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Sample records for mouse axial skeleton

  1. Giant Cell Tumors of the Axial Skeleton

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    Maurice Balke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We report on 19 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT affecting the spine or sacrum and evaluate the outcome of different treatment modalities. Methods. Nineteen patients with GCT of the spine (=6 or sacrum (=13 have been included in this study. The mean followup was 51.6 months. Ten sacral GCT were treated by intralesional procedures of which 4 also received embolization, and 3 with irradiation only. All spinal GCT were surgically treated. Results. Two (15.4% patients with sacral and 4 (66.7% with spinal tumors had a local recurrence, two of the letter developed pulmonary metastases. One local recurrence of the spine was successfully treated by serial arterial embolization, a procedure previously described only for sacral tumors. At last followup, 9 patients had no evidence of disease, 8 had stable disease, 1 had progressive disease, 1 died due to disease. Six patients had neurological deficits. Conclusions. GCT of the axial skeleton have a high local recurrence rate. Neurological deficits are common. En-bloc spondylectomy combined with embolization is the treatment of choice. In case of inoperability, serial arterial embolization seems to be an alternative not only for sacral but also for spinal tumors.

  2. Notchless is required for axial skeleton formation in mice.

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    Sarah Beck-Cormier

    Full Text Available Maintenance of cell survival is essential for proper embryonic development. In the mouse, Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila (Nle1 is instrumental for survival of cells of the inner cell mass upon implantation. Here, we analyze the function of Nle1 after implantation using the Meox2(tm1(creSor mouse that expresses the Cre recombinase specifically in the epiblast at E5.5. First, we find that NLE1 function is required in epiblast cells, as Nle1-deficient cells are rapidly eliminated. In this report, we also show that the Meox2(Cre transgene is active in specific tissues during organogenesis. In particular, we detect high Cre expression in the vertebral column, ribs, limbs and tailbud. We took advantage of this dynamic expression profile to analyze the effects of inducing mosaic deletion of Nle1 in the embryo. We show that Nle1 deletion in this context, results in severe developmental anomalies leading to lethality at birth. Mutant embryos display multiple developmental defects in particular during axial skeletal formation. We also provide evidence that axial defects are due to an increase in apoptotic cell death in the somite at E9.5. These data demonstrate an essential role for Nle1 during organogenesis and in particular during axial development.

  3. Notchless is required for axial skeleton formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Cormier, Sarah; Escande, Marie; Souilhol, Céline; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Sourice, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of cell survival is essential for proper embryonic development. In the mouse, Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila) (Nle1) is instrumental for survival of cells of the inner cell mass upon implantation. Here, we analyze the function of Nle1 after implantation using the Meox2(tm1(cre)Sor) mouse that expresses the Cre recombinase specifically in the epiblast at E5.5. First, we find that NLE1 function is required in epiblast cells, as Nle1-deficient cells are rapidly eliminated. In this report, we also show that the Meox2(Cre) transgene is active in specific tissues during organogenesis. In particular, we detect high Cre expression in the vertebral column, ribs, limbs and tailbud. We took advantage of this dynamic expression profile to analyze the effects of inducing mosaic deletion of Nle1 in the embryo. We show that Nle1 deletion in this context, results in severe developmental anomalies leading to lethality at birth. Mutant embryos display multiple developmental defects in particular during axial skeletal formation. We also provide evidence that axial defects are due to an increase in apoptotic cell death in the somite at E9.5. These data demonstrate an essential role for Nle1 during organogenesis and in particular during axial development.

  4. Morphological analysis of mouse skeleton following AZD4547 treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dosedělová, Hana; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, P.; Kunová, M.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 159, Suppl 1 (2015), s. 58-59 ISSN 1213-8118. [Morphology 2015. International Congress of the Czech Anatomical Society /49./. Lojda Symposium on Histochemistry /52./. 06.09.2015-08.09.2015, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31540S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mouse skeleton Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  5. Morphology of the axial skeleton of seven bat genera (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

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    PABLO J. GAUDIOSO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here we present detailed descriptions and comparisons of the axial skeleton of seven species of bats belonging to five subfamilies of Phyllostomidae of different trophic guilds. The material examined consisted of 34 complete skeletons of seven species. For five of the studied species, previous descriptions have not been conducted, and for the vampires only limited information is available, so that descriptions for these species are here completed. The axial skeleton has characters that allow grouping of the species phylogenetically of the same subfamily and by feeding habits. At the same time, there are characters that associate species from different subfamilies with different types of diet or ways to obtain food.

  6. Benign notochordal lesions of the axial skeleton: a review and current appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakos, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 1996 meeting of the International Skeletal Society, an idea was put forth that there existed symptomatic lesions of the axial skeleton, morphologically different from chordoma, that were consistent with benign notochordal remnants (rests). A review of the embryological basis for this concept is made, along with an analysis of these lesions, termed giant notochordal rests or benign notochordal cell tumors, that have been reported in the intervening 15 years, with a commentary on their relationship, if any, to chordoma. (orig.)

  7. Pattern of malformations in the axial skeleton in human trisomy 18 fetuses

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    Kjaer, I. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, B.F. [Hvidovre Univ. Hospital (Denmark); Keeling, J.W. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-11

    We examined and described the development and abnormalities of the axial skeleton in 10 human trisomy 18 fetuses. Whole-body radiographs and radiographs of midsagittal tissue blocks of the cranial base and the spine were studied. In 3 fetuses no spinal radiographs were available. Seven osseous regions or fields along the body axis were analyzed, four in the spine, and three in the cranial base and nasal bones. Malformations occurred in the occipital field in all fetuses. This was a characteristic notching, either unilateral or bilateral, of the basilar part of the occipital bone. Nasal bones were abnormal in 8 cases, either absent or hypoplastic. Malformations were found in the thoracic and/or lumbosacral field in 7 fetuses. A single abnormality was found in the cervical spine in one fetus. The pattern of axial skeletal malformation in trisomy 18 fetuses recorded in the present study has not been described previously. Axial skeletal radiography should be included in autopsies of fetuses when chromosome disorders are present or suspected. The methods applied here are unaffected by autolysis. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Abnormalities of the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in adults with Laron syndrome (growth hormone insensitivity).

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    Kornreich, L; Konen, O; Schwarz, M; Siegel, Y; Horev, G; Hershkovitz, I; Laron, Z

    2008-02-01

    To investigate abnormalities in the skeleton (with the exclusion of the skull, cervical spine, hands and feet) in patients with Laron syndrome, who have an inborn growth hormone resistance and congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. The study group was composed of 15 untreated patients with Laron syndrome (seven male and eight female) aged 21-68 years. Plain films of the axial and appendicular skeleton were evaluated retrospectively for abnormalities in structure and shape. The cortical width of the long bones was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively (in the upper humerus and mid-femur), and the cortical index was calculated and compared with published references. Measurements were taken of the mid-anteroposterior and cranio-caudal diameters of the vertebral body and spinous process at L3, the interpedicular distance at L1 and L5, and the sacral slope. Thoracic and lumbar osteophytes were graded on a 5-point scale. Values were compared with a control group of 20 healthy persons matched for age. The skeleton appeared small in all patients. No signs of osteopenia were visible. The cortex of the long bones appeared thick in the upper limbs in 11 patients and in the lower limbs in four. Compared with the reference values, the cortical width was thicker than average in the humerus and thinner in the femur. The vertebral diameters at L3 and the interpedicular distances at L1 and L5 were significantly smaller in the patients than in the control subjects (PLaron syndrome may be related to a marked retroversion of the humeral head.

  9. Recent Advances in Imaging of the Axial Skeleton in Spondyloarthritis for Diagnosis, Assessment of Treatment Effect, and Prognostication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, many studies have investigated the role of imaging for improved diagnosis, assessment of treatment effects, and determining prognosis in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Recent research has primarily focused on the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...... developed and have provided insight into effects of treatment on structural progression and the interrelationships between different lesions visualized by MRI. This review gives an overview of the recent advances in imaging of the axial skeleton in axial SpA from a clinical perspective....

  10. Abnormalities of the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in adults with Laron syndrome (growth hormone insensitivity)

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    Kornreich, L.; Konen, O.; Schwarz, M.; Horev, G. [Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Imaging Department, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Siegel, Y. [Rabin Medical Center, Imaging Department, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Thoracic Section, Miami, FL (United States); Hershkovitz, I. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Laron, Z. [Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit, Petah Tiqwa (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2008-02-15

    To investigate abnormalities in the skeleton (with the exclusion of the skull, cervical spine, hands and feet) in patients with Laron syndrome, who have an inborn growth hormone resistance and congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. The study group was composed of 15 untreated patients with Laron syndrome (seven male and eight female) aged 21-68 years. Plain films of the axial and appendicular skeleton were evaluated retrospectively for abnormalities in structure and shape. The cortical width of the long bones was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively (in the upper humerus and mid-femur), and the cortical index was calculated and compared with published references. Measurements were taken of the mid-anteroposterior and cranio-caudal diameters of the vertebral body and spinous process at L3, the interpedicular distance at L1 and L5, and the sacral slope. Thoracic and lumbar osteophytes were graded on a 5-point scale. Values were compared with a control group of 20 healthy persons matched for age. The skeleton appeared small in all patients. No signs of osteopenia were visible. The cortex of the long bones appeared thick in the upper limbs in 11 patients and in the lower limbs in four. Compared with the reference values, the cortical width was thicker than average in the humerus and thinner in the femur. The vertebral diameters at L3 and the interpedicular distances at L1 and L5 were significantly smaller in the patients than in the control subjects (P < 0.001); however, at L5 the canal was wider, relative to the vertebral body. The study group had a higher rate of anterior osteophytes in the lumbar spine than the controls had, and their osteophytes were also significantly larger. In the six patients for whom radiographs of the upper extremity in its entirety were available on one film, the ulna appeared to be rotated. In one 22-year-old man, multiple epiphyses were still open. Congenital IGF-1 deficiency leads to skeletal abnormalities

  11. Abnormalities of the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in adults with Laron syndrome (growth hormone insensitivity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, L.; Konen, O.; Schwarz, M.; Horev, G.; Siegel, Y.; Hershkovitz, I.; Laron, Z.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate abnormalities in the skeleton (with the exclusion of the skull, cervical spine, hands and feet) in patients with Laron syndrome, who have an inborn growth hormone resistance and congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. The study group was composed of 15 untreated patients with Laron syndrome (seven male and eight female) aged 21-68 years. Plain films of the axial and appendicular skeleton were evaluated retrospectively for abnormalities in structure and shape. The cortical width of the long bones was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively (in the upper humerus and mid-femur), and the cortical index was calculated and compared with published references. Measurements were taken of the mid-anteroposterior and cranio-caudal diameters of the vertebral body and spinous process at L3, the interpedicular distance at L1 and L5, and the sacral slope. Thoracic and lumbar osteophytes were graded on a 5-point scale. Values were compared with a control group of 20 healthy persons matched for age. The skeleton appeared small in all patients. No signs of osteopenia were visible. The cortex of the long bones appeared thick in the upper limbs in 11 patients and in the lower limbs in four. Compared with the reference values, the cortical width was thicker than average in the humerus and thinner in the femur. The vertebral diameters at L3 and the interpedicular distances at L1 and L5 were significantly smaller in the patients than in the control subjects (P < 0.001); however, at L5 the canal was wider, relative to the vertebral body. The study group had a higher rate of anterior osteophytes in the lumbar spine than the controls had, and their osteophytes were also significantly larger. In the six patients for whom radiographs of the upper extremity in its entirety were available on one film, the ulna appeared to be rotated. In one 22-year-old man, multiple epiphyses were still open. Congenital IGF-1 deficiency leads to skeletal abnormalities

  12. Diagnosis of spondyloarthritis of the axial skeleton; Diagnostik der Spondyloarthritiden am Achsenskelett

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    Hermann, Kay-Geert A. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Bollow, Matthias [Augusta-Kranken-Anstalt Bochum (Germany); Bochum Univ. (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Conventional radiography is used as the first-line imaging test in evaluating the axial skeleton for manifestations of spondyloarthritis, which is a cover term for five entities: ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatric spondyloarthritis, reactive arthritis, enteropathic arthritis, and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis. However, as it often takes many years from the onset of clinical symptoms and the first appearance of radiographic changes, a cross-sectional imaging is warranted (CT and/or MRI) for early diagnosis. MRI sensitively detects early inflammatory stages of spondyloarthritis and can thus fill the gap by markedly reducing the interval between initial symptoms and diagnosis. The aim of this article is to show that all manifestations and forms of spondyloarthritis share the same pathogenetic inflammatory pattern, namely a mixture of bone destruction and bone proliferation: enthesis - enthesitis - enthesiophyte. An enthesis in the true sense is a fibrocartilaginous junction (uncalcified fibrocartilage - tidemark - calcified fibrocartilage) between a tendon, ligament, joint capsule, or fascia and bone. The sacroiliac joint is a special form, a so-called articular fibrocartilaginous enthesis. A wide range of images - including radiographs, CT scans, and MR images - will be presented to provide a comprehensive picture of the entheseal manifestations and inflammatory patterns of the sacroiliac joints, vertebral endplates and ridges, facet joints, costovertebral junctions, and spinal ligaments in spondyloarthritis. (orig.)

  13. Evolution of the dinosauriform respiratory apparatus: new evidence from the postcranial axial skeleton.

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    Schachner, Emma R; Farmer, C G; McDonald, Andrew T; Dodson, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Examination of the thoracic rib and vertebral anatomy of extant archosaurs indicates a relationship between the postcranial axial skeleton and pulmonary anatomy. Lung ventilation in extant crocodilians is primarily achieved with a hepatic piston pump and costal rotation. The tubercula and capitula of the ribs lie on the horizontal plane, forming a smooth thoracic "ceiling" facilitating movement of the viscera. Although the parietal pleura is anchored to the dorsal thoracic wall, the dorsal visceral pleura exhibits a greater freedom of movement. The air sac system and lungs of birds are associated with bicapitate ribs with a ventrally positioned capitular articulation, generating a rigid and furrowed rib cage that minimizes dorsoventral changes in volume in the dorsal thorax. The thin walled bronchi are kept from collapsing by fusion of the lung to the thorax on all sides. Data from this study suggest a progression from a dorsally rigid, heterogeneously partitioned, multichambered lung in basal dinosauriform archosaurs towards the small entirely rigid avian-style lung that was likely present in saurischian dinosaurs, consistent with a constant volume cavum pulmonale, thin walled parabronchi, and distinct air sacs. There is no vertebral evidence for a crocodilian hepatic piston pump in any of the taxa reviewed. The evidence for both a rigid lung and unidirectional airflow in dinosauriformes raises the possibility that these animals had a highly efficient lung relative to other Mesozoic vertebrates, which may have contributed to their successful radiation during this time period. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Loss of calcium from axial and appendicular skeleton in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Caselnova, R.C.; Asad, S.N.; Letteri, J.M.

    1974-01-01

    The widespread prevalence of bone disease in chronic renal failure both prior to and during hemodialysis is an important aspect of uremia. Loss of bone mineral of the skeleton in renal disease can be measured directly by total-body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA). The absorptiometric technique, using monochromatic photons from 125 I, applied to the appendicular skeleton (radius) also reflects the loss of bone mineral content (BMC) in renal disease. The results of these two techniques were compared in 25 patients with renal insufficiency, 53 with end stage renal failure on dialysis, and 24 normal control subjects. (U.S.)

  15. 99mTc-MDP bone scanning of patients with diffuse metastatic carcinoma of the axial skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Seiichiro; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Funatsu, Kazuhiro; Yoshii, Toshiaki; Shirabe, Ichiju; Nomura, Yasushi; Ohtake, Hisashi

    1990-01-01

    Fifteen bone scintigrams in patients with diffuse bone metastases were reviewed because of the diffuse radionuclide accumulation in the axial skeleton. Diagnoses were gastric cancer in 6 patients, prostatic cancer in 5, breast cancer in 3, and renal pelvic tumor in one. In 5 patients with gastric cancer, one with prostatic cancer, and one with renal pelvic tumor, initial bone scintigraphy showed diffuse accumulation. In one gastric cancer patient and two breast cancer patients, the multiple bone metastases had altered the diffuse bone metastasis. All patients had no lung or liver metastasis morphologically at the course of diagnosed diffuse bone metastasis. Overall, the diffuse bone metastases were classified into two groups: diffuse symmetrical accumulation in proportion to bone marrow demonstrated in the gastric cancer, and diffuse accumulation centering the axial skeleton with asymmetrical accumulation in the rib and extremities demonstrated in cancer of the prostate. The finding of X ray films were consistent to common bone metastases in proportion to the primary tumor. Diffuse bone metastases did not show the characteristic finding. During the period from the diagnosed time to the death of patients, the patients with gastric cancer died extremely earlier in comparison to the patients with breast cancer and with prostatic cancer. (author)

  16. Axial positrons emission tomography: from mouse to human brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Positrons emission tomography is a nuclear imaging technics using nuclear decays. It is used both in clinical and preclinical studies. The later requires the use of small animals such as the mouse. The objective is to obtain the best signal with the best spatial resolution. Yet, a weight ratio between humans and mice indicates the need of a sub-millimeter resolution. A conventional scanner is based on detection modules surrounding the object to image and arranged perpendicularly. This implies a strong relationship between efficiency and spatial resolution. This work focuses on the axial geometry in which detection modules are arranged parallel to the object. This limits the relationship between the figures of merit, leading to both high spatial resolution and efficiency. The simulations of prototypes showed great perspectives in term of sub-millimeter resolution with efficiencies of 15 or 40% according to the scanner's axial extension. These results indicate great perspectives for both clinical and preclinical imaging. (author)

  17. Antibodies to Mutated Citrullinated Vimentin in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Diagnostic Value, Association with Radiological Damage and Axial Skeleton Affection

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    Howaida E. Mansour

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Early definitive diagnosis and effective treatment are mandatory in rheumatoid arthritis (RA as it can halt the disease progression and subsequent joints destruction. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV and its correlation with disease activity, peripheral and axial skeleton affection in RA patients. Patients and methods: A total of 123 patients with different rheumatic diseases were enrolled in a prospective-two year study at Ain Shams University hospital: 64 patients with RA and 59 patients with other rheumatic diseases as controls. RA patients were fulfilling the traditional and the new ACR/EULAR diagnostic criteria for RA. They have been followed up for two years. At baseline, all RA patients were subjected to: Clinical assessment of disease activity by taking full histories, general and local examination, measurement of 28 joint count of tender and swollen joints with calculation of disease activity score (DAS-28 for each patient. Complete blood count, erythrocytes sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor titers were performed. Anti-MCV IgG immunoglobulins’ assay was performed at the study endpoint by ELISA. RA patients were then classified into; anti-MCV positive and anti-MCV negative groups for statistical comparison. Plain X-ray was performed on the peripheral joints and scored by the Simple Erosion Narrowing score (SEN-score. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scans were carried out to 22 RA patients on cervical and lumbosacral regions. Results: Anti-MCV antibodies were found to be of high sensitivity (79.6% and specificity (96.6% in diagnosing RA. The area under the curve was 0.893 at 95% confidence interval (CI, confers an odds ratio of 23.5. Anti-MCV positive RA patients had significantly higher DAS-28 and SEN-scores than anti-MCV negative patients; who were found to have more benign disease with lower incidence of

  18. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.

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    Artem Khmelinskii

    Full Text Available Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability. The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99mTc-methylene diphosphonate ((99mTc-MDP and (99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99mTc-HDP were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT

  19. Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia Caused by Primary Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Secreting Neoplasm in Axial Skeleton: A Case Report

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    Gunjan Y. Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO caused by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 secreting mesenchymal tumor localized in a lumbar vertebra and review other cases localized to the axial skeleton. She presented with nontraumatic low back pain and spontaneous bilateral femur fractures. Laboratory testing was remarkable for low serum phosphorus, phosphaturia, and significantly elevated serum FGF-23 level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the lumbar spine showed a focal lesion in the L-4 vertebra which was hypermetabolic on positron emission tomography (PET scan. A computed tomography (CT guided needle biopsy showed a low grade spindle cell neoplasm with positive FGF-23 mRNA expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, confirming the diagnosis of a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT. The patient elected to have surgery involving anterior resection of L-4 vertebra with subsequent normalization of serum phosphorus. Including the present case, we identified 12 cases of neoplasms localized to spine causing TIO. To our knowledge, this paper represents the first documented case of lumbar vertebra PMT causing TIO. TIO is a rare metabolic bone disorder that carries a favorable prognosis. When a lesion is identifiable, surgical intervention is typically curative.

  20. Role of Cdx and Hox genes in posterior axial extension in the mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, T.

    2009-01-01

    Hox and Cdx genes are phylogenetically related transcription factor-encoding genes that control positional tissue identity during embryonic develop- ment. In addition, mutations impairing Cdx activity in mice elicit poste- rior body truncations, affecting the axial skeleton, the neuraxis and cau-

  1. Normal axial skeleton structure in common roach Rutilus rutilus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) and malformations due to radiation contamination in the area of the Mayak (Chelyabinsk Province, Russia) nuclear plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogutskaya, N G; Zuykov, M A; Naseka, A M; Anderson, E B

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to describe normal axial skeletal structure in common roach Rutilus rutilus from putative unaffected environmental conditions, and the occurrence of skeletal malformations in the fish from an area under radiation contamination. Specimens were collected from water bodies of the Techa Cascade Reservoirs located near the Mayak atomic industry plant in the River Ob' drainage, Chelyabinsk Province, Russia. One sample was collected from Lake Irtyash, a reservoir of drinkable water, supplying the town of Ozersk, and the other one from a technical reservoir which is a storage of liquid radioactive waste from Mayak and characterized by high radioactive contamination (mostly (90)Sr and (137)Cs). A comparison was made with historical material collected from the River Ob' before the middle of the 20th century, i.e. before the environment became affected by radioactive contamination. A high number of abnormalities of the axial skeleton were detected in both Mayak samples, in 94 and 97% of examined specimens, in contrast to about 20% in the historical specimens. The abnormalities were in both the unpaired fins and the vertebral column, including the caudal complex and included supernumerary elements, fusions, deformities and displacement of the elements. Most axial skeleton abnormalities, however, were minor, such as splitting, shortening or deformation of spines. Severe defects, such as extensive scolioses, lordoses and kyphoses, were not found. The causes of the abnormalities were not identified in this study, but the high incidence of malformations may be attributed to genetically determined imbalance during development. The almost equal distribution of abnormalities among the fish from non-contaminated and radioactive contaminated reservoirs may be explained by either recent gene flow within the population of R. rutilus in the River Techa system or the effect of unknown unfavourable environmental factors such as chemical pollution. © 2011 The Authors

  2. Manic fringe is not required for embryonic development, and fringe family members do not exhibit redundant functions in the axial skeleton, limb, or hindbrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jennifer L.; Shifley, Emily T.; Levorse, John M.; Mani, Shyamala; Ostmann, Kristin; Perez-Balaguer, Ariadna; Walker, Dawn M.; Vogt, Thomas F.; Cole, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Tight regulation of Notch pathway signaling is important in many aspects of embryonic development. Notch signaling can be modulated by expression of fringe genes, encoding glycosyltransferases that modify EGF repeats in the Notch receptor. Although Lunatic fringe (Lfng) has been shown to play important roles in vertebrate segmentation, comparatively little is known regarding the developmental functions of the other vertebrate fringe genes, Radical fringe (Rfng) and Manic fringe (Mfng). Here we report that Mfng expression is not required for embryonic development. Further, we find that despite significant overlap in expression patterns, we detect no obvious synergistic defects in mice in the absence of two, or all three, fringe genes during development of the axial skeleton, limbs, hindbrain and cranial nerves. PMID:19479951

  3. Studies on image quality, high contrast resolution and dose for the axial skeleton and limbs with a new, dedicated CT system (ISO-C-3D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, C.; Kotsianos, D.; Linsenmaier, U.; Fischer, T.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of 3D-CT imaging of the axial skeleton and different joints of the lower and upper extremities with a new dedicated CT system (ISO-C-3D) based on a mobile isocentric C-arm image amplifier. Material and Methods: 27 cadaveric specimes of different joints of the lower and upper extremities and of the spinal column were examined with 3D-CT imaging (ISO-C-3d). All images were evaluated by 3 radiologists for image quality using a semiquantitative score (score value 1: poor quality; score value 4: excellent quality). In addition, dose measurements and measurements of high contrast resolution were performed in comparison to conventional and low-dose spiral CT using a high contrast phantom (Catphan, Phantom Laboratories). Results: Adequate image quality (mean score values 3-4) could be achieved with an applied dose comparable to low-dose CT in smaller joints such as wrist, elbow, ankle and knee. A remarkably inferior image quality resulted in imaging of the hip, lumbar and thoracic spine (mean score values 2-3) in spite of almost doubling the dose (dose increased by 85 percent). The image quality of shoulder examinations was insufficient (mean score value 1). Phantom studies showed a high-contrast resolution comparable to helical CT in the xy-axis (9 lp/cm). Conclusion: Preliminary results show, that image quality of C-arm-based CT-imaging (ISO-C-3D) seems to be adequate in smaller joints. ISO-C-3D images of the hip and axial skeleton show a decreased image quality, which does not seem to be sufficient for diagnosing subtle fractures. (orig.) [de

  4. Quantitative description of the morphology and ossification center in the axial skeleton of 20-week gestation formalin-fixed human fetuses using magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabert, Steren; Villalobos, Manuel; Ulloa, Patricia; Salas, Rodrigo; Tejos, Cristian; San Martin, Sebastian; Pereda, Jaime

    2012-03-01

    Human tissues are usually studied using a series of two-dimensional visualizations of in vivo or cutout specimens. However, there is no precise anatomical description of some of the processes of human fetal development. The purpose of our study is to develop a quantitative description of the normal axial skeleton by means of high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) images, collected from six normal 20-week-old human fetuses fixed in formaldehyde. Fetuses were collected after spontaneous abortion and subsequently fixed with formalin. They were imaged using a 1.5 T MR scanner with an isotropic spatial resolution of 200 µm. The correct tissue discrimination between ossified and cartilaginous bones was confirmed by comparing the images achieved by MR scans and computerized axial tomographies. The vertebral column was segmented out from each image using a specially developed semi-automatic algorithm. Vertebral body dimensions and inter-vertebral distances were larger in the lumbar region, in agreement with the beginning of the ossification process from the thoracolumbar region toward the sacral and cephalic ends. In this article, we demonstrate the feasibility of using MR images to study the ossification process in formalin-fixed fetal tissues. A quantitative description of the ossification centers of vertebral bodies and arches is presented. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Symmetry breaking, germ layer specification and axial organisation in aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Susanne C; Baillie-Johnson, Peter; Balayo, Tina; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Nowotschin, Sonja; Turner, David A; Martinez Arias, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are clonal populations derived from preimplantation mouse embryos that can be propagated in vitro and, when placed into blastocysts, contribute to all tissues of the embryo and integrate into the normal morphogenetic processes, i.e. they are pluripotent. However, although they can be steered to differentiate in vitro into all cell types of the organism, they cannot organise themselves into structures that resemble embryos. When aggregated into embryoid bodies they develop disorganised masses of different cell types with little spatial coherence. An exception to this rule is the emergence of retinas and anterior cortex-like structures under minimal culture conditions. These structures emerge from the cultures without any axial organisation. Here, we report that small aggregates of mESCs, of about 300 cells, self-organise into polarised structures that exhibit collective behaviours reminiscent of those that cells exhibit in early mouse embryos, including symmetry breaking, axial organisation, germ layer specification and cell behaviour, as well as axis elongation. The responses are signal specific and uncouple processes that in the embryo are tightly associated, such as specification of the anteroposterior axis and anterior neural development, or endoderm specification and axial elongation. We discuss the meaning and implications of these observations and the potential uses of these structures which, because of their behaviour, we suggest to call 'gastruloids'. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Locally challenging osteo- and chondrogenic tumors of the axial skeleton: results of combined proton and photon radiation therapy using three-dimensional treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, Eugen B; Fitzek, Markus M; Liebsch, Norbert J; Munzenrider, John E

    1995-02-01

    Purpose: Tumors of the axial skeleton are at high risk for local failure. Total surgical resection is rarely possible. Critical normal tissues limit the efficacy of conventional photon therapy. This study reviews our experience of using combined high dose proton and photon radiation therapy following three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Between December 1980 and September 1992, 47 patients were treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory for primary or recurrent chordomas and chondrosarcomas (group 1, 20 patients), osteogenic sarcomas (group 2, 15 patients) and giant cell tumors, osteo- or chondroblastomas (group 3, 12 patients). Radiation treatment was given postoperatively in 23 patients, pre- and postoperatively in 17 patients, and 7 patients received radiation therapy as definitive treatment modality following biopsy only. The proton radiation component was delivered using a 160 MeV proton beam and the photon component using megavoltage photons up to 23 MV energy with 1.8-2.0 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) per fraction, once a day. Total external beam target dose ranged from 55.3 CGE to 82.0 CGE with mean target doses of 73.9 CGE (group 1), 69.8 CGE (group 2), and 61.8 CGE (group 3). Results: Group 1 (chordoma and chondrosarcoma): Five of 14 patients (36%) with chordoma recurred locally, and 2 out of 5 patients developed distant metastasis, resulting in 1 death from disease. A trend for improved local control was noted for primary vs. recurrent tumors, target doses > 77 CGE and gross total resection. All patients with chondrosarcoma achieved and maintained local control and disease-free status. Five-year actuarial local control and overall survival rates were 53% and 50% for chordomas and 100% and 100% for chondrosarcomas, respectively. Group 2 (osteogenic sarcoma): Three of 15 patients (20%) never achieved local control and died within 6 months of completion of radiation treatment. Only 1 out of 12

  7. Iterating skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Horstmeyer, Thomas; Berthold, Jost

    2012-01-01

    a particular skeleton ad-hoc for repeated execution turns out to be considerably complicated, and raises general questions about introducing state into a stateless parallel computation. In addition, one would strongly prefer an approach which leaves the original skeleton intact, and only uses it as a building...... block inside a bigger structure. In this work, we present a general framework for skeleton iteration and discuss requirements and variations of iteration control and iteration body. Skeleton iteration is expressed by synchronising a parallel iteration body skeleton with a (likewise parallel) state......Skeleton-based programming is an area of increasing relevance with upcoming highly parallel hardware, since it substantially facilitates parallel programming and separates concerns. When parallel algorithms expressed by skeletons involve iterations – applying the same algorithm repeatedly...

  8. Descrição do esqueleto axial de Liolaemus arambarensis Verrastro, Veronese, Bujes & Dias Filho (Iguania, Liolaemidae: regiões pré-sacral e sacral Description of the axial skeleton of Liolaemus arambarensis Verrastro et al. (Iguania, Liolaemidae: pre-sacral and sacral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus arambarensis Verrastro, Veronese, Bujes & Dias Filho, 2003 (Iguania, Liolaemidae é um pequeno lagarto de areia, que vive nos ambientes de restingas da Laguna dos Patos. A descrição do esqueleto desta espécie pode elucidar algumas relações filogenéticas em relação a outras espécies do gênero. Tendo por objetivo a descrição das regiões pré-sacral e sacral do esqueleto axial de L. arambarensis, foram analisados sete exemplares da espécie. Observou-se que a maior estrutura axial é a coluna vertebral, que é dividida nas regiões: cervical, dorsal, sacral e caudal. A região cervical possui oito vértebras, e as costelas aparecem a partir da quarta vértebra. A região dorsal é dividida em: torácica, com cinco vértebras portando costelas unidas ao esterno; e pós-torácica, com 11 vértebras portando costelas livres. Segue-se a região sacral com duas vértebras fusionadas, que portam processos transversos fortemente expandidos lateralmente. O esterno de L. arambarensis constitui-se de uma placa cartilaginosa calcificada que se comunica com a região torácica da coluna vertebral e com a cintura escapular. Em vista do descrito anteriormente, pode-se dizer que L. arambarensis apresenta os padrões de esqueleto axial descritos para espécies de sua família e gênero.Liolaemus arambarensis Verrastro, Veronese, Bujes & Dias Filho, 2003 (Iguania: Liolaemidae is a small sand lizard that inhabits restingas in the Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil. The description of the skeleton in this species could give some insights about the phylogenetic relationships with other species of the genus. With the main goal of describing the pre-sacral and sacral regions of the axial skeleton of L. arambarensis, a total of seven individuals were analyzed. It was observed that the largest axial structure is the vertebral column that is divided into four regions: cervical, dorsal, sacral and caudal. The cervical region presents eight vertebra and the

  9. The stapl Skeleton Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Zandifar, Mani; Thomas, Nathan; Amato, Nancy M.; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    from programmers and enables them to express parallel programs as a composition of existing elementary skeletons such as map, map-reduce, scan, zip, butterfly, allreduce, alltoall and user-defined custom skeletons. Skeletons in this framework

  10. Radiation Analysis for Skeleton of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Je; Na, Sang Ho; Yang, Jae Hwan; Kang, Kweon Ho

    2010-11-01

    ORIGEN-S code was used in order to analyze the radioactive characteristics of skeleton of the spent nuclear fuel assembly. From the results, radioactivity, decay heat for various compositions in skeleton were obtained with a variation of cooling period and axial distribution of radioactivity was calculated, too. These data will be utilized later to process and dispose the skeleton of spent nuclear fuel assembly

  11. The stapl Skeleton Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Zandifar, Mani

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. This paper describes the stapl Skeleton Framework, a highlevel skeletal approach for parallel programming. This framework abstracts the underlying details of data distribution and parallelism from programmers and enables them to express parallel programs as a composition of existing elementary skeletons such as map, map-reduce, scan, zip, butterfly, allreduce, alltoall and user-defined custom skeletons. Skeletons in this framework are defined as parametric data flow graphs, and their compositions are defined in terms of data flow graph compositions. Defining the composition in this manner allows dependencies between skeletons to be defined in terms of point-to-point dependencies, avoiding unnecessary global synchronizations. To show the ease of composability and expressivity, we implemented the NAS Integer Sort (IS) and Embarrassingly Parallel (EP) benchmarks using skeletons and demonstrate comparable performance to the hand-optimized reference implementations. To demonstrate scalable performance, we show a transformation which enables applications written in terms of skeletons to run on more than 100,000 cores.

  12. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  13. An interactive editor for curve-skeletons: SkeletonLab

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Simone; Meloni, P.; Usai, F.; Spano, L.D.; Scateni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Curve-skeletons are powerful shape descriptors able to provide higher level information on topology, structure and semantics of a given digital object. Their range of application is wide and encompasses computer animation, shape matching, modelling and remeshing. While a universally accepted definition of curve-skeleton is still lacking, there are currently many algorithms for the curve-skeleton computation (or skeletonization) as well as different techniques for building a mesh around a give...

  14. ISTP CDF Skeleton Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimiak, Reine; Harris, Bernard; Williams, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Basic Common Data Format (CDF) tools (e.g., cdfedit) provide no specific support for creating International Solar-Terrestrial Physics/Space Physics Data Facility (ISTP/SPDF) standard files. While it is possible for someone who is familiar with the ISTP/SPDF metadata guidelines to create compliant files using just the basic tools, the process is error-prone and unreasonable for someone without ISTP/SPDF expertise. The key problem is the lack of a tool with specific support for creating files that comply with the ISTP/SPDF guidelines. There are basic CDF tools such as cdfedit and skeletoncdf for creating CDF files, but these have no specific support for creating ISTP/ SPDF compliant files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor is a cross-platform, Java-based GUI editor program that allows someone with only a basic understanding of the ISTP/SPDF guidelines to easily create compliant files. The editor is a simple graphical user interface (GUI) application for creating and editing ISTP/SPDF guideline-compliant skeleton CDF files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor consists of the following components: A swing-based Java GUI program, JavaHelp-based manual/ tutorial, Image/Icon files, and HTML Web page for distribution. The editor is available as a traditional Java desktop application as well as a Java Network Launching Protocol (JNLP) application. Once started, it functions like a typical Java GUI file editor application for creating/editing application-unique files.

  15. [WHAT SKELETONS TELL US].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The recent excavations carried out by the Superintendence for the Colosseum, the Roman National Museum and the Archaeological Area of Rome allowed to uncover a large number of burial grounds of Imperial Age. In this work we present the data for 11 cemeteries scattered throughout the Suburbiumn, dating between 1st and 3rd centuries AD. A whole sample of 6061 tombs has been investigated and 5280 skeletons were anthropologically analyzed. All the field data have been scored in appropriate standardized charts in order to make easy their storage and processing in a dedicated database.

  16. Studies on image quality, high contrast resolution and dose for the axial skeleton and limbs with a new, dedicated CT system (ISO-C-3D); Untersuchungen zur Bildqualitaet, Hochkontrastaufloesung und Dosis am Stamm- und Gliedmassenskelett mit einem neuen dedizierten CT-System (ISO-C-3D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, C.; Kotsianos, D.; Linsenmaier, U. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Fischer, T. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (DE). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie] (and others)

    2002-02-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of 3D-CT imaging of the axial skeleton and different joints of the lower and upper extremities with a new dedicated CT system (ISO-C-3D) based on a mobile isocentric C-arm image amplifier. Material and Methods: 27 cadaveric specimes of different joints of the lower and upper extremities and of the spinal column were examined with 3D-CT imaging (ISO-C-3d). All images were evaluated by 3 radiologists for image quality using a semiquantitative score (score value 1: poor quality; score value 4: excellent quality). In addition, dose measurements and measurements of high contrast resolution were performed in comparison to conventional and low-dose spiral CT using a high contrast phantom (Catphan, Phantom Laboratories). Results: Adequate image quality (mean score values 3-4) could be achieved with an applied dose comparable to low-dose CT in smaller joints such as wrist, elbow, ankle and knee. A remarkably inferior image quality resulted in imaging of the hip, lumbar and thoracic spine (mean score values 2-3) in spite of almost doubling the dose (dose increased by 85 percent). The image quality of shoulder examinations was insufficient (mean score value 1). Phantom studies showed a high-contrast resolution comparable to helical CT in the xy-axis (9 lp/cm). Conclusion: Preliminary results show, that image quality of C-arm-based CT-imaging (ISO-C-3D) seems to be adequate in smaller joints. ISO-C-3D images of the hip and axial skeleton show a decreased image quality, which does not seem to be sufficient for diagnosing subtle fractures. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Evaluierung der 3D-CT-Bildgebung mit einem C-Bogen-basierten dedizierten CT-System (ISO-C-3D, Fa. Siemens) an Extremitaetengelenken und am Stammskelett. Methodik: 27 humane Leichenpraeparate der unteren und oberen Extremitaet sowie des Stammskeletts wurden am ISO-C-3D untersucht und die Bilddaten anhand eines Bildqualitaetsscores von 3 Untersuchern semiquantitativ evaluiert (Score 1: nicht

  17. The axial skeleton of the Devonian tetrapod Ichthyostega.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Per Erik; Clack, Jennifer A; Blom, Henning

    2005-09-01

    Ichthyostega was the first Devonian tetrapod to be subject to a whole-body reconstruction. It remains, together with Acanthostega, one of only two Devonian tetrapods for which near-complete postcranial material is available. It is thus crucially important for our understanding of the earliest stages of tetrapod evolution and terrestrialization. Here we show a new reconstruction of Ichthyostega based on extensive re-examination of original material and augmented by recently collected specimens. Our reconstruction differs substantially from those previously published and reveals hitherto unrecognized regionalization in the vertebral column. Ichthyostega is the earliest vertebrate to show obvious adaptations for non-swimming locomotion. Uniquely among early tetrapods, the presacral vertebral column shows pronounced regionalization of neural arch morphology, suggesting that it was adapted for dorsoventral rather than lateral flexion.

  18. Axial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Andersen, Linda K; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    Classically, myopathies are categorized according to limb or cranial nerve muscle affection, but with the growing use of magnetic resonance imaging it has become evident that many well-known myopathies have significant involvement of the axial musculature. New disease entities with selective axial...

  19. NMR examinations of the facial skeleton. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodd, W.; Lenz, M.; Baumann, R.; Schroth, G.

    1984-01-01

    The resolution of NMR and CT was compared using axial sections of the normal anatomic structures of the facial skeleton. Is was shown that NMR was superior in differentiating muscles, tonsils, mucosa, lymph nodes and blood vessels. The demonstration of bone and its differentiation from air-containing spaces is often difficult. Metallic, non-ferromagnetic dental fillings, which cause serious artefacts on CT, do not after NMR. (orig.) [de

  20. Accessory caudal axial and pelvic ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohutova, J.; Kolar, J.; Vitovec, J.; Vyhnanek, L.

    1980-01-01

    Accessory caudal ribs are reported as an extremely curious anomaly in five patients. Once the fracture of this rib was a source of pains after injury. The different shapes of the ribs are documented in this clinical survey which is the most extensive in the present literature. Anomalous ribs arise due to inappropriate segmentation during the embryonal development of the axial skeleton. (orig.) [de

  1. Bifunctional organocatalysts for the asymmetric synthesis of axially chiral benzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Miyaji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bifunctional organocatalysts bearing amino and urea functional groups in a chiral molecular skeleton were applied to the enantioselective synthesis of axially chiral benzamides via aromatic electrophilic bromination. The results demonstrate the versatility of bifunctional organocatalysts for the enantioselective construction of axially chiral compounds. Moderate to good enantioselectivities were afforded with a range of benzamide substrates. Mechanistic investigations were also carried out.

  2. The Milky Way Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. (2014) argued that a very long, very thin infrared dark cloud 'Nessie' lies directly in the Galactic mid-plane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-position-velocity space as traced by low density CO and high density NH3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first 'bone' of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high contrast filament that can be used to map our galaxy's 'skeleton.' We present the first evidence of additional 'bones' in the Milky Way Galaxy, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of many filaments that could potentially trace galactic structure. Our ten bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features which lie parallel to, and no more than twenty parsecs from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use CO, N2H+, and NH3 radial velocity data to establish the location of the candidates in position-velocity space. Of the ten filaments, three candidates have a projected aspect ratio of >50:1 and run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-velocity space. Evidence suggests that these three candidates are Nessie-like features which mark the location of the spiral arms in both physical space and position-velocity space. Other candidates could be spurs, feathers, or interarm clouds associated with the Milky Way's galactic structure. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, we hope to find more bones in future studies, to ultimately create a global-fit to the Galaxy's spiral arms by piecing together individual skeletal features. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  3. Caustic Skeleton & Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbrugge, Job; van de Weygaert, Rien; Hidding, Johan; Feldbrugge, Joost

    2018-05-01

    arbitrary dynamics. Most important in the present context is that it allows us to follow and describe the full three-dimensional geometric and topological complexity of the purely gravitationally evolving nonlinear cosmic matter field. While generic and statistical results can be based on the eigenvalue characteristics, one of our key findings is that of the significance of the eigenvector field of the deformation field for outlining the entire spatial structure of the caustic skeleton emerging from a primordial density field. In this paper we explicitly consider the caustic conditions for the three-dimensional Zel'dovich approximation, extending earlier work on those for one- and two-dimensional fluids towards the full spatial richness of the cosmic web. In an accompanying publication, we apply this towards a full three-dimensional study of caustics in the formation of the cosmic web and evaluate in how far it manages to outline and identify the intricate skeletal features in the corresponding N-body simulations.

  4. Skeleton scintigraphy in trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal trauma is common and presents both an opportunity and a problem in skeletal scintigraphy. The opportunity arises in the ability of skeletal scintigraphy to demonstrate abnormalities early after direct trauma. It is well recognized that the early detection of fractures in some sites cannot be reliably achieved by standard radiography, especially in the femoral neck and scaphoid bone. The problem comes in recognizing the effects of skeletal trauma when using skeletal scintigraphy for another purpose, such as the detection of metastatic disease. iatrogenic trauma to either the skeleton or soft tissues may be manifest scintigraphic ally. For example Craniotomy typically leaves a rim pattern at the surgical margin. Rib Retraction during thoracotomy can elicit periosteal reaction. Areas of the skeletal receiving curative levels of ionizing radiation (typically 4000 rads or greater) characteristically demonstrate decreased uptake within 6 months to 1 year after therapy. The generally high sensitivity of the skeletal scintigraphy seems to make it an ideal survey test in cases of suspected child abuse especially in which radiographs are unrevealing. Because of difficulties in obtaining a history of trauma from a preschool child or even eliciting a satisfactory description of the location and nature of the pain, skeletal scintigraphy provides a simple and reliable investigation in these children. Subtle trauma, such as that from stress fractures is often difficult to visualize on a plain radiograph. Skeletal scintigraphy is frequently positive at the time of clinical presentation. Skeletal scintigraphy is exquisitely sensitive to the remodeling process and typically shows abnormalities 1 to 2 weeks or more before the appearance of radiographic changes in stress fractures. The periosteal reaction can be visualized within hours of the injury. Insufficiency and fatigue fractures such as vertebral compression fracture, which is probably the most common consequence of

  5. Parallel FFT using Eden Skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Dieterle, Mischa; Lobachev, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates and compares skeleton-based Eden implementations of different FFT-algorithms on workstation clusters with distributed memory. Our experiments show that the basic divide-and-conquer versions suffer from an inherent input distribution and result collection problem. Advanced...

  6. Banach spaces with projectional skeletons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 2 (2009), s. 758-776 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : projection * projectional skeleton * norming set Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.225, year: 2009

  7. Skeleton-based Hierarchical Shape Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    We present an effective framework for segmenting 3D shapes into meaningful components using the curve skeleton. Our algorithm identifies a number of critical points on the curve skeleton, either fully automatically as the junctions of the curve skeleton, or based on user input. We use these points

  8. Axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, K.A.; Lewis, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to axial tomography, sometimes referred to as cross-sectional x-ray. The apparatus described may utilize the conventional x-ray or ultrasonic source and detector and scanning mechanism for producing the plurality of sets of radiation detector output signals. It has the means for storing the detector output signals in analog form with the signals of one set overlying the signals of another set so that signals resulting from radiation through a zone of the object being examined are summed at a corresponding zone in the storage device, typically an electronic storage tube. The summed signals are read from the storage device with a radially inversely proportional reader producing a second signal for storage, again typically in an electronic storage tube. These signals stored in the second storage device are read with Laplacian relation, with the resultant sigal being a video signal that may be connected to a TV monitor for display of the sectional image. In alternative embodiments, optical film systems and electrostatic systems are utilized. (JTA)

  9. Cdx and Hox genes differentially regulate posterior axial growth in mammalian embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Teddy; Rowland, Jennifer Elizabeth; van de Ven, Cesca; Bialecka, Monika; Novoa, Ana; Carapuco, Marta; van Nes, Johan; de Graaff, Wim; Duluc, Isabelle; Freund, Jean-Noël; Beck, Felix; Mallo, Moises; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Hox and Cdx transcription factors regulate embryonic positional identities. Cdx mutant mice display posterior body truncations of the axial skeleton, neuraxis, and caudal urorectal structures. We show that trunk Hox genes stimulate axial extension, as they can largely rescue these Cdx mutant

  10. A clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Visser, P.M.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI (Real Time Application Interface). The skeleton is a thin layer that provides unified but extendible interfaces to the underlying operating system, the synchronization algorithms and the upper level applications in need of clock

  11. Coral skeletons defend against ultraviolet radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Reef

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many coral reef organisms are photosynthetic or have evolved in tight symbiosis with photosynthetic symbionts. As such, the tissues of reef organisms are often exposed to intense solar radiation in clear tropical waters and have adapted to trap and harness photosynthetically active radiation (PAR. High levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR associated with sunlight, however, represent a potential problem in terms of tissue damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By measuring UVR and PAR reflectance from intact and ground bare coral skeletons we show that the property of calcium carbonate skeletons to absorb downwelling UVR to a significant extent, while reflecting PAR back to the overlying tissue, has biological advantages. We placed cnidarians on top of bare skeletons and a UVR reflective substrate and showed that under ambient UVR levels, UVR transmitted through the tissues of cnidarians placed on top of bare skeletons were four times lower compared to their counterparts placed on a UVR reflective white substrate. In accordance with the lower levels of UVR measured in cnidarians on top of coral skeletons, a similar drop in UVR damage to their DNA was detected. The skeletons emitted absorbed UVR as yellow fluorescence, which allows for safe dissipation of the otherwise harmful radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study presents a novel defensive role for coral skeletons and reveals that the strong UVR absorbance by the skeleton can contribute to the ability of corals, and potentially other calcifiers, to thrive under UVR levels that are detrimental to most marine life.

  12. Weighted straight skeletons in the plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We investigate weighted straight skeletons from a geometric, graph-theoretical, and combinatorial point of view. We start with a thorough definition and shed light on some ambiguity issues in the procedural definition. We investigate the geometry, combinatorics, and topology of faces and the roof model, and we discuss in which cases a weighted straight skeleton is connected. Finally, we show that the weighted straight skeleton of even a simple polygon may be non-planar and may contain cycles, and we discuss under which restrictions on the weights and/or the input polygon the weighted straight skeleton still behaves similar to its unweighted counterpart. In particular, we obtain a non-procedural description and a linear-time construction algorithm for the straight skeleton of strictly convex polygons with arbitrary weights.

  13. Spatially variant morphological restoration and skeleton representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Charif-Chefchaouni, Mohammed; Schonfeld, Dan

    2006-11-01

    The theory of spatially variant (SV) mathematical morphology is used to extend and analyze two important image processing applications: morphological image restoration and skeleton representation of binary images. For morphological image restoration, we propose the SV alternating sequential filters and SV median filters. We establish the relation of SV median filters to the basic SV morphological operators (i.e., SV erosions and SV dilations). For skeleton representation, we present a general framework for the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. We study the properties of the SV morphological skeleton representation and derive conditions for its invertibility. We also develop an algorithm for the implementation of the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. The latter algorithm is based on the optimal construction of the SV structuring element mapping designed to minimize the cardinality of the SV morphological skeleton representation. Experimental results show the dramatic improvement in the performance of the SV morphological restoration and SV morphological skeleton representation algorithms in comparison to their translation-invariant counterparts.

  14. The value of scintigraphy in skeleton diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickenhauser, J.

    1976-01-01

    The complex topic of diagnostics of the numerous skeleton diseases was enriched by nuclear medicine, for it is now possible to complete the static picture of morphologic changes resulting from radiologic examinations by its functional component, shown in scintigraphy. This shows that maximal information can only be obtained if the results of skeleton scintigraphy are, according to their importance, integrated into the total picture of the diagnostical decision procedure the centre of which is taken by radiology as was always the case. Because of the different results they lead to, none of the methods can be replaced by another, but they can only complete one another. For the reasons mentioned, the isolated use of skeleton scintigraphy, as it is usual in many places, does not seem not purposeful. Using 8 cases, the author tried to show the problems of skeleton scintigraphy and its position in the diagnostical decision procedure in osteology. (orig.) [de

  15. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siu-Wing

    2014-09-01

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (logn)logr) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomized, and runs in expected O(n√h+1log2n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (logn) logr + r 4/3 + ε ) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (logn) logr + r 17/11 + ε ).

  16. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Mencel, Liam A.

    2014-05-06

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (log n) log r) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomised, and runs in expected O(n √(h+1) log² n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (log n) log r + r^(4/3 + ε)) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (log n) log r + r^(17/11 + ε))

  17. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Straight Skeletons

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siu-Wing; Mencel, Liam A.; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. For a polygon with n vertices, among which r are reflex vertices, we give a deterministic algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a motorcycle graph computation in O(n (logn)logr) time. It improves on the previously best known algorithm for this reduction, which is randomized, and runs in expected O(n√h+1log2n) time for a polygon with h holes. Using known motorcycle graph algorithms, our result yields improved time bounds for computing straight skeletons. In particular, we can compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon in O(n (logn) logr + r 4/3 + ε ) time for any ε > 0. On degenerate input, our time bound increases to O(n (logn) logr + r 17/11 + ε ).

  18. Histology of the heterostracan dermal skeleton: Insight into the origin of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph N; Marquart, Chloe L; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-06-01

    Living vertebrates are divided into those that possess a fully formed and fully mineralised skeleton (gnathostomes) versus those that possess only unmineralised cartilaginous rudiments (cyclostomes). As such, extinct phylogenetic intermediates of these living lineages afford unique insights into the evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate mineralised skeleton and its canonical tissue types. Extinct jawless and jawed fishes assigned to the gnathostome stem evidence the piecemeal assembly of skeletal systems, revealing that the dermal skeleton is the earliest manifestation of a homologous mineralised skeleton. Yet the nature of the primitive dermal skeleton, itself, is poorly understood. This is principally because previous histological studies of early vertebrates lacked a phylogenetic framework required to derive evolutionary hypotheses. Nowhere is this more apparent than within Heterostraci, a diverse clade of primitive jawless vertebrates. To this end, we surveyed the dermal skeletal histology of heterostracans, inferred the plesiomorphic heterostracan skeleton and, through histological comparison to other skeletonising vertebrate clades, deduced the ancestral nature of the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Heterostracans primitively possess a four-layered skeleton, comprising a superficial layer of odontodes composed of dentine and enameloid; a compact layer of acellular parallel-fibred bone containing a network of vascular canals that supply the pulp canals (L1); a trabecular layer consisting of intersecting radial walls composed of acellular parallel-fibred bone, showing osteon-like development (L2); and a basal layer of isopedin (L3). A three layered skeleton, equivalent to the superficial layer L2 and L3 and composed of enameloid, dentine and acellular bone, is possessed by the ancestor of heterostracans + jawed vertebrates. We conclude that an osteogenic component is plesiomorphic with respect to the vertebrate dermal skeleton. Consequently, we interpret the

  19. Actinide distribution in the human skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; McInroy, J.F.; Swint, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Radiochemical analysis of two half skeletons donated to the United States Transuranium Registry, one from an individual with an occupationally incurred deposition of 241 Am and the other with a deposition of 239 Pu, revealed an inverse linear relationship between the concentration of actinide in the bone ash and the fraction of ash. Two distinct relationships were noted, one for the cranium and the other for the remainder of the skeleton. The results suggest that the actinide content of the skeleton as a whole, Q, can be obtained with an uncertainty of +-50% from analysis of a single sample of any bone (except the cranium) by Q = [(830 C/sub sample/)/(0.61 - f/sub sample/)], in which C/sub sample/ refers to the actinide content per g of ash and f/sub sample/ the fraction of ash (i.e., ratio of dry to wet weight) in the sample. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Bone Disease in Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mechelen, Margot; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; de Vlam, Kurt; Lories, Rik

    2018-05-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory skeletal disorder with an important burden of disease, affecting the spine and sacroiliac joints and typically presenting in young adults. Ankylosing spondylitis, diagnosed by the presence of structural changes to the skeleton, is the prototype of this disease group. Bone disease in axial spondyloarthritis is a complex phenomenon with the coexistence of bone loss and new bone formation, both contributing to the morbidity of the disease, in addition to pain caused by inflammation. The skeletal structural changes respectively lead to increased fracture risk and to permanent disability caused by ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. The mechanism of this new bone formation leading to ankylosis is insufficiently known. The process appears to originate from entheses, specialized structures that provide a transition zone in which tendon and ligaments insert into the underlying bone. Growth factor signaling pathways such as bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnts, and Hedgehogs have been identified as molecular drivers of new bone formation, but the relationship between inflammation and activation of these pathways remains debated. Long-standing control of inflammation appears necessary to avoid ankylosis. Recent evidence and concepts suggest an important role for biomechanical factors in both the onset and progression of the disease. With regard to new bone formation, these processes can be understood as ectopic repair responses secondary to inflammation-induced bone loss and instability. In this review, we discuss the clinical implications of the skeletal changes as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, the relation between inflammation and new bone formation, and the potential role of biomechanical stress.

  1. Novel skeleton sesquiterpenoids isolated from guava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Yun-Jiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the plant Psidium guajava L., collected in Guangdong province, afforded two novel skeleton sesquiterpenoids 1 and 2. Compound 2 also known as isocaryolan-9-one was a new natural product. The structure of the novel compound 1 was determined as guavacid A by various spectroscopic methods. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 was proposed.

  2. Amorphous calcium carbonate particles form coral skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Giuffre, Anthony J.; Sun, Chang-Yu; Stifler, Cayla A.; Frazier, Matthew J.; Neder, Maayan; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A.

    2017-09-01

    Do corals form their skeletons by precipitation from solution or by attachment of amorphous precursor particles as observed in other minerals and biominerals? The classical model assumes precipitation in contrast with observed “vital effects,” that is, deviations from elemental and isotopic compositions at thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we show direct spectromicroscopy evidence in Stylophora pistillata corals that two amorphous precursors exist, one hydrated and one anhydrous amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC); that these are formed in the tissue as 400-nm particles; and that they attach to the surface of coral skeletons, remain amorphous for hours, and finally, crystallize into aragonite (CaCO3). We show in both coral and synthetic aragonite spherulites that crystal growth by attachment of ACC particles is more than 100 times faster than ion-by-ion growth from solution. Fast growth provides a distinct physiological advantage to corals in the rigors of the reef, a crowded and fiercely competitive ecosystem. Corals are affected by warming-induced bleaching and postmortem dissolution, but the finding here that ACC particles are formed inside tissue may make coral skeleton formation less susceptible to ocean acidification than previously assumed. If this is how other corals form their skeletons, perhaps this is how a few corals survived past CO2 increases, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum that occurred 56 Mya.

  3. Skeletonized Least Squares Wave Equation Migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2010-01-01

    of the wave equation. Only the early‐arrivals of these Green's functions are saved and skeletonized to form the migration Green's function (MGF) by convolution. Then the migration image is obtained by a dot product between the recorded shot gathers and the MGF

  4. Body mass estimation from the skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Santos, Frédéric; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Estimating an individual body mass (BM) from the skeleton is a challenge for forensic anthropology. However, identifying someone's BMI (Body Mass Index) category, i.e. underweight, normal, overweight or obese, could contribute to identification. Individual BM is also known to influence the age...

  5. Osteoarthritis. Radiological aspects in the appendicular skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo Suarez, Jose Felix; Iglesias Gamarra, Antonio; Pena Cortes, Mario; Rondon Herrera, Federico; Calvo Paramo, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    The osteoarthritis is a degenerative and inflammatory disease that affects all articular structures, especially cartilage and intervertebral disc, which conduce to progressive impairment of the joint. In this paper it Is showed the most significative cardiology findings of osteoarthritis in the appendicular skeleton that are fundamental for the diagnosis of this frequent pathology

  6. Odontoid pannus formation in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis causing atlanto-axial instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajak, Rizwan; Wardle, Phil; Rhys-Dillon, Ceril; Martin, James C

    2012-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is one of the commonest inflammatory diseases of the axial skeleton and can be complicated by atlanto-axial instability. This serious and likely underestimated complication can be easily overlooked. However, there are clear features which can help alert suspicion to initiate the appropriate investigations with imaging that is very effective at diagnosing and assessing this complication. The authors report an unusual case where odontoid pannus formation, akin to that seen in rheumatoid arthritis, was the underlying cause. PMID:22665557

  7. Mechanical characterization tests of the X2-Gen fuel assembly and skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Jae Yong; Lee, Young Ho; Kang, Heung Seok

    2011-01-01

    The KNF (KEPCO Nuclear Fuel) requested mechanical characterization tests of a fuel assembly and a skeleton of the X2-Gen fuel. The tests consisted of the lateral vibration and lateral/axial stiffness, lateral/axial impact and combined deflection tests carried out by using the FAMeCT (Fuel Assembly Mechanical Characterization Tester) in KAERI. The upper and lower core plate simulators were newly designed and manufactured because the fuel geometry of the X2-Gen was different from the KSNP type fuel assembly. In addition to this, the upper carriage was also revised with the LM guide system from the previous two guide rods system. Therefore, the axial and combined deflection tests were soundly executed. Each test was repeated twice to confirm the repeatability. The discrepancy from the repetition was small enough to be neglected. The mechanical characterization tests were accredited with the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme) standard, and the certified test reports (lateral vibration, lateral/axial bending and lateral/axial impact) and the uncertified test report (combined deflection) were issued together with the current test result report

  8. Osteomesopyknosis associated to renal lithiasis. Case report. Differential diagnosis of the axial osteoesclerosant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Gerardo; Fernandez, Andres; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Rojas, Adriana; Calvo, Enrique; Rondon, Federico; Sanchez, Alvaro; Forero, Elias; Iglesias, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    In this article we present a brief description of the bone diseases characterized by osteosclerosis. We present our experience with their morpho-radiological changes, we describe a case of osteomesopyknosis associated to renal lithiasis and we propose a classification for osteosclerosant diseases of the axial skeleton with practical differential diagnosis of these conditions

  9. BWR AXIAL PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop axial profiles for estimating the axial variation in burnup of a boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly spent nuclear fuel (SNF) given the average burnup of an assembly. A discharged fuel assembly typically exhibits higher burnup in the center and lower burnup at the ends of the assembly. Criticality safety analyses taking credit for SNF burnup must account for axially varying burnup relative to calculations based on uniformly distributed assembly average burnup due to the under-burned tips. Thus, accounting for axially varying burnup in criticality analyses is also referred to as accounting for the ''end effect'' reactivity. The magnitude of the reactivity change due to ''end effect'' is dependent on the initial assembly enrichment, the assembly average burnup, and the particular axial profile characterizing the burnup distribution. The set of bounding axial profiles should incorporate multiple BWR core designs and provide statistical confidence (95 percent confidence that 95 percent of the population is bound by the profile) that end nodes are conservatively represented. The profiles should also conserve the overall burnup of the fuel assembly. More background on BWR axial profiles is provided in Attachment I

  10. Radioactive labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Geza; Sirokman, Ferenc

    1985-01-01

    Results achieved by the sup(14)C, sup(125)I and sup(3)H labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton for kinetic, receptor, metabolims and pharmacological investigations are summarized and evaluated. The methods for the preparation of sup(3)H labelled dihydromorphine, dihydroethylmorphine, dihydrocodeine, naloxone and naloxazone are described. The compounds have higher specific molar activity than those referred to in literature which makes them suitable for a number of investigations. (author)

  11. The ossification principle of the laryngeal skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, W. von.

    1981-01-01

    In 94 decreased of both sexes aged 15 to 79 who had not has any affections of the larynx itself, the laryngeal skeleton was X-rayed after removing the soft parts, to demonstrate the ossification processes. Furthermore the deformation of the thyroid cartilage caused at the larynx by the laryngopharyngeal muscle in the act of swallowing was experimentally induced and determined with the aid of strain gauges. (orig.) [de

  12. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

  13. Signatures for axial chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.C.

    1978-07-01

    Within the context of basic left-right symmetry and the hypothesis of unification of weak, electromagnetic and strong forces at a mass level approximately equal to 10 4 -10 6 GeV, relatively light ''mass'' axial gluons, confined or liberated, must be postulated. The authors remark that the existence of such ''light'' axial gluons supplementing the familiar vector octet preserves the successes of QCD, both for deep inelastic processes and charmonium physics. Through the characteristic spin-spin force, generated by their exchange, they may even help resolve some of the discrepancies between vector QCD predictions and charmonium physics. The main remark of this note is that if colour is liberated, not only vector but also axial-vector gluons are produced in high-energy e - e + experiments, e.g. at PETRA and PEP, with fairly large cross-section. Distinctive decay modes of such liberated axial gluons are noted

  14. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING DIAGNOSIS OF INFLAMMATORY CHANGES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON IN ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Smirnov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As of now, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ranks high in the early diagnosis of inflammatory changes in the musculoskeletal system. The uniqueness of MRI is that this diagnostic technique can detect the signs of active and inactive inflammation at the pre-radiological stage of the disease, i.e. before the onset of radiological symptoms of sacroiliitis and the formation of spinal syndesmophytes. At the same time there is evidence that there is a temporary association between active inflammation and the development of radiological changes in the joints.The detection of bone marrow edema in the subchondral portions of bone tissue is of great importance not only for diagnosing the disease and verifying inflammatory activity, but also for predicting the development of chronic arthritis, choosing a treatment option, and evaluating the efficiency of performed therapy.Based on their long-term experience, the authors provided explanations of the MRI pattern of active and inactive chronic sacroiliitis and spondylitis, which can considerably facilitate the early diagnosis of injury to the sacroiliac joints and vertebral column in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  15. Retinoic acid and Cyp26b1 are critical regulators of osteogenesis in the axial skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorendonk, K.M.; Peterson-Maduro, J.; Renn, J.; Trowe, T.; Kranenbarg, S.; Winkler, C.; Schulte-Merker, S.

    2008-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays important roles in diverse biological processes ranging from germ cell specification to limb patterning. RA ultimately exerts its effect in the nucleus, but how RA levels are being generated and maintained locally is less clear. Here, we have analyzed the zebrafish

  16. Malformations of the axial skeleton in the museum Vrolik: II: craniosynostoses and suture-related conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, Roelof-Jan; van der Wolk, Sander; Maas, Mario; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Museum Vrolik collection of anatomical specimens in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, comprises over 5,000 specimens of human and animal anatomy, embryology, pathology, and congenital anomalies. Recently, we rediagnosed a subset of the collection comprising dried infantile, juvenile, and adult human

  17. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  18. Skeletonized Least Squares Wave Equation Migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2010-10-17

    The theory for skeletonized least squares wave equation migration (LSM) is presented. The key idea is, for an assumed velocity model, the source‐side Green\\'s function and the geophone‐side Green\\'s function are computed by a numerical solution of the wave equation. Only the early‐arrivals of these Green\\'s functions are saved and skeletonized to form the migration Green\\'s function (MGF) by convolution. Then the migration image is obtained by a dot product between the recorded shot gathers and the MGF for every trial image point. The key to an efficient implementation of iterative LSM is that at each conjugate gradient iteration, the MGF is reused and no new finitedifference (FD) simulations are needed to get the updated migration image. It is believed that this procedure combined with phase‐encoded multi‐source technology will allow for the efficient computation of wave equation LSM images in less time than that of conventional reverse time migration (RTM).

  19. Skeletal metastasis: The effect on immature skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Ogden, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The unique opportunity to study the entire appendicular skeleton of a child who died from metastatic angiosarcoma allowed detailed assessment of radiographically evident involvement. Virtually every portion of the appendicular skeleton had evidence of metastatic disease. However, the extent of involvement was extremely variable, especially when contralateral regions were assessed. The most likely region of metastasis, the metaphysis, is normally a fenestrated cortex of woven bone in the young child, rather than a well demarcated cortex formed by osteon (lamellar) bone, as it is in the adult. The pattern of destruction is such that less extensive areas may be involved before becoming radiographically evident, and trabecular bone involvement may be evident even without cortical damage. The metaphyseal metastatic spread supports the concept of arterial hematogeneous dissemination, comparable to osteomyelitis in the child. Pathologic metaphyseal fractures involved both proximal humeri; the fracture also extended along a portion of the methaphyseal-physeal interface in one humerus. In one distal femur the physis readily separated from the metaphysis; this was a nondisplaced type 1 growth mechanism injury. (orig.)

  20. Alterations of bone skeleton structure in connection with strontium-90 incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, N.V.; Mazhuga, P.M.; Domashevskaya, E.I.; Gorskij, B.A.; Nakorenok, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    By using the methods of histology, electron microscopy and radiochemistry studied the bone skeleton state of animals (mouse like rodents and minks) which live in the 30 km zone of the ChNPP.It was defined contents of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 134 Cs in the bones during 1989-1993 years. There were described changes in histostructure of the periost endost and bone compact of the tubular bones and also in metaepiphyzal growth plate. The mechanisms of the revealed alterations are discussed

  1. Skeletonized wave-equation inversion for Q

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2016-09-06

    A wave-equation gradient optimization method is presented that inverts for the subsurface Q distribution by minimizing a skeletonized misfit function ε. Here, ε is the sum of the squared differences between the observed and the predicted peak/centroid frequency shifts of the early-arrivals. The gradient is computed by migrating the observed traces weighted by the frequency-shift residuals. The background Q model is perturbed until the predicted and the observed traces have the same peak frequencies or the same centroid frequencies. Numerical tests show that an improved accuracy of the inverted Q model by wave-equation Q tomography (WQ) leads to a noticeable improvement in the migration image quality.

  2. Electrical injury involving the immature skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Southwick, W. O.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1981-01-01

    Two patients are presented with significant problems of skeletal development and function consequent to electrical impulse propagation through the immature skeleton. Amputation stump revision in the first case allowed an opportunity to assess specific histological and morphologic changes. Electrical damage completeley destroyed portions of trabecular bone in the metaphyses and epiphyseal ossification centers. There were morphologic irregularities in the physis of the distal femur, while in the proximal tibia complete cessation of growth occurred through presumed electrical ablation of the physis. There was virtually no endosteal or periosteal callus, no intertrabecular inflammatory response, and no new bone formation well over a year following the original injury. The knee joint exhibited severe fibrous ankylosis. In the second case localized arrest of the posterolateral portion of the proximal tibial physis caused a valgus/recurvatum deformation, and probably slowed down distal growth sufficiently in the stump end to prevent irregular terminal overgrowth of the tibia, although it did occur in the fibula. (orig.)

  3. Skeleton tables of burnout heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, P.L.; Bobkov, V.P.; Boltenko, Eh.A.; Vinogradov, V.N.; Katan, I.B.; Smogalev, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    New methods of generating and arranging new reference data on critical thermal flux density during steam and water mixture flow in vertical round fubes are discussed. The modern requirements to such data include the assessment of data reliability and error, internal agreement, validation by physical and mathematical models, verification using a large amount of experimental results. The available reference data feature a number of drawbacks: they are not accurate enough and are limited by the parameters; other data feature a significant spread in values at the neighbouring values of parameters, discrepancy with the experimental results, not always substantiated extrapolations. A new version of skeleton tables, which are free from a major part of above disadvantages, is proposed

  4. Skeletonized wave-equation inversion for Q

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    A wave-equation gradient optimization method is presented that inverts for the subsurface Q distribution by minimizing a skeletonized misfit function ε. Here, ε is the sum of the squared differences between the observed and the predicted peak/centroid frequency shifts of the early-arrivals. The gradient is computed by migrating the observed traces weighted by the frequency-shift residuals. The background Q model is perturbed until the predicted and the observed traces have the same peak frequencies or the same centroid frequencies. Numerical tests show that an improved accuracy of the inverted Q model by wave-equation Q tomography (WQ) leads to a noticeable improvement in the migration image quality.

  5. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  6. [Inflammatory spinal diseases: axial spondyloarthritis : Central importance of imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliakos, X; Fruth, M; Kiltz, U; Braun, J

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) includes classical ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as earlier stages and abortive courses of the disease, in which structural alterations have not yet occurred. These are classified as non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpa). Inflammatory changes in the entire axial skeleton are characteristic for axSpA and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in most patients structural alterations, such as new bone formation with syndesmophytes and ankylosis develop in the later course of the disease. These bony alterations can best be visualized by conventional radiography and by computed tomography. Certain MRI sequences are nowadays considered as the standard method for depiction of inflammatory changes in axSpA. The introduction of MRI has led to a paradigm shift for this disease because the inflammatory lesions characteristic for the disease can be visualized at an early stage using appropriate MRI sequences.

  7. A skeleton for distributed work pools in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Berthold, Jost; Loogen, Rita

    2010-01-01

    We present a flexible skeleton for implementing distributed work pools in our parallel functional language Eden. The skeleton manages a pool of tasks (work pool) in a distributed manner using a demand-driven work stealing approach for load balancing. All coordination is done locally within...

  8. Radiation injuries to the skeleton and their orthopedic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, R.; Rahnfeld, R.

    1978-01-01

    70 patients subjected to orthopedic treatment and radiotherapy for skeletal tumors have been examined. It was found that serious radiation injuries frequently occurred. Above all there were contractures, disordered healing of wounds, ulcerations, and scolioses and kyphoses of the growing skeleton. Therefore, in the case of diseases of the skeleton, it is recommended to restrain radiotherapy. It has to be rejected in child's age

  9. Qualitative Comparison of Contraction-Based Curve Skeletonization Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobiecki, André; Yasan, Haluk C.; Jalba, Andrei C.; Telea, Alexandru C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many new methods have been proposed for extracting curve skeletons of 3D shapes, using a mesh-contraction principle. However, it is still unclear how these methods perform with respect to each other, and with respect to earlier voxel-based skeletonization methods, from the viewpoint

  10. Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data

  11. Skeleton extraction based on the topology and Snakes model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxue Cai

    Full Text Available A new skeleton line extraction method based on topology and flux is proposed by analyzing the distribution characteristics of the gradient vector field in the Snakes model. The distribution characteristics of the skeleton line are accurately obtained by calculating the eigenvalues of the critical points and the flux of the gradient vector field. Then the skeleton lines can be effectively extracted. The results also show that there is no need for the pretreatment or binarization of the target image. The skeleton lines of complex gray images such as optical interference patterns can be effectively extracted by using this method. Compared to traditional methods, this method has many advantages, such as high extraction accuracy and fast processing speed. Keywords: Skeleton, Snakes model, Topology, Photoelasticity image

  12. On renormalization of axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that multiplicative renormalization of the axial singlet current results in renormalization of the axial anomaly in all orders of perturbation theory. It is a necessary condition for the Adler - Bardeen theorem being valid. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  13. Axial tomographic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    An axial tomographic system is described comprising axial tomographic means for collecting sets of data corresponding to the transmission or absorption of a number of beams of penetrating radiation through a planar slice of an object. It includes means to locate an object to be analyzed, a source and detector for directing one or more beams of penetrating radiation through the object from the source to the detector, and means to rotate (and optionally translate) the source as well as means to process the collected sets of data. Data collection, data processing, and data display can each be conducted independently of each other. An additional advantage of the system described is that the raw data (i.e., the originally collected data) are not destroyed by the data processing but instead are retained intact for further reference or use, if needed

  14. Three-dimensional segmentation and skeletonization to build an airway tree data structure for small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Lee, Zhenghong

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of intrathoracic airway tree geometry is important for objective evaluation of bronchial tree structure and function. Currently, there is more human data than small animal data on airway morphometry. In this study, we implemented a semi-automatic approach to quantitatively describe airway tree geometry by using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) images to build a tree data structure for small animals such as rats and mice. Silicon lung casts of the excised lungs from a canine and a mouse were used for micro-CT imaging of the airway trees. The programming language IDL was used to implement a 3D region-growing threshold algorithm for segmenting out the airway lung volume from the CT data. Subsequently, a fully-parallel 3D thinning algorithm was implemented in order to complete the skeletonization of the segmented airways. A tree data structure was then created and saved by parsing through the skeletonized volume using the Python programming language. Pertinent information such as the length of all airway segments was stored in the data structure. This approach was shown to be accurate and efficient for up to six generations for the canine lung cast and ten generations for the mouse lung cast

  15. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  16. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  17. Building Up the Milky Way's Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    A team of scientistshas now uncovered half of theentire skeleton of the Milky Way, using an automated method to identify large filaments of gas and dust hiding between stars in the galactic plane.Galactic distribution of 54 newly discovered filaments, plotted along with colored lines indicating six relevant spiral arms in our galaxy. The upper two plots show the consistency of the filaments motion with the spiral arms, while the lower shows their location within the galactic plane. [Wang et al. 2016]The Search for Nessie and FriendsThe Milky Ways interstellar medium is structured hierarchically into filaments. These structures are difficult to observe since they largely lie in the galactic plane, but if we can discover the distribution and properties of these filaments, we can better understand how our galaxy formed, and how the filaments affect star formation in our galaxy today.Some of the largest of the Milky Ways filaments are hundreds of light-years long like the infrared dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, declared in 2013 to be one of the bones of the Milky Way because of its position along the center of the Scutum-Centaurus spiral arm.Follow-up studies since the discovery of Nessie (like this one, or this) have found a number of additional large-scale filaments, but these studies all use different search methods and selection criteria, and the searches all start with visual inspection by humans to identify candidates.What if we could instead automate the detection process and build a homogeneous sample of the large filaments making up the skeleton of the Milky Way?Automated DetectionThis is exactly what a team of astronomers led by Ke Wang (European Southern Observatory) has done. The group used a customization of an algorithm called a minimum spanning tree the technique used to optimize the cost of internet networks, road networks, and electrical grids in our communities to perform an automated search of data from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. The search was

  18. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  19. The Skeleton of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. argued that the very long, very thin infrared dark cloud “Nessie” lies directly in the Galactic midplane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in position-position-velocity (p-p-v) space as traced by lower-density {{CO}} and higher-density {{NH}}3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first “bone” of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high-contrast filament that can be used to map our Galaxy’s “skeleton.” Here we present evidence for additional bones in the Milky Way, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of several filaments that could potentially trace Galactic structure. Our 10 bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features that lie parallel to, and no more than 20 pc from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use {{CO}}, {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+, {{{HCO}}}+, and {{NH}}3 radial velocity data to establish the three-dimensional location of the candidates in p-p-v space. Of the 10 candidates, 6 also have a projected aspect ratio of ≥50:1 run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in p-p-v space; and exhibit no abrupt shifts in velocity. The evidence presented here suggests that these candidates mark the locations of significant spiral features, with the bone called filament 5 (“BC_18.88-0.09”) being a close analog to Nessie in the northern sky. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, it should be possible to find more bones in future studies.

  20. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  1. Skeletal development in Acropora palmata (Lamarck 1816): a scanning electron microscope (SEM) comparison demonstrating similar mechanisms of skeletal extension in axial versus encrusting growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladfelter, E. H.

    2007-12-01

    Many Acropora palmata colonies consist of an encrusting basal portion and erect branches. Linear growth of the skeleton results in extension along the substrate (encrusting growth), lengthening of branches (axial growth) and thickening of branches and crust (radial growth). Scanning Electron Microscopy is used to compare the mechanisms of skeletal extension between encrusting growth and axial growth. In encrusting growth, the distal margin of the skeleton lacks corallites (which develop about 1 mm from the edge); in contrast, in axial growth, axial corallites along the branch tip form the distal portion of the skeleton. In both locations, the distal margin of the skeleton consists of a lattice-like structure composed of rods that extend from the body of the skeleton and bars that connect these rods. An actively extending skeleton is characterized by sharply pointed rods and partially developed bars. Distal growth of rods (and formation of bars) is effected by the formation of new sclerodermites. Each sclerodermite begins with the deposition of fusiform crystals (that range in length from 1 to 5 μm). These provide a surface for nucleation and growth of spherulitic tufts, clusters of short (<1 μm long) aragonite needles. The needles that are oriented perpendicular to the axis of the skeletal element (rod or bar), and perpendicular to the overlying calicoblastic epithelium, continue extension to appear on the surface of the skeleton as 10-15 μm wide bundles (of needle tips) called fasciculi. However, some crusts that abut competitors for space have a different morphology of skeletal elements (rods and bars). The distal edge of these crusts terminates in blunt coalescing rods, and bars that are fully formed. Absence of fusiform crystals, lack of sharply pointed rods and bars, and full development of sclerodermites characterize a skeletal region that has ceased, perhaps only temporarily, skeletal extension.

  2. 13C-NMR of diterpenes with pimarane skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, W.S.; Pereira, A.L.; Silva Queiroz, P.P. da; Silva, R.S. da; Valente, L.M.M.; Peixoto, E.M.; Cunha Pinto, A. da

    1981-01-01

    The effect of substituent groups on the chemical shift of carbons using nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of carbon 13 ( 13 C-NMR) is discussed. Diterpenes having pimarane skeleton, isolated from plants of Velloziaceae family are analysed. (ARHC) [pt

  3. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Liu, Yike; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve

  4. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dziuba; M. Cholewa

    2008-01-01

    In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of c...

  5. Mining Key Skeleton Poses with Latent SVM for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human action recognition based on 3D skeleton has become an active research field in recent years with the recently developed commodity depth sensors. Most published methods analyze an entire 3D depth data, construct mid-level part representations, or use trajectory descriptor of spatial-temporal interest point for recognizing human activities. Unlike previous work, a novel and simple action representation is proposed in this paper which models the action as a sequence of inconsecutive and discriminative skeleton poses, named as key skeleton poses. The pairwise relative positions of skeleton joints are used as feature of the skeleton poses which are mined with the aid of the latent support vector machine (latent SVM. The advantage of our method is resisting against intraclass variation such as noise and large nonlinear temporal deformation of human action. We evaluate the proposed approach on three benchmark action datasets captured by Kinect devices: MSR Action 3D dataset, UTKinect Action dataset, and Florence 3D Action dataset. The detailed experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art skeleton-based action recognition methods.

  6. Program Transformation to Identify List-Based Parallel Skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kannan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Algorithmic skeletons are used as building-blocks to ease the task of parallel programming by abstracting the details of parallel implementation from the developer. Most existing libraries provide implementations of skeletons that are defined over flat data types such as lists or arrays. However, skeleton-based parallel programming is still very challenging as it requires intricate analysis of the underlying algorithm and often uses inefficient intermediate data structures. Further, the algorithmic structure of a given program may not match those of list-based skeletons. In this paper, we present a method to automatically transform any given program to one that is defined over a list and is more likely to contain instances of list-based skeletons. This facilitates the parallel execution of a transformed program using existing implementations of list-based parallel skeletons. Further, by using an existing transformation called distillation in conjunction with our method, we produce transformed programs that contain fewer inefficient intermediate data structures.

  7. Axial skeletal CT densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampmann, L.E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Roentgen ray a precise and accurate assessment of bone mineral content has been a challenge to many investigators. A number of methods have been developed but no one satisfied. Considering its technical possibilities computed tomography is very promising in determination of bone mineral content (BMC). The new modality enables BMC estimations in the axial skeletal trabecular bone. CT densitometry can be performed on a normal commercially available third generation whole body CT scanner. No dedicated device in a special clinical set-up is necessary. In this study 106 patients, most of them clinically suspected of osteoporosis, were examined. The new method CT densitometry has been evaluated. The results have been correlated to alternative BMC determination methods. (Auth.)

  8. A new Python library to analyse skeleton images confirms malaria parasite remodelling of the red blood cell membrane skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Blanch, Adam J; Looker, Oliver; Dixon, Matthew W; Tilley, Leann

    2018-01-01

    We present Skan (Skeleton analysis), a Python library for the analysis of the skeleton structures of objects. It was inspired by the "analyse skeletons" plugin for the Fiji image analysis software, but its extensive Application Programming Interface (API) allows users to examine and manipulate any intermediate data structures produced during the analysis. Further, its use of common Python data structures such as SciPy sparse matrices and pandas data frames opens the results to analysis within the extensive ecosystem of scientific libraries available in Python. We demonstrate the validity of Skan's measurements by comparing its output to the established Analyze Skeletons Fiji plugin, and, with a new scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based method, we confirm that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remodels the host red blood cell cytoskeleton, increasing the average distance between spectrin-actin junctions.

  9. The effect of locomotion on the mobilization of minerals from the maternal skeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R Hood

    Full Text Available Bone is a dynamic tissue from which minerals are deposited or withdrawn according to the body's demand. During late pregnancy and lactation, female mammals mobilize mineral from bone to support the ossification of offspring skeleton(s. Conversely, in response to mechanical loading, minerals are deposited in bone enabling it to develop a stronger architecture. Despite their central importance to reproductive performance and skeletal integrity, the interactions between these potentially opposing forces remains poorly understood. It is possible that inter-individual differences in the loading imposed by different forms of locomotion may alter the amount of mineral mobilized during reproduction. Here, the impact of vertical versus horizontal locomotion on bone mobilization was examined during reproduction in the laboratory mouse. The vertical, or climbing, group had access to a 60-cm tower, increasing strain on their appendicular skeleton. The horizontal, or tunnel, group had access to a 100-cm tunnel, which encouraged movements within the horizontal plane. Form of locomotion did not impact the amount of bone females mobilized during reproduction or the amount of mineral females deposited in the litter, but maternal bone architecture differed between groups. The climbing group displayed more trabeculae than the tunnel group, whereas the tunnel group displayed greater cortical bone mineral density mid-shaft. Interestingly, pups born to mothers in the climbing group had a higher concentration of total body calcium at 16 days than pups of mothers in the tunnel group. As maternal total body calcium composition and the amount of calcium invested in the full litter were not different between groups, the difference in the relative calcium content of pups between groups is not suspected to reflect difference in mineral allocation. Future research should consider the impact of maternal activity on the efficiency of offspring skeletal ossification via

  10. Dissipative Axial Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Notari, Alessio

    2016-12-22

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...

  11. Modeling The Skeleton Weight of an Adult Caucasian Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtandilashvili, Maia; Tolmachev, Sergei Y

    2018-05-17

    The reference value for the skeleton weight of an adult male (10.5 kg) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 70 is based on weights of dissected skeletons from 44 individuals, including two U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries whole-body donors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection analysis of anatomical data from 31 individuals with known values of body height demonstrated significant correlation between skeleton weight and body height. The corresponding regression equation, Wskel (kg) = -10.7 + 0.119 × H (cm), published in International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 70 is typically used to estimate the skeleton weight from body height. Currently, the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries holds data on individual bone weights from a total of 40 male whole-body donors, which has provided a unique opportunity to update the International Commission on Radiological Protection skeleton weight vs. body height equation. The original International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 70 and the new U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries data were combined in a set of 69 data points representing a group of 33- to 95-y-old individuals with body heights and skeleton weights ranging from 155 to 188 cm and 6.5 to 13.4 kg, respectively. Data were fitted with a linear least-squares regression. A significant correlation between the two parameters was observed (r = 0.28), and an updated skeleton weight vs. body height equation was derived: Wskel (kg) = -6.5 + 0.093 × H (cm). In addition, a correlation of skeleton weight with multiple variables including body height, body weight, and age was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, and a corresponding fit equation was derived: Wskel (kg) = -0.25 + 0.046 × H (cm) + 0.036 × Wbody (kg) - 0.012 × A (y). These equations will be used to estimate skeleton weights and, ultimately, total skeletal actinide activities for

  12. Kaks luustikku Tartu toomkirikust: arheoloogia ja osteoloogia andmed / Two skeletons from the Tartu Cathedral Cemetery: archaeological and osteological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two case studies based on the osteological obtained in the rescue excavations in the Cathedral of Tartu in 2001 and 2008 (fig. 1. The first case study focuses on the skeleton of the child who suffered from congenital syphilis. The grave has been dated to the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The child had been buried in the eighth nave of the northern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave was, according to the Christian burial traditions, west-oriented with the head facing towards the east. A Swedish 1/6 öre, minted during the reign of King Charles XI (1600–1697, was recovered from the grave. The skeleton was relatively complete and well preserved (fig. 2. Based on the dental eruption, the age at death was 9 years ± 24 months. Sexually distinctive characteristics had not developed, and thus it was impossible to determine the sex of the child. Both the microscopical and radiological analyses revealed that the skeleton had indicators of congenital syphilis. Damage from gummatous osteomyelitis and periostitis were visible on the skull and on the axial and appendicular skeleton (fig. 6, while Hutchinson’s incisors and Mulberry molars were present among the teeth. Deformations and damage on the bones suggest that the child had suffered from the disease for quite a long time.The second case study discusses a beheaded man found from the eighth nave in the southern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave pit had a depth of 80 cm from the medieval floor surface of the church, which indicates that the burial dates from the Middle Ages. Also, the head of the deceased pointed to the west.The bones were well preserved (fig. 6. Sex was determined from the characteristics of the skull and the length of the right humerus. Calcification of the cranial sutures and cartilages suggests that the age of the man at death was probably 50+. Macroscopic examination of the skeleton revealed that the man had suffered

  13. Quality criteria in diagnostic radiology of the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional diagnostic radiology continues to represent the basic technique in skeleton diagnostics and results in decisive diagnoses in more than 80% of all cases. Compared with other examination methods, it is cheap and relatively easy to perform; however, it makes high demands on the physician's clinical and technical expertise. Compared with computerized tomography, conventional radiography has the advantage of decades of experience and of being cheaper by far. The author thinks the following quality criteria to be important in diagnostic radiology of the skeleton: roentgenological examination of one or several skeleton regions in keeping with the clinical issue concerned, accurate visualization of the object in a typical and reproducible projection, radiation quality matched to the dimension of the object, matched mean optical density, visualization of soft tissue near to bones and joints, and radiation dose in keeping with the clinical issue concerned. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Shedding Light on the Cosmic Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Astronomers have tracked down a gigantic, previously unknown assembly of galaxies located almost seven billion light-years away from us. The discovery, made possible by combining two of the most powerful ground-based telescopes in the world, is the first observation of such a prominent galaxy structure in the distant Universe, providing further insight into the cosmic web and how it formed. "Matter is not distributed uniformly in the Universe," says Masayuki Tanaka from ESO, who led the new study. "In our cosmic vicinity, stars form in galaxies and galaxies usually form groups and clusters of galaxies. The most widely accepted cosmological theories predict that matter also clumps on a larger scale in the so-called 'cosmic web', in which galaxies, embedded in filaments stretching between voids, create a gigantic wispy structure." These filaments are millions of light years long and constitute the skeleton of the Universe: galaxies gather around them, and immense galaxy clusters form at their intersections, lurking like giant spiders waiting for more matter to digest. Scientists are struggling to determine how they swirl into existence. Although massive filamentary structures have been often observed at relatively small distances from us, solid proof of their existence in the more distant Universe has been lacking until now. The team led by Tanaka discovered a large structure around a distant cluster of galaxies in images they obtained earlier. They have now used two major ground-based telescopes to study this structure in greater detail, measuring the distances from Earth of over 150 galaxies, and, hence, obtaining a three-dimensional view of the structure. The spectroscopic observations were performed using the VIMOS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope and FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Thanks to these and other observations, the astronomers were able to make a real demographic study of this structure

  15. Characterization of Multiflux Axial Compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasnarof, Daniel; Kyung Kyu-Hyung; Rivarola, Martin; Gonzalez Jose; Florido, Pablo; Orellano, Pablo; Bergallo, Juan

    2003-01-01

    In the present work the results of analytical models of performance are compared with experimental data acquired in the multi flux axial compressor test facility, built in The Pilcaniyeu Technological Complex for the SIGMA project.We describe the experimental circuit and the data of the dispersion inside the axial compressor obtained using a tracer gas through one of the annular inlets.The attained results can be used to validate the design code for the multi flux axial compressors and SIGMA industrial plant

  16. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  17. Study of axial magnetic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, Victor [IHEP, Protvino, Moscow region, 142284 Russia ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M. N. [CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Université François-Rabelais Tours, Fédération Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. A. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova street 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Landsteiner, K. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Molochkov, A. V. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Ajax 10 Building 25, Russian island, Vladivostok, 690922 (Russian Federation); Ulybyshev, M. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya street 25, Moscow, 117218 Russia Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    The Axial Magnetic Effect manifests itself as an equilibrium energy flow of massless fermions induced by the axial (chiral) magnetic field. Here we study the Axial Magnetic Effect in the quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with massless overlap fermions at finite temperature. We numerically observe that in the low-temperature hadron phase the effect is absent due to the quark confinement. In the high-temperature deconfinement phase the energy flow is an increasing function of the temperature which reaches the predicted asymptotic T{sup 2} behavior at high temperatures. We find, however, that energy flow is about one order of magnitude lower compared to a theoretical prediction.

  18. Atlas of Bone Scintigraphy in the Developing Paediatric Skeleton: The Normal Skeleton, Variants and Pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of 99m technetium polyphosphate in 1972 by Dr. M. Subramanian, bone scintigraphy has become an integral part of the evaluation of paediatric musculoskeletal disorders. Using the current high resolution gamma cameras and 99m technetium-methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP) or 99m Tc 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-DPD), the quality of images available for interpretation is high. From the very earliest days, there has been a certain confusion over normal bone physiology, as depicted by the bone scintigram in paediatric patients. This has resulted in a number of difficulties in detecting subtle abnormalities, especially near the dynamically changing scintigraphic presentation of the physes (growth zones). Examples of abnormalities that might be confused with normal bone activity are osteomyelitis, bucket handle fractures of the long bones, as well as neuroblastoma and leukaemic metastases. The aim of this publication is to provide structured information about the maturation and normal appearance of the skeleton from infancy to adulthood. As such, it reflects the current status of bone scintigraphy. It is hoped that this work will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the dynamic process of naturally occurring metabolic bone changes, which will, in turn, improve the quality of reporting of paediatric bone scans. As the majority of paediatric bone scintigrams are interpreted by non-paediatric nuclear physicians, the availability of this reference atlas should improve the care of children. This atlas is intended to address the needs of nuclear medicine physicians, both residents and specialists. It is intended to serve as an illustrative reference to those not having sufficient exposure to paediatric bone scan investigations, to enable them to maintain adequate competency in this particular application. Experts in paediatric nuclear medicine are often consulted for their opinion on bone scans obtained in their respective

  19. The use of radionuclide skeleton visualization method in hygienic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likutova, I.V.; Bobkova, T.E.; Belova, E.A.; Bogomazov, M.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    Inhalation, intragastric and combined effect of two cadmium compounds on rats is studied. Investigations are performed by biochemical methods and the method of radionuclide visualization of the skeleton which was performed delta hours after RPP introduction in gamma-chamber with computer tape recording for the following mathematical treatment of the image. Using the method of radionuclide skeleton visualization pronounced quantitative characteristics of changes in the bone tissue are obtained, it is found that dose dependence of these changes is especially important when estimating the complex effect. Biochemical methods, are used to find alterations, however they have not been assessed quantitatively

  20. Tuberculous arthritis of the appendicular skeleton: MR imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Hemant E-mail: parurad@hotmail.com; Shah, Jeshil; Patkar, Deepak; Singrakhia, Manoj; Patankar, Tufail; Hutchinson, Charles

    2004-12-01

    Tuberculosis [TB] of the appendicular skeleton is an uncommon infection caused by the tuberculous bacilli and constitutes only 1-3% of all tuberculosis infections. MR imaging features of tuberculous arthritis include bone marrow oedema, cortical erosions, synovitis, joint effusion, tenosynovitis, soft tissue collections, and myositis. These imaging features are at times non-specific, but in the correct clinical context help in diagnosis of tuberculosis. We present the various pathological manifestations of TB arthritis involving the different joints of appendicular skeleton and discuss their MR imaging appearances.

  1. Tuberculous arthritis of the appendicular skeleton: MR imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Hemant; Shah, Jeshil; Patkar, Deepak; Singrakhia, Manoj; Patankar, Tufail; Hutchinson, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis [TB] of the appendicular skeleton is an uncommon infection caused by the tuberculous bacilli and constitutes only 1-3% of all tuberculosis infections. MR imaging features of tuberculous arthritis include bone marrow oedema, cortical erosions, synovitis, joint effusion, tenosynovitis, soft tissue collections, and myositis. These imaging features are at times non-specific, but in the correct clinical context help in diagnosis of tuberculosis. We present the various pathological manifestations of TB arthritis involving the different joints of appendicular skeleton and discuss their MR imaging appearances

  2. Tutorial for Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized Data

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kai

    2017-04-25

    Full waveform inversion of seismic data is often plagued by cycle skipping problems so that an iterative optimization method often gets stuck in a local minimum. To avoid this problem we simplify the objective function so that the iterative solution can quickly converge to a solution in the vicinity of the global minimum. The objective function is simplified by only using parsimonious and important portions of the data, which are defined as skeletonized data. We now present a mostly non-mathematical tutorial that explains the theory of skeletonized inversion. We also show its effectiveness with examples.

  3. Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI, Ken'ichi; OHYA, Shunji

    2009-01-01

    p. 224-231 Strain change in the members of full-scale tensegrity skeletons has been monitored for eight years. The one-day data of one of the tensegrity frame on the hottest and the coldest day in the record are reported and discussed. Kawaguchi, K.; Ohya, S. (2009). Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change. Symposium of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10...

  4. Axial Skeletal Scintigraphy in Cancer of the Breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galasko, C. S.B. [Royal Postgraduate Medical School and Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1969-05-15

    An initial study was made on eight patients shown to have osseous metastases on X-ray. Each patient was examined on two occasions after the injection of {sup 87m}Sr and {sup 18}F. Regions known to contain metastases were examined at regular intervals after each injection. The scintigrams were compared with X-ray skeletal surveys. In all patients the {sup 18}F scintigram gave better results than the {sup 87m}Sr scan. All metastases present on X-ray were detected with the gamma camera and in six patients the scintigram revealed additional lesions. The optimum times for scanning were 1 1/4-3 hours after injection of {sup 18}F and 3-4 1/2 hours after {sup 87m}Sr. Axial skeleton scintigrams using {sup 18}F and a gamma camera are now being done on: (i) patients with apparently 'early' cancer of the breast. (ii) patients who have had a mastectomy and in whom there is a suspicion but no overt evidence of metastases. (iii) patients with advanced cancer of the breast. By means of this method it is hoped: (a) to detect lesions not present on X-ray. (b) to assess progress following hormonal therapy. 'Healing' lesions tend to have a diminished uptake of the isotope, and the varying pattern may prove to be more easy to interpret than conventional X-rays. The technique of axial skeleton scanning with the gamma camera and {sup 18}F, and the results obtained in over 60 patients with cancer of the breast, are reported. (author)

  5. Dissipative axial inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notari, Alessio [Departament de Física Fondamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Tywoniuk, Konrad, E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es, E-mail: konrad.tywoniuk@cern.ch [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-12-01

    We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term φ/ f {sub γ} F ∼ F , such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density ρ{sub R}, which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta k smaller than the cutoff f {sub γ}, including the backreaction numerically. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if f {sub γ} is smaller than the field excursion φ{sub 0} by about a factor of at least O (20), there is a friction effect which turns on before the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of perturbations, scalars and tensors. Such oscillations have a period of 4–5 efolds and an amplitude which is typically less than a few percent and decreases linearly with f {sub γ}. We also stress that the curvature perturbation on uniform density slices should be sensitive to slow-roll parameters related to ρ{sub R} rather than φ-dot {sup 2}/2 and we discuss the existence of friction terms acting on the perturbations, although we postpone a calculation of the power spectrum and of non-gaussianity to future work and we simply define and compute suitable slow roll parameters. Finally we stress that this scenario may be realized in the axion case, if the coupling 1/ f {sub γ} to U(1) (photons) is much larger than the coupling 1/ f {sub G} to non-abelian gauge fields (gluons), since the latter sets the range of the potential and therefore the maximal allowed φ{sub 0∼} f {sub G}.

  6. A new Python library to analyse skeleton images confirms malaria parasite remodelling of the red blood cell membrane skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nunez-Iglesias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present Skan (Skeleton analysis, a Python library for the analysis of the skeleton structures of objects. It was inspired by the “analyse skeletons” plugin for the Fiji image analysis software, but its extensive Application Programming Interface (API allows users to examine and manipulate any intermediate data structures produced during the analysis. Further, its use of common Python data structures such as SciPy sparse matrices and pandas data frames opens the results to analysis within the extensive ecosystem of scientific libraries available in Python. We demonstrate the validity of Skan’s measurements by comparing its output to the established Analyze Skeletons Fiji plugin, and, with a new scanning electron microscopy (SEM-based method, we confirm that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remodels the host red blood cell cytoskeleton, increasing the average distance between spectrin-actin junctions.

  7. Tracing notochord-derived cells using a Noto-cre mouse: implications for intervertebral disc development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Matthew R; Tamplin, Owen J; Rossant, Janet; Séguin, Cheryle A

    2012-01-01

    Back pain related to intervertebral disc degeneration is the most common musculoskeletal problem, with a lifetime prevalence of 82%. The lack of effective treatment for this widespread problem is directly related to our limited understanding of disc development, maintenance and degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the developmental origins of nucleus pulposus cells within the intervertebral disc using a novel notochord-specific Cre mouse. To trace the fate of notochordal cells within the intervertebral disc, we derived a notochord-specific Cre mouse line by targeting the homeobox gene Noto. Expression of this gene is restricted to the node and the posterior notochord during gastrulation [embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5)-E12.5]. The Noto-cre mice were crossed with a conditional lacZ reporter for visualization of notochord fate in whole-mount embryos. We performed lineage-tracing experiments to examine the contribution of the notochord to spinal development from E12.5 through to skeletally mature mice (9 months). Fate mapping studies demonstrated that, following elongation and formation of the primitive axial skeleton, the notochord gives rise to the nucleus pulposus in fully formed intervertebral discs. Cellular localization of β-galactosidase (encoded by lacZ) and cytokeratin-8 demonstrated that both notochordal cells and chondrocyte-like nucleus pulposus cells are derived from the embryonic notochord. These studies establish conclusively that notochordal cells act as embryonic precursors to all cells found within the nucleus pulposus of the mature intervertebral disc. This suggests that notochordal cells might serve as tissue-specific progenitor cells within the disc and establishes the Noto-cre mouse as a unique tool to interrogate the contribution of notochordal cells to both intervertebral disc development and disc degeneration.

  8. An Augmented Fast Marching Method for Computing Skeletons and Centerlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple and robust method for computing skeletons for arbitrary planar objects and centerlines for 3D objects. We augment the Fast Marching Method (FMM) widely used in level set applications by computing the paramterized boundary location every pixel came from during the boundary

  9. A Practical Introduction to Skeletons for the Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bucksch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Before the availability of digital photography resulting from the invention of charged couple devices in 1969, the measurement of plant architecture was a manual process either on the plant itself or on traditional photographs. The introduction of cheap digital imaging devices for the consumer market enabled the wide use of digital images to capture the shape of plant networks such as roots, tree crowns, or leaf venation. Plant networks contain geometric traits that can establish links to genetic or physiological characteristics, support plant breeding efforts, drive evolutionary studies, or serve as input to plant growth simulations. Typically, traits are encoded in shape descriptors that are computed from imaging data. Skeletons are one class of shape descriptors that are used to describe the hierarchies and extent of branching and looping plant networks. While the mathematical understanding of skeletons is well developed, their application within the plant sciences remains challenging because the quality of the measurement depends partly on the interpretation of the skeleton. This article is meant to bridge the skeletonization literature in the plant sciences and related technical fields by discussing best practices for deriving diameters and approximating branching hierarchies in a plant network.

  10. Generalized Distance Transforms and Skeletons in Graphics Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strzodka, R.; Telea, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for computing generalized distance transforms and skeletons of two-dimensional objects using graphics hardware. Our method is based on the concept of footprint splatting. Combining different splats produces weighted distance transforms for different metrics, as well as the

  11. Identification through osteometric data on three radium-burdened skeletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, J.E.; Forkal, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The skeletal remains of four persons of uncertain identity were disinterred from a family grave. The weight and description morphological traits of each bone were recorded, as were the lengths of the long bones. Analyses of these data, combined with information obtained from medical records and disinterment reports, led to the specific identification of each skeleton

  12. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  13. Skeletonization and Partitioning of Digital Images Using Discrete Morse Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Friedrichs, Olaf; Robins, Vanessa; Sheppard, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    We show how discrete Morse theory provides a rigorous and unifying foundation for defining skeletons and partitions of grayscale digital images. We model a grayscale image as a cubical complex with a real-valued function defined on its vertices (the voxel values). This function is extended to a discrete gradient vector field using the algorithm presented in Robins, Wood, Sheppard TPAMI 33:1646 (2011). In the current paper we define basins (the building blocks of a partition) and segments of the skeleton using the stable and unstable sets associated with critical cells. The natural connection between Morse theory and homology allows us to prove the topological validity of these constructions; for example, that the skeleton is homotopic to the initial object. We simplify the basins and skeletons via Morse-theoretic cancellation of critical cells in the discrete gradient vector field using a strategy informed by persistent homology. Simple working Python code for our algorithms for efficient vector field traversal is included. Example data are taken from micro-CT images of porous materials, an application area where accurate topological models of pore connectivity are vital for fluid-flow modelling.

  14. Anatomical investigation on the appendicular skeleton of the cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pes consists of tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus and four pedal digits. The tibiotarsus is longer than the femur. The spur is not found in the male bird. Conclusion: The skeleton of the cattle egret has a unique conformation that accommodates its ability to flight as well as being an insectivorous animal. Key words: Anatomy ...

  15. An Interactive Exhibition about Animal Skeletons: Did the Visitors Learn Any Zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Laterveer-de Beer, Manon

    2002-01-01

    Explores museum visitors' understanding of skeleton exhibits and whether such exhibits increase their understanding of the zoology displayed. The exhibition under study focused on the diversity of vertebrae skeletons which were arranged according to the mode of locomotion. (DDR)

  16. Apatite mineralization in elasmobranch skeletons via a polyphosphate intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Sidney; Lacroix, Nicolas; Lildhar, Levannia; Variola, Fabio; Dean, Mason

    2014-05-01

    All vertebrate skeletons are stiffened with apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral. Control of apatite mineralization is essential to the growth and repair of the biology of these skeletons, ensuring that apatite is deposited in the correct tissue location at the desired time. The mechanism of this biochemical control remains debated, but must involve increasing the localized apatite saturation state. It was theorized in 1923 that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity provides this control mechanism by increasing the inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration via dephosphorylation of phosphorylated molecules. The ALP substrate for biological apatite is not known. We propose that polyphosphates (polyPs) produced by mitochondria may be the substrate for biological apatite formation by ALP activity. PolyPs (PO3-)n, also known as condensed phosphates, represent a concentrated, bioavailable Pi-storage strategy. Mitochondria import Pi and synthesize phosphate polymers through an unknown biochemical mechanism. When chelated with calcium and/or other cations, the effective P-concentration of these neutrally charged, amorphous, polyP species can be very high (~ 0.5 M), without inducing phosphate mineral crystallization. This P-concentration in the low Pi-concentration biological environment offers a method of concentrating P well above an apatite supersaturation required for nucleation. Bone is the most studied mineralized skeletal tissue. However, locating and analyzing active mineralizing areas is challenging. We studied calcified cartilage skeletons of elasmobranch fishes (sharks, stingrays and relatives) to analyse the phosphate chemistry in this continually mineralizing skeleton. Although the majority of the elasmobranch skeleton is unmineralized cartilage, it is wrapped in an outer layer of mineralized tissue comprised of small tiles called tesserae. These calcified tesserae continually grow through the formation of new mineral on their borders. Co-localization of ALP and

  17. Esqueleto pré-sacral e sacral dos lagartos teiêdeos (Squamata, Teiidae Pressacral and sacral skeleton of teiids lizards (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Betina Veronese

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the axial skeleton -pressacral and sacral regions - of the nine genera of Teiidae Boulenger, 1885 comprising Ameiva Meyer, 1795, Callopistes Gravenhorst, 1838, Cnemidophorus Wagler, 1830, Crocodilurus Spix, 1825, Dicrodon Duméril & Bibron, 1839, Dracaena Daudin, 1802, Kenlropyx Spix, 1825, Teius Merrem, 1820 and Tupinambis Daudin, 1803 is here analysed under a comparative approach. The study is in a generic levei, and the principal conclusions reter to differences on the total number of vertebrae and some aspects of the ribs, especially their insertion and presence.

  18. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-BGJ398 functionally improves FGFR3-related dwarfism in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komla-Ebri, Davide; Dambroise, Emilie; Kramer, Ina; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Kaci, Nabil; Le Gall, Cindy; Martin, Ludovic; Busca, Patricia; Barbault, Florent; Graus-Porta, Diana; Munnich, Arnold; Kneissel, Michaela; Di Rocco, Federico; Biosse-Duplan, Martin; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2016-05-02

    Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most frequent form of dwarfism and is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3-encoding (FGFR3-encoding) gene. Although potential therapeutic strategies for ACH, which aim to reduce excessive FGFR3 activation, have emerged over many years, the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to counteract FGFR3 hyperactivity has yet to be evaluated. Here, we have reported that the pan-FGFR TKI, NVP-BGJ398, reduces FGFR3 phosphorylation and corrects the abnormal femoral growth plate and calvaria in organ cultures from embryos of the Fgfr3Y367C/+ mouse model of ACH. Moreover, we demonstrated that a low dose of NVP-BGJ398, injected subcutaneously, was able to penetrate into the growth plate of Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice and modify its organization. Improvements to the axial and appendicular skeletons were noticeable after 10 days of treatment and were more extensive after 15 days of treatment that started from postnatal day 1. Low-dose NVP-BGJ398 treatment reduced intervertebral disc defects of lumbar vertebrae, loss of synchondroses, and foramen-magnum shape anomalies. NVP-BGJ398 inhibited FGFR3 downstream signaling pathways, including MAPK, SOX9, STAT1, and PLCγ, in the growth plates of Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice and in cultured chondrocyte models of ACH. Together, our data demonstrate that NVP-BGJ398 corrects pathological hallmarks of ACH and support TKIs as a potential therapeutic approach for ACH.

  19. MicroCT-based phenomics in the zebrafish skeleton reveals virtues of deep phenotyping in a distributed organ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Matthew; Gistelinck, Charlotte A; Huber, Philippe; Lee, Jane; Thompson, Marjorie H; Monstad-Rios, Adrian T; Watson, Claire J; McMenamin, Sarah K; Willaert, Andy; Parichy, David M; Coucke, Paul; Kwon, Ronald Y

    2017-09-08

    Phenomics, which ideally involves in-depth phenotyping at the whole-organism scale, may enhance our functional understanding of genetic variation. Here, we demonstrate methods to profile hundreds of phenotypic measures comprised of morphological and densitometric traits at a large number of sites within the axial skeleton of adult zebrafish. We show the potential for vertebral patterns to confer heightened sensitivity, with similar specificity, in discriminating mutant populations compared to analyzing individual vertebrae in isolation. We identify phenotypes associated with human brittle bone disease and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor hyperactivity. Finally, we develop allometric models and show their potential to aid in the discrimination of mutant phenotypes masked by alterations in growth. Our studies demonstrate virtues of deep phenotyping in a spatially distributed organ system. Analyzing phenotypic patterns may increase productivity in genetic screens, and facilitate the study of genetic variants associated with smaller effect sizes, such as those that underlie complex diseases.

  20. Chronology of lead pollution contained in banded coral skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, R E; Gilbert, T R

    1984-08-01

    The possibility of the annual skeletal growth bands of reef-building corals containing a record of lead additions to the marine environment was investigated using coral skeletons from St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Concentrations of lead within a coral from a polluted reef averaged 395 ng/g, five fold higher than within a coral from a pristine site, 87 ng/g. The lead chronologies of both corals showed a significant increase in concentration towards the present during the past 26 yr. The increase in lead concentration in the coral from the pristine site is suggested to represent the increase in lead availability from global pollution. Coral skeletons offer the probability of development into tools for long term chemical recorders of levels of lead and possibly other metals or compounds in seawater. 50 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Enhancing start performance in the sport of skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    A fast start is considered to be crucial in skeleton with marginal gains in start performance perceived to make meaningful improvements to overall chances of success. Currently, knowledge surrounding the underlying determinants of start performance is sparse and training practices are based on limited scientific evidence. A series of investigations were conducted to advance this understanding.Initial observations revealed similarities between dry-land push-starts and those on ice tracks. Howe...

  2. Can ancestry be consistently determined from the skeleton?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierp Ingrid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of race has been thoroughly criticised in biological anthropology, forensic anthropology still uses a number of methods to determine the ‘race’ of a skeleton. The methods must be evaluated to see how effective they are given large individual variation. This study used 20 cases of skeletons of varied provenance to test whether the nine published methods of ‘race’ determination, using a range of various approaches, were able to consistently identify the ethnic origin. No one individual was identified as belonging to just one ‘major racial class’, e.g. European, meaning that complete consistency across all nine methods was not observed. In 14 cases (70%, various methods identified the same individual as belonging to all three racial classes. This suggests that the existing methods for the determination of ‘race’ are compromised. The very concept of ‘race’ is inapplicable to variation that occurs between populations only in small ways and the methods are limited by the geographic population from which their discriminant functions or observations of morphological traits were derived. Methods of multivariate linear discriminant analysis, e.g. CRANID, are supposed to allocate an individual skull to a specific population rather than a ‘major race’. In our analysis CRANID did not produce convincing allocations of individual skeletons to specific populations. The findings of this study show that great caution must be taken when attempting to ascertain the ‘race’ of a skeleton, as the outcome is not only dependent on which skeletal sites are available for assessment, but also the degree to which the unknown skeleton’s population of origin has been investigated.

  3. Average geodesic distance of skeleton networks of Sierpinski tetrahedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinjin; Wang, Songjing; Xi, Lifeng; Ye, Yongchao

    2018-04-01

    The average distance is concerned in the research of complex networks and is related to Wiener sum which is a topological invariant in chemical graph theory. In this paper, we study the skeleton networks of the Sierpinski tetrahedron, an important self-similar fractal, and obtain their asymptotic formula for average distances. To provide the formula, we develop some technique named finite patterns of integral of geodesic distance on self-similar measure for the Sierpinski tetrahedron.

  4. Complex diagnostic approaches in metastases of tumors in skeleton. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek, V.; Stepan, J.; Hausner, P.; Vosecky, M.; Konopasek, B.; Novy, F.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to the current methods of imaging the skeleton and of histomorphological and cytomorphological examinations of the bone marrow and the bone tissue, an ever growing attention is devoted to humoral factors affecting the metabolism of the skeleton. Prostaglandins, or in a broader sense, eicosanoids are in the forefront of the attention. Their relations is studied to immune and endocrine mechanisms and to growth factors (TGF (transforming growth factor), EDF (epidermal growth factor), PDGF (platelet derived growth factor)). Specific monoclonal antibodies to the membrane and cytoplasma structures of malignant cells represent an important shift towards improved detection of disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow. Computerized tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance contribute to improved definition in bone diagnosis. The condition of bone metabolism can be assessed by whole-body retention using technetium-labelled phosphate complexes. The methods offering information on the state of blood supply for the skeleton are also important. Common tests of bone marrow metastasis detection combine with the determination of the presence of tumor markers (CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), TPA (tissue polypeptide antigen), plasminogen activator, polyamine, etc.). Upon heterogeneity of cell populations in the tumor, an urgent need arises for the clinician to penetrate down to the cellular and the subcellular levels of the malignant growth with the aim of identifying biological potency of the individual cell clones, including their capability of produce and proliferate metastases. We are approaching this desirable target through the flow cytometry method. (author). 30 refs

  5. A note on axial symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetle, Christopher; Wilder, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    This note describes how to characterize and normalize an axial Killing field on a general Riemannian geometry or four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. No global assumptions are necessary, such as that the orbits of the Killing field all have period 2π. Rather, any Killing field that vanishes at at least one point necessarily has the expected global properties. (note)

  6. Axial structure of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner

    2002-01-01

    We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.

  7. How NASA KSC Controls Interfaces with the use of Motion Skeletons and Product Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will show how NASA KSC controls interfaces for Modular Product Architecture (MPA) using Locator Skeletons, Interface Skeletons, and Product Structure, to be combined together within a Motion Skeleton. The user will learn how to utilize skeleton models to communicate interface data, as successfully done at NASA KSC in their use of Motion Skeletons to control interfaces for multi-launch systems. There will be discussion of the methodology used to control design requirements through WTParts, and how to utilize product structure for non-CAD documents.

  8. A novel mouse model for multiple myeloma (MOPC315.BM that allows noninvasive spatiotemporal detection of osteolytic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O Hofgaard

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a lethal human cancer characterized by a clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells in bone marrow. Mouse models of human MM are technically challenging and do not always recapitulate human disease. Therefore, new mouse models for MM are needed. Mineral-oil induced plasmacytomas (MOPC develop in the peritoneal cavity of oil-injected BALB/c mice. However, MOPC typically grow extramedullary and are considered poor models of human MM. Here we describe an in vivo-selected MOPC315 variant, called MOPC315.BM, which can be maintained in vitro. When injected i.v. into BALB/c mice, MOPC315.BM cells exhibit tropism for bone marrow. As few as 10(4 MOPC315.BM cells injected i.v. induced paraplegia, a sign of spinal cord compression, in all mice within 3-4 weeks. MOPC315.BM cells were stably transfected with either firefly luciferase (MOPC315.BM.Luc or DsRed (MOPC315.BM.DsRed for studies using noninvasive imaging. MOPC315.BM.Luc cells were detected in the tibiofemoral region already 1 hour after i.v. injection. Bone foci developed progressively, and as of day 5, MM cells were detected in multiple sites in the axial skeleton. Additionally, the spleen (a hematopoietic organ in the mouse was invariably affected. Luminescent signals correlated with serum myeloma protein concentration, allowing for easy tracking of tumor load with noninvasive imaging. Affected mice developed osteolytic lesions. The MOPC315.BM model employs a common strain of immunocompetent mice (BALB/c and replicates many characteristics of human MM. The model should be suitable for studies of bone marrow tropism, development of osteolytic lesions, drug testing, and immunotherapy in MM.

  9. Relationship between blood flow, bone structure, and 239Pu deposition in the mouse skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, E.R.; Green, D.; Howells, G.R.; Thorne, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The rate at which blood is supplied to several bones in female CBA mice was calculated from 18 F measurements in bone and blood. Blood flow measurements were compared with plutonium uptake in whole bone and on endosteal and periosteal bone surfaces. The results showed that: the rate at which blood is supplied to bone determines the rate of deposition of plutonium; there is a threshold rate of blood supply below which plutonium is not deposited; and the rate of blood supply determines the density of plutonium deposition on endosteal but not on periosteal bone surfaces. These results are discussed in the light of the current bone blood supply hypotheses. (orig.)

  10. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelinskii, A.; Groen, H.C.; De Jong, M.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality,

  11. Segmentation and Visual Analysis of Whole-Body Mouse Skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Khmelinskii (Artem); H.C. Groen (Harald); M. Baiker (Martin); M. de Jong (Marion); B.P.F. Lelieveldt (Boudewijn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput,

  12. Axial magnetic field produced by axially and radially magnetized permanent rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Q.L.; McMurry, S.M.; Coey, J.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Axial magnetic fields produced by axially and radially magnetized permanent magnet rings were studied. First, the axial magnetic field produced by a current loop is introduced, from which the axial field generated by an infinitely thin solenoid and by an infinitely thin current disk can be derived. Then the axial fields produced by axially and by radially magnetized permanent magnet rings can be obtained. An analytic formula for the axial fields produced by two axially magnetized rings is given. A permanent magnet with a high axial gradient field is fabricated, the measured results agree with the theoretical calculation very well. As an example, the axial periodic field produced by an arrangement of alternating axially and radially magnetized rings has been discussed

  13. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

  14. Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Asian Facial Skeletons Using 3D Vector Mathematics on Picture Archiving and Communication System Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, So Jung; Park, Jee Soo; Byun, Sung Wan; Bae, Jung Ho

    2015-09-01

    There are marked differences in facial skeletal characteristics between Asian and Caucasian. However, ethnic differences in age-related facial skeletal changes have not yet been fully established. The aims of this study were to evaluate age-related changes in Asian midfacial skeletons and to explore ethnic differences in facial skeletal structures with aging between Caucasian and Asian. The study included 108 men (aged 20-79 years) and 115 women (aged 20-81 years). Axial CT images with a gantry tilt angle of 0 were analyzed. We measured three-dimensional (3D) coordinates at each point with a pixel lens cursor in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS), and angles and widths between the points were calculated using 3D vector mathematics. We analyzed angular changes in 4 bony regions, including the glabellar, orbital, maxillary, and pyriform aperture regions, and changes in the orbital aperture width (distance from the posterior lacrimal crest to the frontozygomatic suture) and the pyriform width (between both upper margins of the pyriform aperture). All 4 midfacial angles in females and glabellar and maxillary angles in males showed statistically significant decreases with aging. On the other hand, the orbital and pyriform widths did not show statistically significant changes with aging. The results of this study suggest that Asian midfacial skeletons may change continuously throughout life, and that there may be significant differences in the midfacial skeleton between both sexes and between ethnic groups.

  15. Axial-Centrifugal Compressor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    Assembly . .. . .... ..... 33 5 Tie Bolt...... .. .. .. .. . *.. .. .. .. .. .. ... 34 6 Axial Compressor Rotor Assembly Runouts . . .. . 34 7 CCV Blow...1.796 Impeller Slip Factor ’Ce2/U 2 ) .91 Impeller Wheel Speed ft/sec 1992.2 Impellet ’.ip Radius in. 3.780 Blade Tip Metal Angle- deg 0 Numbec of Blades...test item to the next Phase V component test. The test vehicle final balance levels and rotor runouts were normal at teardown, and no rubsI were

  16. Axial Compression Behavior of a New Type of Prefabricated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Xie; Shuai, Wang; Chun, Liu

    2018-03-01

    A novel type of prefabricated concrete sandwich wall panel which could be used as a load-bearing structural element in buildings has been presented in this paper. Compared with the traditional sandwich panels, there are several typical characteristics for this wall system, including core columns confined by spiral stirrup along the cross-section of panel with 600mm spacing, precast foamed concrete block between two structural layers as internal insulation part, and a three-dimensional (3D) steel wire skeleton in each layer which is composed of two vertical steel wire meshes connected by horizontally short steel bar. All steel segments in the panel are automatically prefabricated in factory and then are assembled to form steel system in site. In order to investigate the structural behavior of this wall panel, two full-scale panels have been experimentally studied under axial compressive load. The test results show that the wall panel presents good load-bearing capacity and integral stiffness without out-of-plane flexural failure. Compared to the panel with planar steel wire mesh in concrete layer, the panel with 3D steel wire skeleton presents higher strength and better rigidity even in the condition of same steel ratio in panels which verifies that the 3D steel skeleton could greatly enhance the structural behavior of sandwich panel.

  17. The impact of degenerative spinal changes on the correlation of peripheral and axial bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Boerner, W.

    1994-01-01

    Results of bone density measurements by quantitative computed tomography of the peripheral skeleton (pQCT) were compared with those of measurements at the axial skeleton with a view to study the effects of degenerative spinal changes on the validity of bone densitometry of the lumbar spine. 556 consecutive patients were examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine and by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the distal radius. There were significant differences between the bone mineral values at the distal radius and those at the spine, depending on the degree of spinal degeneration. As expected, spinal degenerations showed a highly significant age dependence. With increasing degeneration the correlations between the radius total bone mineral concentration and the bone density of the lumbar spine decreased from r=0.45 to 0.23 in women and from r=0.64 to 0.28 in men. We conclude that the value of spinal DXA is reduced in patients with degenerative spinal disease, compared to the pQCT at the peripheral skeleton. (orig.) [de

  18. Anabolic effects of IGF-1 signaling on the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahimic, Candice G. T.; Wang, Yongmei; Bikle, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the anabolic effects of IGF-1 signaling on the skeleton, emphasizing the requirement for IGF-1 signaling in normal bone formation and remodeling. We first discuss the genomic context, splicing variants, and species conservation of the IGF-1 locus. The modulation of IGF-1 action by growth hormone (GH) is then reviewed while also discussing the current model which takes into account the GH-independent actions of IGF-1. Next, the skeletal phenotypes of IGF-1-deficient animals are described in both embryonic and postnatal stages of development, which include severe dwarfism and an undermineralized skeleton. We then highlight two mechanisms by which IGF-1 exerts its anabolic action on the skeleton. Firstly, the role of IGF-1 signaling in the modulation of anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone will be discussed, presenting in vitro and in vivo studies that establish this concept and the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms involving Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and the ephrins. Secondly, the crosstalk of IGF-1 signaling with mechanosensing pathways will be discussed, beginning with the observation that animals subjected to skeletal unloading by hindlimb elevation are unable to mitigate cessation of bone growth despite infusion with IGF-1 and the failure of IGF-1 to activate its receptor in bone marrow stromal cell cultures from unloaded bone. Disrupted crosstalk between IGF-1 signaling and the integrin mechanotransduction pathways is discussed as one of the potential mechanisms for this IGF-1 resistance. Next, emerging paradigms on bone-muscle crosstalk are examined, focusing on the potential role of IGF-1 signaling in modulating such interactions. Finally, we present a future outlook on IGF research. PMID:23382729

  19. A skeleton model for the MJO with refined vertical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thual, Sulian; Majda, Andrew J.

    2016-05-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales and planetary spatial scales. The skeleton model is a minimal dynamical model that recovers robustly the most fundamental MJO features of (I) a slow eastward speed of roughly 5 {ms}^{-1}, (II) a peculiar dispersion relation with dω /dk ≈ 0, and (III) a horizontal quadrupole vortex structure. This model depicts the MJO as a neutrally-stable atmospheric wave that involves a simple multiscale interaction between planetary dry dynamics, planetary lower-tropospheric moisture and the planetary envelope of synoptic-scale activity. Here we propose and analyse an extended version of the skeleton model with additional variables accounting for the refined vertical structure of the MJO in nature. The present model reproduces qualitatively the front-to-rear vertical structure of the MJO found in nature, with MJO events marked by a planetary envelope of convective activity transitioning from the congestus to the deep to the stratiform type, in addition to a front-to-rear structure of moisture, winds and temperature. Despite its increased complexity the present model retains several interesting features of the original skeleton model such as a conserved energy and similar linear solutions. We further analyze a model version with a simple stochastic parametrization for the unresolved details of synoptic-scale activity. The stochastic model solutions show intermittent initiation, propagation and shut down of MJO wave trains, as in previous studies, in addition to MJO events with a front-to-rear vertical structure of varying intensity and characteristics from one event to another.

  20. MRI of the marrow in the paediatric skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.; Chapman, S.; Johnson, K.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greatly advanced evaluation of marrow diseases of the paediatric skeleton. As with many other aspects of paediatric radiology it is important to recognize the normal variations in the appearance of the marrow that occur in the growing child. These normal variations need to be differentiated from diseases and conditions that affect the marrow. This review describes the normal changes that occur in children with age, and the appearances of the pathological changes seen in infection, infiltration, haematological disorders, transplantation and radiation therapy

  1. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2015-08-19

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.

  2. Bone mineral density in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2015-01-01

    association between the active inflammatory changes as evidenced by LS MRI and the reduced BMD in this segment of the axial skeleton. Our data validate the hypothesis that in early axial SpA, bone is lost in the vertebral bodies due to local inflammation.

  3. Imaging results and TOF studies with axial PET detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Joram, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a fully operational PET demonstrator setup which allows true 3D reconstruction of the 511 keV photons and therefore leads to practically parallax free images. The AX-PET concept is based on thin 100 mm long scintillation crystals (LYSO), axially oriented and arranged in layers around the held of view. Layers of wavelength shifting plastic strips mounted in between the crystal layers give the axial coordinate. Both crystals and WLS strips are individually read out by G-APD (SiPM) photodetectors. The Fully scalable concept overcomes the dilemma of sensitivity versus spatial resolution which is inherent to classical PET designs. A demonstrator set-up based on two axial modules was exhaustively characterized using point-like sources, phantoms filled with radiotracer and finally rats and a mouse. The results entirely meet the performance expectations ( <2 mm FWHM in all three coordinates over the complete held of view) and also demonstrated the ability to include Compton interactions (inter-cr...

  4. Imaging results and TOF studies with axial PET detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joram, Christian

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a fully operational PET demonstrator setup which allows true 3D reconstruction of the 511 keV photons and therefore leads to practically parallax free images. The AX-PET concept is based on thin 100 mm long scintillation crystals (LYSO), axially oriented and arranged in layers around the field of view. Layers of wavelength shifting plastic strips mounted in between the crystal layers give the axial coordinate. Both crystals and WLS strips are individually read out by G-APD (SiPM) photodetectors. The fully scalable concept overcomes the dilemma of sensitivity versus spatial resolution which is inherent to classical PET designs. A demonstrator set-up based on two axial modules was exhaustively characterized using point-like sources, phantoms filled with radiotracer and finally rats and a mouse. The results entirely meet the performance expectations (PET concept making use of the novel digital SiPM detectors by Philips. After reproducing comparable energy and spatial resolution on a small digital AX-PET set-up with 100 mm long crystals, we demonstrated a coincidence resolving time of about 210 ps FWHM.

  5. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Uranium in coral skeletons determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohde, S.; Hossain, M.M.M.; Ozaki, H.; Masuzawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and non-destructive method has been proposed for the routine determination of uranium by epithermal neutron activation analysis in coral skeletons. Using a cadmium capsule, about 0.1-0.2 g samples were irradiated for 6 hours in the Triga Mark II Reactor. Measurements of γ-ray ( 239 Np via 239 U) were performed with each sample and standard after cooling for about three days. Compared with a non-destructive thermal NAA, the present method was found to improve the sensitivity because it reduced the intense Compton background induced by 24 Na. Uranium in coral standards was determined within 2% of analytical precision. The data obtained for the carbonate standards are mostly consistent with reported values. The present method could be usefully applied to determine uranium contents in fossil corals from the Funafuti Atoll in the Pacific. The distribution of uranium between seawater and coral skeletons is also discussed in order to understand the environmental media in which the coral grew. (author)

  7. Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-02-08

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  8. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dziuba

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of core by liquid metal at estability technological parameters.. Below the assumptions and results of the initial simulated calculations are presented. The total number of the nodes in the casting was 1920 and of the connectors was 5280 what gave filling of 100% for the nodes and 99,56% for the connectors in the results of the simulation. Together it resulted as 99,78 % of filling the volume of the casting. The nodes and connectors were filled up to the 30 level of the casting in the simulation. The all connectors were filled up to the 25 level of the casting in the simulation. Starting from the 25 level individual connectors at the side surface of the casting weren’t filled up. The connectors weren’t supplied by multi-level getting system. The differences of filling the levels are little (maximally 5 per cent.

  9. Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-08-17

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is then found that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs tomography (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to Q full waveform inversion (Q-FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsur-face Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  10. Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  11. 1-Skeletons of the Spanning Tree Problems with Additional Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bondarenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study polyhedral properties of two spanning tree problems with additional constraints. In the first problem, it is required to find a tree with a minimum sum of edge weights among all spanning trees with the number of leaves less than or equal to a given value. In the second problem, an additional constraint is the assumption that the degree of all nodes of the spanning tree does not exceed a given value. The recognition versions of both problems are NP-complete. We consider polytopes of these problems and their 1-skeletons. We prove that in both cases it is a NP-complete problem to determine whether the vertices of 1-skeleton are adjacent. Although it is possible to obtain a superpolynomial lower bounds on the clique numbers of these graphs. These values characterize the time complexity in a broad class of algorithms based on linear comparisons. The results indicate a fundamental difference between combinatorial and geometric properties of the considered problems from the classical minimum spanning tree problem.

  12. Electron angular distribution axial channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokonov, A.Kh.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1989-01-01

    Angular distributions of ultra-relativistic electrons are calculated in the assumption about presence of statistical equilibrium. Analysis is based on numerical solution of Fokker-Planck type kinetic equation. It is shown that in contrast to case of amorphous medium, the multiple scattering at axial channeling of negative particles results in self-focusing of the initial beam particles and due to it number of electrons moving at an angles to the chain, which are smaller, than critical angle of channeling, may increase by several times as compared to the initial one

  13. Mouse adhalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W

    1997-01-01

    . To analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin...... was specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation...

  14. Axially alignable nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.B.; Klahn, D.H.; Marlowe, M.O.

    1978-01-01

    An axially alignable nuclear fuel pellet of the type stacked in end-to-end relationship within a tubular cladding is described. Fuel cladding failures can occur at pellet interface locations due to mechanical interaction between misaligned fuel pellets and the cladding. Mechanical interaction between the cladding and the fuel pellets loads the cladding and causes increased cladding stresses. Nuclear fuel pellets are provided with an end structure that increases plastic deformation of the pellets at the interface between pellets so that lower alignment forces are required to straighten axially misaligned pellets. Plastic deformation of the pellet ends results in less interactions beween the cladding and the fuel pellets and significantly lowers cladding stresses. The geometry of pellets constructed according to the invention also reduces alignment forces required to straighten fuel pellets that are tilted within the cladding. Plastic deformation of the pellets at the pellet interfaces is increased by providing pellets with at least one end face having a centrally-disposed raised area of convex shape so that the mean temperature and shear stress of the contact area is higher than that of prior art pellets

  15. PWR AXIAL BURNUP PROFILE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Acaglione

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this activity is to develop a representative ''limiting'' axial burnup profile for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), which would encompass the isotopic axial variations caused by different assembly irradiation histories, and produce conservative isotopics with respect to criticality. The effect that the low burnup regions near the ends of spent fuel have on system reactivity is termed the ''end-effect''. This calculation will quantify the end-effects associated with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies emplaced in a hypothetical 21 PWR waste package. The scope of this calculation covers an initial enrichment range of 3.0 through 5.0 wt% U-235 and a burnup range of 10 through 50 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the process for ensuring conservative generation of spent fuel isotopics with respect to criticality safety applications, and the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel. The intended use of these results will be in the development of PWR waste package loading curves, and applications involving burnup credit. Limitations of this evaluation are that the limiting profiles are only confirmed for use with the B andW 15 x 15 fuel assembly design. However, this assembly design is considered bounding of all other typical commercial PWR fuel assembly designs. This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) because this activity supports investigations of items or barriers on the Q-list (YMP 2001)

  16. Exact axially symmetric galactic dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Woodfinden, A.; Irwin, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    We give a selection of exact dynamos in axial symmetry on a galactic scale. These include some steady examples, at least one of which is wholly analytic in terms of simple functions and has been discussed elsewhere. Most solutions are found in terms of special functions, such as associated Lagrange or hypergeometric functions. They may be considered exact in the sense that they are known to any desired accuracy in principle. The new aspect developed here is to present scale-invariant solutions with zero resistivity that are self-similar in time. The time dependence is either a power law or an exponential factor, but since the geometry of the solution is self-similar in time we do not need to fix a time to study it. Several examples are discussed. Our results demonstrate (without the need to invoke any other mechanisms) X-shaped magnetic fields and (axially symmetric) magnetic spiral arms (both of which are well observed and documented) and predict reversing rotation measures in galaxy haloes (now observed in the CHANG-ES sample) as well as the fact that planar magnetic spirals are lifted into the galactic halo.

  17. Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-09-06

    We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel-time inversion, the complicated surface-wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the (kx,ω) domain. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2D or 3D velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is less prone to the cycle skipping problems of full waveform inversion (FWI). The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distribution in laterally heterogeneous media.

  18. Companions for ``Nessie'' in the Milky Way's Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    The recent discovery of a purported bone of the Milky Way, a dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, has provided us with new clues for mapping out the spiral structure of our galaxy. It turns out that Nessie may not be alone: a follow-up study has identified more bones, potentially making up a skeleton of the Milky Way that traces out the densest parts of its spiral arms.Inconvenient Vantage PointHow many spiral arms does the Milky Way have? Where are they located? What does the structure look like between the arms? It may seem surprising that these fundamental questions dont yet have clear answers. But because were stuck in the galaxys disk, were forced to piece together our understanding of the Milky Ways structure based primarily on measurements of position and radial velocity of structures within the galactic plane.The discovery of Nessie presents an intriguing new tool to identify the layout of the galaxy. Nessie is a very long, thin, infrared-dark filament that runs along the modeled position of the Scutum-Centaurus arm and is believed therefore to trace the structure of the arm. In a new study led by Catherine Zucker (University of Virginia, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), the authors have searched for additional bones like Nessie, hoping to use them to map out the skeleton of the Milky Way.New Bones DiscoveredIn this map of radial velocity vs. galactic longitude, the bone candidates are indicated by the numbered points. The colored lines indicate the positions of two of the galactic spiral arms, according to various models. Click for a closer look! [Zucker et al. 2015]Zucker and collaborators began by using World Wide Telescope, a tool that facilitates visualization of multiple layers of data at a variety of scales, to search through Spitzer infrared data for additional structures like Nessie. Searching specifically along the predicted positions of galactic arms, they found 15 initial bone candidates.Next, the team obtained radial-velocity data for the

  19. Benchmarking high performance computing architectures with CMS’ skeleton framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Gartung, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2017-10-01

    In 2012 CMS evaluated which underlying concurrency technology would be the best to use for its multi-threaded framework. The available technologies were evaluated on the high throughput computing systems dominating the resources in use at that time. A skeleton framework benchmarking suite that emulates the tasks performed within a CMSSW application was used to select Intel’s Thread Building Block library, based on the measured overheads in both memory and CPU on the different technologies benchmarked. In 2016 CMS will get access to high performance computing resources that use new many core architectures; machines such as Cori Phase 1&2, Theta, Mira. Because of this we have revived the 2012 benchmark to test it’s performance and conclusions on these new architectures. This talk will discuss the results of this exercise.

  20. Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.

  1. Historic timber skeleton structures and the local seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation deals with the employment of timber skeleton structure and the local seismic culture. After the 1755 earthquake in the reconstruction of Lisbon a type of building with timber skeleton and masonry infill called "gaiola pombalina" was promoted, since this was designed to better resists earthquakes. "Gaiola" means cage, and it was also named after the Marques de Pombal who introduced it in the reconstruction following the earthquake. The „gaiola pombalina" presents a timber skeleton with Saint Andrew crosses in the interior walls with masonry infill and thick masonry load bearing walls loosing in thickness to the upper floors in the exterior walls. The masonry can fall out during earthquakes but the building remains staying given the interior timber skeleton. The type of buildings with timber structure and (masonry) infill behaved well in earthquakes in various parts of the earth, like Nepal (the dhaji dewary type), Pakistan, Turkey (the himiş type after the 1999 earthquake) [both latter types were researched by Langenbach, www.conservationtech.com and www.traditional-is-modern.net] and also in Germany after the 1356 earthquake (the Southern German subtype of Fachwerk). Also in Italy a subtype called "casa baraccata" was promoted in a construction code to a similar time (following the 1783 earthquake in Southern Italy, see Tobriner 1983) as that of the "gaiola pombalina", the time of the Baroque, when town planning acquired another status. Unlike at the "gaiola pombalina" the "casa baraccata" the timber skeleton is at the exterior walls. For this reason this type of buildings is considered to be an expression of the local seismic culture. However, this type of buildings is common also for areas where seismic risk is not an issue, like half-timbered in England and the northern subtype of Fachwerk in Northern Germany, and in some high seismic risk regions with mountains and timber resources like Romania is not spread. Given these premises the author

  2. Axial vector mass spectrum and mixing angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffarelli, R.V.; Kang, K.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral sum rules of the axial-vector current and axial-vector current-pseudoscalar field are used to study the axial-vector mass spectrum and mixing angles, as well as the decay constants and mixing angles of the pseudoscalar mesons. In general, the result is quite persuasive for the existence of the Jsup(PC) = 1 ++ multiplet in which one has a canonical D-E mixing. (Auth.)

  3. Electric machines with axial magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuca, I.; Ambros, T.; Burduniuc, M.; Deaconu, S. I.; Turcanu, A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper contains information on the performance of axial machines compared to cylindrical ones. At the same time, various constructive schemes of synchronous electromechanical converters with permanent magnets and asynchronous with short-circuited rotor are presented. In the developed constructions, the aim is to maximize the usage of the material of the stator windings. The design elements of the axial machine magnetic system are presented. The FEMM application depicted the array of the magnetic field of an axial machine.

  4. Centrifugal and axial compressor control

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Gregory K

    2009-01-01

    Control engineers, mechanical engineers and mechanical technicians will learn how to select the proper control systems for axial and centrifugal compressors for proper throughput and surge control, with a particular emphasis on surge control. Readers will learn to understand the importance of transmitter speed, digital controller sample time, and control valve stroking time in helping to prevent surge. Engineers and technicians will find this book to be a highly valuable guide on compressor control schemes and the importance of mitigating costly and sometimes catastrophic surge problems. It can be used as a self-tutorial guide or in the classroom with the book's helpful end-of-chapter questions and exercises and sections for keeping notes.

  5. Axial channeling in electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, A.; Lehmpfuhl, G.

    1978-01-01

    Kossel patterns from Silicon and Niobium were obtained with a convergent electron beam. An intensity maximum in the direction of the zone axes [001] and [111] of Nb was interpreted as axial channeling. The intensity distribution in Kossel patterns was calculated by means of the Bloch wave picture of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction. Particularly zone axis patterns were calculated for different substance-energy combinations and they were compared with experimental observations. The intensity distribution in the calculated Kossel patterns was very sensitive to the model of absorption and it was found that a treatment of the absorption close to the model of Humphreys and Hirsch [Phil. Mag. 18, 115 (1968)] gave the best agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore it is shown which Bloch waves are important for the intensity distribution in the Kossel patterns, how they are absorbed and how they change with energy. (orig.) [de

  6. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1982-07-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements.

  7. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements

  8. Resolution of axial shear strain elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Righetti, Raffaella; Krouskop, Thomas A; Ophir, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The technique of mapping the local axial component of the shear strain due to quasi-static axial compression is defined as axial shear strain elastography. In this paper, the spatial resolution of axial shear strain elastography is investigated through simulations, using an elastically stiff cylindrical lesion embedded in a homogeneously softer background. Resolution was defined as the smallest size of the inclusion for which the strain value at the inclusion/background interface was greater than the average of the axial shear strain values at the interface and inside the inclusion. The resolution was measured from the axial shear strain profile oriented at 45 0 to the axis of beam propagation, due to the absence of axial shear strain along the normal directions. The effects of the ultrasound system parameters such as bandwidth, beamwidth and transducer element pitch along with signal processing parameters such as correlation window length (W) and axial shift (ΔW) on the estimated resolution were investigated. The results show that the resolution (at 45 0 orientation) is determined by the bandwidth and the beamwidth. However, the upper bound on the resolution is limited by the larger of the beamwidth and the window length, which is scaled inversely to the bandwidth. The results also show that the resolution is proportional to the pitch and not significantly affected by the axial window shift

  9. Origin of axial current in scyllac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, K.

    1975-12-01

    The origin of the axial current observed in Scyllac (a high beta stellarator experiment) is discussed. A shaped coil and/or helical winding produce rotational transform which links magnetic lines of force to the plasma column and the axial current is induced electromagnetically. This phenomenon is inherent in a pulsed high-beta stellarator. The rotational transform produced by the induced axial current is much smaller than that associated with the l = 1, 0 equilibrium fields. The effect of the axial current on the equilibrium and stability of the plasma column is thus small. It is also shown that the magnetic field shear near a plasma surface is very strong

  10. Radial and axial compression of pure electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Soga, Y.; Mihara, Y.; Takeda, M.; Kamada, K.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies are carried out on compression of the density distribution of a pure electron plasma confined in a Malmberg-Penning Trap in Kanazawa University. More than six times increase of the on-axis density is observed under application of an external rotating electric field that couples to low-order Trivelpiece-Gould modes. Axial compression of the density distribution with the axial length of a factor of two is achieved by controlling the confining potential at both ends of the plasma. Substantial increase of the axial kinetic energy is observed during the axial compression. (author)

  11. A simple algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We study the characteristics of straight skeletons of monotone polygonal chains and use them to devise an algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons. Our algorithm runs in O(nlog⁡n) time and O(n) space, where n denotes the number of vertices of the polygon. PMID:25648376

  12. A simple algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedl, Therese; Held, Martin; Huber, Stefan; Kaaser, Dominik; Palfrader, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We study the characteristics of straight skeletons of monotone polygonal chains and use them to devise an algorithm for computing positively weighted straight skeletons of monotone polygons. Our algorithm runs in [Formula: see text] time and [Formula: see text] space, where n denotes the number of vertices of the polygon.

  13. [Progress in Application of Measuring Skeleton by CT in Forensic Anthropology Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, C Y; Xu, L; Wang, N; Zhang, M; Li, Y S; Lü, J X

    2017-02-01

    Individual identification by measuring the human skeleton is an important research in the field of forensic anthropology. Computed tomography (CT) technology can provide high-resolution image of skeleton. Skeleton image can be reformed by software in the post-processing workstation. Different skeleton measurement indexes of anthropology, such as diameter, angle, area and volume, can be measured on section and reformative images. Measurement process is barely affected by human factors. This paper reviews the literatures at home and abroad about the application of measuring skeleton by CT in forensic anthropology research for individual identification in four aspects, including sex determination, height infer, facial soft tissue thickness measurement and age estimation. The major technology and the application of CT in forensic anthropology research are compared and discussed, respectively. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  14. Tissue level material composition and mechanical properties in Brtl/+ mouse model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta after sclerostin antibody treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, William R.; Sinder, Benjamin P.; Salemi, Joseph; Ominsky, Michael S.; Marini, Joan C.; Caird, Michelle S.; Morris, Michael D.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.

    2015-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder resulting in defective collagen or collagen-associated proteins and fragile, brittle bones. To date, therapies to improve OI bone mass, such as bisphosphonates, have increased bone mass in the axial skeleton of OI patients, but have shown limited effects at reducing long bone fragility. Sclerostin antibody (Scl- Ab), currently in clinical trials for osteoporosis, stimulates bone formation and may have the potential to reduce long bone fracture rates in OI patients. Scl-Ab has been investigated as an anabolic therapy for OI in the Brtl/+ mouse model of moderately severe Type IV OI. While Scl-Ab increases long bone mass in the Brtl/+ mouse, it is not known whether material properties and composition changes also occur. Here, we report on the effects of Scl-Ab on wild type and Brtl/+ young (3 week) and adult (6 month) male mice. Scl-Ab was administered over 5 weeks (25mg/kg, 2x/week). Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation are used for bone composition and biomechanical bone property measurements in excised bone. Fluorescent labels (calcein and alizarin) at 4 time points over the entire treatment period are used to enable measurements at specific tissue age. Differences between wild type and Brtl/+ groups included variations in the mineral and matrix lattices, particularly the phosphate v1, carbonate v1, and the v(CC) proline and hydroxyproline stretch vibrations. Results of Raman spectroscopy corresponded to nanoindentation findings which indicated that old bone (near midcortex) is stiffer (higher elastic modulus) than new bone. We compare and contrast mineral to matrix and carbonate to phosphate ratios in young and adult mice with and without treatment.

  15. Stochastic quantization for the axial model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, C.; Montani, H.; Albuquerque, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    We use bosonization ideas to solve the axial model in the stochastic quantization framework. We obtain the fermion propagator of the theory decoupling directly the Langevin equation, instead of the Fokker-Planck equation. In the Appendix we calculate explicitly the anomalous divergence of the axial-vector current by using a regularization that does not break the Markovian character of the stochastic process

  16. Health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the assessment and monitoring of health and imaging outcomes in axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and the relationship between these outcomes. Four major contributions to the understanding and management of axial SpA were made: 1) the improvement and facilitation of the assessment

  17. Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...

  18. Dual embryonic origin and patterning of the pharyngeal skeleton in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Piekarski, Nadine; Hanken, James

    2015-01-01

    The impressive morphological diversification of vertebrates was achieved in part by innovation and modification of the pharyngeal skeleton. Extensive fate mapping in amniote models has revealed a primarily cranial neural crest derivation of the pharyngeal skeleton. Although comparable fate maps of amphibians produced over several decades have failed to document a neural crest derivation of ventromedial elements in these vertebrates, a recent report provides evidence of a mesodermal origin of one of these elements, basibranchial 2, in the axolotl. We used a transgenic labeling protocol and grafts of labeled cells between GFP+ and white embryos to derive a fate map that describes contributions of both cranial neural crest and mesoderm to the axolotl pharyngeal skeleton, and we conducted additional experiments that probe the mechanisms that underlie mesodermal patterning. Our fate map confirms a dual embryonic origin of the pharyngeal skeleton in urodeles, including derivation of basibranchial 2 from mesoderm closely associated with the second heart field. Additionally, heterotopic transplantation experiments reveal lineage restriction of mesodermal cells that contribute to pharyngeal cartilage. The mesoderm-derived component of the pharyngeal skeleton appears to be particularly sensitive to retinoic acid (RA): administration of exogenous RA leads to loss of the second basibranchial, but not the first. Neural crest was undoubtedly critical in the evolution of the vertebrate pharyngeal skeleton, but mesoderm may have played a central role in forming ventromedial elements, in particular. When and how many times during vertebrate phylogeny a mesodermal contribution to the pharyngeal skeleton evolved remain to be resolved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Taryn; Falter, James L; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Clode, Peta L

    2016-02-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is causing the oceans to both warm and acidify, which could reduce the calcification rates of corals globally. Successful coral recruitment and high rates of juvenile calcification are critical to the replenishment and ultimate viability of coral reef ecosystems. Although elevated Pco2 (partial pressure of CO2) has been shown to reduce the skeletal weight of coral recruits, the structural changes caused by acidification during initial skeletal deposition are unknown. We show, using high-resolution three-dimensional x-ray microscopy, that ocean acidification (Pco2 ~900 μatm, pH ~7.7) not only causes reduced overall mineral deposition but also a deformed and porous skeletal structure in newly settled coral recruits. In contrast, elevated temperature (+3°C) had little effect on skeletal formation except to partially mitigate the effects of elevated Pco2. The striking structural deformities we observed show that new recruits are at significant risk, being unable to effectively build their skeletons in the Pco2 conditions predicted to occur for open ocean surface waters under a "business-as-usual" emissions scenario [RCP (representative concentration pathway) 8.5] by the year 2100.

  20. The dynamics of secretion during sea urchin embryonic skeleton formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt, Fred H.; Killian, Christopher E.; Hamilton, Patricia; Croker, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    Skeleton formation involves secretion of massive amounts of mineral precursor, usually a calcium salt, and matrix proteins, many of which are deposited on, or even occluded within, the mineral. The cell biological underpinnings of this secretion and subsequent assembly of the biomineralized skeletal element is not well understood. We ask here what is the relationship of the trafficking and secretion of the mineral and matrix within the primary mesenchyme cells of the sea urchin embryo, cells that deposit the endoskeletal spicule. Fluorescent labeling of intracellular calcium deposits show mineral precursors are present in granules visible by light microscopy, from whence they are deposited in the endoskeletal spicule, especially at its tip. In contrast, two different matrix proteins tagged with GFP are present in smaller post-Golgi vesicles only seen by electron microscopy, and the secreted protein are only incorporated into the spicule in the vicinity of the cell of origin. The matrix protein, SpSM30B, is post-translationally modified during secretion, and this processing continues after its incorporation into the spicule. Our findings also indicate that the mineral precursor and two well characterized matrix proteins are trafficked by different cellular routes

  1. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hung Jung.

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by μ 2 ∼ Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 where Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed

  2. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  3. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future

  4. Canaliculi in the tessellated skeleton of cartilaginous fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, M.N.; Socha, J.J.; Hall, B.K.; Summers, A.P. (UCI); (Dalhousie U.); (VPI-SU)

    2010-08-04

    The endoskeletal elements of sharks and rays are comprised of an uncalcified, hyaline cartilage-like core overlain by a thin fibro-ceramic layer of mineralized hexagonal tiles (tesserae) adjoined by intertesseral fibers. The basic spatial relationships of the constituent tissues (unmineralized cartilage, mineralized cartilage, fibrous tissue) are well-known - endoskeletal tessellation is a long-recognized synapomorphy of elasmobranch fishes - but a high-resolution and three-dimensional (3D) understanding of their interactions has been hampered by difficulties in sample preparation and lack of technologies adequate for visualizing microstructure and microassociations. We used cryo-electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation tomography to investigate tessellated skeleton ultrastructure but without damage to the delicate relationships between constituent tissues or to the tesserae themselves. The combination of these techniques allowed visualization of never before appreciated internal structures, namely passages connecting the lacunar spaces within tesserae. These intratesseral 'canaliculi' link consecutive lacunar spaces into long lacunar strings, radiating outward from the center of tesserae. The continuity of extracellular matrix throughout the canalicular network may explain how chondrocytes in tesserae remain vital despite encasement in mineral. Extracellular fluid exchange may also permit transmission of nutrients, and mechanical and mineralization signals among chondrocytes, in a manner similar to the canalicular network in bone. These co-adapted mechanisms for the facilitated exchange of extracellular material suggest a level of parallelism in early chondrocyte and osteocyte evolution.

  5. Modernity: A new axial (era culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Schluchter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposition of an axial age, lasting roughly from 800 to 200 B.C. and occurring in major civilizations (China, India, Near East independent of each other, first introduced by Alfred Weber and Karl Jaspers, then further developed by Robert Bellah and S. N. Eisenstadt among others, implied from the outset the question whether there has been a second axial age, leading to modernity, and if so, whether this second axial age consists in a secularization of the achievements of the first axial age. In this article it is argued that the notion of a second axial age is meaningful, but that the emergence of modernity can›t be accounted for in terms of secularization of the achievements of the first axial age. Rather, a new axial principle was institutionalized which separates the modern from the premodern world. This new principle is spelled out with reference to Hans Blumenberg, Charles Taylor and especially Max Weber. The emphasis is on the dialectics of disenchantment and the place of religion in a secular age

  6. Development of submersible axial pump for wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jeong Eui [Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    This study was performed to develop a high efficiency submersible axial pump for concentration wastewater treatment. To do this, we simulated the effect of some parameters such as the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}), the radial twist angle of a blade({alpha}) and the length of a blade ({iota}) on pump efficiency using commercial code, ANSYS CFX and BladeGen. The results showed that the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}) was the most sensible parameter on the pump efficiency. And the pump efficiency had a maximum at {beta}=20.deg, {alpha}=110.deg and {iota}=240mm.

  7. sizing of wind powered axial flux permanent magnet alternator using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Keywords: Wind-Power, Axial flux, Axial Flux Permanent Machines (AFPM), Axial Flux Permanent Magnet ... energy for power generation, a high constraint is the .... arrangements as Single-Rotor Single-Stator Structure.

  8. Validation Studies of Temperature Distribution and Mould Filling Process for Composite Skeleton Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of composite skeleton casting and mould filling process (Fig. 4, 5, 6. The basic subject of the computer simulation was the analysis of ability of metal to fill the channels creating the skeleton shape and prepared in form of a core. Analysis of filling for each consecutive levels of the skeleton casting was conducted for simulation results and real casting. The skeleton casting was manufactured according to proposed technology (Fig. 5. Number of fully filled nodes in simulation was higher than obtained in experimental studies. It was observed in the experiment, that metal during pouring did not flow through the whole channel section, what enabled possibilities of reducing the channel section and pointed out the necessity of local pressure increase.

  9. Case report: Radiologic changes of the skeleton in a dog with lead poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, J.; Šehić, M.; Žubčić, D.; Jesovsek, S.

    1994-01-01

    The skeleton of a young dog displayed radiological signs of chronic lead intoxication. Osteoclastic changes were demonstrable at the metaphyse of the long bones as well as in all areas with growth activity [de

  10. VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1984-09-01

    Sep 1, 1984 ... VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR by. L. A. Agu ... order as that of the screw-thread motor can be obtained. LIST OF .... The n stator have equal non- magnetic spacers .... induction motor. An.

  11. Precision axial translator with high stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösch, M A

    1979-08-01

    We describe a new type of translator which is inherently stable against torsion and twisting. This concentric translator is also ideally suited for precise axial motion with clearance of the center line.

  12. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...... force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been...... documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe...

  13. Theorem on axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A; Le Denmat, G [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Henri Poincare

    1977-01-24

    A theorem is proved which asserts the non-existence of axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations with non-stationary rotation only. The eventual consequences in black-hole physics are suggested.

  14. Buoyant Helical Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    February 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to...300169 1 of 9 BUOYANT HELICAL TWIN-AXIAL WIRE ANTENNA CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0001] This application is a divisional...application and claims the benefit of the filing date of United States Patent Application No. 14/280,889; filed on May 19, 2014; and entitled “Twin-Axial

  15. Nonperturbative Aspects of Axial Vector Vertex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; CHEN Xiang-Song; WANG Fan; CHANG Chao-Hsi; ZHAO En-Guang

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the axial vector current of current quarks is related to that of constituent quarks within the framework of the global color symmetry model.Gluon dressing of the axial vector vertex and the quark self-energy functions are described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation,respectively.

  16. High temperature co-axial winding transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Novotny, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis and design of co-axial winding transformers is presented. The design equations are derived and the different design approaches are discussed. One of the most important features of co-axial winding transformers is the fact that the leakage inductance is well controlled and can be made low. This is not the case in conventional winding transformers. In addition, the power density of co-axial winding transformers is higher than conventional ones. Hence, using co-axial winding transformers in a certain converter topology improves the power density of the converter. The design methodology used in meeting the proposed specifications of the co-axial winding transformer specifications are presented and discussed. The final transformer design was constructed in the lab. Co-axial winding transformers proved to be a good choice for high power density and high frequency applications. They have a more predictable performance compared with conventional transformers. In addition, the leakage inductance of the transformer can be controlled easily to suit a specific application. For space applications, one major concern is the extraction of heat from power apparatus to prevent excessive heating and hence damaging of these units. Because of the vacuum environment, the only way to extract heat is by using a cold plate. One advantage of co-axial winding transformers is that the surface area available to extract heat from is very large compared to conventional transformers. This stems from the unique structure of the co-axial transformer where the whole core surface area is exposed and can be utilized for cooling effectively. This is a crucial issue here since most of the losses are core losses.

  17. Dechanneling function for relativistic axially channeled electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralev, V.A.; Telegin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Behaviour of the x(t) dechanneling function depending on the depth is theoretically studied. Theoretical consideration of x(t) for axial channeled relativistic electrons in anisotropic medium results in two-dimensional kinetic equation with mixed derivatives of the parabolic type. The kinetic equation in the approximation of the continuous Lindchard model for relativistic axial channeled electrons is numerically solved. The depth dependence of the x(t) dechanneling function is obtained [ru

  18. Axial forces in centrifugal compressor couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Ivanov, N. M.; Yun, V. K.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the results of the theoretical and experimental investigation of axial forces arising in the toothed and plate couplings of centrifugal compressor shaft lines. Additional loads on the thrust bearing are considered that can develop in the toothed couplings as a result of coupled rotors misalignment. Design relationships to evaluate the level of axial forces and recommendations for their reduction in the operating conditions are given.

  19. Singlet axial constant from QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitskij, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the singlet axial form factor of the proton for small momentum transferred in the framework of QCD sum rules using the interpolating nucleon current which explicitly accounts for the gluonic degrees of freedom. As the result we come to the quantitative prediction of the singlet axial constant. It is shown that the bilocal power corrections play the most important role in the analysis. 21 refs., 3 figs

  20. Value of the joint- and bone-scintigraphy in benign skeleton diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfannenstiel, P.

    1976-01-01

    Although skeleton scintigraphy is a relatively 'young' method when compared with other scintigraphic techniques, it is of great value in the diagnosis of benign skeleton diseases. For a full exploitation of the diagnostic possibilities of nuclear medicine, however, close cooperation between clinical rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons, radiologists and experts in nuclear medicine. If the right method is used at the right time, the number of X-rays and thus the technical and financial expenditure may be reduced to a considerable degree. (GSE) [de

  1. Improvement of the skeleton tables for calculation of the critical heat load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotovskij, M.A.; Kvetnyj, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Paper presents analysis of drawbacks of the skeleton tables of the critical heat flows applied in calculated heat and hydraulic codes. Paper demonstrates the necessity to take account of specific nature of mechanisms of dryout crisis, of boiling crisis at slow mass rates and the range of small underheatings up to temperature of saturation. Attention is drawn to necessity of detailed account of the natural limitations of the application field of the skeleton tables [ru

  2. Radiological changes in the skeleton due to anticonvulsant therapy in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, R.; Heyer, R.; Freyschmidt, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anticonvulsant therapy can lead to severe rachitic changes in the skeleton which closely resemble renal osteopathy. In addition to apparent widening of the epiphyseal plate, there are changes in the cortex of the long bones. Within four to six weeks of the commencement of vitamin D therapy, recalcification of the poorly mineralised osteoid can be recognised. Since the changes are best seen in the hand, further examinations of the skeleton are only indicated if there are positive findings in the hand.

  3. The Effect of Locomotion on the Mobilization of Minerals from the Maternal Skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Wendy R.; Hobensack, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue from which minerals are deposited or withdrawn according to the body's demand. During late pregnancy and lactation, female mammals mobilize mineral from bone to support the ossification of offspring skeleton(s). Conversely, in response to mechanical loading, minerals are deposited in bone enabling it to develop a stronger architecture. Despite their central importance to reproductive performance and skeletal integrity, the interactions between these potentially opposi...

  4. Radiological changes in the skeleton due to anticonvulsant therapy in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, R.; Heyer, R.; Freyschmidt, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anticonvulsant therapy can lead to severe rachitic changes in the skeleton which closely resemble renal osteopathy. In addition to apparent widening of the epiphyseal plate, there are changes in the cortex of the long bones. Within four to six weeks of the commencement of vitamin D therapy, recalcification of the poorly mineralised osteoid can be recognised. Since the changes are best seen in the hand, further examinations of the skeleton are only indicated if there are positive findings in the hand. (orig.) [de

  5. Computer axial tomography in geosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.

    2002-01-01

    Computer Axial Tomography (CAT) is one of the most adequate non-invasive techniques for the investigation of the internal structure of a large category of objects. Initially designed for medical investigations, this technique, based on the attenuation of X- or gamma-ray (and in some cases neutrons), generates digital images which map the numerical values of the linear attenuation coefficient of a section or of the entire volume of the investigated sample. Shortly after its application in medicine, CAT has been successfully used in archaeology, life sciences, and geosciences as well as for the industrial materials non-destructive testing. Depending on the energy of the utilized radiation as well as on the effective atomic number of the sample, CAT can provide with a spatial resolution of 0.01 - 0.5 mm, quantitative as well as qualitative information concerning local density, porosity or chemical composition of the sample. At present two types of axial Computer Tomographs (CT) are in use. One category, consisting of medical as well as industrial CT is equipped with X-ray tubes while the other uses isotopic gamma-ray sources. CT provided with intense X-ray sources (equivalent to 12-15 kCi or 450-550 TBq) has the advantage of an extremely short running time (a few seconds and even less) but presents some disadvantages known as beam hardening and absorption edge effects. These effects, intrinsically related to the polychromatic nature of the X-rays generated by classical tubes, need special mathematical or physical corrections. A polychromatic X-ray beam can be made almost monochromatic by means of crystal diffraction or by using adequate multicomponent filters, but these devices are costly and considerably diminish the output of X-ray generators. In the case of CT of the second type, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by radioisotopic sources, such as 169 Yb (50.4 keV), 241 Am (59 keV), 192 Ir (310.5 and 469.1 keV ) or 137 Cs (662.7 keV), are used in combination with

  6. Dissection and Flat-mounting of the Threespine Stickleback Branchial Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nicholas A; Miller, Craig T

    2016-05-07

    The posterior pharyngeal segments of the vertebrate head give rise to the branchial skeleton, the primary site of food processing in fish. The morphology of the fish branchial skeleton is matched to a species' diet. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have emerged as a model system to study the genetic and developmental basis of evolved differences in a variety of traits. Marine populations of sticklebacks have repeatedly colonized countless new freshwater lakes and creeks. Adaptation to the new diet in these freshwater environments likely underlies a series of craniofacial changes that have evolved repeatedly in independently derived freshwater populations. These include three major patterning changes to the branchial skeleton: reductions in the number and length of gill raker bones, increases in pharyngeal tooth number, and increased branchial bone lengths. Here we describe a detailed protocol to dissect and flat-mount the internal branchial skeleton in threespine stickleback fish. Dissection of the entire three-dimensional branchial skeleton and mounting it flat into a largely two-dimensional prep allows for the easy visualization and quantification of branchial skeleton morphology. This dissection method is inexpensive, fast, relatively easy, and applicable to a wide variety of fish species. In sticklebacks, this efficient method allows the quantification of skeletal morphology in genetic crosses to map genomic regions controlling craniofacial patterning.

  7. Hyperquenched hyaloclastites from Axial Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, D.; Helo, C.; Richard, D.; Clague, D. A.; Dingwell, D. B.; Stix, J.

    2009-12-01

    We determined apparent cooling rates for basaltic hyaloclastites from Axial caldera, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Samples originate from different stratigraphic layers within the unconsolidated volcaniclastic sequences, on flanks of the volcanic edifice. Water depth is ~1400 m below sea level. The hyaloclastite glass fragments comprise two principal morphologies: (1) angular fragments, and (2) thin glassy melt films interpreted as bubble walls, called deep-sea limu o Pele. A natural cooling rate was estimated for each sample of ~50 carefully selected glass shards. The heat capacity was first measured with a differential scanning calorimeter in two heating scans with heating rates of 20 K/min, and a matching cooling rate between those scans. The fictive temperatures Tf were then determined from both heating cycles, and the natural cooling rate derived by the non-Arrhenian relationship between Tf and cooling rate. All samples display hyperquenched states, manifested in a strong exothermic energy release during the initial heating cycle before reaching the glass transition. Cooling rates range from 10 6.73 K/s to 10 3.94 K/s for the limu, and 10 4.92 K/s to 10 2.34 K/s for the angular fragments. Almost all samples of limu shards show elevated cooling rates compared to their angular counterparts of comparable grain mass. In addition, the exothermic part of the enthalpy curves reveal two superimposed relaxation domains, the main broad exothermal peak, ranging from ~350 K to the onset of the glass transition, and a small subordinate peak/shoulder occurring between 550 K and 700 K. The magnitude of the latter varies from clearly identifiable to nearly absent, and tends to be more pronounced in curves obtained from angular fragments. The main exothermal peak is related to the frozen-in structure of the glass and consequently to its thermal history when passing through the glass transition. The subordinate peak may represent strain rate-induced and tensile stress accumulation

  8. A retrotransposon insertion in the 5' regulatory domain of Ptf1a results in ectopic gene expression and multiple congenital defects in Danforth's short tail mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Lugani

    Full Text Available Danforth's short tail mutant (Sd mouse, first described in 1930, is a classic spontaneous mutant exhibiting defects of the axial skeleton, hindgut, and urogenital system. We used meiotic mapping in 1,497 segregants to localize the mutation to a 42.8-kb intergenic segment on chromosome 2. Resequencing of this region identified an 8.5-kb early retrotransposon (ETn insertion within the highly conserved regulatory sequences upstream of Pancreas Specific Transcription Factor, 1a (Ptf1a. This mutation resulted in up to tenfold increased expression of Ptf1a as compared to wild-type embryos at E9.5 but no detectable changes in the expression levels of other neighboring genes. At E9.5, Sd mutants exhibit ectopic Ptf1a expression in embryonic progenitors of every organ that will manifest a developmental defect: the notochord, the hindgut, and the mesonephric ducts. Moreover, at E 8.5, Sd mutant mice exhibit ectopic Ptf1a expression in the lateral plate mesoderm, tail bud mesenchyme, and in the notochord, preceding the onset of visible defects such as notochord degeneration. The Sd heterozygote phenotype was not ameliorated by Ptf1a haploinsufficiency, further suggesting that the developmental defects result from ectopic expression of Ptf1a. These data identify disruption of the spatio-temporal pattern of Ptf1a expression as the unifying mechanism underlying the multiple congenital defects in Danforth's short tail mouse. This striking example of an enhancer mutation resulting in profound developmental defects suggests that disruption of conserved regulatory elements may also contribute to human malformation syndromes.

  9. Vector and axial constants of the baryon decuplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.M.; Blok, B.Y.; Kogan, Y.I.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the QCD sum rules for the polarization operator in external axial and vector fields we determine the vector and axial transition constants in the 3/2 + baryon decuplet. We show that the renormalization of the axial constant is due to the interaction of the external axial field with the quark condensate

  10. Δ(1232) Axial Charge and Form Factors from Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Gregory, Eric B.; Korzec, Tomasz; Koutsou, Giannis; Negele, John W.; Sato, Toru; Tsapalis, Antonios

    2011-01-01

    We present the first calculation on the Δ axial vector and pseudoscalar form factors using lattice QCD. Two Goldberger-Treiman relations are derived and examined. A combined chiral fit is performed to the nucleon axial charge, N to Δ axial transition coupling constant and Δ axial charge.

  11. Using axial magnetized permanent rings to build axial gradient magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Quanling

    2003-01-01

    Axial field produced by an axially magnetized permanent ring was studied. For two permanent magnet rings, if they are magnetized in the same direction, a nearly uniform axial field can be produced; if they are magnetized in opposite direction, an axial gradient field can be produced in the region between the two permanent rings, with the field strength changing from -B 0 to B 0 . A high gradient axial magnetic field has been built by using two axially magnetized permanent rings, the measured field results agree with the PANDIRA calculation very well. It is desirable that the field gradient can be varied to match various requirements. A method to produce the variable gradient field is presented. Axial gradient field can also be used as a beam focusing facility for linear accelerator if axial periodic field can be produced. Its magnetic field is similar to that of a solenoid, in which, large stray field will leak to the outside environment. A method for shielding the outside stray field is discussed

  12. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, F.

    1996-01-01

    The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies

  13. Optimization of residual heat removal pump axial thrust and axial bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F.

    1996-12-01

    The residual heat removal (RHR) pumps of German 1300 megawatt pressurized-water reactor (PWR) power plants are of the single stage end suction type with volute casing or with diffuser and forged circular casing. Due to the service conditions the pumps have to cover the full capacity range as well as a big variation in suction static pressure. This results in a big difference in the axial thrust that has to be borne by the axial bearing. Because these pumps are designed to operate without auxiliary systems (things that do not exist can not fail), they are equipped with antifriction bearings and sump oil lubrication. To minimize the heat production within the bearing casing, a number of PWR plants have pumps with combined axial/radial bearings of the ball type. Due to the fact that the maximum axial thrust caused by static pressure and hydrodynamic forces on the impeller is too big to be borne by that type of axial bearing, the impellers were designed to produce a hydrodynamic axial force that counteracts the static axial force. Thus, the resulting axial thrust may change direction when the static pressure varies.

  14. Comparative axial morphology in pinnipeds and its correlation with aquatic locomotory behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S E; Clack, J A; Hutchinson, J R

    2011-10-01

    Regional variation in the axial skeleton of pinnipeds (seals and walruses) and its correlation with aquatic locomotory behaviour is examined using vertebral functional profiles. The results demonstrate clear morpho-functional differences in the thoracolumbar region of modern pinnipeds (Phocidae, Otariidae, Odobenus) that can be strongly linked to swimming style. Phocid seals have a rigid thoracic region attached to a highly flexible lumbar region with long muscular lever arms providing the necessary mobility and leverage to perform pelvic oscillations. Conversely, otariid seals have extremely flexible inter-vertebral joints along the length of the column which should enhance manoeuvrability and turning performance. They also have greater muscular leverage in the anterior thoracic region to support pectoral oscillations. Odobenus (walrus) shows vertebral characteristics most similar to phocids, but with some otariid qualities, consistent with an intermediate or mixed form of aquatic locomotion, with pelvic oscillation dominating over pectoral oscillation. Comparison of the vertebral functional profiles in the fossil taxon Allodesmus kernensis with those of modern pinniped clades reveals that this extinct pinniped may also have used a combination of pectoral and pelvic oscillatory movements during swimming, but in a manner opposite to that of Odobenus, with pectoral oscillatory movements dominating. This study raises questions about the evolution and diversification of pinniped locomotory behaviours, but also provides the necessary framework to begin to examine axial mechanics and locomotory stages in other fossil pinnipedimorphs and their relatives in more detail. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Improving the lattice axial vector current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, R.; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.; Zanotti, J.M.

    2015-11-01

    For Wilson and clover fermions traditional formulations of the axial vector current do not respect the continuum Ward identity which relates the divergence of that current to the pseudoscalar density. Here we propose to use a point-split or one-link axial vector current whose divergence exactly satisfies a lattice Ward identity, involving the pseudoscalar density and a number of irrelevant operators. We check in one-loop lattice perturbation theory with SLiNC fermion and gauge plaquette action that this is indeed the case including order O(a) effects. Including these operators the axial Ward identity remains renormalisation invariant. First preliminary results of a nonperturbative check of the Ward identity are also presented.

  16. Diagnostic value of axial CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke

    1983-01-01

    Axial CT scan was used to investigate the radiological details of the temporal bone of 33 patients with chronic otitis media, secondary cholesteatoma, sensorineural hearing loss, Meniere disease, vertigo, facial spasm, and neoplasma. The axial scans showed anatomic details of the temporal bone, and at the same time clearly demonstrated the extent of the soft-tissue masses in the middle ears, as well as the destructions of the ossicles. Bone changes of the anterior walls of the epitympanum and external auditory meatus were more clearly demonstrated than by coronary CT scan. However, the axial scan had the disadvantages in demonstrating the stapes, crista transversa, and the mastoid portion of the facial canal. (author)

  17. Quicker yet safe: skeletonization of 1640 internal mammary arteries with harmonic technology in 965 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Teresa M; Rose, M Sarah; Aluthman, Uthman; Narine, Kishan

    2014-05-01

    Skeletonization of the internal mammary artery (IMA) facilitates arterial grafting and has been shown to reduce deep sternal infection but is more time-consuming and tedious than pedicle harvest. We wished to determine if use of harmonic technology (HT) facilitates skeletonization of the IMA and is as safe as the conventional technique of skeletonization. In a consecutive series of 1057 patients with isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery from 2003 to 2013, adverse events and recorded harvest times were compared between harmonic (965 patients) and non-harmonic patients (86 patients). HT was used to harvest 1640 IMAs in 965 (91%) of 1057 consecutive CABG patients and skeletonization with the traditional technique (use of an electrocautery tip as a dissector) was used to harvest 147 IMAs in 86 patients. Six patients had no IMA harvested with this surgery (4 patients had an IMA used from a previous CABG, 1 had no disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery and 1 patient was in cardiogenic shock precluding IMA use). Excluding patients with single-vessel disease, 730/987 (74%) of patients received bilateral IMAs. Demographics of patients with and without harmonic skeletonization, respectively, were the following: mean age: 64.7 vs 67.7 years; diabetes: 33 vs 34%; women: 21 vs 26% and median European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation: 2.9 vs 3.2. The mean harvest time for 77 non-harmonic skeletonized mammary arteries (49 surgeries) was 32.2 min (95% confidence interval (CI): 30.1, 34.3), for harmonic skeletonized arteries after 450 surgeries was 28.4 min, (95% CI: 27.8, 29.1) and in the last 100 IMAs harvested for the isolated harmonic device use/mammary was 15.4 min (95% CI: 14.0, 16.7). Major adverse events for patients with and without harmonic skeletonization, respectively, were: reoperation for bleeding: 2.7 vs 3.5% (difference = 0.8%, 95% CI: -3.2, 4.8); damaged mammaries: 0.4 vs 0.7% (difference = 0.3%, 95% CI: -1.0, 1.7); deep

  18. Diverse mechanisms of plant resistance to cauliflower mosaic virus revealed by leaf skeleton hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, U; Brannan, C M; Gardner, C O; Essenberg, R C

    1992-01-01

    Plants not hosts for cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) may prevent systemic CaMV infection by interfering with dissemination of infection through the plant or by preventing viral replication and maturation. Leaf skeleton hybridization allows distinction between these two barriers. The technique assesses the spatial distribution of CaMV in an inoculated leaf by hybridization of a skeleton of the leaf with a CaMV DNA probe. Leaves or leaflets of soybean, cucumber, peanut, tomato, lettuce, spinach, pepper, onion, wheat, maize and barley, inoculated with CaMV DNA or CaMV virions were processed for leaf skeleton hybridization either immediately after inoculation or two weeks thereafter. Autoradiographic images of soybean and cucumber skeletons had many dark spots suggesting that CaMV DNA replication and local spread had occurred. Images of onion leaf skeletons prepared two weeks after inoculation with CaMV DNA had fewer spots. To test whether these spots resulted from CaMV replication, DNA was extracted from inoculated onion leaves and analyzed by electrophoresis, blotting and hybridization. Molecules recovered two weeks after inoculation resembled those inoculated, indicating absence of replication. For the other species, we found no evidence of local spread of CaMV infections. Thus, many plant species resist systemic CaMV infection by preventing replication or local spread of CaMV, while others solely prevent systemic movement of infection.

  19. Tracking a Subset of Skeleton Joints: An Effective Approach towards Complex Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Latif Anjum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a robust algorithm for complex human activity recognition for natural human-robot interaction. The algorithm is based on tracking the position of selected joints in human skeleton. For any given activity, only a few skeleton joints are involved in performing the activity, so a subset of joints contributing the most towards the activity is selected. Our approach of tracking a subset of skeleton joints (instead of tracking the whole skeleton is computationally efficient and provides better recognition accuracy. We have developed both manual and automatic approaches for the selection of these joints. The position of the selected joints is tracked for the duration of the activity and is used to construct feature vectors for each activity. Once the feature vectors have been constructed, we use a Support Vector Machines (SVM multiclass classifier for training and testing the algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on a purposely built dataset of depth videos recorded using Kinect camera. The dataset consists of 250 videos of 10 different activities being performed by different users. Experimental results show classification accuracy of 83% when tracking all skeleton joints, 95% when using manual selection of subset joints, and 89% when using automatic selection of subset joints.

  20. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  1. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

  2. Axial nucleon form factors from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P. A.; Papinutto, M.; Constantinou, M.; Guichon, P.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present results on the nucleon axial form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon axial charge is obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass enabling comparison with experiment.

  3. The Axially Symmetric One-Monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-M.; Teh, Rosy

    2009-01-01

    We present new classical generalized one-monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that this solution with θ-winding number m = 1 and φ-winding number n = 1 is an axially symmetric generalization of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole. We construct this axially symmetric one-monopole solution by generalizing the large distance asymptotic solutions of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole to the Jacobi elliptic functions and solving the second order equations of motion numerically when the Higgs potential is vanishing. This solution is a non-BPS solution.

  4. Axial injection in Orsay superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depauw, J.; Kugler, M.F.; Legoff, A.; Potier, J.C.; Richomme, A.; Skowron, R.; Mandrillon, P.; Schapira, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The compact superconducting cyclotron currently planned at IPN at Orsay is designed for light ion acceleration together with heavy ion acceleration. From the beginning, for this reason, a central geometry able to receive an inflector (to 90deg C) allowing the axial injection of low energy ion beams given by an outer source. The present study is aimed at showing the technical feasibility of theoretical results obtained on axial injection. First experimental study has been made of spatial repartition in three dimensions of electric potential developed by a central geometry of 3 electrodes. Then, the electric study of an electrostatic mirror has been made [fr

  5. «FLARES» IN AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clear definition of the concept of «flare in axial spondyloarthritis» is of paramount importance for clinical trials and routine practice in particular. It will be able to unify the characteristics of outcomes over a particular period of time on the one hand and to standardize therapeutic approaches on the other. On 4 February 2016, the journal Annals of Rheumatic Diseases published the on-line paper «Preliminary definitions of 'flare' in axial spondyloarthritis, based on pain, BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP: an ASAS initiative» by L. Gossec et al., which was devoted to this topic.

  6. Role of the membrane skeleton in preventing the shedding of procoagulant-rich microvesicles from the platelet plasma membrane

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The platelet plasma membrane is lined by a membrane skeleton that appears to contain short actin filaments cross-linked by actin-binding protein. Actin-binding protein is in turn associated with specific plasma membrane glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to determine whether the membrane skeleton regulates properties of the plasma membrane. Platelets were incubated with agents that disrupted the association of the membrane skeleton with membrane glycoproteins. The consequences of this c...

  7. Correlation of results of skeleton gammagraphy with CEA and TPA levels in mammary gland carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makaiova, I.; Kausitz, J.; Hupka, S.; Michalikova, B.; Vivodova, M.; Simko, S.; Urbanova, M.; Bohunicky, L.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison is submitted of the results obtained with whole-body skeleton gammagraphy using 99m Tc-MDP and levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and tissue polypeptide antigen in 147 patients with breast cancer. In 123 cases (83.7%) the results agreed, i.e., in 72 patients the negative results and in 51 patients the positive results of skeleton gammagraphy with at least one of the above tumor markers. In other 15 cases (10.2%) the positivity of the tumor marker was confirmed by extraosseous tumor manifestations. The reasons are discussed of possible disagreement in the results and a preliminary thought is proposed on the use of assessment of tumor antigen levels in combination with skeleton gammagraphy and other imaging methods, in monitoring patients with breast cancer. (author)

  8. Genetic analysis and ethnic affinities from two Scytho-Siberian skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaut, François-Xavier; Keyser-Tracqui, Christine; Cammaert, Laurence; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2004-04-01

    We extracted DNA from two skeletons belonging to the Sytho-Siberian population, which were excavated from the Sebÿstei site (dating back 2,500 years) in the Altai Republic (Central Asia). Ancient DNA was analyzed by autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and by the sequencing of the hypervariable region 1 (HV1) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. The results showed that these two skeletons were not close relatives. Moreover, their haplogroups were characteristic of Asian populations. Comparison with the haplogroup of 3,523 Asian and American individuals linked one skeleton with a putative ancestral paleo-Asiatic population and the other with Chinese populations. It appears that the genetic study of ancient populations of Central Asia brings important elements to the understanding of human population movements in Asia. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Differences in the initial deposition of Pu and Ra in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, D.R.; Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.

    1978-01-01

    The ratio (still unknown) relating the experimentally determined effects of Pu and Ra in some animal species to observed effects of various isotopes of Ra in man presently provides the most reasonable basis for an assessment of the risk resulting to man from Pu. Extensive studies with the beagle have shown that an evaluation of this ratio on the basis of average skeletal radiation dose is complicated by several factors, one of which is the difference in the initial (gross) distribution of Pu and Ra between the various skeletal parts. Studies on the initial deposition of Pu and Ra in the whole skeleton and in individual parts of the skeleton after injection of the two nuclides as citrates demonstrated that significant differences in the distribution within the various skeletal parts exist, although the total deposition of the two nuclides in the whole skeleton is practically the same

  10. BPHZL-subtraction scheme and axial gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, M.; Rebhan, A.; Schweda, M.; Piguet, O.

    1986-03-27

    The application of the BPHZL subtraction scheme to Yang-Mills theories in axial gauges is presented. In the auxillary mass formulation we show the validity of the convergence theorems for subtracted momentum space integrals, and we give the integral formulae necessary for one-loop calculations. (orig.).

  11. Aryabha~ and Axial Rotation of Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 4. Aryabhata and Axial Rotation of Earth - Naksatra Dina (the Sidereal Day). Amartya Kumar Dutta. General Article Volume 11 Issue 4 April 2006 pp 56-74. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Aryabhala and Axial Rotation of Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 3. Aryabhata and Axial Rotation of Earth - Khagola (The Celestial Sphere). Amartya Kumar Dutta. General Article Volume 11 Issue 3 March 2006 pp 51-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical.

  14. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical

  15. The axial polarizability of nucleons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.; Figureau, A.

    1981-02-01

    The part of the static nuclear axial polarizability arising from the nucleonic excitations is derived from the low energy expansion of the πN amplitude. It is shown that the contribution of the Δ intermediate state, though dominant, does not saturate the nucleonic response. A similar effect, though more pronounced, is known to occur for the magnetic susceptibility

  16. Optimisation of efficiency of axial fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Pennings, P.C.; Faasen, R.

    2014-01-01

    A three-stage research project has been executed to develop ducted axial-fans with increased efficiency. In the first stage a design method has been developed in which various conflicting design criteria can be incorporated. Based on this design method, an optimised design has been determined

  17. Axial crystals macroscopic symmetry and tensor properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janovec, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-10 ISSN 0141-1594 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : axial * polar * pseudopolar * chiral * enantiomorphism * optical activity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2016

  18. Complete primate skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens L Franzen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record.We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650-900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest.Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.

  19. Relationship between push phase and final race time in skeleton performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Costanza; La Torre, Antonio; Merati, Giampiero; Rampinini, Ermanno; Impellizzeri, Franco M

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between push-time and final race time in skeleton participants during a series of major international competitions to determine the importance of the push phase in skeleton performance. Correlations were computed from the first and second heat split data measured during 24 men and 24 women skeleton competitions. Body mass, height, age, and years of experience of the first 30 men and women athletes of the skeleton, bobsleigh and luge 2003-2004 World Cup ranking were used for the comparison between sliding sports. Moderate but significant correlations (p push-time and final race time in men (r(mean) = 0.48) and women (r(mean) = 0.63). No correlations were found between changes in the individual push-time between the first and second heat with the corresponding changes in final race time. The bobsleigh sliders are heavier than the athletes of the other sliding disciplines. Luge athletes have more experience and are younger than bobsleigh and skeleton sliders. The results of this study suggest that a fast push phase is a prerequisite to success in competition and confirms that the selection of skeleton athletes based on the ability to accelerate to a maximum speed quickly could be valid. However, a good or improved push-time does not ensure a placement in the top finishing positions. On the basis of these results, we suggest that strength and power training is necessary to maintain a short push-time but additional physical training aimed to enhance the push phase might not reflect performance improvements. The recruitment of younger athletes and an increase of youthful competitive activity may be another effective way to reach international competitive results.

  20. Complete primate skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jens L; Gingerich, Philip D; Habersetzer, Jörg; Hurum, Jørn H; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Smith, B Holly

    2009-05-19

    The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record. We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650-900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest. Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.

  1. Skeletonized Wave Equation Inversion in VTI Media without too much Math

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang

    2017-05-17

    We present a tutorial for skeletonized inversion of pseudo-acoustic anisotropic VTI data. We first invert for the anisotropic models using wave equation traveltime inversion. Here, the skeletonized data are the traveltimes of transmitted and/or reflected arrivals that lead to simpler misfit functions and more robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion. This provides a good starting model for waveform inversion. The effectiveness of this procedure is illustrated with synthetic data examples and a marine data set recorded in the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Skeletonized Wave Equation Inversion in VTI Media without too much Math

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a tutorial for skeletonized inversion of pseudo-acoustic anisotropic VTI data. We first invert for the anisotropic models using wave equation traveltime inversion. Here, the skeletonized data are the traveltimes of transmitted and/or reflected arrivals that lead to simpler misfit functions and more robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion. This provides a good starting model for waveform inversion. The effectiveness of this procedure is illustrated with synthetic data examples and a marine data set recorded in the Gulf of Mexico.

  3. Comparison of bone densitometry of the phalanges, distal forearm and axial skeleton in early postmenopausal women participating in the EPIC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Overgaard, K; Huang, C

    1996-01-01

    We present baseline bone densitometry from the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study (EPIC, sponsored by Merck, Sharp & Dohme) for the first time, in which 1609 women from England, Oregon, Hawaii and Denmark are participating to investigate the efficacy of daily oral alendronate...... forearm. In a random subgroup of 308 women, aged 45-60 years, on average 6 years since menopause (YSM), bone densitometry was measured once at baseline by RA of the phalanges besides the mandatory measurements by DXA. Bone densitometry was furthermore measured by SXA at the Danish site (89 women). Sixty......-eight of the women had duplicate measurements performed within 1-3 weeks to evaluate the short-term precision error (CV%). One hundred and one healthy premenopausal women, aged 25-48 years, were recruited at the Danish and Hawaiian sites to establish a reference group. The precision error was 1.5% for RA...

  4. Improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy with new high refractive index mounting media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Coralie; Gilles, Jean-François; Heck, Nicolas; Dos Santos, Marc; Schwartzmann, Richard; Cannaya, Vidjeacoumary; Morel, Marie-Pierre; Davidson, Robert Stephen; Trembleau, Alain; Bolte, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR) are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF), a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK) with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required.

  5. Improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy with new high refractive index mounting media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Fouquet

    Full Text Available Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF, a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required.

  6. Stature estimation equations for South Asian skeletons based on DXA scans of contemporary adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Mushrif-Tripathy, Veena; Wells, Jonathan C K; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay; Stock, Jay T

    2018-05-03

    Stature estimation from the skeleton is a classic anthropological problem, and recent years have seen the proliferation of population-specific regression equations. Many rely on the anatomical reconstruction of stature from archaeological skeletons to derive regression equations based on long bone lengths, but this requires a collection with very good preservation. In some regions, for example, South Asia, typical environmental conditions preclude the sufficient preservation of skeletal remains. Large-scale epidemiological studies that include medical imaging of the skeleton by techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) offer new potential datasets for developing such equations. We derived estimation equations based on known height and bone lengths measured from DXA scans from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (Hyderabad, India). Given debates on the most appropriate regression model to use, multiple methods were compared, and the performance of the equations was tested on a published skeletal dataset of individuals with known stature. The equations have standard errors of estimates and prediction errors similar to those derived using anatomical reconstruction or from cadaveric datasets. As measured by the number of significant differences between true and estimated stature, and the prediction errors, the new equations perform as well as, and generally better than, published equations commonly used on South Asian skeletons or based on Indian cadaveric datasets. This study demonstrates the utility of DXA scans as a data source for developing stature estimation equations and offer a new set of equations for use with South Asian datasets. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Semi-Automatic Construction of Skeleton Concept Maps from Case Judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; Sijtsma, B.; Winkels, R.; Lettieri, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to generating Skeleton Conceptual Maps (SCM) semi automatically from legal case documents provided by the United Kingdom’s Supreme Court. SCM are incomplete knowledge representations for the purpose of scaffolding learning. The proposed system intends to provide

  8. On the skeleton method and an application to a quantum scissor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, P.; Ricaud, B.

    2008-01-01

    In the spectral analysis of few one dimensional quantum particles interacting through delta potentials it is well known that one can recast the problem into the spectral analysis of an integral operator (the skeleton) living on the submanifold which supports the delta interactions. We shall prese...

  9. Effects of ocean acidification on the dissolution rates of reef-coral skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Woesik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification threatens the foundation of tropical coral reefs. This study investigated three aspects of ocean acidification: (i the rates at which perforate and imperforate coral-colony skeletons passively dissolve when pH is 7.8, which is predicted to occur globally by 2100, (ii the rates of passive dissolution of corals with respect to coral-colony surface areas, and (iii the comparative rates of a vertical reef-growth model, incorporating passive dissolution rates, and predicted sea-level rise. By 2100, when the ocean pH is expected to be 7.8, perforate Montipora coral skeletons will lose on average 15 kg CaCO3 m−2 y−1, which is approximately −10.5 mm of vertical reduction of reef framework per year. This rate of passive dissolution is higher than the average rate of reef growth over the last several millennia and suggests that reefs composed of perforate Montipora coral skeletons will have trouble keeping up with sea-level rise under ocean acidification. Reefs composed of primarily imperforate coral skeletons will not likely dissolve as rapidly, but our model shows they will also have trouble keeping up with sea-level rise by 2050.

  10. Automated detection of branch dimensions in woody skeletons of leafless fruit tree canopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucksch, A.; Fleck, S.

    2009-01-01

    Light driven physiological processes of tree canopies need to be modelled based on detailed 3Dcanopy structure – we explore the possibilities offered by terrestrial LIDAR to automatically represent woody skeletons of leafless trees as a basis for adequate models of canopy structure. The automatic

  11. A skeleton from the Lapita site at Kone, Foue Peninsula, New Caledonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrusewsky, M.; Galipaud, J.-C.; Leach, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    A relatively complete and reasonably well preserved skeleton, including a partially reconstructed cranium and mandible, of an approximately 35-45 year old female, found at the Lapita site, WKO-013B, near Kone, Foue Peninsula, New Caledonia, is described. Although not without problems, radioacarbon dating of the skeleton and other archaeological considerations place the burial around the middle of the first millenium BC (c.500 BC). Chemical analysis of the bone gives no clear picture about diet, although direct or indirect consumption of C4 plants is hypothesised. Nitrogen isotope values imply average contribution from both land and marine environments. The reconstructed skull is long and resembles crania from eastern island Melanesia. The teeth are small and the incisors exhibit moderate shovelling. A single dental caries, an apical abscess, moderate dental attrition, enamel hypoplasias, and evidence of periodontal disease were observed in the teeth. The stature is estimated to be 161.4 cm, or 5 feet 3.5 inches. There is osteological evidence that this individual experienced childbirth. The cranial vault bones are thickened. There is little or no osteoarthritis in these remains. Limited comparisons of certain crania, dental and skeletal morphological features of this new skeleton suggest affinities with other Lapita-associated skeletons and skeletal series from eastern island Melanesia. (author). 66 refs., 24 tabs., 11 figs

  12. Paleodysmorphology and paleoteratology: Diagnosing and interpreting congenital conditions of the skeleton in anthropological contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Boer, Lucas; van der Merwe, Alie E.

    2016-01-01

    Most congenital conditions have low prevalence, but collectively they occur in a few percent of all live births. Congenital conditions are rarely encountered in anthropological studies, not least because many of them have no obvious effect on the skeleton. Here, we discuss two groups of congenital

  13. Design of a compliantly actuated exo-skeleton for an impedance controlled gait trainer robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Herman; Veneman, Jan; Ekkelenkamp, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    We have designed and built a lower extremity powered exo-skeleton (LOPES) for the training of post-stroke patients. This paper describes the philosophy behind the design of LOPES, motivates the choices that have been made and gives some exemplary results of the ranges of mechanical impedances that can be achieved.

  14. Design of compliantly actuated exo-skeleton for an impedance controlled gait trainer robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Herman; Veneman, J.F.; Ekkelenkamp, R.; IEEE Engineering in Medicine,

    2006-01-01

    We have designed and built a lower extremity powered exo-skeleton (LOPES) for the training of post-stroke patients. This paper describes the philosophy behind the design of LOPES (Fig. 1), motivates the choices that have been made and gives some exemplary results of the ranges of mechanical

  15. A Skeleton Tells Its Own Story: Forensic Analyses of Skeletal Elements for the Science Classroom Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Virginia L.; Breed, David; Miller, Jon S.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an osteometric board to allow…

  16. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages of amino acid extracts from Californian palaeoindian skeletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bada, J.L.; Gillespie, R.; Gowlett, J.A.J.; Hedges, R.E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used accelerator mass spectrometry to determine the radiocarbon ages of the amino acid extracts used in the original racemization studies of skeletal remains found in California. The studies indicate that some of the controversial Californian skeletons, which had been assigned to the Upper Pleistocene, are in fact Holocene. (author)

  17. Skeleton-Based Human Action Recognition With Global Context-Aware Attention LSTM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Gang; Duan, Ling-Yu; Abdiyeva, Kamila; Kot, Alex C.

    2018-04-01

    Human action recognition in 3D skeleton sequences has attracted a lot of research attention. Recently, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks have shown promising performance in this task due to their strengths in modeling the dependencies and dynamics in sequential data. As not all skeletal joints are informative for action recognition, and the irrelevant joints often bring noise which can degrade the performance, we need to pay more attention to the informative ones. However, the original LSTM network does not have explicit attention ability. In this paper, we propose a new class of LSTM network, Global Context-Aware Attention LSTM (GCA-LSTM), for skeleton based action recognition. This network is capable of selectively focusing on the informative joints in each frame of each skeleton sequence by using a global context memory cell. To further improve the attention capability of our network, we also introduce a recurrent attention mechanism, with which the attention performance of the network can be enhanced progressively. Moreover, we propose a stepwise training scheme in order to train our network effectively. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on five challenging benchmark datasets for skeleton based action recognition.

  18. Talent identification and deliberate programming in skeleton: ice novice to Winter Olympian in 14 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Nicola; Gulbin, Jason P; Martin, David T; Ross, Angus; Holland, Terry; Marino, Frank

    2009-02-15

    The aims of this study were to talent transfer, rapidly develop, and qualify an Australian female athlete in the skeleton event at the 2006 Torino Winter Olympic Games and quantify the volume of skeleton-specific training and competition that would enable this to be achieved. Initially, 26 athletes were recruited through a talent identification programme based on their 30-m sprint time. After attending a selection camp, 10 athletes were invited to undertake an intensified skeleton training programme. Four of these athletes were then selected to compete for Australia on the World Cup circuit. All completed runs and simulated push starts were documented over a 14-month period. The athlete who eventually represented Australia at the Torino Winter Olympic Games did so following approximately 300 start simulations and about 220 training/competition runs over a period of 14 months. Using a deliberate programming model, these findings provide a guide to the minimum exposure required for a novice skeleton athlete to reach Olympic representative standard following intensified sport-specific training. The findings of this study are discussed in the context of the deliberate practice theory and offer the term "deliberate programming" as an alternative way of incorporating all aspects of expert development.

  19. Modified Alizarin Red S-Alcian Blue Staining for Reptilian Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ja’far Luthfi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal staining is an important method in anatomical study. The aim of the research was to develop staining and clearing method of Reptilian skeleton using Alizarin Red S-Alcian Blue. The specimen were eviscerated, fixed, stained, cleared, and keep in glycerine solution. This modified double-staining has successfully stain bone and cartilage of Reptilian.

  20. Review of Axial Burnup Distribution Considerations for Burnup Credit Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.C.; DeHart, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report attempts to summarize and consolidate the existing knowledge on axial burnup distribution issues that are important to burnup credit criticality safety calculations. Recently released Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff guidance permits limited burnup credit, and thus, has prompted resolution of the axial burnup distribution issue. The reactivity difference between the neutron multiplication factor (keff) calculated with explicit representation of the axial burnup distribution and keff calculated assuming a uniform axial burnup is referred to as the ''end effect.'' This end effect is shown to be dependent on many factors, including the axial-burnup profile, total accumulated burnup, cooling time, initial enrichment, assembly design, and the isotopics considered (i.e., actinide-only or actinides plus fission products). Axial modeling studies, efforts related to the development of axial-profile databases, and the determination of bounding axial profiles are also discussed. Finally, areas that could benefit from further efforts are identified

  1. On the problem of axial anomaly in supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, D.I.

    1984-01-01

    The explicit relation is found between the axial current obeying the Adler-Bardeen theorem and the supersymmetric one belonging to a supermultiplet. It is shown that the axial and superconformal anomalies are consistent in all orders of perturbation theory

  2. Cross-flow filtration and axial filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, K.A.

    1974-01-01

    Two relatively novel alternative solid-liquid-separation techniques of filtration are discussed. In cross-flow filtration, the feed is pumped past the filtering surface. While in axial filtration the filter, mounted on a rotor, is moved with respect to the feed. While large-scale application of the axial filter is still in doubt, it permits with little expenditure of time and money, duplication of many hydrodynamic aspects of cross-flow filtration for fine-particle handling problems. The technique has been applied to municipal wastes, low-level radioactive waste treatment plant, lead removal from industrial wastes, removal of pulp-mill contaminants, textile-mill wastes, and pretreatment of saline waters by lime-soda process in preparation for hyperfiltration. Economics and energy requirements are also discussed

  3. Computerized axial tomography in traumatic cervical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1982-01-01

    Although plain computerized axial tomography cannot routinely demonstrate the spinal cord, it does provide excellent visualization of the bony outline of the spinal canal and vertebral column. So it should be reasonable to use this technique in cases of cervical traumatic disorders. In this paper we presented 10 cases of cervical traumatic lesions; 3 atlanto-axial dislocation, 2 cervical canal stenosis, 3 OPLL, 1 intramedullary hematoma and 1 C 2 -neurinoma. In some patients neurologic deficits were induced by cervical trauma. Bony lesions appeared more adequately deliniated than intraspinal lesions, however, in some cases intramedullary changes could also be demonstrated. The use of metrizamide with high resolution CT-scanner could improve the usefullness of this technique. (author)

  4. Ventajas de los motores de flujo axial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M Basanta Otero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Es importante conocer sobre una familia de motores que a diferencia de los convencionales o tradicionales no presentanun flujo rotatorio radial, denominados motores de flujo axial. Dichos motores presentan altos valores de par motriz abajas velocidades, una alta eficiencia y alta densidad de potencia. Este trabajo constituye un breve análisis dealgunos motores de la referencia bibliográfica.  Is important to know about a family of motors that at difference whit the traditional, don't have a rotator radial flux,called, axial flux motors. These motors have high torque for low speed, high efficiency and high power density. Thiswork is a brief analysis of several motors of the bibliographic references.

  5. Molecular genetic analyses of 300-year old skeletons from Auersperg tomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2009 the archaeologists excavated five skeletons from a 17th-century archaeological site in Ljubljana. They were found in the side chapel of the church in the Franciscans monastery, which was the Auerspergs’ tomb. Beside the skeletons, the finds revealed a bronze bowl with the heart , and the name of Ferdinand II and the years of birth and death (1655–1706 engraved. In 2011, we were asked to identify those five skeletons. The skeletons were poorly preserved and bones degraded to small pieces. Fragments of femurs and teeth were preserved only in two skeletons, therefore for the remaining three the fragments of cranium were used for molecular genetic analyses.Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contamination, and ground them into powder. Prior to DNA isolation, bone or tooth powder was decalcified. DNA was purified in the Biorobot EZ1 device (Qiagen. Nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Short tandem repeat (STR typing of autosomal DNA was performed using Investigator ESSplex Kit (Qiagen, the NGM Kit (Applied Biosystems and the MiniFiler Kit (Applied Biosystems. Typing of the Y-STRs was performed using the YFiler Kit (Applied Biosystems. The two hypervariable regions HVI and HVII of the mtDNA were sequenced.Results: We were able to extract up to 10.7 ng DNA/g of tooth powder from Auersperg chapel archaeological site skeletal remains. We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 300 years old. From one skeleton we obtained a complete male genetic profile of autosomal DNA, almost complete Y-STR haplotype, which enabled us to track the paternal line and mtDNA haplotype for HVI and HVII regions, which enabled us to track the maternal line. After comparing the profiles with elimination database, no match was found, and thus the authenticity of genetic profiles was confirmed.Conclusions: Now we are waiting for

  6. Internal and external axial corner flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutler, P.; Shankar, V.; Anderson, D. A.; Sorenson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The inviscid, internal, and external axial corner flows generated by two intersecting wedges traveling supersonically are obtained by use of a second-order shock-capturing, finite-difference approach. The governing equations are solved iteratively in conical coordinates to yield the complicated wave structure of the internal corner and the simple peripheral shock of the external corner. The numerical results for the internal flows compare favorably with existing experimental data.

  7. Axial flux permanent magnet brushless machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gieras, Jacek F; Kamper, Maarten J

    2008-01-01

    Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) brushless machines are modern electrical machines with a lot of advantages over their conventional counterparts. They are being increasingly used in consumer electronics, public life, instrumentation and automation system, clinical engineering, industrial electromechanical drives, automobile manufacturing industry, electric and hybrid electric vehicles, marine vessels and toys. They are also used in more electric aircrafts and many other applications on larger scale. New applications have also emerged in distributed generation systems (wind turbine generators

  8. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  9. Axial gravity, massless fermions and trace anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonora, L. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); KEK, Tsukuba (Japan). KEK Theory Center; INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cvitan, M.; Giaccari, S.; Stemberga, T. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Prester, P.D. [Rijeka Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Pereira, A.D. [UERJ-Univ. Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; UFF-Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2017-08-15

    This article deals with two main topics. One is odd parity trace anomalies in Weyl fermion theories in a 4d curved background, the second is the introduction of axial gravity. The motivation for reconsidering the former is to clarify the theoretical background underlying the approach and complete the calculation of the anomaly. The reference is in particular to the difference between Weyl and massless Majorana fermions and to the possible contributions from tadpole and seagull terms in the Feynman diagram approach. A first, basic, result of this paper is that a more thorough treatment, taking account of such additional terms and using dimensional regularization, confirms the earlier result. The introduction of an axial symmetric tensor besides the usual gravitational metric is instrumental to a different derivation of the same result using Dirac fermions, which are coupled not only to the usual metric but also to the additional axial tensor. The action of Majorana and Weyl fermions can be obtained in two different limits of such a general configuration. The results obtained in this way confirm the previously obtained ones. (orig.)

  10. Axial gravity, massless fermions and trace anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, L.; Cvitan, M.; Giaccari, S.; Stemberga, T.; Prester, P.D.; Pereira, A.D.; UFF-Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with two main topics. One is odd parity trace anomalies in Weyl fermion theories in a 4d curved background, the second is the introduction of axial gravity. The motivation for reconsidering the former is to clarify the theoretical background underlying the approach and complete the calculation of the anomaly. The reference is in particular to the difference between Weyl and massless Majorana fermions and to the possible contributions from tadpole and seagull terms in the Feynman diagram approach. A first, basic, result of this paper is that a more thorough treatment, taking account of such additional terms and using dimensional regularization, confirms the earlier result. The introduction of an axial symmetric tensor besides the usual gravitational metric is instrumental to a different derivation of the same result using Dirac fermions, which are coupled not only to the usual metric but also to the additional axial tensor. The action of Majorana and Weyl fermions can be obtained in two different limits of such a general configuration. The results obtained in this way confirm the previously obtained ones. (orig.)

  11. Golimumab for the treatment of axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Carlo; D'angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2017-01-01

    Anti-TNF drugs have represented an epochal revolution in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. In the field of axial spondyloarthritis, golimumab, a fully human monoclonal anti-TNFα administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks, has shown significant efficacy and good safety in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. More recently, it was also indicated as an effective treatment for patients suffering from non-radiographic axial spondyloarthitits. Areas covered: A systematic literature search was completed, using the largest electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane), with the aim to review all data concerning the administration of golimumab in patients suffering from axial spondyloartritis. Expert opinion: In the 16-week GO-AHEAD study, golimumab was effective in patients with non-radiographic spondyloarthritis with high levels of CRP and/or positive MRI findings, but not in subjects with both negative CRP and MRI. This finding allows for the addressing the of anti-TNF treatment more specifically. Preliminary data concerning an open-label extension of the GO-AHEAD study outlined the high retention-rate of the drug at 52 weeks. The production of antibodies against golimumab is rare and it seems to exert scarce influence on the drug performances. In conclusion, golimumab appears as a very useful and well tolerated anti-TNF agent.

  12. Computational analysis of a multistage axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidoju, Chaithanya

    Turbomachines are used extensively in Aerospace, Power Generation, and Oil & Gas Industries. Efficiency of these machines is often an important factor and has led to the continuous effort to improve the design to achieve better efficiency. The axial flow compressor is a major component in a gas turbine with the turbine's overall performance depending strongly on compressor performance. Traditional analysis of axial compressors involves throughflow calculations, isolated blade passage analysis, Quasi-3D blade-to-blade analysis, single-stage (rotor-stator) analysis, and multi-stage analysis involving larger design cycles. In the current study, the detailed flow through a 15 stage axial compressor is analyzed using a 3-D Navier Stokes CFD solver in a parallel computing environment. Methodology is described for steady state (frozen rotor stator) analysis of one blade passage per component. Various effects such as mesh type and density, boundary conditions, tip clearance and numerical issues such as turbulence model choice, advection model choice, and parallel processing performance are analyzed. A high sensitivity of the predictions to the above was found. Physical explanation to the flow features observed in the computational study are given. The total pressure rise verses mass flow rate was computed.

  13. Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanford?s pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data

  14. Bessel beam CARS of axially structured samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuke, Sandro; Zheng, Juanjuan; Akimov, Denis; Heintzmann, Rainer; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    We report about a Bessel beam CARS approach for axial profiling of multi-layer structures. This study presents an experimental implementation for the generation of CARS by Bessel beam excitation using only passive optical elements. Furthermore, an analytical expression is provided describing the generated anti-Stokes field by a homogeneous sample. Based on the concept of coherent transfer functions, the underling resolving power of axially structured geometries is investigated. It is found that through the non-linearity of the CARS process in combination with the folded illumination geometry continuous phase-matching is achieved starting from homogeneous samples up to spatial sample frequencies at twice of the pumping electric field wave. The experimental and analytical findings are modeled by the implementation of the Debye Integral and scalar Green function approach. Finally, the goal of reconstructing an axially layered sample is demonstrated on the basis of the numerically simulated modulus and phase of the anti-Stokes far-field radiation pattern.

  15. Dynamic control of knee axial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Malyshev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have evaluated the clinical examination of the patients with axial malalignments in the knee by the original method and device which was named varovalgometer. The measurements were conducted by tension of the cord through the spina iliaca anterior superior and the middle of the lower pole of patella. The deviation of the center of the ankle estimated by metal ruler which was positioned perpendicular to the lower leg axis on the level of the ankle joint line. The results of comparison of our method and computer navigation in 53 patients during the TKA show no statistically significant varieties but they differ by average 5° of valgus in clinical examination in comparison with mechanical axis which was identified by computer navigation. The dynamic control of axial malalignment can be used in clinical practice for estimation of the results of treatment of pathology with axial deformities in the knee; for the control of reduction and secondary displacement of the fractures around the knee; for assessment of instability; in planning of correctional osteotomies and intraoperative control of deformity correction; for estimation of Q angle in subluxation and recurrent dislocation of patella; in planning of TKA; during the growth of child it allows to assess the progression of deformity.

  16. Geochemical study of coral skeletons from the Puerto Morelos Reef, southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper-Zubillaga, Juan J.; Armstrong-Altrin, John S.; Rosales-Hoz, Leticia

    2014-12-01

    Geochemical analyses in coral skeletons have been used as a proxy of marine environmental conditions and to understand the mechanisms of adsorption of chemical elements into the coral skeletons and growth forms. However, little attention has been given to show the possible differences in the growth rates of corals based upon major, trace, rare earth element and microprobe analyses to examine the physical-chemical conditions influencing those differences. Our goal is to show how branch and fan corals incorporate elements into their skeletons comparing them with their coral growth rates. We determine the development of the skeletons of two branching (Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis) and one fan shaped (Gorgonia ventalina) colonies in the Puerto Morelos Reef, southeastern Mexico based upon geochemical data and the influence of terrigenous input into the species. Mg and Sr concentrations were the most statistically significant elements among the species studied suggesting that Mg concentration in Gorgonia ventalina is probably not linked to its growth rate. Mn content in the sea water is adsorbed by the three corals during past growth rates during high rainfall events. Sr concentration may be associated with the growth rate of Acropora palmata. Little differences in the growth rate in Acropora palmata may be associated with low rates of calcitization, negligible changes in the Sr concentration and little influence of temperature and water depth in its growth. Trace elements like Cr, Co, Ni and V adsorbed by the corals are influenced by natural concentration of these elements in the sea-water. Rare earth elements in the corals studied suggests abundant inorganic ions CO32- with variable pH in modern shallow well-oxygenated sea water. Lack of terrigenous input seawards is supported by geochemical, geomorphological and biological evidences. This study is an example of how geochemical data are useful to observe the differences in environmental conditions related to

  17. Axial anomaly at finite temperature and finite density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zhixin; Su Rukeng; Yu, P.K.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U(1) axial anomaly in a hot fermion medium is investigated by using the real time Green's function method. After calculating the lowest order triangle diagrams, we find that finite temperature as well as finite fermion density does not affect the axial anomaly. The higher order corrections for the axial anomaly are discussed. (orig.)

  18. The deep structure of Axial Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael Edwin

    The subsurface structure of Axial Volcano, near the intersection of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain in the northeast Pacific, is imaged from an active source seismic experiment. At a depth of 2.25 to 3.5 km beneath Axial lies an 8 km x 12 km region of very low seismic velocities that can only be explained by the presence of magma. In the center of this magma storage chamber at 2--3.5 km below sea floor, the crust is at least 10--20% melt. At depths of 4--5 km there is evidence of additional low concentrations of magma (a few percent) over a larger area. In total, 5--11 km3 of magma are stored in the mid-crust beneath Axial. This is more melt than has been positively identified under any basaltic volcano on Earth. It is also far more than the 0.1--0.2 km3 emplaced during the 1998 eruption. The implied residence time in the magma reservoir of a few hundred to a few thousand years agrees with geochemical trends which suggest prolonged storage and mixing of magmas. The large volume of melt bolsters previous observations that Axial provides much of the material to create crust along its 50 km rift zones. A high velocity ring-shaped feature sits above the magma chamber just outside the caldera walls. This feature is believed to be the result of repeated dike injections from the magma body to the surface during the construction of the volcanic edifice. A rapid change in crustal thickness from 8 to 11 km within 15 km of the caldera implies focused delivery of melt from the mantle. The high flux of magma suggests that melting occurs deeper in the mantle than along the nearby ridge. Melt supply to the volcano is not connected to any plumbing system associated with the adjacent segments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. This suggests that, despite Axial's proximity to the ridge, the Cobb hot spot currently drives the supply of melt to the volcano.

  19. A new strategy of axial power distribution control based on three axial offsets concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    We have proposed a very simple control procedure for axial xenon oscillation control based on a characteristic trajectory. The trajectory is drawn by three offsets of power distributions, namely, AOp, AOi and AOx. They are defined as the offset of axial power distribution, the offset of the power distribution under which the current iodine distribution is obtained as the equilibrium and that for xenon distribution, respectively. When these offsets are plotted on X-Y plane for (AOp-AOx, AOi-AOx) the trajectory draws a quite characteristic ellipse (or an elliptic spiral). On the other hands, Constant Axial Offset Control (CAOC) procedure is adopted as axial power distribution control strategy during both base load and load following operations in domestic PWRs. In the previous paper, we have presented an innovative procedure of axial power distribution control during load following in PWRs based on this trajectory such that the AOp-AOx is to be controlled to zero when the value deviates the pre-determined limiting values. In this paper we propose a modified control strategy to get more stability of axial power distributions. In this strategy, we control the trajectory to be close to the major axis of the ellipse when the power distribution reaches the limiting values. In other words, the plot is not controlled only to reduce AOp-AOx but also AOi-AOx is taken into account at the same time. It is known that when the plot is controlled to the major axis, it means that the point gives the peak position of axial xenon oscillation. Therefore xenon oscillation will not increase its amplitude any more. Thus more stable axial power distribution control is attained. This kind of design concept is quite important especially for the future PWRs with elongated fuel length and longer core life. Because in a longer effective core and also the longer core life, it has been known that the stability of axial xenon oscillation becomes more unstable. In this paper, some simulation

  20. Intrinsic carpal ligaments on MR and multidetector CT arthrography: comparison of axial and axial oblique planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan K.L.; Griffith, James F.; Ng, Alex W.H.; Law, Eric K.C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince Of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Tse, W.L.; Wong, Clara W.Y.; Ho, P.C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Prince Of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-03-15

    To compare axial and oblique axial planes on MR arthrography (MRA) and multidetector CT arthrography (CTA) to evaluate dorsal and volar parts of scapholunate (SLIL) and lunotriquetral interosseous (LTIL) ligaments. Nine cadaveric wrists of five male subjects were studied. The visibility of dorsal and volar parts of the SLIL and LTIL was graded semi-quantitatively (good, intermediate, poor) on MRA and CTA. The presence of a ligament tear was determined on arthrosocopy and sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of tear detection were calculated. Oblique axial imaging was particularly useful for delineating dorsal and volar parts of the LTIL on MRA with overall 'good' visibility increased from 11 % to 78 %. The accuracy of MRA and CTA in revealing SLIL and LTIL tear was higher using the oblique axial plane. The overall accuracy for detecting SLIL tear on CTA improved from 94 % to 100 % and from 89 % to 94 % on MRA; the overall accuracy of detecting LTIL tear on CTA improved from 89 % to 100 % and from 72 % to 89 % on MRA Oblique axial imaging during CT and MR arthrography improves detection of tears in the dorsal and volar parts of both SLIL and LTIL. (orig.)

  1. Diagnosing an extra-axial chordoma of the proximal tibia with the help of brachyury, a molecule required for notochordal differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, Paul [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Tirabosco, Roberto [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Histopathology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Vujovic, Sonja; Henderson, Stephen; Boshoff, Chris [University College London, Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, London (United Kingdom); Bartlett, William; Briggs, Timothy W.R. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Flanagan, Adrienne M. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Histopathology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Chordomas are rare malignant bone tumours considered to arise from notochordal remnants that persist in the axial skeleton. Although their morphology can resemble that of a carcinoma, chondrosarcoma or malignant melanoma, the axial location and their well-defined immunophenotype, including expression of cytokeratins (CK7/20/8/18/19) and S100, generally allow the diagnosis to be made with confidence once the possibility is considered. In contrast, making a robust diagnosis of an extra-axial chordoma has been difficult in the absence of specific markers for chordomas. We have recently shown in gene expression microarray and immunohistochemistry studies that brachyury, a transcription factor crucial for notochordal development, is a specific and sensitive maker for chordomas. We now present a case of an intracortical tibial tumour, with detailed report of the imaging, and morphological features consistent with a chordoma, where notochordal differentiation was demonstrated with an antibody to brachyury. The tumour cells were also positive for cytokeratins, including CK19, and S100, CEA, EMA and HMBE1, findings which support the diagnosis of chordoma. Brachyury can be employed as a marker of notochordal differentiation and help identify confidently, for the first time, extra-axial bone and soft tissue chordomas, and tumours which may show focal notochordal differentiation. (orig.)

  2. Diagnosing an extra-axial chordoma of the proximal tibia with the help of brachyury, a molecule required for notochordal differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, Paul; Tirabosco, Roberto; Vujovic, Sonja; Henderson, Stephen; Boshoff, Chris; Bartlett, William; Briggs, Timothy W.R.; Flanagan, Adrienne M.

    2007-01-01

    Chordomas are rare malignant bone tumours considered to arise from notochordal remnants that persist in the axial skeleton. Although their morphology can resemble that of a carcinoma, chondrosarcoma or malignant melanoma, the axial location and their well-defined immunophenotype, including expression of cytokeratins (CK7/20/8/18/19) and S100, generally allow the diagnosis to be made with confidence once the possibility is considered. In contrast, making a robust diagnosis of an extra-axial chordoma has been difficult in the absence of specific markers for chordomas. We have recently shown in gene expression microarray and immunohistochemistry studies that brachyury, a transcription factor crucial for notochordal development, is a specific and sensitive maker for chordomas. We now present a case of an intracortical tibial tumour, with detailed report of the imaging, and morphological features consistent with a chordoma, where notochordal differentiation was demonstrated with an antibody to brachyury. The tumour cells were also positive for cytokeratins, including CK19, and S100, CEA, EMA and HMBE1, findings which support the diagnosis of chordoma. Brachyury can be employed as a marker of notochordal differentiation and help identify confidently, for the first time, extra-axial bone and soft tissue chordomas, and tumours which may show focal notochordal differentiation. (orig.)

  3. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2016-02-16

    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

  4. Inverse axial mounting stiffness design for lithographic projection lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-quan, Yuan; Hong-bo, Shang; Wei, Zhang

    2014-09-01

    In order to balance axial mounting stiffness of lithographic projection lenses and the image quality under dynamic working conditions, an easy inverse axial mounting stiffness design method is developed in this article. Imaging quality deterioration at the wafer under different axial vibration levels is analyzed. The desired image quality can be determined according to practical requirements, and axial vibrational tolerance of each lens is solved with the damped least-squares method. Based on adaptive interval adjustment, a binary search algorithm, and the finite element method, the axial mounting stiffness of each lens can be traveled in a large interval, and converges to a moderate numerical solution which makes the axial vibrational amplitude of the lens converge to its axial vibrational tolerance. Model simulation is carried out to validate the effectiveness of the method.

  5. Axial sesamoiditis in the horse: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Le Roux

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Axial sesamoiditis or osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs in the horse is described as a rare condition. The cause remains unknown and speculative, with vascular, infectious, and traumatic aetiologies implicated. It is specifically associated with injury of the palmar or plantar ligament (PL, also known as the intersesamoidean ligament. Imaging findings are generally rewarding and radiological changes are typical, if not pathognomonic, for the condition. Lesions consist of bone lysis at the apical to mid-body axial margins of the PSBs, with variable degrees of joint effusion. Radiographic technique warrants careful attention to make a diagnosis, and exposure factors may need to be adjusted. Perineural, intra-articular and intra-thecal anaesthesia does not seem to provide consistent improvement of lameness in these cases, with literature reporting inconsistent findings. Ultrasonographic findings include digital flexor sheath effusion, loss of the normal fibre structure of the PL at its attachment to the PSBs, abnormal echogenicity or change in thickness of the PL, and irregular hyperechoic cortical margins of the axial margins of the PSBs. Scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, although not necessary to make a diagnosis, may add valuable information regarding the location and extent of lesions. The prognosis remains guarded to poor for return to athletic function. The focus of this paper is a comprehensive review of the proposed aetiopathogenesis of the condition, the prognosis, and a summary of the literature findings with focus on the notable diagnostic imaging features, including radiography, ultrasonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  7. Disordered axial movement in Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, M J; Thompson, P D; Marsden, C D

    1996-01-01

    Axial motor impairments are a common cause of disability in patients with Parkinson's disease, become more prominent with longer disease duration, and have been said to be less responsive to levodopa replacement therapy. The ability to turn in bed while lying supine before and after dopaminergic stimulation was studied in a group of 36 patients with Parkinson's disease; 23 were in Hoehn and Yahr stages 3-5 when "off", and 13 were in stages 1-2. Turning was also compared with postural stabilit...

  8. Digital enhancement of computerized axial tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of certain digital image enhancement techniques performed in image space. Three types of images have been used, computer generated phantoms, tomograms of a synthetic phantom, and axial tomograms of human anatomy containing images of lesions, artificially introduced into the tomograms. Several types of smoothing, sharpening, and histogram modification have been explored. It has been concluded that the most useful enhancement techniques are a selective smoothing of singular picture elements, combined with contrast manipulation. The most useful tool in applying these techniques is the gray-scale histogram.

  9. Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.

  10. Alterations of a bony skeleton histostructure in amphibians inhabiting the Chernobyl AES zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, N.V.; Mazhuga, P.M.; Domashevskaya, E.I.; Gorskij, B.A.; Nakorenok, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    By using the methods of histology and radiochemistry was investigated the bone skeleton State of amphibians (pond and cake fogs) which were caught in the ChNPP cooling pond and in the village Kopachy. It were submitted the results of content measurements of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 134 Cs in the bone skeleton of the amphibians which were captured in the ChNPP 30-km zone and in the non contaminated territories (Sviyatoshin) during the period of 1991-1993 years. It was studied the hystostructure of the tubular bones. Main emphasis was placed to the state of cells and bone matrix state in metaphyses and also compacts in diaphyses. Some particular features of osteoblastic and resorbtion processes in the bones of amphibious in the ChNPP zone have been discovered

  11. Aspects of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton with particular emphasis on the active marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys on man and results from animal experiments have shown that two tissues associated with the skeleton are of primary concern with respect to cancer induction by ionizing radiation. These are the cells on or near endosteal surfaces of bone, from which osteosarcomas are thought to arise, and hematopoietic bone marrow, which is associated with leukemia. The complex geometry of the soft tissue-bone intermixture makes calculations of absorbed dose to these target regions a difficult problem. In the case of photon or neutron radiations, charged particle equilibrium may not exist in the vicinity of soft tissue-bone mineral interface. In this paper a general study of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton is presented. Dosimetric data consistent with the MIRD schema and reflecting the physical and anatomical parameters defining the energy deposition are tabulated for the relevant target regions. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Reversibility of Pt-Skin and Pt-Skeleton Nanostructures in Acidic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Julien; Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Dubau, Laetitia; Chatenet, Marian; Soldo-Olivier, Yvonne; Guétaz, Laure; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Maillard, Frédéric

    2014-02-06

    Following a well-defined series of acid and heat treatments on a benchmark Pt3Co/C sample, three different nanostructures of interest for the electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction were tailored. These nanostructures could be sorted into the "Pt-skin" structure, made of one pure Pt overlayer, and the "Pt-skeleton" structure, made of 2-3 Pt overlayers surrounding the Pt-Co alloy core. Using a unique combination of high-resolution aberration-corrected STEM-EELS, XRD, EXAFS, and XANES measurements, we provide atomically resolved pictures of these different nanostructures, including measurement of the Pt-shell thickness forming in acidic media and the resulting changes of the bulk and core chemical composition. It is shown that the Pt-skin is reverted toward the Pt-skeleton upon contact with acid electrolyte. This change in structure causes strong variations of the chemical composition.

  13. Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-07-14

    We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.

  14. Hybrid Compounds Strategy in the Synthesis of Oleanolic Acid Skeleton-NSAID Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pawełczyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the synthesis of several hybrid individuals combining a natural oleanolic acid skeleton and synthetic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug moieties (NSAIDs. It studied structural modifications of the oleanolic acid structure by use of the direct reactivity of hydroxyl or hydroxyimino groups at position C-3 of the triterpenoid skeleton with the carboxylic function of anti-inflammatory drugs leading to new perspective compounds with high potential pharmacological activities. Novel ester- and iminoester-type derivatives of oleanolic unit with the different NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, aspirin, naproxen, and ketoprofen, were obtained and characterized. Moreover, preliminary research of compounds obtaining structure stability under acidic conditions was examined and the PASS method of prediction of activity spectra for substances was used to estimate the potential biological activity of these compounds.

  15. Sea urchin skeleton: Structure, composition, and application as a template for biomimetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapkin, Nikolay P.; Khalchenko, Irina G.; Panasenko, Alexander E.; Drozdov, Anatoly L.

    2017-07-01

    SEM and optical microscopy, chemical and EDX analysis, XRD, and FT-IR spectroscopy of three sea urchins skeletons (tests) show that the test is a spongy stereom, consisting of calcite with high content of magnesium. The tests are composed of mineral-organic composite of calcite-magnesite crystals, coated with organic film, containing silicon in form of polyphenylsiloxane. In the test of sea urchin pore spaces are linked into united system of regular structure with structure motive period about 20 um. This developed three-dimensional structure was used as a template for polymer material based on polyferrofenilsiloxane [OSiC6H5OH]x[OSiC6H5O]y[OFeO]z, which is chemically similar to the native film, coating sea urchins skeleton.

  16. Semi-Automatic Construction of Skeleton Concept Maps from Case Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, A.; Sijtsma, B.; Winkels, R.; Lettieri, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to generating Skeleton Conceptual Maps (SCM) semi automatically from legal case documents provided by the United Kingdom’s Supreme Court. SCM are incomplete knowledge representations for the purpose of scaffolding learning. The proposed system intends to provide students with a tool to pre-process text and to extract knowledge from documents in a time saving manner. A combination of natural language processing methods and proposition extraction algorithms are u...

  17. Mobile computation offloading architecture for mobile augmented reality, case study: Visualization of cetacean skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Belen G. Rodriguez-Santana; Amilcar Meneses Viveros; Blanca Esther Carvajal-Gamez; Diana Carolina Trejo-Osorio

    2016-01-01

    Augmented Reality applications can serve as teach-ing tools in different contexts of use. Augmented reality appli-cation on mobile devices can help to provide tourist information on cities or to give information on visits to museums. For example, during visits to museums of natural history, applications of augmented reality on mobile devices can be used by some visitors to interact with the skeleton of a whale. However, making rendering heavy models can be computationally infeasible on device...

  18. New Insights into the Carbon Isotope Variations in Coral Skeletons (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, P. K.

    2010-12-01

    The origin of the carbon isotopic composition of coral skeletons has been a subject of speculation and controversy since the first stable C and O isotopic measurements were made on corals in the 1960s and the first models of fractionation were proposed by Weber and coworkers. Early models focused on the interactions between the zooxanthellae and the coral organism and the relationship with insolation. Models were proposed that linked higher levels of photosynthesis to both 13C enriched and 13C depleted skeletal material. While the model which showed elevated 13C values related to enhanced photosynthesis generally has found favor and fits the majority of the data from experimental and field studies, more recent work has also shown the importance of the natural variability of the δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon on interannual and longer time scales. This variability can overwhelm photosynthetic induced variability. For example, changes over the time period of 100s of years, caused by the addition of fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere, has resulted in a general decline in the δ13C of coral skeletons since ~1800. These changes are even larger in instances in which local variations in δ13C are related to land use changes and the openness of the environment. Recently there has been concern regarding the decrease in the pH of the oceans related to increases in oceanic pCO2. This also has potential to changes the δ13C of the coral skeleton. Finally there are seasonal variations in the types of organic compounds being oxidized by the coral. This may be related to the types of materials being translocated between the zooxanthellae and the coral. All these factors make changes in the δ13C of coral skeletons much more than a reflection of the influence of insolation.

  19. The origin and diversification of the developmental mechanisms that pattern the vertebrate head skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Square, Tyler; Jandzik, David; Romášek, Marek; Cerny, Robert; Medeiros, Daniel Meulemans

    2017-07-15

    The apparent evolvability of the vertebrate head skeleton has allowed a diverse array of shapes, sizes, and compositions of the head in order to better adapt species to their environments. This encompasses feeding, breathing, sensing, and communicating: the head skeleton somehow participated in the evolution of all these critical processes for the last 500 million years. Through evolution, present head diversity was made possible via developmental modifications to the first head skeletal genetic program. Understanding the development of the vertebrate common ancestor's head skeleton is thus an important step in identifying how different lineages have respectively achieved their many innovations in the head. To this end, cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates) are extremely useful, having diverged from jawed vertebrates approximately 400 million years ago, at the deepest node within living vertebrates. From this ancestral vantage point (that is, the node connecting cyclostomes and gnathostomes) we can best identify the earliest major differences in development between vertebrate classes, and start to address how these might translate onto morphology. In this review we survey what is currently known about the cell biology and gene expression during head development in modern vertebrates, allowing us to better characterize the developmental genetics driving head skeleton formation in the most recent common ancestor of all living vertebrates. By pairing this vertebrate composite with information from fossil chordates, we can also deduce how gene regulatory modules might have been arranged in the ancestral vertebrate head. Together, we can immediately begin to understand which aspects of head skeletal development are the most conserved, and which are divergent, informing us as to when the first differences appear during development, and thus which pathways or cell types might be involved in generating lineage specific shape and structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Explodator: A new skeleton mechanism for the halate driven chemical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszticzius, Z.; Farkas, H.; Schelly, Z. A.

    1984-06-01

    In the first part of this work, some shortcomings in the present theories of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii oscillating reaction are discussed. In the second part, a new oscillatory scheme, the limited Explodator, is proposed as an alternative skeleton mechanism. This model contains an always unstable three-variable Lotka-Volterra core (the ``Explodator'') and a stabilizing limiting reaction. The new scheme exhibits Hopf bifurcation and limit cycle oscillations. Finally, some possibilities and problems of a generalization are mentioned.

  1. Social networking between cells of the foetal skeleton: the importance of thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In this issue of Journal of Endocrinology, Lanham et al. investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on the developing skeleton of the ovine foetus in utero. Their analyses indicated that, following thyroidectomy, bone growth, structure and mechanical properties were all altered at late gestation or at term. Adrenalectomy, whilst preventing the prepartum rise in triiodothyronine, did not modify skeletal development. The hypothyroid-mediated skeletal defects of the developing foetus described in this study may have clinical implications for bone health in later life.

  2. Constraining calcium isotope fractionation (δ44/40Ca) in modern and fossil scleractinian coral skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Pretet, Chloé; Samankassou, Elias; Felis, Thomas; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Böhm, Florian; Eisenhauer, Anton; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Camoin, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of environmental (temperature, salinity) and biological (growth rate, inter-generic variations) parameters on calcium isotope fractionation (δ44/40Ca) in scleractinian coral skeleton to better constrain this record. Previous studies focused on the δ44/40Ca record in different marine organisms to reconstruct seawater composition or temperature, but only few studies investigated corals. This study presents measurements performed on modern corals f...

  3. Skeletonization of Left Internal Mammary Artery in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.S.; Shah, M.U.A.; Asghar, M.I.; Janjua, A.M.; Iqbal, A.; Siddiqi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare mean per-operative flow capacity between skeletonized and pedicled left internal mammary artery (LIMA) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Cardiac Surgery, Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD), Rawalpindi, Pakistan from February to August, 2013. Methodology: Patients undergoing CABG for coronary artery disease, under 80 years, excluded by the exclusion criteria; and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to two groups of 70 each. One group underwent skeletonized and the other underwent pedicled technique of LIMA harvesting. Free flow was checked just before anastamosis of each LIMA to the LAD, manually in blood flow in ml per minute during cardiopulmonary bypass by allowing it to bleed into a 100 ml container over 20 seconds. A specialized proforma was used to record the age, gender, weight, disease, type of IMA used, and free flow of the IMA. Data was analyzed using SPSS 18. Result: The mean age of the patients was 57.16 years in 40 patients, ranging from 36 to 75 years. Disease pattern analysis showed 5 percent, 10.7 percent and 84.3 percent single, double and triple vessel coronary artery disease, respectively. There was significantly higher free flow in the skeletonized group than the pedicled group (p=0.04). Conclusion: Skeletonized IMA had superior flow to pedicled IMA in addition to its traditional proven advantages, which justifies its further use as a conduit for myocardial revascularization. (author)

  4. Axial tomography in live cell laser microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Verena; Bruns, Sarah; Bruns, Thomas; Weber, Petra; Wagner, Michael; Cremer, Christoph; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    2017-09-01

    Single cell microscopy in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment is reported. Cells are grown in an agarose culture gel, located within microcapillaries and observed from different sides after adaptation of an innovative device for sample rotation. Thus, z-stacks can be recorded by confocal microscopy in different directions and used for illustration in 3-D. This gives additional information, since cells or organelles that appear superimposed in one direction, may be well resolved in another one. The method is tested and validated with single cells expressing a membrane or a mitochondrially associated green fluorescent protein, or cells accumulating fluorescent quantum dots. In addition, axial tomography supports measurements of cellular uptake and distribution of the anticancer drug doxorubicin in the nucleus (2 to 6 h after incubation) or the cytoplasm (24 h). This paper discusses that upon cell rotation an enhanced optical resolution in lateral direction compared to axial direction can be utilized to obtain an improved effective 3-D resolution, which represents an important step toward super-resolution microscopy of living cells.

  5. Axial vessel widening in arborescent monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Giai; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Carrer, Marco; Anfodillo, Tommaso

    2014-02-01

    Dicotyledons have evolved a strategy to compensate for the increase in hydraulic resistance to water transport with height growth by widening xylem conduits downwards. In monocots, the accumulation of hydraulic resistance with height should be similar, but the absence of secondary growth represents a strong limitation for the maintenance of xylem hydraulic efficiency during ontogeny. The hydraulic architecture of monocots has been studied but it is unclear how monocots arrange their axial vascular structure during ontogeny to compensate for increases in height. We measured the vessel lumina and estimated the hydraulic diameter (Dh) at different heights along the stem of two arborescent monocots, Bactris gasipaes (Kunth) and Guadua angustifolia (Kunth). For the former, we also estimated the variation in Dh along the leaf rachis. Hydraulic diameter increased basally from the stem apex to the base with a scaling exponent (b) in the range of those reported for dicot trees (b = 0.22 in B. gasipaes; b = 0.31 and 0.23 in G. angustifolia). In B. gasipaes, vessels decrease in Dh from the stem's centre towards the periphery, an opposite pattern compared with dicot trees. Along the leaf rachis, a pattern of increasing Dh basally was also found (b = 0.13). The hydraulic design of the monocots studied revealed an axial pattern of xylem conduits similar to those evolved by dicots to compensate and minimize the negative effect of root-to-leaf length on hydrodynamic resistance to water flow.

  6. Anion-π Catalysts with Axial Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Matile, Stefan

    2017-09-04

    The idea of anion-π catalysis is to stabilize anionic transition states by anion-π interactions on aromatic surfaces. For asymmetric anion-π catalysis, π-acidic surfaces have been surrounded with stereogenic centers. This manuscript introduces the first anion-π catalysts that operate with axial chirality. Bifunctional catalysts with tertiary amine bases next to π-acidic naphthalenediimide planes are equipped with a bulky aromatic substituent in the imide position to produce separable atropisomers. The addition of malonic acid half thioesters to enolate acceptors is used for evaluation. In the presence of a chiral axis, the selective acceleration of the disfavored but relevant enolate addition was much better than with point chirality, and enantioselectivity could be observed for the first time for this reaction with small-molecule anion-π catalysts. Enantioselectivity increased with the π acidity of the π surface, whereas the addition of stereogenic centers around the aromatic plane did not cause further improvements. These results identify axial chirality of the active aromatic plane generated by atropisomerism as an attractive strategy for asymmetric anion-π catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Medullary sponge kidney on axial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginalski, J.-M.; Schnyder, Pierre; Portmann, Luc; Jaeger, Philippe

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate features of medullary sponge kidney (MSK) on computed tomography (CT), 4-mm-thick axial slices without intravenous contrast material were 1st made in 13 patients through 24 kidneys which showed images of MSK on excretory urograms. On CT, papillary calcifications were found in 11 kidneys. In 5 of these, the calcifications were not detectable on plain films. Some hyperdense papillae (attenuation value 55-70 Hounsfield units) without calcification were found in 4 other kidneys. 9 kidneys appeared normal. 10 of the 14 kidneys were reexamined by a 2nd series of 4-mm-thick axial slices, 5 min after intravenous injection of 50 ml of Urografin. Images suggesting possible ectasia of precaliceal tubules were found in only 4 kidneys. These images appear much less obvious and characteristic on CT than on excretory urogram and do nothing more than suggest the possibility of MSK. In conclusion, the sensitivity of CT in the detection of MSK is markedly lower than that of excretory urography. In the most florid cases of the disease, CT can only show images suggesting the possibility of MSK. On the other hand, CT appears much more sensitive than plain films and tomograms of excretory in the detection of papillary calcifications, the most frequent complication of MSK. (author). 13 refs.; 3 figs

  8. Canonical quantization of the generalized axial gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, K.

    1990-01-01

    The incompatibility of the constraint A 3 =0 with canonical commutation rules is discussed. A canonical formulation is given of QED and QCD in the axial gauge with n 1 =n 2 =0, n 3 =α and n 0 =β, where α and β are arbitrary real numbers. A Hilbert space is established for the perturbative theory, and a propagator is derived by obtaining an expression for the interaction picture gauge fields, and evaluating the vacuum expectation value of its time-ordered products in the perturbative vacuum. The propagator is expressed in terms of the parameter γ=α/β and is shown to reproduce the light cone gauge propagator when γ=1, and the temporal gauge propagator when γ=0, accommodating various prescriptions for the spurious propagator pole, including the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt and principal value prescriptions. When γ→∞, the generalized axial gauge propagator leads to an expression for the propagator in the A 3 =0 gauge, though in that case the order in which the integration over k 0 is performed, and the limit γ→∞ is taken, affects the resulting expression. Another Hilbert space is established, in which the constraints that include all interactions are implemented in a time independent fashion. It is pointed out that this Hilbert space, and the Hilbert space of the perturbative theory are unitarily equivalent in QED, but that they cannot be unitarily equivalent in QCD. Implications of this fact for the nonperturbative states of QCD are discussed. (orig.)

  9. The Modelling of Axially Translating Flexible Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, R. J.; Arakeri, J. H.; Ghosal, A.

    1996-04-01

    The axially translating flexible beam with a prismatic joint can be modelled by using the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation together with the convective terms. In general, the method of separation of variables cannot be applied to solve this partial differential equation. In this paper, a non-dimensional form of the Euler Bernoulli beam equation is presented, obtained by using the concept of group velocity, and also the conditions under which separation of variables and assumed modes method can be used. The use of clamped-mass boundary conditions leads to a time-dependent frequency equation for the translating flexible beam. A novel method is presented for solving this time dependent frequency equation by using a differential form of the frequency equation. The assume mode/Lagrangian formulation of dynamics is employed to derive closed form equations of motion. It is shown by using Lyapunov's first method that the dynamic responses of flexural modal variables become unstable during retraction of the flexible beam, which the dynamic response during extension of the beam is stable. Numerical simulation results are presented for the uniform axial motion induced transverse vibration for a typical flexible beam.

  10. Multi-axial response of idealized cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, E.G.; Bele, E.; Deshpande, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    The yield response of two idealized cermets comprising mono and bi-disperse steel spheres in a Sn/Pb solder matrix has been investigated for a range of axisymmetric stress states. Proportional stress path experiments are reported, from which are extracted the initial yield surfaces and their evolution with increasing plastic strain. The initial yield strength is nearly independent of the hydrostatic pressure but the strain hardening rate increases with stress triaxiality up to a critical value. For higher triaxialities, the responses are independent of hydrostatic pressure. Multi-axial measurements along with X-ray tomography were used to demonstrate that the deformation of these idealized cermets occurs by two competing mechanisms: (i) a granular flow mechanism that operates at low levels of triaxiality, where volumetric dilation occurs under compressive stress states, and (ii) a plastically incompressible mechanism that operates at high stress triaxialities. A phenomenological viscoplastic constitutive model that incorporates both deformation mechanisms is presented. While such multi-axial measurements are difficult for commercial cermets with yield strengths on the order of a few GPa, the form of their constitutive relation is expected to be similar to that of the idealized cermets presented here.

  11. A microanatomical and histological study of the postcranial dermal skeleton of the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Zylberberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian stem-actinoterygian Cheirolepis canadensis is potentially important to understand the evolution of the dermal skeleton of osteichthyans, but the last detailed histological study on this taxon was published more than forty years ago. Here, we present new data about the morphology and the histological structure of scales, fulcra, and fin-rays in the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis through SEM and photomicroscopy. The scales have a typical palaeoniscoid organisation, with ganoine layers overlaying dentine and a bony basal plate, but the ganoine surface lacks the characteristic microtubercles that have been described on the ganoine surface of the scales of polypterids and many other actinopterygians. Fin-rays are composed of segmented and ramified lepidotrichia that show a structure reminiscent of scales, with ganoine and dentine components lying on a thick bony base. We describe articular processes between lepidotrichia that are reminiscent of, and plausibly homologous with, the peg-and-socket articulations between the scales. The analysis of the postcranial dermal skeleton of Cheirolepis canadensis shows that structural similarities between scales and lepidotrichia of this basal actinopterygian are greater than in more recent actinopterygians. The new data on histological and microanatomical structure of the dermal skeleton lend additional support to the hypothesis that lepidotichia are derivatives of scales, though they are also compatible with the more general hypothesis that scales, lepidotrichia and fulcra belong to the same morphogenetic system.

  12. Carbon aerogel with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure for lithium-ion batteries application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoqing, E-mail: yxq-886@163.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Hong [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Xinxi [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu, Dingcai [Materials Science Institute, PCFM Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Fu, Ruowen, E-mail: cesfrw@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Materials Science Institute, PCFM Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Carbon aerogel (CA) with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel polymerization method and then used as the anode materials of lithium-ion batteries. It was found that the reversible specific capacity of the as-prepared CAs could stay at about 470 mA h g{sup −1} for 80 cycles, much higher than the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite (372 mAh g{sup −1}). In addition, CA also showed a better rate capacity compared to commercial graphite. The good electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the following three factors: (1) the large BET surface area of 620 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which can provide more lithium ion insertion sites, (2) 3-D continuous skeleton of CAs, which favors the transport of the electrons, (3) 3-D continuous mesopore structure with narrow mesopore size distribution and high mesopore ratio of 87.3%, which facilitates the diffusion and transport of the electrolyte and lithium ions. - Highlights: • Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel method. • The CA presents high surface area, 3D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure. • The reversible capacity of CA is much higher than that of graphite.

  13. Carbon aerogel with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure for lithium-ion batteries application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Huang, Hong; Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Xinxi; Wu, Dingcai; Fu, Ruowen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon aerogel (CA) with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel polymerization method and then used as the anode materials of lithium-ion batteries. It was found that the reversible specific capacity of the as-prepared CAs could stay at about 470 mA h g −1 for 80 cycles, much higher than the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite (372 mAh g −1 ). In addition, CA also showed a better rate capacity compared to commercial graphite. The good electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the following three factors: (1) the large BET surface area of 620 m 2  g −1 , which can provide more lithium ion insertion sites, (2) 3-D continuous skeleton of CAs, which favors the transport of the electrons, (3) 3-D continuous mesopore structure with narrow mesopore size distribution and high mesopore ratio of 87.3%, which facilitates the diffusion and transport of the electrolyte and lithium ions. - Highlights: • Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel method. • The CA presents high surface area, 3D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure. • The reversible capacity of CA is much higher than that of graphite

  14. The Facial Skeleton in Patients with Osteoporosis: A Field for Disease Signs and Treatment Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Kyrgidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis affects all bones, including those of the facial skeleton. To date the facial bones have not drawn much attention due to the minimal probability of morbid fractures. Hearing and dentition loss due to osteoporosis has been reported. New research findings suggest that radiologic examination of the facial skeleton can be a cost-effective adjunct to complement the early diagnosis and the follow up of osteoporosis patients. Bone-mass preservation treatments have been associated with osteomyelitis of the jawbones, a condition commonly described as osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ. The facial skeleton, where alimentary tract mucosa attaches directly to periosteum and teeth which lie in their sockets of alveolar bone, is an area unique for the early detection of osteoporosis but also for the prevention of treatment-associated complications. We review facial bone involvement in patients with osteoporosis and we present data that make the multidisciplinary approach of these patients more appealing for both practitioners and dentists. With regard to ONJ, a tabular summary with currently available evidence is provided to facilitate multidisciplinary practice coordination for the treatment of patients receiving bisphosphonates.

  15. Distribution of 239Pu and 241Am in the human skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Swint, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The 241 Am and 239 Pu distribution in the skeletons of two former nuclear workers has been measured. The skeletons of both individuals appear to be within normal limits for Caucasian men about 50 y old. Both had lower limb bones that were heavier than the age controls and Case I had upper-body bones that were lighter than the age control group. The distribution of americium in the skeleton of Case I, 25 years post exposure, indicated that a more rapid turnover of initially deposited americium on the bone surfaces of cancellous bone, as compared to that deposited on the bone surfaces of compact bone, had occurred. This resulted in a larger proportion of americium located in the compact bone of the extremities and a lesser quantity in the more cancellous bones of the vertebral column, pelvis and rib cage. A similar shift in the distribution of plutonium occurred in Case II in the 35 y since initial deposition, but at a slower rate than that for americium. The ratio of each actinide in the liver to that in the systemic system (liver content/systemic system content) was 0.065 and 0.436, for americium and plutonium, respectively, suggesting that a much more rapid turnover of americium in the liver, compared to plutonium, provided a much larger fraction of that nuclide for circulatory feedback to the remodeling skeletal system. 8 references, 3 tables

  16. [Characteristics of local human skeleton reactions to microgravity and drug treatment of osteoporosis in clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganov, V S; Skripnikova, I A; Novikov, V E; Bakulin, A V; Kabitskaia, O E; Murashko, L M

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the results of long-term investigations of bones in cosmonauts flown on the orbital station MIR and International space station (n = 80) was performed. Theoretically predicted (evolutionary predefined) change in mass of different skeleton bones was found to correlate (r = 0.904) with position relatively the Earth's gravity vector. Vector dependence of bone loss ensues from local specificity of expression of bone metabolism genes which reflects mechanic prehistory of skeleton structures in the evolution of Homo erectus. Genetic polymorphism is accountable for high individual variability of bone loss attested by the dependence of bone loss rate on polymorphism of certain bone metabolism markers. Parameters of one and the other orbital vehicle did not modulate individual-specific stability of the bone loss ratio in different segments of the skeleton. This fact is considered as a phenotype fingerprint of local metabolism in the form of a locus-unique spatial structure of distribution of noncollagenous proteins responsible for position regulation of endosteal metabolism. Drug treatment of osteoporosis (n = 107) evidences that recovery rate depends on bone location; the most likely reason is different effectiveness of local osteotrophic intervention into areas of bustling resorption.

  17. HuAc: Human Activity Recognition Using Crowdsourced WiFi Signals and Skeleton Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint of WiFi-based and vision-based human activity recognition has attracted increasing attention in the human-computer interaction, smart home, and security monitoring fields. We propose HuAc, the combination of WiFi-based and Kinect-based activity recognition system, to sense human activity in an indoor environment with occlusion, weak light, and different perspectives. We first construct a WiFi-based activity recognition dataset named WiAR to provide a benchmark for WiFi-based activity recognition. Then, we design a mechanism of subcarrier selection according to the sensitivity of subcarriers to human activities. Moreover, we optimize the spatial relationship of adjacent skeleton joints and draw out a corresponding relationship between CSI and skeleton-based activity recognition. Finally, we explore the fusion information of CSI and crowdsourced skeleton joints to achieve the robustness of human activity recognition. We implemented HuAc using commercial WiFi devices and evaluated it in three kinds of scenarios. Our results show that HuAc achieves an average accuracy of greater than 93% using WiAR dataset.

  18. Modeling of the axon membrane skeleton structure and implications for its mechanical properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihao Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution microscopy recently revealed that, unlike the soma and dendrites, the axon membrane skeleton is structured as a series of actin rings connected by spectrin filaments that are held under tension. Currently, the structure-function relationship of the axonal structure is unclear. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM to show that the stiffness of the axon plasma membrane is significantly higher than the stiffnesses of dendrites and somata. To examine whether the structure of the axon plasma membrane determines its overall stiffness, we introduced a coarse-grain molecular dynamics model of the axon membrane skeleton that reproduces the structure identified by super-resolution microscopy. Our proposed computational model accurately simulates the median value of the Young's modulus of the axon plasma membrane determined by atomic force microscopy. It also predicts that because the spectrin filaments are under entropic tension, the thermal random motion of the voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav, which are bound to ankyrin particles, a critical axonal protein, is reduced compared to the thermal motion when spectrin filaments are held at equilibrium. Lastly, our model predicts that because spectrin filaments are under tension, any axonal injuries that lacerate spectrin filaments will likely lead to a permanent disruption of the membrane skeleton due to the inability of spectrin filaments to spontaneously form their initial under-tension configuration.

  19. Modeling of the axon membrane skeleton structure and implications for its mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihao; Abiraman, Krithika; Li, He; Pierce, David M; Tzingounis, Anastasios V; Lykotrafitis, George

    2017-02-01

    Super-resolution microscopy recently revealed that, unlike the soma and dendrites, the axon membrane skeleton is structured as a series of actin rings connected by spectrin filaments that are held under tension. Currently, the structure-function relationship of the axonal structure is unclear. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to show that the stiffness of the axon plasma membrane is significantly higher than the stiffnesses of dendrites and somata. To examine whether the structure of the axon plasma membrane determines its overall stiffness, we introduced a coarse-grain molecular dynamics model of the axon membrane skeleton that reproduces the structure identified by super-resolution microscopy. Our proposed computational model accurately simulates the median value of the Young's modulus of the axon plasma membrane determined by atomic force microscopy. It also predicts that because the spectrin filaments are under entropic tension, the thermal random motion of the voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav), which are bound to ankyrin particles, a critical axonal protein, is reduced compared to the thermal motion when spectrin filaments are held at equilibrium. Lastly, our model predicts that because spectrin filaments are under tension, any axonal injuries that lacerate spectrin filaments will likely lead to a permanent disruption of the membrane skeleton due to the inability of spectrin filaments to spontaneously form their initial under-tension configuration.

  20. Who Believes in the Giant Skeleton Myth? An Examination of Individual Difference Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined individual difference correlates of belief in a narrative about the discovery of giant skeletal remains that contravenes mainstream scientific explanations. A total of 364 participants from Central Europe completed a survey that asked them to rate their agreement with a short excerpt describing the giant skeleton myth. Participants also completed measures of the Big Five personality factors, New Age orientation, anti-scientific attitudes, superstitious beliefs, and religiosity. Results showed that women, as compared with men, and respondents with lower educational qualifications were significantly more likely to believe in the giant skeleton myth, although effect sizes were small. Correlational analysis showed that stronger belief in the giant skeleton myth was significantly associated with greater anti-scientific attitudes, stronger New Age orientation, greater religiosity, stronger superstitious beliefs, lower Openness to Experience scores, and higher Neuroticism scores. However, a multiple regression showed that the only significant predictors of belief in myth were Openness, New Age orientation, and anti-scientific attitudes. These results are discussed in relation to the potential negative consequences of belief in myths.

  1. Biology of bone and how it orchestrates the form and function of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeldt, D. W.; Rubin, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    The principal role of the skeleton is to provide structural support for the body. While the skeleton also serves as the body's mineral reservoir, the mineralized structure is the very basis of posture, opposes muscular contraction resulting in motion, withstands functional load bearing, and protects internal organs. Although the mass and morphology of the skeleton is defined, to some extent, by genetic determinants, it is the tissue's ability to remodel--the local resorption and formation of bone--which is responsible for achieving this intricate balance between competing responsibilities. The aim of this review is to address bone's form-function relationship, beginning with extensive research in the musculoskeletal disciplines, and focusing on several recent cellular and molecular discoveries which help understand the complex interdependence of bone cells, growth factors, physical stimuli, metabolic demands, and structural responsibilities. With a clinical and spine-oriented audience in mind, the principles of bone cell and molecular biology and physiology are presented, and an attempt has been made to incorporate epidemiologic data and therapeutic implications. Bone research remains interdisciplinary by nature, and a deeper understanding of bone biology will ultimately lead to advances in the treatment of diseases and injuries to bone itself.

  2. Comparison of femoropopliteal artery stents under axial and radial compression, axial tension, bending, and torsion deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleckis, Kaspars; Deegan, Paul; Poulson, William; Sievers, Cole; Desyatova, Anastasia; MacTaggart, Jason; Kamenskiy, Alexey

    2017-11-01

    High failure rates of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) stenting appear to be associated with the inability of certain stent designs to accommodate severe biomechanical environment of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA) that bends, twists, and axially compresses during limb flexion. Twelve Nitinol stents (Absolute Pro, Supera, Lifestent, Innova, Zilver, Smart Control, Smart Flex, EverFlex, Viabahn, Tigris, Misago, and Complete SE) were quasi-statically tested under bench-top axial and radial compression, axial tension, bending, and torsional deformations. Stents were compared in terms of force-strain behavior, stiffness, and geometrical shape under each deformation mode. Tigris was the least stiff stent under axial compression (6.6N/m axial stiffness) and bending (0.1N/m) deformations, while Smart Control was the stiffest (575.3N/m and 105.4N/m, respectively). Under radial compression Complete SE was the stiffest (892.8N/m), while Smart Control had the lowest radial stiffness (211.0N/m). Viabahn and Supera had the lowest and highest torsional stiffness (2.2μNm/° and 959.2μNm/°), respectively. None of the 12 PAD stents demonstrated superior characteristics under all deformation modes and many experienced global buckling and diameter pinching. Though it is yet to be determined which of these deformation modes might have greater clinical impact, results of the current analysis may help guide development of new stents with improved mechanical characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heads, Shoulders, Elbows, Knees, and Toes: Modular Gdf5 Enhancers Control Different Joints in the Vertebrate Skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Capellini, Terence D; Schoor, Michael; Mortlock, Doug P; Reddi, A Hari; Kingsley, David M

    2016-11-01

    Synovial joints are crucial for support and locomotion in vertebrates, and are the frequent site of serious skeletal defects and degenerative diseases in humans. Growth and differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5) is one of the earliest markers of joint formation, is required for normal joint development in both mice and humans, and has been genetically linked to risk of common osteoarthritis in Eurasian populations. Here, we systematically survey the mouse Gdf5 gene for regulatory elements controlling expression in synovial joints. We identify separate regions of the locus that control expression in axial tissues, in proximal versus distal joints in the limbs, and in remarkably specific sub-sets of composite joints like the elbow. Predicted transcription factor binding sites within Gdf5 regulatory enhancers are required for expression in particular joints. The multiple enhancers that control Gdf5 expression in different joints are distributed over a hundred kilobases of DNA, including regions both upstream and downstream of Gdf5 coding exons. Functional rescue tests in mice confirm that the large flanking regions are required to restore normal joint formation and patterning. Orthologs of these enhancers are located throughout the large genomic region previously associated with common osteoarthritis risk in humans. The large array of modular enhancers for Gdf5 provide a new foundation for studying the spatial specificity of joint patterning in vertebrates, as well as new candidates for regulatory regions that may also influence osteoarthritis risk in human populations.

  4. Surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton: current approach and recent developments in biokinetic modelling for humans and beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, A.; Polig, E.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, the biokinetics of surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton has been the object of several studies. Investigations were carried out to determine the kinetics of plutonium and americium in the skeleton of humans and beagles. As a result of these investigations, in recent years the models presented by ICRP in Publication 67 for humans were partially revised, particularly the skeletal part. The aim of the present work is to present recent developments in the biokinetic modelling of surface-seeking radionuclides (plutonium and americium) in beagles and humans. Various assumptions and physiological interpretations of the different approaches to the biokinetic modelling of the skeleton are discussed. Current ICRP concepts and skeleton modelling of plutonium and americium in humans are compared to the latest developments in biokinetic modelling in beagles. (authors)

  5. Contribution of ankyrin-band 3 complexes to the organization and mechanical properties of the membrane skeleton of human erythrocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, B.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Biological and Medical Research Div.

    1995-02-01

    To understand the role of ankyrin-band 3 complexes in the organization of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton and its contribution to the mechanical properties of human erythrocytes, intact skeletons and single-layered skeleton leaflets were prepared from intact and physically sheared membrane ghosts, expanded in low salt buffer, and examined by transmission electron microscopy. While the structures of intact skeletons and single-layered skeleton leaflets shared many common features, including rigid junctional complexes of spectrin, actin, and band 4.1; short stretches ({approximately}50 {angstrom}) of flexible spectrin filaments; and globular masses of ankyrin-band 3 complexes situated close to the middle of the spectrin filaments, the definition of structural units in the intact skeleton is obscured by the superposition of the two layers. However, the spatial disposition of structural elements can be clearly defined in the images of the single-layered skeleton leaflets. Partially expanded skeletal leaflets contain conglomerates of ankyrin-band 3 complexes arranged in a circular or clove-leaf configuration that straddles multiple strands of thick spectrin cables, presumably reflecting the association of ankyrin-band 3 complexes on neighboring spectrin tetramers as well as the lateral association of the spectrin filaments. Hyperexpansion of the skeleton leaflets led to dissociation of the conglomerates of ankyrin-band 3 complexes, full-extension of the spectrin tetramers, and separation of the individual strands of spectrin tetramers. Clearly defined stands of spectrin tetramers in the hyperexpanded single-layered skeletal leaflets often contained two sets of globular protein masses that divided the spectrin tetramers into three segments of approximately equal length.

  6. Chiral filter, axial charges and Gamow-Teller strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1983-09-01

    The different ways that nuclear matter responds to the weak axial-vector current are interpreted in terms of modification of the ''vacuum'' in baryon-rich environments. The notion of ''chiral filter'' is introduced. Use of a ward identity is suggested. The Gamow-Teller quenching and the enhanced axial charge in O + O - transitions follow from this. I also discuss briefly possible relevance of the nucleon as a topological soliton configuration to the global property of nuclear axial response functions

  7. Geometric inequalities for axially symmetric black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    A geometric inequality in general relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse; they are closely related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. Axially symmetric black holes are the natural candidates to study these inequalities because the quasi-local angular momentum is well defined for them. We review recent results in this subject and we also describe the main ideas behind the proofs. Finally, a list of relevant open problems is presented. (topical review)

  8. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The objects of this invention are first to reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Secondly, to provide a scintillation camera system to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a known radiation source without sacrificing spatial resolution. Thirdly to reduce the scanning time without loss of image clarity. The system described comprises a scintillation camera detector, means for moving this in orbit about a cranial-caudal axis relative to a patient and a collimator having septa defining apertures such that gamma rays perpendicular to the axis are admitted with high spatial resolution, parallel to the axis with low resolution. The septa may be made of strips of lead. Detailed descriptions are given. (U.K.)

  9. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The principal problem in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning is the length of time required to obtain meaningful data. Patient movement and radioisotope migration during the scanning period can cause distortion of the image. The object of this invention is to reduce the scanning time without degrading the images obtained. A system is described in which a scintillation camera detector is moved to an orbit about the cranial-caudal axis relative to the patient. A collimator is used in which lead septa are arranged so as to admit gamma rays travelling perpendicular to this axis with high spatial resolution and those travelling in the direction of the axis with low spatial resolution, thus increasing the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable without sacrificing spatial resolution. (author)

  10. Axial tomographic system for radiation diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The axial tomographic scanner consists of a source of hard radiation passing a fan shaped beam through a plane layer of the body under examination, a detector, and driving systems for the sequential displacement and rotation of the radiation source and the detector. The diagnosis is made by means of a data processing system offering extensive time overlap capability of the individual system functions. The data sets from transmission or absorption are processed in three independent subsystems, i.e., the scanning system, the processing system and the display system. The systems are made up of well-known modules, e.g., Nova 1200 or Eclipse 5200. Hence, as a result of the independent design of the data system, raw data will not be lost in case of faults in some subsystem. (DG) [de

  11. Axial grazing collisions with insulator surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravielle, M.S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar; Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-05-15

    Electron capture and emission processes from insulator surfaces produced by grazing impact of fast ions are investigated under axial incidence conditions. For crystal surfaces we develop a model based on distorted wave methods, which allows us to express the coherent transition amplitude along the projectile path as a sum of atomic amplitudes, each one associated with a different lattice site. The method is applied to 100 keV protons colliding with LiF surfaces. For electron transitions from a given initial crystal state, the probabilities display strong interference effects as a function of the crystal orientation. But the interference patterns disappear when these partial probabilities are added to derive the total probability from the surface band.

  12. Axial grazing collisions with insulator surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravielle, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Electron capture and emission processes from insulator surfaces produced by grazing impact of fast ions are investigated under axial incidence conditions. For crystal surfaces we develop a model based on distorted wave methods, which allows us to express the coherent transition amplitude along the projectile path as a sum of atomic amplitudes, each one associated with a different lattice site. The method is applied to 100 keV protons colliding with LiF surfaces. For electron transitions from a given initial crystal state, the probabilities display strong interference effects as a function of the crystal orientation. But the interference patterns disappear when these partial probabilities are added to derive the total probability from the surface band

  13. Axial nonimaging characteristics of imaging lenses: discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Ronian

    2016-05-01

    At observation planes away from the image plane, an imaging lens is a nonimaging optic. We examine the variation of axial irradiance with distance in image space and highlight the following little-known observation for discussion: On a per-unit-area basis, the position of the highest concentration in image space is generally not at the focal plane. This characteristic is contrary to common experience, and it offers an additional degree of freedom for the design of detection systems. Additionally, it would also apply to lenses with negative refractive index. The position of peak concentration and its irradiance is dependent upon the location and irradiance of the image. As such, this discussion also includes a close examination of expressions for image irradiance and explains how they are related to irradiance calculations beyond the image plane. This study is restricted to rotationally symmetric refractive imaging systems with incoherent extended Lambertian sources.

  14. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations......-Raphson method, andsolutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs.The model has been validated against published measurementson various fan configurations,comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotatingfan unit and a stator-rotor-stator stage.Comparisons of local...... and integrated propertiesshow that the computed results agree well with the measurements.Integrating a rotor-only version of the aerodynamic modelwith an algorithm for numerical designoptimization, enables the finding of an optimum fan rotor.The angular velocity of the rotor, the hub radius and the spanwise...

  15. Image reconstruction. Application to transverse axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubry, Florent.

    1977-09-01

    A method of computerized tridimensional image reconstruction from their projection, especially in the computerized transverse axial tomography is suggested. First, the different techniques actually developped and presented in the literature are analyzed. Then, the equipment used is briefly described. The reconstruction algorithm developped is presented. This algorithm is based on the convolution method, well adapted to the real conditions of exploitation. It is an extension of SHEPP and LOGAN's algorithm. A correction of the self absorption and of the detector's response is proposed. Finally, the first results obtained which are satisfactory are given. The simplicity of the method which does not need a too long computation time makes possible the implementation of the algorithm on a mini-computer [fr

  16. Composite Axial Flow Propulsor for Small Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the design of an axial flow ducted fan driven by a reciprocating engine. The solution minimizes the turbulization of the flow around the aircraft. The fan has a rotor - stator configuration. Due to the need for low weight of the fan, a carbon/epoxy composite material was chosen for the blades and the driving shaft.The fan is designed for optimal isentropic efficiency and free vortex flow. A stress analysis of the rotor blade was performed using the Finite Element  Method. The skin of the blade is calculated as a laminate and the foam core as a solid. A static and dynamic analysis were made. The RTM technology is compared with other technologies and is described in detail. 

  17. Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S

    2014-12-01

    To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Aerodynamic modelling and optimization of axial fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noertoft Soerensen, Dan

    1998-01-01

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics of low speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed. The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby the rotor is divided into a number of annular stream tubes. For each of these stream tubes relations for velocity, pressure and radial position are derived from the conservation laws for mass, tangential momentum and energy. The equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson methods, and solutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs. The model has been validated against published measurements on various fan configurations, comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotating fan unit and a stator-rotor stator stage. Comparisons of local and integrated properties show that the computed results agree well with the measurements. Optimizations have been performed to maximize the mean value of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates, thus designing a fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions. The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on 1: the number of blades, 2: the width of the design interval and 3: the hub radius. The degree of freedom in the choice of design variable and constraints, combined with the design interval concept, provides a valuable design-tool for axial fans. To further investigate the use of design optimization, a model for the vortex shedding noise from the trailing edge of the blades has been incorporated into the optimization scheme. The noise emission from the blades was minimized in a flow rate design point. Optimizations were performed to investigate the dependence of the noise on 1: the number of blades, 2: a constraint imposed on efficiency and 3: the hub radius. The investigations showed, that a significant reduction of noise could be achieved, at the expense of a small reduction in fan efficiency. (EG) 66 refs.

  19. Axially symmetric Lorentzian wormholes in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schein, F.

    1997-11-01

    The field equations of Einstein's theory of general relativity, being local, do not fix the global structure of space-time. They admit topologically non-trivial solutions, including spatially closed universes and the amazing possibility of shortcuts for travel between distant regions in space and time - so-called Lorentzian wormholes. The aim of this thesis is to (mathematically) construct space-times which contain traversal wormholes connecting arbitrary distant regions of an asymptotically flat or asymptotically de Sitter universe. Since the wormhole mouths appear as two separate masses in the exterior space, space-time can at best be axially symmetric. We eliminate the non-staticity caused by the gravitational attraction of the mouths by anchoring them by strings held at infinity or, alternatively, by electric repulsion. The space-times are obtained by surgically grafting together well-known solutions of Einstein's equations along timelike hypersurfaces. This surgery naturally concentrates a non-zero stress-energy tensor on the boundary between the two space-times which can be investigated by using the standard thin shell formalism. It turns out that, when using charged black holes, the provided constructions are possible without violation of any of the energy conditions. In general, observers living in the axially symmetric, asymptotically flat (respectively asymptotically de Sitter) region axe able to send causal signals through the topologically non-trivial region. However, the wormhole space-times contain closed timelike curves. Because of this explicit violation of global hyperbolicity these models do not serve as counterexamples to known topological censorship theorems. (author)

  20. Energy Dissipation in Sandwich Structures During Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full-scale structu......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full...

  1. Improved axial position detection in optical tweezers measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob Kisbye; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Oddershede, Lene

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the axial position detection of a trapped microsphere in an optical trap by using a quadrant photodiode. By replacing the photodiode with a CCD camera, we obtain detailed information on the light scattered by the microsphere. The correlation of the interference pattern with the axial...... position displays complex behavior with regions of positive and negative interference. By analyzing the scattered light intensity as a function of the axial position of the trapped sphere, we propose a simple method to increase the sensitivity and control the linear range of axial position detection....

  2. Golimumab in radiographic and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis: a review of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toussirot E

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eric Toussirot,1–5 Charline Vauchy,1 Delphine Binda,1 Fabrice Michel6 1Clinical Investigation Center in Biotherapy, Intitut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale CIC-1431, 2Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire Integrated Center for Research in inflammatory Diseases, 3Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France; 4Department of Therapeutics, 5Equipe d’accueil EA 4266: “Pathogenic Agents and Inflammation”, University of Franche-Comté, 6Department of Neuromuscular Examinations and Diseases, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, FranceAbstract: Axial spondyloarthritis (Ax SpA refers to chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases that mainly affect the axial skeleton, leading to erosions and new bone formation in the sacroiliac joints and/or the spine. Ax SpA includes the radiographic form of the disease, ie, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, and the nonradiographic Ax SpA (non-Rx Ax SpA forms. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα agents are used in the treatment of Ax SpA in patients who do not respond to or are intolerant to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In these patients, anti-TNFα agents show promising results by targeting the inflammatory process and providing symptomatic relief. Golimumab is a fully human anti-TNFα agent that is currently approved for the treatment of both AS and non-Rx Ax SpA in Europe. This review focuses on the results of clinical trials with golimumab for the treatment of AS (GO-RAISE studies and non-Rx Ax SpA (GO-AHEAD study and on the effects of this agent on imaging findings (radiographic progression, magnetic resonance imaging inflammation as well as on biological parameters. Overall, golimumab is a valid therapeutic option in patients with AS and non-Rx Ax SpA in Europe.Keywords: anti-TNFα, golimumab, axial spondyloarthritis

  3. Dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy: fluorescence axial imaging without axial scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ryoung; Kim, Young-Duk; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Yoo, Hongki

    2013-07-29

    We propose a new method for high-speed, three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging, which we refer to as dual-detection confocal fluorescence microscopy (DDCFM). In contrast to conventional beam-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy, where the focal spot must be scanned either optically or mechanically over a sample volume to reconstruct a 3-D image, DDCFM can obtain the depth of a fluorescent emitter without depth scanning. DDCFM comprises two photodetectors, each with a pinhole of different size, in the confocal detection system. Axial information on fluorescent emitters can be measured by the axial response curve through the ratio of intensity signals. DDCFM can rapidly acquire a 3-D fluorescent image from a single two-dimensional scan with less phototoxicity and photobleaching than confocal fluorescence microscopy because no mechanical depth scans are needed. We demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method by phantom studies.

  4. A comparative study of the ocular skeleton of fossil and modern chondrichthyans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Brettney L; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A

    2009-01-01

    Many vertebrates have an ocular skeleton composed of cartilage and/or bone situated within the sclera of the eye. In this study we investigated whether modern and fossil sharks have an ocular skeleton, and whether it is conserved in morphology. We describe the scleral skeletal elements of three species of modern sharks and compare them to those found in fossil sharks from the Cleveland Shale (360 Mya). We also compare the elements to contemporaneous arthrodires from the same deposit. Surprisingly, the morphology of the skeletal support of the eye was found to differ significantly between modern and fossil sharks. All three modern shark species examined (spiny dogfish shark Squalus acanthias, porbeagle shark Lamna nasus and blue shark Prionace glauca) have a continuous skeletal element that encapsulates much of the eyeball; however, the tissue composition is different in each species. Histological and morphological examination revealed scleral cartilage with distinct tesserae in parts of the sclera of the porbeagle and blue shark, and more diffuse calcification in the dogfish. Strengthening of the scleral cartilage by means of tesserae has not been reported previously in the shark eye. In striking contrast, the ocular skeleton of fossil sharks comprises a series of individual elements that are arranged in a ring, similar to the arrangement in modern and fossil reptiles. Fossil arthrodires also have a multi-unit sclerotic ring but these are composed of fewer elements than in fossil sharks. The morphology of these elements has implications for the behaviour and visual capabilities of sharks that lived during the Devonian Period. This is the first time that such a dramatic variation in the morphology of scleral skeletal elements has been observed in a single lineage (Chondrichthyes), making this lineage important for broadening our understanding of the evolution of these elements within jawed vertebrates. PMID:19538630

  5. Mechanical characterization tests of a candidate skeleton for X-Gen fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Jae Yong; Lee, Young Ho

    2007-09-01

    Since the KNFC (KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co.) requested a mechanical characterization tests of a candidate skeleton for X-Gen fuel assembly (some welding locations of a center guide tube are free of welding compared with the PLUS7 case) were requested, transverse vibration and stiffness tests were carried out by using the FAMeCT. The major results are as follows. - Transverse vibration test There was no distinguishable discrepancy in the free vibration characteristics between the skeleton without welding at some locations of a center guide tube and that of original assembly (PLUS7; welded at every spacer grid locations). The natural frequencies were measured as 6.8 - 6.9 for the 1st mode; 17.7 - 18.3 for the 2nd mode; 30.2 - 31.2 for the 3rd mode; 50.4 - 52.1 Hz for the 4th mode. As a result, the difference in the vibration characteristics was extremely small regardless of the number of welding of a center guide tube. - Transverse bending test. The transverse bending test results of the X-Gen no. 2 were similar to those of the PLUS7 skeleton. The relationship between the force and displacement was found linear. 521 N was observed at the deflection of 30 mm, and the stiffness at the 6th grid location (load exerting location) was 17.4, 16.3 N/mm in the two consecutive tests. The displacements at the grid locations lower than the 6th grid were at bit smaller than those upper than that due to a comparatively higher rigidity

  6. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  7. Characterisation of plasmas produced by the "Torche a Injection Axiale"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, J.; Selen, L.J.M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Regt, de J.M.; Timmermans, E.A.H.; Schram, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Torche a Injection Axiale (TIA), i.e. torch with axial gas injection, was developed by the group of Moisan in 1993. We report on the investigations on two different kind of plasmas created by the TIA: one with helium and the other with argon as main gas. Using absolute

  8. Equation of motion for the axial gravitational superfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1980-01-01

    Transformation properties of the axial supergravitational field variants are investigated. The equation of motion for the axial gravitational superfield is derived by direct variation of the N = 1 supergravity action. The left-hand side of this equation is a component of the torsion tensor, and the right-hand side is the supercurrent. The question about the cosmological term in supergravity is discussed

  9. The Skeleton Is a Storehouse of Mineral That Is Plundered During Lactation and (Fully?) Replenished Afterwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2017-04-01

    During lactation, mammals resorb mineral from the maternal skeleton to provide calcium to milk. Rodents lose 25% to 35% of skeletal ash weight, ash calcium content, and bone mineral content as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and have compromised material properties of bone as assessed by crushing vertebrae and 3-point bend tests of femora or tibias. The strength, stiffness, and toughness of vertebrae, femora, and tibias are reduced by as much as 60%. The effects of lactation are not uniform throughout the skeleton, but instead resorption is much more marked in the trabecular-rich spine than in the appendicular skeleton or whole body. Women who breastfeed exclusively lose an average of 210 mg calcium in milk each day, whereas nursing of twins or triplets can double and triple the output of calcium. Clinical data are also consistent with skeletal calcium being released during lactation to provide much of the calcium needed for milk production. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), as assessed by DXA, declines by a mean of 5% to 10% among numerous studies during 3 to 6 months of exclusive lactation, whereas largely cortical sites (hip, forearm, whole body) show half that loss or no significant changes. Micro-CT of rodents and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) imaging of women confirm that lactation causes microarchitectural deterioration of bone. These skeletal losses occur through two pathways: upregulated osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteocytic osteolysis, in which osteocytes remove mineral from their lacunae and pericanalicular spaces. After weaning, the skeleton is fully restored to its prior mineral content and strength in both animal models and humans, despite persistent microarchitectural changes observed in high-resolution imaging. Osteoblasts upregulate to lay down new osteoid, while osteocytes remineralize their surroundings. The factors that stimulate this post-weaning skeletal recovery

  10. Voxel-based models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult - the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.; Eckerman, K.F.; Bolch, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    For the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) will use voxel-based computational phantoms due to their improved anatomical realism compared with the class of mathematical or stylized phantoms used previously. According to the ICRP philosophy, these phantoms should be representative of the male and female reference adults with respect to their external dimensions, their organ topology and their organ masses. To meet these requirements, reference models of an adult male and adult female have been constructed at the GSF, based on existing voxel models segmented from tomographic images of two individuals whose body height and weight closely resemble the ICRP Publication 89 reference values. The skeleton is a highly complex structure of the body, composed of cortical bone, trabecular bone, red and yellow bone marrow and endosteum ('bone surfaces' in their older terminology). The skeleton of the reference phantoms consists of 19 individually segmented bones and bone groups. Sub-division of these bones into the above-mentioned constituents would be necessary in order to allow a direct calculation of dose to red bone marrow and endosteum. However, the dimensions of the trabeculae, the cavities containing bone marrow and the endosteum layer lining these cavities are clearly smaller than the resolution of a normal CT scan and, thus, these volumes could not be segmented in the tomographic images. As an attempt to represent the gross spatial distribution of these regions as realistically as possible at the given voxel resolution, 48 individual organ identification numbers were assigned to various parts of the skeleton: every segmented bone was subdivided into an outer shell of cortical bone and a spongious core; in the shafts of the long bones, a medullary cavity was additionally segmented. Using the data from ICRP Publication 89 on elemental tissue composition, from ICRU Report 46 on material

  11. The 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' Collection: an Argentinian sample of modern skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda, S A; Desántolo, B; Mancuso, R García; Plischuk, M; Inda, A M

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' skeletal collection. The Lambre Collection is housed in the School of Medical Sciences of the National University of La Plata and it consists of skeletal remains ceded by the Municipal Cemetery of La Plata. The collection has more than four hundred skeletons, with information on age, sex, nationality, date and cause of death. It was created for teaching and research purposes in compliance with current legislation, and its management meets guidelines specified in the Declaration of the Argentinian Association for Biological Anthropology on Research Ethics on Human Remains (2007). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Interactive Shape Modeling using a Skeleton-Mesh Co-Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jacob Andreas; Abdrashitov, Rinat; Singh, Karan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Polar-Annular Mesh representation (PAM). A PAM is a mesh-skeleton co-representation designed for the modeling of 3D organic, articulated shapes. A PAM represents a manifold mesh as a partition of polar (triangle fans) and annular (rings of quads) regions. The skeletal topology of...... a PAM to a quad-only mesh. We further present a PAM-based multi-touch sculpting application in order to demonstrate its utility as a shape representation for the interactive modeling of organic, articulated figures as well as for editing and posing of pre-existing models....

  13. Cloning Nacre's 3D Interlocking Skeleton in Engineering Composites to Achieve Exceptional Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hewei; Yue, Yonghai; Guo, Lin; Wu, Juntao; Zhang, Youwei; Li, Xiaodong; Mao, Shengcheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic/polymer composite equipped with 3D interlocking skeleton (3D IL) is developed through a simple freeze-casting method, exhibiting exceptionally light weight, high strength, toughness, and shock resistance. Long-range crack energy dissipation enabled by 3D interlocking structure is considered as the primary reinforcing mechanism for such superior properties. The smart composite design strategy should hold a place in developing future structural engineering materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Structure and mechanical implications of the pectoral fin skeleton in the Longnose Skate (Chondrichthyes, Batoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Hongjamrassilp, Watcharapong; Jung, Jae-Young; Hastings, Philip A; Lubarda, Vlado A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2017-03-15

    Animal propulsion systems are believed to show high energy and mechanical efficiency in assisting movement compared to artificial designs. As an example, batoid fishes have very light cartilaginous skeletons that facilitate their elegant swimming via enlarged wing-like pectoral fins. The aim of this work is to illustrate the hierarchical structure of the pectoral fin of a representative batoid, the Longnose Skate (Raja rhina), and explain the mechanical implications of its structural design. At the macro level, the pectoral fins are comprised of radially oriented fin rays, formed by staggered mineralized skeletal elements stacked end-to-end. At the micro level, the midsection of each radial element is composed of three mineralized components, which consist of discrete segments (tesserae) that are mineralized cartilage and embedded in unmineralized cartilage. The radial elements are wrapped with aligned, unmineralized collagen fibers. This is the first report of the detailed structure of the ray elements, including the observation of a 3-chain mineralized tesserae. Structural analyses demonstrate that this configuration enhances stiffness in multiple directions. A two-dimensional numerical model based on the morphological analysis demonstrated that the tessera structure helps distributing shear, tensile and compressive stress more ideally, which can better support both lift and thrust forces when swimming without losing flexibility. Batoid fishes have very light cartilaginous skeletons that facilitate their elegant swimming by applying their enlarged wing-like pectoral fins. Previous studies have shown structural features and mechanical properties of the mineralized cartilage skeleton in various batoid fishes. However, the details of the pectoral fin structure at different length scales, as well as the relationship between the mechanical properties and structural design remains unknown. The present work illustrates the hierarchical structure of the pectoral fin of

  15. 90Sr in the skeleton of new-born children and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, B.K.

    1980-01-01

    The correlation between 90 Sr content in the skeleton of new-born children and infants and 90 Sr content in the vertebrae spongy tissue of mother, is studied in different countries from 1965 to 1973. The highest indexes of 90 Sr concentration in the bone tissue of new-born children are found to be characteristic of Canada and Norway. The minimum 90 Sr content is observed in Japan. The dynamics of indexes which characterize 90 Sr content in the bone tissue of infants is presented. The peculiarities are conditioned by particular nutrition of an infant nursing and cow milk used as additional food

  16. A critical survey of vestigial structures in the postcranial skeletons of extant mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Senter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Mammalia, vestigial skeletal structures abound but have not previously been the focus of study, with a few exceptions (e.g., whale pelves. Here we use a phylogenetic bracketing approach to identify vestigial structures in mammalian postcranial skeletons and present a descriptive survey of such structures in the Mammalia. We also correct previous misidentifications, including the previous misidentification of vestigial caviid metatarsals as sesamoids. We also examine the phylogenetic distribution of vestigiality and loss. This distribution indicates multiple vestigialization and loss events in mammalian skeletal structures, especially in the hand and foot, and reveals no correlation in such events between mammalian fore and hind limbs.

  17. Skeleton series and multivaluedness of the self-energy functional in zero space-time dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Riccardo; Werner, Félix

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Kozik, Ferrero and Georges discovered numerically that for a family of fundamental models of interacting fermions, the self-energy {{Σ }}[G] is a multi-valued functional of the fully dressed single-particle propagator G, and that the skeleton diagrammatic series {{{Σ }}}{{bold}}[G] converges to the wrong branch above a critical interaction strength. We consider the zero space-time dimensional case, where the same mathematical phenomena appear from elementary algebra. We also find a similar phenomenology for the fully bold formalism built on the fully dressed single-particle propagator and pair propagator.

  18. Diagenesis of echinoderm skeletons: Constraints on paleoseawater Mg/Ca reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Krzykawski, Tomasz; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    One of the most profound environmental changes thought to be reflected in chemical composition of numerous geological archives is Mg/Ca ratio of the seawater, which has varied dramatically throughout the Phanerozoic. Echinoderms that today typically form high magnesium calcite skeletons are increasingly being utilized as a proxy for interpreting secular changes in seawater chemistry. However, accurate characterization of the diagenetic changes of their metastable high magnesium calcite skeletons is a prerequisite for assessing their original, major-element geochemical composition. Here we expand the existing models of diagenesis of echinoderm skeleton by integration of various analytical methods that up to now rarely have been used to assess the diagenetic changes of fossil echinoderms. We validated the preservation of a suite of differently preserved echinoderm ossicles, mostly crinoids, ranging in age from the Cambrian through Recent. In 13 of 99 fossil echinoderm ossicles we found well-preserved porous microstructure (stereom), non-luminescent behaviour or blotchy dark color in cathodoluminescence, and distinct nanostructural features (layered and nanocomposite structure). Moreover, in representatives of such preserved samples, distribution of sulphates associated with organic matter is identical to those in Recent echinoderms. Only such ossicles, despite of local micrometer-scale diagenetic changes, were herein considered well-preserved, retaining their original major-element skeletal composition. By contrast, majority of samples show transformation to the stable low magnesium calcite that leads to obliteration of the primary geochemical and micro/nanostructural features and is accompanied with increase in cathodoluminescence emission intensity. Using only well-preserved fossil echinoderm samples, we found purely random variation in Mg/Ca in echinoderm skeletons through the observed time series; any periodicities in echinoderm skeletal Mg/Ca ratio which might

  19. Critical Comments on Brian Victoria's "Engaged Buddhism: Skeleton in the Closet?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Miyata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In "Engaged Buddhism: A Skeleton in the Closet?" (Vol. 2 Brian Daizen Victoria claims, among other things, that Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944, founder of the Soka Kyoiku Gakkai (forebear of the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International, was an active supporter of the Japanese wars of aggression. In this response, Koichi Miyata argues that Victoria's claims rest on the highly selective use of quotes, and ignore key interpretative issues associated with Japanese imperial fascism and its underlying belief structures. Miyata discusses the significance of Makiguchi's arrest and imprisonment under a law specifically aimed at opponents of the war efforts, in his analysis of critical lapses in Victoria's article.

  20. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...

  1. Original paper Cytokine profiles in axial spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Madej

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Current studies concentrate on the cytokine network and its role in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis (SpA. In this study, we analyzed whether the serum cytokine profile (interleukins: IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-33 correlates with demographic data, clinical manifestations, disease activity and treatment outcome in a group of patients with axial spondyloarthritis. Material and methods: Forty-nine patients with an established diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (aSpA and 19 healthy volunteers as controls were enrolled in the study. Clinical evaluation included patient’s medical history, 44 joint count, back pain intensity and global disease activity in the preceding week (VAS, the duration of morning stiffness and blood tests. Disease activity was assessed using BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP. Serum concentration of IL-10, IL-11, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-33 was determined. Results : In patients with aSpA, elevated serum concentration of IL-10, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-23 was detected. In the aSpA group we detected higher values of serum concentration of IL-23 and IL-33 in the subgroup with anterior uveitis (83.1 ±184.0 pg/ml vs. 14.0 ±17.1 pg/ml, p < 0.0001 and 45.5 ±71.9 pg/ml vs. 18.4 ±14.3 pg/ml, p < 0.0001, respectively. Additionally, in the subgroup with peripheral arthritis, elevation of serum concentration of IL-12 (249.3 ±246.9 pg/ml vs. 99.9 ±105.9 pg/ml, p = 0.0001 was detected. Patients with preradiological SpA had higher serum concentration of IL-17 than patients with established diagnosis of AS (6.37 ±8.50 pg/ml vs. 2.04 ±2.98 pg/ml, p = 0.0295. No differences in serum concentration of analyzed cytokines were found between the subgroup with low to moderate disease activity and the subgroup with high to very high disease activity. Conclusions : We report that in aSpA patients, compared to controls, elevated serum concentrations of IL-10, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-23 were observed. Some cytokines may

  2. Prospective Comparison of F-18 Choline PET/CT Scan Versus Axial MRI for Detecting Bone Metastasis in Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Huysse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared fluor-18 choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT and axial skeleton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI prospectively obtained for the detection of bone metastases in non-castrated patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer following primary treatment. PET/CT was performed 45 min post-injection of 3–4 MBq/kg F-18 methyl choline. MRI included T1- and fluid sensitive T2-weighted images of the spine and pelvis. Readers were initially blinded from other results and all scans underwent independent double reading. The best valuable comparator (BVC defined the metastatic status. On the basis of the BVC, 15 out of 64 patients presented with 24 bone metastases. On a patient level, the sensitivity and specificity of MRI and PET were not significantly different. On a lesion level, the sensitivity of MRI was significantly better compared to PET, and the specificity did not differ significantly. In conclusion, axial MRI is an interesting screening tool for the detection of bone metastases because of its low probability of false negative results. However, F-18 choline PET is a valuable addition as it can overrule false positive MRI results and detect non-axial metastases.

  3. Continual reassessment method for dose escalation clinical trials in oncology: a comparison of prior skeleton approaches using AZD3514 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gareth D; Symeonides, Stefan N; Marshall, Jayne; Young, Julia; Clack, Glen

    2016-08-31

    The continual reassessment method (CRM) requires an underlying model of the dose-toxicity relationship ("prior skeleton") and there is limited guidance of what this should be when little is known about this association. In this manuscript the impact of applying the CRM with different prior skeleton approaches and the 3 + 3 method are compared in terms of ability to determine the true maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and number of patients allocated to sub-optimal and toxic doses. Post-hoc dose-escalation analyses on real-life clinical trial data on an early oncology compound (AZD3514), using the 3 + 3 method and CRM using six different prior skeleton approaches. All methods correctly identified the true MTD. The 3 + 3 method allocated six patients to both sub-optimal and toxic doses. All CRM approaches allocated four patients to sub-optimal doses. No patients were allocated to toxic doses from sigmoidal, two from conservative and five from other approaches. Prior skeletons for the CRM for phase 1 clinical trials are proposed in this manuscript and applied to a real clinical trial dataset. Highly accurate initial skeleton estimates may not be essential to determine the true MTD, and, as expected, all CRM methods out-performed the 3 + 3 method. There were differences in performance between skeletons. The choice of skeleton should depend on whether minimizing the number of patients allocated to suboptimal or toxic doses is more important. NCT01162395 , Trial date of first registration: July 13, 2010.

  4. The Klinger hot gas double axial valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruschik, J.; Hiltgen, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Klinger hot gas valve is a medium controlled double axial valve with advanced design features and safety function. It was first proposed by Klinger early in 1976 for the PNP-Project as a containment shut-off for hot helium (918 deg. C and 42 bar), because a market research has shown that such a valve is not state of present techniques. In the first stage of development a feasibility study had to be made by detailed design, calculation and by basic experiments for key components in close collaboration with Interatom/GHT. This was the basis for further design, calculation, construction and experimental work for such a valve prototype within the new development contract. The stage of knowledge to that time revealed the following key priority development areas: Finite element stress analysis for the highly stressed high temperature main components; development of an insulation layout; Detailed experimental tests of functionally important structural components or units of the valve, partly at Klingers (gasstatic bearings, flexible metallic sealing element, aerodynamic and thermohydraulic tests), partly at Interatom (actuator unit and also gasstatic bearings), partly at HRB in Juelich (flexible metallic sealing system, aerodynamic and thermohydraulic tests); Design of a test valve for experimental work in the KVK (test circuit at Interatom) for evaluation of temperature distribution and reliability of operation; Design of a prototype and extensive testing in the KVK

  5. Small axial compressor technology, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, F. F.; Kidwell, J. R.; Ware, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    A scaled single-stage, highly-loaded, axial-flow transonic compressor was tested at speeds from 70 to 110% design equivalent speed to evaluate the effects of scaling compromises and the individual and combined effects of rotor tip running clearance and rotor shroud casing treatment on the overall and blade element performance. At design speed and 1% tip clearance the stage demonstrated an efficiency of 83.2% at 96.4% design flow and a pressure ratio of 1.865. Casing treatment increased design speed surge margin 2.0 points to 12.8%. Overall performance was essentially unchanged. An increase in rotor running clearance to 2.2%, with smooth casing, reduced design speed peak efficiency 5.7 points, flow by 7.4%, pressure ratio to 1.740, and surge margin to 5.4%. Reinstalling casing treatment regained 3.5 points in design speed peak efficiency, 4.7% flow, increased pressure ratio to 1.800 and surge margin to 8.7%.

  6. Axial channeling of boron ions into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Ferla, A.; Galvagno, G.; Raineri, V.; Setola, R.; Rimini, E.; Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A.

    1992-01-01

    Channeling boron implants were performed into (100) and (110) silicon substrates in the energy range 80-700 keV. The dose ranged between 3.5x10 11 and 1x10 15 atoms/cm 2 . The axial channeling concentration profiles of implanted B + were compared with that obtained for incidence along the random direction of the crystal and with that obtained by implantation in amorphous silicon. The electrical and chemical boron distributions were obtained by spreading resistance and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements, respectively. The inelastic stopping power, S c , was extracted from the experimental maximum ranges for the [100] and [110] axis. The energy dependence of the electronic stopping power is given by S e = KE p with p [100] = 0.469±0.010 and p [110] = 0.554±0.004. Simulations obtained by the MARLOWE code, using the Oen-Robinson impact parameter dependent formula, for the electronic energy loss reproduce quite well the experimental depth profiles. (orig.)

  7. Axial sheath dynamics in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.A.; Masoud, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the result of investigation with a 10 kJ Mather type plasma focus. It is operated in hydrogen gas at ambient pressure of 0.15--1 torr and charging voltage of 8--11 kV. Radial distribution of the current sheath density with axial distance has been estimated. Plasma rotation in the expansion chamber in the absence of external magnetic field has been detected. A plasma flare from the plasma focus region propagating in the radial direction has been observed. Streak photography shows two plasma streams flowing simultaneously out of the muzzle. The mean energy of the electron beam ejected from the pinch region of the focused plasma, was measured by retarding field analyzer to be 0.32 keV. The electron temperature of the plasma focus at peak compression was determined by measuring the X-ray intensity as a function of absorber thickness at a distance of 62 cm from the focus. The electron temperature has been found to 3 keV

  8. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.

  9. Analysis of SONACO axial cooling experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigg, B.; Dury, T.V.; Hudina, M.

    1994-01-01

    The SONACO test rig contained a sodium-cooled, electrically heated 37-pin bundle. On this rig, a series of forced, mixed and natural convection experiments have been performed with the aim of contributing to the understanding of thermal-hydraulic phenomena and providing data for code validation for a subassembly at decay heat power level with low flow or stagnant coolant. The test section and especially the heater pins were equipped with an extensive number of chromel-alumel thermocouples. In addition, special permanent-magnet probes were used for measuring local velocities. In this paper we give a survey of results from axial cooling experiments, where heat was removed by natural convection to a cooling coil situated in the coolant channel (plenum) above the bundle. The experimental conditions led to turbulent convection with a slowly varying, large scale flow pattern. It is shown that a power tilt in the bundle reduces these fluctuations but does not eliminate them. For the uniformly heated bundle, aglebraic expressions for the average turbulent heat flux as well as for temperature and velocity fluctuations are derived from a second-moments model and compared with experimental data. Furthermore, heat transfer in the plenum and the consequences of the SONACO experiments for the coolability of reactor fuel elements under loss-of-flow conditions are discussed. ((orig.))

  10. Nucleon axial coupling from Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Chang, Chia; Nicholson, Amy; Rinaldi, Enrico; Berkowitz, Evan; Garron, Nicolas; Brantley, David; Monge-Camacho, Henry; Monahan, Chris; Bouchard, Chris; Clark, M. A.; Joó, Bálint; Kurth, Thorsten; Orginos, Kostas; Vranas, Pavlos; Walker-Loud, André

    2018-03-01

    We present state-of-the-art results from a lattice QCD calculation of the nucleon axial coupling, gA, using Möbius Domain-Wall fermions solved on the dynamical Nf = 2 + 1 + 1 HISQ ensembles after they are smeared using the gradient-flow algorithm. Relevant three-point correlation functions are calculated using a method inspired by the Feynman-Hellmann theorem, and demonstrate significant improvement in signal for fixed stochastic samples. The calculation is performed at five pion masses of mπ {400, 350, 310, 220, 130} MeV, three lattice spacings of a {0.15, 0.12, 0.09} fm, and we do a dedicated volume study with mπL {3.22, 4.29, 5.36}. Control over all relevant sources of systematic uncertainty are demonstrated and quantified. We achieve a preliminary value of gA = 1.285(17), with a relative uncertainty of 1.33%.

  11. Multimode interaction in axially excited cylindrical shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva F. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical shells exhibit a dense frequency spectrum, especially near the lowest frequency range. In addition, due to the circumferential symmetry, frequencies occur in pairs. So, in the vicinity of the lowest natural frequencies, several equal or nearly equal frequencies may occur, leading to a complex dynamic behavior. So, the aim of the present work is to investigate the dynamic behavior and stability of cylindrical shells under axial forcing with multiple equal or nearly equal natural frequencies. The shell is modelled using the Donnell nonlinear shallow shell theory and the discretized equations of motion are obtained by applying the Galerkin method. For this, a modal solution that takes into account the modal interaction among the relevant modes and the influence of their companion modes (modes with rotational symmetry, which satisfies the boundary and continuity conditions of the shell, is derived. Special attention is given to the 1:1:1:1 internal resonance (four interacting modes. Solving numerically the governing equations of motion and using several tools of nonlinear dynamics, a detailed parametric analysis is conducted to clarify the influence of the internal resonances on the bifurcations, stability boundaries, nonlinear vibration modes and basins of attraction of the structure.

  12. Axial level-specific regulation of neuronal development: lessons from PITX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Mindy R; Martin, Donna M

    2015-02-01

    Transcriptional regulation of gene expression is vital for proper control of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of developing neurons. Pitx2 encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is highly expressed in the developing and adult mammalian brain. In humans, mutations in PITX2 result in Rieger syndrome, characterized by defects in the development of the eyes, umbilicus, and teeth and variable abnormalities in the brain, including hydrocephalus and cerebellar hypoplasia. Alternative splicing of Pitx2 in the mouse results in three isoforms, Pitx2a, Pitx2b, and Pitx2c, each of which is expressed symmetrically along the left-right axis of the brain throughout development. Here, we review recent evidence for axial and brain region-specific requirements for Pitx2 during neuronal migration and differentiation, highlighting known isoform contributions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Transcription factor ERG and joint and articular cartilage formation during mouse limb and spine skeletogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Tamamura, Yoshihiro; Koyama, Eiki; Komori, Toshihisa; Takeshita, Nobuo; Williams, Julie A; Nakamura, Takashi; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2007-05-01

    Articular cartilage and synovial joints are critical for skeletal function, but the mechanisms regulating their development are largely unknown. In previous studies we found that the ets transcription factor ERG and its alternatively-spliced variant C-1-1 have roles in joint formation in chick. Here, we extended our studies to mouse. We found that ERG is also expressed in developing mouse limb joints. To test regulation of ERG expression, beads coated with the joint master regulator protein GDF-5 were implanted close to incipient joints in mouse limb explants; this led to rapid and strong ectopic ERG expression. We cloned and characterized several mammalian ERG variants and expressed a human C-1-1 counterpart (hERG3Delta81) throughout the cartilaginous skeleton of transgenic mice, using Col2a1 gene promoter/enhancer sequences. The skeletal phenotype was severe and neonatal lethal, and the transgenic mice were smaller than wild type littermates and their skeletons were largely cartilaginous. Limb long bone anlagen were entirely composed of chondrocytes actively expressing collagen IX and aggrecan as well as articular markers such as tenascin-C. Typical growth plates were absent and there was very low expression of maturation and hypertrophy markers, including Indian hedgehog, collagen X and MMP-13. The results suggest that ERG is part of molecular mechanisms leading chondrocytes into a permanent developmental path and become joint forming cells, and may do so by acting downstream of GDF-5.

  14. Stall inception and warning in a single-stage transonic axial compressor with axial skewed slot casing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Byeung Jun; Kwon, Se Jin; Park, Tae Choon

    2014-01-01

    Characteristic changes in the stall inception in a single-stage transonic axial compressor with an axial skewed slot casing treatment were investigated experimentally. A rotating stall occurred intermittently in a compressor with an axial skewed slot, whereas spike-type rotating stalls occurred in the case of smooth casing. The axial skewed slot suppressed stall cell growth and increased the operating range. A mild surge, the frequency of which is the Helmholtz frequency of the compressor system, occurred with the rotating stall. The irregularity in the pressure signals at the slot bottom increased decreasing flow rate. An autocorrelation-based stall warning method was applied to the measured pressure signals. Results estimate and warn against the stall margin in a compressor with an axial skewed slot.

  15. Oldest skeleton of a plesiadapiform provides additional evidence for an exclusively arboreal radiation of stem primates in the Palaeocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Stephen G. B.; Williamson, Thomas E.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Silcox, Mary T.; Sargis, Eric J.

    2017-05-01

    Palaechthonid plesiadapiforms from the Palaeocene of western North America have long been recognized as among the oldest and most primitive euarchontan mammals, a group that includes extant primates, colugos and treeshrews. Despite their relatively sparse fossil record, palaechthonids have played an important role in discussions surrounding adaptive scenarios for primate origins for nearly a half-century. Likewise, palaechthonids have been considered important for understanding relationships among plesiadapiforms, with members of the group proposed as plausible ancestors of Paromomyidae and Microsyopidae. Here, we describe a dentally associated partial skeleton of Torrejonia wilsoni from the early Palaeocene (approx. 62 Ma) of New Mexico, which is the oldest known plesiadapiform skeleton and the first postcranial elements recovered for a palaechthonid. Results from a cladistic analysis that includes new data from this skeleton suggest that palaechthonids are a paraphyletic group of stem primates, and that T. wilsoni is most closely related to paromomyids. New evidence from the appendicular skeleton of T. wilsoni fails to support an influential hypothesis based on inferences from craniodental morphology that palaechthonids were terrestrial. Instead, the postcranium of T. wilsoni indicates that it was similar to that of all other plesiadapiforms for which skeletons have been recovered in having distinct specializations consistent with arboreality.

  16. Ethnical evaluation of Bangladeshi young adults in terms of morphometrically-analyzed craniofacial skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Md. Rizvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric study for the craniofacial relations and variations in humans have long been used to differentiate various racial groups in physical anthropology. The objective of this study was to describe the morphological features of craniofacial skeleton in Bangladeshi young adults and to compare it with already reported standards for the Caucasian population as well as cephalometric values of other Indian races using Steiner′s reference norms. The study was conducted for 52 Bangladeshi young adults (27 male and 25 females, aged 21-27 years, having balanced and harmonious facial profiles, clinically acceptable occlusion with permanent dentition and no history of orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms taken of these subjects were used for a series of morphometric analyses. Bangladeshi subjects were more protrusive skeletally and dentally than Caucasians. Furthermore, the mandibular plane angle was smaller in Bangladeshi subjects than in the Caucasians. Present results also suggest that the Astrics, Dravidians, and Armenoid who penetrated into Bengal in the early ages may have contributed substantially to the morphogenesis of craniofacial skeleton in the present Bengalis. The results of this study support the idea that a single standard of facial esthetics should not be applied to all racial and ethnic groups.

  17. Estimation of sex and age of 'virtual skeletons'-a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabherr, Silke [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi [University of Bern, Institute for the History of Medicine, Historical Anthropology, Bern (Switzerland); Uldin, Tanya [Service of Osteo-Archaeology, Aesch (Switzerland); Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J. [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Christe, Andreas [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland)]|[University of Bern, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Schnyder, Pierre [University Hospital of Lausanne, Service of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mangin, Patrice [University Hospital of Lausanne, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  18. UVB radiation prevents skeleton growth and stimulates the expression of stress markers in sea urchin embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaventura, Rosa; Poma, Veronica; Costa, Caterina; Matranga, Valeria

    2005-01-01

    Ozone depletion results in an increased flux of biologically damaging radiations reaching the earth. Although ultraviolet (UV) penetration is attenuated by the seawater, harmful effects can be still observed at low depths where sea urchin embryos are living. We have used Paracentrotus lividus embryos to study the impacts of UV radiation on their development. Blastula cultures were exposed to different doses of UVB (312 nm) radiations and the resulting endpoint effects were evaluated in terms of embryonic morphological abnormalities, variations in specific gene expression, and changes in the levels of stress proteins. We found that embryos were moderately sensitive to 50 J/m 2 UVB radiation; an increase in the number of developmentally delayed and malformed embryos was detected when increasing doses, up to 1000 J/m 2 , were used. Major developmental defects, observed 24 and 48 h after exposure, consisted in the failure of skeleton elongation and patterning. Accordingly, we found a reduction in the number of primary mesenchyme cells that expressed Pl-SM30, a gene coding for one of the specific matrix proteins of the skeleton. The morphological effects observed 1, 24, and 48 h after exposure were correlated with a dose-dependent increase in the level and in the activation of two recognized stress markers, namely hsp70 and p38 MAPk, respectively, consistent with their role in mediating cellular response to stress and suggesting a function in embryo survival

  19. A comparison between skeleton and bounding box models for falling direction recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narupiyakul, Lalita; Srisrisawang, Nitikorn

    2017-12-01

    Falling is an injury that can lead to a serious medical condition in every range of the age of people. However, in the case of elderly, the risk of serious injury is much higher. Due to the fact that one way of preventing serious injury is to treat the fallen person as soon as possible, several works attempted to implement different algorithms to recognize the fall. Our work compares the performance of two models based on features extraction: (i) Body joint data (Skeleton Data) which are the joint's positions in 3 axes and (ii) Bounding box (Box-size Data) covering all body joints. Machine learning algorithms that were chosen are Decision Tree (DT), Naïve Bayes (NB), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Voting Classification (VC), and Gradient boosting (GB). The results illustrate that the models trained with Skeleton data are performed far better than those trained with Box-size data (with an average accuracy of 94-81% and 80-75%, respectively). KNN shows the best performance in both Body joint model and Bounding box model. In conclusion, KNN with Body joint model performs the best among the others.

  20. Estimation of sex and age of ''virtual skeletons''-a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabherr, Silke; Cooper, Christine; Ulrich-Bochsler, Susi; Uldin, Tanya; Ross, Steffen; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J.; Christe, Andreas; Schnyder, Pierre; Mangin, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a feasibility study with the objective of investigating the potential of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) to estimate the bone age and sex of deceased persons. To obtain virtual skeletons, the bodies of 22 deceased persons with known age at death were scanned by MDCT using a special protocol that consisted of high-resolution imaging of the skull, shoulder girdle (including the upper half of the humeri), the symphysis pubis and the upper halves of the femora. Bone and soft-tissue reconstructions were performed in two and three dimensions. The resulting data were investigated by three anthropologists with different professional experience. Sex was determined by investigating three-dimensional models of the skull and pelvis. As a basic orientation for the age estimation, the complex method according to Nemeskeri and co-workers was applied. The final estimation was effected using additional parameters like the state of dentition, degeneration of the spine, etc., which where chosen individually by the three observers according to their experience. The results of the study show that the estimation of sex and age is possible by the use of MDCT. Virtual skeletons present an ideal collection for anthropological studies, because they are obtained in a non-invasive way and can be investigated ad infinitum. (orig.)

  1. Incidence of tumours of the skeleton in 224Ra-treated ankylosing spondylitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, R.R.; Goessner, W.

    1983-01-01

    We are following 1426 ankylosing spondylitis (a.sp.) patients treated with 224 Ra and 1556 control patients with a.sp. not treated with any form of ionizing radiation. The average follow-up time of the exposure group is 16 years and the average α-dose to the skeleton is 65 rad, resulting from intravenous injection of 4.8μCi/kg 224 Ra on average within a medium injection span of 12 weeks. Injections normally have been performed once a week, and in some cases also half-weekly with a correspondingly shorter injection span. Since 1970 three cases of malignant tumours in the skeleton have been observed in the exposure group in patients with skeletal α-doses below 90 rad compared with 0.6 expected. (No bone tumour has occurred in the control group.) Two of the three cases observed were tumours of the bone marrow. The incidence of leukaemias in both exposure and control groups is discussed with respect to phenylbutazone treatment and α-radiation from 224 Ra. An effect of 224 Ra on the bone marrow not yet detected in the Spiess series of patients treated with higher amounts of 224 Ra cannot be excluded. (author)

  2. Morphological integration in the appendicular skeleton of two domestic taxa: the horse and donkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanot, Pauline; Herrel, Anthony; Guintard, Claude; Cornette, Raphaël

    2017-10-11

    Organisms are organized into suites of anatomical structures that typically covary when developmentally or functionally related, and this morphological integration plays a determinant role in evolutionary processes. Artificial selection on domestic species causes strong morphological changes over short time spans, frequently resulting in a wide and exaggerated phenotypic diversity. This raises the question of whether integration constrains the morphological diversification of domestic species and how natural and artificial selection may impact integration patterns. Here, we study the morphological integration in the appendicular skeleton of domestic horses and donkeys, using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics on 75 skeletons. Our results indicate that a strong integration is inherited from developmental mechanisms which interact with functional factors. This strong integration reveals a specialization in the locomotion of domestic equids, partly for running abilities. We show that the integration is stronger in horses than in donkeys, probably because of a greater degree of specialization and predictability of their locomotion. Thus, the constraints imposed by integration are weak enough to allow important morphological changes and the phenotypic diversification of domestic species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Morphometric studies on the facial skeleton of humans and pongids based on CT-scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, K U; Koppe, T; Fanghänel, J; Schumacher, G H; Nagai, H

    1994-10-01

    The changes of the skull, which we can observe during the anthropogenesis, are reflected especially in the different skull proportions. We carried out metric measurements at the median level on 10 adult skulls each of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas as well as 11 skulls of orangutans. All skulls were scanned with a CT at the median level. We measured the lines and angles of the scans and the means and the standard deviations were calculated. We carried out a correlation analysis to observe the relation of their characteristics. We showed that there is a relation between the length of the skull base and the facial length in all species. From the results of the correlation analysis, we can also conclude that a relation exists between the degree of prognathism and the different length measurements of the facial skeleton. We also found a bending of the facial skeleton in relation to the cranial base towards the ventral side, also known as klinorhynchy, in all observed species. The highest degree of klinorhynchy was found in humans and the lowest in orangutans. We will discuss the different definition of the term klinorhynchy and its importance in the evolution of the hominoids.

  4. The skeleton in the closet: should historians of science care about the history of mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amir

    2011-09-01

    Up until the 1950s, the history of mathematics was an integral part of the history of science. To George Sarton and his contemporaries, mathematics was the rational skeleton that organized science and held it together, and its history was a fundamental component of the broader history of science. But when historians began focusing on the cultural roots of science rather than its rational structure, the study of mathematics was marginalized and ultimately excluded from the history of science. The alienation between the two fields is detrimental to both, and in recent years there has been a sustained effort to reestablish meaningful communication between the two. This time, however, mathematics is seen not as the static skeleton of science but, instead, as a dynamic and historically evolving field in its own right-just like science itself. The new approach allows for a culturally sensitive study of mathematics, as well as a new and fruitful relationship between the history of science and the history of mathematics. The essays in this Focus section offer a sampling of the new approaches, opening the way to a rapprochement between fields that have gone their separate ways but should by rights be closely interconnected.

  5. Reconstructing the Curve-Skeletons of 3D Shapes Using the Visual Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesu, Marco; Guggeri, Fabio; Scateni, Riccardo

    2012-11-01

    Curve-skeletons are the most important descriptors for shapes, capable of capturing in a synthetic manner the most relevant features. They are useful for many different applications: from shape matching and retrieval, to medical imaging, to animation. This has led, over the years, to the development of several different techniques for extraction, each trying to comply with specific goals. We propose a novel technique which stems from the intuition of reproducing what a human being does to deduce the shape of an object holding it in his or her hand and rotating. To accomplish this, we use the formal definitions of epipolar geometry and visual hull. We show how it is possible to infer the curve-skeleton of a broad class of 3D shapes, along with an estimation of the radii of the maximal inscribed balls, by gathering information about the medial axes of their projections on the image planes of the stereographic vision. It is definitely worth to point out that our method works indifferently on (even unoriented) polygonal meshes, voxel models, and point clouds. Moreover, it is insensitive to noise, pose-invariant, resolution-invariant, and robust when applied to incomplete data sets.

  6. [Paleopathological skeleton findings. Macroscopical and radiographical studies of 364 individuals from a medieval graveyard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittrich, H; Kleibscheidel, C; Nizze, H

    2004-03-01

    Paleopathological examinations can give an idea of diseases and living conditions in ancient populations. An archaeological collection of 364 late medieval/early modern skeletons from the thirteenth to eighteenth centuries, excavated from a church cemetery in the Rostock town center, was examined palaeopathologically. The type and frequency of certain diseases within this north German urban population are described. The majority of the skeletons were from adults with a remarkably low percentage of children. Skeletal malformations (e.g. gap formations of the spinal column) were not abnormally represented. With the exception of single individuals, metabolic disorders or unusual infectious diseases could not be diagnosed. Degenerative diseases often found at the joints and the spinal column showed substantially lower prevalences in comparison with reference rural populations. Individual cases of benign and rare malignant neoplasms could be documented. Traumatic injuries as well as dental pathological changes were rare. In summary it can be concluded that the individuals buried here belonged to a better social class within the medieval population of Rostock.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of a validated subject-specific finite element model of the human craniofacial skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedowski, T D; Fialkov, J; Whyne, C M

    2011-01-01

    Developing a more complete understanding of the mechanical response of the craniofacial skeleton (CFS) to physiological loads is fundamental to improving treatment for traumatic injuries, reconstruction due to neoplasia, and deformities. Characterization of the biomechanics of the CFS is challenging due to its highly complex structure and heterogeneity, motivating the utilization of experimentally validated computational models. As such, the objective of this study was to develop, experimentally validate, and parametrically analyse a patient-specific finite element (FE) model of the CFS to elucidate a better understanding of the factors that are of intrinsic importance to the skeletal structural behaviour of the human CFS. An FE model of a cadaveric craniofacial skeleton was created from subject-specific computed tomography data. The model was validated based on bone strain measurements taken under simulated physiological-like loading through the masseter and temporalis muscles (which are responsible for the majority of craniofacial physiologic loading due to mastication). The baseline subject-specific model using locally defined cortical bone thicknesses produced the strongest correlation to the experimental data (r2 = 0.73). Large effects on strain patterns arising from small parametric changes in cortical thickness suggest that the very thin bony structures present in the CFS are crucial to characterizing the local load distribution in the CFS accurately.

  8. Human Activity Recognition in Real-Times Environments using Skeleton Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, we proposed a most effective noble approach for Human activity recognition in real-time environments. We recognize several distinct dynamic human activity actions using kinect. A 3D skeleton data is processed from real-time video gesture to sequence of frames and getter skeleton joints (Energy Joints, orientation, rotations of joint angles from selected setof frames. We are using joint angle and orientations, rotations information from Kinect therefore less computation required. However, after extracting the set of frames we implemented several classification techniques Principal Component Analysis (PCA with several distance based classifiers and Artificial Neural Network (ANN respectively with some variants for classify our all different gesture models. However, we conclude that use very less number of frame (10-15% for train our system efficiently from the entire set of gesture frames. Moreover, after successfully completion of our classification methods we clinch an excellent overall accuracy 94%, 96% and 98% respectively. We finally observe that our proposed system is more useful than comparing to other existing system, therefore our model is best suitable for real-time application such as in video games for player action/gesture recognition.

  9. Various versions of analytic QCD and skeleton-motivated evaluation of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Gorazd; Valenzuela, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    We present skeleton-motivated evaluation of QCD observables. The approach can be applied in analytic versions of QCD in certain classes of renormalization schemes. We present two versions of analytic QCD which can be regarded as low-energy modifications of the ''minimal'' analytic QCD and which reproduce the measured value of the semihadronic τ decay ratio r τ . Further, we describe an approach of calculating the higher-order analytic couplings A k (k=2,3,...) on the basis of logarithmic derivatives of the analytic coupling A 1 (Q 2 ). This approach can be applied in any version of analytic QCD. We adjust the free parameters of the aforementioned two analytic models in such a way that the skeleton-motivated evaluation reproduces the correct known values of r τ and of the Bjorken polarized sum rule (BjPSR) d b (Q 2 ) at a given point (e.g., at Q 2 =2 GeV 2 ). We then evaluate the low-energy behavior of the Adler function d v (Q 2 ) and the BjPSR d b (Q 2 ) in the aforementioned evaluation approach, in the three analytic versions of QCD. We compare with the results obtained in the minimal analytic QCD and with the evaluation approach of Milton et al. and Shirkov

  10. Skeleton versus fine earth: what information is stored in the mobile extracellular soil DNA fraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Judith; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Agnelli, Alberto; Corti, Guiseppe; Pietramellara, Giacomo

    2010-05-01

    The soil genome consists of an intracellular and an extracellular fraction. Recently, soil extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been shown to be quantitatively relevant, with a high survival capacity and mobility, playing a crucial role in the gene transfer by transformation, in the formation of bacterial biofilm and as a source of nutrients for soil microorganisms. The eDNA fraction can be discriminated and classified by its interaction with clay minerals, humic acids and Al/Fe oxihydroxides, resulting in differently mobile components. The eDNA extractable in water, classified as DNA free in the extracellular soil environment or adsorbed on soil colloids (eDNAfree/adsorbed), is hypothesized to be the most mobile DNA in soil. Challenging to assess the information stored in this DNA fraction, eDNAfree/adsorbed was recovered from fine earth (gel electrophoresis), and qualitative analysis in terms of the composition and distribution of fungal and bacterial communities (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis- fingerprinting). The mobile soil eDNA, extracted from each horizon, was characterised by low molecular weight (result of the movement of eDNA along the soil profile and from fine earth to skeleton. The molecular characterization provided information about the autochthonous microflora inhabiting skeleton and fine earth as well as information about the fate of soil DNA in terms of presence, persistence and movement of eDNA and the stored genetic information.

  11. REVISITING THE DEBATE: DOES EXERCISE BUILD STRONG BONES IN THE MATURE AND SENESCENT SKELETON?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional exercise programs seem to be less osteogenic in the mature and post-mature skeleton compared to the young skeleton, likely because of the decline in sensitivity of bone to mechanical loading that occurs with advancing age. Another factor contributing to the apparently diminished benefit of exercise in older adults is failure of widely used measurement techniques (i.e. DXA to account for changes in 3-dimensional bone structure, which are important determinants of bone strength. Moreover, although hormonal contributors to bone loss in the elderly are well-recognized, the influence of age-related increases in sympathetic nervous system activity on bone is rarely considered. In this Perspective, we cite evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating anabolic effects of exercise on bone across the lifespan and we discuss theoretical considerations for designing exercise regimens to optimize bone health. We conclude with suggestions for future research that should help define the osteogenic potential of exercise in older individuals.

  12. Modeling Surface Water Transport in the Central Pacific Ocean With 129I Records From Coral Skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, W.; Biddulph, D. L.; Russell, J. L.; Burr, G. S.; Jull, T. J.; Correge, T.; Roeder, B.

    2008-12-01

    129I occurs naturally in extremely low abundance via cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere as well as by spontaneous fission of uranium. Oceanic concentrations of 129I have risen by several orders of magnitude during the last half century largely from environmental pollution coming from several point-source nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In the Pacific basin, much of the increase has apparently come from the Hanford Nuclear reprocessing plant in the United States, with iodine primarily arriving via the Columbia River. Coral skeletons preserve records of 129I concentration of the surface waters from which they were deposited, yielding records with annual resolution or better. We will present three such records from different locations in the Pacific Ocean: the Solomon Islands, Easter Island and Clipperton Atoll. For this study, drill cores from living massive coral skeletons of the species Porites Lobata were collected from these sites. 129I/127I values were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Arizona with an NEC 3 MV Pelletron accelerator. Results from the analysis of the corals will be compared to the distribution of other mixed-layer tracers (chloro-fluorocarbons and tritium) collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment cruises conducted between 1990 and 2002. The 129I/127I records observed in these corals will also be compared to tracer transit time calculations determined from a 20th century simulation of the GFDL coupled-climate passive-tracer model.

  13. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN FETUS OF MOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasrollahzadeh

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available litis study is based on embryotoxic effects of ethanol on embryos and discussing the morphologic and hhtahtgic changes and defects an mouse. Tlie female animals were divided in three groups. Hie first group untreated as a control group but the second and third group received 10% and 20% solutions of ethanol respectively. Animals get use to certain level of ethanol solution and in the 10th day, the pregnancy period has been started. Then on the 19th day of gestation, the embryos were taken out from their mother's uterus and were examined for morphologic, histologic and skeletal disorders. In the first examination, the major defect was weight and length reduction in the second and third groups. these deffects, were severe in the second group in compare to third group that might be related to little consumption of the ethanol solution, due to bitter taste. In conclusion the teratogenic effect of alcohol on skeleton and joint is clear.

  14. A Skeleton Based Programming Paradigm for Mobile Multi-Agents on Distributed Systems and Its Realization within the MAGDA Mobile Agents Platform

    OpenAIRE

    R. Aversa; B. Di Martino; N. Mazzocca; S. Venticinque

    2008-01-01

    Parallel programming effort can be reduced by using high level constructs such as algorithmic skeletons. Within the MAGDA toolset, supporting programming and execution of mobile agent based distributed applications, we provide a skeleton-based parallel programming environment, based on specialization of Algorithmic Skeleton Java interfaces and classes. Their implementation include mobile agent features for execution on heterogeneous systems, such as clusters of WSs and PCs, and support reliab...

  15. Conservative axial burnup distributions for actinide-only burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.; Lancaster, D.

    1997-11-01

    Unlike the fresh fuel approach, which assumes the initial isotopic compositions for criticality analyses, any burnup credit methodology must address the proper treatment of axial burnup distributions. A straightforward way of treating a given axial burnup distribution is to segment the fuel assembly into multiple meshes and to model each burnup mesh with the corresponding isotopic compositions. Although this approach represents a significant increase in modeling efforts compared to the uniform average burnup approach, it can adequately determine the reactivity effect of the axial burnup distribution. A major consideration is what axial burnup distributions are appropriate for use in light of many possible distributions depending on core operating conditions and histories. This paper summarizes criticality analyses performed to determine conservative axial burnup distributions. The conservative axial burnup distributions presented in this paper are included in the Topical Report on Actinide-Only Burnup Credit for Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Packages, Revision 1 submitted in May 1997 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). When approved by NRC, the conservative axial burnup distributions may be used to model PWR spent nuclear fuel for the purpose of gaining actinide only burnup credit

  16. Axial currents and nuclear spin orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisono, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Matsuta, K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the symmetries in the phenomena in which weak interaction is involved are largely violated, and it is still the up-to-date fore-front to study the structure of the nuclear weak currents and to learn the limitations on the applicabilities of the various relevant conservation laws as well as the nuclear structures studied by the β-decay. In this meeting, research works on the β-decay processes for the past 10 years have focused on the recoil order experiments designed to determine the limits of validity of the conserved vector current (CVC) theory and to test the G parity conservation i.e. the search for the second class currents (SCC), as well as to study the structure of the axial currents. Concerning the SCC, after intensive studies, but with not conclusive results, on the ft values of mirror β-decays in the early seventies, the correlation-type measurements on mass A=8, 12, 19 and 20 systems have been also carried out in various laboratories from 1975. Among those, concerns have been with the mass A=12 nuclear triad, /sup 12/B-/sup 12/C-/sup 12/N, the energy diagram of which is well known. The choice of this triad is because of the test done for the strong CVC predictions using the spectrum shapes of β-rays combined with the experimental analogue γ-width in /sup 12/C as well as those relevant nuclear structures. Thus, this A=12 system provides the best testing ground for the research described above

  17. Axial displacements in external and internal implant-abutment connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the axial displacement of the abutments during clinical procedures by the tightening torque and cyclic loading. Two different implant-abutment connection systems were used (external butt joint connection [EXT]; internal tapered conical connection [INT]). The master casts with two implant replicas, angulated 10° from each other, were fabricated for each implant connection system. Four types of impression copings were assembled and tightened with the corresponding implants (hex transfer impression coping, non-hex transfer impression coping, hex pick-up impression coping, non-hex pick-up impression coping). Resin splinted abutments and final prosthesis were assembled. The axial displacement was measured from the length of each assembly, which was evaluated repeatedly, after 30 Ncm torque tightening. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis for 1,000,000 cycles, additional axial displacement was recorded. The mean axial displacement was statistically analyzed (repeated measured ANOVA). There was more axial displacement in the INT group than that of the EXT group in impression copings, resin splinted abutments, and final prosthesis. Less axial displacement was found at 1-piece non-hex transfer type impression coping than other type of impression copings in the INT group. There was more axial displacement at the final prosthesis than resin splinted abutments in the INT and the EXT groups. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis, the INT group showed more axial displacement than that of the EXT group. Internal tapered conical connection demonstrated a varying amount of axial displacement with tightening torque and cyclic loading. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Use of trepanofiopsis for determining 90 Sr and Ca in skeleton of horned cattle during its live time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirotkin, A.N.; Sarapul'tsev, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method for in vivo determination of strontium 90 and calcium in the skeleton of cattle from radiometric and chemical analyses of bone tissue obtained on trepanobiopsy of the ilium was developed. Statistical processing of experimental data showed that in cows which had been receiving strontium 90 and calcium in their ration from the birth to the age of 12 the ratio of strontium 90 and calcium concentrations in the bone tissue of the trapanate and skeleton is independent of the animals' age. It was established that the spongy bone tissue of the ilium crest of different age cattle contains 20 wt.% more strontium 90 and 20 wt.% less calcium than their average concentration in the whole skeleton

  19. Entheseal changes and pathological lesions in draught reindeer skeletons - Four case studies from present-day Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Anna-Kaisa; Niinimäki, Sirpa

    2016-09-01

    Draught use and being ridden often result in typical pathological patterns in animal skeletons. Moreover, physical activity patterns may be reflected in bone biomechanical properties and entheseal changes at muscle attachment sites. This paper presents the pathologies and entheseal changes observed in four draught and/or racing reindeer skeletons against information on their life histories and discusses the probability of linking the observed changes to their use. The results of this study are a useful point of comparison to researchers working on reindeer and other species of draught animals. However, our results also emphasize that entheseal changes and many pathologies have multifactorial etiologies and that interpretation of skeletal change patterns is not straightforward, even when there is information on the life history of the animal and its complete skeleton can be examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radial loads and axial thrusts on centrifugal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the IMechE are presented in this text. Complete contents: Review of parameters influencing hydraulic forces on centrifugal impellers; The effect of fluid forces at various operation conditions on the vibrations of vertical turbine pumps; A review of the pump rotor axial equilibrium problem - some case studies; Dynamic hydraulic loading on a centrifugal pump impeller; Experimental research on axial thrust loads of double suction centrifugal pumps; A comparison of pressure distribution and radial loads on centrifugal pumps; A theoretical and experimental investigation of axial thrusts within a multi-stage centrifugal pump

  1. Measurement for cobalt target activity and its axial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyuan; Chen Zigen.

    1985-01-01

    Cobalt target activity and its axial distribution are measured in process of producing radioactive isotopes 60 Co by irradiation in HFETR. Cobalt target activity is obtained with measured data at 3.60 m and 4.60 m, relative axial distribution of cobalt target activity is obtained with one at 30 cm, and axial distribution of cobalt target activity(or specific activity) is obtained with both of data. The difference between this specific activity and measured result for 60 Co teletherapy sources in the end is less than +- 5%

  2. Gravitational waves from the axial perturbations of hyperon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen De-Hua; Yan Jing; Liu Xue-Mei

    2012-01-01

    The eigen-frequencies of the axial w-mode oscillations of hyperon stars are examined. It is shown that as the appearance of hyperons softens the equation of state of the super-density matter, the frequency of gravitational waves from the axial w-mode of hyperon star becomes smaller than that of a traditional neutron star at the same stellar mass. Moreover, the eigenfrequencies of hyperon stars also have scaling universality. It is shown that the EURO third-generation gravitational-wave detector has the potential to detect the gravitational-wave signal emitted from the axial w-mode oscillations of a hyperon star. (general)

  3. Axial weak currents in the Wess-Zumino term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo.

    1985-03-01

    The conventional axial gauging of the Wess-Zumino term leads to the results which do not necessarily agree with the expectations on the basis of quark level Ward-Takahashi identities. This discrepancy arises from the fact that the quark level anomalous identities reflect the short distance structure of QCD, whereas the gauging of the Wess-Zumino term reflects the axial symmetry in the spontaneously broken chiral phase. The low energy theorem for axial weak fields is not sharply defined, in contrast to the case of vector fields where no such complications arise. (author)

  4. Pion Photo- and Electroproduction and the Partially Conserved Axial Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberzettl, Helmut

    2000-01-01

    The relevance of the axial current for pion production processes off the nucleon with real or virtual photons is revisited. Employing the hypothesis of a partially conserved axial current (PCAC), it is shown that, when all of the relevant contributions are taken into account, PCAC does not provide any additional constraint for threshold production processes that goes beyond the Goldberger-Treiman relation. In particular, it is shown that pion electroproduction processes at threshold cannot be used to extract any information regarding the weak axial form factor. The relationships found in previous investigations are seen to be an accident of the approximations usually made in this context

  5. The spin of the proton and the axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, T.; Zahed, I.

    1989-01-01

    We show that a consistent treatment of the abelian axial anomaly in a two-phase model of the proton yields a flavor singlet axial current that is saturated by the anomaly at Q 2 =0 in the chiral limit. This result suggests that at Q 2 =0 the matrix element of the flavor singlet axial current in a polarized proton state is small while the proton spin is still one-half. Modulo the QCD evolution equation, this result is in fair agreement with the recent EMC data. (orig.)

  6. The Design Method of Axial Flow Runners Focusing on Axial Flow Velocity Uniformization and Its Application to an Ultra-Small Axial Flow Hydraulic Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a portable and ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine that can generate electric power comparatively easily using the low head of open channels such as existing pipe conduits or small rivers. In addition, we proposed a simple design method for axial flow runners in combination with the conventional one-dimensional design method and the design method of axial flow velocity uniformization, with the support of three-dimensional flow analysis. Applying our design method to the runner of an ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine, the performance and internal flow of the designed runner were investigated using CFD analysis and experiment (performance test and PIV measurement. As a result, the runners designed with our design method were significantly improved in turbine efficiency compared to the original runner. Specifically, in the experiment, a new design of the runner achieved a turbine efficiency of 0.768. This reason was that the axial component of absolute velocity of the new design of the runner was relatively uniform at the runner outlet in comparison with that of the original runner, and as a result, the negative rotational flow was improved. Thus, the validity of our design method has been verified.

  7. Transitions in axial morphology along the Southeast Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Cochran, James R.

    1996-07-01

    Shipboard bathymetric and magnetic profiles across the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) were analyzed in order to examine the nature of along-axis variations in axial morphology at this intermediate spreading rate ridge. Three types of axial morphology are observed along the SEIR: an axial high, a shallow (200-700 m deep) axial valley and a deep (>1000 m deep) axial valley. An axial high is found to the east of the Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) (east of 128°E) and between 82°E and 104°E. A shallow rift valley is found from 104°E to 114°E and from 82°E westward past the Amerstdam/St. Paul hotspot (ASP) to about 30°S, 75°E. Deep rift valleys are found from 114°E to 128°E in the vicinity of the AAD and from the Indian Ocean Triple Junction (IOTJ) at 25°S, 70°E to about 30°S, 75°E. The transition near 30°S occurs in an area of constant zero-age depth and does not appear to result from an increase in mantle temperature. It could be the result of the rapid increase in spreading rate along that portion of the SEIR. The most likely cause of the other transitions in axial morphology is variations in mantle temperature. The transitions between the different types of axial morphology are well defined and occur over a limited distance. Transitions in axial morphology are accompanied by significant changes in ridge flank topographic roughness. The transitions from axial valleys to axial highs are also accompanied by changes in the amplitude of the seafloor magnetic anomalies. Our observations suggest that there are distinct modes rather than a continuum of axial morphology on the SEIR and that there appears to be a "threshold" mechanism for a rapid change between different states of axial morphology. The ASP has only a limited influence on the SEIR. The ridge axis is marked by an axial valley for the entire distance from the IOTJ up to and past the ASP. The ridge axis becomes shallower as the ASP is approached from the northwest but only by about 300 m over

  8. Can we omit scintiscanning of the skeleton in follow-up aftercare of carcinoma of the breast?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuenemann, H.

    1989-01-01

    630 women patients of the Bad Trissl clinic were admitted in 1987/88 to a prospective study to find out whether scintiscanning, or radionuclide imaging, of the skeleton can be omitted completely or in part in the after care and follow-up of carcinoma of the breast. The initial criterion was a postoperative carcinoma of the breast without metastasizing in the skeleton at the time the study began or the patient was admitted to the study. Careful pain anamnesis was performed by means of prepared questions, and a detailed clinical examination conducted to detect any pain in the skeleton of the patient concerned. This was followed by whole body scintiscanning of the skeleton and complementary X-ray films, if necessary additional examinations. It was found that clinical findings and imaging methods agreed in 545 patients. In 55 cases a finding that was clinically suspicious of metastases or doubtful, could be refuted by both scintiscan and by X-ray, osseous metastasizing would have been overlooked without skeleton scintiscan in 14 patients only (2.2%), 11 of these 14 patients were high-risk patients (negative hormonal receptor status, axillary lymph node metastases). Hence, it will be sufficient to employ scintiscanning in the aftercare and follow-up of carcinoma of the breast on a risk-adapted basis provided this is preceded by careful pain analysis and clinical examination. Failure to detect metastasizing in the skeleton will then occur in only 3 of 630 patients (0.48%). In this manner 40% of scintiscans can be omitted in future. (orig.) [de

  9. Myosin IIA interacts with the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton to control red blood cell membrane curvature and deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alyson S; Nowak, Roberta B; Zhou, Sitong; Giannetto, Michael; Gokhin, David S; Papoin, Julien; Ghiran, Ionita C; Blanc, Lionel; Wan, Jiandi; Fowler, Velia M

    2018-05-08

    The biconcave disk shape and deformability of mammalian RBCs rely on the membrane skeleton, a viscoelastic network of short, membrane-associated actin filaments (F-actin) cross-linked by long, flexible spectrin tetramers. Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) motors exert force on diverse F-actin networks to control cell shapes, but a function for NMII contractility in the 2D spectrin-F-actin network of RBCs has not been tested. Here, we show that RBCs contain membrane skeleton-associated NMIIA puncta, identified as bipolar filaments by superresolution fluorescence microscopy. MgATP disrupts NMIIA association with the membrane skeleton, consistent with NMIIA motor domains binding to membrane skeleton F-actin and contributing to membrane mechanical properties. In addition, the phosphorylation of the RBC NMIIA heavy and light chains in vivo indicates active regulation of NMIIA motor activity and filament assembly, while reduced heavy chain phosphorylation of membrane skeleton-associated NMIIA indicates assembly of stable filaments at the membrane. Treatment of RBCs with blebbistatin, an inhibitor of NMII motor activity, decreases the number of NMIIA filaments associated with the membrane and enhances local, nanoscale membrane oscillations, suggesting decreased membrane tension. Blebbistatin-treated RBCs also exhibit elongated shapes, loss of membrane curvature, and enhanced deformability, indicating a role for NMIIA contractility in promoting membrane stiffness and maintaining RBC biconcave disk cell shape. As structures similar to the RBC membrane skeleton exist in many metazoan cell types, these data demonstrate a general function for NMII in controlling specialized membrane morphology and mechanical properties through contractile interactions with short F-actin in spectrin-F-actin networks.

  10. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  11. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  12. Adsorption of cadmium ions on nickel surface skeleton catalysts and its effect on reaction of cathodic hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, N.V.; Udris, E.Ya.; Savel'eva, O.N.

    1986-01-01

    Cadmium adsorption from different concentration CdSO 4 solutions on nickel surface skeleton catalysts (Ni ssc ) is studied by recording of polarization and potentiodynamic curves using electron microscopy and X-ray spectrometry. Main regularities of cadmium adsorption on Ni ssc are shown to be similar to those on smooth and skeleton nickel. A conclusion is drawn that increase of catalytic activity in reaction of cathodic hydrogen evolution from alkali solutions of Ni ssc base electrodes after their treatment in solutions containing Cd 2+ ions is due to irreversible desorption of strongly and averagely bound hydrogen from electrode surface at cadmium adsorption on them

  13. The importance of scintimetry in the differential diagnosis of roentgenological areas of increased 'translucence' in the skeleton of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, P.; Benz, G.

    1979-01-01

    A random selection of lesions representing osteolytic bone processes was evaluated with the 'region-of-interest' technique in order to determine whether scintimetry can be helpful in the differential diagnosis of such processes in children. Bone tumours with structural densification, as well as osteomyelitides, were reviewed for comparative purposes. It was found that scintigraphy of the skeleton, while supplying additional and clinically quite interesting information, does not make any substantial contribution to the differential diagnostic clarification of roentgenological translucence in the skeleton of children. (orig.) [de

  14. Morphometric analysis of early Eocene Corbisema skeletons (Silicoflagellata) in Mors, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hideto; Jordan, Richard W.; Nishiwaki, Niichi; Nishida, Shiro

    2018-02-01

    A two-dimensional morphometric programme, recently designed to measure fossil skeletons of the silicoflagellate genus Corbisema, was used to investigate specimens of the C. apiculata-C. triacantha complex found in a sample from the Fur Formation on the island of Mors, Jutland, Denmark. The semi-automated programme measured the lengths of the basal sides and radial spines, the basal side curvature, and the location of the pikes (if present) from a photographic database (N = 469). As a result, two distinct morphological groups were revealed based on their radial spine length : basal side length ratio and the presence or absence of pikes: group A (ratio of 1 : 1.3, no pikes) and group B, with the latter subdivided into B1 (ratio of 1 : 7, with pikes) and B2 (ratio of 1 : 6, no pikes). Group A (C. triacantha sensu lato) possesses a small basal ring with relatively straight basal sides and long radial spines, while group B has a large basal ring with curved basal sides and short radial spines. In B1 specimens (C. apiculata sensu stricto) the pikes are positioned 0 to 1 µm away from the junction point of the strut and basal ring. This would suggest that B1 double skeletons are likely to be in the Star-of-David configuration, while A and B2 double skeletons (which lack pikes) are likely to be in the corner-to-corner configuration. Compared with the previously published biometric studies of extant Stephanocha (Stephanocha speculum complex in the Southern Ocean and S. medianoctisol in the Arctic Ocean), the results are somewhat different: although C. triacantha sensu lato (group A) is similar to the modern species of Stephanocha, the latter have smaller basal ring diameters, whereas specimens of C. apiculata sensu lato (types B1 and B2) have large basal rings. If their cell diameters are calculated, B1 is the largest, with S. speculum being the smallest - about half the size of B1. This could suggest that the relationship between radial spine length and mean basal ring

  15. NORMAL AXIAL ANGLES OF THE KNEE JOINT IN ADULT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-01

    Aug 1, 2003 ... Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated comparative variations in means and ranges of normal axial angles .... population was significantly different from the mean ... case, however, the angle also exhibits racial variations.

  16. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric axial anisotropic forward modeling and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Wang, Kunpeng; Wang, Tao; Hua, Boguang

    2018-06-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data has been widely used to image underground electrical structural. However, when the significant axial resistivity anisotropy presents, how this influences three-dimensional MT data has not been resolved clearly yet. We here propose a scheme for three-dimensional modeling of MT data in presence of axial anisotropic resistivity, where the electromagnetic fields are decomposed into primary and secondary components. A 3D staggered-grid finite difference method is then used to resolve the resulting 3D governing equations. Numerical tests have completed to validate the correctness and accuracy of the present algorithm. A limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method is then utilized to realize the 3D MT axial anisotropic inversion. The testing results show that, compared to the results of isotropic resistivity inversion, taking account the axial anisotropy can much improve the inverted results.

  17. The geometrical theory of diffraction for axially symmetric reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusch, W.; Sørensen, O.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) (cf. [1], for example) may be applied advantageously to many axially symmetric reflector antenna geometries. The material in this communication presents analytical, computational, and experimental results for commonly encountered reflector geometries...

  18. Effect of axial heat flux distribution on CHF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol

    2000-10-01

    Previous investigations for the effect of axial heat flux distributions on CHF and the prediction methods are reviewed and summarized. A total of 856 CHF data in a tube with a non-uniform axial heat flux distribution has been compiled from the articles and analyzed using the 1995 Groeneveld look-up table. The results showed that two representative correction factors, K5 of the look-up table and Tongs F factor, can be applied to describe the axial heat flux distribution effect on CHF. However, they overpredict slightly the measured CHF, depending on the quality and flux peak shape. Hence, a corrected K5 factor, which accounts for the axial heat flux distribution effect is suggested to correct these trends. It predicted the CHF power for the compiled data with an average error of 1.5% and a standard deviation of 10.3%, and also provides a reasonable prediction of CHF locations.

  19. The relation between anomalous magnetic moment and axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teryaev, O.V.

    1990-12-01

    The conservation of total angular momentum of spinor particle leads to a simple relation between the famous Schwinger and Adler coefficients determining axial anomaly and anomalous magnetic moment, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  20. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    retical arguments together with some numerical evidence. The evolution of the orbits is studied, as mass is transported from the disk to the nucleus. ... galaxies and non-axially symmetric quasar models (see Papadopoulos & Caranicolas.

  1. Axial clamp for nuclear reactor head penetration conoseal joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackley, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    A method for forming a sealed coupling between two bodies each body presenting an abutment surface, the bodies being arranged so that their respective abutment surfaces are axially adjacent one another and define a space therebetween in which a deformable gasket is disposed. An axial external force is applied to the bodies for compressing the abutment surfaces together against the gasket to form a seal between the bodies and the bodies are immobilized relative to one another while the external force is being applied to the bodies so that sufficient compression will be maintained by the abutment surfaces to preserve the integrity of the seal when the external axial force is withdrawn. The external axial force is then withdrawn, leaving the two bodies coupled together via the seal. (author)

  2. first principles derivation of a stress function for axially symmetric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    governing partial differential equations of linear isotropic elasticity were reduced to the solution of the biharmonic ... The stress function was then applied to solve the axially symmetric ..... [1] Borg S.K.: Fundamentals of Engineering Elasticity,.

  3. Cladding axial elongation models for FRAP-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Carlson, E.R.; Berna, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the cladding axial elongation models developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for use by the FRAP-T6 computer code in analyzing the response of fuel rods during reactor transients in light water reactors (LWR). The FRAP-T6 code contains models (FRACAS-II subcode) that analyze the structural response of a fuel rod including pellet-cladding-mechanical-interaction (PCMI). Recently, four models were incorporated into FRACAS-II to calculate cladding axial deformation: (a) axial PCMI, (b) trapped fuel stack, (c) fuel relocation, and (d) effective fuel thermal expansion. Comparisons of cladding axial elongation measurements from two experiments with the corresponding FRAP-T6 calculations are presented

  4. Uniform Decay for Solutions of an Axially Moving Viscoelastic Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleche, Abdelkarim, E-mail: kellecheabdelkarim@gmail.com [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Mathématiques (Algeria); Tatar, Nasser-eddine, E-mail: tatarn@Kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-06-15

    The paper deals with an axially moving viscoelastic structure modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam. The aim is to suppress the transversal displacement (transversal vibrations) that occur during the axial motion of the beam. It is assumed that the beam is moving with a constant axial speed and it is subject to a nonlinear force at the right boundary. We prove that when the axial speed of the beam is smaller than a critical value, the dissipation produced by the viscoelastic material is sufficient to suppress the transversal vibrations. It is shown that the rate of decay of the energy depends on the kernel which arise in the viscoelastic term. We consider a general kernel and notice that solutions cannot decay faster than the kernel.

  5. Axially modulated arch resonator for logic and memory applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Tella, Sherif Adekunle; Alcheikh, Nouha; Fariborzi, Hossein; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate reconfigurable logic and random access memory devices based on an axially modulated clamped-guided arch resonator. The device is electrostatically actuated and the motional signal is capacitively sensed, while the resonance frequency

  6. Quasi-renormalization of the axial vector model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweda, M.

    1979-01-01

    Using the regulator-free BPHZL renormalization scheme the problem of anomalies in a massive axial vector meson model is reinvestigated. The Adler-Bardeen-Bell-Jackiw anomaly introduces some impressive modifications: the nontrivial self-energy and the counterterm of the longitudinal part of the axial vector field depend on the anomaly via the anomalous Ward identity. The investigations are based on a Fermi-type gauge. (author)

  7. ABOUT MODELING COMPLEX ASSEMBLIES IN SOLIDWORKS – LARGE AXIAL BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paperwork is presented the modeling strategy used in SOLIDWORKS for modeling special items as large axial bearing and the steps to be taken in order to obtain a better design. In the paper are presented the features that are used for modeling parts, and then the steps that must be taken in order to obtain the 3D model of a large axial bearing used for bucket-wheel equipment for charcoal moving.

  8. The research on flow pulsation characteristics of axial piston pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingchao; Wang, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    The flow pulsation is an important factor influencing the axial piston pump performance. In this paper we implement modeling and simulation of the axial piston pump with AMESim software to explore the flow pulsation characteristics under various factors . Theory analysis shows the loading pressure, angular speed, piston numbers and the accumulator impose evident influence on the flow pulsation characteristics. This simulation and analysis can be used for reducing the flow pulsation rate via properly setting the related factors.

  9. Minidosimetry of alpha-radiation from 239-Pu in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polig, E.

    1980-01-01

    A novel technique for evaluating alpha-autoradiograms of the skeleton was developed and applied. The method involves scanning the alpha-track distribution on cellulose-nitrate detector foils and determination of tissue structure from Alizarin-stained bone sections (150 μm) by means of a computer controlled microscope photometer. Geometrical alignment between the two samples is preserved during the measuring process. After combining the files containing the track density distribution with the corresponding digitized bone images on a random access storage medium, detailed information concerning the radionuclide distribution on a microscopic scale, dose rates, hit frequencies etc. are extracted by a sequence of FORTRAN-programs. The potential of the method is demonstrated in a study dealing with the distribution of 239-Pu in the lumbar vertebra of adult rats. The measured dose rate distribution is discussed in terms of hit probabilities for cell nuclei and consequences for quantitative tumour models are indicated. (H.K.)

  10. Archaeological skeletons support a northwest European origin for Paget's disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Simon

    2010-08-01

    The strong genetic component in the etiology of Paget's disease of bone (PDB), together with marked geographic variation in its prevalence, with high frequencies in British populations, has led some to suggest that the disease originated in Britain and spread around the world in recent times by the migration and admixture of British populations. This study aims to investigate this hypothesis by studying the world geographic distribution of PDB cases identified in ancient skeletons excavated from archaeological sites. The methodology is a review of PDB cases described in the literature. There were 109 cases that met modern diagnostic criteria. All came from Western Europe, 94% from England. These data support the hypothesis that PDB originated in this geographic region.

  11. A modern documented Italian identified skeletal collection of 2127 skeletons: The CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Mazzarelli, Debora; Cappella, Annalisa; Castoldi, Elisa; Mattia, Mirko; Poppa, Pasquale; De Angelis, Danilo; Vitello, Antonio; Biehler-Gomez, Lucie

    2018-04-24

    The CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection is a modern and continuously growing identified osteological collection of 2127 skeletons under study in the Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense (LABANOF) in the Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health of the University of Milan (Italy), and part of the Collezione Antropologica LABANOF (CAL). The collection presents individuals of both sexes and of all age groups with a high representation of elderly and an interesting sample of infants. Each individual is associated with a documentation that includes sex, age-at-death, dates of birth and death, and a death certificate that specifies the exact cause of death and the chain of events that led to it (related pathological conditions or traumatic events). It was also possible to recover for several individuals the autopsy reports and antemortem photographs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Marine sponge skeleton photosensitized by copper phthalocyanine: A catalyst for Rhodamine B degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined approach to photo-assisted degradation processes, in which a catalyst, H2O2 and UV irradiation are used together to enhance the oxidation of Rhodamine B (RB. The heterogeneous photocatalyst was made by the process of adsorption of copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (CuPC onto purified spongin-based Hippospongia communis marine sponge skeleton (HcS. The product obtained, CuPC-HcS, was investigated by a variety of spectroscopic (carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance 13C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS and microscopic techniques (scanning electron microscopy SEM, fluorescent and optical microscopy, as well as thermal analysis. The study confirms the stable combination of the adsorbent and adsorbate. For a 10 mg/L RB solution, the percentage degradation reached 95% using CuPC-HcS as a heterocatalyst. The mechanism of RB removal involves adsorption and photodegradation simultaneously.

  13. Anthropogenic 236U recorded in annually banded coral skeleton at Majuro atoll, the equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Eto, Asuka; Takahashi, Yoshio; Steier, Peter; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Historical 236 U/ 238 U atom ratio and concentration of 236 U were determined by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) in skeletons of dated modern coral core sample collected from Majuro atoll, equatorial Pacific, to reconstruct anthropogenic 236 U inputs to the Equatorial Pacific. The maximum hydrogen bomb-pulses of 236 U/ 238 U and 236 U concentration, 2.83x10 -9 and 1.85x10 7 atom/g, in an annually resolved coral core were captured in 1954 (Operation Castle at Bikini and Enewetok atolls). The values were abruptly decreased in a few years, and they have been gradually decreased over time. Our results allow studies of not only the present distribution pattern, but gives access to the temporal evolution of 236 U in surface seawater of North Equatorial Current which is introduced to the Japan Sea and the North West Pacific Ocean as Kuroshio and Tsushima currents over the past decades. (author)

  14. The results of nuclear tomography in the investigation of tumours of the facial skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Radtke, J.; Beyer, H.K.; Machtens, E.; Pastoors, H.; Knappschaftskrankenhaus Langendreer, Essen

    1986-01-01

    We examined 21 patients with tumours of the mouth, one with tumour involvement of the facial skeleton and three with lymph node involvement in the upper neck, by nuclear tomography. Twenty patients with carcinomas of the mouth were also examined by CT. Nuclear tomography was superior to CT in showing the extent of the tumour; in ten patients the extent of the tumour could not be accurately determined, since there was no clear demarcation from normal tissue. Amongst our patients, nuclear tomography was also superior for showing lymph node metastases. Computed tomography is better at showing bone infiltration. Our results indicate that nuclear tomography is better than CT for showing the tumour and lymph nodes. If there is a suspicion of bone involvement, CT should be used in addition. (orig.) [de

  15. Cytotoxic Meroterpenoids with Rare Skeletons from Psidium guajava Cultivated in Temperate Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Yan, Huan; Ni, Wei; Yu, Mu-Yuan; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Hong-Xia; He, Li; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; di, Ying-Tong; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Three new meroterpenoids, guajavadials A-C (1-3), were isolated from Psidium guajava cultivated in temperate zone. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic evidence and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Guajavadial A (1) represents a novel skeleton of the 3,5-diformylbenzyl phloroglucinol-coupled monoterpenoid, while guajavadials B (2) and C (3) are new adducts of the 3,5-diformylbenzyl phloroglucinol and a sesquiterpene with different coupling models. The plausible biosynthetic pathways as well as antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these meroterpenoids are also discussed. All these isolates exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines, with 3 being most effective with an IC50 value of 3.54 μM toward SMMC-7721 cell lines.

  16. Results of nuclear tomography in the investigation of tumours of the facial skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlenbrock, D; Radtke, J; Beyer, H K; Machtens, E; Pastoors, H

    1986-03-01

    We examined 21 patients with tumours of the mouth, one with tumour involvement of the facial skeleton and three with lymph node involvement in the upper neck, by nuclear tomography. Twenty patients with carcinomas of the mouth were also examined by CT. Nuclear tomography was superior to CT in showing the extent of the tumour; in ten patients the extent of the tumour could not be accurately determined, since there was no clear demarcation from normal tissue. Amongst our patients, nuclear tomography was also superior for showing lymph node metastases. Computed tomography is better at showing bone infiltration. Our results indicate that nuclear tomography is better than CT for showing the tumour and lymph nodes. If there is a suspicion of bone involvement, CT should be used in addition.

  17. Animals, Pictures, and Skeletons: Andreas Vesalius's Reinvention of the Public Anatomy Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotwell, R Allen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the procedures used by Andreas Vesalius for conducting public dissections in the early sixteenth century. I point out that in order to overcome the limitations of public anatomical demonstration noted by his predecessors, Vesalius employed several innovative strategies, including the use of animals as dissection subjects, the preparation and display of articulated skeletons, and the use of printed and hand-drawn illustrations. I suggest that the examination of these three strategies for resolving the challenges of public anatomical demonstration helps us to reinterpret Vesalius's contributions to sixteenth-century anatomy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A novel triterpenoid carbon skeleton in immature sulphur-rich sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.; De Leeuw, J.W. [Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research (NIOZ), Texel (Netherlands)

    1995-03-01

    A novel S compound, 1,4-bis(2{sup {prime}}, 5{sup {prime}}, 5{sup {prime}}, 8a{sup {prime}}-tetramethylhexahydrothiochroman)-butane has been detected in several immature S-rich sediments, of which the desulphurized counterpart was unambiguously identified by synthesis of an authentic standard and coinjection experiments. This C skeleton of the S compound, 1, 10-bis(2{sup {prime}}, 2{sup {prime}}, 6{sup {prime}}-trimethylcyclohexyl)-3,8-dimethyldodecane(I), has not been reported yet in any sediment or organism. We suggest that it may be biosynthesized through an enzymatic cyclization reaction of squalene (II), which shows similarities with the biosynthesis of {Beta}, {Beta}-carotene (III) from lycopene (IV). 24 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Selected radionuclides and heavy metals in skeletons of birds of prey from eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosa, A.; Chibowski, S.; Solecki, J.; Orzel, J.; Kitowski, I.; Rozanski, P.

    2009-01-01

    Results of determination of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 40 K, 239+240 Pu, and heavy metals: Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co, and Cu in skeletons of 15 species of birds of prey from Eastern Poland were presented. The greatest amounts of 137 Cs and 90 Sr (70 Bq/kg and 33 Bq/kg, respectively) were found in rough-legged buzzards (Buteo lagopus), winter visitors, coming from former soviet nuclear test places. Concentrations of 239+240 Pu in raptors were negligible, only lesser-spotted eagles (Aquila pomarina) revealed slightly higher values. Median concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in raptors which feed predominantly on small mammals were higher in comparison to concentrations found in other ones preferring different trophy. The most noticeable was a very high lead concentration (reaching above 600 mg/kg) in birds which utilize un-retrieved hunting casualties as their prey. (author)

  20. Radiological abnormalities of the skeleton in patients with sickle-cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dridi, M.F.; Oumaya, A.; Gastli, H.; Doggaz, C.; Bousnina, S.; Fattoum, S.; Ben Osman, R.; Gharbi, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The way in which bones are affected in cases of sickle-cell anemia is well known. Nevertheless, advances in treatment and in methods of transfusion mean that we are increasingly seeing cases of older patients with this disease. A retrospective analysis of 222 cases of sickle-cell anemia demonstrates the radiological appearance of the skeleton in the disease and reveals the various bone segments which are particularly vulnerable at certain periods of life. Correlation of X-rays permits the discovery of lesions which are not clinically apparent. The frequency and characteristics of epiphyseal osteonecrosis and osteitis are studied. Aggravation of the bone lesions when corticoids are administered poses the problem of differential diagnosis of the disease, especially in comparison with rheumatic fever. (orig.)

  1. A Combined Approach to Cartographic Displacement for Buildings Based on Skeleton and Improved Elastic Beam Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuangang; Guo, Qingsheng; Sun, Yageng; Ma, Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    Scale reduction from source to target maps inevitably leads to conflicts of map symbols in cartography and geographic information systems (GIS). Displacement is one of the most important map generalization operators and it can be used to resolve the problems that arise from conflict among two or more map objects. In this paper, we propose a combined approach based on constraint Delaunay triangulation (CDT) skeleton and improved elastic beam algorithm for automated building displacement. In this approach, map data sets are first partitioned. Then the displacement operation is conducted in each partition as a cyclic and iterative process of conflict detection and resolution. In the iteration, the skeleton of the gap spaces is extracted using CDT. It then serves as an enhanced data model to detect conflicts and construct the proximity graph. Then, the proximity graph is adjusted using local grouping information. Under the action of forces derived from the detected conflicts, the proximity graph is deformed using the improved elastic beam algorithm. In this way, buildings are displaced to find an optimal compromise between related cartographic constraints. To validate this approach, two topographic map data sets (i.e., urban and suburban areas) were tested. The results were reasonable with respect to each constraint when the density of the map was not extremely high. In summary, the improvements include (1) an automated parameter-setting method for elastic beams, (2) explicit enforcement regarding the positional accuracy constraint, added by introducing drag forces, (3) preservation of local building groups through displacement over an adjusted proximity graph, and (4) an iterative strategy that is more likely to resolve the proximity conflicts than the one used in the existing elastic beam algorithm. PMID:25470727

  2. Dissepiments, density bands and signatures of thermal stress in Porites skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Cohen, Anne L.

    2017-09-01

    The skeletons of many reef-building corals are accreted with rhythmic structural patterns that serve as valuable sclerochronometers. Annual high- and low-density band couplets, visible in X-radiographs or computed tomography scans, are used to construct age models for paleoclimate reconstructions and to track variability in coral growth over time. In some corals, discrete, anomalously high-density bands, called "stress bands," preserve information about coral bleaching. However, the mechanisms underlying the formation of coral skeletal density banding remain unclear. Dissepiments—thin, horizontal sheets of calcium carbonate accreted by the coral to support the living polyp—play a key role in the upward growth of the colony. Here, we first conducted a vital staining experiment to test whether dissepiments were accreted with lunar periodicity in Porites coral skeleton, as previously hypothesized. Over 6, 15, and 21 months, dissepiments consistently formed in a 1:1 ratio to the number of full moons elapsed over each study period. We measured dissepiment spacing to reconstruct multiple years of monthly skeletal extension rates in two Porites colonies from Palmyra Atoll and in another from Palau that bleached in 1998 under anomalously high sea temperatures. Spacing between successive dissepiments exhibited strong seasonality in corals containing annual density bands, with narrow (wide) spacing associated with high (low) density, respectively. A high-density "stress band" accreted during the 1998 bleaching event was associated with anomalously low dissepiment spacing and missed dissepiments, implying that thermal stress disrupts skeletal extension. Further, uranium/calcium ratios increased within stress bands, indicating a reduction in the carbonate ion concentration of the coral's calcifying fluid under stress. Our study verifies the lunar periodicity of dissepiments, provides a mechanistic basis for the formation of annual density bands in Porites, and reveals the

  3. Development of vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Ezure, Toshiki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    A vortex is considered as one of significant phenomena which may cause gas entrainment (GE) and/or vortex cavitation in sodium-cooled fast reactors. In our past studies, the vortex is assumed to be approximated by the well-known Burgers vortex model. However, the Burgers vortex model has a simple but unreal assumption that the axial velocity component is horizontally constant, while in real the free surface vortex has the axial velocity distribution which shows large gradient in radial direction near the vortex center. In this study, a new vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution is proposed. This model is derived from the steady axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equation as well as the Burgers vortex model, but the realistic axial velocity distribution in radial direction is considered, which is defined to be zero at the vortex center and to approach asymptotically to zero at infinity. As the verification, the new vortex model is applied to the evaluation of a simple vortex experiment, and shows good agreements with the experimental data in terms of the circumferential velocity distribution and the free surface shape. In addition, it is confirmed that the Burgers vortex model fails to calculate accurate velocity distribution with the assumption of uniform axial velocity. However, the calculation accuracy of the Burgers vortex model can be enhanced close to that of the new vortex model in consideration of the effective axial velocity which is calculated as the average value only in the vicinity of the vortex center. (author)

  4. Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L

    2014-10-01

    Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.

  5. Investigation of angular and axial smoothing of PET data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Carson, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Radial filtering of emission and transmission data is routinely performed in PET during reconstruction in order to reduce image noise. Angular smoothing is not typically done, due to the introduction of a non-uniform resolution loss; axial filtering is also not usually performed on data acquired in 2D mode. The goal of this paper was to assess the effects of angular and axial smoothing on noise and resolution. Angular and axial smoothing was incorporated into the reconstruction process on the Scanditronix PC2048-15B brain PET scanner. In-plane spatial resolution and noise reduction were measured for different amounts of radial and angular smoothing. For radial positions away from the center of the scanner, noise reduction and degraded tangential resolution with no loss of radial resolution were seen. Near the center, no resolution loss was observed, but there was also no reduction in noise for angular filters up to a 7 degrees FWHM. These results can be understood by considering the combined effects of smoothing projections across rows (angles) and then summing (backprojecting). Thus, angular smoothing is not optimal due to its anisotropic noise reduction and resolution degradation properties. However, uniform noise reduction comparable to that seen with radial filtering can be achieved with axial smoothing of transmission data. The axial results suggest that combined radial and axial transmission smoothing could lead to improved noise characteristics with more isotropic resolution degradation

  6. Chiral lattice fermions, minimal doubling, and the axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiburzi, B. C.

    2010-01-01

    Exact chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing would preclude the axial anomaly. In order to describe a continuum quantum field theory of Dirac fermions, lattice actions with purported exact chiral symmetry must break the flavor-singlet axial symmetry. We demonstrate that this is indeed the case by using a minimally doubled fermion action. For simplicity, we consider the Abelian axial anomaly in two dimensions. At finite lattice spacing and with gauge interactions, the axial anomaly arises from nonconservation of the flavor-singlet current. Similar nonconservation also leads to the axial anomaly in the case of the naieve lattice action. For minimally doubled actions, however, fine-tuning of the action and axial current is necessary to arrive at the anomaly. Conservation of the flavor nonsinglet vector current additionally requires the current to be fine-tuned. Finally, we determine that the chiral projection of a minimally doubled fermion action can be used to arrive at a lattice theory with an undoubled Dirac fermion possessing the correct anomaly in the continuum limit.

  7. Axial Myopia and its Influence on Diabetic Retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyab, H.; Haider, M. A.; Bukhari, S. A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between axial myopia and diabetic retinopathy. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Eye Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore General Hospital, from August 2012 to February 2013. Methodology: A total of 258 participants suffering from type-2 diabetic retinopathy were included. Axial length was measured by two optometrists using contact type ultrasound biometer. Colored retinal photographs, red free retinal photographs and Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) were performed on all patients using standard fundus camera. All fundus photographs and angiograms were independently reviewed and graded by two qualified vitreoretinal fellows. Results: Out of 258 patients, 163 were males (63.2%) and 95 (36.8%) were females. Average age of patients was 56.30 +- 7.57 years. Average axial length of right and left eyes were 23.16 mm and 23.15 mm respectively. There was statistically significant negative correlation between axial length and severity of diabetic retinopathy in the right eye, (Spearman correlation = -0.511, p = 0.0001) as well as the left eye (Spearman correlation = -0.522, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: There is a protective influence of longer axial length of globe on the stage and severity of diabetic retinopathy. This study may help in modifying the screening protocol for diabetic retinopathy amongst patients of differing axial lengths. (author)

  8. High Precision Axial Coordinate Readout for an Axial 3-D PET Detector Module using a Wave Length Shifter Strip Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Lustermann, W; Schinzel, D; Johnson, I; Renker, D; Albrecht, S

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method to extract the axial coordinate from a matrix of long axially oriented crystals, which is based on wavelength shifting plastic strips. The method allows building compact 3-D axial gamma detector modules for PET scanners with excellent 3-dimensional spatial, timing and energy resolution while keeping the number of readout channels reasonably low. A voxel resolution of about 10 mm3 is expected. We assess the performance of the method in two independent ways, using classical PMTs and G-APDs to read out the LYSO (LSO) scintillation crystals and the wavelength shifting strips. We observe yields in excess of 35 photoelectrons from the strips for a 511 keV gamma and reconstruct the axial coordinate with a precision of about 2.5 mm (FWHM).

  9. [Axial lumbar interbody fusion: prospective monocentric study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulík, J; Adámek, S; Barna, M; Kaspříková, N; Polanecký, O; Kryl, J

    2014-01-01

    .6%), In one patient the finding was not clear. Also, posterolateral fusion was achieved in all but one patients (95.6%). A stable L5-S1 segment was found in all patients at all follow-up intervals. The improvement in both VAS and ODI values was statistically significant. In addition to indications usual in degenerative disc disease, overweight patients, those who had repeated trans- or retroperitoneal surgery in the L5-S1 region or who underwent long posterior fixation to stabilise the caudal margin of instrumentation are indicated for the AxiaLIF procedure. The clinical results of our study are in agreement with the conclusions of other studies and are similar to the outcomes of surgery using other types of fusion or dynamic stabilisation for this diagnosis. The high rate of fusion in our group is affected by use of a rigid transpedicular fixator together with posterolateral arthrodesis. On the other hand, no negative effects of only synthetic bone applied to interbody space were recorded. The percutaneous axial pre-sacral approach to the L5-S1 interbody space with application of a double-treaded screw is another option for the management of this much strained segment. The technique is useful particularly when contraindications for conventional surgical procedures are present in patients with anatomical anomalies, in overweight patients or in those who have had repeated surgery in the region. Clinical outcomes and the success rate for L5-S1 bone fusion are comparable with conventional techniques. Complications are rare but their treatment is difficult.

  10. Stability management of high speed axial flow compressor stage through axial extensions of bend skewed casing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DilipkumarBhanudasji Alone

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results to understand the performance of moderately loaded high speed single stage transonic axial flow compressor subjected to various configurations of axial extensions of bend skewed casing treatment with moderate porosity. The bend skewed casing treatment of 33% porosity was coupled with rectangular plenum chamber of depth equal to the slots depth. The five axial extensions of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% were used for the experimental evaluations of compressor performance. The main objective was to identify the optimum extension of the casing treatment with reference to rotor leading edge which results in maximum stall margin improvements with minimum loss in the stage efficiency. At each axial extension the compressor performance is distinctive. The improvement in the stall margin was very significant at some axial extensions with 4%–5% penalty in the stage efficiency. The compressors stage shows recovery in terms of efficiency at lower axial extensions of 20% and 40% with increase in the peak stage efficiency. Measurements of flow parameters showed the typical behaviors at near stall flow conditions. Hot wire sensor was placed at the rotor upstream in the tip region to capture the oscillations in the inlet axial and tangential velocities at stall conditions. In the absence of casing treatment the compressor exhibit abrupt stall with very high oscillations in the inlet axial and tangential velocity of the flow. The extents of oscillations reduce with bend skewed casing treatment. Few measurements were also performed in the plenum chamber and salient results are presented in this paper.

  11. Short notes and reviews On a mounted skeleton of apparently the extinct Cape Lion, Panthera leo melanochaita (Ch. H. Smith, 1842)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the skeleton of apparently a Cape Lion was discovered in the Zoological Museum of the University of Amsterdam. The history of the specimen as far as known is summarized and its attribution to Panthera leo melanochaita is elucidated with some measurements taken from the skeleton and the

  12. Paleoecologic Implications of Ichnofossils Associated with Slightly Skeletonized Body Fossils, Middle Cambrian of the Barrandian Area, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Fatka, O.; Szabad, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2012), s. 199-210 ISSN 1042-0940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Middle Cambrian * ichnofossils * slightly skeletonized fauna * Barrandian area Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2012

  13. Skeleton inequalities and the asymptotic nature of perturbation theory for PHI4-theories in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovier, A.; Felder, G.

    1984-01-01

    We use the polymer representation of PHI 4 -quantum field theories to prove an infinite family of correlation inequalities, called ''skeleton inequalities'', for the 2n-point Green's functions. As an application, we show that they imply that Feynman perturbation theory is asymptotic in less than four dimensions. (orig.)

  14. New higher taxa in the lichen family Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) based on a three-gene skeleton phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Thorsten Lumbsch; Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Shirley Cunha Feuerstein; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Bettina Staiger; Dries Van den Broeck; Robert. Lücking

    2014-01-01

    We provide an updated skeleton phylogeny of the lichenized family Graphidaceae (excluding subfamily Gomphilloideae), based on three loci (mtSSU, nuLSU, RPB2), to elucidate the position of four new genera, Aggregatorygma, Borinquenotrema, Corticorygma, and Paratopeliopsis, as well as the placement of the enigmatic species Diorygma erythrellum, Fissurina monilifera, and...

  15. SCLERAL AND CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN SECONDARY HIGH AXIAL MYOPIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ling; You, Qi Sheng; Xu, Xiaolin; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Zhibao; Li, Bin; Jonas, Jost B

    2016-08-01

    To assess differences in scleral and choroidal thickness between eyes with secondary high axial myopia caused by congenital glaucoma, eyes with primary high axial myopia, and nonhighly myopic eyes. The study consisted of 301 Chinese individuals with a mean age of 23.9 ± 22.6 years and mean axial length of 24.8 ± 4.2 mm. It included the "secondary highly myopic group" (SHMG) because of congenital glaucoma (n = 20 eyes; axial length >26.0 mm), the "primary highly myopic group" (PHMG) (n = 73; axial length >26.0 mm), and the remaining nonhighly myopic group (NHMG). The secondary highly myopic group versus the primary highly myopic group had significantly thinner sclera in the pars plana region (343 ± 71 μm versus 398 ± 83 μm; P = 0.006), whereas scleral thickness in other regions did not differ significantly between both highly myopic groups and was significantly thinner in both highly myopic groups than in the NHMG. Mean total scleral volume did not differ significantly (P > 0.20) between any group (SHMG: 659 ± 106 μm; PHMG: 667 ± 128 μm; NHMG: 626 ± 135 μm). Choroidal thickness was significantly thinner in both highly myopic groups than in the NHMG, with no significant differences between both highly myopic groups. Choroidal volume did not differ significantly (P > 0.40) between any of the groups (SHMG: 43 ± 12 μm; PHMG: 43 ± 13 μm; NHMG: 46 ± 17 μm). In secondary high axial myopia, the sclera gets thinner anterior and posterior to the equator; whereas in primary high axial myopia, scleral thinning is predominantly found posterior to the equator. Because volume of sclera and choroid did not differ between any group, scleral and choroidal thinning in myopia may be due to a rearrangement of tissue and not due to the new formation of tissue.

  16. Investigation of axial power gradients near a control rod tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loberg, John, E-mail: John.Loberg@fysast.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Box 525, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Osterlund, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Osterlund@fysast.uu.se [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Box 525, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Bejmer, Klaes-Hakan, E-mail: Klaes-Hakan.Bejmer@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden); Blomgren, Jan, E-mail: Jan.Blomgren@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden); Kierkegaard, Jesper, E-mail: Jesper.Kierkegaar@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 60 Vaellingby, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Pin power gradients near BWR control rod tips have been investigated. > A control rod tip is modeled in MCNP and compared to simplified 2D/3D geometry. > Small nodes increases pin power gradients; standard nodes underestimates gradients. > The MCNP results are validated against axial gamma scan of a controlled fuel pin. - Abstract: Control rod withdrawal in BWRs induces large power steps in the adjacent fuel assemblies. This paper investigates how well a 2D/3D method, e.g., CASMO5/SIMULATE5 computes axial pin power gradients adjacent to an asymmetrical control-rod tip in a BWR. The ability to predict pin power gradients accurately is important for safety considerations whereas large powers steps induced by control rod withdrawal can cause Pellet Cladding Interaction. The computation of axial pin power gradients axially around a control rod tip is a challenging task for any nodal code. On top of that, asymmetrical control rod handles are present in some BWR designs. The lattice code CASMO requires diagonal symmetry of all control rod parts. This introduces an error in computed pin power gradients that has been evaluated by Monte Carlo calculations. The results show that CASMO5/SIMULATE5, despite the asymmetrical control rod handle, is able to predict the axial pin power gradient within 1%/cm for axial nodal sizes of 15-3.68 cm. However, a nodal size of 3.68 cm still causes underestimations of pin power gradients compared with 1 cm nodes. Furthermore, if conventional node sizes are used, {approx}15 cm, pin power gradients can be underestimated by over 50% compared with 1 cm nodes. The detailed axial pin power profiles from MCNP are corroborated by measured gamma scan data on fuel rods irradiated adjacent to control rods.

  17. Investigation of axial power gradients near a control rod tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loberg, John; Osterlund, Michael; Bejmer, Klaes-Hakan; Blomgren, Jan; Kierkegaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pin power gradients near BWR control rod tips have been investigated. → A control rod tip is modeled in MCNP and compared to simplified 2D/3D geometry. → Small nodes increases pin power gradients; standard nodes underestimates gradients. → The MCNP results are validated against axial gamma scan of a controlled fuel pin. - Abstract: Control rod withdrawal in BWRs induces large power steps in the adjacent fuel assemblies. This paper investigates how well a 2D/3D method, e.g., CASMO5/SIMULATE5 computes axial pin power gradients adjacent to an asymmetrical control-rod tip in a BWR. The ability to predict pin power gradients accurately is important for safety considerations whereas large powers steps induced by control rod withdrawal can cause Pellet Cladding Interaction. The computation of axial pin power gradients axially around a control rod tip is a challenging task for any nodal code. On top of that, asymmetrical control rod handles are present in some BWR designs. The lattice code CASMO requires diagonal symmetry of all control rod parts. This introduces an error in computed pin power gradients that has been evaluated by Monte Carlo calculations. The results show that CASMO5/SIMULATE5, despite the asymmetrical control rod handle, is able to predict the axial pin power gradient within 1%/cm for axial nodal sizes of 15-3.68 cm. However, a nodal size of 3.68 cm still causes underestimations of pin power gradients compared with 1 cm nodes. Furthermore, if conventional node sizes are used, ∼15 cm, pin power gradients can be underestimated by over 50% compared with 1 cm nodes. The detailed axial pin power profiles from MCNP are corroborated by measured gamma scan data on fuel rods irradiated adjacent to control rods.

  18. Deposition of 239Pu in the skeleton and soft tissues of beagles: effect of age at time of injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Bates, D.; Bruenger, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    Previous reports from the laboratory have clearly defined the whole body deposition of 239 Pu in beagles injected as young adults (18 mo.). However, deposition has not been evaluated as a function of skeletal maturity at the time of injection. Juvenile beagles 3 months of age were injected with 0.1 μCi 239 Pu/kg in 0.08 M citrate buffer, pH 3.5. Six of these beagles have been sacrificed at short times after injection for distribution data. Another group receiving 3.0 μCi 239 Pu/kg was allowed to live until osteosarcoma developed and they were autopsied (1228 days average). Finally an aged beagle (81 mo.) was injected with 0.1 μCi/kg plutonium (P 2.0) and sacrificed 2 weeks later. Selected soft tissues, 1/2 of the symmetrical skeleton, and a known fraction of the asymmetrical skeleton were collected and analyzed for Pu content. Independent of the age at injection, a total of approximately 80 percent of the Pu was initially deposited in liver plus skeleton, however the age of the animal at time of injection altered the relative proportion in liver and skeleton in a reciprocal manner. The percent of the injected Pu found in the liver at 14 days P.I. increased with the increase in age at time of injection (13.2 percent at 3 months, 30.9 percent at 18 months and 36.9 percent at 81 months). The lower the age at injection, the larger was the fraction of 239 Pu deposited in the skeleton. The amounts ranged from an average of 69 percent in animals injected at 3 months to 49 percent in dogs injected at 18 months and 40 percent in the dog injected at 81 months of age. The difference in skeletal deposition reflects the different rates of bone growth and remodeling in juveniles, young adults and aged beagles

  19. Immunostimulatory mouse granuloma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, E; Fauve, R M; Hevin, B; Jusforgues, H

    1983-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that from subcutaneous talc-induced granuloma in mice, a fraction could be extracted that fully protected mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Using standard biochemical procedures--i.e., ammonium sulfate fractionation, preparative electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis--we have now purified an active factor to homogeneity. A single band was obtained in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel with an apparent Mr of 55,000. It migrated with alpha 1-globulins and the isoelectric point was 5 +/- 0.1. The biological activity was destroyed with Pronase but not with trypsin and a monospecific polyclonal rabbit antiserum was obtained. The intravenous injection of 5 micrograms of this "mouse granuloma protein" fully protects mice against a lethal inoculum of L. monocytogenes. Moreover, after their incubation with 10 nM mouse granuloma protein, mouse peritoneal cells became cytostatic against Lewis carcinoma cells.

  20. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  1. Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-2 alpha participates in axial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2 alpha (CTLA-2α) has been discovered and expressed in mouse activated T-cells and mast cells. Structurally, it is homologous to the proregion of mouse cathepsin L, a lysosomal cystein proteinase. Expressed recombinant CTLA-2α is shown to exhibit selective inhibition to cathepsin L and ...

  2. Müller glia-derived PRSS56 is required to sustain ocular axial growth and prevent refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paylakhi, Seyyedhassan; Labelle-Dumais, Cassandre; Tolman, Nicholas G; Sellarole, Michael A; Seymens, Yusef; Saunders, Joseph; Lakosha, Hesham; deVries, Wilhelmine N; Orr, Andrew C; Topilko, Piotr; John, Simon Wm; Nair, K Saidas

    2018-03-01

    A mismatch between optical power and ocular axial length results in refractive errors. Uncorrected refractive errors constitute the most common cause of vision loss and second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although the retina is known to play a critical role in regulating ocular growth and refractive development, the precise factors and mechanisms involved are poorly defined. We have previously identified a role for the secreted serine protease PRSS56 in ocular size determination and PRSS56 variants have been implicated in the etiology of both hyperopia and myopia, highlighting its importance in refractive development. Here, we use a combination of genetic mouse models to demonstrate that Prss56 mutations leading to reduced ocular size and hyperopia act via a loss of function mechanism. Using a conditional gene targeting strategy, we show that PRSS56 derived from Müller glia contributes to ocular growth, implicating a new retinal cell type in ocular size determination. Importantly, we demonstrate that persistent activity of PRSS56 is required during distinct developmental stages spanning the pre- and post-eye opening periods to ensure optimal ocular growth. Thus, our mouse data provide evidence for the existence of a molecule contributing to both the prenatal and postnatal stages of human ocular growth. Finally, we demonstrate that genetic inactivation of Prss56 rescues axial elongation in a mouse model of myopia caused by a null mutation in Egr1. Overall, our findings identify PRSS56 as a potential therapeutic target for modulating ocular growth aimed at preventing or slowing down myopia, which is reaching epidemic proportions.

  3. Müller glia-derived PRSS56 is required to sustain ocular axial growth and prevent refractive error.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedhassan Paylakhi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A mismatch between optical power and ocular axial length results in refractive errors. Uncorrected refractive errors constitute the most common cause of vision loss and second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although the retina is known to play a critical role in regulating ocular growth and refractive development, the precise factors and mechanisms involved are poorly defined. We have previously identified a role for the secreted serine protease PRSS56 in ocular size determination and PRSS56 variants have been implicated in the etiology of both hyperopia and myopia, highlighting its importance in refractive development. Here, we use a combination of genetic mouse models to demonstrate that Prss56 mutations leading to reduced ocular size and hyperopia act via a loss of function mechanism. Using a conditional gene targeting strategy, we show that PRSS56 derived from Müller glia contributes to ocular growth, implicating a new retinal cell type in ocular size determination. Importantly, we demonstrate that persistent activity of PRSS56 is required during distinct developmental stages spanning the pre- and post-eye opening periods to ensure optimal ocular growth. Thus, our mouse data provide evidence for the existence of a molecule contributing to both the prenatal and postnatal stages of human ocular growth. Finally, we demonstrate that genetic inactivation of Prss56 rescues axial elongation in a mouse model of myopia caused by a null mutation in Egr1. Overall, our findings identify PRSS56 as a potential therapeutic target for modulating ocular growth aimed at preventing or slowing down myopia, which is reaching epidemic proportions.

  4. Müller glia-derived PRSS56 is required to sustain ocular axial growth and prevent refractive error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Nicholas G; Sellarole, Michael A.; Saunders, Joseph; Lakosha, Hesham; Topilko, Piotr; John, Simon WM.

    2018-01-01

    A mismatch between optical power and ocular axial length results in refractive errors. Uncorrected refractive errors constitute the most common cause of vision loss and second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although the retina is known to play a critical role in regulating ocular growth and refractive development, the precise factors and mechanisms involved are poorly defined. We have previously identified a role for the secreted serine protease PRSS56 in ocular size determination and PRSS56 variants have been implicated in the etiology of both hyperopia and myopia, highlighting its importance in refractive development. Here, we use a combination of genetic mouse models to demonstrate that Prss56 mutations leading to reduced ocular size and hyperopia act via a loss of function mechanism. Using a conditional gene targeting strategy, we show that PRSS56 derived from Müller glia contributes to ocular growth, implicating a new retinal cell type in ocular size determination. Importantly, we demonstrate that persistent activity of PRSS56 is required during distinct developmental stages spanning the pre- and post-eye opening periods to ensure optimal ocular growth. Thus, our mouse data provide evidence for the existence of a molecule contributing to both the prenatal and postnatal stages of human ocular growth. Finally, we demonstrate that genetic inactivation of Prss56 rescues axial elongation in a mouse model of myopia caused by a null mutation in Egr1. Overall, our findings identify PRSS56 as a potential therapeutic target for modulating ocular growth aimed at preventing or slowing down myopia, which is reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:29529029

  5. Analysis of axial compressive loaded beam under random support excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wensheng; Wang, Fengde; Liu, Jian

    2017-12-01

    An analytical procedure to investigate the response spectrum of a uniform Bernoulli-Euler beam with axial compressive load subjected to random support excitations is implemented based on the Mindlin-Goodman method and the mode superposition method in the frequency domain. The random response spectrum of the simply supported beam subjected to white noise excitation and to Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum excitation is investigated, and the characteristics of the response spectrum are further explored. Moreover, the effect of axial compressive load is studied and a method to determine the axial load is proposed. The research results show that the response spectrum mainly consists of the beam's additional displacement response spectrum when the excitation is white noise; however, the quasi-static displacement response spectrum is the main component when the excitation is the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum. Under white noise excitation, the amplitude of the power spectral density function decreased as the axial compressive load increased, while the frequency band of the vibration response spectrum increased with the increase of axial compressive load.

  6. Continuous millennial decrease of the Earth's magnetic axial dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Wilbor; Biggin, Andrew J.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Terra-Nova, Filipe

    2018-01-01

    Since the establishment of direct estimations of the Earth's magnetic field intensity in the first half of the nineteenth century, a continuous decay of the axial dipole component has been observed and variously speculated to be linked to an imminent reversal of the geomagnetic field. Furthermore, indirect estimations from anthropologically made materials and volcanic derivatives suggest that this decrease began significantly earlier than direct measurements have been available. Here, we carefully reassess the available archaeointensity dataset for the last two millennia, and show a good correspondence between direct (observatory/satellite) and indirect (archaeomagnetic) estimates of the axial dipole moment creating, in effect, a proxy to expand our analysis back in time. Our results suggest a continuous linear decay as the most parsimonious long-term description of the axial dipole variation for the last millennium. We thus suggest that a break in the symmetry of axial dipole moment advective sources occurred approximately 1100 years earlier than previously described. In addition, based on the observed dipole secular variation timescale, we speculate that the weakening of the axial dipole may end soon.

  7. Axial clamp for nuclear reactor head penetration conoseal joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackley, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for forming a sealed coupling between two bodies, each body presenting an annular abutment surface. The respective bodies are arranged so that their respective annular abutment surfaces are axially adjacent one another, defining a space therebetween, wherein a deformable gasket is disposed within the space. The method comprises: providing one of the bodies with an annular projection; providing the other body with threads for receiving an annular locknut which can be tightened to bear against the annular projection of the one body; applying an external axial forced to the bodies for compressing the abutment surfaces together against the gasket to form a seal between the bodies; immobilizing the bodies relative to one another while the external force is being applied to the bodies by hand-tightening an annular locknut via the threads of the other body until the locknut abuts the annular projection of the one body, substantially preventing relative axial movement between the bodies when the external axial force is withdrawn; and withdrawing the external axial force applied to the bodies, leaving the two bodies coupled together via the seal

  8. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S.; Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Cordo, Paul J.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  9. Amphiregulin Antibody and Reduction of Axial Elongation in Experimental Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jun Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanism of ocular axial elongation in myopia, guinea pigs (age: 2–3 weeks which either underwent unilateral or bilateral lens-induced myopization (group 1 or which were primarily myopic at baseline (group 2 received unilateral intraocular injections of amphiregulin antibody (doses: 5, 10, or 15 μg three times in intervals of 9 days. A third group of emmetropic guinea pigs got intraocular unilateral injections of amphiregulin (doses: 0.25, 0.50 or 1.00 ng, respectively. In each group, the contralateral eyes received intraocular injections of Ringer's solution. In intra-animal inter-eye comparison and intra-eye follow-up comparison in groups 1 and 2, the study eyes as compared to the contralateral eyes showed a dose-dependent reduction in axial elongation. In group 3, study eyes and control eyes did not differ significantly in axial elongation. Immunohistochemistry revealed amphiregulin labelling at the retinal pigment epithelium in eyes with lens-induced myopization and Ringer's solution injection, but not in eyes with amphiregulin antibody injection. Intraocular injections of amphiregulin-antibody led to a reduction of lens-induced axial myopic elongation and of the physiological eye enlargement in young guinea pigs. In contrast, intraocularly injected amphiregulin in a dose of ≤1 ng did not show a significant effect. Amphiregulin may be one of several essential molecular factors for axial elongation.

  10. Labeling the human skeleton with {sup 41}Ca to assess changes in bone calcium metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denk, E.; Hurrell, R.F.; Walczyk, T. [Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hillegonds, D.; Vogel, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Livermore, CA (United States); Synal, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute/ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Particle Physics, Zuerich (Switzerland); Geppert, C.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Fattinger, K. [University Hospital Bern, Department of General Internal Medicine, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Hennessy, C.; Berglund, M. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), European Commission Joint Research Centre, Geel (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    Bone research is limited by the methods available for detecting changes in bone metabolism. While dual X-ray absorptiometry is rather insensitive, biochemical markers are subject to significant intra-individual variation. In the study presented here, we evaluated the isotopic labeling of bone using {sup 41}Ca, a long-lived radiotracer, as an alternative approach. After successful labeling of the skeleton, changes in the systematics of urinary {sup 41}Ca excretion are expected to directly reflect changes in bone Ca metabolism. A minute amount of {sup 41}Ca (100 nCi) was administered orally to 22 postmenopausal women. Kinetics of tracer excretion were assessed by monitoring changes in urinary {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca isotope ratios up to 700 days post-dosing using accelerator mass spectrometry and resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Isotopic labeling of the skeleton was evaluated by two different approaches: (i) urinary {sup 41}Ca data were fitted to an established function consisting of an exponential term and a power law term for each individual; (ii) {sup 41}Ca data were analyzed by population pharmacokinetic (NONMEM) analysis to identify a compartmental model that describes urinary {sup 41}Ca tracer kinetics. A linear three-compartment model with a central compartment and two sequential peripheral compartments was found to best fit the {sup 41}Ca data. Fits based on the use of the combined exponential/power law function describing urinary tracer excretion showed substantially higher deviations between predicted and measured values than fits based on the compartmental modeling approach. By establishing the urinary {sup 41}Ca excretion pattern using data points up to day 500 and extrapolating these curves up to day 700, it was found that the calculated {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca isotope ratios in urine were significantly lower than the observed {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca isotope ratios for both techniques. Compartmental analysis can overcome this limitation. By identifying

  11. A principal skeleton algorithm for standardizing confocal images of fruit fly nervous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Peng, Hanchuan

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: The fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) is a commonly used model organism in biology. We are currently building a 3D digital atlas of the fruit fly larval nervous system (LNS) based on a large collection of fly larva GAL4 lines, each of which targets a subset of neurons. To achieve such a goal, we need to automatically align a number of high-resolution confocal image stacks of these GAL4 lines. One commonly employed strategy in image pattern registration is to first globally align images using an affine transform, followed by local non-linear warping. Unfortunately, the spatially articulated and often twisted LNS makes it difficult to globally align the images directly using the affine method. In a parallel project to build a 3D digital map of the adult fly ventral nerve cord (VNC), we are confronted with a similar problem. Results: We proposed to standardize a larval image by best aligning its principal skeleton (PS), and thus used this method as an alternative of the usually considered affine alignment. The PS of a shape was defined as a series of connected polylines that spans the entire shape as broadly as possible, but with the shortest overall length. We developed an automatic PS detection algorithm to robustly detect the PS from an image. Then for a pair of larval images, we designed an automatic image registration method to align their PSs and the entire images simultaneously. Our experimental results on both simulated images and real datasets showed that our method does not only produce satisfactory results for real confocal larval images, but also perform robustly and consistently when there is a lot of noise in the data. We also applied this method successfully to confocal images of some other patterns such as the adult fruit fly VNC and center brain, which have more complicated PS. This demonstrates the flexibility and extensibility of our method. Availability: The supplementary movies, full size figures, test data, software, and tutorial on

  12. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  13. Bifurcation and chaos of an axially accelerating viscoelastic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaodong; Chen Liqun

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates bifurcation and chaos of an axially accelerating viscoelastic beam. The Kelvin-Voigt model is adopted to constitute the material of the beam. Lagrangian strain is used to account for the beam's geometric nonlinearity. The nonlinear partial-differential equation governing transverse motion of the beam is derived from the Newton second law. The Galerkin method is applied to truncate the governing equation into a set of ordinary differential equations. By use of the Poincare map, the dynamical behavior is identified based on the numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations. The bifurcation diagrams are presented in the case that the mean axial speed, the amplitude of speed fluctuation and the dynamic viscoelasticity is respectively varied while other parameters are fixed. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated to identify chaos. From numerical simulations, it is indicated that the periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions occur in the transverse vibrations of the axially accelerating viscoelastic beam

  14. Plasma sheath axial phase dynamics in coaxial device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, H.M. (Plasma Physics Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)); Masoud, M.M. (Plasma Physics Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt))

    1994-10-01

    The study of the plasma sheath dynamics in the axial phase has been carried out in a 3 kJ coaxial system of Mather type for two different inner electrode (IE) lengths, 20 cm and 31.5 cm. For both lengths, measurements showed that the plasma sheath is splitted into two layers at the breech, which is referred to as a shock front and its magnetic piston. It has been found that the two layers of the plasma current sheath rotate around the inner electrode. At the muzzle the back layer reverse its rotation direction due to the magnetic field structure of the system. Results showed that the axial velocity of the first layer is greater than the second one all over the axial phase within the range between 1.4 and 1.7. (orig.).

  15. Plasma sheath axial phase dynamics in coaxial device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The study of the plasma sheath dynamics in the axial phase has been carried out in a 3 kJ coaxial system of Mather type for two different inner electrode (IE) lengths, 20 cm and 31.5 cm. For both lengths, measurements showed that the plasma sheath is splitted into two layers at the breech, which is referred to as a shock front and its magnetic piston. It has been found that the two layers of the plasma current sheath rotate around the inner electrode. At the muzzle the back layer reverse its rotation direction due to the magnetic field structure of the system. Results showed that the axial velocity of the first layer is greater than the second one all over the axial phase within the range between 1.4 and 1.7. (orig.)

  16. Thermocapillary Convection in Floating Zone with Axial Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruquan; Yang, Shuo; Li, Jizhao

    2014-02-01

    Numerical simulations on the effects of axial magnetic fields on the thermocapillary convection in a liquid bridge of silicone-oil-based ferrofluid under zero gravity have been conducted. The Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the energy conservation equation are solved on a staggered grid, and the mass conserving level set approach is used to capture the free surface deformation of the liquid bridge. The obvious effects of the magnetic fields on the flow pattern as well as the velocity and temperature distributions in the liquid bridge can be detected. The axial magnetic fields suppress the thermocapillary convection and a stagnant flow zone is formed between the circulating flow and the symmetric axis as the magnetic fields increase. The axial magnetic fields affect not only the velocity level inside the liquid bridge but also the velocity level on the free surface. The temperature contours near the free surface illustrates conduction-type temperature profiles at moderate strength fields.

  17. Anisotropic yield surfaces in bi-axial cyclic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rider, R.J.; Harvey, S.J.; Breckell, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Some aspects of the behaviour of yield surfaces and work-hardening surfaces occurring in biaxial cyclic plasticity have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work consisted of subjecting thin-walled tubular steel specimens to cyclic plastic torsion in the presence of sustained axial loads of various magnitudes. The experimental results show that considerable anisotropy is induced when the cyclic shear strains are dominant. Although the true shapes of yield and work-hardening surfaces can be very complex, a mathematical model is presented which includes both anisotropy and Bauschinger effects. The model is able to qualitatively predict the deformation patterns during a cycle of applied plastic shear strain for a range of sustained axial stresses and also indicate the material response to changes in axial stress. (orig.)

  18. Axial blanket enrichment optimization of the NPP Krsko fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromar, M.; Kurincic, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper optimal axial blanket enrichment of the NPP Krsko fuel is investigated. Since the optimization is dictated by economic categories that can significantly vary in time, two step approach is applied. In the first step simple relationship between the equivalent change in enrichment of axial blankets and central fuel region is established. The relationship is afterwards processed with economic criteria and constraints to obtain optimal axial blanket enrichment. In the analysis realistic NPP Krsko conditions are considered. Except for the fuel enrichment all other fuel characteristics are the same as in the fuel used in the few most recent cycles. A typical reload cycle after the plant power uprate is examined. Analysis has shown that the current blanket enrichment is close to the optimal. Blanket enrichment reduction results in an approximately 100 000 US$ savings per fuel cycle.(author)

  19. Improvement of axial power distribution synthesis methodology in CPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. H.; Gee, S. G.;; Kim, Y. B.; In, W. K.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of axial power distribution synthesis in CPC plays an important role in determining the DNBR and LPD trip caused by CPC. The axial power distribution is synthesized using the cubic spline function based on the three excore detector signals. The axial power distributions are categorized into 8 function sets and each sets are stored as pre-calculated values in CPC to save the calculation time. In this study, the additional function sets, the real break-point function sets and the polynomial function are suggested to evaluate the possibility of improving the synthesis capability in CPC. In addition, RMS errors are compared and evaluated for each synthesis method. As a result, it was confirmed that the function sets stored in CPC were not optimal. The analysis result showed that RMS error could be reduced by selecting the proper function sets suggested in this study

  20. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.