specimens also underwent colposcopy. We calculated sensitivity of self-collected cytology to detect histologically confirmed high grade lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN, 2+; specificity for histology-negative (CIN 1 or lower, paired cytology negative, or a third cytology negative; and kappa for paired results. One hundred and ninety-seven (99.5% women self-collected a lavage. Seventy-five percent had moderate to excellent cellularity, two specimens were unsatisfactory for cytology. Seven of 167 (4% women with definitive results had CIN2+; one had normal and six abnormal cytology results with the self-lavage (sensitivity = 86%, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 42, 100. The kappa for paired cytology was low (0.36; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.47 primarily due to clinician specimens with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL coded as normal using Screener specimens. However, three cases of HSIL were coded as ASC-US and one as normal using Screener specimens. Seventy-three women had paired high-risk HPV tests with a kappa of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.84. Based on these preliminary findings, a larger study to estimate the performance of the Screener for co-testing cytology and

  4. Premedication with Clarithromycin Is Effective against Secondary Bacterial Pneumonia during Influenza Virus Infection in a Pulmonary Emphysema Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tatsuhiko; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Hara, Atsuko; Morita, Towako; Nakashima, Shota; Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Noriho; Kosai, Kosuke; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia (SBP) during influenza increases the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its associated mortality. Macrolide antibiotics, including clarithromycin (CAM), are potential treatments for a variety of chronic respiratory diseases owing to their pharmacological activities, in addition to antimicrobial action. We examined the efficacy of CAM for the treatment of SBP after influenza infection in COPD. Specifically, we evaluated the effect of CAM in elastase-induced emphysema mice that were inoculated with influenza virus (strain A/PR8/34) and subsequently infected with macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae CAM was administered to the emphysema mice 4 days prior to influenza virus inoculation. Premedication with CAM improved pathologic responses and bacterial load 2 days after S. pneumoniae inoculation. Survival rates were higher in emphysema mice than control mice. While CAM premedication did not affect viral titers or exert antibacterial activity against S. pneumoniae in the lungs, it enhanced host defense and reduced inflammation, as evidenced by the significant reductions in total cell and neutrophil counts and interferon (IFN)-γ levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenates. These results suggest that CAM protects against SBP during influenza in elastase-induced emphysema mice by reducing IFN-γ production, thus enhancing immunity to SBP, and by decreasing neutrophil infiltration into the lung to prevent injury. Accordingly, CAM may be an effective strategy to prevent secondary bacterial pneumonia in COPD patients in areas in which vaccines are inaccessible or limited. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Protective Roles for RGS2 in a Mouse Model of House Dust Mite-Induced Airway Inflammation.

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    Tresa George

    Full Text Available The GTPase-accelerating protein, regulator of G-protein signalling 2 (RGS2 reduces signalling from G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that signal via Gαq. In humans, RGS2 expression is up-regulated by inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs and long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs such that synergy is produced in combination. This may contribute to the superior clinical efficacy of ICS/LABA therapy in asthma relative to ICS alone. In a murine model of house dust mite (HDM-induced airways inflammation, three weeks of intranasal HDM (25 μg, 3×/week reduced lung function and induced granulocytic airways inflammation. Compared to wild type animals, Rgs2-/- mice showed airways hyperresponsiveness (increased airways resistance and reduced compliance. While HDM increased pulmonary inflammation observed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, there was no difference between wild type and Rgs2-/- animals. HDM-induced mucus hypersecretion was also unaffected by RGS2 deficiency. However, inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Rgs2-/- animals were significantly increased (57% compared to wild type animals and this correlated with increased granulocyte (neutrophil and eosinophil numbers. Likewise, cytokine and chemokine (IL4, IL17, IL5, LIF, IL6, CSF3, CXCLl, CXCL10 and CXCL11 release was increased by HDM exposure. Compared to wild type, Rgs2-/- animals showed a trend towards increased expression for many cytokines/chemokines, with CCL3, CCL11, CXCL9 and CXCL10 being significantly enhanced. As RGS2 expression was unaffected by HDM exposure, these data indicate that RGS2 exerts tonic bronchoprotection in HDM-induced airways inflammation. Modest anti-inflammatory and anti-remodelling roles for RGS2 are also suggested. If translatable to humans, therapies that maximize RGS2 expression may prove advantageous.

  6. Pleural lavage cytology as an independent prognostic factor in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with stage I disease and adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokka, Daisuke; Uchino, Kazuya; Tane, Kenta; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Tane, Sinya; Tanaka, Yugo; Tauchi, Shunsuke; Nishio, Wataru; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Maniwa, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that cancer cells may be detected through pleural lavage cytology (PLC). In this study, we sought to re-examine the prognostic significance of the PLC status based on an extended dataset with an additional follow-up period. Pleural lavage following thoracotomy was cytologically examined in 1,317 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with NSCLC between 1987 and 2004 at the Thoracic Surgery Units of Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine and Hyogo Cancer Center. Among the investigated patients, 46 exhibited positive cytological findings. The prognosis of these patients was significantly worse compared to that of patients without positive PLC. Of the 844 pathological stage I patients, 18 had a positive PLC status and their prognosis was significantly worse compared to that of patients with stage I disease without positive PLC. In conclusion, positive PLC findings were associated with a poor prognosis and this finding was significant for patients with stage I disease. These results suggest the need for PLC status evaluation during staging and treatment planning in patients with NSCLC.

  7. Anaesthetic, procedure and complications management of serial whole-lung lavage in an obese patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Helena Marta; Guedes, Luisa; Veiga, Dalila; Fiuza, Antonio C; Abelha, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The first case of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) was described by Rose in 1958, but it is still a rare disorder. PAP is characterized by deposition of lipoproteinaceous material secondary to abnormal processing of surfactant by macrophages. Patients may suffer from progressive dyspnea and cough that at times is accompanied by worsening hypoxia and its course can vary from progressive deterioration to spontaneous improvement. Many therapies have been used to treat PAP including antibiotics, postural drainage, and intermittent positive pressure breathing with aerosolized Acetylcysteine, heparin and saline. At present, the mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage (WLL). Although generally well tolerated, WLL can be associated with some complications. We report a case of severe PAP through the anaesthetic, procedure and complications management of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in one patient who has undergone multiple, alternating, single-lung lavages over the past seven years, the last three in our hospital, with improvements in her symptoms following each therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar hyperplasia and decreases MUC5AC expression in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Nia; Setiawan, Bambang; Widjadjanto, Edi; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Widodo, M Aris; Kusuma, H M S Chandra

    2014-10-01

    Coal dust is a pollutant found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, but the effects on lung metaplasia as an early step of carcinogenesis remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PM10 coal dust on lung histology, MUC5AC expression, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. An experimental study was done on male Wistar rats, which were divided into the following groups: control groups exposed to coal dust for 14 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)), and the groups exposed to coal dust for 28 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)). EGF expressions in rat lungs were measured by ELISA. EGFR and MUC5AC were measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The bronchoalveolar epithelial image of the group exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed a epithelial rearrangement, hyperplastic (metaplastic) goblet cells, and scattered massive inflammatory cells. The pulmonary parenchymal image of the group of exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed scattered inflammatory cells filling up the pulmonary alveolar networks, leading to an appearance of thickened parenchymal alveoli until emphysema-like structure. There was no significant difference in MUC5AC, EGF, and EGFR expressions for 14-d exposure (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in EGF and EGFR expressions for 28-d exposure (p>0.05), but there was a significant difference in MUC5AC expression (phyperplasia and rearrangement of epithelial cells which accompanied by decrease expression MUC5AC in male rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage among school-age children from urban and rural areas in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Eduardo Santos Galvão

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Some studies have shown that inflammatory processes in the nasal air passages may reflect or affect those in the lower airways. We decided to indirectly assess the inflammatory status of the nasal airways in two groups of children with different sensitization rates to aeroallergens. OBJECTIVE: To compare the inflammatory activity in the nasal airways, through the determination of mediators in nasal lavage fluid in two distinct populations. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two public elementary schools, one in an urban setting and the other in a rural setting of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Two groups of 40 elementary school children with different sensitization rates to aeroallergens were formed. Samples of nasal lavage fluid were assessed for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP and tryptase. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of ECP were observed among students living in the urban area than those in the rural area (p < 0.05. No significant difference in the tryptase levels was observed. Also, the urban children who were sensitized to aeroallergens presented higher levels of ECP in nasal mucosa than the non-sensitized children, while this difference was not observed among the rural children. DISCUSSION: The lack of mast cell activity and increased eosinophil degranulation revealed a chronic inflammatory state in the nasal air passages. The higher eosinophil activity in the urban area, coinciding with higher sensitization to aeroallergens, suggests that there must be some factors in the urban area that can modulate airway inflammation by influencing the activation of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that there was no difference in the concentrations of tryptase in nasal lavage fluids between the two studied groups. However, the children from the urban area presented with higher concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein than did those

  10. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous lavage of calcific bursitis of the medial collateral ligament of the knee: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo-González, Federico; Ramos-Álvarez, Juan José; González-Pérez, José; Jiménez-Herranz, Elena; Rodríguez-Fabián, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Calcification of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee is rare. The literature reports no positive outcomes when conservative treatment has been followed. This paper reports a case of such calcification and its treatment using ultrasound-guided percutaneous lavage (UGPL). A 66-year-old patient presented with medial knee pain. X-ray, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance (MR) examinations revealed calcific bursitis of the MCL, which was treated by UGPL. One month after treatment the patient was asymptomatic. X-ray, ultrasound, and MR examinations confirmed the almost complete disappearance of the calcification; only very tiny fragments remained. Calcific bursitis of the MCL of the knee is very uncommon, but should be taken into account in differential diagnoses for medial knee pain. UGPL is proposed as a treatment for this condition.

  11. Effect of lavage and brush preparation on cement penetration and primary stability in tibial unicompartmental total knee arthroplasty: An experimental cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Christian; Pietschmann, Matthias F; Schröder, Christian; Grupp, Thomas; Holderied, Melanie; Jansson, Volmar; Müller, Peter E

    2017-03-01

    Unicompartmental total knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a well-established treatment option for unicondylar osteoarthritis, and generally leads to better functional results than tricompartimental total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, revision rates of UKAs are reported as being higher; a major reason for this is aseptic loosening of the tibial component due to implant-cement-bone interface fatigue. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of trabecular bone preparation, prior to implantation of tibial UKAs, on morphological and biomechanical outcomes in a cadaver study. Cemented UKAs were performed in 18 human cadaver knees after the bone bed was cleaned using pulsed lavage (Group A), conventional brush (Group B) or no cleaning at all (Group C, control). Morphologic cement penetration and primary stability were measured. The area proportion under the tibial component without visible cement penetration was significantly higher in Group C (21.9%, SD 11.9) than in both Group A (7.1%, SD 5.8), and Group B (6.5%, SD 4.2) (P=0.007). The overall cement penetration depth did not differ between groups. However, in the posterior part, cement penetration depth was significantly higher in Group B (1.9mm, SD 0.3) than in both Group A (1.3mm, SD 0.3) and Group C (1.4mm, SD 0.3) (P=0.015). The mode of preparation did not show a substantial effect on primary stability tested under dynamic compression-shear test conditions (P=0.910). Bone preparation significantly enhances cement interdigitation. The application of a brush shows similar results compared with the application of pulsed lavage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Joint lavage followed by intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid and/or corticosteroids in patients with severe hemophilic arthropathy of the knee: Is this intervention really effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos; Valentino, Leonard A

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this review is to explore the scientific rationale and evidence for a potential benefit of joint lavage followed by intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid and/or corticosteroids in patients with severe hemophilic arthropathy of the knee (SHAK). Areas covered: This article is a narrative review of the evidence for potential benefits of joint lavage followed by intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid and corticosteroids in SHAK compared with osteoarthritis of the knee in non-hemophilia patients. Expert commentary: Although some reports on hemophilic arthropathy with a low-grade of evidence seem to indicate a benefit of joint lavage followed by intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid and/or corticosteroids in patients with SHAK, the short-lived improvements afforded by hyaluronic acid, and the doubtful benefits of corticosteroids and joint lavage in hemophilia, do not warrant their use in hemophilic patients. The scientific rationale of these procedures is poor and they are not recommended.

  13. The ladies trial: laparoscopic peritoneal lavage or resection for purulent peritonitisA and Hartmann's procedure or resection with primary anastomosis for purulent or faecal peritonitisB in perforated diverticulitis (NTR2037

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruin Sjoerd C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, excellent results are reported on laparoscopic lavage in patients with purulent perforated diverticulitis as an alternative for sigmoidectomy and ostomy. The objective of this study is to determine whether LaparOscopic LAvage and drainage is a safe and effective treatment for patients with purulent peritonitis (LOLA-arm and to determine the optimal resectional strategy in patients with a purulent or faecal peritonitis (DIVA-arm: perforated DIVerticulitis: sigmoidresection with or without Anastomosis. Methods/Design In this multicentre randomised trial all patients with perforated diverticulitis are included. Upon laparoscopy, patients with purulent peritonitis are treated with laparoscopic lavage and drainage, Hartmann's procedure or sigmoidectomy with primary anastomosis in a ratio of 2:1:1 (LOLA-arm. Patients with faecal peritonitis will be randomised 1:1 between Hartmann's procedure and resection with primary anastomosis (DIVA-arm. The primary combined endpoint of the LOLA-arm is major morbidity and mortality. A sample size of 132:66:66 patients will be able to detect a difference in the primary endpoint from 25% in resectional groups compared to 10% in the laparoscopic lavage group (two sided alpha = 5%, power = 90%. Endpoint of the DIVA-arm is stoma free survival one year after initial surgery. In this arm 212 patients are needed to significantly demonstrate a difference of 30% (log rank test two sided alpha = 5% and power = 90% in favour of the patients with resection with primary anastomosis. Secondary endpoints for both arms are the number of days alive and outside the hospital, health related quality of life, health care utilisation and associated costs. Discussion The Ladies trial is a nationwide multicentre randomised trial on perforated diverticulitis that will provide evidence on the merits of laparoscopic lavage and drainage for purulent generalised peritonitis and on the optimal resectional strategy

  14. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  15. 10. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  16. Teratology studies in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Edward; Leroy, Mariline

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the routine species of choice as the rodent model for regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. However, the rat is not always suitable for pharmacological, toxicological, immunogenic, pharmacokinetic, or even practical reasons. Under such circumstances, the mouse offers an alternative for finding a suitable rodent model acceptable to the regulatory authorities. Since all essential routes of administration are possible, the short reproductive cycle and large litter size of the mouse make it a species well adapted for use in teratology studies. Given that good quality animals, including virgin mated females, can be acquired relatively easily and inexpensively, the mouse has been used in reproductive toxicity studies for decades and study protocols are well established.

  17. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D'Andrea, Alan; Niedernhofer, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  18. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D' Andrea, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Niedernhofer, Laura J., E-mail: niedernhoferl@upmc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion 2.6, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  19. Mouse Resource Browser-a database of mouse databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouberakis, Michael; Chandras, Christina; Swertz, Morris; Smedley, Damian; Gruenberger, Michael; Bard, Jonathan; Schughart, Klaus; Rosenthal, Nadia; Hancock, John M.; Schofield, Paul N.; Kollias, George; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory mouse has become the organism of choice for discovering gene function and unravelling pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases through the application of various functional genomic approaches. The resulting deluge of data has led to the deployment of numerous online resources and the

  20. Interleukin-33 from Monocytes Recruited to the Lung Contributes to House Dust Mite-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tashiro

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 (IL-33 activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2, resulting in T-helper-2 inflammation in bronchial asthma. Airway epithelial cells were reported as sources of IL-33 during apoptosis and necrosis. However, IL-33 is known to be from sources other than airway epithelial cells such as leukocytes, and the mechanisms of IL-33 production and release are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of IL-33 production by monocytes in airway inflammation.BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with a house dust mite (HDM preparation. Airway inflammation was assessed by quantifying inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP levels in lung. Immunohistochemistry for IL-33 in lung sections was also performed. Ly6c, CD11b, and CD11c expression was examined by flow cytometry. Clodronate liposomes were used in the HDM-airway inflammation model to deplete circulating monocytes.The IL-33, but not IL-25 or TSLP, level in lung homogenates was markedly increased in HDM mice compared to control mice. IL-33-positive cells in the lungs were identified using immunohistochemistry and were increased in areas surrounding bronchi and vasculature. Furthermore, IL-33 levels were increased in mononuclear cells derived from lungs of HDM mice compared to controls. The expression of Ly6c in mononuclear cells was significantly higher in HDM mice than in controls. Treatment with clodronate liposomes led to inhibition of not only inflammatory cells in BAL fluid, airway hyper reactivity and Th2 cytokines in lung, but also IL-33 in lung.IL-33 from monocytes recruited to the lung may contribute to the pathogenesis of HDM-induced airway inflammation.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of Tat-Annexin protein on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Hye Ri; Woo, Su Jung; Kim, So Mi; Jo, Hyo Sang [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Seong Gyu [Department of Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Woo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Moo Ho [Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Eum, Won Sik, E-mail: wseum@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct a cell permeable Tat-ANX1 fusion protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the protective effects of Tat-ANX1 protein on OVA-induced asthma in animal models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transduced Tat-ANX1 protein protects from the OVA-induced production of cytokines and eosinophils in BAL fluid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tat-ANX1 protein markedly reduced OVA-induced MAPK in lung tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tat-ANX1 protein could be useful as a therapeutic agent for lung disorders including asthma. -- Abstract: Chronic airway inflammation is a key feature of bronchial asthma. Annexin-1 (ANX1) is an anti-inflammatory protein that is an important modulator and plays a key role in inflammation. Although the precise action of ANX1 remains unclear, it has emerged as a potential drug target for inflammatory diseases such as asthma. To examine the protective effects of ANX1 protein on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in animal models, we used a cell-permeable Tat-ANX1 protein. Mice sensitized and challenged with OVA antigen had an increased amount of cytokines and eosinophils in their bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. However, administration of Tat-ANX1 protein before OVA challenge significantly decreased the levels of cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and BAL fluid in lung tissues. Furthermore, OVA significantly increased the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in lung tissues, whereas Tat-ANX1 protein markedly reduced phosphorylation of MAPKs such as extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, p38, and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results suggest that transduced Tat-ANX1 protein may be a potential protein therapeutic agent for the treatment of lung disorders including asthma.

  2. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This "Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse" system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent...

  3. Pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials and sperm quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Astrid; Lauvas, Anna Jacobsen; Christensen, Preben

    2018-01-01

    . Pulmonary inflammation was determined by differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Epididymal sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Epididymal sperm viability and morphological abnormalities were assessed manually using Hoechst 33,342/PI...... inflammation is a potential modulator of endocrine function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pulmonary exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials on sperm quality parameters in an experimental mouse model.Methods: Effects on sperm quality after pulmonary inflammation induced by carbonaceous...... flourescent and Spermac staining, respectively. Epididymal sperm were assessed with regard to sperm DNA integrity (damage). Daily sperm production was measured in the testis, and testosterone levels were measured in blood plasma by ELISA.Results: Neutrophil numbers in the bronchoalveolar fluid showed...

  4. Mouse papillomavirus infections spread to cutaneous sites with progression to malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladel, Nancy M; Budgeon, Lynn R; Cooper, Timothy K; Balogh, Karla K; Christensen, Neil D; Myers, Roland; Majerciak, Vladimir; Gotte, Deanna; Zheng, Zhi-Ming; Hu, Jiafen

    2017-09-25

    We report secondary cutaneous infections in the mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1)/mouse model. Our previous study demonstrated that cutaneous MmuPV1 infection could spread to mucosal sites. Recently, we observed that mucosal infections could also spread to various cutaneous sites including the back, tail, muzzle and mammary tissues. The secondary site lesions were positive for viral DNA, viral capsid protein and viral particles as determined by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy analyses, respectively. We also demonstrated differential viral production and tumour growth at different secondarily infected skin sites. For example, fewer viral particles were detected in the least susceptible back tissues when compared with those in the infected muzzle and tail, although similar amounts of viral DNA were detected. Follow-up studies demonstrated that significantly lower amounts of viral DNA were packaged in the back lesions. Lavages harvested from the oral cavity and lower genital tracts were equally infectious at both cutaneous and mucosal sites, supporting the broad tissue tropism of this papillomavirus. Importantly, two secondary skin lesions on the forearms of two mice displayed a malignant phenotype at about 9.5 months post-primary infection. Therefore, MmuPV1 induces not only dysplasia at mucosal sites such as the vagina, anus and oral cavity but also skin carcinoma at cutaneous sites. These findings demonstrate that MmuPV1 mucosal infection can be spread to cutaneous sites and suggest that the model could serve a useful role in the study of the viral life cycle and pathogenesis of papillomavirus.

  5. The Mouse SAGE Site: database of public mouse SAGE libraries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2004), s. D482-D483 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GV204/98/K015 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 555000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse SAGE libraries * web -based database Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2004

  6. Cultures of preimplantation mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.; Molls, M.

    1987-01-01

    In the preimplantation mouse embryos the chromosomal damage develops through several postradiation cell cycles and mitoses. New chromosome aberrations are seen during the second and third postradiation mitoses. Also, more micronuclei appear during later postradiation interphases. This is in agreement with the assumption that unrepaired chromosomal radiation damage develops during the cell generation cycle to such a form (i.e. double-strand breaks in DNA) that chromosomal breaks occur. This proposition is strengthened by the observation that radiation-induced damage is more rapidly expressed after neutron exposure (first or second postradiation mitosis) than after exposure to X rays at the one- or two-cell stage. The preimplantation mouse embryo culture is an inviting system for additional studies at the molecular level, especially now that within the last few years more sensitive methods have been developed for study of DNA and protein structure, regulation, and synthesis. The results from these studies of cultures of preimplantation mouse embryos present a favorable case for the study of complex biological systems under very defined conditions in vitro for extrapolation to effects in vivo

  7. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  8. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archary, Derseree; Liebenberg, Lenine J; Werner, Lise; Tulsi, Sahil; Majola, Nelisile; Naicker, Nivashnee; Dlamini, Sarah; Hope, Thomas J; Samsunder, Natasha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Morris, Lynn; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Garrett, Nigel J

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC) has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), but no study has yet formally compared these two methods. Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines. The majority (94%) of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029). Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001). In MCs, 42/48 (88%) cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54%) in CVL (p<0.001). Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7%) were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005) and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001) correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL. MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples.

  9. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derseree Archary

    Full Text Available Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL, but no study has yet formally compared these two methods.Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines.The majority (94% of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029. Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001. In MCs, 42/48 (88% cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54% in CVL (p<0.001. Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7% were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005 and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001 correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL.MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples.

  10. Utility of bronchial lavage fluids for epithelial growth factor receptor mutation assay in lung cancer patients: Comparison between cell pellets, cell blocks and matching tissue specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Shiho; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Nakata, Rie; Negishi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shiina, Takayuki; Shigeto, Shohei; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Honda, Takayuki

    2018-01-01

    The detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is necessary for the selection of suitable patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cytology specimens are known to be suitable for EGFR mutation detection, although tissue specimens should be prioritized; however, there are limited studies that examine the utility of bronchial lavage fluid (BLF) in mutation detection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the utility of BLF specimens for the detection of EGFR mutations using a conventional quantitative EGFR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Initially, quantification cycle (Cq) values of cell pellets, cell-free supernatants and cell blocks obtained from three series of 1% EGFR mutation-positive lung cancer cell line samples were compared for mutation detection. In addition, PCR analysis of BLF specimens obtained from 77 consecutive NSCLC patients, detecting EGFR mutations was validated, and these results were compared with those for the corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens obtained by surgical resection or biopsy of 49 of these patients. The Cq values for mutation detection were significantly lower in the cell pellet group (average, 29.58) compared with the other groups, followed by those in cell-free supernatants (average, 34.15) and in cell blocks (average, 37.12) for all three series (P<0.05). Mutational status was successfully analyzed in 77 BLF specimens, and the results obtained were concordant with those of the 49 matching FFPE tissue specimens. Notably, EGFR mutations were even detected in 10 cytological specimens that contained insufficient tumor cells. EGFR mutation testing with BLF specimens is therefore a useful and reliable method, particularly when sufficient cancer cells are not obtained. PMID:29399190

  11. The effects of physical exercise and smoking habits on the expression of SPLUNC1 in nasal lavage fluids from allergic rhinitis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irander, K; Borres, M P; Ghafouri, B

    2014-04-01

    Palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) is a family of proteins, which are proposed to participate in the innate immune defense against infections in the upper aero-digestive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SPLUNC1 in allergic rhinitis subjects with considerations taken to the mucosal function and smoking habits. The participants, recruited from a cohort followed from infancy, were re-examined at the age of 18 years regarding allergy development. Based on medical histories and skin prick tests the participants were classified into groups with persistent allergic rhinitis (n=18), intermittent allergic rhinitis (n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 13). Seven subjects (3, 2 and 2 in each group, respectively) reported smoking habits. The SPLUNC1 levels in nasal lavage fluids were analyzed by Western blot. Changes in the volume of the proper nasal cavity before and after physical exercise (Vol2(increase)) were analyzed by acoustic rhinometry. Compared to the control group the SPLUNC1 level was significantly lower in the persistent allergy group (3.8 ± 3.4 OD vs. 1.3 ± 1.5 OD; p = 0.02), but not in the intermittent allergy group without current exposure to allergens (3.6 ± 4.7 OD). No differences were found in Vol2(increase) between any of the allergy groups and controls. In smokers Vol2(increase) was significantly reduced (p exercise was not affected by allergy in contrast to smoking habits. The correlation between SPLUNC1 levels and Vol2(increase) in non-smokers may indicate involvement of SPLUNC1in the regulation of the normal function of the nasal mucosa. Complementary studies are needed to confirm the smoke-related reduction of SPLUNC1 expression and to analyze the possible participation of SPLUNC1 in the nasal mucosa regulation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Lavage with allicin in combination with vancomycin inhibits biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis in a rabbit model of prosthetic joint infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohan Zhai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present anti-infection strategy for prosthetic joint infections (PJI includes the use of antibiotics and surgical treatments, but the bacterial eradication rates are still low. One of the major challenges is the formation of biofilm causing poor bacterial eradication. Recently it has been reported that allicin (diallyl thiosulphinate, an antibacterial principle of garlic, can inhibit bacteria adherence and prevent biofilm formation in vitro. However, whether allicin could inhibit biofilm formation in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of allicin on biofilm formation, and whether allicin could potentiate the bactericidal effect of vancomycin in a rabbit PJI model. METHODS: A sterile stainless-steel screw with a sterile ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene washer was inserted into the lateral femoral condyle of the right hind knee joint of rabbit, and 1 mL inoculum containing 104 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus epidermidis was inoculated into the knee joint (n = 32. Fourteen days later, rabbits randomly received one of the following 4 treatments using continuous lavages: normal saline, vancomycin (20 mcg/mL, allicin (4 mg/L, or allicin (4 mg/L plus vancomycin (20 mcg/mL. Three days later, the washer surface biofilm formation was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The bacterial counts within the biofilm of implanted screws were determined by bacterial culture. RESULTS: The lowest number of viable bacterial counts of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from the biofilm was in the rabbits treated with allicin plus vancomycin (P<0.01 vs. all other groups. The biofilm formation was significantly reduced or undetectable by SEM in rabbits receiving allicin or allicin plus vancomycin. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular allicincan inhibit biofilm formation and enhance the bactericidal effect of vancomycin on implant surface in vivo. Allicin in combination with vancomycin may be

  13. Sigmoid resection with primary anastomosis and ileostomy versus laparoscopic lavage in purulent peritonitis from perforated diverticulitis: outcome analysis in a prospective cohort of 40 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Jonathan; Brouquet, Antoine; Peschaud, Frédérique; Vychnevskaia, Karina; Abdalla, Solafah; Malafosse, Robert; Lambert, Benoit; Costaglioli, Bruno; Benoist, Stéphane; Penna, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    This prospective study aimed to compare outcomes after laparoscopic peritoneal lavage (LPL) and sigmoid resection with primary colorectal anastomosis (RPA). From June 2010 to June 2015, 40 patients presenting with Hinchey III peritonitis from perforated diverticulitis underwent LPL or RPA. Patients with Hinchey II or IV peritonitis and patients who underwent an upfront Hartmann procedure were excluded. Primary endpoint was overall 30-day or in-hospital postoperative morbidity after surgical treatment of peritonitis. Twenty-five patients underwent RPA and 15 LPL. Overall postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were not significantly different after RPA and LPL (40 vs 67 %, p = 0.19; 4 vs 6.7 %, p = 1, respectively). Intra-abdominal morbidity and reoperation rates were significantly higher after LPL compared to RPA (53 vs 12 %, p < 0.01; 40 vs 4 %, p = 0.02, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that LPL (p = 0.028, HR = 18.936, CI 95 % = 1.369-261.886) was associated with an increased risk of postoperative intra-abdominal septic morbidity. Among 6 patients who underwent reoperation after LPL, 4 had a Hartmann procedure. All surviving patients who had a procedure requiring stoma creation underwent stoma reversal after a median delay of 92 days after LPL and 72 days after RPA (p = 0.07). LPL for perforated diverticulitis is associated with a high risk of inadequate intra-abdominal sepsis control requiring a Hartmann procedure in up to 25 % of patients. RPA appears to be safer and more effective. It may represent the best option in this context.

  14. Utrophin Compensates dystrophin Loss during Mouse Spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hung-Chih; Chin, Yu-Feng; Lundy, David J.; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Chi, Ya-Hui; Kuo, Paolin; Hsieh, Patrick C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder resulting from mutations in the dystrophin gene. The mdx/utrn ?/? mouse, lacking in both dystrophin and its autosomal homologue utrophin, is commonly used to model the clinical symptoms of DMD. Interestingly, these mice are infertile but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Using dystrophin deficient mdx mouse and utrophin haplodeficient mdx/utrn +/? mouse models, we demonstrate the contribution of Dp427 (f...

  15. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okker-Reitsma, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [ 3 H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  16. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  17. Take care of your mouse!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    “Stop --- Think --- Click" is the basic recommendation for securely browsing the Internet and for securely reading e-mails. Users who have followed this recommendation in the past were less likely to have their computer infected or their computing account compromised. We would like to thank all those who donated their mouse to the CERN Animal Shelter for Computer Mice (http://cern.ch/c-a-s). For those who still use a mouse, please stay vigilant and  alert: do not click on links whose origin you do not trust or which look like gibberish. Do not install untrusted software or plug-ins, since software from untrusted sources may infect or compromise your computer, or violate copyrights. Finally, take particular care with e-mails: Do not open unexpected or suspicious e-mails or attachments. Delete them if they do not concern you or if they appear strange. If in doubt, or if you have questions, please do not hesitate to contact Computer.Security@cern.ch

  18. Beer as colon lavage preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Linden, H.; Pietilae, J.; Juutilainen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Six patients received beer preparation prior to double contrast barium enema. The beer group scored slightly better (though not statistically significantly) both in the cleanliness and in the mucosal coating of the bowel than the control group with standard preparation. The fluid balance was unaltered. The patients in the beer group felt surprisingly well, likely due to the good fluid and energy balance provided by the beer. The beer preparation could be used in cases, when the patients are ready to intake beer and want to maintain a good nutritional status. (orig.) [de

  19. Exposure of neonates to Respiratory Syncytial Virus is critical in determining subsequent airway response in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Melissa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis in infants and the elderly. Furthermore, epidemiological data suggest that RSV infection during infancy is a potent trigger of subsequent wheeze and asthma development. However, the mechanism by which RSV contributes to asthma is complex and remains largely unknown. A recent study indicates that the age of initial RSV infection is a key factor in determining airway response to RSV rechallenge. We hypothesized that severe RSV infection during neonatal development significantly alters lung structure and the pulmonary immune micro-environment; and thus, neonatal RSV infection is crucial in the development of or predisposition to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Methods To investigate this hypothesis the present study was conducted in a neonatal mouse model of RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation and airway dysfunction. Seven-day-old mice were infected with RSV (2 × 105 TCID50/g body weight and allowed to mature to adulthood. To determine if neonatal RSV infection predisposed adult animals to enhanced pathophysiological responses to allergens, these mice were then sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Various endpoints including lung function, histopathology, cytokine production, and cellularity in bronchoalveolar lavage were examined. Results RSV infection in neonates alone led to inflammatory airway disease characterized by airway hyperreactivity, peribronchial and perivascular inflammation, and subepithelial fibrosis in adults. If early RSV infection was followed by allergen exposure, this pulmonary phenotype was exacerbated. The initial response to neonatal RSV infection resulted in increased TNF-α levels in bronchoalveolar lavage. Interestingly, increased levels of IL-13 and mucus hyperproduction were observed almost three months after the initial infection with RSV. Conclusion Neonatal RSV exposure results in long term

  20. Mouse allergen exposure and immunologic responses: IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG and IgG4 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Krop, Esmeralda J. M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Smith, Abigail L.; Eggleston, Peyton A.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is evidence that contact with mice is associated with IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific antibody responses, the exposure-response relationships remain unclear. To determine whether IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG (mIgG) and mIgG4 levels

  1. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...

  2. Mouse adenovirus type 1 infection of macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.L.; Welton, A.R.; Harwood, K.M.; Rooijen, van N.; Spindler, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) causes acute and persistent infections in mice, with high levels of virus found in the brain, spinal cord and spleen in acute infections. MAV-1 infects endothelial cells throughout the mouse, and monocytes/macrophages have also been implicated as targets of the virus.

  3. Breast ductal lavage for biomarker assessment in high risk women: rationale, design and methodology of a randomized phase II clinical trial with nimesulide, simvastatin and placebo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzeroni, Matteo; Radice, Davide; Bonanni, Bernardo; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Serrano, Davide; Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Mora, Serena; Casadio, Chiara; Jemos, Costantino; Pizzamiglio, Maria; Cortesi, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Despite positive results from large phase III clinical trials proved that it is possible to prevent estrogen-responsive breast cancers with selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors, no significant results have been reached so far to prevent hormone non-responsive tumors. The Ductal Lavage (DL) procedure offers a minimally invasive method to obtain breast epithelial cells from the ductal system for cytopathologic analysis. Several studies with long-term follow-up have shown that women with atypical hyperplasia have an elevated risk of developing breast cancer. The objective of the proposed trial is to assess the efficacy and safety of a daily administration of nimesulide or simvastatin in women at higher risk for breast cancer, focused particularly on hormone non-responsive tumor risk. The primary endpoint is the change in prevalence of atypical cells and cell proliferation (measured by Ki67) in DL or fine needle aspirate samples, after 12 months of treatment and 12 months after treatment cessation. From 2005 to 2011, 150 women with a history of estrogen receptor negative ductal intraepithelial neoplasia or lobular intraepithelial neoplasia or atypical hyperplasia, or unaffected subjects carrying a mutation of BRCA1 or with a probability of mutation >10% (according to BRCAPRO) were randomized to receive nimesulide 100mg/day versus simvastatin 20mg/day versus placebo for one year followed by a second year of follow-up. This is the first randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the role of DL to study surrogate endpoints biomarkers and the effects of these drugs on breast carcinogenesis. In 2007 the European Medicines Agency limited the use of systemic formulations of nimesulide to 15 days. According to the European Institute of Oncology Ethics Committee communication, we are now performing an even more careful monitoring of the study participants. Preliminary results showed that DL is a feasible procedure, the treatment is well tolerated

  4. Comprehensive proteome analysis of nasal lavage samples after controlled exposure to welding nanoparticles shows an induced acute phase and a nuclear receptor, LXR/RXR, activation that influence the status of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Neserin; Ljunggren, Stefan; Karlsson, Helen M; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Pagels, Joakim; Isaxon, Christina; Gudmundsson, Anders; Rissler, Jenny; Nielsen, Jörn; Lindh, Christian H; Kåredal, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that many welders experience respiratory symptoms. During the welding process a large number of airborne nanosized particles are generated, which might be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms behind observed symptoms is still partly lacking, although inflammation is suggested to play a central role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of welding fume particle exposure on the proteome expression level in welders suffering from respiratory symptoms, and changes in protein mediators in nasal lavage samples were analyzed. Such mediators will be helpful to clarify the pathomechanisms behind welding fume particle-induced effects. In an exposure chamber, 11 welders with work-related symptoms in the lower airways during the last month were exposed to mild-steel welding fume particles (1 mg/m 3 ) and to filtered air, respectively, in a double-blind manner. Nasal lavage samples were collected before, immediately after, and the day after exposure. The proteins in the nasal lavage were analyzed with two different mass spectrometry approaches, label-free discovery shotgun LC-MS/MS and a targeted selected reaction monitoring LC-MS/MS analyzing 130 proteins and four in vivo peptide degradation products. The analysis revealed 30 significantly changed proteins that were associated with two main pathways; activation of acute phase response signaling and activation of LXR/RXR, which is a nuclear receptor family involved in lipid signaling. Connective tissue proteins and proteins controlling the degradation of such tissues, including two different matrix metalloprotease proteins, MMP8 and MMP9, were among the significantly changed enzymes and were identified as important key players in the pathways. Exposure to mild-steel welding fume particles causes measurable changes on the proteome level in nasal lavage matrix in exposed welders, although no clinical symptoms were manifested. The

  5. Genomic Analysis of Uterine Lavage Fluid Detects Early Endometrial Cancers and Reveals a Prevalent Landscape of Driver Mutations in Women without Histopathologic Evidence of Cancer: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navya Nair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, and its incidence and associated mortality are increasing. Despite the immediate need to detect these cancers at an earlier stage, there is no effective screening methodology or protocol for endometrial cancer. The comprehensive, genomics-based analysis of endometrial cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA revealed many of the molecular defects that define this cancer. Based on these cancer genome results, and in a prospective study, we hypothesized that the use of ultra-deep, targeted gene sequencing could detect somatic mutations in uterine lavage fluid obtained from women undergoing hysteroscopy as a means of molecular screening and diagnosis.Uterine lavage and paired blood samples were collected and analyzed from 107 consecutive patients who were undergoing hysteroscopy and curettage for diagnostic evaluation from this single-institution study. The lavage fluid was separated into cellular and acellular fractions by centrifugation. Cellular and cell-free DNA (cfDNA were isolated from each lavage. Two targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS gene panels, one composed of 56 genes and the other of 12 genes, were used for ultra-deep sequencing. To rule out potential NGS-based errors, orthogonal mutation validation was performed using digital PCR and Sanger sequencing. Seven patients were diagnosed with endometrial cancer based on classic histopathologic analysis. Six of these patients had stage IA cancer, and one of these cancers was only detectable as a microscopic focus within a polyp. All seven patients were found to have significant cancer-associated gene mutations in both cell pellet and cfDNA fractions. In the four patients in whom adequate tumor sample was available, all tumor mutations above a specific allele fraction were present in the uterine lavage DNA samples. Mutations originally only detected in lavage fluid fractions were later confirmed to be present in tumor but at

  6. Neutrophilia, gelatinase release and microvascular leakage induced by human mast cell tryptase in a mouse model: Lack of a role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, M E M S; Abdelmotelb, A M; Pender, S L F; Zhou, X; Walls, A F

    2018-05-01

    Tryptase, the most abundant protease of the human mast cell, has been implicated as a key mediator of allergic inflammation that acts through activation of PAR2. To investigate the contribution of PAR2 in the pro-inflammatory actions mediated by tryptase in a mice model. We have injected recombinant human βII-tryptase into the peritoneum of PAR2-deficient and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. After 6, 12 and 24 hours, mice were killed, peritoneal lavage performed and inflammatory changes investigated. Tryptase stimulated an increase in neutrophil numbers in the peritoneum, but responses did not differ between PAR2-deficient and wild-type mice. Heat inactivation of tryptase or pre-incubation with a selective tryptase inhibitor reduced neutrophilia, but neutrophil accumulation was not elicited with a peptide agonist of PAR2 (SLIGRL-NH 2 ). Zymography indicated that tryptase stimulated the release of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 in the peritoneum of both mouse strains. Studies involving immunomagnetic isolation of neutrophils suggested that neutrophils represent the major cellular source of tryptase-induced MMP2 and MMP9. At 24 hours after tryptase injection, there was increased microvascular leakage as indicated by high levels of albumin in peritoneal lavage fluid, and this appeared to be partially abolished by heat-inactivating tryptase or addition of a protease inhibitor. There was no corresponding increase in levels of histamine or total protein. The extent of tryptase-induced microvascular leakage or gelatinase release into the peritoneum did not differ between PAR2-deficient and wild-type mice. Our findings indicate that tryptase is a potent stimulus for neutrophil accumulation, MMP release and microvascular leakage. Although these actions required an intact catalytic site, the primary mechanism of tryptase in vivo would appear to involve processes independent of PAR2. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Radiosensitivity of mouse germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Takeuchi, Toyoko; Maemori, Mamiko; Seki, Naohiko; Tobari, Izuo

    1991-01-01

    To estimate radiosensitivity of mouse germ cells the analysis of chromosome aberrations was performed at diakinesis-metaphase I of spermatocytes and first-cleavage metaphase of one-cell embryos after exposure to radiations at various stages of primary spermatocytes and spermatids. The result provided evidence that there are two major types of DNA damage in X-irradiated sperm : (1) short-lived DNA lesions ; the lesions are subject to repair inhibition by agents added in G 1 , and are converted into chromosome-type aberrations during G 1 , and (2) long-lived DNA lesions ; the lesions persist until S phase and repair of the lesions is inhibited by caffeine, hydroxyurea and arabinofuranosyl cytosine in G 2 . The characteristic of X-ray damage induced in spermiogenic stage and repair mechanism for the damage in the fertilized egg were discussed comparing with the results with two chemicals, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and mitomycin C (MMC). (J.P.N.)

  8. Absence of respiratory inflammatory reaction of elemental sulfur using the California Pesticide Illness Database and a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Smith, Jodi L; Last, Jerold A

    2005-01-01

    Elemental sulfur, a natural substance, is used as a fungicide. Elemental sulfur is the most heavily used agricultural chemical in California. In 2003, annual sulfur usage in California was about 34% of the total weight of pesticide active ingredient used in production agriculture. Even though sulfur is mostly used in dust form, the respiratory health effects of elemental sulfur are not well documented. The purpose of this paper is to address the possible respiratory effect of elemental sulfur using the California Pesticide Illness Database and laboratory experiments with mice. We analyzed the California Pesticide Illness Database between 1991 and 2001. Among 127 reports of definite, probable, and possible illness involving sulfur, 21 cases (16%) were identified as respiratory related. A mouse model was used to examine whether there was an inflammatory or fibrotic response to elemental sulfur. Dust solutions were injected intratracheally into ovalbumin sensitized mice and lung damage was evaluated. Lung inflammatory response was analyzed via total lavage cell counts and differentials, and airway collagen content was analyzed histologically and biochemically. No significant differences from controls were seen in animals exposed to sulfur particles. The findings suggest that acute exposure of elemental sulfur itself may not cause an inflammatory reaction. However, further studies are needed to understand the possible health effects of chronic sulfur exposure and environmental weathering of sulfur dust.

  9. Curcumin induces therapeutic angiogenesis in a diabetic mouse hindlimb ischemia model via modulating the function of endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinzhi; Sun, Jiacheng; Ma, Teng; Yang, Ziying; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Longgang; Ii, Masaaki; Yang, Junjie; Shen, Zhenya

    2017-08-03

    Neovascularization is impaired in diabetes mellitus, which leads to the development of peripheral arterial disease and is mainly attributed to the dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Previous studies proved the promotional effect of curcumin on neovascularization in wound healing of diabetes. Thus, we hypothesize that curcumin could promote neovascularization at sites of hindlimb ischemia in diabetes and might take effect via modulating the function of EPCs. Streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice and nondiabetic mice both received unilateral hindlimb ischemic surgery. Curcumin was then administrated to the mice by lavage for 14 days consecutively. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging was conducted to demonstrate the blood flow reperfusion. Capillary density was measured in the ischemic gastrocnemius muscle. In addition, angiogenesis, migration, proliferation abilities, and senescence were determined in EPCs isolated from diabetic and nondiabetic mice. Quantitative PCR was then used to determine the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoetin-1 (Ang-1) in EPCs. Curcumin application to type 1 diabetic mice significantly improved blood reperfusion and increased the capillary density in ischemic hindlimbs. The in-vitro study also revealed that the angiogenesis, migration, and proliferation abilities of EPCs and the number of senescent EPCs were reversed by curcumin application. Quantitative PCR confirmed the overexpression of VEGF-A and Ang-1 in EPCs after curcumin treatment. Curcumin could enhance neovascularization via promoting the function of EPCs in a diabetic mouse hindlimb ischemia model.

  10. Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mianmian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several active ingredients proposed as vaginal microbicides have been shown paradoxically to increase susceptibility to infection in mouse genital herpes (HSV-2 vaginal susceptibility models and in clinical trials. In addition, "inactive ingredients" (or excipients used in topical products to formulate and deliver the active ingredient might also cause epithelial toxicities that increase viral susceptibility. However, excipients have not previously been tested in susceptibility models. Methods Excipients commonly used in topical products were formulated in a non-toxic vehicle (the "HEC universal placebo", or other formulations as specified. Twelve hours after exposure to the excipient or a control treatment, mice were challenged with a vaginal dose of HSV-2, and three days later were assessed for infection by vaginal lavage culture to assess susceptibility. Results The following excipients markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2 after a single exposure: 5% glycerol monolaurate (GML formulated in K-Y® Warming Jelly, 5% GML as a colloidal suspension in phosphate buffered saline, K-Y Warming Jelly alone, and both of its humectant/solvent ingredients (neat propylene glycol and neat PEG-8. For excipients formulated in the HEC vehicle, 30% glycerin significantly increased susceptibility, and a trend toward increased HSV-2 susceptibility was observed after 10% glycerin, and 0.1% disodium EDTA, but not after 0.0186% disodium EDTA. The following excipients did not increase susceptibility: 10% propylene glycol, 0.18%, methylparaben plus 0.02% propylparaben, and 1% benzyl alcohol. Conclusions As reported with other surfactants, the surfactant/emulsifier GML markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2. Glycerin at 30% significantly increased susceptibility, and, undiluted propylene glycol and PEG-8 greatly increased susceptibility.

  11. Effects of fluticasone propionate inhalation on levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert T. Verhoeven

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In smoking COPD patients the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid contains high numbers of inflammatory cells. These cells might produce arachidonic acid (AA metabolites, which contribute to inflammation and an increased bronchomotor tone.

  12. Pseudo-outbreak of pseudomonas aeruginosa in HIV-infected patients undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, H J; Lerche, A; Kristoffersen, Kirsten Lydia

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 8 consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy at an infectious diseases unit. None of the patients developed signs of respiratory tract infection that could be ascribed to the organism. The source of contamination...

  13. INTERSTITIAL LUNG-DISEASE AND MYOSITIS IN A PATIENT WITH SIMULTANEOUSLY OCCURRING SARCOIDOSIS AND SCLERODERMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROEN, H; POSTMA, DS; KALLENBERG, CGM

    1993-01-01

    A patient initially presented with sarcoidosis in combination with myositis of sarcoid origin and Raynaud's phenomenon. During the course of his disease, he additionally developed scleroderma. Bronchoalveolar lavage, performed because of increase of interstitial markings in the presence of enlarged

  14. ECIL guidelines for treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in non-HIV-infected haematology patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maschmeyer, Georg; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Pagano, Livio

    2016-01-01

    The initiation of systemic antimicrobial treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is triggered by clinical signs and symptoms, typical radiological and occasionally laboratory findings in patients at risk of this infection. Diagnostic proof by bronchoalveolar lavage should not delay th...

  15. Immunophenotyping of eosinophils recovered from blood and BAL of allergic asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengelers, H. J.; Maikoe, T.; Brinkman, L.; Hooibrink, B.; Lammers, J. W.; Koenderman, L.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with allergic asthma have demonstrated active migration of eosinophils into the bronchial lumen after allergen challenge. The mechanisms mediating this eosinophil infiltration and cell activation are largely unexplained. The expression of

  16. Rotator Cuff Calcific Tendinitis: Ultrasound-Guided Needling and Lavage Versus Subacromial Corticosteroids: Five-Year Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witte, Pieter Bas; Kolk, Arjen; Overes, Ferdinand; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Reijnierse, Monique

    2017-12-01

    Barbotage (needling and lavage) is often applied in the treatment of calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff (RCCT). In a previously published randomized controlled trial, we reported superior clinical and radiological 1-year outcomes for barbotage combined with a corticosteroid injection in the subacromial bursa (SAIC) compared with an isolated SAIC. There are no trials with a midterm or long-term follow-up of barbotage available. To compare the 5-year results of 2 regularly applied treatments of RCCT: ultrasound (US)-guided barbotage combined with a SAIC (group 1) versus an isolated US-guided SAIC (group 2). Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Patients were randomly assigned to group 1 or 2 and evaluated before and after treatment at regular time points until 12 months and also at 5 years using the Constant score (CS), the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH). The calcification location and size and Gärtner classification were assessed on radiographs. The rotator cuff condition was evaluated with US. Results were analyzed using t tests, linear regression, and a mixed model for repeated measures. Forty-eight patients were included (mean age, 52.0 ± 7.3 years; 25 [52%] female) with a mean baseline CS of 68.7 ± 11.9. After a mean follow-up of 5.1 ± 0.5 years, the mean CS was 90 (95% CI, 83.0-95.9) in group 1 versus 87 (95% CI, 80.5-93.5) in group 2 ( P = .58). The mean improvement in the CS in group 1 was 18 (95% CI, 12.3-23.0) versus 21 (95% CI, 16.2-26.2) in group 2 ( P = .32). There was total resorption in 62% of group 1 and 73% of group 2 ( P = .45). The US evaluation of the rotator cuff condition showed no significant differences between the groups. With the mixed model for repeated measures, taking into account the baseline CS and Gärtner classification, the mean treatment effect for barbotage was 6 (95% CI, -8.9 to 21.5), but without statistical significance. Follow-up scores

  17. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) have the ability to differentiate into a ... We describe a simple method to generate relatively pure cardiomyocytes from mouse ... In this study, we described the generation of transgenic.

  19. Melatonin receptors: latest insights from mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosini, Gianluca; Owino, Sharon; Guillame, Jean-Luc; Jockers, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Melatonin, the neuro-hormone synthesized during the night, has recently seen an unexpected extension of its functional implications towards type 2 diabetes development, visual functions, sleep disturbances and depression. Transgenic mouse models were instrumental for the establishment of the link between melatonin and these major human diseases. Most of the actions of melatonin are mediated by two types of G protein-coupled receptors, named MT1 and MT2, which are expressed in many different organs and tissues. Understanding the pharmacology and function of mouse MT1 and MT2 receptors, including MT1/MT2 heteromers, will be of crucial importance to evaluate the relevance of these mouse models for future therapeutic developments. This review will critically discuss these aspects, and give some perspectives including the generation of new mouse models. PMID:24903552

  20. Circadian oscillators in the mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Rovsing, Louise; Møller, Morten

    2014-01-01

    with conditional cell-specific clock gene deletions. This prompted us to analyze the molecular clockwork of the mouse neocortex and cerebellum in detail. Here, by use of in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR, we show that clock genes are expressed in all six layers of the neocortex and the Purkinje...... and granular cell layers of the cerebellar cortex of the mouse brain. Among these, Per1, Per2, Cry1, Arntl, and Nr1d1 exhibit circadian rhythms suggesting that local running circadian oscillators reside within neurons of the mouse neocortex and cerebellar cortex. The temporal expression profiles of clock genes...... are similar in the neocortex and cerebellum, but they are delayed by 5 h as compared to the SCN, suggestively reflecting a master-slave relationship between the SCN and extra-hypothalamic oscillators. Furthermore, ARNTL protein products are detectable in neurons of the mouse neocortex and cerebellum...

  1. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha

    2015-01-01

    laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human......We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing...... counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies....

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation is not accompanied by a release of anandamide into the lavage fluid or a down-regulation of the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, S.; J. Fowler, C.; Rocksén, D.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of lipopolysaccharide inhalation upon lung anandamide levels, anandamide synthetic enzymes and fatty acid amide hydrolase has been investigated. Lipopolysaccharide exposure produced a dramatic extravasation of neutrophils and release of tumour necrosis factor a into the bronchoalveolar......-acyltransferase and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D and the activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase in lung membrane fractions did not change significantly following the exposure to lipopolysaccharide. The non-selective fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride was a less potent...... inhibitor of lung fatty acid amide hydrolase than expected from the literature, and a dose of 30 mg/kg i.p. of this compound, which produced a complete inhibition of brain anandamide metabolism, only partially inhibited the lung metabolic activity....

  3. Interactions of mouse pinworms and trichomonads

    OpenAIRE

    Choutková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Oxyurid nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata are both common mouse intestinal parasites; in the same location several species of trichomonads occur. Tritrichomonas muris is the most often found, but there are also some others: Tritrichomonas minuta, Pentatrichomonas hominis or Hexamastix muris. It is known that, under some circumstances, trichomonads can be found in the intestine of mouse pinworms, as reported by Theiler and Farber (1936) for T. muris in A. tetraptera and S....

  4. Optimization of the virtual mouse HeadMouse to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce TEIXIDO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization of a virtual mouse called HeadMouse in order to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities. HeadMouse is an absolute virtual mouse that converts head movements in cursor displacement and facial gestures in click actions. The virtual mouse combines different image processing algorithms: face detection, pattern matching and optical flow in order to emulate the behaviour of a conventional computer mouse. The original implementation of HeadMouse requires large computational power and this paper proposes specific optimizations in order to enable its use by children with disabilities in standard low cost classroom computers.

  5. Respiratory failure following anti-lung serum: study on mechanisms associated with surfactant system damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachmann, B.; Hallman, M.; Bergmann, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Within 2 minutes intravenous anti-lung serum (ALS) into guinea pig induces a respiratory failure that is fatal within 30 min. The relationship between surfactant, alveolar-capillary permeability and respiratory failure was studied. Within two minutes ALS induced a leak in the alveolar-capillary barrier. Within 30 minutes 28.3% (controls, given normal rabbit serum: 0.7%) of iv 131 I-albumin, and 0.5% (controls 0.02%) of iv surfactant phospholipid tracer were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage. Furthermore, 57% (controls 32%) of the endotracheally administered surfactant phospholipid became associated with lung tissue and only less than 0.5% left the lung. The distribution of proteins and phospholipids between the in vivo small volume bronchoalveolar lavages and the ex vivo bronchoalveolar lavages were dissimilar: 84% (controls 20%) of intravenously injected, lavageable 131 I-albumin and 23% (controls 18%) of total lavageable phospholipid were recovered in the in vivo small volume bronchoalveolar lavages. ALS also decreased lavageable surfactant phospholipid by 41%. After ALS the minimum surface tension increased. The supernatant of the lavage increased the minimum surface tension of normal surfactant. In addition, the sediment fraction of the lavage had slow surface adsorption, and a marked reduction in 35,000 and 10,000 MW peptides. Exogenous surfactant ameliorated the ALS-induced respiratory failure. We propose that inhibition, altered intrapulmonary distribution, and dissociation of protein and phospholipid components of surfactant are important in early pathogenesis of acute respiratory failure

  6. Heme synthesis in normal mouse liver and mouse liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic cancers from mice and rats demonstrate decreased levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway, and increased heme oxygenase, the heme-catabolizing enzyme. These findings suggest that diminution of P-450, b5, and catalase in these lesions may result from a heme supply that is limited by decreased heme synthesis and increased heme catabolism. Heme synthesis was measured in mouse liver tumors (MLT) and adjacent tumor-free lobes (BKG) by administering the radiolabeled heme precursors 55 FeCl3 and [2- 14 C]glycine and subsequently extracting the heme for determination of specific activity. Despite reduced delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase activity in MLT, both tissues incorporated [2-14C]glycine into heme at similar rates. At early time points, heme extracted from MLT contained less 55Fe than that from BKG. This was attributed to the findings that MLT took up 55Fe at a slower rate than BKG and had larger iron stores than BKG. The amount of heme per milligram of protein was also similar in both tissues. These findings militate against the hypothesis that diminished hemoprotein levels in MLT result from limited availability of heme. It is probable, therefore, that decreased hemoprotein levels in hepatic tumors are linked to a general program of dedifferentiation associated with the cancer phenotype. Diminution of hemoprotein in MLT may result in a relatively increased intracellular heme pool. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthase and heme oxygenase are, respectively, negatively and positively regulated by heme. Thus, their alteration in MLT may be due to the regulatory influences of the heme pool

  7. IL-23 Is Essential for the Development of Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Utako; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Akihiko; Waseda, Koichi; Morichika, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Etsuko; Koga, Hikari; Kataoka, Mikio; Gelfand, Erwin W; Cua, Daniel J; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kanehiro, Arihiko

    2016-11-01

    We recently reported that IL-17A plays a critical role in the development of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema. The proliferation of T-helper type 17 (Th17) cells was induced by IL-23. To determine the contribution of IL-23 to the development of pulmonary emphysema, a mouse model of PPE-induced emphysema was used in which responses of IL-23p19-deficient (IL-23 -/- ) and wild-type (WT) mice were compared. Intratracheal instillation of PPE induced emphysematous changes in the lungs and was associated with increased levels of IL-23 in lung homogenates. Compared with WT mice, IL-23 -/- mice developed significantly lower static compliance values and markedly reduced emphysematous changes on histological analyses after PPE instillation. These changes were associated with lower levels of IL-17A and fewer Th17 cells in the lung. The neutrophilia seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of WT mice was attenuated in IL-23 -/- mice, and the reduction was associated with decreased levels of keratinocyte-derived cytokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment with anti-IL-23p40 monoclonal antibody significantly attenuated PPE-induced emphysematous changes in the lungs of WT mice. These data identify the important contributions of IL-23 to the development of elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema, mediated through an IL-23/IL-17 pathway. Targeting IL-23 in emphysema is a potential therapeutic strategy for delaying disease progression.

  8. Ghrelin Ameliorates Asthma by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Qingdi; Zhang, Yan; Sheng, Baowei; Han, Liping

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to confirm the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on asthma and investigate its mechanism. The murine model of asthma was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) treatment and assessed by histological pathology and airway responsiveness to methacholine. The total and differential leukocytes were counted. Tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were quantified by commercial kits. The protein levels in pulmonary tissues were measured by Western blot analysis. Ghrelin ameliorated the histological pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in the OVA-induced asthmatic mouse model. Consistently, OVA-increased total and differential leukocytes and levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly attenuated by ghrelin. Ghrelin prevented the increased protein levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers glucose regulated protein 78 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and reversed the reduced levels of p-Akt in asthmatic mice. Ghrelin might prevent endoplasmic reticulum stress activation by stimulating the Akt signaling pathway, which attenuated inflammation and ameliorated asthma in mice. Ghrelin might be a new target for asthma therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  11. Mouse Model of Burn Wound and Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr) a depres......The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr...

  12. Immunohistochemical visualization of mouse interneuron subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Mølgaard; Ulrichsen, Maj; Boggild, Simon

    2014-01-01

    , and calretinin are also commonly used as markers to narrow down the specific interneuron subtype. Here, we describe a journey to find the necessary immunological reagents for studying GABAergic interneurons of the mouse hippocampus. Based on web searches there are several hundreds of different antibodies...... of the hippocampus where they have previously been described. Additionally, the antibodies were also tested on sections from mouse spinal cord with similar criteria for specificity of the antibodies. Using the antibodies with a high rating on pAbmAbs, stainings with high signal-to-noise ratios and location...

  13. Simple and efficient expression of codon-optimized mouse leukemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To obtain a higher yield of mouse leukemia inhibitory factor to maintain the proliferation potential of pluripotent ... It induces mouse myeloid leukemic M1 cells of terminal ... induces the production of acute phase proteins by lipocyte ...

  14. Sequence and chromosomal localization of the mouse brevican gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, U; Meyer, H; Brakebusch, C

    1997-01-01

    Brevican is a brain-specific proteoglycan belonging to the aggrecan family. Phage clones containing the complete mouse brevican open reading frame of 2649 bp and the complete 3'-untranslated region of 341 bp were isolated from a mouse brain cDNA library, and cosmid clones containing the mouse...

  15. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be...

  16. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Is the International Resource for Information on the Laboratory Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, MeiYee; Shaw, David R

    2018-01-01

    Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI, http://www.informatics.jax.org/ ) web resources provide free access to meticulously curated information about the laboratory mouse. MGI's primary goal is to help researchers investigate the genetic foundations of human diseases by translating information from mouse phenotypes and disease models studies to human systems. MGI provides comprehensive phenotypes for over 50,000 mutant alleles in mice and provides experimental model descriptions for over 1500 human diseases. Curated data from scientific publications are integrated with those from high-throughput phenotyping and gene expression centers. Data are standardized using defined, hierarchical vocabularies such as the Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology, Mouse Developmental Anatomy and the Gene Ontologies (GO). This chapter introduces you to Gene and Allele Detail pages and provides step-by-step instructions for simple searches and those that take advantage of the breadth of MGI data integration.

  17. Mouse manipulation through single-switch scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstien-Adler, Susie; Shein, Fraser; Quintal, Janet; Birch, Shae; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Given the current extensive reliance on the graphical user interface, independent access to computer software requires that users be able to manipulate a pointing device of some type (e.g., mouse, trackball) or be able to emulate a mouse by some other means (e.g., scanning). The purpose of the present study was to identify one or more optimal single-switch scanning mouse emulation strategies. Four alternative scanning strategies (continuous Cartesian, discrete Cartesian, rotational, and hybrid quadrant/continuous Cartesian) were selected for testing based on current market availability as well as on theoretical considerations of their potential speed and accuracy. Each strategy was evaluated using a repeated measures study design by means of a test program that permitted mouse emulation via any one of four scanning strategies in a motivating environment; response speed and accuracy could be automatically recorded and considered in view of the motor, cognitive, and perceptual demands of each scanning strategy. Ten individuals whose disabilities required them to operate a computer via single-switch scanning participated in the study. Results indicated that Cartesian scanning was the preferred and most effective scanning strategy. There were no significant differences between results from the Continuous Cartesian and Discrete Cartesian scanning strategies. Rotational scanning was quite slow with respect to the other strategies, although it was equally accurate. Hybrid Quadrant scanning improved access time but at the cost of fewer correct selections. These results demonstrated the importance of testing and comparing alternate single-switch scanning strategies.

  18. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  19. the production of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of mouse embryonic stem cells ... cells into the cavity of the blastocyst, it will be possible to test the effect of .... to the use of efficient immunosuppressive drugs like cyclosporin – was ...

  20. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, L.; Youssef, S. A.; de Bruin, A.

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of geroscience,

  1. Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. WJ He, SC Li, LL Ye, H Liu, QW Wang, WD Han, XB Fu, ZL Chen. Abstract. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages in vitro, including cardiomyocytes. Successful applications of ...

  2. An update on the mouse liver proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlak Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decoding of the liver proteome is subject of intense research, but hampered by methodological constraints. We recently developed an improved protocol for studying rat liver proteins based on 2-DE-MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. This methodology was now applied to develop a mouse liver protein database. Results Liver proteins were extracted by two different lysis buffers in sequence followed by a liquid-phase IEF pre-fractionation and separation of proteins by 2 DE at two different pH ranges, notably 5-8 and 7-10. Based on 9600 in gel digests a total of 643 mouse liver proteins with high sequence coverage (> 20 peptides per protein could be identified by MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. Notably, 255 proteins are novel and have not been reported so far by conventional two-dimensional electrophoresis proteome mapping. Additionally, the results of the present findings for mouse liver were compared to published data of the rat proteome to compile as many proteins as possible in a rodent liver database. Conclusion Based on 2-DE MALDI-TOF-MS a significantly improved proteome map of mouse liver was obtained. We discuss some prominent members of newly identified proteins for a better understanding of liver biology.

  3. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  4. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene. (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in chimeric cDNA types, encompassing. GST and FLAG with PEP-cDNA. PEP-cDNA was sub-cloned in pGEX6p2 prokaryotic expression ...

  5. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-01-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience,"

  6. Myelination competent conditionally immortalized mouse Schwann cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saavedra, José T.; Wolterman, Ruud A.; Baas, Frank; ten Asbroek, Anneloor L. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous mouse myelin mutants are available to analyze the biology of the peripheral nervous system related to health and disease in vivo. However, robust in vitro biochemical characterizations of players in peripheral nerve processes are still not possible due to the limited growth capacities of

  7. Administration of olive oil followed by a low volume of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution improves patient satisfaction with right-side colonic cleansing over administration of the conventional volume of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution for colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abut, Evren; Guveli, Hakan; Yasar, Bulent; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Filiz Fusun; Ince, Ali Tuzun; Kendir, Tulin; Dalay, Ali Remzi; Kurdas, Oya Ovunc

    2009-09-01

    Proper bowel cleansing before colonoscopy is essential for satisfactory evaluation of the colon. The required consumption of a large volume of salty-tasting liquid, 4 L of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS), is the primary limitation to achieving this goal. To achieve better patient satisfaction with efficient bowel cleansing, we compared the effects of the conventional volume (4 L) of PEG-ELS with those of a low volume (2 L) in combination with pretreatment using different laxatives, such as magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) and olive oil. Randomized, controlled study. A single research hospital. Patients undergoing elective colonoscopy. A total of 120 patients were randomized to 1 of 3 different preparation regimens: 39 patients were prepared with a conventional volume (4 L) of PEG-ELS (Preparation [Prep] 1), and the remaining patients were prepared with a lower volume (2 L) of PEG-ELS and pretreatment with a laxative, either 15 g of magnesium hydroxide (40 patients, Prep 2) or 60 mL of olive oil (41 patients, Prep 3) 3 hours before PEG-ELS administration. The primary outcome was the efficacy of colonic cleansing on the left and right sides. Secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction and side effects. The olive oil regimen (Prep 3) resulted in significantly more adequate bowel cleansing of the right colon than administration of the conventional volume of PEG-ELS (Prep 1) and the magnesium hydroxide (Prep 2) regimen (97.6% vs 74.5% and 72.5%, respectively, P = .007). However, this difference was not observed in the left colon (91.5%, 85.5%, and 91.8% for Preps 1, 2, and 3, respectively, P = .776). When asked, 38 patients (95%) taking Prep 2, 35 patients (85.3%) taking Prep 3, and only 11 patients (28.2%) taking Prep 1 preferred the same preparation regimen if they required a future colonoscopy (P =.006), based on ease of use and taste. The side effects were comparable in each group. The limitations of this study include the relatively

  8. Mouse Activity across Time Scales: Fractal Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, G. Z. dos Santos; Lobão-Soares, B.; do Nascimento, G. C.; França, Arthur S. C.; Muratori, L.; Ribeiro, S.; Corso, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we devise a classification of mouse activity patterns based on accelerometer data using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We use two characteristic mouse behavioural states as benchmarks in this study: waking in free activity and slow-wave sleep (SWS). In both situations we find roughly the same pattern: for short time intervals we observe high correlation in activity - a typical 1/f complex pattern - while for large time intervals there is anti-correlation. High correlation of short intervals ( to : waking state and to : SWS) is related to highly coordinated muscle activity. In the waking state we associate high correlation both to muscle activity and to mouse stereotyped movements (grooming, waking, etc.). On the other side, the observed anti-correlation over large time scales ( to : waking state and to : SWS) during SWS appears related to a feedback autonomic response. The transition from correlated regime at short scales to an anti-correlated regime at large scales during SWS is given by the respiratory cycle interval, while during the waking state this transition occurs at the time scale corresponding to the duration of the stereotyped mouse movements. Furthermore, we find that the waking state is characterized by longer time scales than SWS and by a softer transition from correlation to anti-correlation. Moreover, this soft transition in the waking state encompass a behavioural time scale window that gives rise to a multifractal pattern. We believe that the observed multifractality in mouse activity is formed by the integration of several stereotyped movements each one with a characteristic time correlation. Finally, we compare scaling properties of body acceleration fluctuation time series during sleep and wake periods for healthy mice. Interestingly, differences between sleep and wake in the scaling exponents are comparable to previous works regarding human heartbeat. Complementarily, the nature of these sleep-wake dynamics could lead to a better

  9. Effects of nickel-oxide nanoparticle pre-exposure dispersion status on bioactivity in the mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Tina; Wolfarth, Michael; Keane, Michael; Porter, Dale; Castranova, Vincent; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as one of the world's most promising new technologies. From a toxicology perspective, nanoparticles possess two features that promote their bioactivity. The first involves physical-chemical characteristics of the nanoparticle, which include the surface area of the nanoparticle. The second feature is the ability of the nanoparticle to traverse cell membranes. These two important nanoparticle characteristics are greatly influenced by placing nanoparticles in liquid medium prior to animal exposure. Nanoparticles tend to agglomerate and clump in suspension, making it difficult to reproducibly deliver them for in vivo or in vitro experiments, possibly affecting experimental variability. Thus, we hypothesize that nanoparticle dispersion status will correlate with the in vivo bioactivity/toxicity of the particle. To test our hypothesis, nano-sized nickel oxide was suspended in four different dispersion media (phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), dispersion medium (DM), a combination of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and albumin in concentrations that mimic diluted alveolar lining fluid), Survanta®, or pluronic (Pluronic F-68). Well-dispersed and poorly dispersed suspensions were generated in each media by varying sonication time on ice utilizing a Branson Sonifer 450 (25W continuous output, 20 min or 5 min, respectively). Mice (male, C57BL/6J, 7-weeks-old) were given 0-80 µg/mouse of nano-sized nickel oxide in the different states of dispersion via pharyngeal aspiration. At 1 and 7 d post-exposure, mice underwent whole lung lavage to assess pulmonary inflammation and injury as a function of dispersion status, dose and time. The results show that pre-exposure dispersion status correlates with pulmonary inflammation and injury. These results indicate that a greater degree of pre-exposure dispersion increases pulmonary inflammation and cytotoxicity, as well as decreases in the integrity of the blood-gas barrier in the lung.

  10. Vitamin D Repletion Reduces the Progression of Premalignant Squamous Lesions in the NTCU Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Hershberger, Pamela A.; Reid, Mary E.; Bogner, Paul N.; Atwood, Kristopher; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemopreventive actions of vitamin D were examined in the N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) mouse model, a progressive model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SWR/J mice were fed a deficient diet (D) containing no vitamin D3, a sufficient diet (S) containing 2000 IU/kg vitamin D3, or the same diets in combination with the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol (C) (80 μg/kg, weekly). The percentage (%) of the mucosal surface of large airways occupied by dysplastic lesions was determined in mice after treatment with a total dose of 15 or 25 μmol NTCU (N). After treatment with 15 μmol NTCU, the % of the surface of large airways containing high-grade dysplastic (HGD) lesions were vitamin D-deficient +NTCU (DN), 22.7 % (p<0.05 compared to vitamin D-sufficient +NTCU (SN)); DN + C, 12.3%; SN, 8.7%; and SN + C, 6.6%. The extent of HGD increased with NTCU dose in the DN group. Proliferation, assessed by Ki-67 labeling, increased upon NTCU treatment. The highest Ki-67 labeling index was seen in the DN group. As compared to SN mice, DN mice exhibited a 3-fold increase (p <0.005) in circulating white blood cells (WBC), a 20% (p <0.05) increase in IL-6 levels, and a 4 -fold (p <0.005) increase in WBC in bronchial lavages. Thus, vitamin D repletion reduces the progression of premalignant lesions, proliferation, and inflammation, and may thereby suppress development of lung SCC. Further investigations of the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D in lung SCC are warranted. PMID:26276745

  11. MouseMine: a new data warehouse for MGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motenko, H; Neuhauser, S B; O'Keefe, M; Richardson, J E

    2015-08-01

    MouseMine (www.mousemine.org) is a new data warehouse for accessing mouse data from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Based on the InterMine software framework, MouseMine supports powerful query, reporting, and analysis capabilities, the ability to save and combine results from different queries, easy integration into larger workflows, and a comprehensive Web Services layer. Through MouseMine, users can access a significant portion of MGI data in new and useful ways. Importantly, MouseMine is also a member of a growing community of online data resources based on InterMine, including those established by other model organism databases. Adopting common interfaces and collaborating on data representation standards are critical to fostering cross-species data analysis. This paper presents a general introduction to MouseMine, presents examples of its use, and discusses the potential for further integration into the MGI interface.

  12. Assessment of plasminogen synthesis in vitro by mouse tumor cells using a competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasminogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblin, R.O.; Bell, T.E.; Young, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive, specific competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasmin(ogen) has been developed in order to determine whether mouse tumor cells can synthesize plasminogen in vitro. The rabbit anti-BALB/c mouse plasminogen antibodies used in the assay react with the plasminogen present in serum from BALB/c, C3H, AKR and C57BL/6 mice, and also recognized mouse plasmin. The competition radiommunoassay can detect as little as 50 ng of mouse plasminogen. No competition was observed with preparations of fetal calf, human and rabbit plasminogens. A variety of virus-transformed and mouse tumor cell lines were all found to contain less than 100 ng mouse plasminogen/mg of cell extract protein. Thus, if the plasminogen activator/plasmin system is important in the growth or movement of this group of tumor cells, the cells will be dependent upon the circulatory system of the host for their plasminogen supply. (Auth.)

  13. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  14. Electroporation of Postimplantation Mouse Embryos In Utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Carcagno, Abel

    2018-02-01

    Gene transfer by electroporation is possible in mouse fetuses within the uterus. As described in this protocol, the pregnant female is anesthetized, the abdominal cavity is opened, and the uterus with the fetuses is exteriorized. A solution of plasmid DNA is injected through the uterine wall directly into the fetus, typically into a cavity like the brain ventricle, guided by fiber optic illumination. Electrodes are positioned on the uterus around the region of the fetus that was injected, and electrical pulses are delivered. The uterus is returned to the abdominal cavity, the body wall is sutured closed, and the female is allowed to recover. The manipulated fetuses can then be collected and analyzed at various times after the electroporation. This method allows experimental access to later-stage developing mouse embryos. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Risk assessment in man and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Gallistel, Charles R

    2009-02-17

    Human and mouse subjects tried to anticipate at which of 2 locations a reward would appear. On a randomly scheduled fraction of the trials, it appeared with a short latency at one location; on the complementary fraction, it appeared after a longer latency at the other location. Subjects of both species accurately assessed the exogenous uncertainty (the probability of a short versus a long trial) and the endogenous uncertainty (from the scalar variability in their estimates of an elapsed duration) to compute the optimal target latency for a switch from the short- to the long-latency location. The optimal latency was arrived at so rapidly that there was no reliably discernible improvement over trials. Under these nonverbal conditions, humans and mice accurately assess risks and behave nearly optimally. That this capacity is well-developed in the mouse opens up the possibility of a genetic approach to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying risk assessment.

  16. The scarless heart and the MRL mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber-Katz, Ellen; Leferovich, John; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Gourevitch, Dmitri; Clark, Lise

    2004-05-29

    The ability to regenerate tissues and limbs in its most robust form is seen in many non-mammalian species. The serendipitous discovery that the MRL mouse has a profound capacity for regeneration in some ways rivalling the classic newt and axolotl species raises the possibility that humans, too, may have an innate regenerative ability. The adult MRL mouse regrows cartilage, skin, hair follicles and myocardium with near perfect fidelity and without scarring. This is seen in the ability to close through-and-through ear holes, which are generally used for lifelong identification of mice, and the anatomic and functional recovery of myocardium after a severe cryo-injury. We present histological, biochemical and genetic data indicating that the enhanced breakdown of scar-like tissue may be an underlying factor in the MRL regenerative response. Studies as to the source of the cells in the regenerating MRL tissue are discussed. Such studies appear to support multiple mechanisms for cell replacement.

  17. Engineering a new mouse model for vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Prashiela; Orlow, Seth J

    2012-07-01

    Although the precise mechanisms that trigger vitiligo remain elusive, autoimmune responses mediate its progression. The development of therapies has been impeded by a paucity of animal models, since mice lack interfollicular melanocytes, the primary targets in vitiligo. In this issue, Harris et al. describe a mouse model in which interfollicular melanocytes are retained by Kit ligand overexpression and an immune response is initiated by transplanting melanocyte-targeting CD8+ T cells.

  18. Mouse Chromosome Engineering for Modeling Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    van der Weyden, Louise; Bradley, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements occur frequently in humans and can be disease-associated or phenotypically neutral. Recent technological advances have led to the discovery of copy-number changes previously undetected by cytogenetic techniques. To understand the genetic consequences of such genomic changes, these mutations need to be modeled in experimentally tractable systems. The mouse is an excellent organism for this analysis because of its biological and genetic similarity to humans, and the e...

  19. Hedgehog Signalling in the Embryonic Mouse Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barbarulo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available T cells develop in the thymus, which provides an essential environment for T cell fate specification, and for the differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells into major histocompatibility complex (MHC-restricted, non-autoreactive T cells. Here we review the role of the Hedgehog signalling pathway in T cell development, thymic epithelial cell (TEC development, and thymocyte–TEC cross-talk in the embryonic mouse thymus during the last week of gestation.

  20. Spatial integration in mouse primary visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Vaiceliunaite, Agne; Erisken, Sinem; Franzen, Florian; Katzner, Steffen; Busse, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Responses of many neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by stimuli exceeding the classical receptive field (RF), an important property that might underlie the computation of visual saliency. Traditionally, it has proven difficult to disentangle the underlying neural circuits, including feedforward, horizontal intracortical, and feedback connectivity. Since circuit-level analysis is particularly feasible in the mouse, we asked whether neural signatures of spatial integration in ...

  1. Spatial integration in mouse primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiceliunaite, Agne; Erisken, Sinem; Franzen, Florian; Katzner, Steffen; Busse, Laura

    2013-08-01

    Responses of many neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by stimuli exceeding the classical receptive field (RF), an important property that might underlie the computation of visual saliency. Traditionally, it has proven difficult to disentangle the underlying neural circuits, including feedforward, horizontal intracortical, and feedback connectivity. Since circuit-level analysis is particularly feasible in the mouse, we asked whether neural signatures of spatial integration in mouse V1 are similar to those of higher-order mammals and investigated the role of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) inhibitory interneurons. Analogous to what is known from primates and carnivores, we demonstrate that, in awake mice, surround suppression is present in the majority of V1 neurons and is strongest in superficial cortical layers. Anesthesia with isoflurane-urethane, however, profoundly affects spatial integration: it reduces the laminar dependency, decreases overall suppression strength, and alters the temporal dynamics of responses. We show that these effects of brain state can be parsimoniously explained by assuming that anesthesia affects contrast normalization. Hence, the full impact of suppressive influences in mouse V1 cannot be studied under anesthesia with isoflurane-urethane. To assess the neural circuits of spatial integration, we targeted PV+ interneurons using optogenetics. Optogenetic depolarization of PV+ interneurons was associated with increased RF size and decreased suppression in the recorded population, similar to effects of lowering stimulus contrast, suggesting that PV+ interneurons contribute to spatial integration by affecting overall stimulus drive. We conclude that the mouse is a promising model for circuit-level mechanisms of spatial integration, which relies on the combined activity of different types of inhibitory interneurons.

  2. DNA damage response during mouse oocyte maturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, Alexandra; Baran, Vladimír; Sakakibara, Y.; Brzáková, Adéla; Ferencová, Ivana; Motlík, Jan; Kitajima, T.; Schultz, R. M.; Šolc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2016), s. 546-558 ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12057; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : double strand DNA breaks * DNA damage * MRE11 * meiotic maturation * mouse oocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.530, year: 2016

  3. Development of the mouse cochlea database (MCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Peter A; Rapson, Ian; Voie, Arne

    2008-09-01

    The mouse cochlea database (MCD) provides an interactive, image database of the mouse cochlea for learning its anatomy and data mining of its resources. The MCD website is hosted on a centrally maintained, high-speed server at the following URL: (http://mousecochlea.umn.edu). The MCD contains two types of image resources, serial 2D image stacks and 3D reconstructions of cochlear structures. Complete image stacks of the cochlea from two different mouse strains were obtained using orthogonal plane fluorescence optical microscopy (OPFOS). 2D images of the cochlea are presented on the MCD website as: viewable images within a stack, 2D atlas of the cochlea, orthogonal sections, and direct volume renderings combined with isosurface reconstructions. In order to assess cochlear structures quantitatively, "true" cross-sections of the scala media along the length of the basilar membrane were generated by virtual resectioning of a cochlea orthogonal to a cochlear structure, such as the centroid of the basilar membrane or the scala media. 3D images are presented on the MCD website as: direct volume renderings, movies, interactive QuickTime VRs, flythrough, and isosurface 3D reconstructions of different cochlear structures. 3D computer models can also be used for solid model fabrication by rapid prototyping and models from different cochleas can be combined to produce an average 3D model. The MCD is the first comprehensive image resource on the mouse cochlea and is a new paradigm for understanding the anatomy of the cochlea, and establishing morphometric parameters of cochlear structures in normal and mutant mice.

  4. Lethality of radioisotopes in early mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macqueen, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of pre-implantation mouse embryos was found to be prevented by exposure of the embryos to [ 35 S]methionine, but not to [ 3 H]methionine. Such embryos have also been shown to be highly sensitive to [ 3 H]thymidine. These observations are discussed with reference to the path lengths and energies of electrons emitted from the different radioisotopes. (author)

  5. Development of mPMab-1, a Mouse-Rat Chimeric Antibody Against Mouse Podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Nakamura, Takuro; Ichii, Osamu; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-04-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), the ligand of C-type lectin-like receptor-2, is used as a lymphatic endothelial marker. We previously established clone PMab-1 of rat IgG 2a as a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse PDPN. PMab-1 is also very sensitive in immunohistochemical analysis; however, rat mAbs seem to be unfavorable for pathologists because anti-mouse IgG and anti-rabbit IgG are usually used as secondary antibodies in commercially available kits for immunohistochemical analysis. In this study, we develop a mouse-rat chimeric antibody, mPMab-1 of mouse IgG 2a , which was derived from rat PMab-1 mAb. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that mPMab-1 detects podocytes of the kidney, lymphatic endothelial cells of the colon, and type I alveolar cells of the lung. Importantly, mPMab-1 is more sensitive than PMab-1. This conversion strategy from rat mAb to mouse mAb could be applicable to other mAbs.

  6. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database: A Comprehensive Resource for Mouse Models of Human Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Debra M; Begley, Dale A; Sundberg, John P; Richardson, Joel E; Neuhauser, Steven B; Bult, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Research using laboratory mice has led to fundamental insights into the molecular genetic processes that govern cancer initiation, progression, and treatment response. Although thousands of scientific articles have been published about mouse models of human cancer, collating information and data for a specific model is hampered by the fact that many authors do not adhere to existing annotation standards when describing models. The interpretation of experimental results in mouse models can also be confounded when researchers do not factor in the effect of genetic background on tumor biology. The Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB) database is an expertly curated, comprehensive compendium of mouse models of human cancer. Through the enforcement of nomenclature and related annotation standards, MTB supports aggregation of data about a cancer model from diverse sources and assessment of how genetic background of a mouse strain influences the biological properties of a specific tumor type and model utility. Cancer Res; 77(21); e67-70. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-01-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis in mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model

  8. The Virtual Mouse Brain: A Computational Neuroinformatics Platform to Study Whole Mouse Brain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melozzi, Francesca; Woodman, Marmaduke M; Jirsa, Viktor K; Bernard, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Connectome-based modeling of large-scale brain network dynamics enables causal in silico interrogation of the brain's structure-function relationship, necessitating the close integration of diverse neuroinformatics fields. Here we extend the open-source simulation software The Virtual Brain (TVB) to whole mouse brain network modeling based on individual diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)-based or tracer-based detailed mouse connectomes. We provide practical examples on how to use The Virtual Mouse Brain (TVMB) to simulate brain activity, such as seizure propagation and the switching behavior of the resting state dynamics in health and disease. TVMB enables theoretically driven experimental planning and ways to test predictions in the numerous strains of mice available to study brain function in normal and pathological conditions.

  9. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  10. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. ► Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. ► Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. ► Silibinin suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Because NF-κB activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-κB activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-κB activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  11. A report from the Sixth International Mouse Genome Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S. [Saint Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

    1992-12-31

    The Sixth Annual Mouse Genome Conference was held in October, 1992 at Buffalo, USA. The mouse is one of the primary model organisms in the Human Genome Project. Through the use of gene targeting studies the mouse has become a powerful biological model for the study of gene function and, in addition, the comparison of the many homologous mutations identified in human and mouse have widened our understanding of the biology of these two organisms. A primary goal in the mouse genome program has been to create a genetic map of STSs of high resolution (<1cM) that would form the basis for the physical mapping of the whole mouse genome. Buffalo saw substantial new progress towards the goal of a very high density genetic map and the beginnings of substantive efforts towards physical mapping in chromosome regions with a high density of genetic markers.

  12. Acute adaptive immune response correlates with late radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paun, Alexandra; Kunwar, Amit; Haston, Christina K

    2015-01-01

    The lung response to radiation exposure can involve an immediate or early reaction to the radiation challenge, including cell death and an initial immune reaction, and can be followed by a tissue injury response, of pneumonitis or fibrosis, to this acute reaction. Herein, we aimed to determine whether markers of the initial immune response, measured within days of radiation exposure, are correlated with the lung tissue injury responses occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice known to be susceptible (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) or resistant (C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J) to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10–23 weeks) were studied. Mice were untreated (controls) or received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were euthanized at 6 h, 1d or 7 d after radiation treatment. Pulmonary CD4+ lymphocytes, bronchoalveolar cell profile & cytokine level, and serum cytokine levels were assayed. Thoracic irradiation and inbred strain background significantly affected the numbers of CD4+ cells in the lungs and the bronchoalveolar lavage cell differential of exposed mice. At the 7 day timepoint greater numbers of pulmonary Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes and reduced lavage interleukin17 and interferonγ levels were significant predictors of late stage fibrosis. Lavage levels of interleukin-10, measured at the 7 day timepoint, were inversely correlated with fibrosis score (R = −0.80, p = 0.05), while serum levels of interleukin-17 in control mice significantly correlated with post irradiation survival time (R = 0.81, p = 0.04). Lavage macrophage, lymphocyte or neutrophil counts were not significantly correlated with either of fibrosis score or time to respiratory distress in the six mouse strains. Specific cytokine and lymphocyte levels, but not strain dependent lavage cell profiles, were predictive of later radiation-induced lung injury in this panel of inbred strains. The online version of this

  13. A Mouse Model for Human Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Marie K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Liem, Amy; Schweizer, Johannes; Mahoney, Charles; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Human anal cancers are associated with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause other anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers. As with other cancers, HPV16 is the most common high-risk HPV in anal cancers. We describe the generation and characterization of a mouse model for human anal cancer. This model makes use of K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice in which the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes are directed in their expression to stratified squamous epithelia. HPV16 E6 and E7 possess oncogenic properties including but not limited to their capacity to inactivate the cellular tumor suppressors p53 and pRb, respectively. Both E6 and E7 were found to be functionally expressed in the anal epithelia of K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice. To assess the susceptibility of these mice to anal cancer, mice were treated topically with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a chemical carcinogen that is known to induce squamous cell carcinomas in other sites. Nearly 50% of DMBA-treated HPV16 E6/E7 transgenic mice showed overt signs of tumors; whereas, none of the like treated non-transgenic mice showed tumors. Histopathological analyses confirmed that the HPV16 transgenic mice were increased in their susceptibility to anal cancers and precancerous lesions. Biomarker analyses demonstrated that these mouse anal cancers exhibit properties that are similar to those observed in HPV-positive precursors to human anal cancer. This is the first mouse model for investigating the contributions of viral and cellular factors in anal carcinogenesis, and should provide a platform for assessing new therapeutic modalities for treating and/or preventing this type of cancer. PMID:20947489

  14. Neutron issues in the JANUS mouse program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, the JANUS program in the Biological and Medical Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has compiled a database on the response of both sexes of an F 1 hybrid mouse, the B6CF 1 (C57BL/6 x BALB/c), to external whole- body irradiation by 60 Co γ-rays and fission neutrons. Three basic patterns of exposure for both neutrons and γ-rays have been investigated: single exposures, 24 equal once-weekly exposures, and 60 equal once-weekly exposures. All irradiations were terminated at predetermined total doses, with dose calculated in centigrays at the midline of the mouse. Three endpoints will be discussed in this paper: (1) life shortening, (2) a point estimate for cumulative mortality, and (3) the hazard function. Life shortening is used as an analysis endpoint because it summarizes, in a single index, the integrated effect of all injuries accumulated by an organism. Histopathological analyses of the mice used in the ANL studies have indicated that 85% of the deaths were caused by neoplasms. Connective tissue tumors were the dominant tumor in the B6CF 1 mouse, with tumors of lymphoreticular origin accounting for approximately 80% of this class. The latter two endpoints will therefore be used to describe the life table experience of mice dying from the lymphoreticular class of tumors. Dose-response models will be applied to the three endpoints in order to describe the response function for neutron exposures, evaluate the effect of dose range and pattern of exposure on the response function for neutrons, and provide a set of neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values of the ANL database. 25 refs

  15. Structural covariance networks in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Marco; Bifone, Angelo; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The presence of networks of correlation between regional gray matter volume as measured across subjects in a group of individuals has been consistently described in several human studies, an approach termed structural covariance MRI (scMRI). Complementary to prevalent brain mapping modalities like functional and diffusion-weighted imaging, the approach can provide precious insights into the mutual influence of trophic and plastic processes in health and pathological states. To investigate whether analogous scMRI networks are present in lower mammal species amenable to genetic and experimental manipulation such as the laboratory mouse, we employed high resolution morphoanatomical MRI in a large cohort of genetically-homogeneous wild-type mice (C57Bl6/J) and mapped scMRI networks using a seed-based approach. We show that the mouse brain exhibits robust homotopic scMRI networks in both primary and associative cortices, a finding corroborated by independent component analyses of cortical volumes. Subcortical structures also showed highly symmetric inter-hemispheric correlations, with evidence of distributed antero-posterior networks in diencephalic regions of the thalamus and hypothalamus. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed six identifiable clusters of cortical and sub-cortical regions corresponding to previously described neuroanatomical systems. Our work documents the presence of homotopic cortical and subcortical scMRI networks in the mouse brain, thus supporting the use of this species to investigate the elusive biological and neuroanatomical underpinnings of scMRI network development and its derangement in neuropathological states. The identification of scMRI networks in genetically homogeneous inbred mice is consistent with the emerging view of a key role of environmental factors in shaping these correlational networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mouse allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4 and risk of mouse skin test sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, E. C.; Diette, G. B.; Krop, E. J. M.; Aalberse, R. C.; Smith, A. L.; Eggleston, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    High serum levels of cat-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with protection against allergic sensitization to cat, but whether this association applies to other animal allergens remains unclear. To determine if high levels of mouse-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with a decreased risk of

  17. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals

  18. Mouse IDGenes: a reference database for genetic interactions in the developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Michaela; Preusse, Martin; Zhang, Jingzhong; Schechter, Julia; Mayer, Daniela; Lentes, Bernd; Theis, Fabian; Prakash, Nilima; Wurst, Wolfgang; Trümbach, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    The study of developmental processes in the mouse and other vertebrates includes the understanding of patterning along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial- lateral axis. Specifically, neural development is also of great clinical relevance because several human neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism disorders or drug addiction and also brain malformations are thought to have neurodevelopmental origins, i.e. pathogenesis initiates during childhood and adolescence. Impacts during early neurodevelopment might also predispose to late-onset neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. The neural tube develops from its precursor tissue, the neural plate, in a patterning process that is determined by compartmentalization into morphogenetic units, the action of local signaling centers and a well-defined and locally restricted expression of genes and their interactions. While public databases provide gene expression data with spatio-temporal resolution, they usually neglect the genetic interactions that govern neural development. Here, we introduce Mouse IDGenes, a reference database for genetic interactions in the developing mouse brain. The database is highly curated and offers detailed information about gene expressions and the genetic interactions at the developing mid-/hindbrain boundary. To showcase the predictive power of interaction data, we infer new Wnt/β-catenin target genes by machine learning and validate one of them experimentally. The database is updated regularly. Moreover, it can easily be extended by the research community. Mouse IDGenes will contribute as an important resource to the research on mouse brain development, not exclusively by offering data retrieval, but also by allowing data input. http://mouseidgenes.helmholtz-muenchen.de. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Determination of presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in uterine lavages from cows with reproductive problems Determinação da presença de Tritrichomonas foetus em lavados uterinos de vacas com problemas reprodutivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Carolina González-Carmona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Tritrichomonasfoetus in two dairy herds on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense. Twenty-one low-volume uterine lavages from cows with a history of reproductive problems in two dairy herds located in the municipality of Sibaté (Cundinamarca and Ventaquemada (Boyacá were evaluated. In the first herd, 10 cows were sampled and in the second, 11 cows, based on three inclusion criteria. The uterine lavages were obtained through infusion of physiological saline solution into the uterine body. The samples were centrifuged and seeded in Tritrichomonas basal medium for 10-15 days at 37 ºC. The protozoa were evaluated on the day of sampling and 10 and 15 days after incubation by means of direct viewing under a dark-field microscope. Positive samples were stained with Wright and Lugol to identify the morphological characteristics. This study showed that T. foetus was present in 61.8% of the animals sampled. The determination that T. foetus was present in 61.8% of the samples analyzed is a significant finding given that in the herds evaluated, this agent had not previously been diagnosed.O objetivo do presente estudo, foi determinar a presença de Tritrichomonas foetus em dois rebanhos leiteiros no Altiplano Cundiboyacense. De vacas com um histórico de problemas reprodutivos, foram avaliados 21 lavados uterinos de pequeno volume, em dois rebanhos leiteiros localizados nos municípios de Sibaté (Cundinamarca e Ventaquemada (Boyacá. No primeiro rebanho, 10 vacas foram amostradas e no segundo 11, baseado em três critérios de inclusão. Os lavados uterinos foram obtidos mediante infusão de solução salina fisiológica no corpo do útero. As amostras foram centrifugadas e semeadas em meio de cultura básico para Tritrichomonas por 10-15 dias a 37 ºC. Os protozoários foram avaliados no dia da colheita de amostras e 10 e 15 dias após incubação por meio de visualização direta sob um microscópio de

  20. Genital herpes evaluation by quantitative TaqMan PCR: correlating single detection and quantity of HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage fluids with cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Christopher

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the utility of a single quantitative PCR (qPCR measurement of HSV (HSV-1&2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from women with predominantly chronic HSV-2 infection in assessing genital HSV shedding and the clinical course of genital herpes (GH within a cohort with semiannual schedule of follow up and collection of specimens. Methods Two previously described methods used for detection of HSV DNA in mucocutaneous swab samples were adapted for quantification of HSV DNA in CVLs. Single CVL specimens from 509 women were tested. Presence and quantity of CVL HSV DNA were explored in relation to observed cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical data. Results The PCR assay was sensitive and reproducible with a limit of quantification of ~50 copies per milliliter of CVL. Overall, 7% of the samples were positive for HSV-2 DNA with median log10 HSV-2 DNA copy number of 3.9 (IQR: 2.6-5.7. No HSV-1 was detected. Presence and quantity of HSV-2 DNA in CVL directly correlated with the clinical signs and symptoms of presence of active symptomatic disease with frequent recurrences. Conclusion Single qPCR measurement of HSV DNA in CVL fluids of women with chronic HSV-2 infection provided useful information for assessing GH in the setting of infrequent sampling of specimens. Observed positive correlation of the presence and quantity of HSV-2 DNA with the presence of active and more severe course of HSV-2 infection may have clinical significance in the evaluation and management of HSV-2 infected patients.

  1. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Norris, Francesca; Cleary, Jon; Zhang, Edward; Treeby, Bradley; Cox, Ben; Johnson, Peter; Scambler, Pete; Lythgoe, Mark; Beard, Paul

    2012-06-01

    The ability to noninvasively image embryonic vascular anatomy in mouse models is an important requirement for characterizing the development of the normal cardiovascular system and malformations in the heart and vascular supply. Photoacoustic imaging, which can provide high resolution non invasive images of the vasculature based upon optical absorption by endogenous hemoglobin, is well suited to this application. In this study, photoacoustic images of mouse embryos were obtained ex vivo and in vivo. The images show intricate details of the embryonic vascular system to depths of up to 10 mm, which allowed whole embryos to be imaged in situ. To achieve this, an all-optical photoacoustic scanner and a novel time reversal image reconstruction algorithm, which provide deep tissue imaging capability while maintaining high spatial resolution and contrast were employed. This technology may find application as an imaging tool for preclinical embryo studies in developmental biology as well as more generally in preclinical and clinical medicine for studying pathologies characterized by changes in the vasculature.

  2. Esophageal Cancer: Insights from Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pier Tétreault

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is the eighth leading cause of cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite recent advances in the development of surgical techniques in combination with the use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for esophageal cancer remains poor. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer are still poorly understood. Hence, understanding these mechanisms is crucial to improving outcomes for patients with esophageal cancer. Mouse models constitute valuable tools for modeling human cancers and for the preclinical testing of therapeutic strategies in a manner not possible in human subjects. Mice are excellent models for studying human cancers because they are similar to humans at the physiological and molecular levels and because they have a shorter gestation time and life cycle. Moreover, a wide range of well-developed technologies for introducing genetic modifications into mice are currently available. In this review, we describe how different mouse models are used to study esophageal cancer.

  3. Stimulation of growth in the little mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, W H; Eicher, E M

    1976-10-01

    The new mouse mutation little (lit) in the homozygous state causes a pituitary deficiency involving at least growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. The resultant growth failure of lit/lit mice was shown to be reversed by experimental conditions that enhanced levels of GH or GH and prolactin in the circulation. Two measures of growth, actual weight gain and bone dimension, were significantly improved by the physiological processes of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy, by extra-sellar graft of a normal mouse pituitary, and by treatment with GH but not prolactin. These data confirmed pituitary dysfunction as the basic defect caused by the mutation lit and showed that the GH deficiency is responsible for growth failure. However, the biological site of gene action, the pituitary or hypothalamus, has not been established. Little mice exhibit a number of characteristics similar to those of human genetic ateleotic dwarfism Type 1, namely genetic inheritance, time of onset of growth retardation, proportionate skeletal size reduction, and pituitary GH deficiency.

  4. Mouse models of long QT syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Guy; London, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Congenital long QT syndrome is a rare inherited condition characterized by prolongation of action potential duration (APD) in cardiac myocytes, prolongation of the QT interval on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), and an increased risk of syncope and sudden death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Mutations of cardiac ion channel genes that affect repolarization cause the majority of the congenital cases. Despite detailed characterizations of the mutated ion channels at the molecular level, a complete understanding of the mechanisms by which individual mutations may lead to arrhythmias and sudden death requires study of the intact heart and its modulation by the autonomic nervous system. Here, we will review studies of molecularly engineered mice with mutations in the genes (a) known to cause long QT syndrome in humans and (b) specific to cardiac repolarization in the mouse. Our goal is to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of mouse models with long QT syndrome and to emphasize the advantages and limitations of these models. PMID:17038432

  5. IL-6 and mouse oocyte spindle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashoman Banerjee

    Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is considered a major indicator of the acute-phase inflammatory response. Endometriosis and pelvic inflammation, diseases that manifest elevated levels of IL-6, are commonly associated with higher infertility. However, the mechanistic link between elevated levels of IL-6 and poor oocyte quality is still unclear. In this work, we explored the direct role of this cytokine as a possible mediator for impaired oocyte spindle and chromosomal structure, which is a critical hurdle in the management of infertility. Metaphase-II mouse oocytes were exposed to recombinant mouse IL-6 (50, 100 and 200 ng/mL for 30 minutes and subjected to indirect immunofluorescent staining to identify alterations in the microtubule and chromosomal alignment compared to untreated controls. The deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment were evaluated utilizing both fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and were quantitated with a previously reported scoring system. Our results showed that IL-6 caused a dose-dependent deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment in the treated oocytes as compared to the untreated group. Indeed, IL-6 at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL caused deterioration in the spindle structure in 60% of the oocytes, which increased significantly (P<0.0001 as IL-6 concentration was increased. In conclusion, elevated levels of IL-6 associated with endometriosis and pelvic inflammation may reduce the fertilizing capacity of human oocyte through a mechanism that involves impairment of the microtubule and chromosomal structure.

  6. Mouse myocardial first-pass perfusion MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Bram F.; Moonen, Rik P. M.; Paulis, Leonie E. M.; Geelen, Tessa; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2010-01-01

    A first-pass myocardial perfusion sequence for mouse cardiac MRI is presented. A segmented ECG-triggered acquisition combined with parallel imaging acceleration was used to capture the first pass of a Gd-DTPA bolus through the mouse heart with a temporal resolution of 300-400 msec. The method was

  7. Mouse myocardial first-pass perfusion MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, B.F.; Moonen, R.P.M.; Paulis, L.E.M.; Geelen, T.; Nicolay, K.; Strijkers, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    A first-pass myocardial perfusion sequence for mouse cardiac MRI is presented. A segmented ECG-triggered acquisition combined with parallel imaging acceleration was used to capture the first pass of a Gd-DTPA bolus through the mouse heart with a temporal resolution of 300–400 msec. The method was

  8. Endonucleases : new tools to edit the mouse genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijshake, Tobias; Baker, Darren J.; van de Sluis, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Mouse transgenesis has been instrumental in determining the function of genes in the pathophysiology of human diseases and modification of genes by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells remains a widely used technology. However, this approach harbors a number of disadvantages, as it

  9. Accesion number Protein name ENOA_MOUSE Alpha-enolase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandra Feijoo Bandin

    Mitochondrial inner membrane protein. CMC1_MOUSE. Calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar1. CMC2_MOUSE. Calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar2. Biological process. Metabolic process. Glycolysis. Lipid metabolism. Respiratory electron transport chain. Others. Calcium ion homeostasis.

  10. Suppression of mouse-killing in rats following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Boyle, M.

    1976-01-01

    Suppression of mouse-killing was produced following pairings of mouse-presentations (CS) with 96 roentgens of ionizing radiation (US) at 0 (less than 2 min.) and 30 min. US-CS interstimulus intervals. No suppression was found at CS-US intervals of 30 min., 1 hr., and 2 hr., or at US-CS intervals of 1 hr. and 2 hr

  11. Rational Design of Mouse Models for Cancer Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landgraf, M.; McGovern, J.A.; Friedl, P.; Hutmacher, D.W.

    2018-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is widely considered as a valid and affordable model organism to study human disease. Attempts to improve the relevance of murine models for the investigation of human pathologies led to the development of various genetically engineered, xenograft and humanized mouse models.

  12. Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

  13. Mouse SNP Miner: an annotated database of mouse functional single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramensky Vasily E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mapping of quantitative trait loci in rat and mouse has been extremely successful in identifying chromosomal regions associated with human disease-related phenotypes. However, identifying the specific phenotype-causing DNA sequence variations within a quantitative trait locus has been much more difficult. The recent availability of genomic sequence from several mouse inbred strains (including C57BL/6J, 129X1/SvJ, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, and DBA/2J has made it possible to catalog DNA sequence differences within a quantitative trait locus derived from crosses between these strains. However, even for well-defined quantitative trait loci ( Description To help identify functional DNA sequence variations within quantitative trait loci we have used the Ensembl annotated genome sequence to compile a database of mouse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, or splice site mutations (available at http://bioinfo.embl.it/SnpApplet/. For missense mutations we have used the PolyPhen and PANTHER algorithms to predict whether amino acid changes are likely to disrupt protein function. Conclusion We have developed a database of mouse SNPs predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice-site mutations. Our analysis revealed that 20% and 14% of missense SNPs are likely to be deleterious according to PolyPhen and PANTHER, respectively, and 6% are considered deleterious by both algorithms. The database also provides gene expression and functional annotations from the Symatlas, Gene Ontology, and OMIM databases to further assess candidate phenotype-causing mutations. To demonstrate its utility, we show that Mouse SNP Miner successfully finds a previously identified candidate SNP in the taste receptor, Tas1r3, that underlies sucrose preference in the C57BL/6J strain. We also use Mouse SNP Miner to derive a list of candidate phenotype-causing mutations within a previously

  14. Immunologic analyses of mouse cystathionase in normal and leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikel, I.; Faibes, D.; Uren, J.R.; Livingston, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbit antisera have been raised against mouse liver cystathionase and shown to possess enzyme neutralizing activity. Agar gel double immunodiffusion analyses demonstrated that both mouse liver cystathionase and rat liver cystathionase react with the antisera, the latter enzyme being completely cross-reactive with the former. Following radioiodination of the purified rat liver enzyme, a double antibody radioimmunoassay was developed in which greater than 90% of the labeled protein could be specifically precipitated with the anti-mouse cystathionase antibodies. In this test the purified rat liver and mouse liver enzymes were virtually indistinguishable, generating superimposable competition displacement curves on a protein mass basis. These results indicate that both enzymes are immunologically identical, thus validating the use of the rat in lieu of the murine liver enzyme as radiolabeled tracer in an assay for mouse cystathionase. In addition, competition radioimmunoassays demonstrated that the immunological reactivities of both the purified rat liver and mouse liver enzymes were equally heat sensitive. The sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 1 ng of enzyme protein/0.22 mL of assay mixture, and the assay could be used to detect the presence of enzyme protein in tissue homogenates of single mouse organs. Mouse or rat cross-reactivity with human liver cystathionase was incomplete; but, with the exception of heart and spleen, parallel radioimmunoassay competition displacement curves were obtained for cystathionase from different mouse organs including thymus. Extracts of 7-, 9-, and 10-month-old spontaneous AKR mouse thymomas were tested in the radioimmunoassay along with extracts of age-matched thymuses which were grossly tumor free. A reaction of nonidentity was observed for all of the tumor extracts while a reaction identical with that of the pure liver enzyme was found with all of the normal thymus extracts

  15. Rats and mice immunised with chimeric human/mouse proteinase 3 produce autoantibodies to mouse Pr3 and rat granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geld, Ymke M.; Hellmark, Thomas; Selga, Daina; Heeringa, Peter; Huitema, Minke G.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we employed chimeric human/ mouse Proteinase 3 ( PR3) proteins as tools to induce an autoantibody response to PR3 in rats and mice. Method: Rats and mice were immunised with recombinant human PR3 ( HPR3), recombinant murine PR3 ( mPR3), single chimeric human/ mouse PR3 ( HHm,

  16. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, Ron; Desai, Jigar; Lazar, Gloria; King, Benjamin; Rollins, Jarod; Spurr, Melissa; Joseph, Jamie; Kadambi, Sindhuja; Li, Yang; Cherry, Allison; Matteson, Paul G.; Paigen, Beverly; Millonig, James H.

    Korstanje R, Desai J, Lazar G, King B, Rollins J, Spurr M, Joseph J, Kadambi S, Li Y, Cherry A, Matteson PG, Paigen B, Millonig JH. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects. Physiol Genomics 35:

  17. Trb2, a mouse homolog of tribbles, is dispensable for kidney and mouse development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasato, Minoru; Kobayashi, Chiyoko; Okabayashi, Koji; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Oshima, Naoko; Asashima, Makoto; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    Glomeruli comprise an important filtering apparatus in the kidney and are derived from the metanephric mesenchyme. A nuclear protein, Sall1, is expressed in this mesenchyme, and we previously reported that Trb2, a mouse homolog of Drosophila tribbles, is expressed in the mesenchyme-derived tissues of the kidney by microarray analyses using Sall1-GFP knock-in mice. In the present report, we detected Trb2 expression in a variety of organs during gestation, including the kidneys, mesonephros, testes, heart, eyes, thymus, blood vessels, muscle, bones, tongue, spinal cord, and ganglions. In the developing kidney, Trb2 signals were detected in podocytes and the prospective mesangium of the glomeruli, as well as in ureteric bud tips. However, Trb2 mutant mice did not display any apparent phenotypes and no proteinuria was observed, indicating normal glomerular functions. These results suggest that Trb2 plays minimal roles during kidney and mouse development

  18. The Mouse House: A brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947–2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Liane B.

    2013-10-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Lab is often re-membered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-Chromosome s importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a valuable

  19. The Mouse House: a brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Liane B

    2013-01-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is often remembered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-chromosome's importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a

  20. Characterization of mouse neuro-urological dynamics in a novel decerebrate arterially perfused mouse (DAPM) preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Hiroki; Drake, Marcus J.; Fry, Christopher H.; Kanai, Anthony J.; Pickering, Anthony E.

    2018-01-01

    Aim To develop the decerebrate arterially perfused mouse (DAPM) preparation, a novel voiding model of the lower urinary tract (LUT) that enables in vitro-like access with in vivo-like neural connectivity. Methods Adult male mice were decerebrated and arterially perfused with a carbogenated, Ringer's solution to establish the DAPM. To allow distinction between central and peripheral actions of interventions, experiments were conducted in both the DAPM and in a “pithed” DAPM which has no brains...

  1. A Transgenic Mouse Model of Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Satoshi; Nagata, Noriyo

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice (tg mice) that express the human poliovirus receptor (PVR), CD155, are susceptible to poliovirus and develop a neurological disease that resembles human poliomyelitis. Assessment of the neurovirulence levels of poliovirus strains, including mutant viruses produced by reverse genetics, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus, and vaccine candidates, is useful for basic research of poliovirus pathogenicity, the surveillance of circulating polioviruses, and the quality control of oral live poliovirus vaccines, and does not require the use of monkeys. Furthermore, PVR-tg mice are useful for studying poliovirus tissue tropism and host immune responses. PVR-tg mice can be bred with mice deficient in the genes involved in viral pathogenicity. This report describes the methods used to analyze the pathogenicity and immune responses of poliovirus using the PVR-tg mouse model.

  2. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  3. Radiation carcinogenesis in mouse thymic lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kominami, Ryo; Niwa, Ohtsura

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen for various human tissues and a complete carcinogen that is able to initiate and promote neoplastic progression. Studies of radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas, one of the classic models in radiation carcinogenesis, demonstrated that even the unirradiated thymus is capable of developing into full malignancy when transplanted into the kidney capsule or subcutaneous tissue of irradiated mice. This suggests that radiation targets tissues other than thymocytes to allow expansion of cells with tumorigenic potential in the thymus. The idea is regarded as the ''indirect mechanism'' for tumor development. This paper reviews the indirect mechanism and genes affecting the development of thymic lymphomas that we have analyzed. One is the Bcl11b/Rit1 tumor suppressor gene and the other is Mtf-1 gene affecting tumor susceptibility. (author)

  4. Mutagenicity studies with the mouse spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocke, E.; Wild, D.; Eckhardt, K.; King, M.T.

    1983-04-01

    The mammalian spot test, which detects somatic gene mutations in mouse embryos, was investigated with selected chemicals to (a) further validate this test system ethylnitrosourea, ethyl methanesulfonate, 2-acetylaminofluorene and colchicine (ENU, EMS, 2AAF), and (b) evaluate the mutagenic potential, in a whole-mammal system, of environmental compounds that had been previously recognized as mutagens in other mammalian or submammalian test systems (1,2-dichloroethane, hydroquinone, nitrofurantoin, o-phenylenediamine, fried sausage extract). Of these substances, ENU, EMS and 2AAF were significantly mutagenic, 1,2-dichloroethane was probably weakly mutagenic. The ENU data were used to estimate the number of pigment precursor cells present at the time of treatment (day 9.25). We also describe in this report the use of a fluorescence microscope for classification of hairs from spots on the coat of C57BL/6JHan X T hybrids.

  5. Characterization of individual mouse cerebrospinal fluid proteomes