Sample records for mouse apodemus flavicollis

  1. Dobrava virus carried by the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis, causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Romania.

    Panculescu-Gatej, Raluca Ioana; Sirbu, Anca; Dinu, Sorin; Waldstrom, Maria; Heyman, Paul; Murariu, Dimitru; Petrescu, Angela; Szmal, Camelia; Oprisan, Gabriela; Lundkvist, Ake; Ceianu, Cornelia S


    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been confirmed by serological methods during recent years in Romania. In the present study, focus-reduction neutralization tests (FRNT) confirmed Dobrava hantavirus (DOBV) as the causative agent in some HFRS cases, but could not distinguish between DOBV and Saaremaa virus (SAAV) infections in other cases. DOBV was detected by a DOBV-specific TaqMan assay in sera of nine patients out of 22 tested. Partial sequences of the M genomic segment of DOBV were obtained from sera of three patients and revealed the circulation of two DOBV lineages in Romania. Investigation of rodents trapped in Romania found three DOBV-positive Apodemus flavicollis out of 83 rodents tested. Two different DOBV lineages were also detected in A. flavicollis as determined from partial sequences of the M and S genomic segments. Sequences of DOBV in A. flavicollis were either identical or closely related to the sequences obtained from the HFRS patients. The DOBV strains circulating in Romania clustered in two monophyletic groups, together with strains from Slovenia and the north of Greece. This is the first evidence for the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents and for a DOBV etiology of HFRS in Romania.

  2. It is raining mice and voles: which weather conditions influence the activity of Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus?

    Wróbel, Aleksandra; Bogdziewicz, Michał


    Rodents constitute a crucial part of food chains in many ecosystems; thus, changes in their activity might influence many other species in the community. Moreover, daily variations in activity appear to be an important adaptation, helping rodents to cope with fluctuating intensity of predation pressure and food availability. We investigated how the nightly activity of the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) changes with weather conditions. Increased...

  3. Winter survival of Apodemus flavicollis in Crabapple island (NE Poland

    Gabriela Bujalska


    Full Text Available Riassunto Sopravvivenza invernale di Apodemus flavicollis nell’isola di Crabapple (Polonia nord orientale. Nel corso di nove anni consecutivi (1994-2003, la sopravvivenza invernale di Apodemus flavicollis è stata indagata nell’isola di Crabapple (4 ha tramite cinque serie annuali di trappolaggi condotte tra Aprile ed Ottobre. Le condizioni climatiche invernali sono state espresse tramite 22 variabili relative a piovosità, temperatura e precipitazioni nevose. La percentuale di animali sopravvissuti è variata dal 5,3% al 51,1%, senza mostrare alcuna relazione con le variabili climatiche e con la consistenza della popolazione a inizio inverno. Tra le variabili individuali considerate (età, stato riproduttivo, massa corporea, la maturità sessuale sembra essere l’unica a favorire la sopravvivenza invernale, in contrasto con le informazioni disponibili in letteratura.

  4. Selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus)

    Sunde, Peter; Forsom, Heidi Malene; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman


    Differential predation on certain classes of individuals within prey populations might make owls strong selective agents on their prey. We investigated selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis, A.f.) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus, M.g.) for two...... years by comparing prey from owl nests with live-trapped individuals. The owls killed significantly more male M.g. (73%) than females, but not more than expected from traps (57%). For A.f., owls selected adults in favour of subadults, and for adults, individuals with longer femurs. Adult males of A.......f. killed by owls had significantly heavier testes in relation their size than the trapped males. Prey selection did not correlate with size-adjusted body or spleen mass. Owl-killed A.f. had higher prevalences of the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides sp. than trapped individuals, but hosted similar...

  5. Selective Predation of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) on Yellow-Necked Mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus)

    Sunde, Peter; Forsom, Heidi Malene; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman


    Differential predation on certain classes of individuals within prey populations might make owls strong selective agents on their prey. We investigated selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis, A.f.) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus, M.g.) for two...... years by comparing prey from owl nests with live-trapped individuals. The owls killed significantly more male M.g. (73%) than females, but not more than expected from traps (57%). For A.f., owls selected adults in favour of subadults, and for adults, individuals with longer femurs. Adult males of A.......f. killed by owls had significantly heavier testes in relation their size than the trapped males. Prey selection did not correlate with size-adjusted body or spleen mass. Owl-killed A.f. had higher prevalences of the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides sp. than trapped individuals, but hosted similar...

  6. Allometric and Isometric variations in the Italian Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis with respect to the conditions of allopatry and sympatry / Variazioni allometriche e isometriche in Apodemus sylvaticus e Apodemus flavicollis italiani, rispetto alle condizioni di allopatria e simpatria

    Giovanni Amori


    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy there are two species of Apodemus (Sylvaemus: Apodemus sylvaticus on the mainland and the main island, and Apodemus flavicollis only on the mainland. The trend of some morphometric characters of the skull (incisive foramen length - FI; interorbital breadth = IO; length of palatal bridge = PP; upper alveolar length = $M^1M^3$ was analized and some theoretical models verified for A. sylvaticus. If one considers the sympatric population of A. sylvaticus and A. flavicollis simultaneously the characters PP, IO and $M^1M^3$ appear significantly isometric being directly correlated ($P leq O.O1$, while FI character results allometric with respect to the previous ones, as expected. If one considers the sympatric populations of each of the species separately, the scenario is different. For A. sylvaticus only PP and $M^1M^3$ are isometric ($P leq 0.05$. For A. flavicollis only $M^1M^3$ and FI appear to be correlated, although not as significantly as for A. sylvaticus ($P le 0.05$; one tail. The insular populations of A. sylvaticus do not show significant correlations, except for FI and $M^1M^3$ ($P le 0.05$. On the contrary, considering all populations, sympatric and allopatric, of A. sylvaticus at the same time are significant correlations ($P le 0.05$ in all combinations of characters, except for those involving the IO. We suggest that the isometric relations in sympatric assemblages are confined within a morphological range available to the genus Apodemus. In such a space, the two species are split in two different and innerly homogeneous distributions. We found no evidence to confirm the niche variation hypothesis. On the contrary, the variability expressed as SO or CV's appears higher in the sympatric populations than in the allopatric ones, for three of the four characters, confirming previous results

  7. Biochemical Changes of the Organism of Apodemus flavicollis (Rodentia: Muridae Under Conditions of Environmental Anthropogenic Pollution by Heavy Metals in Northern Areas of Ukraine

    Svitlana V. Zadyra


    Full Text Available The present research dedicates the integral assessment of biochemistry indexes of nature populations of rodents under conditions of environment pollution by heavy metals. The raised content in soils of mobile forms Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Co was revealed оn distance of 500 m to the South-West from Tripillya Thermal Power Plant (Kyiv region, Ukraine. That’s considerably (3–5 times exceeds levels for territory of Kaniv Nature Reserve (Cherkassy region, Ukraine. Territory of National Nature Park “Holosiivsky” (Kyiv, Ukraine characterized by rather increased content of active form of researched heavy metals especially Pb. Increase of the concentration of diene conjugates (3–7 times and malonic dialdehyde (2–4 times in yellow-necked mouse liver (Apodemus flavicollis of under pollution by heavy metals has been discovered. Insignificant increasing of content of Schiff basis in liver cells of rodents in region of impact of Tripillya TPP (in 2 times in spring and in summer, in autumn – in 2.5 times was detected. Seasonal dynamics of the maintenance of lipid peroxidation has been revealed. The registered changes of biochemical indicators testify about presence ecological-biochemical stress in an organism of the yellow-necked mouse in the district of influence of Tripillya TPP.

  8. Yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles (Myodes glareolus as zoomonitors of environmental contamination at a polluted area in Slovakia

    Jančová Alena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-living wild rodents are often used as zoomonitors of environmental contamination. In the present study, accumulation of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, and zinc (Zn in critical organs of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles (Myodes glareolus trapped in a polluted area in Nováky, Slovakia was investigated. Methods Yellow-necked mice (n = 8 and bank voles (n = 10 were collected using standard theriological methods for wood ecosystems. All animals were adult males in good physical condition. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn in the liver, kidney, and bone were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results The highest concentrations of Cd and Zn were found in the bone of both species while Cu and Fe accumulated mainly in kidney or liver. Significant higher concentrations of Cd and Cu were detected in the liver of bank voles than in yellow-necked mice. Similar significant higher levels of Cd and Zn were found in the bone of bank voles. In contrast, significant higher concentrations of Cu and Fe were present in the kidney of yellow-necked mice. Conclusions In the yellow-necked mouse and bank vole, bone seems to accumulate Cd and Zn following prolonged exposure. On the contrary, kidney and liver store Cu and Fe after a long-term environmental exposure. In the present study, bank voles seemed to be more heavy metal loaded zoomonitors than yellow-necked mice.

  9. First Report of the Herb Field Mouse , Apodemus uralensis (Pallas, 1811 from Mongolia

    Setev Shar


    Full Text Available The herb fi eld mouse, Apodemus uralensis (Pallas, 1811 is recorded for the fi rst time in Mongolia, from western part of the Mongolian Altai and the adjacent Mongolian part of the Dzungarian Gobi. In addition, we discovered several additional fi ndings of this species recorded as early as 1976 from diff erent scientifi c collections. Body and skull measurements are presented along with a molecular genetic analysis of one specimen.

  10. Grid-trapping of the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus in a mediterranean oak-wood (Sicily / Analisi del popolamento di topo selvatico (Apodemus sylvaticus in un querceto mediterraneo (Sicilia

    Maurizio Sarà


    Full Text Available Abstract A grid-trapping (CMR Method of the Wood Mouse (A. sylvaticus resident population was carried on three sample areas in a Mediterranean Oak-wood (Bosco della Ficuzza, Palermo. Fifty live traps were settled on a 0.5 ha grid at each sample area and permitted to calculate the Petersen-Lincoln Index (modified by Chapman. The relative density in the typical oak-wooded area (20.4/ha is highest than in the ecotonal and gazed sample area (12.6/ha. Analysis of ground permanence shows that the population in the wooded area is more dinamic than in the other area; in the former area a large number of new captures occurs, in fact, each month and the monthly variation of the relative density has a different trend. These results would confirm the indirect data coming from pellets analysis showing how in Sicily the highest densities occur in woodlands (oak-woods, as well as beech forests. The ecological niche of the Wood Mouse, due also to the apparent lack of A. flavicollis, is thus larger than in peninsular Italy and continental Europe. The reproductive season lasts over the whole year but the birth peaks occurred in summer (1988 and late fall (1989. Population each year stabilizes for overwintering and later (Jun-Nov is almost completely renowed. Moreover, differences in sex and age trappability in relation to the two mode1 of traps utilized and a low mortality due to the cautions in handling the trapped mice, were recorded. Riassunto Allo scopo di evidenziare le differenze tra i popolamenti di Apodemus sylvaticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in relazione all'habitat, sono state effettuate in una tipica querceta mediterranea (Bosco della Ficuzza, PA griglie di trappolamento in tre aree campione, ciascuna con differenti caratteristiche ambientali e morfologiche. Il campionamento, che si è protratto per circa due anni, è stato condotto con il metodo CMR (cattura-marcaggio-ricattura. I risultati ottenuti

  11. Molecular cytogenetic identification and characterization of Robertsonian chromosomes in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) using FISH.

    Yamagishi, Manabu; Matsubara, Kazumi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru


    Robertsonian (Rb) karyotypic polymorphism in Apodemus speciosus has interested many researchers with particular referece to the genetic divergence between Rb and non-Rb populations. Failure to find morphologic, biochemical, or genetic differences in previous studies reveals the necessity of focusing on loci on Rb chromosomes, which can be characterized by FISH mapping with DNA probes. In an Rb heterozygote, DNA probes from laboratory mouse chromosomes (MMUs) 1 and 10 were simultaneously hybridized to the long arm of a metacentric and a medium-sized acrocentric chromosome and to the short arm of the metacentric and a small acrocentric chromosome, respectively. Four additional probes derived from each of MMUs 1 and 10 were mapped to the long and short arms, respectively, of the Rb chromosome identified by the above markers. Homologies between the long arm of the Rb chromosome and MMU 1 and between the short arm and MMU 10 were supported by all ten markers, which were dispersed along nearly the entire lengths of the Rb chromosomes. These results indicate that the long and short arms of the Rb chromosomes are homologous to Apodemus speciosus chromosomes 12 and 19 (defined in a previous study), respectively. This ten-marker series can be useful for detecting chromosome-specific divergence between the two karyotypic populations at the gene level.

  12. PCR characterization suggests that an unusual range of Bartonella species infect the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe.

    Hildebrand, Joanna; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Zalesny, Grzegorz; Harris, Philip D


    Blood samples from Apodemus agrarius from Poland yielded PCR amplicons of Bartonella species. These included B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. birtlesii, as is typical of European Apodemus, as well as B. elizabethae-like forms and a recombinant strain of B. taylorii, most closely related to an American isolate from Tamiasciurus hudsonicus.

  13. Dynamics of nitrogenous substances content in the diet of the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus

    Ladislav Čepelka


    Full Text Available The representation of nitrogenous substances in the stomach content of Apodemus sylvaticus was determined using the NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy method. Out of the total of 247 examined stomachs, 66 were male and 181 female. Sampling of study material was conducted in 2003–2010 at three isolated forest sites in South Moravia with different habitat conditions and different type of management (old semi-natural forest with dominance of English Oak (Quercus robur; production forest with dominant Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea and Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia; pheasantry with variable mixture of forest plots. The determined nitrogenous substances content ranged from 9.5–64.4% of dry matter. With respect to nitrogenous substances content, the habitat, site and sex factors were assessed as statistically insignificant. On the other hand, the factor of a given year (χ2 = 31.14; p < 0.000 and that of sexual activity (χ2 = 7.86; p = 0.005 showed significant differences. In relation to season, both the average nitrogenous substances content in diet and the standard deviation oscillated. The highest average nitrogenous substances content was determined in winter months, when the most significant dispersion in values was determined as well. In years following mast years (2004 and 2007 high values of standard deviations in dietary nitrogenous compounds content were determined.

  14. Acorn selection by the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus: a semi-controlled experiment in a Mediterranean environment.

    Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Nóbrega, Filomena; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Teixeira, Generosa; Rebelo, Rui


    Fruits are highly important food resources for mammals in Mediterranean Europe, and due to the dominance of oaks (Quercus sp.), acorns are among those used by a vast array of species, including rodents. The metabolic yield of acorn intake may determine a selection pattern: preference for fat, carbohydrate, and consequently energy-rich fruits; or avoidance of fruits containing high concentrations of secondary chemical compounds (e.g., tannic acid). We studied the acorn feeding selection pattern of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting a mixed oak woodland, southwest Portugal, using an experiment conducted in an open-air enclosure. We tested which variables associated with the wood mouse (e.g., sex) and acorns (e.g., size and nutrient content) from three oak species (holm Q. rotundifolia, Portuguese Q. faginea and cork Q. suber oak) could be constraining acorn consumption. Our results indicate that wood mice are selecting acorns of the most common oak species (Q. suber), probably due to their previous familiarization with the fruit due to its dominance in the ecosystem but probably also because its chemical characteristics (sugar contents). Rodent gender and acorn morphology (width) are also influential, with females more prone to consume acorns with smaller width, probably due to handling limitation. This selective behaviour may have consequences for dispersion and natural regeneration of the different oak species.

  15. Effects of soil properties on food web accumulation of heavy metals to the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus)

    Brink, Nico van den, E-mail: nico.vandenbrink@wur.n [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Box 47, NL-6700AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Lammertsma, Dennis; Dimmers, Wim; Boerwinkel, Marie-Claire; Hout, Annemariet van der [Alterra, Wageningen UR, Box 47, NL-6700AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)


    Effects of soil properties on the accumulation of metals to wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were evaluated at two sites with different pH and organic matter content of the soil. pH and organic matter content significantly affected accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in earthworms and vegetation. For Cd, Cu and Zn these effects propagated through the food web to the wood mouse. Soil-to-kidney ratios differed between sites: Cd: 0.15 versus 3.52, Cu: 0.37 versus 1.30 and Zn: 0.33-0.83. This was confirmed in model calculations for Cd and Zn. Results indicate that total soil concentrations may be unsuitable indicators for risks that metals pose to wildlife. Furthermore, environmental managers may, unintentionally, change soil properties while taking specific environmental measures. In this way they may affect risks of metals to wildlife, even without changes in total soil concentrations. - Soil properties significantly affect accumulation of heavy metals to wood mice so; risks cannot be based on total concentrations.

  16. Doğu Karadeniz bölgesinde yayılış gösteren Apodemus Kaup, 1829 (Mammalia: Rodentia) cinsinin morfolojik analizi


    Bu çalışmada Doğu Karadeniz bölgesinden örneklenen  Apodemus cinsine ait 126 örneğin  kafatası ve postları değerlendirildi. Diş, kafası ve post örneklerinin yapılan morfolojik analizleri sonucunda bu cinse ait dört tür; Apodemus uralensis, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus iconicus ve Apodemus mystacinus  belirlendi. Bu türlerden A. flavicollis ve A. iconicus morfolojik açıdan büyük benzerlik gösterirken, A. uralensis’ inde bu iki türe olan yakınlığı yapılan m...

  17. Host specificity and genealogy of the louse Polyplax serrata on field mice, Apodemus species: a case of parasite duplication or colonisation?

    Stefka, Jan; Hypsa, Václav


    The genealogy, population structure and population dynamics of the sucking louse Polyplax serrata were analysed across four host species of the genus Apodemus. An analysis of 126 sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I using phylogenetic approaches and haplotype networking revealed a clear structure of European samples, forming three distinct and genetically distant clades with different host specificities. Although a clear connection was detected between the host and parasite genealogies/phylogenies, a uniform pattern of co-speciation was not found. For example, a dramatic shift in the degree of host specificity was demonstrated for two related louse lineages living in sympatry and sharing one of their host species. While one of the louse lineages frequently parasitised two different host taxa (Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis), the other louse lineage was strictly specific to A. flavicollis. The estimate of divergence time between the two louse lineages indicates that they may have arisen due to parasite duplication on A. flavicollis.



    Bu çalışmada Doğu Karadeniz bölgesinden örneklenen Apodemus cinsine ait 126 örneğin kafatası ve postları değerlendirildi. Diş, kafası ve post örneklerinin yapılan morfolojik analizleri sonucunda bu cinse ait dört tür; Apodemus uralensis, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus iconicus ve Apodemus mystacinus belirlendi. Bu türlerden A. flavicollis ve A. iconicus morfolojik açıdan büyük benzerlik gösterirken, A. uralensis’ inde bu iki türe olan yakınlığı yapılan morfolojik ve biyometrik analizler so...

  19. Metal bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and gene expression in the European wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an abandoned uranium mining area

    Lourenço, Joana, E-mail: [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)


    Genotoxic effects caused by the exposure to wastes containing metals and radionuclides were investigated in the European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The animals were captured in the surroundings of an abandoned uranium mining site. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay; gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed, respectively, by Real-Time PCR and melt curve analysis. The bioaccumulation of metals in the liver, kidney and bones was also determined to help clarify cause–effect relationships. Results confirmed the bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium in organisms exposed to uranium mining wastes. P53 gene was found to be significantly up-regulated in the liver of those organisms and SNPs in the Rb gene were also detected in the kidney. Our results showed that uranium mining wastes caused serious DNA damage resulting in genomic instability, disclosed by the significant increase in DNA strand breaks and P53 gene expression disturbance. These effects can have severe consequences, since they may contribute for the emergence of serious genetic diseases. The fact that mice are often used as bioindicator species for the evaluation of risks of environmental exposure to humans, raises concerns on the risks for human populations living near uranium mining areas. - Highlights: ► Long term effects of chronic pollution in natural population of rodents. ► Bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium by organisms exposed to uranium wastes. ► P53 upregulation in the liver and SNPs in the Rb gene detected in the kidney. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas.

  20. A new species of Demodex (Acari: Demodecidae) with data on topical specificity and topography of demodectic mites in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek


    This article describes morphological characteristics and the occurrence of Demodex gracilentus sp. nov., which was found in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius (Pallas, 1771) in the skin of vibrissae area. D. gracilentus occurred in 36.7% of the rodents examined. D. gracilentus is a relatively large representative of the genus (adult stages on average 292 microm in length), a slender, elongated body; characteristic feature of these mites are conical supracoxal spines on dorsal side of gnathosoma, palps with asymmetric, forked triple spines on palptarsus, and the presence of rhomboidal opisthosomal organ. So far, the occurrence of three specific representatives of the family Demodecidae has been demonstrated in A. agrarius: Demodex apodemi (Hirst, 1918) (= Demodex arvicolae apodemi Hirst, 1918), Demodex agrarii Bukva, 1994, and Demodex huttereri Mertens, Lukoschus et Nutting, 1983. The first one is related to common hair follicles, especially in the skin of the head, while the next one inhabits the external auditory meatus, and the last one occurs in the meibomian glands of the eyelids.

  1. Stress-associated radiation effects in pygmy wood mouse Apodemus uralensis (Muridae, Rodentia) populations from the East-Urals Radioactive Trace.

    Orekhova, Natal'ya A; Modorov, Makar V


    This work is based on the comparative analysis of data obtained in the course of monitoring pygmy wood mouse populations (Apodemus uralensis Pallas, 1811) in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) area and background territories. The effect of population size and its interaction with the radioactivity on biochemical parameters in the spleen and adrenal glands was studied. The concentrations of total lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, activity of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and catalase as well as the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated. The functional-metabolic shifts seen with large population sizes were characterized by delipidisation of adrenocortical cells, increased LPO as the main mechanism for steroidogenesis, growth of the protein components of the adrenal glands to maintain their hyperfunction, as well as immunosuppression associated with the restriction of carbohydrates providing splenocytes, reduction of DNA synthesis, and the development of a pro-/antioxidant imbalance. Reactivity of the neuroendocrine and hematopoietic systems of animals experiencing a high population density was higher in the EURT zone compared with the reference group. This difference can be explained by the additional stress from the chronic radiation exposure. The level of LPO, catalase activity, and DNA/protein ratio in the spleen and the total protein content in the adrenal glands were the most sensitive to the interaction of population size and radiation exposure. The harmful effect (distress) of the interaction of non-radiation and radiation factors can manifest when there is a population abundance above 30 ind./100 trap-day and a radiation burden which exceeds the lower boundary of the Derived Consideration Reference Levels, which is above 0.1 mGy/day.

  2. Phylogeography of the South China field mouse (Apodemus draco on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau reveals high genetic diversity and glacial refugia.

    Zhenxin Fan

    Full Text Available The southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (SEMTP is a particularly interesting region due to its topographic complexity and unique geologic history, but phylogeographic studies that focus on this region are rare. In this study, we investigated the phylogeography of the South China field mouse, Apodemus draco, in order to assess the role of geologic and climatic events on the Tibetan Plateau in shaping its genetic structure. We sequenced mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b sequences in 103 individuals from 47 sampling sites. In addition, 23 cyt b sequences were collected from GenBank for analyses. Phylogenetic, demographic and landscape genetic methods were conducted. Seventy-six cyt b haplotypes were found and the genetic diversity was extremely high (π = 0.0368; h = 0.989. Five major evolutionary clades, based on geographic locations, were identified. Demographic analyses implied subclade 1A and subclade 1B experienced population expansions at about 0.052-0.013 Mya and 0.014-0.004 Mya, respectively. The divergence time analysis showed that the split between clade 1 and clade 2 occurred 0.26 Mya, which fell into the extensive glacial period (EGP, 0.5-0.17 Mya. The divergence times of other main clades (2.20-0.55 Mya were congruent with the periods of the Qingzang Movement (3.6-1.7 Mya and the Kun-Huang Movement (1.2-0.6 Mya, which were known as the most intense uplift events in the Tibetan Plateau. Our study supported the hypothesis that the SEMTP was a large late Pleistocene refugium, and further inferred that the Gongga Mountain Region and Hongya County were glacial refugia for A. draco in clade 1. We hypothesize that the evolutionary history of A. draco in the SEMTP primarily occurred in two stages. First, an initial divergence would have been shaped by uplift events of the Tibetan Plateau. Then, major glaciations in the Pleistocene added complexity to its demographic history and genetic structure.

  3. Detection of Dobrava hantavirus RNA in Apodemus mice in Bulgaria.

    Christova, Iva; Plyusnina, Angelina; Gladnishka, Teodora; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Iva; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mitkovska, Vesela; Mohareb, Emad; Plyusnin, Alexander


    Several Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus. Although HFRS is endemic in Bulgaria, genome sequences of hantaviruses have never been detected in wild rodents. To identify rodent reservoirs, a total of 691 rodents from three endemic regions were trapped in 2011-2012 and screened by TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of hantaviral genomic RNA. Partial small (S) and/or large (L)-segment sequences were recovered from six Apodemus mice: five of the species A. flavicollis and one A. agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all recovered sequences belonged to DOBV. On the phylogenetic trees, the novel Bulgarian hantavirus sequences clustered together with sequences of established previously DOBV variants recovered from Bulgarian HFRS patients and also with variants found in wild rodents trapped in Slovenia, Greece, and Slovakia. One of the novel Bulgarian DOBV S-sequences from A. agrarius was related closely to DOBV sequences recovered from A. flavicollis, suggesting a spillover of DOBV from its natural host to A. agrarius mice. The results of this study confirmed the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents in Bulgaria. The complexity of the epidemiological situation in the Balkans requires further studies of hantaviruses in rodent hosts and human HFRS cases.

  4. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

    Ali Yousefi


    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  5. The correlation between population structure of striped field mouse(Apodemus agrarius)and hantavirus carrying%黑线姬鼠种群结构与携带汉坦病毒相关性

    靳铁治; 郑海潮; 李劲松; 马超锋; 吴瑞; 米宝; 王开锋


    汉坦病毒(Hantavirus,HV)是肾综合症出血热(Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome,HFRS)的主要病原体之一,HV的主要宿主动物为黑线姬鼠(Apodemus agrarius).针对西安市HFRS的持续高发病率,2010年7月-9月对西安市HFRS 疫区捕获的110只黑线姬鼠(阳性62只)进行年龄、性别鉴定.通过病毒RNA提取分析,发现黑线姬鼠雌雄个体携带病毒无显著差异,但是不同年龄段黑线姬鼠携带汉坦病毒却具有显著差异,年龄结构与病毒携带具有极显著的相关性.%Hantavirus( HV) is the major pathogen of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS), and striped field mouse(Apodemus agmrius)is the main virus reservoir of HV. Because of the high rate of HFRS in Xi'an in the past years, the age and sex of 110 mice captured from HFRS-endemic area from July to September in 2010 were identified. RNA of HV was extracted and analyzed. The results showed that there was no significant difference in between male and female mouse of HV carrying, but evidently difference in different age grades. There was significant correlation between the proportion of HV carrying by mice and ages grades.

  6. Corrections in the taxonomic position in the helminth-fauna of Apodemus spp. (Rodentia in the Czech Republic

    František Tenora


    Full Text Available Since 1955 as yet in the territory of the Czech Republic in 4 species of the genus Apodemus (namely A. flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. microps and A. agrarius, 49 species of parasitic worms were registered in total. At their revision, comparing with the modern literature from the last five decades, the author has approached to several corrections. Subjects are, first of all, several opinions on the species from the genera Plagiorchis, Echinostoma, Aprostatandrya, Catenotaenia, Hymenolepis, Syphacia, Heligmosomum, Heligmosomoides, Ganguleterakis and Aonchotheca. Of highly characteristic helminths parasitizing Apodemus spp. in Czech Republic, they are from the class Trematoda: Brachylaemus recurvus; from the class Cestoda: Paranoplocephala omphalodes, Skrjabinotaenia lobata, Catenotaenia sp., Hymenolepis straminea; from the class Nematoda: Syphacia stroma, S. frederici, S. agraria, Heligmosomum pseudocostellatum, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Calodium hepaticum, Trichocephalus muris; from the class Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis. A number of species has to be verified, in a future, by methods of molecular biology.

  7. Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori.

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi


    Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from Ishikari was also higher than that in the other sampling sites. The findings suggest that Ishikari is the most polluted area, probably because of human activities, depending on the population distribution. However, the observed contaminant levels were extremely lower compared to those in previous studies. The ratio of testis weight to body weight (TW/BW) was the lowest in the mice collected from Ishikari, which is the area contaminated with PAHs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). However, the serum testosterone levels of mice from the Ishikari area were higher than those from the non-contaminated other areas although no significant differences. Previous studies have shown that a low-level exposure to dioxin related compounds (DRCs) disturbances in sexual function, resulting in the production of testosterone. This study showed that POPs exposure is one of the possibility of the high testosterone concentration in the mice of the Ishikari area in addition to a cause of biological and environmental factors such as habitat density, age, temperatures and/or food riches.

  8. Prey selection of Tawny owls (Strix aluco) on Yellow necked mouse and Bank Vole

    Forsom, H. M.; Sunde, P.; Overskaug, K.

    As predators owls may have a strong impact on mortality of their favourite prey, and may therefore act as important selective agents on their prey species. Little is known, however, about whether owls choose prey randomly or if some prey items suffer a higher risk of predation due to certain life...... history traits. The aim of this master thesis study was to investigate any prey selection of tawny owls on two prey species, yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Our hypotheses were that the level of exposure might differ between prey items of different sex......, age, and size, causing some individuals to suffer a higher risk of predation from tawny owls than others.The results suggest that males suffer a higher risk of predation from tawny owls than females, and that the different age groups may also experience different risk of predation. It also suggests...

  9. Contribution to the knowledge of Apodemus genus in the Gran Paradiso National Park

    Paolo Debernardi


    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1992 and 2001, small mammals were trapped in the Gran Paradiso National Park (NW Italy, using Capture-Mark-Recapture techniques. According to a sample of data collected in August, the following percentages were found for the genus Apodemus: 25.9% of the individuals caught in alder shrubwoods, 20.9% in hardwoods, 12.1% in open habitat-types and 3.1% in coniferous woods. Further trapping, carried out in winter in the villages inside the Park, demonstrated that Apodemus occurrence inside the buildings was quite common. Fiftytwo specimens were sacrificed and identified by protein electrophoresis and/or molecular analyses as A. alpicola (N= 14, A. flavicollis (N= 21 and A. sylvaticus (N= 17. External morphology and biometric parameters were analysed on the above specimens, as were cranial features, and the effectiveness of the determination technique proposed by Reutter et al. on the study area material was verified. This technique enabled us to determine other specimens (mainly from discarded bottles using skull analysis. A. flavicollis (recorded from the lowest altitude of the area, 750 m, up to 2123 m a.s.l. dominated in hardwoods. A. alpicola (recorded from 1580 m to 2423 m is more abundant above 1750 m, in alder shrubwoods and in open habitat-types, characterized by patches of rocky elements, low ligneous and herbaceus vegetation. All the individuals caught inside buildings were A. sylvaticus, but this species (recorded from 750 m to 1960 m was scarcely observed in natural habitats. Strix aluco and Aegolius funereus prey remains, collected in the area during the breeding period of both owls, were examined. Apodemus accounted for 13.7% of prey and 9.4% of biomass eaten by Strix aluco and for 7.2% of prey and 7.3% of biomass consumed by Aegolius funereus. Riassunto

  10. Rodentolepis straminea (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) in an urban population of Apodemus sylvaticus in the UK.

    Rushworth, R L; Boufana, B; Hall, J L; Brannan, V; Mastin, A; Birtles, R J; Craig, P S; Rogan, M T


    The presence of the cyclophyllidean cestode Rodentolepis straminea (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), was confirmed by molecular DNA analysis from a wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) population inhabiting urban woodland in Salford, Greater Manchester (UK) with a prevalence of 27.8%. It would appear that the only previously published record of this species in A. sylvaticus in the British Isles is that from south-west Ireland, where 24% of the wood mice examined were infected with R. straminea. This species has been recorded in studies on A. sylvaticus in continental Europe. The current report represents a new record for R. straminea on mainland Britain and a first study of helminth parasites in an urban wood mouse population.

  11. The helminth community of Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia, Muridae in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain

    Fuentes, M. V.


    Full Text Available The Spanish mountain range of Gredos was included in the studies conducted on the Iberian peninsula to investigate helminth fauna of small mammals. The helminth community of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia, Muridae, was analysed. Qualitatively, 13 helminth species were detected: Plagiorchis sp. I and Plagiorchis sp. II (Trematoda; Taenia parva larvae, T. martis larvae, T. taeniaeformis larvae, Rodentolepis straminea and R. fraterna (Cestoda; and Trichuris muris, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia stroma, S. frederici, Aspiculuris tetraptera and Rictularia proni (Nematoda. Quantitatively, the highest prevalence (65.0% and the mean abundance (36.9% of H. polygyrus stand out. In comparison with the other mountain ranges studied, analysis of the global results demonstrates that the helminth fauna of the host species studied is diverse despite the adverse climatic conditions. This could be related to both the particular ecological characteristics and the appropriate state of preservation of this ecosystem.

  12. Dobrava Virus as a New Hantavirus: Evidenced by Comparative Sequence Analysis


    Shu.Yuan Xiao, Gordana Diglisic, Tatjana Avsic- Zupanc , and James W. LeDuc Disease Assessment Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Dobrava virus was isolated from the lungs of an Apo- cleotide sequence determined. Comparing the demus flavicollis [Avsic- Zupanc et al., 19921. The...buffer. The target band was cut mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, captured in Slovenia out and DNA recovered by using the GENECLEAN Kit 2[Avsic- Zupanc et

  13. Phylogeographic study of Apodemus ilex (Rodentia: Muridae in Southwest China.

    Qi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mountains of southwest China have complex river systems and a profoundly complex topography and are among the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, only a few studies have shed light on how the mountains and river valleys promote genetic diversity. Apodemus ilex is a fine model for investigating this subject. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the genetic diversity and biogeographic patterns of Apodemus ilex, the complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1,140 bp were determined from 203 samples of A. draco/ilex that were collected from southwest China. The results obtained suggested that A. ilex and A. draco are sistergroups and diverged from each other approximately 2.25 million years ago. A. ilex could be divided into Eastern and Western phylogroups, each containing two sub-groups and being widespread in different geographical regions of the southern Hengduan Mountains and the western Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau. The population expansions of A. ilex were roughly from 0.089 Mya to 0.023 Mya. CONCLUSIONS: Our result suggested that A. ilex is a valid species rather than synonym of A. draco. As a middle-high elevation inhabitant, the phylogenetic pattern of A. ilex was strongly related to the complex geographical structures in southwest China, particularly the existence of deep river valley systems, such as the Mekong and Salween rivers. Also, it appears that the evolutionary history of A. ilex, such as lineage divergences and population expansions were strongly affected by climate fluctuation in the Late Pleistocene.

  14. The differential hippocampal phosphoproteome of Apodemus sylvaticus paralleling spatial memory retrieval in the Barnes maze.

    Li, Lin; Csaszar, Edina; Szodorai, Edit; Patil, Sudarshan; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert


    Protein phosphorylation is a well-known and well-documented mechanism in memory processes. Although a large series of protein kinases involved in memory processes have been reported, information on phosphoproteins is limited. It was therefore the aim of the study to determine a partial and differential phosphoproteome along with the corresponding network in hippocampus of a wild caught mouse strain with excellent performance in several paradigms of spatial memory. Apodemus sylvaticus mice were trained in the Barnes maze, a non-invasive test system for spatial memory and untrained mice served as controls. Animals were sacrificed 6h following memory retrieval, hippocampi were taken, proteins extracted and in-solution digestion was carried out with subsequent iTRAQ double labelling. Phosphopeptides were enriched by a TiO2-based method and semi-quantified using two fragmentation principles on the LTQ-orbitrap Velos. In hippocampi of trained animals phosphopeptide levels representing signalling, neuronal, synaptosomal, cytoskeletal and metabolism proteins were at least twofold reduced or increased. Furthermore, a network revealing a link to pathways of ubiquitination, the androgen receptor, small GTPase Rab5 and MAPK signaling as well as synucleins was constructed. This work is relevant for interpretation of previous work and the design of future studies on protein phosphorylation in spatial memory.

  15. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica 1B/O:8 from Apodemus mice in Japan.

    Oda, Shinya; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Shimonagane, Ai; Inoue, Kai; Hayashidani, Hideki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Soichi


    Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 15.7% (88/560) of wild rodents captured in 15 prefectures in Japan. Prevalences by rodent species were 18.0% (70/388) in Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus), 20% (14/71) in small Japanese field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 11% (4/38) in gray red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), suggesting that these rodent species are important reservoirs of Y. enterocolitica. Although most of the isolates were identified as biotype 1A, the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 was detected in one of the A. speciosus and in three of the A. argenteus captured in Aomori Prefecture. It is suggested that Apodemus mice may be an important reservoir of Y. enterocolitica, and that there are foci of the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 in Aomori Prefecture, because human sporadic cases by the serotype have been reported in this prefecture.

  16. Rickettsia slovaca in immature Dermacentor marginatus and tissues from Apodemus spp. in the northern Apennines, Italy.

    Martello, Elisa; Selmi, Marco; Ragagli, Charlotte; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Stella, Maria Cristina; Mannelli, Alessandro; Tomassone, Laura


    Immature Dermacentor marginatus ticks and tissues from small rodents were tested for infection with Rickettsia slovaca in the northern Apennines, Lucca Province, where tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) was previously reported in people. Prevalence of infestation with D. marginatus was 30.5% (n=131, 95% CI: 22.8-39.2%) in Apodemus spp. and 26.5% (n=34, 95% CI: 12.9-44.4%) in Myodes glareolus, which were captured during 1980 trap nights in 2009 and 2010. Rickettsia slovaca was identified by polymerase chain reaction, targeting the gltA and OmpA genes, in ear biopsies from 8 out of 37 tested Apodemus (22%, 95% CI: 9.8-38.2%), but not from 9 M. glareolus. The prevalence of R. slovaca in D. marginatus feeding on Apodemus spp. was 53% in larvae (n=51, 95% CI: 38.5-67.1%) and 47.5% in nymphs (n=59, 95% CI: 34.3-60.9%). No larvae (0.0%, 95% CI: 0-36.9%), but one nymph removed from M. glareolus was positive (10%, 95% CI: 0.3-44.5%). Prevalence of R. slovaca in host-seeking D. marginatus larvae, collected in the same area, was 42% (n=38; 95% CI: 26.3-59.2%). Prevalence of R. slovaca was greater in larvae feeding on PCR-positive Apodemus than in those feeding on negative mice (78.6% vs. 37.1%). Furthermore, levels of infestation with D. marginatus larvae were greater for R. slovaca-positive mice. The infection of Apodemus spp. was probably the result of repeated bites by transovarially infected larvae. On the other hand, the finding of R. slovaca in mice tissues would be compatible with transmission from these hosts to feeding D. marginatus. Based on such a hypothesis, the most heavily infested Apodemus might play a role as amplifiers of the infection.

  17. Independent lineage of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), Spain.

    Ledesma, Juan; Fedele, Cesare Giovanni; Carro, Francisco; Lledó, Lourdes; Sánchez-Seco, María Paz; Tenorio, Antonio; Soriguer, Ramón Casimiro; Saz, José Vicente; Domínguez, Gerardo; Rosas, María Flora; Barandika, Jesús Félix; Gegúndez, María Isabel


    To clarify the presence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in Spain, we examined blood and tissue specimens from 866 small mammals. LCMV RNA was detected in 3 of 694 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the strains constitute a new evolutionary lineage. LCMV antibodies were detected in 4 of 10 rodent species tested.

  18. Effects of environmental radiation on testes and spermatogenesis in wild large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) from Fukushima.

    Okano, Tsukasa; Ishiniwa, Hiroko; Onuma, Manabu; Shindo, Junji; Yokohata, Yasushi; Tamaoki, Masanori


    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 released large quantities of radionuclides to the environment. The long-term effects of radioactive cesium (Cs) on biota are of particular concern. We investigated the accumulation of radioactive Cs derived from the FDNPP accident, and chronic effects of environmental radionuclides on male reproduction, in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus). In 2013 and 2014, wild mice were captured at 2 sites in Fukushima Prefecture and at 2 control sites that were distant from Fukushima. Although the median concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the mice from Fukushima exceeded 4,000 Bq/kg, there were no significant differences in the apoptotic cell frequencies or the frequencies of morphologically abnormal sperm among the capture sites. Thus, we conclude that radiation did not cause substantial male subfertility in Fukushima during 2013 and 2014, and radionuclide pollution levels in the study sites would not be detrimental to spermatogenesis of the wild mice in Fukushima.

  19. Effects of environmental radiation on testes and spermatogenesis in wild large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) from Fukushima

    Okano, Tsukasa; Ishiniwa, Hiroko; Onuma, Manabu; Shindo, Junji; Yokohata, Yasushi; Tamaoki, Masanori


    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 released large quantities of radionuclides to the environment. The long-term effects of radioactive cesium (Cs) on biota are of particular concern. We investigated the accumulation of radioactive Cs derived from the FDNPP accident, and chronic effects of environmental radionuclides on male reproduction, in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus). In 2013 and 2014, wild mice were captured at 2 sites in Fukushima Prefecture and at 2 control sites that were distant from Fukushima. Although the median concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs in the mice from Fukushima exceeded 4,000 Bq/kg, there were no significant differences in the apoptotic cell frequencies or the frequencies of morphologically abnormal sperm among the capture sites. Thus, we conclude that radiation did not cause substantial male subfertility in Fukushima during 2013 and 2014, and radionuclide pollution levels in the study sites would not be detrimental to spermatogenesis of the wild mice in Fukushima.

  20. [The analysis of hantavirus S gene in Apodemus agrarius in Changbai area].

    Yan, Qing-Li; Yang, Peng-Feil; Shao, Li-Jun; Liu, Yong-Xian; Pu, Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Cao, Xiao-Mei; Guo, Tian-Yu; Yao, Li-Si


    To gain more insights into epidemiologic characteristics and genotype of hantavirus in Apodemus agrarius in Changbai Area. Complete hantavirus S segment sequences were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The phylogenetic trees were constructed for analysis of genetic characters of hantavirus. A total of 58 Apodemus agrarius were trapped in the epidemic areas, and complete hantavirus S segment sequences were obtained from 4 lung samples of these rodents (6. 90%0). Phylogenetic analysis of the four S segment sequences indicated that all viruses isolated from Apodemu sagrarius were closely related to genotype 6 of Hantaan virus (95. 8%-96. 3%, nucleotide identity; 98. 6%-99. 5%, amino acid identity), all of them had a specific S387 different from other genotypes of Hantaan virus.

  1. [Characterization of S gene of a strain of hantavirus isolated from Apodemus peninsulae in Heilongjiang Province].

    Chen, Lu-Fei; Chen, Shu-Hong; Wang, Kai-Li; Zhang, Jing; Li, Ji-Hong


    In order to study the molecular characterization of the hantavirus isolated from Apodemus peninsulae in Heilongjiang Province, the S gene of a new strain NA33 was amplified, sequenced and analyzed. The results showed that the complete nucleotide sequence of the S gene of NA33 strain was composed of 1 693 nucleotides with TA-rich. The S gene contained one ORF, starting at position 37 and ending at position 1 326, encoding the N protein of 429 amino acid residues, and in line with HTN-based coding. Sequence comparison of the S genes between NA33 and reference hantavirus strains showed that NA33 was more homologous to Amur-like viruses than to the Hantaan (HTN) viruses or the other hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence of N proteins showed that NA33 was clustered into the group of Amur-like viruses and was more similar to Far East Russia and Jilin strains isolated from Apodemus peninsulae. The phylogenetic tree indicated a certain degree of host-dependent characteristics and geographical aggregation characteristics of hantanviruses. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of N protein of NA33 had the conserved amino acid sites of Amur-like viruses. In conclusion, Apodemus peninsulae carried Amur-like viruses in Heilongjiang province and was an important infectious source of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).

  2. Woodland recovery after suppression of deer: cascade effects for small mammals, wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus and bank voles (Myodes glareolus.

    Emma R Bush

    Full Text Available Over the past century, increases in both density and distribution of deer species in the Northern Hemisphere have resulted in major changes in ground flora and undergrowth vegetation of woodland habitats, and consequentially the animal communities that inhabit them. In this study, we tested whether recovery in the vegetative habitat of a woodland due to effective deer management (from a peak of 0.4-1.5 to <0.17 deer per ha had translated to the small mammal community as an example of a higher order cascade effect. We compared deer-free exclosures with neighboring open woodland using capture-mark-recapture (CMR methods to see if the significant difference in bank vole (Myodes glareolus and wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus numbers between these environments from 2001-2003 persisted in 2010. Using the multi-state Robust Design method in program MARK we found survival and abundance of both voles and mice to be equivalent between the open woodland and the experimental exclosures with no differences in various metrics of population structure (age structure, sex composition, reproductive activity and individual fitness (weight, although the vole population showed variation both locally and temporally. This suggests that the vegetative habitat--having passed some threshold of complexity due to lowered deer density--has allowed recovery of the small mammal community, although patch dynamics associated with vegetation complexity still remain. We conclude that the response of small mammal communities to environmental disturbance such as intense browsing pressure can be rapidly reversed once the disturbing agent has been removed and the vegetative habitat is allowed to increase in density and complexity, although we encourage caution, as a source/sink dynamic may emerge between old growth patches and the recently disturbed habitat under harsh conditions.

  3. Hepatic parasitosis in two wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae), due to Aonchotheca annulosa (Nematoda: Trichuridae), and Eucoleus bacillatus (Nematoda: Trichuridae). Erratic parasitism or post mortem migration?

    Debenedetti, Ángela L; Sáez-Durán, Sandra; Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V


    Aonchotheca annulosa and Eucoleus bacillatus are two capillariin nematodes parasitizing the intestinal and stomach mucosa, respectively, of various rodent species, and two, among others, component species of the helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus. A capillariin each was found in the liver parenchyma of two wood mice in a post-fire regeneration enclave in Serra Calderona Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain). Due to their location, the preliminary identification of the helminths corresponded to Calodium hepaticum, a hepatic capillariin with rodents as its main host. So far, this species had never been found in Serra Calderona. To verify the preliminary identification, a comparative morphometric study between the specimens from Serra Calderona and a preserved individual of C. hepaticum from another enclave was carried out. Morphometric analysis revealed that the adult helminth as well as the eggs found in the liver of the first mouse belonged to A. annulosa, whereas the second one was identified as a male E. bacillatus. Moreover, the liver from both hosts showed a visible pathology, being the consequence of aberrant migration of the parasites. This is the first evidence that A. annulosa and E. bacillatus may migrate erratically and thus produce ectopic foci in other organs.

  4. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden


    In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the pu...

  5. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    Torres, Jordi [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail:; Peig, Jordi [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eira, Catarina [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Borras, Miquel [Unitat de Toxicologia Experimental i Ecotoxicologia. Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats.

  6. Ranging behaviour and time budgets of male wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus in different habitats and seasons.

    Corp, N; Gorman, Martyn L; Speakman, John R


    Radiotelemetry was used to measure the range areas, activity patterns and time budgets of 21 adult male wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) between May 1991 and August 1992. The study investigated variation in range, total distance travelled, speed of movement and time budgets between wood mice in the nonbreeding and breeding seasons in a deciduous woodland (n = 8 and 6 respectively). We also examined habitat differences by estimating these same parameters for wood mice inhabiting maritime sand-dunes in the breeding season (n = 7). Insufficient males of an appropriate mass for radiotracking were captured to study the sand-dune mice in the nonbreeding season. Significant variation was found across both season and site. In the breeding season, in woodland, range areas were 5 times larger than during the nonbreeding season. Wood mice on the sand-dunes exploited ranges 28 times greater than their woodland counterparts. The pattern of variation in range area was parallelled by significant differences in total distances and average speeds travelled per night. Diurnal activity, c. 60 min day(-1), was frequently recorded, at both sites, but only, in the breeding season, which was attributed to the need to forage in order to maintain energy balance. The comparatively lower availability of food on the sand-dunes was considered the main factor explaining the greater range area, total distance moved, speed travelled and level of activity of animals at this site.

  7. 半自然驯化条件下黑线姬鼠冬夏两季产热的比较%Thermogenesis in Striped Field Nouse (Apodemus Agrarius) Under Summer and Winter Acclimation

    孙晓光; 杨明; 彭霞; 陶思源


    In order to probe into the thermogenesis mechanism adapted to seasonal environment in small mammals,we measured body mass,activity of cytochrome c oxidase in liver and brown adipose tissue (BAT) and α-phosphoglycerate oxidase activity in BAT of striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) which was acclimated outdoor in winter and summer. Our results show that the animals' body mass decreased dramatically in winter. The absolute weight of BAT,the protein content of mitochondria in liver and BAT,the enzyme activity in BAT and liver were increased markedly in winter than in summer. Cytochrome c oxidase activity of BAT,cytochrome c oxidase activity of liver and α-phosphoglycerate oxidase activity of BAT were 9.5-fold higher,9-fold higher and 19-fold higher respectively in winter than those in summer. These results indicate that: in order to survival in the chilly winter, striped field mouse decrease the body mass to reduce the need of absolute energy. The animals also increase greatly the weight of BAT and enhance the thermogenesis capacity of liver and BAT in cellular level.%为探讨小型哺乳动物适应于季节性环境的产热机制,本文测定了户外半自然条件下驯化的黑线姬鼠(Apodemus agrarius)冬、夏两季的体重以及肝和褐色脂肪组织(Brown adipose tissue, BAT)的细胞色素c氧化酶及BATα-磷酸甘油氧化酶活力等指标.结果显示黑线姬鼠冬季体重显著降低,BAT绝对重量、BAT和肝的线粒体蛋白含量及BAT和肝酶的活力冬季均显著高于夏季.冬季BAT细胞色素c氧化酶活力是夏季的9.5倍,肝脏细胞色素c氧化酶活力是夏季的5倍;冬季BAT的α-磷酸甘油氧化酶活力高达夏季的19倍.以上结果表明,在寒冷的冬季为保证存活,黑线姬鼠降低体重以减少绝对能量需求,并极大地增加BAT重量及肝和BAT细胞水平上的产热能力.

  8. Ixodes ricinus is not an epidemiologically relevant vector of Bartonella species in the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus).

    Harrison, Alan; Bown, Kevin J; Montgomery, W Ian; Birtles, Richard J


    Bartonella are hemoparasites exploiting a range of mammals as reservoir hosts. Several species are zoonotic pathogens. Fleas, lice, and other arthropods, such as ticks, have been implicated as vectors. While the competence of ticks as vectors of Bartonella species has recently been demonstrated, the epidemiological significance of ticks as vectors of Bartonella species in wildlife populations remains unknown. We used the presence of deer at study sites to control the presence of Ixodes ricinus ticks, and used this system to determine whether I. ricinus contributes to the epidemiology of Bartonella species infections in small mammals. Ticks were present at all sites with deer, but were absent from all sites without deer; however, the abundance of ticks on small mammals did not affect the probability of wood mice being infected with Bartonella species. Data presented here indicate that I. ricinus is not involved in the transmission of Bartonella in woodland rodents.

  9. 中华姬鼠与大林姬鼠头骨的几何形态学研究%The Geometric Morphometric Research on the Skull of Apodemus draco and Apodemus peninsulae

    杨红; 张子慧


    中华姬鼠Apodemus draco和大林姬鼠A.peninsulae形态与习性相似,北京地区的这两种鼠都存在还是只有大林姬鼠存在一直存在争议.通过新兴的几何形态测量技术对北京地区捕获的137只姬鼠头骨与黑龙汀的9只大林姬鼠头骨进行背面和侧面的形态对比分析.系统聚类分析结果、主成分分析结果和判别函数分析结果显示,北京地区姬鼠除了黑线姬鼠外可以分为大林姬鼠和中华姬鼠两类;薄板曲线结果显爪形变多集中在颧弓、眶下孔和枕骨等处.

  10. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    Mare Lõhmus


    Full Text Available In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health.

  11. Preliminary molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum isolates of wildlife rodents from Poland.

    Bajer, A; Cacciò, S; Bednarska, M; Behnke, J M; Pieniazek, N J; Sinski, E


    Isolates of Cryptosporidium were collected from 3 species of woodland and field rodents (Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arvalis, and Apodemus flavicollis) and were characterized by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of fragments of the oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene and of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. Sequence analysis of these markers revealed that the animals were infected with C. parvum, and that the genotype involved was almost identical to the mouse genotype previously described from Mus musculus. Thus, small rodents should be considered as an important reservoir of C. parvum genotypes closely related to the zoonotic genotype 2 and potentially hazardous to humans.

  12. Histopathology related to cadmium and lead bioaccumulation in chronically exposed wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus, around a former smelter.

    Tête, Nicolas; Durfort, Mercè; Rieffel, Dominique; Scheifler, Renaud; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro


    The ceasing of industrial activities often reduces the emission of pollutants but also often leaves disturbed areas without remediation and with persistent pollutants that can still be transferred along the food chain. This study examines the potential relationships between non-essential trace metals and histopathology in target tissues of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected along a gradient of contamination around the former smelter, Metaleurop Nord (northern France). Cadmium and lead concentrations were measured, and histological alterations attributable to chronic trace metal exposure were assessed in the liver and the kidneys of 78 individuals. Metal concentrations quantified in the present study were among the highest observed for this species. Some histological alterations significantly increased with Cd or Pb concentrations in the soil and in the organs. Sixteen mice from polluted sites were considered at risk for metal-induced stress because their Cd and/or Pb tissue concentrations exceeded the LOAELs for single exposure to these elements. These mice also exhibited a higher severity of histological alterations in their organs than individuals with lower metal burdens. These results indicate that the Metaleurop smelter, despite its closure in 2003, still represents a threat to the local ecosystem because of the high levels and high bioavailability of Cd and Pb in the soil. However, among the mice not considered at risk for metal-induced stress based on the metal levels in their tissues, a large percentage of individuals still exhibited histological alterations. Thus, the present study suggests that the evaluation of toxic effects based only on the LOAELs for single metal exposure may result in the underestimation of the real risks when specimens are exposed to multiple stressors.

  13. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Body Temperature and Rest Metabolic Rate in Apodemus chevrieri During Postnatal Development

    Zhu Wan-long


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation in Apodemus chevrieri, body temperature and rest metabolic rate (RMR were measured during postnatal development (1~42 day when the A. chevrieri exposed different ambient temperature. The result showed that: body temperature and RMR of pups in A. chevrieri increased according to the increase of ambient temperature during 1 day to 7 day, showed character of poikilotherms; body temperature of pups were lower in low temperature(5oC and 10oC, relatively and RMR significant increased when day age is 14 day, it indicated that the pups showed a certain degree of thermoregulation in this phase. Its thermoregulation ability developed quickly during 7 day to 14 day. RMR of pups was extreme significantly higher in low temperature than that in other temperature when day age was 21 day, it showed that the pups had some thermoregulation to low temperature stimulation. The RMR of pups was showed increasing trend in high temperature(35oC when 28 day; when day age was 35 day and 42 day, the thermal neutral zone were 22.5 to 30oC and approaching its adult level. All of these results indicated that pups of A. chevrieri in the different growing period had different thermogenesis and energy allocation to maintain stable to body temperature, thermogenesis was weaker in the early phase of postnatal development, most of energy is used to its growth. After pups were weaned, the ability of constant temperature and thermoregulation developed quickly to adjust variations of environment during postnatal development.

  14. Contribution to the distribution of terrestrial small mammals in the Sǎlaj county, Romania

    Gubányi A.


    Full Text Available During the research period (2014-2015 287 small mammals, five species of shrews and eight species of rodents (Crocidura leucodon, C. suaveolens, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, Neomys anomalus, Microtus agrestis M. arvalis, M. subterraneus, Myodes glareolus. Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis were detected in the Sǎlaj County. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius and the common vole (Microtus arvalis proved to be the characteristic dominant species of the small mammal communities investigated in this area. The number of terrestrial small mammalian species lagged behind our expectations. Micromys minutus was not collected during the research period in the habitats characterized by reed-bed and/or tall sedge vegetation.

  15. Redescription of Heligmosomoides neopolygyrus, Asakawa and Ohbayashi, 1986 (Nematoda: Heligmosomidae) from a Chinese rodent, Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia: Muridae); with comments on Heligmosomoides polygyrus polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) and related species in China and Japan.

    Massoni, J; Durette-Desset, M C; Quéré, J P; Audebert, F


    Heligmosomoides neopolygyrus, Asakawa and Ohbayashi, 1986 (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) is redescribed from Apodemus peninsulae from Rangtang, Sichuan, China. A morphological review of the Heligmosomoides spp. belonging to the "polygyrus line" proposed by Asakawa (1988) is made using new characters. This enabled us to distinguish two subspecies in Mus musculus (Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri from Japan and H. p. polygyrus from China) and two valid species in Apodemus spp. (H. neopolygyrus from Japan (in A. peninsulae) and from China (in A. agrarius) and H. asakawae from China (in A. uralensis)). Three parasite species of A. agrarius and A. peninsulae, previously identified by Asakawa et al. (1993) as H. neopolygyrus, are considered to be Heligmosomoides incertae sedis. This is the first report of H. neopolygyrus in A. peninsulae from China.

  16. [Investigation of the presence of Francisella tularensis by culture, serology and molecular methods in mice of Thrace Region, Turkey].

    Unal Yilmaz, Gülizar; Gurcan, Saban; Ozkan, Beytullah; Karadenizli, Aynur


    Tularemia is a disease that has been reported in Turkey since 1936. Although mice are considered to have a role in the transmission of Francisella tularensis to man, this has not been exactly confirmed yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of F. tularensis in mice by using culture, serology and molecular methods. For this purpose, four villages (Edirne-Demirkoy, Kirklareli-Kaynarca, Tekirdag-Muzruplu, Tekirdag-Sinanli) were selected in Thrace Region of Turkey where tularemia cases had been reported previously. A total of 126 live-catch mouse traps were established in warehouses, barns, areas near wells, water tanks and creeks in the villages in December 2012. Traps were kept overnight and the next day the animals collected were identified at species-level. The live-captured mice were anesthetized and their heart blood samples were obtained. Subsequently, liver and spleen tissues were removed from every mouse under aseptic conditions in the class-2 safety cabinet. These tissues were cultivated in Francis medium containing 5% sheep blood, 0.1% cystein, 1% glucose and incubated for seven days in both normal atmosphere and 5% carbondioxide incubator at 37°C. Tularemia microagglutination test was performed by using the sera which were obtained from live-captured mice. Finally, DNAs were isolated from both liver and spleen tissues of mice, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Tularemia RT-PCR; Public Health Agency of Turkey, Ankara) were performed. In our study, a total of 19 mice were captured and of these 11 were alive. Ten mice were identified as Apodemus flavicollis, seven were Mus macedonicus and two were Mus musculus. There were no Francisella tularensis isolation in the cultures of mice liver and spleen tissues. Serological tests yielded negative results for 10 mice whose serum samples could be obtained. In RT-PCR, positivity were detected in spleen tissues of two mice which were captured from Kaynarca where first tularemia cases in

  17. [The co-occurence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia spp. and helminth infections in small rodent populations].

    Bajer, Anna; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Kuliś, Karolina; Siński, Edward


    During long-term (1998-2000) studies on rodent parasite populations in Mazury lake district there were collected and analyzed data on co-occurrence of intestinal protozoa (Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia spp.) and helminths. There were performed 178 autopsies of common vole Microtus arvalis, 85 autopsies of yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis and 386 autopsies of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus. Positive effect of helminth infections was found in C. glareolus. Voles infected with nematode Heligmosomum mixtum showed higher prevalence of C. parvum and Giardia spp. than voles infected with Heligmosomoides glareoli. The host age took part in these interactions and positive effect of co-occurrence was mainly observed in voles older than 3 months. The other intrinsic (host sex) or extrinsic (season and year of study) factors influenced interactions between parasites. Presented results revealed that helminth infections may facilitate chronic infections of intestinal protozoa in rodent populations.

  18. The Taxonomic Relationship between Apodemus latronum and Apodemus draco Based on the Cytochrome b Gene%基于线粒体细胞色素b基因对大耳姬鼠和龙姬鼠分类关系的探讨

    范振鑫; 王璐萱; 张修月; 刘少英


    大耳姬鼠Apodemus latronum的分类地位,尤其它和龙姬鼠A.draco的关系,还存在着争议.用PCR扩增了采集自5个不同地点的大耳姬鼠的线粒体细胞色素b(cyt b)基因,并和GenBank已有的3条大耳姬鼠cyt b序列一起分析其碱基组成和变异情况.采用邻接法(Neighbor-joining,NJ)、最大简约法(Maximum parsimony,MP)、最大似然法(Maximum likelihood,ML)和贝叶斯法(Bayesian inference,BI)构建了大耳姬鼠和龙姬鼠的系统发育树.4种方法构建的系统发育树拓扑结构一致,大耳姬鼠和龙姬鼠均各自形成单系,龙姬鼠先与台湾森鼠A.semotus聚在一起,再与大耳姬鼠形成姐妹群.此外,大耳姬鼠和龙姬鼠两者间的K2P平均遗传距离达到0.14.因此,认为大耳姬鼠是一个独立的种,而不是龙姬鼠的一个亚种.

  19. Habitat-Specific Shaping of Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis of Wild Rodents

    Nicole eCavegn


    Full Text Available Daily life of wild mammals is characterized by a multitude of attractive and aversive stimuli. The hippocampus processes complex polymodal information associated with such stimuli and mediates adequate behavioral responses. How newly generated hippocampal neurons in wild animals contribute to hippocampal function is still a subject of debate. Here, we test the relationship between adult hippocampal neurogenesis and habitat types. To this end, we compare wild Muridae species of southern Africa (Namaqua rock mouse (Micaelamys namaquensis, red veld rat (Aethomys chrysophilus, highveld gerbil (Tatera brantsii and spiny mouse (Acomys spinosissimus with data from wild European Muridae (long-tailed wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, pygmy field mice (Apodemus microps, yellow-necked wood mice (Apodemus flavicollis, and house mice (Mus musculus domesticus from previous studies. The pattern of neurogenesis, expressed in normalized numbers of Ki67- and DCX-positive cells to total granule cells, is similar for the species from a southern African habitat. However, we found low proliferation, but high neuronal differentiation in rodents from the southern African habitat compared to rodents from the European environment. Within the African rodents, we observe additional regulatory and morphological traits in the hippocampus. Namaqua rock mice with previous pregnancies showed lower adult hippocampal neurogenesis compared to males and nulliparous females. The phylogenetically closely related species (Namaqua rock mouse and red veld rat show a CA4, which is not usually observed in murine rodents. The specific features of the southern environment that may be associated with the high number of young neurons in African rodents still remain to be elucidated. This study provides the first evidence that a habitat can shape adult neurogenesis in rodents across phylogenetic groups.

  20. Habitat-specific shaping of proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis of wild rodents.

    Cavegn, Nicole; van Dijk, R Maarten; Menges, Dominik; Brettschneider, Helene; Phalanndwa, Mashudu; Chimimba, Christian T; Isler, Karin; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Slomianka, Lutz; Amrein, Irmgard


    Daily life of wild mammals is characterized by a multitude of attractive and aversive stimuli. The hippocampus processes complex polymodal information associated with such stimuli and mediates adequate behavioral responses. How newly generated hippocampal neurons in wild animals contribute to hippocampal function is still a subject of debate. Here, we test the relationship between adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and habitat types. To this end, we compare wild Muridae species of southern Africa [Namaqua rock mouse (Micaelamys namaquensis), red veld rat (Aethomys chrysophilus), highveld gerbil (Tatera brantsii), and spiny mouse (Acomys spinosissimus)] with data from wild European Muridae [long-tailed wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), pygmy field mice (Apodemus microps), yellow-necked wood mice (Apodemus flavicollis), and house mice (Mus musculus domesticus)] from previous studies. The pattern of neurogenesis, expressed in normalized numbers of Ki67- and Doublecortin(DCX)-positive cells to total granule cells (GCs), is similar for the species from a southern African habitat. However, we found low proliferation, but high neuronal differentiation in rodents from the southern African habitat compared to rodents from the European environment. Within the African rodents, we observe additional regulatory and morphological traits in the hippocampus. Namaqua rock mice with previous pregnancies showed lower AHN compared to males and nulliparous females. The phylogenetically closely related species (Namaqua rock mouse and red veld rat) show a CA4, which is not usually observed in murine rodents. The specific features of the southern environment that may be associated with the high number of young neurons in African rodents still remain to be elucidated. This study provides the first evidence that a habitat can shape adult neurogenesis in rodents across phylogenetic groups.

  1. Genetic detection of Dobrava/Belgrade virus in a Czech patient with Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.

    Papa, A; Zelená, H; Barnetová, D; Petrousová, L


    In the summer of 2008, a 15-year-old boy was hospitalized in a paediatric intensive care unit in the Czech Republic. Laboratory diagnosis of hantavirus infection was established by serological and molecular methods. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the causative strain was Dobrava/Belgrade virus, which is genetically closer to strains associated with Apodemus flavicollis rodents.

  2. Mouse phenotyping.

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Da Silva-Buttkus, Patricia; Neff, Frauke; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Kemter, Elisabeth; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Matloka, Mikolaj; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Rozman, Jan; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Schrewe, Anja; Stöger, Claudia; Tost, Monica; Adamski, Jerzy; Aigner, Bernhard; Beckers, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Illig, Thomas; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mempel, Martin; Neschen, Susanne; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Suhre, Karsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin


    Model organisms like the mouse are important tools to learn more about gene function in man. Within the last 20 years many mutant mouse lines have been generated by different methods such as ENU mutagenesis, constitutive and conditional knock-out approaches, knock-down, introduction of human genes, and knock-in techniques, thus creating models which mimic human conditions. Due to pleiotropic effects, one gene may have different functions in different organ systems or time points during development. Therefore mutant mouse lines have to be phenotyped comprehensively in a highly standardized manner to enable the detection of phenotypes which might otherwise remain hidden. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) has been established at the Helmholtz Zentrum München as a phenotyping platform with open access to the scientific community (; [1]). The GMC is a member of the EUMODIC consortium which created the European standard workflow EMPReSSslim for the systemic phenotyping of mouse models ([2]). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 长白县黑线姬鼠携带汉坦病毒的S基因特征研究%The Analysis of Hantavirus S Gene in Apodemus Agrarius in Changbai Area

    燕清丽; 杨鹏飞; 邵丽筠; 刘勇先; 浦昀; 张晓龙; 曹晓梅; 郭天宇; 姚李四


    To gain more insights into epidemiologic characteristics and genotype of hantavirus in Apodemus agrarius in Changbai Area.Complete hantavirus S segment sequences were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced.The phylogenetic trees were constructed for analysis of genetic characters of hantavirus.A total of 58 Apodemus agrarius were trapped in the epidemic areas,and complete hantavirus S segment sequences were obtained from 4 lung samples of these rodents (6.90%).Phylogenetic analysis of the four S segment sequences indicated that all viruses isolated from Apodemu sagrarius were closely related to genotype 6 of Hantaan virus (95.8%-96.3%,nucleotide identity; 98.6%-99.5%,amino acid identity),all of them had a specific S387 different from other genotypes of Hantaan virus.%为了解长白县黑线姬鼠中汉坦病毒流行情况及病毒型别,采用巢式RT-PCR方法筛查鼠肺RNA,并对PCR阳性样本进行全S基因的扩增、克隆及测序;构建系统发生树并进行分子进化分析.结果显示:共捕获黑线姬鼠58只,共检测出4份阳性标本,阳性率6.90%.经过序列测定及进化分析显示黑线姬鼠所携带的病毒与汉滩病毒第6基因亚型标准株核苷酸的同源性为95.8%~96.3%,氨基酸同源性为98.6%~99.5%.同时发现,长白县黑线姬鼠携带的汉滩病毒的NP蛋白共有1个特异性氨基酸位点为S387.

  4. [On the taxonomic rank of ciscaucasicus and its relationships with the pygmy wood mouse Sylvaemus uralensis inferred from the mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequence].

    Balakirev, A E; Baskevich, M I; Gmyl', A P; Okulova, N M; Andreeva, T A; Sokolenko, O V; Malygin, V M; Khliap, L A; Opatin, M L; Orlov, V N


    To specify the taxonomic rank of form ciscaucasoides (independent species Sylvaemus ciscaucasoides, or intraspecific form of pygmy wood mouse, S. uralensis), a 402-bp the mtDNA cytochrome b gene fragment (402 bp) was examined in S. ciscaucasoides individuals from six geographic localities of the Caucasus and Ciscaucasus, (Krasnodar krai and Adygeya Republic) and 17 S. uralensis individuals from seven localities of the Russian Plai (Saratov oblast, Smolensk oblast, Voronezh oblast, Tula oblast, Moscow oblast, and Tver' oblast). For comparison, the cytochrome b gene was partly sequenced in the samples of yellow necked, S. flavicollis (n = 2, Samara oblast), and Caucasian, S. ponticus (n = 6, Krasnodar krai), wood mice. One Mus musculus specimen from Western Europe, whose nucleotide sequences were deposed in the GenBank, was used as intergeneric outgroup. Phylogenetic trees for the forms examined were constructed based on the mtDNA sequence variation and using the neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods. The network of the cytochrome b haplotypes was also constructed. The level of genetic divergence was evaluated using Kimura's two-parameter algorithm. Based on the data on the sequence variation in a 402-bp mtDNA cytochrome b gene fragment, the hypothesis on the species status of the ciscaucasicus form was. The mean intergroup distances (d) between the geographic groups of S. uralensis varied from 0.0036 to 0.0152. At the same time, the distances between the pygmy wood mice and the group of S.flavicollis-S. ponticus varies in the range from 0.0860 to 0.0935, and the level of intergeneric genetic differentiation (Sylvaemus-Mus) is higher than the latter index (d = 0.142). Ciscaucasoides should be considered as geographic substitution form of S. uralensis. Furthermore, the Caucasian populations of S. uralensis (= ciscaucasoides) were characterized by a threefold lower value of intergroup genetic divergence (d = 0.0062) than the East European populations (d= 0

  5. Analysis of the Effect of Chronic and Low-Dose Radiation Exposure on Spermatogenic Cells of Male Large Japanese Field Mice ( Apodemus speciosus ) after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Takino, Sachio; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Sugano, Yukou; Fujishima, Yohei; Nakata, Akifumi; Kasai, Kosuke; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Shinoda, Hisashi; Miura, Tomisato; Fukumoto, Manabu


    In this study we analyzed the effect of chronic and low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation on spermatogenic cells of large Japanese field mice ( Apodemus speciosus ) after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. In March 2014, large Japanese field mice were collected from two sites located in, and one site adjacent to, the FNPP ex-evacuation zone: Tanashio, Murohara and Akogi, respectively. Testes from these animals were analyzed histologically. External dose rate from radiocesium (combined (134)Cs and (137)Cs) in these animals at the sampling sites exhibited 21 μGy/day in Tanashio, 304-365 μGy/day in Murohara and 407-447 μGy/day in Akogi. In the Akogi group, the numbers of spermatogenic cells and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells per seminiferous tubule were significantly higher compared to the Tanashio and Murohara groups, respectively. TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells tended to be detected at a lower level in the Murohara and Akogi groups compared to the Tanashio group. These results suggest that enhanced spermatogenesis occurred in large Japanese field mice living in and around the FNPP ex-evacuation zone. It remains to be elucidated whether this phenomenon, attributed to chronic exposure to LDR radiation, will benefit or adversely affect large Japanese field mice.

  6. Chromosome homology between mouse and three Muridae species, Millardia meltada, Acomys dimidiatus and Micromys minutus, and conserved chromosome segments in murid karyotypes.

    Nakamura, Taro; Matsubara, Kazumi; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Matsuda, Yoichi


    Comparative chromosome painting with mouse (Mus musculus, MMU) chromosome-specific DNA probes was performed for three Muridae species, the Indian soft-furred field rat (Millardia meltada), the spiny mouse (Acomys dimidiatus) and the harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). All probes except for the Y probe were successfully hybridized to the chromosomes of all species, and homologous chromosome segments between mouse and the three species were identified at the molecular level. Comparison of our data with the published data of six other genera (Mus, Rattus, Apodemus, Otomys, Rhabdomys and Cricetulus) of the Muridae suggested that the associations MMU1b/17a, 2b/13a, 5b/11a, 7/19, 10b/17b, 10c/17c, 11b/16a, 12/17d and 13b/15, and the single painted chromosomes and chromosome segments MMU3, 4, 5a, 8a, 8b, 16b, 18 and X were probably contained by the ancestral karyotype of the Muridae, and have been strongly conserved throughout murid evolution.




    Full Text Available La répartition du mulot sylvestre Apodemus sylvaticus et de la souris sauvage Mus spretus a fait l’objet d’une analyse à l’échelle stationnelle en Kabylie du Djurdjura. Une analyse factorielle des correspondances a été appliquée sur des données d’abondance et de localisation de ces rongeurs. Cette étude a permis de révéler les modes de répartition, et d’identifier à partir d’un ensemble de paramètres décrivants les milieux échantillonnés ceux apparaissant comme éléments efficaces dans la sélection de l’habitat chez ces deux espèces. Il ressort que le mulot et la souris sauvage se comportent de façon inverse vis-à-vis de la nature et de la structure du milieu. Le mulot semble sensible au caractère forestier des milieux ainsi qu’à la présence de rochers et de gros blocs de pierre; il se retrouve dans divers types de milieux, mais il occupe préférentiellement les formations forestières (sensu lato. La souris sauvage occupe surtout les biotopes ouverts et ne semble pas très affectée par l'anthropisation des milieux; le climat serait aussi un autre paramètre déterminant les normes de sélection de l’habitat chez cette espèce.

  8. Characterization of a novel wood mouse virus related to murid herpesvirus 4

    Hughes, David J.; Kipar, Anja; Milligan, Steven G.; Cunningham, Charles; Sanders, Mandy; Quail, Michael A.; Rajandream, Marie-Adele; Efstathiou, Stacey; Bowden, Rory J.; Chastel, Claude; Bennett, Malcolm; Sample, Jeffery T.; Barrell, Bart; Davison, Andrew J.; Stewart, James P.


    Two novel gammaherpesviruses were isolated, one from a field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the other from wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The genome of the latter, designated wood mouse herpesvirus (WMHV), was completely sequenced. WMHV had the same genome structure and predicted gene content as murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV4; murine gammaherpesvirus 68). Overall nucleotide sequence identity between WMHV and MuHV4 was 85 % and most of the 10 kb region at the left end of the unique region was particularly highly conserved, especially the viral tRNA-like sequences and the coding regions of genes M1 and M4. The partial sequence (71 913 bp) of another gammaherpesvirus, Brest herpesvirus (BRHV), which was isolated ostensibly from a white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula), was also determined. The BRHV sequence was 99.2 % identical to the corresponding portion of the WMHV genome. Thus, WMHV and BRHV appeared to be strains of a new virus species. Biological characterization of WMHV indicated that it grew with similar kinetics to MuHV4 in cell culture. The pathogenesis of WMHV in wood mice was also extremely similar to that of MuHV4, except for the absence of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue at day 14 post-infection and a higher load of latently infected cells at 21 days post-infection. PMID:19940063

  9. Biological characterisation of Cryptosporidium parvum isolates of wildlife rodents in Poland.

    Bednarska, Malgorzata; Bajer, Anna; Kulis, Karolina; Sinski, Edward


    The study was undertaken to characterise the C. parvum isolates originating from naturally infected woodland and field rodents: Clethrionomys glareolus (CG), Apodemus flavicollis (AF) and Microtus arvalis (MA). We found that the measurements of oocyst dimensions and oocyst morphology did not allow distinction between the parasite isolates from the 3 rodent species. The mean dimensions were: for CG 4.67 x 4.21, for AF 4.65 x 4.14 and for MA 4.66 x 4.16. These 3 groups of isolates have produced significantly different pictures of infection in C57BL/6 mice. The overall mean oocysts output was: in CG-mice 41,739, in AF-mice 18,000, in MA-mice 10,384 oocysts/1 g of faeces. From these data we suggest that rodent isolates of C. parvum could represent new subgroups in so-called "mouse" C. parvum strain. The successful cross-transmission from wild hosts to laboratory rodents and the close similarity of COWP sequence between our isolates and "mouse" genotype and between "mouse" and zoonotic genotype of C. parvum (genotype C) inform us that all these isolates should be treated as potentially hazardous for human health.

  10. Permanent Genetic Resources added to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2010-31 March 2010.

    Aurelle, D; Baker, A J; Bottin, L; Brouat, C; Caccone, A; Chaix, A; Dhakal, P; Ding, Y; Duplantier, J M; Fiedler, W; Fietz, J; Fong, Y; Forcioli, D; Freitas, T R O; Gunnarsson, G H; Haddrath, O; Hadziabdic, D; Hauksdottir, S; Havill, N P; Heinrich, M; Heinz, T; Hjorleifsdottir, S; Hong, Y; Hreggvidsson, G O; Huchette, S; Hurst, J; Kane, M; Kane, N C; Kawakami, T; Ke, W; Keith, R A; Klauke, N; Klein, J L; Kun, J F J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Li, J-J; Loiseau, A; Lu, L-Z; Lucas, M; Martins-Ferreira, C; Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Olafsson, K; Pampoulie, C; Pan, L; Pooler, M R; Ren, J-D; Rinehart, T A; Roussel, V; Santos, M O; Schaefer, H M; Scheffler, B E; Schmidt, A; Segelbacher, G; Shen, J-D; Skirnisdottir, S; Sommer, S; Tao, Z-R; Taubert, R; Tian, Y; Tomiuk, J; Trigiano, R N; Ungerer, M C; Van Wormhoudt, A; Wadl, P A; Wang, D-Q; Weis-Dootz, T; Xia, Q; Yuan, Q-Y


    This article documents the addition of 228 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anser cygnoides, Apodemus flavicollis, Athene noctua, Cercis canadensis, Glis glis, Gubernatrix cristata, Haliotis tuberculata, Helianthus maximiliani, Laricobius nigrinus, Laricobius rubidus, Neoheligmonella granjoni, Nephrops norvegicus, Oenanthe javanica, Paramuricea clavata, Pyrrhura orcesi and Samanea saman. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Apodemus sylvaticus, Laricobius laticollis and Laricobius osakensis (a proposed new species currently being described). © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. [1st cases of adiaspiromycosis observed in small mammals in Turkey. 3 new host species].

    Boisseau-Lebreuil, M T; Orhan, V


    The authors examine the lungs of 193 small mammals caught in different places in West Turkey and belonging to 11 different species. Six species have one or many adiaspores in their lungs. Those are Microtus arvalis, Apodemus flavicollis and A. sylvaticus already found parasited by Chrysosporium parvum in many countries particularly France. These are M. guentheri, Pitymys majori and A. mystacinus which have never been mentioned before this day having adiaspiromycosis.

  12. Gaze beats mouse

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin


    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...... pointing was faster than mouse pointing, while maintaining a similar error rate. EMG and mouse-button selection had a comparable performance. From analyses of completion time, throughput and error rates, we concluded that the combination of gaze and facial EMG holds potential for outperforming the mouse....

  13. A new species of the genus Demodex Owen, 1843 (Acari: Demodecidae) from the ear canals of the house mouse Mus musculus L. (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek


    A new species Demodex conicus n. sp. is described based on adult and juvenile stages from the ear canals of the house mouse Mus musculus L. in Poland. The new species is most similar to D. auricularis Izdebska, Rolbiecki & Fryderyk, 2014 from the ear canals of the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus (L.), but differs in the following features: the gnathosoma is triangular, the supracoxal spines (setae elc.p) are conical, the spines on the terminal segment of palp are four, the striation on opisthosoma is fine but dense, the vulva is located at a distance of c.17 µm from posterior level of legs IV, and the male genital opening is located at the level of legs I. The differences also relate to body size and proportions, female D. conicus n. sp. being, on average slightly larger, and male significantly larger than D. auricularis. Males of the new species also have longer and more massive opisthosoma than males of D. auricularis. Demodex conicus n. sp. was found in 17.5% of the mice studied from different locations in Poland.

  14. Estimation of Evolutionary Rates of Mitochondrial DNA in Two Japanese Wood Mouse Species Based on Calibrations with Quaternary Environmental Changes.

    Hanazaki, Kaori; Tomozawa, Morihiko; Suzuki, Yutaro; Kinoshita, Gohta; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Irino, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Hitoshi


    Reliable estimates of evolutionary rates of mitochondrial DNA might allow us to build realistic evolutionary scenarios covering broad time scales based on phylogenetic inferences. In the present study, we sought to obtain estimates of evolutionary rates in murine rodents using calibrations against historical biogeographic events. We first assumed that land-bridge-like structures that appeared intermittently at glacial maxima with 100,000-year intervals shaped the divergence patterns of cytochrome b (Cytb) sequences (1140 bp) of the larger Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus. The comparison of sequences from peripheral remote islands that are separated from one another by deep straits allowed us to estimate mitochondrial DNA evolutionary rates (substitutions/site/million years) to be 0.027 to 0.036, with presumed calibrations from 140,000, 250,000, 350,000, and 440,000 years ago. Second, we addressed rapid expansion events inferred from analyses of the Cytb sequences of the lesser Japanese wood mouse A. argenteus. We detected five expansion signals in the dataset and established three categories based on the expansion parameter tau values: 3.9, 5.6-5.7, and 7.8-8.1. Considering that the climate became warmer 15,000, 53,000, and 115,000 years ago after preceding periods of rapid cooling, we calculated evolutionary rates to be 0.114, 0.047, and 0.031, respectively. This preliminary concept of the evolutionary rates on a time scale from 15,000 to 440,000 years ago for the wood mouse should be refined and tested in other species of murine rodents, including mice and rats.

  15. The Knockout Mouse Project

    Austin, Christopher P.; Battey, James F.; Bradley, Allan; Bucan, Maja; Capecchi, Mario; Collins, Francis S; Dove, William F.; Duyk, Geoffrey; Dymecki, Susan; Eppig, Janan T.; Grieder, Franziska B.; Heintz, Nathaniel; Hicks, Geoff; Insel, Thomas R; Joyner, Alexandra


    Mouse knockout technology provides a powerful means of elucidating gene function in vivo, and a publicly available genome-wide collection of mouse knockouts would be significantly enabling for biomedical discovery. To date, published knockouts exist for only about 10% of mouse genes. Furthermore, many of these are limited in utility because they have not been made or phenotyped in standardized ways, and many are not freely available to researchers. It is time to harness new technologies and e...

  16. Replacing the computer mouse

    Dernoncourt, Franck


    In a few months the computer mouse will be half-a-century-old. It is known to have many drawbacks, the main ones being: loss of productivity due to constant switching between keyboard and mouse, and health issues such as RSI. Like the keyboard, it is an unnatural human-computer interface. However the vast majority of computer users still use computer mice nowadays. In this article, we explore computer mouse alternatives. Our research shows that moving the mouse cursor can be done efficiently ...

  17. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B


    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  18. The MOUSE Squad

    Borja, Rhea R.


    This article presents a New York city after-school program started by MOUSE (Making Opportunities for Upgrading Schools and Education), a national nonprofit group that teaches students how to fix computers, and equips them with the communication and problem-solving skills to help them in the working world. The MOUSE program is part of a trend…

  19. Mouse genome database 2016.

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E


    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  20. Between-year variation and spatial dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections in naturally infected rodent populations.

    Bajer, A


    Prevalence and abundance of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections were studied over the 8-year period in 3 species of rodents in N.E. Poland (bank vole Myodes glareolus-1523; yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis- 638; common vole Microtus arvalis- 419). Prevalence was 53.8, 28.1 and 62.3% respectively for Cryptosporidium spp. and 58.3, 24.4 and 74.2% respectively for Giardia spp. Prevalence and abundance of infection varied markedly across 8 years of the study with 1998 and 2002 being years of higher prevalence and abundance, following changes in the densities of host species. The distribution of intestinal protozoa in forest rodents did not vary in the 3 isolated sites during the 4-year study. In the case of Cryptosporidium, fewer older animals carried infection and infections of the oldest bank and common voles were relatively milder. In the case of Giardia in yellow-necked mice, infections were more common in older age classes (2 and 3). The two species showed significant co-occurrence and in animals carrying both species there was a strong significant positive correlation between abundance of infection with each. These data are discussed in relation to the parasite genotypes identified in this region and in respect of the role of various ecological factors in shaping of intestinal protozoa communities.

  1. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  2. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  3. Bridging gaps: On the performance of airborne LiDAR to model wood mouse-habitat structure relationships in pine forests.

    Jaime-González, Carlos; Acebes, Pablo; Mateos, Ana; Mezquida, Eduardo T


    LiDAR technology has firmly contributed to strengthen the knowledge of habitat structure-wildlife relationships, though there is an evident bias towards flying vertebrates. To bridge this gap, we investigated and compared the performance of LiDAR and field data to model habitat preferences of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a Mediterranean high mountain pine forest (Pinus sylvestris). We recorded nine field and 13 LiDAR variables that were summarized by means of Principal Component Analyses (PCA). We then analyzed wood mouse's habitat preferences using three different models based on: (i) field PCs predictors, (ii) LiDAR PCs predictors; and (iii) both set of predictors in a combined model, including a variance partitioning analysis. Elevation was also included as a predictor in the three models. Our results indicate that LiDAR derived variables were better predictors than field-based variables. The model combining both data sets slightly improved the predictive power of the model. Field derived variables indicated that wood mouse was positively influenced by the gradient of increasing shrub cover and negatively affected by elevation. Regarding LiDAR data, two LiDAR PCs, i.e. gradients in canopy openness and complexity in forest vertical structure positively influenced wood mouse, although elevation interacted negatively with the complexity in vertical structure, indicating wood mouse's preferences for plots with lower elevations but with complex forest vertical structure. The combined model was similar to the LiDAR-based model and included the gradient of shrub cover measured in the field. Variance partitioning showed that LiDAR-based variables, together with elevation, were the most important predictors and that part of the variation explained by shrub cover was shared. LiDAR derived variables were good surrogates of environmental characteristics explaining habitat preferences by the wood mouse. Our LiDAR metrics represented structural features of the forest

  4. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H


    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  5. Remains of Insectivores and Rodents of recent age collected in a cave of Capri Island (Italy / Resti di Insettivori e Roditori di età recente raccolti in una grotta dell'isola di Capri (Italia

    Carmela Barbera


    Full Text Available Abstract Remains of small mammals from a cave of Capri Island (Italy were examined. They were collected together with other small vertebrates and are probably from pellets of birds of prey of subrecent age. The following species have been recognized from cranial bones and teeth: Suncus etruscus (Savi, Rattus rattus (L., Mus domesticus Rutty, Apodemus sp. and Eliomys quercinus (L.. As regards Apodemus, the species identification was not possible since only mandibles were present among the remains belonging to this genus. Notwithstanding the attribution of our specimens to Apodemus agrarius can be excluded and it is limited to A. sylvaticus or A. flavicollis. It was not possible to make a comparison with Apodemus sylvaticus tyrrhenicus from the late Pleistocene of Capri; nevertheless the length and width of M1 and M2 of Apodemus sp. fall within the respective ranges of Apodemus sylvaticus tyrrhenicus provided by Gliozzi (in print. The occurence of Suncus etruscus (Savi, Apodemus sp. (probably A. sylvaticus or A. flavicollis, and Eliomys quercinus (L. in subrecent time of Capri Island is not mentioned in the literature. Riassunto Nel presente lavoro viene effettuato lo studio tassonomico di resti di micromammiferi rinvenuti a Capri; questi si trovavano insieme ad altre ossa di microvertebrati, in un accumulo riferibile con tutta probabilità a residui di borre di rapaci di età subattuale. Le specie individuate sono: Suncus etruscus (Savi, Rattus rattus (L., Mus domesticus Rutty, Apodemus sp. e Eliomys quercinus (L.. La presenza sull'isola delle specie Suncus etruscus (Savi, Apodemus sp. e Eliomys quercinus (L. non è segnalata in precedenti pubblicazioni.

  6. Colonization, mouse-style

    Searle Jeremy B


    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article:

  7. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Bo-Syong Pan


    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  8. The Mouse SAGE Site: database of public mouse SAGE libraries.

    Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jirí


    The Mouse SAGE Site is a web-based database of all available public libraries generated by the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) from various mouse tissues and cell lines. The database contains mouse SAGE libraries organized in a uniform way and provides web-based tools for browsing, comparing and searching SAGE data with reliable tag-to-gene identification. A modified approach based on the SAGEmap database is used for reliable tag identification. The Mouse SAGE Site is maintained on an ongoing basis at the Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and is accessible at the internet address

  9. Study on the integrated monitoring program regarding mouse and main mouse-borne disease in Zhejiang province%浙江省鼠及主要鼠传疾病综合监测试点研究

    龚震宇; 任樟尧; 兰玉清; 陈忠兵; 郭玉红; 凌锋; 孙继民; 刘起勇; 侯娟; 傅桂明; 陈荣富; 雷金宝; 陈直平; 杨天赐; 鲁亮


    .Specimens were sent to provincial CDC. The integrated monitoring program needed more number of personnel and better coordination. Lishui reported 3 leptospirosis cases and 58 HFRS cases in 2009,with the incidence rates as 0.13 and 2.44 per 100 000, respectively. Longyou reported 2 leptospirosis case and 1 HFRS cases in 2009, with the incidence rates as 0.49 and 0.25 per 100 000, respectively.Lishui and Longyou had no plague case. Lishui caught 91 mice in 2009 and the density was 4.17%.Longyou caught 37 mice in 2009, with the density as 1.18 percent. Most mice caught from Lishui were Apodemus agrarius and the next was Mus musculus. In Longyou the Rattus tanezumi ranked the first, followed by Apodemus agrarius. The positive rate of HFRS antigen in Lishui and Longyou were 10.42% and 4.59% respectively. The positive rate of HFRS antibody in Longyou was 3.70%. The culture positive rate of leptospirosis in mouse renal of Lishui and Longyou were 0 and 0.98%respectively. The culture positive rate of leptospirosis in pig renal, duck renal, frog renal and cattle urine of Longyou was 0. The culture positive rate of leptospirosis in duck blood of Longyou was 80%.Conclusion The integrated monitoring program on mouse and mouse-borne disease seemed to be feasible and could promote the integrated surveillance and control program on mouse and mouse-borne diseases in China.

  10. Isolation of Mouse Neutrophils.

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E; Lionakis, Michail S


    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments.

  11. RIKEN mouse genome encyclopedia.

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide


    We have been working to establish the comprehensive mouse full-length cDNA collection and sequence database to cover as many genes as we can, named Riken mouse genome encyclopedia. Recently we are constructing higher-level annotation (Functional ANnoTation Of Mouse cDNA; FANTOM) not only with homology search based annotation but also with expression data profile, mapping information and protein-protein database. More than 1,000,000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced to classify into 159,789 clusters and 60,770 representative clones were fully sequenced. As a conclusion, the 60,770 sequences contained 33,409 unique. The next generation of life science is clearly based on all of the genome information and resources. Based on our cDNA clones we developed the additional system to explore gene function. We developed cDNA microarray system to print all of these cDNA clones, protein-protein interaction screening system, protein-DNA interaction screening system and so on. The integrated database of all the information is very useful not only for analysis of gene transcriptional network and for the connection of gene to phenotype to facilitate positional candidate approach. In this talk, the prospect of the application of these genome resourced should be discussed. More information is available at the web page:

  12. Mouse models in oncoimmunology.

    Zitvogel, Laurence; Pitt, Jonathan M; Daillère, Romain; Smyth, Mark J; Kroemer, Guido


    Fundamental cancer research and the development of efficacious antineoplastic treatments both rely on experimental systems in which the relationship between malignant cells and immune cells can be studied. Mouse models of transplantable, carcinogen-induced or genetically engineered malignancies - each with their specific advantages and difficulties - have laid the foundations of oncoimmunology. These models have guided the immunosurveillance theory that postulates that evasion from immune control is an essential feature of cancer, the concept that the long-term effects of conventional cancer treatments mostly rely on the reinstatement of anticancer immune responses and the preclinical development of immunotherapies, including currently approved immune checkpoint blockers. Specific aspects of pharmacological development, as well as attempts to personalize cancer treatments using patient-derived xenografts, require the development of mouse models in which murine genes and cells are replaced with their human equivalents. Such 'humanized' mouse models are being progressively refined to characterize the leukocyte subpopulations that belong to the innate and acquired arms of the immune system as they infiltrate human cancers that are subjected to experimental therapies. We surmise that the ever-advancing refinement of murine preclinical models will accelerate the pace of therapeutic optimization in patients.

  13. Mouse genetics: Catalogue and scissors

    Han-Woong Lee


    Full Text Available Phenotypic analysis of gene-specific knockout (KO mice hasrevolutionized our understanding of in vivo gene functions. Asthe use of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells is inevitable forconventional gene targeting, the generation of knockout miceremains a very time-consuming and expensive process. Toaccelerate the large-scale production and phenotype analyses ofKO mice, international efforts have organized global consortiasuch as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMCand International Mouse Phenotype Consortium (IMPC, andthey are persistently expanding the KO mouse catalogue that ispublicly available for the researches studying specific genes ofinterests in vivo. However, new technologies, adoptingzinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs or Transcription Activator-LikeEffector (TALE Nucleases (TALENs to edit the mouse genome,are now emerging as valuable and effective shortcuts alternativefor the conventional gene targeting using ES cells. Here, weintroduce the recent achievement of IKMC, and evaluate thesignificance of ZFN/TALEN technology in mouse genetics.

  14. Mouse genetics: catalogue and scissors.

    Sung, Young Hoon; Baek, In-Jeoung; Seong, Je Kyung; Kim, Jin Soo; Lee, Han-Woong


    Phenotypic analysis of gene-specific knockout (KO) mice has revolutionized our understanding of in vivo gene functions. As the use of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells is inevitable for conventional gene targeting, the generation of knockout mice remains a very time-consuming and expensive process. To accelerate the large-scale production and phenotype analyses of KO mice, international efforts have organized global consortia such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and International Mouse Phenotype Consortium (IMPC), and they are persistently expanding the KO mouse catalogue that is publicly available for the researches studying specific genes of interests in vivo. However, new technologies, adopting zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) or Transcription Activator-Like Effector (TALE) Nucleases (TALENs) to edit the mouse genome, are now emerging as valuable and effective shortcuts alternative for the conventional gene targeting using ES cells. Here, we introduce the recent achievement of IKMC, and evaluate the significance of ZFN/TALEN technology in mouse genetics.

  15. Human anti-mouse antibodies.

    Klee, G G


    Human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) are human immunoglobulins with specificity for mouse immunoglobulins. This topic currently is of interest because of the increased use of monoclonal mouse antibodies as diagnostic reagents both for in vitro laboratory measurements and for in vivo imaging studies. Monoclonal mouse antibodies also are being used therapeutically. This short article reviews the production of HAMA in patients receiving monoclonal antibodies and illustrates the potential ways that HAMA can interfere with immunoassay measurements. Methods for measuring and neutralizing HAMA also are discussed.

  16. Mouse models of medulloblastoma

    Xiaochong Wu; Paul A. Northcott; Sidney Croul; Michael D. Taylor


    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Despite its prevalence and importance in pediatric neuro-oncology, the genes and pathways responsible for its initiation, maintenance,and progression remain poorly understood. Genetically engineered mouse models are an essential tool for uncovering the molecular and cellular basis of human diseases, including cancer, and serve a valuable role as preclinical models for testing targeted therapies. In this review, we summarize how such models have been successfully applied to the study of medulloblastoma over the past decade and what we might expect in the coming years.

  17. Burn mouse models

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus


    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  18. [Optimization of ELISA and immunoblot methods for the detection of IgG antibodies against old world hantaviruses in wild rodents].

    Polat, Ceylan; Karataş, Ahmet; Sözen, Mustafa; Matur, Ferhat; Abacıoğlu, Hakan; Öktem, Mehmet Ali


    /50 and 1/100 serum dilutions and 1/5.000 and 1/10.000 conjugate dilutions were tested. The horseradish peroxidase conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG for ELISA and the alkaline phosphatase conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG for immunoblot were used. We followed the manufacturer's recommendations for the incubation parameters, substrate and the number of washes. 1/50 serum dilution and 1/10.000 conjugate dilution for ELISA and 1/100 serum dilution and 1/5.000 conjugate dilution for immunoblot were determined as optimal concentrations. By using the optimized ELISA, 26.2% (22/84) of rodents were found positive for hantavirus antibodies according the determined cut-off value (OD(450/620): 0.325). By using immunoblot as a confirmatory test, 20 out of 22 ELISA positive samples could be studied because of the insufficient amount of sera and 17 of them was found positive in terms of DOBV antibodies. Of these rodents 11 were Apodemus flavicollis, three were Apodemus agrarius, two were Microtus guentheri and one was Apodemus sylvaticus. When the results of ELISA were compared to immunoblot results, the optimized ELISA's sensitivity and specificity were found as 100% and 95%, respectively. In this study, a method that can be used in the screening of rodent sera was constituted which uses commercial antigens that can be provided easily, gives fast and reliable results. Similar serological methods optimized for different types of rodents are of great importance for the realization of active follow-up and monitoring of the studies in the field.

  19. Gankyrin expression during mouse embryogenesis

    秦建民; 刘淑琴; 曾锦章; 李慎菁; 付晓勇; 邱秀华; 吴孟超; 王红阳


    Objective: To observe the gene expression of Gankyrin during mouse embryogenesis and reveal the gene biological significance during organs and tissues formation. Methods: The expressions of Gankyrin mRNA in various organs and tissues were detected by in situ hybridization at indicated times during embryogenesis. Results: The expression of Gankyrin mRNA in mouse day 12.5 embryo was mainly in midbrain, interbrain and endbrain; in mouse day 14.5 embryo mainly in midbrain, aorta, liver, gonad, cranium and rib; in mouse day 16.5 embryo mainly in cranium, rib and vertebra;and in mouse day 18.5 embryo mainly in cranium, rib and intestinal mucosa. Conclusion: Gankyrin gene probably participates in the development of the neural tissues (such as midbrain, interbrain and endbrain etc. ), aorta, liver and gonad, intestinal mucosa and bone tissues, which may be closely associated with the function of the organs and tissues.

  20. 蜂桶寨自然保护区中华姬鼠及社鼠肥满度的年龄和季节变化%Comparison of Relative Fatness for Apodemus draco and Niviventer confucianus across Age Classes and Seasons in Fengtongzhai Nature Reserve, China

    母华强; 袁施彬; 张泽钧; 张明春; 胡锦矗


    肥满度被广泛用于动物生长状况与环境、生存、繁殖等方面的研究.为揭示横断山脉森林环境中中华姬鼠(Apodemus draco)和社鼠(Niviventer confucianus)肥满度的变化规律及影响原因,我们于2008年4 ~11月对四川省蜂桶寨国家级自然保护区内中华姬鼠和社鼠肥满度在各年龄组及不同季节中的变化进行了研究.结果显示,中华姬鼠肥满度在各年龄组间的差异显著,其变化趋势为老年组>成年组>亚成年组>幼年组;亚成年组及老年组肥满度在各季节间无显著差异,而在成年组则差异明显,以春季中最高.社鼠肥满度在各年龄组间无显著性差异;亚成年组肥满度在各季节间差异显著,在夏秋季中最低,同时成年组及老年组肥满度在季节间无显著差异.中华姬鼠和社鼠亚成年组、成年组及老年组肥满度与海拔无显著的线性关系.分析认为,中华姬鼠老年组个体可能在应对外界环境方面要强于幼年个体而具有最高的肥满度,成年个体肥满度的季节变化可能受食物资源季节差异和繁殖能量需求的影响;社鼠成年及老年个体能通过相应的季节性调节维持肥满度的稳定,而亚成年个体在调节方面较弱,故其肥满度在夏秋季最低.

  1. Diet composition of Apodemus draco and Niviventer confucianus in Fengtongzhai Nature Reserve, China and its effects on their intestinal lengths%蜂桶寨自然保护区中华姬鼠和社鼠食性的季节变化及与肠道长度的关系

    母华强; 曹姗姗; 古晓东; 张明春; 胡锦矗; 张泽钧


    为揭示啮齿动物食性及其对消化道肠道长度的影响,我们于2008年在四川省宝兴县蜂桶寨国家级自然保护区内以中华姬鼠和社鼠为对象展开了研究.结果发现社鼠和中华姬鼠均以摄食种子为主,食谱中各食物成分在性别之间无显著差异,但季节变化明显.在各食物成分中,摄入种子百分比与中华姬鼠及社鼠小肠长之间呈显著正相关,而昆虫成分则相反.分析认为,中华姬鼠和社鼠取食食物成分的季节变化,可能与不同季节中食物资源可获得性的不同有关,消化道长度的变化可能体现了对季节性食物资源和能量需求的适应.%We conducted a field survey on the sympatric Apodemus draco and Niviventer confucianus in 2008 in Fengtong-zhai Nature Reserve, China to examine the annual diet composition of small rodents and its effects on their intestinal lengths. The results indicated that, for both rodents, seed was the primary component on their annual diet, and that their diet composition varied significantly across seasons. Of the four categories of diet components, percent of seed ingested had a significant positive influence upon the length of the small intestine, and the influence of the remaining diet components varied depending on the species. We believe that the difference of diet composition for the two species across seasons was likely related to the availability of food resource in the reserve, and the change of digestive tract length perhaps play an important role in the adaptation to seasonal energy demand and food resources. Therefore, possible interspecific difference should be considered when investigating physiological strategies adaptive to different types of food resources for different species in future research.

  2. Mouse anesthesia and analgesia.

    Adams, Sean; Pacharinsak, Cholawat


    Providing anesthesia and analgesia for mouse subjects is a common and critical practice in the laboratory setting. These practices are necessary for performing invasive procedures, achieving prolonged immobility for sensitive imaging modalities (magnetic resonance imaging for instance), and providing intra- and post-procedural pain relief. In addition to facilitating the procedures performed by the investigator, the provision of anesthesia and analgesia is crucial for the preservation of animal welfare and for humane treatment of animals used in research. Furthermore, anesthesia and analgesia are important components of animal use protocols reviewed by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, requiring careful consideration and planning for the particular animal model. In this article, we provide technical outlines for the investigator covering the provision of anesthesia by two routes (injectable and inhalant), guidelines for monitoring anesthesia, current techniques for recognition of pain, and considerations for administering preventative analgesia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Hantavirus infection during a stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia.

    Zelena, Hana; Zvolankova, Vlasta; Zuchnicka, Jana; Liszkova, Katerina; Papa, Anna


    Hantaviruses in Europe cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) with various degree of severity. The most severe form is caused by the Dobrava/Belgrade virus (DOBV), associated with the rodent Apodemus flavicollis. During the last decade cases of infection caused by DOBV have been reported in Central Europe. The present study is a report on two Czech patients with severe HFRS who were infected during their stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia. The two patients, combined with a third case observed in the same year in a nearby village in the Czech Republic, suggest that this region in Central Europe has to be considered as endemic for HFRS.

  4. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus in rodents captured in the transdanubian region of Hungary.

    Pintér, Réka; Madai, Mónika; Horváth, Győző; Németh, Viktória; Oldal, Miklós; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc


    Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection is a common zoonotic disease affecting humans in Europe and Asia. To determine whether TBEV is present in small mammalian hosts in Hungary, liver samples of wild rodents were tested for TBEV RNA. Over a period of 7 years, a total of 405 rodents were collected at five different geographic locations of the Transdanubian region. TBEV nucleic acid was identified in four rodent species: Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, Microtus arvalis, and Myodes glareolus. Out of the 405 collected rodents, 17 small mammals (4.2%) were positive for TBEV. The present study provides molecular evidence and sequence data of TBEV from rodents in Hungary.

  5. MouseCyc: a curated biochemical pathways database for the laboratory mouse

    Evsikov, Alexei V.; Dolan, Mary E.; Genrich, Michael P; Patek, Emily; Bult, Carol J.


    Linking biochemical genetic data to the reference genome for the laboratory mouse is important for comparative physiology and for developing mouse models of human biology and disease. We describe here a new database of curated metabolic pathways for the laboratory mouse called MouseCyc . MouseCyc has been integrated with genetic and genomic data for the laboratory mouse available from the Mouse Genome Informatics database and with pathway data from other organisms, including human.

  6. Whole mouse cryo-imaging

    Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot


    The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

  7. Molecular characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated in the area of Belgrade, Serbia Caracterização molecular de cepas de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isoladas na região de Belgrado, Sérvia

    Elizabeta S. Ristanovic


    Full Text Available This is the first report of the molecular characterization and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated in Serbia. Isolates A1, A2 and M1, from Ixodes ricinus, belong to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, while isolate K1 from Apodemus flavicollis is a mixture of Borrelia afzelii and B. burgdorferi s.s.Trata-se do primeiro relato de identificação e caracterização molecular de cepas de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isoladas na região de Belgrado, Sérvia. As cepas A1, A2 e M1, isoladas de Ixodes ricinus, pertencem à Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, enquanto a cepa K1, isolada de Apodemus flavocollis é uma mistura de Borrelia afzelii e B. burgdorferi s.s.

  8. Mouse models for cancer research

    Wei Zhang; Lynette Moore; Ping Ji


    Mouse models of cancer enable researchers to leamn about tumor biology in complicated and dynamic physiological systems. Since the development of gene targeting in mice, cancer biologists have been among the most frequent users of transgenic mouse models, which have dramatically increased knowledge about how cancers form and grow. The Chinese Joumnal of Cancer will publish a series of papers reporting the use of mouse models in studying genetic events in cancer cases. This editorial is an overview of the development and applications of mouse models of cancer and directs the reader to upcoming papers describing the use of these models to be published in coming issues, beginning with three articles in the current issue.

  9. Computer Workstation: Pointer/Mouse

    ... Safety and Health Program Recommendations It's the Law Poster REGULATIONS Law and Regulations Standard Interpretations Training Requirements ... when evaluating your computer workstation. Pointer Placement Pointer Size, Shape, and Settings Pointer/Mouse Quick Tips Keep ...

  10. Hand gestures mouse cursor control

    Marian-Avram Vincze


    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a human-computer interface for controlling the mouse cursor. The test reveal the fact: a low-cost web camera some processing algorithms are quite enough to control the mouse cursor on computers. Even if the system is influenced by the illuminance level on the plane of the hand, the current study may represent a start point for some studies on the hand tracking and gesture recognition field.

  11. Abundance of wild rodents, ticks and environmental risk of Lyme borreliosis: a longitudinal study in an area of Mazury Lakes district of Poland.

    Siński, Edward; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Bajer, Anna; Behnke, Jerzy


    The results of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in two contrasting habitats in an area of the Mazury Lakes district of Poland indicate that both host and vector (Ixodes ricinus) densities, may be the most important risk factors for the tick-transmitted spirochetes of Borrelia burgdirferi s.l. However, the results also highlight that even related host species, such as the wild rodents Apodemus flavicollis and Clethrionomys glareolus that share the same habitat, can show quite different dynamics of tick infestation. We provide evidence that the woodland populations of A. flavicollis and C. glareolus are more frequently infested with larvae than nymphs, and more frequently with both stages than M. arvalis in the neighbouring open fallow lands. The prevalence of infestation with larvae varied from 92 % for A. flavicollis, and 76 % for C. glareolus to 37 % for M. arvalis. Other factors, such as population age structure and sex, were also shown to impact on tick densities on hosts at particular times of the year and hence on the zoonotic risk. Moreover, particular species of rodents from different habitats, A. flavicollis (woodlands) and Microtus arvalis (fallow lands) carry infected immature I. ricinus ticks more frequently than C. glareolus voles (woodlands). Thus, the relative contribution of each species to the cumulative reservoir competence differs among species living in the woodland habitats and in relation to voles living in the fallow lands. It follows, therefore, that any factor which reduces the relative density of A. flavicollis in comparison to other hosts in the wild rodent community, will reduce also the risk of human exposure to Lyme borreliosis spirochetes.

  12. Dobrava-Belgrade virus: phylogeny, epidemiology, disease.

    Papa, Anna


    Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is an Old World hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. With a case fatality rate up to 12%, DOBV infection is the most life-threatening hantavirus disease in Europe. The virus was initially identified in the Balkans, but the discovery of new endemic foci have expanded its recognized geographic range. The recent description of novel genetic variants with different degrees of pathogenicity have complicated its taxonomic analysis. The original rodent host of DOBV is Apodemus flavicollis, however additional Apodemus species, such Apodemus agrarius and Apodemus ponticus, have been found to serve as hosts of the various DOBV genotypes. The complex evolution and genetic diversity of the virus are still under investigation. The present review aims to provide an update on the phylogeny of DOBV and the epidemiology of infection in rodents and humans; to describe the clinical characteristics of the disease; to present current knowledge about laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention; discuss the current state of the art in antiviral drug and vaccine development.

  13. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    Parmar, Kalindi; D' Andrea, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Niedernhofer, Laura J., E-mail: [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion 2.6, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)


    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  14. 10. international mouse genome conference

    Meisler, M.H.


    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  15. Teratology studies in the mouse.

    Marsden, Edward; Leroy, Mariline


    The rat is the routine species of choice as the rodent model for regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. However, the rat is not always suitable for pharmacological, toxicological, immunogenic, pharmacokinetic, or even practical reasons. Under such circumstances, the mouse offers an alternative for finding a suitable rodent model acceptable to the regulatory authorities. Since all essential routes of administration are possible, the short reproductive cycle and large litter size of the mouse make it a species well adapted for use in teratology studies. Given that good quality animals, including virgin mated females, can be acquired relatively easily and inexpensively, the mouse has been used in reproductive toxicity studies for decades and study protocols are well established.

  16. Gesture Recognition Based Mouse Events

    Rachit Puri


    Full Text Available This paper presents the maneuver of mouse pointer a nd performs various mouse operations such as left click, right click, double click, drag etc using ge stures recognition technique. Recognizing gestures is a complex task which involves many aspects such as mo tion modeling, motion analysis, pattern recognition and machine learning. Keeping all the essential factors in mind a system has been created which recognizes the movement of fingers and various patterns formed by them. Color caps have been used for fingers to distinguish it f rom the background color such as skin color. Thus recog nizing the gestures various mouse events have been performed. The application has been created on MATL AB environment with operating system as windows 7.

  17. Mouse Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Caplazi, P; Baca, M; Barck, K; Carano, R A D; DeVoss, J; Lee, W P; Bolon, B; Diehl, L


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disorder characterized by synovitis that leads to cartilage and bone erosion by invading fibrovascular tissue. Mouse models of RA recapitulate many features of the human disease. Despite the availability of medicines that are highly effective in many patient populations, autoimmune diseases (including RA) remain an area of active biomedical research, and consequently mouse models of RA are still extensively used for mechanistic studies and validation of therapeutic targets. This review aims to integrate morphologic features with model biology and cover the key characteristics of the most commonly used induced and spontaneous mouse models of RA. Induced models emphasized in this review include collagen-induced arthritis and antibody-induced arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis is an example of an active immunization strategy, whereas antibody- induced arthritis models, such as collagen antibody-induced arthritis and K/BxN antibody transfer arthritis, represent examples of passive immunization strategies. The coverage of spontaneous models in this review is focused on the TNFΔ (ARE) mouse, in which arthritis results from overexpression of TNF-α, a master proinflammatory cytokine that drives disease in many patients.

  18. Mouse models of myasthenia gravis.

    Ban, Joanne; Phillips, William D


    Myasthenia gravis is a muscle weakness disease characterized by autoantibodies that target components of the neuromuscular junction, impairing synaptic transmission. The most common form of myasthenia gravis involves antibodies that bind the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. Many of the remaining cases are due to antibodies against muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Recently, autoantibodies against LRP4 (another component of the MuSK signaling complex in the postsynaptic membrane) were identified as the likely cause of myasthenia gravis in some patients. Fatiguing weakness is the common symptom in all forms of myasthenia gravis, but muscles of the body are differentially affected, for reasons that are not fully understood. Much of what we have learnt about the immunological and neurobiological aspects of the pathogenesis derives from mouse models. The most widely used mouse models involve either passive transfer of autoantibodies, or active immunization of the mouse with acetylcholine receptors or MuSK protein. These models can provide a robust replication of many of the features of the human disease. Depending upon the protocol, acute fatiguing weakness develops 2 - 14 days after the start of autoantibody injections (passive transfer) or might require repeated immunizations over several weeks (active models). Here we review mouse models of myasthenia gravis, including what they have contributed to current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and their current application to the testing of therapeutics.

  19. Human/mouse homology relationships

    DeBry, R.W.; Seldin, M.F. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)


    Conservation of genomic organization in different mammalian species has long been recognized, but only recently has it been possible to examine these relationships systematically on a genome-wide scale in some detail. Mapping of several mammalian species in progressing rapidly, but by far the most detailed information is still to be found in the human and mouse databases. Perhaps the most important aspect of recent progress in genome mapping data. With mapping databases continuing to expand at a greater than linear rate, any attempt at a comprehensive comparative map is doomed to be out of date by the time it is published. However, we feel that it is valuable to provide a summary that is as nearly up to date as possible. We have made a particular effort to include recent human physical mapping data and to identify those mouse genes that have been well-mapped with respect to each other by virtue of having been examined in the same cross. As the human-mouse comparative map becomes more dense, it is not surprising that the observed number of conserved linkage groups continues to increase. Nadeau et al. placed 425 loci on both maps, which delineated over 100 conserved linkage groups. Copeland et al. put a total of 917 markers on both the human and the mouse maps, marking 101 segments of conserved linkage groups. In the present summary, we have placed 1416 loci, and these define at least 181 different conserved linkage groups. 47 refs., 1 fig.

  20. An encyclopedia of mouse genes.

    Marra, M; Hillier, L; Kucaba, T; Allen, M; Barstead, R; Beck, C; Blistain, A; Bonaldo, M; Bowers, Y; Bowles, L; Cardenas, M; Chamberlain, A; Chappell, J; Clifton, S; Favello, A; Geisel, S; Gibbons, M; Harvey, N; Hill, F; Jackson, Y; Kohn, S; Lennon, G; Mardis, E; Martin, J; Mila, L; McCann, R; Morales, R; Pape, D; Person, B; Prange, C; Ritter, E; Soares, M; Schurk, R; Shin, T; Steptoe, M; Swaller, T; Theising, B; Underwood, K; Wylie, T; Yount, T; Wilson, R; Waterston, R


    The laboratory mouse is the premier model system for studies of mammalian development due to the powerful classical genetic analysis possible (see also the Jackson Laboratory web site, and the ever-expanding collection of molecular tools. To enhance the utility of the mouse system, we initiated a program to generate a large database of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that can provide rapid access to genes. Of particular significance was the possibility that cDNA libraries could be prepared from very early stages of development, a situation unrealized in human EST projects. We report here the development of a comprehensive database of ESTs for the mouse. The project, initiated in March 1996, has focused on 5' end sequences from directionally cloned, oligo-dT primed cDNA libraries. As of 23 October 1998, 352,040 sequences had been generated, annotated and deposited in dbEST, where they comprised 93% of the total ESTs available for mouse. EST data are versatile and have been applied to gene identification, comparative sequence analysis, comparative gene mapping and candidate disease gene identification, genome sequence annotation, microarray development and the development of gene-based map resources.

  1. High-throughput mouse phenotyping.

    Gates, Hilary; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Brown, Steve D M


    Comprehensive phenotyping will be required to reveal the pleiotropic functions of a gene and to uncover the wider role of genetic loci within diverse biological systems. The challenge will be to devise phenotyping approaches to characterise the thousands of mutants that are being generated as part of international efforts to acquire a mutant for every gene in the mouse genome. In order to acquire robust datasets of broad based phenotypes from mouse mutants it is necessary to design and implement pipelines that incorporate standardised phenotyping platforms that are validated across diverse mouse genetics centres or mouse clinics. We describe here the rationale and methodology behind one phenotyping pipeline, EMPReSSslim, that was designed as part of the work of the EUMORPHIA and EUMODIC consortia, and which exemplifies some of the challenges facing large-scale phenotyping. EMPReSSslim captures a broad range of data on diverse biological systems, from biochemical to physiological amongst others. Data capture and dissemination is pivotal to the operation of large-scale phenotyping pipelines, including the definition of parameters integral to each phenotyping test and the associated ontological descriptions. EMPReSSslim data is displayed within the EuroPhenome database, where a variety of tools are available to allow the user to search for interesting biological or clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal


    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia.

  3. The ecology of Bartonella spp. infections in two rodent communities in the Mazury Lake District region of Poland.

    Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Bajer, Anna; Behnke, Jerzy M; Siński, Edward


    Prevalence and abundance of Bartonella spp. infections were studied over a 3-year period in woodland and grassland rodents in North-Eastern Poland. Prevalence of bacterial infections was similar in the two rodent communities, with one leading host species in each habitat (46.3% in Apodemus flavicollis versus 29.1% in Myodes glareolus in forest, or 36.9% in Microtus arvalis versus 13.7% in Mi. oeconomus in grassland). Prevalence/abundance of infections varied markedly across the 3 years with 2006 being the year of highest prevalence and abundance. Infections were more common during autumn months in My. glareolus and A. flavicollis, and in juvenile and young adult (age classes 1 and 2) My. glareolus and Mi. oeconomus than in adults (age class 3). Higher prevalence and abundance of Bartonella infections were found in male A. flavicollis in comparison to females. These data are discussed in relation to the parasite genotypes identified in this region and with respect to the role of various ecological factors influencing Bartonella spp. infections in naturally infected host populations.


    Rajashekar B


    Full Text Available A knockout mouse is a laboratory mouse in which genes are inactivated, or "knocked out," an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA. The 2007 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine is awarded to Drs Mario R. Capecchi, Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by using embryonic stem cells. Progress to gene targeting using embryonic cell was developed by Evans and his co-workers. Ingenious development of gene targeting has been made by introducing recognition sites for the enzyme Cre recombinase, called loxP sites, into existing genes. When mice carrying such "floxed" genes are mated with transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase, the target gene of the offspring is modified through Cre action. Gene targeting has transformed scientific medicine by permitting experimental testing of hypotheses regarding the function of specific genes. The first area to which experimental geneticists turned their attention after the birth of gene targeting in mammals was monogenic diseases. Gene targeting has been exceptionally useful in cancer research. A large number of protooncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, angiogenetic factors etc have been targeted in different tissues in mice to shed light on the induction and spreading of tumours. Gene-targeted mouse models have also become increasingly important in studies of host defense against pathogens. Gene targeted mice have become indispensable in virtually all aspects of medical research.

  5. Mouse models for methylmalonic aciduria.

    Heidi L Peters

    Full Text Available Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA is a disorder of organic acid metabolism resulting from a functional defect of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM. MMA is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus therapies are necessary to help improve quality of life and prevent renal and neurological complications. Transgenic mice carrying an intact human MCM locus have been produced. Four separate transgenic lines were established and characterised as carrying two, four, five or six copies of the transgene in a single integration site. Transgenic mice from the 2-copy line were crossed with heterozygous knockout MCM mice to generate mice hemizygous for the human transgene on a homozygous knockout background. Partial rescue of the uniform neonatal lethality seen in homozygous knockout mice was observed. These rescued mice were significantly smaller than control littermates (mice with mouse MCM gene. Biochemically, these partial rescue mice exhibited elevated methylmalonic acid levels in urine, plasma, kidney, liver and brain tissue. Acylcarnitine analysis of blood spots revealed elevated propionylcarnitine levels. Analysis of mRNA expression confirms the human transgene is expressed at higher levels than observed for the wild type, with highest expression in the kidney followed closely by brain and liver. Partial rescue mouse fibroblast cultures had only 20% of the wild type MCM enzyme activity. It is anticipated that this humanised partial rescue mouse model of MMA will enable evaluation of long-term pathophysiological effects of elevated methylmalonic acid levels and be a valuable model for the investigation of therapeutic strategies, such as cell transplantation.

  6. Mouse Models for Methylmalonic Aciduria

    Peters, Heidi L.; Pitt, James J.; Wood, Leonie R.; Hamilton, Natasha J.; Sarsero, Joseph P.; Buck, Nicole E.


    Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is a disorder of organic acid metabolism resulting from a functional defect of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). MMA is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus therapies are necessary to help improve quality of life and prevent renal and neurological complications. Transgenic mice carrying an intact human MCM locus have been produced. Four separate transgenic lines were established and characterised as carrying two, four, five or six copies of the transgene in a single integration site. Transgenic mice from the 2-copy line were crossed with heterozygous knockout MCM mice to generate mice hemizygous for the human transgene on a homozygous knockout background. Partial rescue of the uniform neonatal lethality seen in homozygous knockout mice was observed. These rescued mice were significantly smaller than control littermates (mice with mouse MCM gene). Biochemically, these partial rescue mice exhibited elevated methylmalonic acid levels in urine, plasma, kidney, liver and brain tissue. Acylcarnitine analysis of blood spots revealed elevated propionylcarnitine levels. Analysis of mRNA expression confirms the human transgene is expressed at higher levels than observed for the wild type, with highest expression in the kidney followed closely by brain and liver. Partial rescue mouse fibroblast cultures had only 20% of the wild type MCM enzyme activity. It is anticipated that this humanised partial rescue mouse model of MMA will enable evaluation of long-term pathophysiological effects of elevated methylmalonic acid levels and be a valuable model for the investigation of therapeutic strategies, such as cell transplantation. PMID:22792386

  7. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Timothy C. Wang


    Full Text Available Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field.

  8. Mouse models of pancreatic cancer

    Marta Herreros-Villanueva; Elizabeth Hijona; Angel Cosme; Luis Bujanda


    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal of human malignancies ranking 4th among cancer-related death in the western world and in the United States,and potent therapeutic options are lacking.Although during the last few years there have been important advances in the understanding of the molecular events responsible for the development of pancreatic cancer,currently specific mechanisms of treatment resistance remain poorly understood and new effective systemic drugs need to be developed and probed.In vivo models to study pancreatic cancer and approach this issue remain limited and present different molecular features that must be considered in the studies depending on the purpose to fit special research themes.In the last few years,several genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic exocrine neoplasia have been developed.These models mimic the disease as they reproduce genetic alterations implicated in the progression of pancreatic cancer.Genetic alterations such as activating mutations in KRas,or TGFb and/or inactivation of tumoral suppressors such as p53,INK4A/ARF BRCA2 and Smad4 are the most common drivers to pancreatic carcinogenesis and have been used to create transgenic mice.These mouse models have a spectrum of pathologic changes,from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to lesions that progress histologically culminating in fully invasive and metastatic disease and represent the most useful preclinical model system.These models can characterize the cellular and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasia and cancer and constitute the best tool to investigate new therapeutic approaches,chemopreventive and/or anticancer treatments.Here,we review and update the current mouse models that reproduce different stages of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and will have clinical relevance in future pancreatic cancer developments.

  9. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Mombaerts, Peter


    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  10. Preclinical Mouse Models of Neurofibromatosis


    arachnoidal cells is rate-limiting for meningioma development in the mouse. Genes & Development, 2002, 16:1060-1065. Kissil JL, Johnson KC, Eckman MS and...doubly mutant Nf1 and Wv hematopoietic cells. Blood 2003; 101: 1984-1986. Shannon, K.M. 35 Kissil JL, Wilker EW, Johnson KC, Eckman MS, Yaffe M, and... Paul E. McKeever, Shannon, K.M. 38 Megan Lim, Simon J. Conway, Luis F. Parada, Yuan Zhu, and Sean J. Morrison. 2007. The loss of Nf1 transiently

  11. Comparative stereology of mouse atria.

    Bossen, E H; Sommer, J R; Waugh, R A


    The left and right atria of the mouse were compared to each other and to the mouse left ventricle using stereologic techniques. The volume fraction (Vv) and surface area per unit cell volume (Sv) of the interior junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (IJSR), total JSR and extended JSR were greater in the left atrium than in right. The Vv and Sv of the free SR, transverse tubules, and mitochondria were similar in the two atria. It is suggested that the differences in junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum between the atria can be accounted for by a difference in distribution of two types of cells whose anatomy is analogous to working and conducting fibers in the ventricle. The Sv and Vv of the transverse tubules, mitochondria, and all the components of the sarcoplasmic reticulum except for the free SR were greater in the left ventricle than in either atrium. The greater calcium content and sensitivity to extracellular calcium of the atria may explain the greater volume of free SR in the atria as compared to the left ventricle. The Sv of the plasmalemma of the atria and of the Sv of the plasmalemma of the transverse tubules of the left ventricles supports the suggestion of others that there is a constant ratio of surface area to cell volume in cardiac cells.

  12. Take care of your mouse!

    IT Department


    “Stop --- Think --- Click" is the basic recommendation for securely browsing the Internet and for securely reading e-mails. Users who have followed this recommendation in the past were less likely to have their computer infected or their computing account compromised. We would like to thank all those who donated their mouse to the CERN Animal Shelter for Computer Mice ( For those who still use a mouse, please stay vigilant and  alert: do not click on links whose origin you do not trust or which look like gibberish. Do not install untrusted software or plug-ins, since software from untrusted sources may infect or compromise your computer, or violate copyrights. Finally, take particular care with e-mails: Do not open unexpected or suspicious e-mails or attachments. Delete them if they do not concern you or if they appear strange. If in doubt, or if you have questions, please do not hesitate to contact

  13. A physical map of the mouse genome

    Gregory, SG; Sekhon, M; Schein, J; Zhao, SY; Osoegawa, K; Scott, CE; Evans, RS; Burridge, PW; Cox, TV; Fox, CA; Hutton, RD; Mullenger, IR; Phillips, KJ; Smith, J; Stalker, J; Threadgold, GJ; Birney, E; Wylie, K; Chinwalla, A; Wallis, J; Hillier, L; Carter, J; Gaige, T; Jaeger, S; Kremitzki, C; Layman, D; McGrane, R; Mead, K; Walker, R; Jones, S; Smith, M; Asano, J; Bosdet, I; Chan, S; Chittaranjan, S; Chiu, R; Fjell, C; Fuhrmann, D; Girn, N; Gray, C; Guin, R; Hsiao, L; Krzywinski, M; Kutsche, R; Lee, SS; Mathewson, C; McLeavy, C; Messervier, S; Ness, S; Pandoh, P; Prabhu, AL; Saeedi, P; Smailus, D; Spence, L; Stott, J; Taylor, S; Terpstra, W; Tsai, M; Vardy, J; Wye, N; Yang, G; Shatsman, S; Ayodeji, B; Geer, K; Tsegaye, G; Shvartsbeyn, A; Gebregeorgis, E; Krol, M; Russell, D; Overton, L; Malek, JA; Holmes, M; Heaney, M; Shetty, J; Feldblyum, T; Nierman, WC; Catanese, JJ; Hubbard, T; Waterston, RH; Rogers, J; de Jong, PJ; Fraser, CM; Marra, M; McPherson, JD; Bentley, DR


    A physical map of a genome is an essential guide for navigation, allowing the location of any gene or other landmark in the chromosomal DNA. We have constructed a physical map of the mouse genome that contains 296 contigs of overlapping bacterial clones and 16,992 unique markers. The mouse contigs w

  14. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas


    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...

  15. A physical map of the mouse genome

    Gregory, SG; Sekhon, M; Schein, J; Zhao, SY; Osoegawa, K; Scott, CE; Evans, RS; Burridge, PW; Cox, TV; Fox, CA; Hutton, RD; Mullenger, IR; Phillips, KJ; Smith, J; Stalker, J; Threadgold, GJ; Birney, E; Wylie, K; Chinwalla, A; Wallis, J; Hillier, L; Carter, J; Gaige, T; Jaeger, S; Kremitzki, C; Layman, D; McGrane, R; Mead, K; Walker, R; Jones, S; Smith, M; Asano, J; Bosdet, I; Chan, S; Chittaranjan, S; Chiu, R; Fjell, C; Fuhrmann, D; Girn, N; Gray, C; Guin, R; Hsiao, L; Krzywinski, M; Kutsche, R; Lee, SS; Mathewson, C; McLeavy, C; Messervier, S; Ness, S; Pandoh, P; Prabhu, AL; Saeedi, P; Smailus, D; Spence, L; Stott, J; Taylor, S; Terpstra, W; Tsai, M; Vardy, J; Wye, N; Yang, G; Shatsman, S; Ayodeji, B; Geer, K; Tsegaye, G; Shvartsbeyn, A; Gebregeorgis, E; Krol, M; Russell, D; Overton, L; Malek, JA; Holmes, M; Heaney, M; Shetty, J; Feldblyum, T; Nierman, WC; Catanese, JJ; Hubbard, T; Waterston, RH; Rogers, J; de Jong, PJ; Fraser, CM; Marra, M; McPherson, JD; Bentley, DR


    A physical map of a genome is an essential guide for navigation, allowing the location of any gene or other landmark in the chromosomal DNA. We have constructed a physical map of the mouse genome that contains 296 contigs of overlapping bacterial clones and 16,992 unique markers. The mouse contigs w

  16. Are You a Man or a Mouse?

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar


    Are you a man or a mouse? This expression is used to encourage someone to be brave when they are frightened of doing something. It is also an expression which bears associations to John Steinbeck's novella Of Mice and Men, the title of which is taken from Robert Burns' poem To a Mouse, which is o...

  17. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha;


    We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing laborato...

  18. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): from genes to mice--a community resource for mouse biology.

    Eppig, Janan T; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Blake, Judith A; Anagnostopoulos, A; Baldarelli, R M; Baya, M; Beal, J S; Bello, S M; Boddy, W J; Bradt, D W; Burkart, D L; Butler, N E; Campbell, J; Cassell, M A; Corbani, L E; Cousins, S L; Dahmen, D J; Dene, H; Diehl, A D; Drabkin, H J; Frazer, K S; Frost, P; Glass, L H; Goldsmith, C W; Grant, P L; Lennon-Pierce, M; Lewis, J; Lu, I; Maltais, L J; McAndrews-Hill, M; McClellan, L; Miers, D B; Miller, L A; Ni, L; Ormsby, J E; Qi, D; Reddy, T B K; Reed, D J; Richards-Smith, B; Shaw, D R; Sinclair, R; Smith, C L; Szauter, P; Walker, M B; Walton, D O; Washburn, L L; Witham, I T; Zhu, Y


    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) forms the core of the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) system (, a model organism database resource for the laboratory mouse. MGD provides essential integration of experimental knowledge for the mouse system with information annotated from both literature and online sources. MGD curates and presents consensus and experimental data representations of genotype (sequence) through phenotype information, including highly detailed reports about genes and gene products. Primary foci of integration are through representations of relationships among genes, sequences and phenotypes. MGD collaborates with other bioinformatics groups to curate a definitive set of information about the laboratory mouse and to build and implement the data and semantic standards that are essential for comparative genome analysis. Recent improvements in MGD discussed here include the enhancement of phenotype resources, the re-development of the International Mouse Strain Resource, IMSR, the update of mammalian orthology datasets and the electronic publication of classic books in mouse genetics.

  19. Introducing DartMouse: The Mouse Speed Congenic Facility at Dartmouth Medical School

    Trask, H.; Tomlinson, C.; Fiering, S.; Gorham, J.D.; Muirhead, K.


    CF-9 DartMouse™ is the Mouse Speed Congenic Facility at Dartmouth Medical School. Use of DartMouse allows for the rapid introgression of modified genes onto any inbred strain of mouse. Speed congenic strains of mice are achievable in 5 generations (1 to 1.5 years), versus 10 generations (∼3 years) required by conventional back-crossing. The application of DartMouse services saves both money and time for researchers using the laboratory mouse for any number of pre-clinical disease models. DartMouse is a complete service facility that works closely with clients at and outside of Dartmouth, helping to design appropriate breeding schemes to optimize back-crossing speed and efficiency. Clients supply mouse tail snips. DartMouse isolates genomic DNA, performs and analyzes complete genome-wide scans, and returns data in graphical and spreadsheet formats. DartMouse discusses results with clients and makes specific recommendations on breeder selection. DartMouse uses “SNP-Chip” technology on an Illumina BeadStation 500 Platform. Chips use a 377 SNP array covering the mouse genome with an average interval density of <7 cM. Turnaround time from receipt of tails to results is typically <2 weeks. One of DartMouse's most popular services is the “background check” in which the genetic background of supposedly fully back-crossed mice can be thoroughly assessed across all chromosomes. DartMouse was inaugurated in the summer of 2008, and received ARRA-funding in the fall of 2009. Our plans are to make DartMouse a regional and national core facility for the generation of speed congenic mice and for the verification of genetic background for conventionally back-crossed mice.

  20. The mouse forced swim test.

    Can, Adem; Dao, David T; Arad, Michal; Terrillion, Chantelle E; Piantadosi, Sean C; Gould, Todd D


    The forced swim test is a rodent behavioral test used for evaluation of antidepressant drugs, antidepressant efficacy of new compounds, and experimental manipulations that are aimed at rendering or preventing depressive-like states. Mice are placed in an inescapable transparent tank that is filled with water and their escape related mobility behavior is measured. The forced swim test is straightforward to conduct reliably and it requires minimal specialized equipment. Successful implementation of the forced swim test requires adherence to certain procedural details and minimization of unwarranted stress to the mice. In the protocol description and the accompanying video, we explain how to conduct the mouse version of this test with emphasis on potential pitfalls that may be detrimental to interpretation of results and how to avoid them. Additionally, we explain how the behaviors manifested in the test are assessed.

  1. Apoptotic signaling in mouse odontogenesis.

    Matalova, Eva; Svandova, Eva; Tucker, Abigail S


    Apoptosis is an important morphogenetic event in embryogenesis as well as during postnatal life. In the last 2 decades, apoptosis in tooth development (odontogenesis) has been investigated with gradually increasing focus on the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. The molecular machinery responsible for apoptosis exhibits a high degree of conservation but also organ and tissue specific patterns. This review aims to discuss recent knowledge about apoptotic signaling networks during odontogenesis, concentrating on the mouse, which is often used as a model organism for human dentistry. Apoptosis accompanies the entire development of the tooth and corresponding remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. It is most evident in its role in the elimination of signaling centers within developing teeth, removal of vestigal tooth germs, and in odontoblast and ameloblast organization during tooth mineralization. Dental apoptosis is caspase dependent and proceeds via mitochondrial mediated cell death with possible amplification by Fas-FasL signaling modulated by Bcl-2 family members.

  2. A small scale survey of Leptospira in mammals from eastern Poland.

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sroka, Jacek; Piskorski, Michał; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek


    Samples of 30 dead small mammals each were collected on area 'A' located in eastern Poland and exposed to floods by the Vistula river, and on area 'B', also located in eastern Poland, but not exposed to floods. Kidneys and livers of the mammals were examined by the PCR and nested PCR methods for the presence of Leptospira DNA. From 7 species of small mammals examined, the presence of Leptospira DNA was detected in 2 of them. The prevalence of positive results was greatest in Apodemus agrarius which was the mostly numerous mammal species (14 out of total 39 specimens, 35.9%). The presence of Leptospira DNA was also found in Microtus arvalis (1 out of 1 specimen, 100%), whereas the remaining 5 species (Apodemus flavicollis , Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus agrestis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus) were negative. No significant difference in the prevalence of positive findings was found between the small mammals from areas 'A' exposed to flooding, compared to those from area 'B' not exposed to flooding (20.0% vs. 30.0%, p=0.3748). The overall positivity of the examined small mammals population from areas 'A' and 'B' was 25.0%. The prevalence of dual positivity (leptospiral DNA found both in kidney and liver) was greater in the mammals from areas exposed to flooding compared to those from areas not exposed to flooding (16.7% vs. 6.7%), but this dependence was also not significant (p=0.2382).

  3. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in mouse cardiovascular development

    Turnbull, Daniel H.


    The mouse is the preferred animal model for studying mammalian cardiovascular development and many human congenital heart diseases. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), utilizing high-frequency (40-50-MHz) ultrasound, is uniquely capable of providing in vivo, real-time microimaging and Doppler blood velocity measurements in mouse embryos and neonates. UBM analyses of normal and abnormal mouse cardiovascular function will be described to illustrate the power of this microimaging approach. In particular, real-time UBM images have been used to analyze dimensional changes in the mouse heart from embryonic to neonatal stages. UBM-Doppler has been used recently to examine the precise timing of onset of a functional circulation in early-stage mouse embryos, from the first detectable cardiac contractions. In other experiments, blood velocity waveforms have been analyzed to characterize the functional phenotype of mutant mouse embryos having defects in cardiac valve formation. Finally, UBM has been developed for real-time, in utero image-guided injection of mouse embryos, enabling cell transplantation and genetic gain-of-function experiments with transfected cells and retroviruses. In summary, UBM provides a unique and powerful approach for in vivo analysis and image-guided manipulation in normal and genetically engineered mice, over a wide range of embryonic to neonatal developmental stages.

  4. Radiosensitivity of cultured human and mouse keratinocytes

    Parkinson, E.K.; Hume, W.J.; Potten, C.S.


    Clonogenic survival assays after ..gamma..-radiation in vitro were performed on freshly isolated and subcultured keratinocytes from mouse skin, mouse tongue and human skin. Survival curves were constructed by fitting the data to a multi-target model of cell survival. When subcultured, keratinocytes from all sites produced survival curves which showed a reduced shoulder region and an increased D/sub 0/ when compared with their freshly isolated counterparts. Freshly isolated human skin keratinocytes were more radiosensitive than mouse keratinocytes from either skin or tongue.

  5. Integration of Mouse Phenome Data Resources

    Hancock, John M [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Adams, Neils [Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, United Kingdom; Aidinis, Vassilis [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Blake, Judith A [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Bogue, Molly [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Brown, Steve D M [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Davidson, Duncan [MRC Human Genetics Unit, Edinburgh, UK; Duran, Christopher [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Eppig, Janan T [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Gailus-Durner, Valerie [Institute of Experimental Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany; Gkoutos, Georgios V [University of Cambridge; Greenaway, Simon [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Angelis, Martin Hrabe de [Institute of Experimental Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany; Kollias, George [BSRC Fleming, Athens, Greece; Leblanc, Sophie [Institut Clinique de la Souris, Cedex, France; Lee, Kirsty [MRC Human Genetics Unit, Edinburgh, UK; Lengger, Christoph [Institute of Experimental Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany; Maier, Holger [Institute of Experimental Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany; Mallon, Ann-Marie [MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire, UK; Masuya, Hiroshi [RIKEN, Japan; Melvin, David [Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, United Kingdom; Muller, Werner [Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester, UK; Parkinson, Helen [European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus; Proctor, Glenn [European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus; Reuveni, Eli [Mouse Biology Unit, Rome, Italy; Schofield, Paul [University of Cambridge; Shukla, Aadya [University of Oxford; Smith, Cynthia [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Toyoda, Tetsuro [RIKEN, Japan; Vasseur, Laurent [Institut Clinique de la Souris, Cedex, France; Wakana, Shigeharu [RIKEN, Japan; Walling, Alison [MRC Mary Lyon Centre, Oxfordshire, UK; White, Jacqui [Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, United Kingdom; Wood, Joe [MRC Mary Lyon Centre, Oxfordshire, UK; Zouberakis, Michalis [BSRC Fleming, Athens, Greece


    Understanding the functions encoded in the mouse genome will be central to an understanding of the genetic basis of human disease. To achieve this it will be essential to be able to characterise the phenotypic consequences of variation and alterations in individual genes. Data on the phenotypes of mouse strains are currently held in a number of different forms (detailed descriptions of mouse lines, first line phenotyping data on novel mutations, data on the normal features of inbred lines, etc.) at many sites worldwide. For the most efficient use of these data sets, we have set in train a process to develop standards for the description of phenotypes (using ontologies), and file formats for the description of phenotyping protocols and phenotype data sets. This process is ongoing, and needs to be supported by the wider mouse genetics and phenotyping communities to succeed. We invite interested parties to contact us as we develop this process further.

  6. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E


    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium: past and future perspectives on mouse phenotyping

    Moore, Mark W.


    Determining the function of all mammalian genes remains a major challenge for the biomedical science community in the 21st century. The goal of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) over the next 10 years is to undertake broad-based phenotyping of 20,000 mouse genes, providing an unprecedented insight into mammalian gene function. This short article explores the drivers for large-scale mouse phenotyping and provides an overview of the aims and processes involved in IMPC mouse production and phenotyping. PMID:22940749

  8. Mouse cell culture: methods and protocols

    Elvira M. Guerra Shinohara


    The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases), starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward ...

  9. Aging, Breast Cancer and the Mouse Model


    Presenescent or senescent hBF (1.2 or 18x×10 4/well, respectively) [M, Stampfer , P. Yaswen, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory wdre suspended in 60 l cold...2.8 1 2.8 Inducing a human-like senescent phenotype in mouse fibroblasts Jean-Philihoo Copp , Simona Parrinello, Ana Krtolica, Christopher K. Patil...MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL PROLIFERATION AND TUMORIGENESIS: A MOUSE MODEL FOR HUMAN AGING. Jean-Philippe Coppe, Simona Parrinello, Ana Krtolica, Christopher

  10. Neuronal mechanism of epileptogenesis in EL mouse


    The convulsions of the EL mouse (EL) were described by Imaizumi et al. in 1954 and were established as epilepsy by Suzuki in 1976. The EL mouse has been kept as an inbred strain and is considered one of the best animal models originated in Japan. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant, and environmental risk factors for seizure occurrence are hypothesised to contribute to the polygenic background. Paroxysmal activities in the EL brain arise from the parietal cortex (PCX) and are augmen...

  11. Ethical Considerations in Mouse Experiments.

    Baertschi, Bernard; Gyger, Marcel


    Mice count morally because they can be harmed. This raises a moral issue in animal experimentation. Three main ethical attitudes towards animals are reviewed here. The Kantian view denies moral value to animals because they lack reason. The second view, by Singer, considers animals as sentient creatures (i.e., able to suffer). Finally, Regan considers that animals are subjects of their own life; they are autonomous and therefore have moral rights. Singer is a reformist and allows animal experimentation under certain conditions. Regan is abolitionist, saying that animals have moral rights that cannot be negotiated. Current animal protection legislation strives to put in balance the human and animal interests to decide whether an animal experiment is morally justified or not. An ethical evaluation process is conducted based on the harm-benefit assessment of the experiment. The researcher has to implement the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) to minimize the harms to the animals and make sure that the outcomes are scientifically significant and that the quality of the science is high, in order to maximize benefits to humans and animals. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:155-167. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Mouse behavioral endophenotypes for schizophrenia.

    Amann, Laura C; Gandal, Michael J; Halene, Tobias B; Ehrlichman, Richard S; White, Samantha L; McCarren, Hilary S; Siegel, Steven J


    An endophenotype is a heritable trait that is generally considered to be more highly, associated with a gene-based neurological deficit than a disease phenotype itself. Such, endophenotypic deficits may therefore be observed in the non-affected relatives of disease patients. Once endophenotypes have been established for a given illness, such as schizophrenia, mechanisms of, action may then be established and treatment options developed in order to target such measures. The, current paper describes and assesses the merits and limitations of utilizing behavioral and, electrophysiological endophenotypes of schizophrenia in mice. Such endophenotypic deficits include: decreased auditory event related potential (ERP) amplitude and gating (specifically, that of the P20, N40, P80 and P120); impaired mismatch negativity (MMN); changes in theta and gamma frequency, analyses; decreased pre-pulse inhibition (PPI); impaired working and episodic memories (for instance, novel object recognition [NOR], contextual and cued fear conditioning, latent inhibition, Morris and, radial arm maze identification and nose poke); sociability; and locomotor activity. A variety of, pharmacological treatments, including ketamine, MK-801 and phencyclidine (PCP) can be used to, induce some of the deficits described above, and numerous transgenic mouse strains have been, developed to address the mechanisms responsible for such endophenotypic differences. We also, address the viability and validity of using such measures regarding their potential clinical implications, and suggest several practices that could increase the translatability of preclinical data.

  13. Mouse models of intracranial aneurysm.

    Wang, Yutang; Emeto, Theophilus I; Lee, James; Marshman, Laurence; Moran, Corey; Seto, Sai-wang; Golledge, Jonathan


    Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a highly lethal medical condition. Current management strategies for unruptured intracranial aneurysms involve radiological surveillance and neurosurgical or endovascular interventions. There is no pharmacological treatment available to decrease the risk of aneurysm rupture and subsequent subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is growing interest in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm focused on the development of drug therapies to decrease the incidence of aneurysm rupture. The study of rodent models of intracranial aneurysms has the potential to improve our understanding of intracranial aneurysm development and progression. This review summarizes current mouse models of intact and ruptured intracranial aneurysms and discusses the relevance of these models to human intracranial aneurysms. The article also reviews the importance of these models in investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in the disease. Finally, potential pharmaceutical targets for intracranial aneurysm suggested by previous studies are discussed. Examples of potential drug targets include matrix metalloproteinases, stromal cell-derived factor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, the renin-angiotensin system and the β-estrogen receptor. An agreed clear, precise and reproducible definition of what constitutes an aneurysm in the models would assist in their use to better understand the pathology of intracranial aneurysm and applying findings to patients.

  14. Mouse Models for Filovirus Infections

    Kelly L. Warfield


    Full Text Available The filoviruses marburg- and ebolaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever (HF in humans and nonhuman primates. Because many cases have occurred in geographical areas lacking a medical research infrastructure, most studies of the pathogenesis of filoviral HF, and all efforts to develop drugs and vaccines, have been carried out in biocontainment laboratories in non-endemic countries, using nonhuman primates (NHPs, guinea pigs and mice as animal models. NHPs appear to closely mirror filoviral HF in humans (based on limited clinical data, but only small numbers may be used in carefully regulated experiments; much research is therefore done in rodents. Because of their availability in large numbers and the existence of a wealth of reagents for biochemical and immunological testing, mice have become the preferred small animal model for filovirus research. Since the first experiments following the initial 1967 marburgvirus outbreak, wild-type or mouse-adapted viruses have been tested in immunocompetent or immunodeficient mice. In this paper, we review how these types of studies have been used to investigate the pathogenesis of filoviral disease, identify immune responses to infection and evaluate antiviral drugs and vaccines. We also discuss the strengths and weaknesses of murine models for filovirus research, and identify important questions for further study.

  15. Optimization of the virtual mouse HeadMouse to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities

    Merce TEIXIDO


    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization of a virtual mouse called HeadMouse in order to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities. HeadMouse is an absolute virtual mouse that converts head movements in cursor displacement and facial gestures in click actions. The virtual mouse combines different image processing algorithms: face detection, pattern matching and optical flow in order to emulate the behaviour of a conventional computer mouse. The original implementation of HeadMouse requires large computational power and this paper proposes specific optimizations in order to enable its use by children with disabilities in standard low cost classroom computers.

  16. Surfing the internet with a BCI mouse

    Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Gu, Zhenghui


    In this paper, we present a new web browser based on a two-dimensional (2D) brain-computer interface (BCI) mouse, where our major concern is the selection of an intended target in a multi-target web page. A real-world web page may contain tens or even hundreds of targets, including hyperlinks, input elements, buttons, etc. In this case, a target filter designed in our system can be used to exclude most of those targets of no interest. Specifically, the user filters the targets of no interest out by inputting keywords with a P300-based speller, while keeps those containing the keywords. Such filtering largely facilitates the target selection task based on our BCI mouse. When there are only several targets in a web page (either an original sparse page or a target-filtered page), the user moves the mouse toward the target of interest using his/her electroencephalographic signal. The horizontal movement and vertical movement are controlled by motor imagery and P300 potential, respectively. If the mouse encounters a target of no interest, the user rejects it and continues to move the mouse. Otherwise the user selects the target and activates it. With the collaboration of the target filtering and a series of mouse movements and target selections/rejections, the user can select an intended target in a web page. Based on our browser system, common navigation functions, including history rolling forward and backward, hyperlink selection, page scrolling, text input, etc, are available. The system has been tested on seven subjects. Experimental results not only validated the efficacy of the proposed method, but also showed that free internet surfing with a BCI mouse is feasible.

  17. In amnio MRI of mouse embryos.

    Thomas A Roberts

    Full Text Available Mouse embryo imaging is conventionally carried out on ex vivo embryos excised from the amniotic sac, omitting vital structures and abnormalities external to the body. Here, we present an in amnio MR imaging methodology in which the mouse embryo is retained in the amniotic sac and demonstrate how important embryonic structures can be visualised in 3D with high spatial resolution (100 µm/px. To illustrate the utility of in amnio imaging, we subsequently apply the technique to examine abnormal mouse embryos with abdominal wall defects. Mouse embryos at E17.5 were imaged and compared, including three normal phenotype embryos, an abnormal embryo with a clear exomphalos defect, and one with a suspected gastroschisis phenotype. Embryos were excised from the mother ensuring the amnion remained intact and stereo microscopy was performed. Embryos were next embedded in agarose for 3D, high resolution MRI on a 9.4T scanner. Identification of the abnormal embryo phenotypes was not possible using stereo microscopy or conventional ex vivo MRI. Using in amnio MRI, we determined that the abnormal embryos had an exomphalos phenotype with varying severities. In amnio MRI is ideally suited to investigate the complex relationship between embryo and amnion, together with screening for other abnormalities located outside of the mouse embryo, providing a valuable complement to histology and existing imaging methods available to the phenotyping community.

  18. Mouse models in male fertility research

    Duangporn Jamsai; Moira K O'Bryan


    Limited knowledge of the genetic causes of male infertility has resulted in few treatment and targeted therapeutic options.Although the ideal approach to identify infertility causing mutations is to conduct studies in the human population,this approach has progressed slowly due to the limitations described herein.Given the complexity of male fertility,the entire process cannot be modeled in vitro.As such,animal models,in particular mouse models,provide a valuable alternative for gene identification and experimentation.Since the introduction of molecular biology and recent advances in animal model production,there has been a substantial acceleration in the identification and characterization of genes associated with many diseases,including infertility.Three major types of mouse models are commonly used in biomedical research,including knockout/knockin/gene-trapped,transgenic and chemical-induced point mutant mice.Using these mouse models,over 400 genes essential for male fertility have been revealed.It has,however,been estimated that thousands of genes are involved in the regulation of the complex process of male fertility,as many such genes remain to be characterized.The current review is by no means a comprehensive list of these mouse models,rather it contains examples of how mouse models have advanced our knowledge of post-natal germ cell development and male fertility regulation.

  19. Mouse Simulation Using Two Coloured Tapes

    Kumar, Vikram; Mahe, Swapnil; Vyawahare, Swapnil; 10.5121/ijist.2012.2206


    In this paper, we present a novel approach for Human Computer Interaction (HCI) where, we control cursor movement using a real-time camera. Current methods involve changing mouse parts such as adding more buttons or changing the position of the tracking ball. Instead, our method is to use a camera and computer vision technology, such as image segmentation and gesture recognition, to control mouse tasks (left and right clicking, double-clicking, and scrolling) and we show how it can perform everything as current mouse devices can. The software will be developed in JAVA language. Recognition and pose estimation in this system are user independent and robust as we will be using colour tapes on our finger to perform actions. The software can be used as an intuitive input interface to applications that require multi-dimensional control e.g. computer games etc.

  20. Contemporary approaches for modifying the mouse genome

    Adams, David J.; van der Weyden, Louise


    The mouse is a premiere experimental organism that has contributed significantly to our understanding of vertebrate biology. Manipulation of the mouse genome via embryonic stem (ES) cell technology makes it possible to engineer an almost limitless repertoire of mutations to model human disease and assess gene function. In this review we outline recent advances in mouse experimental genetics and provide a “how-to” guide for those people wishing to access this technology. We also discuss new technologies, such as transposon-mediated mutagenesis, and resources of targeting vectors and ES cells, which are likely to dramatically accelerate the pace with which we can assess gene function in vivo, and the progress of forward and reverse genetic screens in mice. PMID:18559964

  1. Peripheral Neuropathy in Mouse Models of Diabetes.

    Jolivalt, Corinne G; Frizzi, Katie E; Guernsey, Lucie; Marquez, Alex; Ochoa, Joseline; Rodriguez, Maria; Calcutt, Nigel A


    Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of chronic diabetes that most commonly presents as a distal degenerative polyneuropathy with sensory loss. Around 20% to 30% of such patients may also experience neuropathic pain. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are uncertain, and therapeutic options are limited. Rodent models of diabetes have been used for more than 40 years to study neuropathy and evaluate potential therapies. For much of this period, streptozotocin-diabetic rats were the model of choice. The emergence of new technologies that allow relatively cheap and routine manipulations of the mouse genome has prompted increased use of mouse models of diabetes to study neuropathy. In this article, we describe the commonly used mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and provide protocols to phenotype the structural, functional, and behavioral indices of peripheral neuropathy, with a particular emphasis on assays pertinent to the human condition. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Citrobacter rodentium mouse model of bacterial infection.

    Crepin, Valerie F; Collins, James W; Habibzay, Maryam; Frankel, Gad


    Infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium is a robust model to study bacterial pathogenesis, mucosal immunology, the health benefits of probiotics and the role of the microbiota during infection. C. rodentium was first isolated by Barthold from an outbreak of mouse diarrhea in Yale University in 1972 and was 'rediscovered' by Falkow and Schauer in 1993. Since then the use of the model has proliferated, and it is now the gold standard for studying virulence of the closely related human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively). Here we provide a detailed protocol for various applications of the model, including bacterial growth, site-directed mutagenesis, mouse inoculation (from cultured cells and after cohabitation), monitoring of bacterial colonization, tissue extraction and analysis, immune responses, probiotic treatment and microbiota analysis. The main protocol, from mouse infection to clearance and analysis of tissues and host responses, takes ∼5 weeks to complete.

  3. Biotransformation in Egyptian spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus.

    Watkins, J B; LaFollette, J W; Sanders, R A


    The activities of several representative biotransformation enzymes were determined in male and female spiny mouse tissues. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity toward benzo(a)pyrene was significantly greater in female spiny mouse intestine than in males. Activity toward benzphetamine in both sexes was high in the liver, with little activity in the kidney and intestine. Sulfotransferase activity was high in kidney and intestine of female spiny mice but undetectable in the same tissues in males. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in females was significantly higher than in males. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase activity toward 1-naphthol in both sexes in the kidney was significantly higher than hepatic and intestinal activity. Intestinal N-acetyltransferase activity towards 2-aminofluorene and beta-naphthylamine was significantly greater in females than males. No consistent relation appeared to exist between biotransformation activities in spiny mouse and those in other related rodent species.

  4. OCT guided microinjections for mouse embryonic research

    Larin, Kirill V.; Syed, Saba H.; Coughlin, Andrew J.; Wang, Shang; West, Jennifer L.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larina, Irina V.


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is gaining popularity as live imaging tool for embryonic research in animal models. Recently we have demonstrated that OCT can be used for live imaging of cultured early mouse embryos (E7.5-E10) as well as later stage mouse embryos in utero (E12.5 to the end of gestation). Targeted delivery of signaling molecules, drugs, and cells is a powerful approach to study normal and abnormal development, and image guidance is highly important for such manipulations. Here we demonstrate that OCT can be used to guide microinjections of gold nanoshell suspensions in live mouse embryos. This approach can potentially be used for variety of applications such as guided injections of contrast agents, signaling molecules, pharmacological agents, cell transplantation and extraction, as well as other image-guided micromanipulations. Our studies also reveal novel potential for gold nanoshells in embryonic research.

  5. The German Mouse Clinic: a platform for systemic phenotype analysis of mouse models.

    Fuchs, H; Gailus-Durner, V; Adler, T; Pimentel, J A Aguilar; Becker, L; Bolle, I; Brielmeier, M; Calzada-Wack, J; Dalke, C; Ehrhardt, N; Fasnacht, N; Ferwagner, B; Frischmann, U; Hans, W; Hölter, S M; Hölzlwimmer, G; Horsch, M; Javaheri, A; Kallnik, M; Kling, E; Lengger, C; Maier, H; Mossbrugger, I; Mörth, C; Naton, B; Nöth, U; Pasche, B; Prehn, C; Przemeck, G; Puk, O; Racz, I; Rathkolb, B; Rozman, J; Schäble, K; Schreiner, R; Schrewe, A; Sina, C; Steinkamp, R; Thiele, F; Willershäuser, M; Zeh, R; Adamski, J; Busch, D H; Beckers, J; Behrendt, H; Daniel, H; Esposito, I; Favor, J; Graw, J; Heldmaier, G; Höfler, H; Ivandic, B; Katus, H; Klingenspor, M; Klopstock, T; Lengeling, A; Mempel, M; Müller, W; Neschen, S; Ollert, M; Quintanilla-Martinez, L; Rosenstiel, P; Schmidt, J; Schreiber, S; Schughart, K; Schulz, H; Wolf, E; Wurst, W; Zimmer, A; Hrabé de Angelis, M


    The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) is a large scale phenotyping center where mouse mutant lines are analyzed in a standardized and comprehensive way. The result is an almost complete picture of the phenotype of a mouse mutant line--a systemic view. At the GMC, expert scientists from various fields of mouse research work in close cooperation with clinicians side by side at one location. The phenotype screens comprise the following areas: allergy, behavior, clinical chemistry, cardiovascular analyses, dysmorphology, bone and cartilage, energy metabolism, eye and vision, host-pathogen interactions, immunology, lung function, molecular phenotyping, neurology, nociception, steroid metabolism, and pathology. The German Mouse Clinic is an open access platform that offers a collaboration-based phenotyping to the scientific community ( More than 80 mutant lines have been analyzed in a primary screen for 320 parameters, and for 95% of the mutant lines we have found new or additional phenotypes that were not associated with the mouse line before. Our data contributed to the association of mutant mouse lines to the corresponding human disease. In addition, the systemic phenotype analysis accounts for pleiotropic gene functions and refines previous phenotypic characterizations. This is an important basis for the analysis of underlying disease mechanisms. We are currently setting up a platform that will include environmental challenge tests to decipher genome-environmental interactions in the areas nutrition, exercise, air, stress and infection with different standardized experiments. This will help us to identify genetic predispositions as susceptibility factors for environmental influences.

  6. Sphingolipid metabolism in organotypic mouse keratinocyte cultures

    Madison, K.C.; Swartzendruber, D.C.; Wertz, P.W.; Downing, D.T. (Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (USA))


    Ceramides are the dominant component of the stratum corneum intercellular lipid lamellae, which constitute the epidermal permeability barrier. Only pig and human epidermal ceramides have been extensively characterized and the structures of the ceramides of cultured keratinocytes have not been previously investigated. In the present studies, we have characterized the ceramides synthesized by organotypic lifted mouse keratinocyte cultures for the first time and compared them to the ceramides of intact mouse epidermis. Both mouse epidermis and cultures contained five ceramides, ceramide 1 being the least polar and ceramide 5 the most polar. Ceramide 1 was a group of acylceramides, i.e., very-long-chain omega-hydroxyceramides with an ester-linked nonhydroxy fatty acid. Ceramide 2 contained medium-length saturated nonhydroxy fatty acids. (In culture, the ceramide 2 band was split into two parts with the slightly more polar ceramide 2' containing short-chain saturated nonhydroxy fatty acids.) Ceramide 5 contained short-chain alpha-hydroxy fatty acids. The structures of ceramides 1, 2, and 5 were analagous to those of pig and human epidermis. Mouse epidermal ceramide 3 was quite unusual, containing beta-hydroxy fatty acids, a structure not previously identified among mammalian ceramides. In contrast, culture ceramide 3 was composed of omega-hydroxy fatty acids with a chain-length distribution similar to that of ceramide 1. Mouse ceramide 4 was composed of fatty acids with chromatographic mobility similar to hydroxy fatty acids but with different chemical reactivity; it remains only partially characterized. Culture ceramide 4 was present in quantities too small for analysis. All ceramides in mouse epidermis and cultures contained only sphingosine bases, whereas pig and human ceramides also contain phytosphingosine.

  7. An Intelligent Multilingual Mouse Gesture Recognition System

    Nidal F. Shilbayeh


    Full Text Available A comprehensive mouse gesture system is designed and tested successfully. The system is based on UNIPEN algorithm in terms of mouse movements and applies its geometrical principles such as angles and transposition steps. The system incorporates Neural Networks as its learning and recognition engine. The designed algorithm is not only capable of translating discrete gesture moves, but also continuous sentences and complete paragraphs. Hopfield Network is also used for initial learning to add a feature of language independence to the system.

  8. The Riken mouse genome encyclopedia project.

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide


    The Riken mouse genome encyclopedia a comprehensive full-length cDNA collection and sequence database. High-level functional annotation is based on sequence homology search, expression profiling, mapping and protein-protein interactions. More than 1000000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced and classified into 128000 clusters, and 60000 representative clones were fully sequenced representing 24000 clear protein-encoding genes. The application of the mouse genome database for positional cloning and gene network regulation analysis is reported.

  9. Primary 3-dimensional culture of mouse hepatocytes


    Complex 3-dimensional structures with good functions have been obtained under the primary mixcoculture of mouse hepatocytes with mouse liver fibroblasts without serum. Albumin secretion is kept above 10 μg/106 cells and urea synthesis reaches 25 μg/106 on the 7th day of culture. Avoiding serum affection, liver fibroblasts' effects on hepatocytes' viability, functions and 3-dimensional structure forming in primary serum-free culture have been studied. Important effects of the mesenchyma, especially the direct adherence of fibroblasts to hepatocytes, are shown.

  10. A Color Based Touchless Finger Mouse

    Kah-Meng Kwong


    Full Text Available People work with computers almost anytime, everywhere  in the current trend. However, continuously controlling a computer with mouse for a long time might cause much strains to people’s wrist. This work proposes a touchless finger mouse using webcam. A marker with different colours representing different actions is used. The webcam will capture the information on the marker and trigger the associated actions. This prototype is proven to be able to perform most of the actions a normal mouser can perform.

  11. Mouse polyoma virus and adenovirus replication in mouse cells temperature-sensitive in DNA synthesis.

    Sheinin, R; Fabbro, J; Dubsky, M


    Mouse adenovirus multiplies, apparently without impediment, in temperature-inactivated ts A1S9, tsC1 and ts2 mouse fibroblasts. Thus, the DNA of mouse adenovirus can replicate in the absence of functional DNA topoisomerase II, a DNA-chain-elongation factor, and a protein required for traverse of the G1/S interface, respectively, encoded in the ts A1S9, tsC1 and ts2 genetic loci. These results are compared with those obtained with polyoma virus.

  12. Recovery Outline: New Mexico Jumping Mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this recovery outline is to provide an interim strategy to guide the conservation and recovery of the New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (jumping mouse)...

  13. Isospora serinuse n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Western Australia.

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una


    A new species, Isospora serinuse n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) is described from a single domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (subspecies S. c. domestica) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. are spherical or subspherical, 25.5 (24.4-27.0) × 23.5 (22.0-24.8) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.09; and a smooth bilayered oocyst wall, 1.2 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.3 μm). A polar granule is present, but a micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 18.9 (17.8-20.2) × 11.8 (10.6-13.0) μm, with a shape index of 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies are present, the Stieda body being a small crescent shape and the substieda being indistinct. Each sporocyst with four vermiform sporozoites arranged head to tail. A sporocyst residuum is present and composed of numerous granules of different sizes that are scattered among the sporozoites. Morphologically, the oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. were different from those of all known valid Isospora spp. Molecular analysis was conducted at 3 loci: the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and two separate regions of subunit I of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene (designated COIa and COIb). At the 18S locus, Isospora serinuse n. sp. exhibited 97.5% similarity to Isospora sp. Tokyo from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in Japan. At the 28S locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 94.9% similarity to Isospora anthochaerae n. sp. from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) in Australia. At the COIa locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 95.7% similarity to Isospora sospora sp. ex Apodemus flavicollis from a yellow-necked mouse and Isospora gryphoni from an American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) respectively. At the COIb locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 96.7% similarity to an Isospora (iSAT4) from a European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new

  14. Isospora streperae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a grey currawong (Strepera versicolour plumbea) (Passeriformes: Artamidae) in Western Australia.

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Habsi, Khalid Al; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una


    A new species, Isospora streperae n. sp., (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from a single grey currawong bird (Strepera versicolour) (subspecies S. v. plumbea) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts (n = 32) are spherical to subspherical, with smooth colourless bilayered oocyst wall, 1.0 µm thick (outer layer 0⋅8 µm, inner 0.2 µm thick). Oocyst with a polar granule, an oocyst residuum and two spheroidal to subspheroidal sporocysts. Oocyst length, 23.8 (20.4-25.0) µm; oocyst width, 22.5 (20.0-24.6) µm; a shape index of 1.06, with Stieda, substieda bodies. Micropyle is absent. Sporocysts with compressed sporocyst residuum and four sporozoites. Sporocyst length, 14.4 (12.5-15.2) µm; sporocyst width, 11.2 (10.6-14.0) µm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.29. Necropsy of the bird identified haemorrhaging along the ileum and jejunum, which is where Isospora oocysts were also mostly detected. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S, 28S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene. At the 18S locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 99.5% and 99.4% similarity respectively to an Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a Southern cape sparrow (Passer melanurus melanurus) and Isospora dovati from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 96.9% similarity to an Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a grosbeak starling (Scissirostrum dubium) and 95.8% similarity with the Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a Southern cape sparrow. At the COI locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 95.0% similarity to Isospora sp. from a yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) from the Czech Republic. Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of Isospora, which is named Isospora streperae n. sp. after its host, the grey currawong (Strepera versicolour plumbea). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Recombinant mouse interferon-gamma regulation of antibody production.


    Interferon-gamma produced in monkey cells by transfection with mouse interferon-gamma cDNA suppressed the mouse in vitro antibody response in a manner similar to that of natural mouse interferon-gamma. Significant suppression was obtained with as little as 1 U of interferon. Recombinant human interferon-gamma produced by cloning in a similar fashion was not suppressive. Both the suppressive and the antiviral activities of recombinant interferon-gamma were neutralized by antibodies to mouse na...

  16. Communication Framework For the Mionix Naos QG Mouse

    Wulff-Jensen, Andreas


    The Mionix Naos QG mouse has multiple sensors integrated. It can record all the metrics native to mice: being scroll, clicks and mouse movements. Moreover, this mouse has heart rate (HR) and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) sensors embedded. Through Mionics API [1] WebSocket can be used to access all...

  17. Habitat corridor utilization by the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus ...

    the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, in the littoral forest fragments of south eastern Madagascar. ... and vegetation structure represent suitable habitat for mouse le- ..... ment of tropical forest biodiversity in a human-modified world. Biological .... major histocompatibility complex in the Malagasy mouse lemur, Microce-.

  18. On a new Mouse from Java

    Jentink, F.A.


    A mouse, collected by Mr. Bartels, April 1903, at an altitude of 6000 feet on the Pangerango-mountain, Java, was presented by that gentleman to our Museum. In comparing it with our Javan Mice I see that the animal differs enough to bestow it with a new specific title. Superficially it reminds my Mus

  19. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer

    Nawijn, Martijn C.; Bergman, Andreas M.; van der Poel, Henk G.


    Objectives: Mouse models of prostate cancer are used to test the contribution of individual genes to the transformation process, evaluate the collaboration between multiple genetic lesions observed in a single tumour, and perform preclinical intervention studies in prostate cancer research. Methods:

  20. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    Harkema, L.; Youssef, S. A.; de Bruin, A.


    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of geroscience, wh

  1. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837261


    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience,"

  2. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in the Mouse

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become a unique and powerful tool for epigenetic reprogramming research and gene manipulation in animals since “Dolly,” the first animal cloned from an adult cell was reported in 1997. Although the success rates of somatic cloning have been inefficient and the mechanism of reprogramming is still largely unknown, this technique has been proven to work in more than 10 mammalian species. Among them, the mouse provides the best model for both basic and applied research of somatic cloning because of its abounding genetic resources, rapid sexual maturity and propagation, minimal requirements for housing, etc. This chapter describes a basic protocol for mouse cloning using cumulus cells, the most popular cell type for NT, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. In particular, we focus on a new, more efficient mouse cloning protocol using trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which increases both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates from twofold to fivefold. This new method including TSA will be helpful to establish mouse cloning in many laboratories.

  3. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A


    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience,"

  4. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc


    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse...

  5. Agglutination of Mouse Erythrocytes by Eperythrozoon coccoides

    Iralu, Vichazelhu; Ganong, Kevin D.


    Erythrocytes from blood of mice infected with Eperythrozoon coccoides for 3 or 4 days agglutinated spontaneously. Washed E. coccoides particles agglutinated washed erythrocytes of uninfected mice. E. coccoides-mediated agglutination of normal mouse erythrocytes would be an excellent system for studies of bacterial adhesion.

  6. Progress of gene targeting in mouse


    Gene targeting is a powerful approach of study- ing the genefunction in vivo. Specific genetic modifications, including simple gene disruption, point mutations, large chromosomal deletions and rearrangements, targeted incor- poration of foreign genes, could be introduced into the mouse genome by gene targeting. Recent studies make it possible to do the gene targeting with temporal and spatial control.

  7. Effects of verbenalin on prostatitis mouse model

    Miao, Mingsan; Guo, Lin; Yan, Xiaoli; Wang, Tan; Li, Zuming


    The aim of this study was to observe the treatment characteristics of verbenalin on a prostatitis mouse model. Give Xiaozhiling injection in the prostate locally to make a prostatitis mouse model. High, medium and low doses of verbenalin were each given to different mouse groups. The amount of water was determined in 14th, 28th. The number of white cells and lecithin corpuscle density in prostatic fluid were determined. Morphological changes in the prostate, testis, epididymis and kidney were detected. Compared with the model control group, the mice treated with high, medium and low doses of verbenalin had significantly increased amounts of water, and prostate white blood cell count and prostate volume density (Vv) were decreased significantly, the density of lecithin corpuscle score increased, and pathologic prostatitis changes were significantly reduced. Pathological change in the testis was significantly reduced and the change in the epididymis was obviously reduced. The thymic cortex thickness and the number of lymphocytes increased significantly and could reduce the renal pathological changes in potential. Verbenalin has a good therapeutic effect on the prostatitis mouse model. PMID:26858560

  8. Hod mice and the mouse set conjecture

    Sargsyan, Grigor


    The author develops the theory of Hod mice below AD_{\\mathbb{R}}+ "\\Theta is regular". He uses this theory to show that HOD of the minimal model of AD_{\\mathbb{R}}+ "\\Theta is regular" satisfies GCH. Moreover, he shows that the Mouse Set Conjecture is true in the minimal model of AD_{\\mathbb{R}}+ "\\Theta is regular".

  9. Isolation of Mouse salivary gland stem cells

    Pringle, Sarah; Nanduri, Lalitha; van der Zwaag, Marianne; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob


    Mature salivary glands of both human and mouse origin comprise a minimum of five cell types, each of which facilitates the production and excretion of saliva into the oral cavity. Serous and mucous acinar cells are the protein and mucous producing factories of the gland respectively, and represent

  10. Mouse gestation length is genetically determined.

    Stephen A Murray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is an enormous public health problem, affecting over 12% of live births and costing over $26 billion in the United States alone. The causes are complex, but twin studies support the role of genetics in determining gestation length. Despite widespread use of the mouse in studies of the genetics of preterm birth, there have been few studies that actually address the precise natural gestation length of the mouse, and to what degree the timing of labor and birth is genetically determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further develop the mouse as a genetic model of preterm birth, we developed a high-throughput monitoring system and measured the gestation length in 15 inbred strains. Our results show an unexpectedly wide variation in overall gestation length between strains that approaches two full days, while intra-strain variation is quite low. Although litter size shows a strong inverse correlation with gestation length, genetic difference alone accounts for a significant portion of the variation. In addition, ovarian transplant experiments support a primary role of maternal genetics in the determination of gestation length. Preliminary analysis of gestation length in the C57BL/6J-Chr#(A/J/NaJ chromosome substitution strain (B.A CSS panel suggests complex genetic control of gestation length. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these data support the role of genetics in regulating gestation length and present the mouse as an important tool for the discovery of genes governing preterm birth.

  11. MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system

    Mian I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data exchange has inhibited scientific collaboration and discovery. Results Here we introduce a Mouse Phenotype Analysis System (MPHASYS, a platform for integrating data generated by studies of mouse models of human biology and disease such as aging and cancer. This computational platform is designed to provide a standardized methodology for working with animal data; a framework for data entry, analysis and sharing; and ontologies and methodologies for ensuring accurate data capture. We describe the tools that currently comprise MPHASYS, primarily ones related to mouse pathology, and outline its use in a study of individual animal-specific patterns of multiple pathology in mice harboring a specific germline mutation in the DNA repair and transcription-specific gene Xpd. Conclusion MPHASYS is a system for analyzing multiple data types from individual animals. It provides a framework for developing data analysis applications, and tools for collecting and distributing high-quality data. The software is platform independent and freely available under an open-source license 1.

  12. Having Fun with a Cordless Mouse

    Nunn, John


    A cordless mouse with an added reed switch is used as a wireless data logger to record every time the wheel of a trolley completes a revolution. The limitations of the system in terms of maximum clicking rate and spatial resolution are considered and data obtained from the descent of a trolley down a ramp at various different angles is analysed in…

  13. Agglutination of Mouse Erythrocytes by Eperythrozoon coccoides

    Iralu, Vichazelhu; Ganong, Kevin D.


    Erythrocytes from blood of mice infected with Eperythrozoon coccoides for 3 or 4 days agglutinated spontaneously. Washed E. coccoides particles agglutinated washed erythrocytes of uninfected mice. E. coccoides-mediated agglutination of normal mouse erythrocytes would be an excellent system for studies of bacterial adhesion. Images PMID:6832825

  14. Agglutination of Mouse Erythrocytes by Eperythrozoon coccoides

    Iralu, Vichazelhu; Ganong, Kevin D.


    Erythrocytes from blood of mice infected with Eperythrozoon coccoides for 3 or 4 days agglutinated spontaneously. Washed E. coccoides particles agglutinated washed erythrocytes of uninfected mice. E. coccoides-mediated agglutination of normal mouse erythrocytes would be an excellent system for studies of bacterial adhesion.

  15. An update on the mouse liver proteome

    Borlak Jürgen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decoding of the liver proteome is subject of intense research, but hampered by methodological constraints. We recently developed an improved protocol for studying rat liver proteins based on 2-DE-MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. This methodology was now applied to develop a mouse liver protein database. Results Liver proteins were extracted by two different lysis buffers in sequence followed by a liquid-phase IEF pre-fractionation and separation of proteins by 2 DE at two different pH ranges, notably 5-8 and 7-10. Based on 9600 in gel digests a total of 643 mouse liver proteins with high sequence coverage (> 20 peptides per protein could be identified by MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. Notably, 255 proteins are novel and have not been reported so far by conventional two-dimensional electrophoresis proteome mapping. Additionally, the results of the present findings for mouse liver were compared to published data of the rat proteome to compile as many proteins as possible in a rodent liver database. Conclusion Based on 2-DE MALDI-TOF-MS a significantly improved proteome map of mouse liver was obtained. We discuss some prominent members of newly identified proteins for a better understanding of liver biology.

  16. La fauna a micromammiferi del comprensorio di Muro Lucano (Potenza, Italia

    Giuseppina Cerone


    Full Text Available Abstract Small mammal fauna of the Muro Lucano area (Potenza, Italy - Data of small mammals trapped (255 specimens and preyed by Barn owl (289 specimens in NW Lucania (southern Italy are reported. In the studied area, 7 species of Insectivora (Erinaceus europaeus, Talpa romana, Sorex araneus ve1 samniticus, S. minutus, Suncus etruscus, Crocidura suaveolens, C. leucodon and 8 of Rodentia (Muscardinus avellanarius, Myoxus glis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus savii, Rattus rattus, Apodemus sylvaticus, A . flavicollis, Mus domesticus are recorded, together with ecological and biological remarks.

  17. Modeling Exposure of Mammalian Predatorsto Anticoagulant Rodenticides

    Topping, Christopher John; Elmeros, Morten


    high. We postulate that this is caused by widespread exposure due to widespread use of AR in Denmark in and around buildings. To investigate this theory a spatio-temporal model of AR use and mammalian predator distribution was created. This model was supported by data from an experimental study of mice...... and creates an exposure map based on spatio-temporal modelling of movement of mice-vectored AR (based on Apodemus flavicollis). Simulated predator territories are super-imposed over this exposure map to create an exposure index. Predictions from the model concur with field studies of AR prevalence both before...... and after the change in AR use. In most cases incidence of exposure to AR is predicted to be greater than 90%, although cessation of use in woodlots and Christmas tree plantations should reduce mean exposure concentrations. Model results suggest that the driver of high AR incidence in non-target small...

  18. New routes for transgenesis of the mouse.

    Belizário, José E; Akamini, Priscilla; Wolf, Philip; Strauss, Bryan; Xavier-Neto, José


    Transgenesis refers to the molecular genetic techniques for directing specific insertions, deletions and point mutations in the genome of germ cells in order to create genetically modified organisms (GMO). Genetic modification is becoming more practicable, efficient and predictable with the development and use of a variety of cell and molecular biology tools and DNA sequencing technologies. A collection of plasmidial and viral vectors, cell-type specific promoters, positive and negative selectable markers, reporter genes, drug-inducible Cre-loxP and Flp/FRT recombinase systems are available which ensure efficient transgenesis in the mouse. The technologies for the insertion and removal of genes by homologous-directed recombination in embryonic stem cells (ES) and generation of targeted gain- and loss-of function alleles have allowed the creation of thousands of mouse models of a variety of diseases. The engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and small hairpin RNA-expressing constructs are novel tools with useful properties for gene knockout free of ES manipulation. In this review we briefly outline the different approaches and technologies for transgenesis as well as their advantages and disadvantages. We also present an overview on how the novel integrative mouse and human genomic databases and bioinformatics approaches have been used to understand genotype-phenotype relationships of hundreds of mutated and candidate disease genes in mouse models. The updating and continued improvements of the genomic technologies will eventually help us to unraveling the biological and pathological processes in such a way that they can be translated more efficiently from mouse to human and vise-versa.

  19. The Mouse Genome Database: integration of and access to knowledge about the laboratory mouse.

    Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E


    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) ( is the community model organism database resource for the laboratory mouse, a premier animal model for the study of genetic and genomic systems relevant to human biology and disease. MGD maintains a comprehensive catalog of genes, functional RNAs and other genome features as well as heritable phenotypes and quantitative trait loci. The genome feature catalog is generated by the integration of computational and manual genome annotations generated by NCBI, Ensembl and Vega/HAVANA. MGD curates and maintains the comprehensive listing of functional annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology, and MGD curates and integrates comprehensive phenotype annotations including associations of mouse models with human diseases. Recent improvements include integration of the latest mouse genome build (GRCm38), improved access to comparative and functional annotations for mouse genes with expanded representation of comparative vertebrate genomes and new loads of phenotype data from high-throughput phenotyping projects. All MGD resources are freely available to the research community.

  20. Fibrosis and inflammation are greater in muscles of beta-sarcoglycan-null mouse than mdx mouse.

    Gibertini, Sara; Zanotti, Simona; Savadori, Paolo; Curcio, Maurizio; Saredi, Simona; Salerno, Franco; Andreetta, Francesca; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato; Mora, Marina


    The Sgcb-null mouse, with knocked-down β-sarcoglycan, develops severe muscular dystrophy as in type 2E human limb girdle muscular dystrophy. The mdx mouse, lacking dystrophin, is the most used model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Unlike DMD, the mdx mouse has mild clinical features and shows little fibrosis in limb muscles. To characterize ECM protein deposition and the progression of muscle fibrosis, we evaluated protein and transcript levels of collagens I, III and VI, decorin, and TGF-β1, in quadriceps and diaphragm, at 2, 4, 8, 12, 26, and 52 weeks in Sgcb-null mice, and protein levels at 12, 26, and 52 weeks in mdx mice. In Sgcb-null mice, severe morphological disruption was present from 4 weeks in both quadriceps and diaphragm, and included conspicuous deposition of extracellular matrix components. Histopathological features of Sgcb-null mouse muscles were similar to those of age-matched mdx muscles at all ages examined, but, in the Sgcb-null mouse, the extent of connective tissue deposition was generally greater than mdx. Furthermore, in the Sgcb-null mouse, the amount of all three collagen isoforms increased steadily, while, in the mdx, they remained stable. We also found that, at 12 weeks, macrophages were significantly more numerous in mildly inflamed areas of Sgcb-null quadriceps compared to mdx quadriceps (but not in highly inflamed regions), while, in the diaphragm, macrophages did not differ significantly between the two models, in either region. Osteopontin mRNA was also significantly greater at 12 weeks in laser-dissected highly inflamed areas of the Sgcb-null quadriceps compared to the mdx quadriceps. TGF-β1 was present in areas of degeneration-regeneration, but levels were highly variable and in general did not differ significantly between the two models and controls. The roles of the various subtypes of macrophages in muscle repair and fibrosis in the two models require further study. The Sgcb-null mouse, which develops early fibrosis

  1. MouseMine: a new data warehouse for MGI.

    Motenko, H; Neuhauser, S B; O'Keefe, M; Richardson, J E


    MouseMine ( is a new data warehouse for accessing mouse data from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Based on the InterMine software framework, MouseMine supports powerful query, reporting, and analysis capabilities, the ability to save and combine results from different queries, easy integration into larger workflows, and a comprehensive Web Services layer. Through MouseMine, users can access a significant portion of MGI data in new and useful ways. Importantly, MouseMine is also a member of a growing community of online data resources based on InterMine, including those established by other model organism databases. Adopting common interfaces and collaborating on data representation standards are critical to fostering cross-species data analysis. This paper presents a general introduction to MouseMine, presents examples of its use, and discusses the potential for further integration into the MGI interface.

  2. A transgenic tri-modality reporter mouse.

    Xinrui Yan

    Full Text Available Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This "Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse" system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2, fluorescent (tdTomato, and positron emission tomography (PET (ttk modalities. Transgenic colonies with different levels of tri-fusion reporter gene expression showed a linear correlation between all three-reporter proteins (R(2=0.89 for TdTomato vs Fluc, R(2=0.94 for Fluc vs TTK, R(2=0.89 for TdTomato vs TTK in vitro from tissue lysates and in vivo by optical and PET imaging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs isolated from this transgenics showed high level of reporter gene expression, which linearly correlated with the cell numbers (R(2=0.99 for bioluminescence imaging (BLI. Both BLI (R(2=0.93 and micro-PET (R(2=0.94 imaging of the subcutaneous implants of Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse derived MSCs in nude mice showed linear correlation with the cell numbers and across different imaging modalities (R(2=0.97. Serial imaging of MSCs transplanted to mice with acute myocardial infarction (MI by intramyocardial injection exhibited significantly higher signals in MI heart at days 2, 3, 4, and 7 (p<0.01. MSCs transplanted to the ischemic hindlimb of nude mice showed significantly higher BLI and PET signals in the first 2 weeks that dropped by 4(th week due to poor cell survival. However, laser Doppler perfusion imaging revealed that blood circulation in the ischemic limb was significantly improved in the MSCs transplantation group compared with the control group. In summary, this mouse can be used as a source of donor cells and organs in various research areas such as stem cell

  3. [The ecology of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in small rodent populations].

    Bajer, A; Bednarska, M; Siński, E


    The prevalence and abundance of Cryptosporidium parvum were studied over a three year period (1997-1999) in three species of rodents sampled from forest and abandoned fields in the Mazury Lake District, Poland. The overall prevalence was consistently higher in voles compared with Apodemus flavicollis (70.6% in Clethrionomys glareolus, 73.0% in Microtus arvalis and 27.8% in A. flavicollis). The prevalence and abundance of infection also varied across the 3 years of the study with 1998 being the year of higher prevalence and abundance of the parasite. Fewer older animals carried the infection, and their infections were relatively mild. We found no consistent pattern of seasonal changes despite the significance of seasonal differences. Host sex did not influence either the prevalence or abundance of infection with C. parvum. A great proportion of recaptured voles developed chronic infections between consecutive trapping sessions and only a small number of animals recovered. However, yellow-necked mice seem to be much more resistant to infection that became self-limiting. Our results firmly establish that the common woodland and grassland wild rodents in the Mazury Lake District constitute a significant and hazardous reservoir of C. parvum for animals and humans.

  4. Bartonella spp. infection in rodents from different habitats in the Mazury Lake District, Northeast Poland.

    Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Paziewska, Anna; Bajer, Anna; Behnke, Jerzy M; Siński, Edward


    Four rodent species (Clethrionomys glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus arvalis, M. oeconomus) were captured in the period 2004-2006 in the Mazury Lake District, Northeast Poland, to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species. The presence of bartonellae was assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers CS140f and BhCS1137n, amplifying a fragment of the gltA gene. Bartonella DNA was detected in 313 (30.6%) of 1024 rodents sampled: in 181 C. glareolus, 68 A. flavicollis, 50 M. arvalis, and 14 M. oeconomus, representing prevalence of 31.0%, 42.2%, 32.9%, and 11.1%, respectively. Comparison of the Bartonella gltA gene sequences from 38 isolates revealed six phylogenetic subgroups, out of 15 unique gltA sequences, and therein from one to five genotypic variants with homology of 88.6-99.1%. Six of 13 (46.2%) isolates from C. glareolus were identical to B. grahamii, species associated with human illness. These results have important public health implication, notably in relation to the risk of infection in humans following exposure to rodent bartonellae.

  5. Prevalence and abundance of Cryptosporidium parvum and giardia spp. in wild rural rodents from the Mazury Lake District region of Poland.

    Bajer, A; Bednarska, M; Pawełczyk, A; Behnke, J M; Gilbert, F S; Sinski, E


    Prevalence and abundance of Cryptosporodium parvum and Giardia spp. were studied in 3 species of rodents from forests and abandoned agricultural fields in N.E. Poland (Clethrionomys glareolus n = 459; Microtus arvalis n = 274; Apodemus flavicollis n = 209). Overall prevalence was consistently higher in the voles compared with A. flavicollis (70.6, 73.0 and 27.8% respectively for C. parvum and 93.9, 96.3 and 48.3% respectively for Giardia spp.). Prevalence and abundance of infection also varied markedly across 3 years with 1998 being a year of higher prevalence and abundance with both species. Fewer older animals (especially C. glareolus and M. arvalis) carried infection with C. parvum and infections in these animals were relatively milder. Although seasonal differences were significant, no consistent pattern of changes was apparent. Host sex did not influence prevalence or abundance of infection with C. parvum, but made a small contribution to a 4-way interaction (in 5-way ANOVA) with other factors in the case of Giardia spp. The 2 species co-occurred significantly and in animals carrying both parasites there was a highly significant positive correlation between abundance of infection with each, even with between-year, seasonal, host age, sex and species differences taken into account. Quantitative associations were confined to the 2 vole species in the study. These results are discussed in relation to the importance of wild rodents as reservoir hosts and sources of infection for local human communities.

  6. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals.

    Balčiauskas, Linas; Skipitytė, Raminta; Jasiulionis, Marius; Trakimas, Giedrius; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Remeikis, Vidmantas


    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ(13)C and δ(15)N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ(15)N (16.31±3.01‰ and 17.86±2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ(15)N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ(13)C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ(15)N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of infection with Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on non-rickettsiemic rodent hosts in sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland.

    Biernat, Beata; Stańczak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bożena; Wierzbicka, Anna


    Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species in European countries and plays a principal role in transmission of a wide range of microbial pathogens. It is also a main vector and reservoir of Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group with the infection level ranging in Poland from 1.3% to 11.4%. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted so far to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. A survey was undertaken to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in wild small rodents and detached I. ricinus. Rodents, Apodemus flavicollis mice and Myodes glareolus voles were captured in typically sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland. Blood samples and collected ticks were analyzed by conventional, semi-nested and nested PCRs. Rickettsial species were determined by sequence analysis of obtained fragments of gltA and 16S rRNA genes. A total of 2339 immature I. ricinus (mostly larvae) were collected from 158 animals. Proportion of hosts carrying ticks was 84%, being higher for A. flavicollis than for M. glareolus. Rickettsia helvetica, the only species identified, was detected in 8% of 12 nymphs and in at least 10.7% (MIR) of 804 larvae investigated. Prevalence of infected ticks on both rodent species was comparable (10.8 vs. 9%). None of blood samples tested was positive for Rickettsia spp. The results showed that in sylvatic habitats the level of infestation with larval I. ricinus was higher in A. flavicollis mice in comparison with M. glareolus voles. They show that R. helvetica frequently occurred in ticks feeding on rodents. Positive immature ticks were collected from non-rickettsiemic hosts what might suggest a vertical route of their infection (transovarial and/or transstadial) or a very short-lasting rickettsiemia in rodents. A natural vertebrate reservoir host for R. helvetica remains to be determined.

  8. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    CarloAlberto Redi


    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  9. Radiation response of the mouse tongue epithelium

    Moses, R.; Kummermehr, J.


    Mouse tongue mucosa has been used as a model to study dose responses to local irradiation. Although the irradiation procedures is less feasible and more time-consuming than e.g. snout irradiation, the tongue is the only location where a reasonable area of intraoral, multilayered epithelium in the mouse can be locally treated and scored, and a relatively small burden is imposed on the animal. In pilot experiments with external 300 kV x-irradiation just tolerated by the lip, the authors did not see critical damage to the tongue. In the present model, the onset of denudation was not correctly predicted by the normal turnover time of the tissue.

  10. Circadian oscillators in the mouse brain

    Rath, Martin F; Rovsing, Louise; Møller, Morten


    and granular cell layers of the cerebellar cortex of the mouse brain. Among these, Per1, Per2, Cry1, Arntl, and Nr1d1 exhibit circadian rhythms suggesting that local running circadian oscillators reside within neurons of the mouse neocortex and cerebellar cortex. The temporal expression profiles of clock genes......The circadian timekeeper of the mammalian brain resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN), and is characterized by rhythmic expression of a set of clock genes with specific 24-h daily profiles. An increasing amount of data suggests that additional circadian oscillators...... residing outside the SCN have the capacity to generate peripheral circadian rhythms. We have recently shown the presence of SCN-controlled oscillators in the neocortex and cerebellum of the rat. The function of these peripheral brain clocks is unknown, and elucidating this could involve mice...

  11. The nitric oxide synthase of mouse spermatozoa.

    Herrero, M B; Goin, J C; Boquet, M; Canteros, M G; Franchi, A M; Perez Martinez, S; Polak, J M; Viggiano, J M; Gimeno, M A


    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was evidenced in mature mouse spermatozoa by means of biochemical techniques and Western blot. During 120 min of incubation, 10(7) spermatozoa synthesized 7 +/- 2 pmol of L-[14C]citrulline. Besides, L-citrulline formation depended on the incubation time and on the concentration of L-arginine present in the incubation medium. Different concentrations of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) but not aminoguanidine, inhibited L-[14C]citrulline formation. Western-blot analysis of solubilized sperm proteins revealed a unique band of M(r)=140 kDa with the neural, endothelial and inducible NOS antisera tested. These results provide evidence that mature mouse sperm contains a NOS isoform and that spermatozoa have the potential ability to synthesize NO, suggesting a role for endogenous NO on mammalian sperm function.

  12. Mouse Models for Studying Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Chow, Bryna S M; Allen, Terri J


    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a term used to describe kidney damage cause by diabetes. With DN as one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease worldwide, there is a strong need for appropriate animal models to study DN pathogenesis and develop therapeutic strategies. To date, most experiments are carried out in mouse models as opposed to other species for several reasons including lower cost, ease of handling, and easy manipulation of the mouse genome to generate transgenic and knockout animals. This unit provides detailed insights and technical knowledge in setting up one of the most widely used models of DN, the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model. This model has been extensively exploited to study the mechanism of diabetic renal injury. The advantages and limitations of the STZ model and the availability of other genetic models of DN are also discussed.

  13. Ultrastructure of the mouse spinal cord ependyma.

    Bjugn, R; Haugland, H K; Flood, P R


    This study was done in order to investigate the normal ultrastructure of well-preserved mouse spinal canal ependyma using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The ependymal lining was found to consist of a simple, cuboidal epithelium essentially similar to the unspecialized cuboidal ependyma of the brain ventricles. Apart from great variation in kinociliary density, no intracellular difference was noted between the ependymal cells. In contrast to earlier findings, indications...

  14. Complex Loci in human and mouse genomes.

    Engström, Pär G; Suzuki, Harukazu; Ninomiya, Noriko; Akalin, Altuna; Sessa, Luca; Lavorgna, Giovanni; Brozzi, Alessandro; Luzi, Lucilla; Tan, Sin Lam; Yang, Liang; Kunarso, Galih; Ng, Edwin Lian-Chong; Batalov, Serge; Wahlestedt, Claes; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Wells, Christine; Bajic, Vladimir B; Orlando, Valerio; Reid, James F; Lenhard, Boris; Lipovich, Leonard


    Mammalian genomes harbor a larger than expected number of complex loci, in which multiple genes are coupled by shared transcribed regions in antisense orientation and/or by bidirectional core promoters. To determine the incidence, functional significance, and evolutionary context of mammalian complex loci, we identified and characterized 5,248 cis-antisense pairs, 1,638 bidirectional promoters, and 1,153 chains of multiple cis-antisense and/or bidirectionally promoted pairs from 36,606 mouse transcriptional units (TUs), along with 6,141 cis-antisense pairs, 2,113 bidirectional promoters, and 1,480 chains from 42,887 human TUs. In both human and mouse, 25% of TUs resided in cis-antisense pairs, only 17% of which were conserved between the two organisms, indicating frequent species specificity of antisense gene arrangements. A sampling approach indicated that over 40% of all TUs might actually be in cis-antisense pairs, and that only a minority of these arrangements are likely to be conserved between human and mouse. Bidirectional promoters were characterized by variable transcriptional start sites and an identifiable midpoint at which overall sequence composition changed strand and the direction of transcriptional initiation switched. In microarray data covering a wide range of mouse tissues, genes in cis-antisense and bidirectionally promoted arrangement showed a higher probability of being coordinately expressed than random pairs of genes. In a case study on homeotic loci, we observed extensive transcription of nonconserved sequences on the noncoding strand, implying that the presence rather than the sequence of these transcripts is of functional importance. Complex loci are ubiquitous, host numerous nonconserved gene structures and lineage-specific exonification events, and may have a cis-regulatory impact on the member genes.

  15. Complex Loci in human and mouse genomes.

    Pär G Engström


    Full Text Available Mammalian genomes harbor a larger than expected number of complex loci, in which multiple genes are coupled by shared transcribed regions in antisense orientation and/or by bidirectional core promoters. To determine the incidence, functional significance, and evolutionary context of mammalian complex loci, we identified and characterized 5,248 cis-antisense pairs, 1,638 bidirectional promoters, and 1,153 chains of multiple cis-antisense and/or bidirectionally promoted pairs from 36,606 mouse transcriptional units (TUs, along with 6,141 cis-antisense pairs, 2,113 bidirectional promoters, and 1,480 chains from 42,887 human TUs. In both human and mouse, 25% of TUs resided in cis-antisense pairs, only 17% of which were conserved between the two organisms, indicating frequent species specificity of antisense gene arrangements. A sampling approach indicated that over 40% of all TUs might actually be in cis-antisense pairs, and that only a minority of these arrangements are likely to be conserved between human and mouse. Bidirectional promoters were characterized by variable transcriptional start sites and an identifiable midpoint at which overall sequence composition changed strand and the direction of transcriptional initiation switched. In microarray data covering a wide range of mouse tissues, genes in cis-antisense and bidirectionally promoted arrangement showed a higher probability of being coordinately expressed than random pairs of genes. In a case study on homeotic loci, we observed extensive transcription of nonconserved sequences on the noncoding strand, implying that the presence rather than the sequence of these transcripts is of functional importance. Complex loci are ubiquitous, host numerous nonconserved gene structures and lineage-specific exonification events, and may have a cis-regulatory impact on the member genes.

  16. Hedgehog Signalling in the Embryonic Mouse Thymus

    Barbarulo, Alessandro; Lau, Ching-In; Mengrelis, Konstantinos; Ross, Susan; Solanki, Anisha; Saldaña, José Ignacio; Crompton, Tessa


    T cells develop in the thymus, which provides an essential environment for T cell fate\\ud specification, and for the differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells into major histocompatibility\\ud complex (MHC)-restricted, non-autoreactive T cells. Here we review the role of the Hedgehog\\ud signalling pathway in T cell development, thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development, and\\ud thymocyte–TEC cross-talk in the embryonic mouse thymus during the last week of gestation.\\ud

  17. Engineering a new mouse model for vitiligo.

    Manga, Prashiela; Orlow, Seth J


    Although the precise mechanisms that trigger vitiligo remain elusive, autoimmune responses mediate its progression. The development of therapies has been impeded by a paucity of animal models, since mice lack interfollicular melanocytes, the primary targets in vitiligo. In this issue, Harris et al. describe a mouse model in which interfollicular melanocytes are retained by Kit ligand overexpression and an immune response is initiated by transplanting melanocyte-targeting CD8+ T cells.

  18. Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB): a database of mouse models for human cancer.

    Bult, Carol J; Krupke, Debra M; Begley, Dale A; Richardson, Joel E; Neuhauser, Steven B; Sundberg, John P; Eppig, Janan T


    The Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB; database is a unique online compendium of mouse models for human cancer. MTB provides online access to expertly curated information on diverse mouse models for human cancer and interfaces for searching and visualizing data associated with these models. The information in MTB is designed to facilitate the selection of strains for cancer research and is a platform for mining data on tumor development and patterns of metastases. MTB curators acquire data through manual curation of peer-reviewed scientific literature and from direct submissions by researchers. Data in MTB are also obtained from other bioinformatics resources including PathBase, the Gene Expression Omnibus and ArrayExpress. Recent enhancements to MTB improve the association between mouse models and human genes commonly mutated in a variety of cancers as identified in large-scale cancer genomics studies, provide new interfaces for exploring regions of the mouse genome associated with cancer phenotypes and incorporate data and information related to Patient-Derived Xenograft models of human cancers.

  19. Biological characteristics of mouse skin melanocytes.

    Shi, Zhanquan; Ji, Kaiyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Zhang, Junzhen; Yao, Jianbo; Dong, Changsheng; Fan, Ruiwen


    The objective of this research was to evaluate the optimal passage number according to the biological characteristics of mouse skin melanocytes from different passages. Skin punch biopsies harvested from the dorsal region of 2-day old mice were used to establish melanocyte cultures. The cells from passage 4, 7, 10 and 13 were collected and evaluated for their melanogenic activity. Histochemical staining for tyrosinase (TYR) activity and immunostaining for the melanocyte specific markers including S-100 antigen, TYR, tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), tyrosinase related protein 2 (TYRP2) and micropthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) confirmed purity and melanogenic capacity of melanocytes from different passages, with better melanogenic activity of passage 10 and 13 cells being observed. Treatment of passage 13 melanocytes with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) showed increased expression of MITF, TYR and TYRP2 mRNA. However, considering the TYR mRNA dramatically high expression which is the characteristics of melanoma cells, melanocytes from passage 10 was the optimal passage number for the further research. Our results demonstrate culture of pure populations of mouse melanocytes to at least 10 passages and illustrate the potential utility of passage 10 cells for studies of intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of genes controlling pigmentation and coat color in mouse.

  20. Digenic Inheritance in Cystinuria Mouse Model.

    Meritxell Espino

    Full Text Available Cystinuria is an aminoaciduria caused by mutations in the genes that encode the two subunits of the amino acid transport system b0,+, responsible for the renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. The clinical symptoms of cystinuria relate to nephrolithiasis, due to the precipitation of cystine in urine. Mutations in SLC3A1, which codes for the heavy subunit rBAT, cause cystinuria type A, whereas mutations in SLC7A9, which encodes the light subunit b0,+AT, cause cystinuria type B. By crossing Slc3a1-/- with Slc7a9-/- mice we generated a type AB cystinuria mouse model to test digenic inheritance of cystinuria. The 9 genotypes obtained have been analyzed at early (2- and 5-months and late stage (8-months of the disease. Monitoring the lithiasic phenotype by X-ray, urine amino acid content analysis and protein expression studies have shown that double heterozygous mice (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/- present lower expression of system b0,+ and higher hyperexcretion of cystine than single heterozygotes (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/+ and Slc7a9+/+Slc3a1+/- and give rise to lithiasis in 4% of the mice, demonstrating that cystinuria has a digenic inheritance in this mouse model. Moreover in this study it has been demonstrated a genotype/phenotype correlation in type AB cystinuria mouse model providing new insights for further molecular and genetic studies of cystinuria patients.

  1. Diverse application of MRI for mouse phenotyping.

    Wu, Yijen L; Lo, Cecilia W


    Small animal models, particularly mouse models, of human diseases are becoming an indispensable tool for biomedical research. Studies in animal models have provided important insights into the etiology of diseases and accelerated the development of therapeutic strategies. Detailed phenotypic characterization is essential, both for the development of such animal models and mechanistic studies into disease pathogenesis and testing the efficacy of experimental therapeutics. MRI is a versatile and noninvasive imaging modality with excellent penetration depth, tissue coverage, and soft tissue contrast. MRI, being a multi-modal imaging modality, together with proven imaging protocols and availability of good contrast agents, is ideally suited for phenotyping mutant mouse models. Here we describe the applications of MRI for phenotyping structural birth defects involving the brain, heart, and kidney in mice. The versatility of MRI and its ease of use are well suited to meet the rapidly increasing demands for mouse phenotyping in the coming age of functional genomics. Birth Defects Research 109:758-770, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.


    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This “Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse” system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent (tdTomato), and positron emission tomography (PET) (ttk) modalities. Transgenic colonies with different levels of tri-fusion reporter gene expression showed a linear correlation between all three-reporter proteins (R2=0.89 for TdTomato vs Fluc, R2=0.94 for Fluc vs TTK, R2=0.89 for TdTomato vs TTK) in vitro from tissue lysates and in vivo by optical and PET imaging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from this transgenics showed high level of reporter gene expression, which linearly correlated with the cell numbers (R2=0.99 for bioluminescence imaging (BLI)). Both BLI (R2=0.93) and micro-PET (R2=0.94) imaging of the subcutaneous implants of Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse derived MSCs in nude mice showed linear correlation with the cell numbers and across different imaging modalities (R2=0.97). Serial imaging of MSCs transplanted to mice with acute myocardial infarction (MI) by intramyocardial injection exhibited significantly higher signals in MI heart at days 2, 3, 4, and 7 (p<0.01). MSCs transplanted to the ischemic hindlimb of nude mice showed significantly higher BLI and PET signals in the first 2 weeks that dropped by 4th week due to poor cell survival. However, laser Doppler perfusion imaging revealed that blood circulation in the ischemic limb was significantly improved in the MSCs transplantation group compared with the control group. In summary, this mouse can be used as a source of donor cells and organs in various research areas such as stem cell research

  3. The Virtual Mouse Brain: A Computational Neuroinformatics Platform to Study Whole Mouse Brain Dynamics.

    Melozzi, Francesca; Woodman, Marmaduke M; Jirsa, Viktor K; Bernard, Christophe


    Connectome-based modeling of large-scale brain network dynamics enables causal in silico interrogation of the brain's structure-function relationship, necessitating the close integration of diverse neuroinformatics fields. Here we extend the open-source simulation software The Virtual Brain (TVB) to whole mouse brain network modeling based on individual diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)-based or tracer-based detailed mouse connectomes. We provide practical examples on how to use The Virtual Mouse Brain (TVMB) to simulate brain activity, such as seizure propagation and the switching behavior of the resting state dynamics in health and disease. TVMB enables theoretically driven experimental planning and ways to test predictions in the numerous strains of mice available to study brain function in normal and pathological conditions.

  4. Effects of the use of a special computer mouse : The HandShoe Mouse

    VAN ZWIETEN K. J.; K. Schmidt; Helder, P.; Lippens, P.; Zoubova, I.; Zinkovsky, A.


    With a conventional mouse a combination of thumb, ring- and little finger is required to realize optimal control in the horizontal (X-Y) plane. By providing a supporting contour for hand palm and fingers, it was noted that gripping and pinching of thumb and fingers (m. extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis) to control the mouse in the X-Y plane was no longer necessary. The supporting contour enables a near to fully relaxed flexor and extensor muscle position which is reflected by a signif...

  5. A report from the Sixth International Mouse Genome Conference

    Brown, S. [Saint Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics


    The Sixth Annual Mouse Genome Conference was held in October, 1992 at Buffalo, USA. The mouse is one of the primary model organisms in the Human Genome Project. Through the use of gene targeting studies the mouse has become a powerful biological model for the study of gene function and, in addition, the comparison of the many homologous mutations identified in human and mouse have widened our understanding of the biology of these two organisms. A primary goal in the mouse genome program has been to create a genetic map of STSs of high resolution (<1cM) that would form the basis for the physical mapping of the whole mouse genome. Buffalo saw substantial new progress towards the goal of a very high density genetic map and the beginnings of substantive efforts towards physical mapping in chromosome regions with a high density of genetic markers.

  6. Prostaglandin modulation of mouse and human sperm capacitation.

    Herrero, M B; Viggiano, J M; Boquet, M; Gimeno, M A


    To determine whether prostaglandins produce a capacitation and/or acrosome reaction, the effect of prostaglandins on capacitated mouse spermatozoa and the effect of prostaglandin pre-incubation on human and mouse spermatozoa were studied. Prostaglandins did not induce an acrosome reaction in capacitated mouse sperm. PGE1 pre-incubation in a protein-free medium enhanced acrosome loss of mouse sperm challenged with A-23187 or solubilized mouse zona pellucida. Human sperm were pre-incubated in media containing prostaglandins, and an acrosome reaction was induced with calcium ionophore or human follicular fluid. PGE1 pre-incubation enhanced acrosome loss by human sperm when the action was induced with calcium ionophore, but had no effect on follicular fluid induction. We conclude that PGE1 acts as a capacitating factor in vitro for mouse spermatozoa, and enhances acrosome-reaction induction with calcium ionophore in human spermatozoa.

  7. Decerebrate mouse model for studies of the spinal cord circuits

    Meehan, Claire Francesca; Mayr, Kyle A; Manuel, Marin


    The adult decerebrate mouse model (a mouse with the cerebrum removed) enables the study of sensory-motor integration and motor output from the spinal cord for several hours without compromising these functions with anesthesia. For example, the decerebrate mouse is ideal for examining locomotor...... behavior using intracellular recording approaches, which would not be possible using current anesthetized preparations. This protocol describes the steps required to achieve a low-blood-loss decerebration in the mouse and approaches for recording signals from spinal cord neurons with a focus on motoneurons...

  8. Extremely underwound chromosomal DNA in nucleoids of mouse sarcoma cells.

    Hartwig, M; Matthes, E; Arnold, W


    The superhelical properties of chromosomal DNA from cells of a mouse sarcoma were investigated in neutral sucrose gradients containing ethidium bromide. Removal of negative supercoiling from the DNA of the sarcoma cells required a substantially higher dye concentration than was necessary in the case of DNA from cultured mouse fibroblasts. The calculated value of the mean superhelical density in malignant cells (sigma = -0.14) appears abnormally high compared with the value (sigma = -0.09) obtained for DNA of mouse fibroblasts. Chromosomal DNA from mouse sarcoma cells is therefore concluded to be highly deficient in helical turns.

  9. The vasculome of the mouse brain.

    Shuzhen Guo

    Full Text Available The blood vessel is no longer viewed as passive plumbing for the brain. Increasingly, experimental and clinical findings suggest that cerebral endothelium may possess endocrine and paracrine properties - actively releasing signals into and receiving signals from the neuronal parenchyma. Hence, metabolically perturbed microvessels may contribute to central nervous system (CNS injury and disease. Furthermore, cerebral endothelium can serve as sensors and integrators of CNS dysfunction, releasing measurable biomarkers into the circulating bloodstream. Here, we define and analyze the concept of a brain vasculome, i.e. a database of gene expression patterns in cerebral endothelium that can be linked to other databases and systems of CNS mediators and markers. Endothelial cells were purified from mouse brain, heart and kidney glomeruli. Total RNA were extracted and profiled on Affymetrix mouse 430 2.0 micro-arrays. Gene expression analysis confirmed that these brain, heart and glomerular preparations were not contaminated by brain cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or neurons, cardiomyocytes or kidney tubular cells respectively. Comparison of the vasculome between brain, heart and kidney glomeruli showed that endothelial gene expression patterns were highly organ-dependent. Analysis of the brain vasculome demonstrated that many functionally active networks were present, including cell adhesion, transporter activity, plasma membrane, leukocyte transmigration, Wnt signaling pathways and angiogenesis. Analysis of representative genome-wide-association-studies showed that genes linked with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke were detected in the brain vasculome. Finally, comparison of our mouse brain vasculome with representative plasma protein databases demonstrated significant overlap, suggesting that the vasculome may be an important source of circulating signals in blood. Perturbations in cerebral endothelial function may profoundly

  10. Significant determinants of mouse pain behaviour.

    Michael S Minett

    Full Text Available Transgenic mouse behavioural analysis has furthered our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying damage sensing and pain. However, it is not unusual for conflicting data on the pain phenotypes of knockout mice to be generated by reputable groups. Here we focus on some technical aspects of measuring mouse pain behaviour that are often overlooked, which may help explain discrepancies in the pain literature. We examined touch perception using von Frey hairs and mechanical pain thresholds using the Randall-Selitto test. Thermal pain thresholds were measured using the Hargreaves apparatus and a thermal place preference test. Sodium channel Nav1.7 knockout mice show a mechanical deficit in the hairy skin, but not the paw, whilst shaving the abdominal hair abolished this phenotype. Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 knockout mice show deficits in noxious mechanosensation in the tail, but not the paw. TRPA1 knockout mice, however, have a loss of noxious mechanosensation in the paw but not the tail. Studies of heat and cold sensitivity also show variability depending on the intensity of the stimulus. Deleting Nav1.7, Nav1.8 or Nav1.9 in Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons attenuates responses to slow noxious heat ramps, whilst responses to fast noxious heat ramps are only reduced when Nav1.7 is lost in large diameter sensory neurons. Deleting Nav1.7 from all sensory neurons attenuates responses to noxious cooling but not extreme cold. Finally, circadian rhythms dramatically influence behavioural outcome measures such as von Frey responses, which change by 80% over the day. These observations demonstrate that fully characterising the phenotype of a transgenic mouse strain requires a range of behavioural pain models. Failure to conduct behavioural tests at different anatomical locations, stimulus intensities, and at different points in the circadian cycle may lead to a pain behavioural phenotype being misinterpreted, or missed altogether.

  11. Mouse models of the metabolic syndrome.

    Kennedy, Arion J; Ellacott, Kate L J; King, Victoria L; Hasty, Alyssa H


    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by obesity concomitant with other metabolic abnormalities such as hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein levels, elevated blood pressure and raised fasting glucose levels. The precise definition of MetS, the relationships of its metabolic features, and what initiates it, are debated. However, obesity is on the rise worldwide, and its association with these metabolic symptoms increases the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (among many other diseases). Research needs to determine the mechanisms by which obesity and MetS increase the risk of disease. In light of this growing epidemic, it is imperative to develop animal models of MetS. These models will help determine the pathophysiological basis for MetS and how MetS increases the risk for other diseases. Among the various animal models available to study MetS, mice are the most commonly used for several reasons. First, there are several spontaneously occurring obese mouse strains that have been used for decades and that are very well characterized. Second, high-fat feeding studies require only months to induce MetS. Third, it is relatively easy to study the effects of single genes by developing transgenic or gene knockouts to determine the influence of a gene on MetS. For these reasons, this review will focus on the benefits and caveats of the most common mouse models of MetS. It is our hope that the reader will be able to use this review as a guide for the selection of mouse models for their own studies.

  12. A humanoid mouse model of autism.

    Takumi, Toru


    Even now fruit of the human genome project is available, we have difficulties to approach neuropsychiatric disorders at the molecular level. Autism is a complex psychiatric illness but has received considerable attention as a developmental brain disorder not only from basic researchers but also from society. Substantial evidence suggests that chromosomal abnormalities contribute to autism risk. The duplication of human chromosome 15q11-13 is known to be the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality in autism. We succeeded to generate mice with a 6.3-Mb-wide interstitial duplication in mouse chromosome 7c that is highly syntenic to human 15q11-13 by using a Cre-loxP-based chromosome-engineering technique. The only paternally duplicated mice display autistic behavioral features such as poor social interaction and stereotypical behavior, and exhibit a developmental abnormality in ultrasonic vocalizations as well as anxiety. The detailed analysis focusing on a non-coding small nucleolar RNA, MBII52, within the duplicated region, revealed that the paternally duplicated mice alter the editing ratio of serotonin (5-HT) 2c receptor pre-mRNA and intracellular calcium responses by a 5-HT2c receptor specific agonist are changed in neurons. This result may explain one of molecular mechanisms of abnormal behaviors in the paternal duplicated mice. The first chromosome-engineered mouse model for human chromosome 15q11-13 duplication fulfills not only face validity of human autistic phenotypes but also construct validity based on human chromosome abnormality. This model will be a founder mouse for forward genetics of autistic disease and an invaluable tool for its therapeutic development.

  13. Mouse hypospadias: A critical examination and definition.

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Cao, Mei; Shen, Joel; Cooke, Paul; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald R


    Hypospadias is a common malformation whose etiology is based upon perturbation of normal penile development. The mouse has been previously used as a model of hypospadias, despite an unacceptably wide range of definitions for this malformation. The current paper presents objective criteria and a definition of mouse hypospadias. Accordingly, diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced penile malformations were examined at 60 days postnatal (P60) in mice treated with DES over the age range of 12 days embryonic to 20 days postnatal (E12-P20). DES-induced hypospadias involves malformation of the urethral meatus, which is most severe in DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups, and less so or absent in the other treatment groups. A frenulum-like ventral tether between the penis and the prepuce was seen in the most severely affected DES-treated mice. Internal penile morphology was also altered in the DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups (with little effect in the other DES treatment groups). Thus, adverse effects of DES are a function of the period of DES treatment and most severe in the P0-P10 period. In "estrogen mutant mice" (NERKI, βERKO, αERKO and AROM+) hypospadias was only seen in AROM+ male mice having genetically-engineered elevation is serum estrogen. Significantly, mouse hypospadias was only seen distally at and near the urethral meatus where epithelial fusion events are known to take place and never in the penile midshaft, where urethral formation occurs via an entirely different morphogenetic process.

  14. Isolation and analysis of mouse microglial cells.

    Garcia, Jenny A; Cardona, Sandra M; Cardona, Astrid E


    Microglia are mononuclear phagocytes that make up about 10% of the central nervous system (CNS). They are known for their surveillant behavior, which involves continuous monitoring of neural tissue by extending and retracting their processes. Microglial cells are derived from myeloid progenitor cells and play important roles in homeostasis as well as inflammatory and immune responses in the brain. This unit describes several microglial cell isolation protocols that can be easily adapted for projects requiring a rapid and efficient analysis of mouse microglial cells by flow cytometry. Methods for visualizing microglial cells using in situ immunohistochemistry and immunochemistry in free-floating sections are also included.

  15. Mouse Model of Human Hereditary Pancreatitis


    models that recapitulate the human disease . Therefore, we introduced mutations in the endogenous mouse T7 cationic trypsinogen gene and obtained several...ACCOMPLISHMENTS: What were the major goals of the project? Our original proposal had three specific aims. Aim 1. Identify and biochemically characterize...pancreatitis in mutant mice which do not develop spontaneous disease (strains T7-D23del-Cre, T7-D23del-Neo, T7-K24R-Cre and T7- K24R-Neo), will be

  16. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    Generoso, W.M.


    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: house mouse [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available house mouse Mus musculus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Mus_musculus_L.png Mus_musculus..._NL.png Mus_musculus_S.png Mus_musculus_NS.png ...

  18. Apoptosis in the lens anlage of the heritable lens aplastic mouse (lap mouse).

    Aso, S; Tashiro, M; Baba, R; Sawaki, M; Noda, S; Fujita, M


    Adult homozygous lap mice show various eye abnormalities, such as aphakia, retinal disorganization, and dysplasia of the cornea and anterior chamber. In the fetal eye of a homozygous lap mouse, the lens placode seems to develop normally. However, the lens vesicle progresses abnormally to form a mass of cells without a cavity, and the mass vanishes soon afterward. We examined cell death in the lens anlage of this mutant. The lens anlagen of homozygous lap and normal mice from days 10 to 12 of gestation were observed by light microscopy after DNA end-labeling by immunohistochemistry and by transmission electron microscopy. By light microscopy, a slight frequency of cell death was detected in the lens anlage encircling the surface ectoderm and in the anlage or in the anlage of both homozygous lap mice and normal mice at day 10 of gestation. Cell death was seen in the lens anlage encircling the surface ectoderm in the normal mouse and sporadically in the anlage of the homozygous lap mouse at day 10.5 of gestation. Cell death was visible at the area of the lens vesicle attached to the surface ectoderm and encircling the surrounding surface ectoderm in the normal mouse, and in the lens anlage encircling the surface ectoderm and the apex areas of the lens anlage in the homozygous lap mouse at day 11 of gestation. At day 12 of gestation, almost no cell death was observed in the lens anlage of the normal mouse. However, extensive areas of cell death were still seen in the lens anlage at its apex, at the inner region, and encircling the surface ectoderm in the homozygous lap mouse. Electron microscopic observation showed that the dead cells observed in the lens anlagen by light microscopy in normal and lap mice are the result of apoptosis. In lap mice, cells with cytoplasmic condensation were observed mainly at days 10 and 10.5 of gestation. Many apoptotic bodies which had been phagocytosed by adjacent cells were seen predominantly at day 11 of gestation. At day 12 of

  19. Involvement of mouse and porcine PLCζ-induced calcium oscillations in preimplantation development of mouse embryos

    Yoneda, Akihiro, E-mail: [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan); Division of Molecular Therapeutics, Center for Food & Medical Innovation, Hokkaido University (Japan); Watanabe, Tomomasa [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan)


    In mammals, phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ) has the ability to trigger calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in oocytes, leading to oocyte activation. Although there is a species-specific difference in the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern, whether PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations affect preimplantation embryonic development remains unclear. Here, we show that Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in mouse PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes stopped just before pronuclear formation, while that in porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes continued for several hours after pronuclei had been formed. This difference of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in oocytes after pronuclear formation was dependent on the difference in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence of PLCζ between the mouse and pig. However, mouse and porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts regardless of the absence or presence of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations after pronuclear formation. Furthermore, the developmental rate of mouse or porcine PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different from that of strontium-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids. These results suggest that the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern in mouse oocytes is dependent on the NLS sequence of PLCζ and injection of PLCζ may be a useful method for activation of round spermatid-injected and somatic nuclear transferred oocytes. - Highlights: • Porcine PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations continued after pronuclear formation. • The Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern was dependent on the difference in the NLS sequence of PLCζ. • PLCζ-activated oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts. • PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids developed to blastocysts.

  20. Surveillance of hantaviruses in Poland: a study of animal reservoirs and human hantavirus disease in Subcarpathia.

    Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gaweł, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz


    The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified.

  1. Diversity of Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes among small rodents in southwestern Poland.

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Kváč, Martin; Sak, Bohumil; Hildebrand, Joanna; Leśniańska, Kinga


    Diversity of Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in wild small rodent populations still remains incomplete and only few molecular studies have been conducted among these hosts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether small rodents, i.e., Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Mus musculus and Myodes glareolus act as hosts of E. bieneusi and can play an important role in spore spreading in the environment of south-western Poland. Molecular analyses were conducted to determine pathogen genotypes. A total of 191 fecal and 251 spleen samples collected from 311 rodent individuals were examined for the occurrence of E. bieneusi by PCR amplifying ITS gene. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in rodent samples was 38.9%. The nucleotide sequences of ITS region of E. bieneusi revealed the presence a total of 12 genotypes with two being already known, i.e., D and gorilla 1 genotypes. The remaining ten are novel genotypes (WR1-WR10) which segregated into three groups in a neighbor joining phylogeny. This study reports for the first time E. bieneusi occurrence in wild living rodents in Poland and shows extensive genetic diversity within E. bieneusi isolates of rodent origin.

  2. IL-6 and mouse oocyte spindle.

    Jashoman Banerjee

    Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is considered a major indicator of the acute-phase inflammatory response. Endometriosis and pelvic inflammation, diseases that manifest elevated levels of IL-6, are commonly associated with higher infertility. However, the mechanistic link between elevated levels of IL-6 and poor oocyte quality is still unclear. In this work, we explored the direct role of this cytokine as a possible mediator for impaired oocyte spindle and chromosomal structure, which is a critical hurdle in the management of infertility. Metaphase-II mouse oocytes were exposed to recombinant mouse IL-6 (50, 100 and 200 ng/mL for 30 minutes and subjected to indirect immunofluorescent staining to identify alterations in the microtubule and chromosomal alignment compared to untreated controls. The deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment were evaluated utilizing both fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and were quantitated with a previously reported scoring system. Our results showed that IL-6 caused a dose-dependent deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment in the treated oocytes as compared to the untreated group. Indeed, IL-6 at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL caused deterioration in the spindle structure in 60% of the oocytes, which increased significantly (P<0.0001 as IL-6 concentration was increased. In conclusion, elevated levels of IL-6 associated with endometriosis and pelvic inflammation may reduce the fertilizing capacity of human oocyte through a mechanism that involves impairment of the microtubule and chromosomal structure.

  3. ROCK inhibition prevents early mouse embryo development.

    Duan, Xing; Chen, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen


    ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector that is important for actin assembly and is involved in various cellular functions, including cell contraction, migration, motility, and tumor cell invasion. In this study, we investigated ROCK expression and function during early mouse embryo development. Inhibiting ROCK by Y-27632 treatment at the zygote stage resulted in first cleavage failure, and most embryos failed to develop to the 8-cell stage. When adding Y-27632 at the 8-cell stage, embryos failed to undergo compaction and could not develop into blastocysts. In addition, fluorescence staining intensity analysis indicated that actin expression at blastomere membranes was significantly reduced. After ROCK inhibition, two or more nuclei were observed in a cell, which indicated possible cytokinesis failure. Moreover, after ROCK inhibition with Y-27632, the phosphorylation levels of LIMK1/2, a downstream molecule of ROCK, were decreased at blastomere membranes. Thus, our results showed conserved roles for ROCK in this mammalian embryo model and indicated that a ROCK-LIMK1/2-actin pathway might regulate cleavage and blastocyst formation during early mouse embryo development.

  4. Genetic Networks in Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells

    Felix L Struebing


    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are the output neuron of the eye, transmitting visual information from the retina through the optic nerve to the brain. The importance of RGCs for vision is demonstrated in blinding diseases where RGCs are lost, such as in glaucoma or after optic nerve injury. In the present study, we hypothesize that normal RGC function is transcriptionally regulated. To test our hypothesis, we examine large retinal expression microarray datasets from recombinant inbred mouse strains in GeneNetwork and define transcriptional networks of RGCs and their subtypes. Two major and functionally distinct transcriptional networks centering around Thy1 and Tubb3 (Class III beta-tubulin were identified. Each network is independently regulated and modulated by unique genomic loci. Meta-analysis of publically available data confirms that RGC subtypes are differentially susceptible to death, with alpha-RGCs and intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs being less sensitive to cell death than other RGC subtypes in a mouse model of glaucoma.

  5. Mouse genome engineering using designer nucleases.

    Hermann, Mario; Cermak, Tomas; Voytas, Daniel F; Pelczar, Pawel


    Transgenic mice carrying site-specific genome modifications (knockout, knock-in) are of vital importance for dissecting complex biological systems as well as for modeling human diseases and testing therapeutic strategies. Recent advances in the use of designer nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system for site-specific genome engineering open the possibility to perform rapid targeted genome modification in virtually any laboratory species without the need to rely on embryonic stem (ES) cell technology. A genome editing experiment typically starts with identification of designer nuclease target sites within a gene of interest followed by construction of custom DNA-binding domains to direct nuclease activity to the investigator-defined genomic locus. Designer nuclease plasmids are in vitro transcribed to generate mRNA for microinjection of fertilized mouse oocytes. Here, we provide a protocol for achieving targeted genome modification by direct injection of TALEN mRNA into fertilized mouse oocytes.

  6. Germ cell transplantation in infertility mouse


    This work investigated the spermatogenesis in an infertility BALB/c-nu mouse model by reinfusing germline stem cells into seminiferous tubules.Donor germ cells were isolated from male FVB/NJ-GFP transgenic mice.Seminiferous tubule microiniection was applied to achieve intratubular germ cell transfer.The germ cells were injected into exposed testes of the infertility mice.We used green fluorescence and DNA analysis of donor cells from GFP transgenic mice as genetic marker.The natural mating and Southern blot methods were applied to analyze the effect of sperm cell transplantation and the sperm function after seminiferous tubule microinjecUon.The spermatogenesis was morphologically observed from the seminiferous tubules in 41/60(68.33%)of the injected recipient mice using allogeneic donor cells.In the colonized testes,matured spermatozoa were seen in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules.In this research,BALB/c-nu infertility mouse model,the recipient animal,was used to avoid immunological rejection of donor cells,and germ cell transplantation was applied to overcome infertility caused by busulfan treatment.These results demonstrate that this technique of germ cell transplantation is of great use.Germ cell transplantation could be potentially valuable to oncological patients.

  7. Mouse models of anemia of cancer.

    Airie Kim

    Full Text Available Anemia of cancer (AC may contribute to cancer-related fatigue and impair quality of life. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of AC could facilitate better treatment, but animal models to study AC are lacking. We characterized four syngeneic C57BL/6 mouse cancers that cause AC. Mice with two different rapidly-growing metastatic lung cancers developed the characteristic findings of anemia of inflammation (AI, with dramatically different degrees of anemia. Mice with rapidly-growing metastatic melanoma also developed a severe anemia by 14 days, with hematologic and inflammatory parameters similar to AI. Mice with a slow-growing peritoneal ovarian cancer developed an iron-deficiency anemia, likely secondary to chronically impaired nutrition and bleeding into the peritoneal cavity. Of the four models, hepcidin mRNA levels were increased only in the milder lung cancer model. Unlike in our model of systemic inflammation induced by heat-killed Brucella abortus, ablation of hepcidin in the ovarian cancer and the milder lung cancer mouse models did not affect the severity of anemia. Hepcidin-independent mechanisms play an important role in these murine models of AC.

  8. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils.

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc; Glenthøj, Andreas; Borregaard, Niels; Urban, Constantin F


    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse is the most widely used model organism. Neutrophils are essential immune cells to prevent opportunistic mycoses. To explore potential differences between the rodent infection model and the human host, we compared the interactions of C. albicans with neutrophil granulocytes from mice and humans. We revealed that murine neutrophils exhibited a significantly lower ability to kill C. albicans than their human counterparts. Strikingly, C. albicans yeast cells formed germ tubes upon internalization by murine neutrophils, eventually rupturing the neutrophil membrane and thereby, killing the phagocyte. On the contrary, growth and subsequent escape of C. albicans are blocked inside human neutrophils. According to our findings, this blockage in human neutrophils might be a result of higher levels of MPO activity and the presence of α-defensins. We therefore outline differences in antifungal immune defense between humans and mouse strains, which facilitates a more accurate interpretation of in vivo results.

  9. Fundamental cryobiology of mouse ova and embryos

    Leibo, S. P.


    An increasing fraction of mouse ova and embryos are killed as the rate at which they are cooled to -196/sup 0/C is increased. The survival of these cells depends not only on cooling rate, but also on the minimum subzero temperature to which the cells are cooled. Low temperature microscopy demonstrates that lethal cooling rates are coincident with those that produce intracellular ice formation, and that the lethal temperature appears to be that at which intracellular ice forms. Furthermore, the microscopy shows that ova do not dehydrate when cooled at rates that produce intracellular ice and cell death, but undergo substantial shrinkage when cooled at rates that produce little intracellular ice and high survival. Measurements of the water permeability of mouse ova and the temperature coefficient of that permeability can be used to test a mathematical model formulated to describe the kinetics of water loss at subzero temperatures from a hypothetical cell. The observed dehydration of ova cooled to subzero temperatures at given rates is approximately predicted by the mathematical model, although there is some quantitative discrepancy between the observed and calculated responses.

  10. Endonucleases : new tools to edit the mouse genome

    Wijshake, Tobias; Baker, Darren J.; van de Sluis, Bart


    Mouse transgenesis has been instrumental in determining the function of genes in the pathophysiology of human diseases and modification of genes by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells remains a widely used technology. However, this approach harbors a number of disadvantages, as it

  11. The mammalian gene function resource: The International Knockout Mouse Consortium

    A. Bradley (Allan); K. Anastassiadis (Konstantinos); A. Ayadi (Abdelkader); J.F. Battey (James); C. Bell (Cindy); M.-C. Birling (Marie-Christine); J. Bottomley (Joanna); S.D.M. Brown (Steve); F. Bürger (Friederike); C.J. Bult (Carol); W. Bushell (Wendy); F.S. Collins (Francis); C. Desaintes (Christian); B. Doe (Brendan); E. Aris (Economides); J.T. Eppig (Janan); R.H. Finnell (Richard); C. Fletcher (Colin); M. Fray (Martin); D. Frendewey (David); R.H. Friedel (Roland); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J. Hansen; Y. Hérault (Yann); G. Hicks (Geoffrey); A. Hörlein (Andreas); C. Houghton (Catherine); M. Hrabé De Angelis (Martin); D. Huylebroeck (Danny); V. Iyer (Vivek); P.J. de Jong (Pieter); J.A. Kadin (James); C. Kaloff (Cornelia); K. Kennedy (Karen); M. Koutsourakis (Manousos); K.C. Kent Lloyd (K.); S. Marschall (Susan); J. Mason (Jeremy); C. McKerlie (Colin); M.P. McLeod (Michael); H. von Melchner (Harald); M. Moore (Matt); A.O. Mujica (Alejandro); A. Nagy (Andras); M. Nefedov (Mikhail); L.M. Nutter (Lauryl); G. Pavlovic (Guillaume); J.L. Peterson (Jane); I. Pollock; R. Ramirez-Solis (Ramiro); D.E. Rancourt (Derrick); M. Raspa (Marcello); J.E. Remacle (Jacques); M. Ringwald (Martin); B. Rosen (Barry); N. Rosenthal (Nadia); J. Rossant (Janet); P. Ruiz Noppinger (Patricia); S. Ryder; J.Z. Schick (Joel Zupicich); F. Schnütgen (Frank); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Seisenberger (Claudia); M. Selloum (Mohammed); E.M. Simpson (Elizabeth); W.C. Skarnes (William); D. Smedley (Damian); W.L. Stanford (William); A. Francis Stewart (A.); K. Stone (Kevin); K. Swan (Kate); H. Tadepally (Hamsa); J.L. Teboul (Jean Louis); G.P. Tocchini-Valentini (Glauco); D. Valenzuela (David); A.P. West (Anthony); K.-I. Yamamura (Ken-Ichi); Y. Yoshinaga (Yuko); M. Wurst (Martin)


    textabstractIn 2007, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) made the ambitious promise to generate mutations in virtually every protein-coding gene of the mouse genome in a concerted worldwide action. Now, 5 years later, the IKMC members have developed highthroughput gene trapping and, i

  12. Development of hematopoietic stem cell activity in the mouse embryo.

    A.M. Müller (Albrecht); A. Medvinsky; J. Strouboulis (John); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)


    textabstractThe precise time of appearance of the first hematopoietic stem cell activity in the developing mouse embryo is unknown. Recently the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region of the developing mouse embryo has been shown to possess hematopoietic colony-forming activity (CFU-S) in irradiated recipie

  13. Systematic design of mouse Vh gene family-specific oligonucleotides

    Seijen, AM; Seijen, HG; Bos, NA


    Kabat's database has often been used to design mouse Vh gene-specific 5 ' primers. The emphasis was mostly on constructing a universal (degenerate) 5 ' primer or 5 ' primer set, which would be able to match every mouse Vh gene. We were interested in finding oligonucleotides that could be used as pri

  14. The mammalian gene function resource: The International Knockout Mouse Consortium

    A. Bradley (Allan); K. Anastassiadis (Konstantinos); A. Ayadi (Abdelkader); J.F. Battey (James); C. Bell (Cindy); M.-C. Birling (Marie-Christine); J. Bottomley (Joanna); S.D.M. Brown (Steve); F. Bürger (Friederike); C.J. Bult (Carol); W. Bushell (Wendy); F.S. Collins (Francis); C. Desaintes (Christian); B. Doe (Brendan); E. Aris (Economides); J.T. Eppig (Janan); R.H. Finnell (Richard); C. Fletcher (Colin); M. Fray (Martin); D. Frendewey (David); R.H. Friedel (Roland); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J. Hansen; Y. Hérault (Yann); G. Hicks (Geoffrey); A. Hörlein (Andreas); C. Houghton (Catherine); M. Hrabé De Angelis (Martin); D. Huylebroeck (Danny); V. Iyer (Vivek); P.J. de Jong (Pieter); J.A. Kadin (James); C. Kaloff (Cornelia); K. Kennedy (Karen); M. Koutsourakis (Manousos); K.C. Kent Lloyd (K.); S. Marschall (Susan); J. Mason (Jeremy); C. McKerlie (Colin); M.P. McLeod (Michael); H. von Melchner (Harald); M. Moore (Matt); A.O. Mujica (Alejandro); A. Nagy (Andras); M. Nefedov (Mikhail); L.M. Nutter (Lauryl); G. Pavlovic (Guillaume); J.L. Peterson (Jane); I. Pollock; R. Ramirez-Solis (Ramiro); D.E. Rancourt (Derrick); M. Raspa (Marcello); J.E. Remacle (Jacques); M. Ringwald (Martin); B. Rosen (Barry); N. Rosenthal (Nadia); J. Rossant (Janet); P. Ruiz Noppinger (Patricia); S. Ryder; J.Z. Schick (Joel Zupicich); F. Schnütgen (Frank); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Seisenberger (Claudia); M. Selloum (Mohammed); E.M. Simpson (Elizabeth); W.C. Skarnes (William); D. Smedley (Damian); W.L. Stanford (William); A. Francis Stewart (A.); K. Stone (Kevin); K. Swan (Kate); H. Tadepally (Hamsa); J.L. Teboul (Jean Louis); G.P. Tocchini-Valentini (Glauco); D. Valenzuela (David); A.P. West (Anthony); K.-I. Yamamura (Ken-Ichi); Y. Yoshinaga (Yuko); M. Wurst (Martin)


    textabstractIn 2007, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) made the ambitious promise to generate mutations in virtually every protein-coding gene of the mouse genome in a concerted worldwide action. Now, 5 years later, the IKMC members have developed highthroughput gene trapping and,

  15. Mouse Transcobalamin Has Features Resembling both Human Transcobalamin and Haptocorrin

    Hygum, Katrine; Lildballe, Dorte L; Greibe, Eva H


    in the kidney. By precipitation to insolubilised antibodies against mouse TC, we also showed that >97% of the Cbl-binding capacity and >98% of the Cbl were precipitated in serum. This indicates that TC is the only Cbl-binding protein in the mouse circulation. Our data show that TC but not HC is present...

  16. Systematic design of mouse Vh gene family-specific oligonucleotides

    Seijen, AM; Seijen, HG; Bos, NA


    Kabat's database has often been used to design mouse Vh gene-specific 5 ' primers. The emphasis was mostly on constructing a universal (degenerate) 5 ' primer or 5 ' primer set, which would be able to match every mouse Vh gene. We were interested in finding oligonucleotides that could be used as pri

  17. Cloning and expression of mouse legumain, a lysosomal endopeptidase.

    Chen, J M; Dando, P M; Stevens, R A; Fortunato, M; Barrett, A J


    Legumain, a recently discovered mammalian cysteine endopeptidase, was found in all mouse tissues examined, but was particularly abundant in kidney and placenta. The distribution in subcellular fractions of mouse and rat kidney showed a lysosomal localization, and activity was detectable only after the organelles were disrupted. Nevertheless, ratios of legumain activity to that of cathepsin B differed considerably between mouse tissues. cDNA encoding mouse legumain was cloned and sequenced, the deduced amino acid sequence proving to be 83% identical to that of the human protein [Chen, Dando, Rawlings, Brown, Young, Stevens, Hewitt, Watts and Barrett (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8090-8098]. Recombinant mouse legumain was expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells by use of a vector containing a cytomegalovirus promoter. The recombinant enzyme was partially purified and found to be an asparagine-specific endopeptidase closely similar to naturally occurring pig kidney legumain. PMID:9742219

  18. Radioimmunodetection of human choriocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse


    Objective: To study the efficiency of radioimmuno-detection in locating the xenograft of human chorio-carcinoma in nude mouse. Methods: Radioimmuno-detection was performed using cocktail antibodies of 131I-labeled mouse anti-human chorionic gonadotropin monoclonal antibodies to locate the xenograft of human choriocarcinoma in nude mouse. Radioactivity in different tissues was measured and the tumor/non-tumor ratio was calculated. Normal mouse IgG was used as control IgG. Results: The accumulation of radioactivity in the xenograft area could be recognized as early as 24 h after the injection of the radiolabelled antibodies. 72-96 h after the injection, the xenograft could be clearly shown. The minimal shown xenograft was 0.8 cm in diameter. The tumor/non-tumor ratio increased with the time and was obviously higher than that in control group. Conclusion: Radioimmunodetection can efficiently locate human choriocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse.

  19. The reproductive ecology of the house mouse.

    Bronson, F H


    This paper attempts to integrate the physiological and ecological perspectives of the reproductive biology of the house mouse (Mus musculus). The endeavor is made within a larger context to provide a prototype for mammalian reproductive ecology in general. Specifically, the environmental regulation of the reproduction of Mus musculus is examined in relation to its ecological opportunism and, in particular, in relation to its history of global colonization. House mice can live as commensals of man or under totally feral conditions. Stable, high density, commensal populations are characterized by an insular division of the living space into demeterritories, each dominated by a single male. Feral populations typically are characterized by temporal, spatial, and social instability. Territoriality is improbable under such conditions, particularly given the necessity for large home ranges in most feral habitats. In both feral and commensal populations, however, male aggressiveness promotes the large-scale dispersal of young, all of which are potential colonizers. Of the ten or so environmental factors known to influence reproduction in house mice, seven probably are of routine importance in natural populations: diurnal modulation by daily light:dark cycles; caloric intake; nutrition; extreme temperature; agaonistic stimuli; socio-tactile cues; and priming pheronomes. The last two factors named operate directly on the secretion of luteinizing hormone or prolactin; the others act at many points in the reproductive system. Reproduction in the house mouse seems divorced from photoperiodically induced seasonality; indeed, this species breeds well even in constant darkness. Seasonal breeding may or may not then occur, depending upon dietary considerations, with or without a secondary interaction with variation in ambient temperature. There is no evidence for a dependence upon secondary plant compounds. Some of the effects of priming pheromones that have been observed

  20. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects

    Korstanje, Ron; Desai, Jigar; Lazar, Gloria; King, Benjamin; Rollins, Jarod; Spurr, Melissa; Joseph, Jamie; Kadambi, Sindhuja; Li, Yang; Cherry, Allison; Matteson, Paul G.; Paigen, Beverly; Millonig, James H.


    Korstanje R, Desai J, Lazar G, King B, Rollins J, Spurr M, Joseph J, Kadambi S, Li Y, Cherry A, Matteson PG, Paigen B, Millonig JH. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects. Physiol Genomics 35: 296-30

  1. Innovations in phenotyping of mouse models in the German Mouse Clinic.

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Neschen, Susanne; Adler, Thure; Afonso, Luciana Caminha; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Bohla, Alexander; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Cohrs, Christian; Dewert, Anna; Fridrich, Barbara; Garrett, Lillian; Glasl, Lisa; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Hurt, Anja; Janas, Eva; Janik, Dirk; Kahle, Melanie; Kistler, Martin; Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Lengger, Christoph; Ludwig, Tonia; Maier, Holger; Marschall, Susan; Micklich, Kateryna; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Räss, Michael; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Scheerer, Markus; Schiller, Evelyn; Schrewe, Anja; Steinkamp, Ralph; Stöger, Claudia; Sun, Minxuan; Szymczak, Wilfried; Treise, Irina; Vargas Panesso, Ingrid Liliana; Vernaleken, Alexandra M; Willershäuser, Monja; Wolff-Muscate, Annemarie; Zeh, Ramona; Adamski, Jerzy; Beckers, Johannes; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Busch, Dirk H; Eickelberg, Oliver; Favor, Jack; Graw, Jochen; Höfler, Heinz; Höschen, Christoph; Katus, Hugo; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Neff, Frauke; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Stöger, Tobias; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin


    Under the label of the German Mouse Clinic (GMC), a concept has been developed and implemented that allows the better understanding of human diseases on the pathophysiological and molecular level. This includes better understanding of the crosstalk between different organs, pleiotropy of genes, and the systemic impact of envirotypes and drugs. In the GMC, experts from various fields of mouse genetics and physiology, in close collaboration with clinicians, work side by side under one roof. The GMC is an open-access platform for the scientific community by providing phenotypic analysis in bilateral collaborations ("bottom-up projects") and as a partner and driver in international large-scale biology projects ("top-down projects"). Furthermore, technology development is a major topic in the GMC. Innovative techniques for primary and secondary screens are developed and implemented into the phenotyping pipelines (e.g., detection of volatile organic compounds, VOCs).

  2. Mouse, man, and meaning: bridging the semantics of mouse phenotype and human disease.

    Hancock, John M; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Beck, Tim; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Mungall, Chris; Schofield, Paul N


    Now that the laboratory mouse genome is sequenced and the annotation of its gene content is improving, the next major challenge is the annotation of the phenotypic associations of mouse genes. This requires the development of systematic phenotyping pipelines that use standardized phenotyping procedures which allow comparison across laboratories. It also requires the development of a sophisticated informatics infrastructure for the description and interchange of phenotype data. Here we focus on the current state of the art in the description of data produced by systematic phenotyping approaches using ontologies, in particular, the EQ (Entity-Quality) approach, and what developments are required to facilitate the linking of phenotypic descriptions of mutant mice to human diseases.

  3. A Transgenic Mouse Model of Poliomyelitis.

    Koike, Satoshi; Nagata, Noriyo


    Transgenic mice (tg mice) that express the human poliovirus receptor (PVR), CD155, are susceptible to poliovirus and develop a neurological disease that resembles human poliomyelitis. Assessment of the neurovirulence levels of poliovirus strains, including mutant viruses produced by reverse genetics, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus, and vaccine candidates, is useful for basic research of poliovirus pathogenicity, the surveillance of circulating polioviruses, and the quality control of oral live poliovirus vaccines, and does not require the use of monkeys. Furthermore, PVR-tg mice are useful for studying poliovirus tissue tropism and host immune responses. PVR-tg mice can be bred with mice deficient in the genes involved in viral pathogenicity. This report describes the methods used to analyze the pathogenicity and immune responses of poliovirus using the PVR-tg mouse model.

  4. Rosiglitazone induces mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse brain.

    Strum, Jay C; Shehee, Ron; Virley, David; Richardson, Jill; Mattie, Michael; Selley, Paula; Ghosh, Sujoy; Nock, Christina; Saunders, Ann; Roses, Allen


    Rosiglitazone was found to simulate mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse brain in an apolipoprotein (Apo) E isozyme-independent manner. Rosiglitazone induced both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and estrogen-stimulated related receptor alpha (ESRRA) mRNA, a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Transcriptomics and proteomics analysis suggested the mitochondria produced in the presence of human ApoE3 and E4 were not as metabolically efficient as those in the wild type or ApoE knockout mice. Thus, we propose that PPARgamma agonism induces neuronal mitochondrial biogenesis and improves glucose utilization leading to improved cellular function and provides mechanistic support for the improvement in cognition observed in treatment of Alzheimer's patients with rosiglitazone.

  5. Isolation and culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes.

    Ehler, Elisabeth; Moore-Morris, Thomas; Lange, Stephan


    Cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes have long been used to study myofibrillogenesis and myofibrillar functions. Cultured cardiomyocytes allow for easy investigation and manipulation of biochemical pathways, and their effect on the biomechanical properties of spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes. The following 2-day protocol describes the isolation and culture of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. We show how to easily dissect hearts from neonates, dissociate the cardiac tissue and enrich cardiomyocytes from the cardiac cell-population. We discuss the usage of different enzyme mixes for cell-dissociation, and their effects on cell-viability. The isolated cardiomyocytes can be subsequently used for a variety of morphological, electrophysiological, biochemical, cell-biological or biomechanical assays. We optimized the protocol for robustness and reproducibility, by using only commercially available solutions and enzyme mixes that show little lot-to-lot variability. We also address common problems associated with the isolation and culture of cardiomyocytes, and offer a variety of options for the optimization of isolation and culture conditions.

  6. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    Pennacchio, Len A.


    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  7. Photobiomodulation of early mouse embryo development

    Sviridova-Chailakhyan, T. A.; Fakhranurova, L. I.; Simonova, N. B.; Khramov, R. N.; Manokhin, A. A.; Paskevich, S. I.; Chailakhyan, L. M.


    The effect of artificial sunlight (AS) from a xenon source and of converted AS with an additional orange-red luminescent (λ MAX=626 nm) component (AS+L) on the development of mouse zygotes was investigated. A plastic screen with a photoluminophore layer was used for production of this orange-red luminescent (L) component. A single short-term (15 min) exposure produced a long-term stable positive effect on early embryo development of mice, which persisted during several days. After exposure to AS+L, a stimulating influence on preimplantation development was observed, in comparison with the control group without AS exposure. The positive effects were as follows: increase in percent of embryos (P <= 0.05) developed to the blastocyst stage (96.2 %) with hatching from the zona pellucida (80.8 %) within 82-96 hours in vitro compared to the control (67.1 % and 28.8 %, respectively).

  8. Role of ADARs in mouse development.

    Walkley, Carl R; Liddicoat, Brian; Hartner, Jochen C


    RNA editing by deamination of adenosine to inosine (A-to-I editing) is a physiologically important posttranscriptional mechanism that can regulate expression of genes by modifying their transcripts. A-to-I editing is mediated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) that can catalytically exchange adenosines to inosines, with varying efficiency, depending on the structure of the RNA substrates. Significant progress in understanding the biological function of mammalian ADARs has been made in the past decade by the creation and analysis of gene-targeted mice with disrupted or modified ADAR alleles. These studies have revealed important roles of ADARs in neuronal and hematopoietic tissue during embryonic and postnatal stages of mouse development.

  9. An extended retinotopic map of mouse cortex

    Zhuang, Jun; Ng, Lydia; Williams, Derric; Valley, Matthew; Li, Yang; Garrett, Marina; Waters, Jack


    Visual perception and behavior are mediated by cortical areas that have been distinguished using architectonic and retinotopic criteria. We employed fluorescence imaging and GCaMP6 reporter mice to generate retinotopic maps, revealing additional regions of retinotopic organization that extend into barrel and retrosplenial cortices. Aligning retinotopic maps to architectonic borders, we found a mismatch in border location, indicating that architectonic borders are not aligned with the retinotopic transition at the vertical meridian. We also assessed the representation of visual space within each region, finding that four visual areas bordering V1 (LM, P, PM and RL) display complementary representations, with overlap primarily at the central hemifield. Our results extend our understanding of the organization of mouse cortex to include up to 16 distinct retinotopically organized regions. DOI: PMID:28059700

  10. Memory B cells in mouse models.

    Bergmann, B; Grimsholm, O; Thorarinsdottir, K; Ren, W; Jirholt, P; Gjertsson, I; Mårtensson, I-L


    One of the principles behind vaccination, as shown by Edward Jenner in 1796, and host protection is immunological memory, and one of the cells central to this is the antigen-experienced memory B cell that responds rapidly upon re-exposure to the initiating antigen. Classically, memory B cells have been defined as progenies of germinal centre (GC) B cells expressing isotype-switched and substantially mutated B cell receptors (BCRs), that is, membrane-bound antibodies. However, it has become apparent over the last decade that this is not the only pathway to B cell memory. Here, we will discuss memory B cells in mice, as defined by (1) cell surface markers; (2) multiple layers; (3) formation in a T cell-dependent and either GC-dependent or GC-independent manner; (4) formation in a T cell-independent fashion. Lastly, we will touch upon memory B cells in; (5) mouse models of autoimmune diseases.

  11. Mouse Models of Neurofibromatosis 1 and 2

    David H. Gutmann


    Full Text Available The neurofibromatoses represent two of the most common inherited tumor predisposition syndromes affecting the nervous system. Individuals with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 are prone to the development of astrocytomas and peripheral nerve sheath tumors whereas those affected with neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2 develop schwannomas and meningiomas. The development of traditional homozygous knockout mice has provided insights into the roles of the NF1 and NF2 genes during development and in differentiation, but has been less instructive regarding the contribution of NF1 and NF2 dysfunction to the pathogenesis of specific benign and malignant tumors. Recent progress employing novel mouse targeting strategies has begun to illuminate the roles of the NF1 and NF2 gene products in the molecular pathogenesis of NF-associated tumors.

  12. Quantitative bioluminescence imaging of mouse tumor models.

    Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Kung, Andrew L


    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has become an essential technique for preclinical evaluation of anticancer therapeutics and provides sensitive and quantitative measurements of tumor burden in experimental cancer models. For light generation, a vector encoding firefly luciferase is introduced into human cancer cells that are grown as tumor xenografts in immunocompromised hosts, and the enzyme substrate luciferin is injected into the host. Alternatively, the reporter gene can be expressed in genetically engineered mouse models to determine the onset and progression of disease. In addition to expression of an ectopic luciferase enzyme, bioluminescence requires oxygen and ATP, thus only viable luciferase-expressing cells or tissues are capable of producing bioluminescence signals. Here, we summarize a BLI protocol that takes advantage of advances in hardware, especially the cooled charge-coupled device camera, to enable detection of bioluminescence in living animals with high sensitivity and a large dynamic range.

  13. The Mouse House: A brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947–2009

    Russell, Liane B.


    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Lab is often re-membered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-Chromosome s importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a valuable

  14. Mouse models for BRAF-induced cancers.

    Pritchard, C; Carragher, L; Aldridge, V; Giblett, S; Jin, H; Foster, C; Andreadi, C; Kamata, T


    Oncogenic mutations in the BRAF gene are detected in approximately 7% of human cancer samples with a particularly high frequency of mutation in malignant melanomas. Over 40 different missense BRAF mutations have been found, but the vast majority (>90%) represent a single nucleotide change resulting in a valine-->glutamate mutation at residue 600 ((V600E)BRAF). In cells cultured in vitro, (V600E)BRAF is able to stimulate endogenous MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase] and ERK phosphorylation leading to an increase in cell proliferation, cell survival, transformation, tumorigenicity, invasion and vascular development. Many of these hallmarks of cancer can be reversed by treatment of cells with siRNA (small interfering RNA) to BRAF or by inhibiting MEK, indicating that BRAF and MEK are attractive therapeutic targets in cancer samples with BRAF mutations. In order to fully understand the role of oncogenic BRAF in cancer development in vivo as well as to test the in vivo efficacy of anti-BRAF or anti-MEK therapies, GEMMs (genetically engineered mouse models) have been generated in which expression of oncogenic BRaf is conditionally dependent on the Cre recombinase. The delivery/activation of the Cre recombinase can be regulated in both a temporal and spatial manner and therefore these mouse models can be used to recapitulate the somatic mutation of BRAF that occurs in different tissues in the development of human cancer. The data so far obtained following Cre-mediated activation in haemopoietic tissue and the lung indicate that (V600E)BRAF mutation can drive tumour initiation and that its primary effect is to induce high levels of cyclin D1-mediated cell proliferation. However, hallmarks of OIS (oncogene-induced senescence) are evident that restrain further development of the tumour.

  15. Cardiac mouse lymphatics: developmental and anatomical update.

    Flaht-Zabost, Aleksandra; Gula, Grzegorz; Ciszek, Bogdan; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Madej, Maria; Niderla-Bielińska, Justyna; Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota; Ratajska, Anna


    The adult mouse heart possesses an extensive lymphatic plexus draining predominantly the subepicardium and the outer layer of the myocardial wall. However, the development of this plexus has not been entirely explored, partially because of the lack of suitable methods for its visualization as well as prolonged lymphatic vessel formation that starts prenatally and proceeds during postnatal stages. Also, neither the course nor location of collecting vessels draining lymph from the mouse heart have been precisely characterized. In this article, we report that murine cardiac lymphatic plexus development that is limited prenatally only to the subepicardial area, postnatally proceeds from the subepicardium toward the myocardial wall with the base-to-apex gradient; this plexus eventually reaches the outer half of the myocardium with a predominant location around branches of coronary arteries and veins. Based on multiple marker immunostaining, the molecular marker-phenotype of cardiac lymphatic endothelial cells can be characterized as: Prox-1(+), Lyve-1(+), VEGFR3(+), Podoplanin(+), VEGFR2(+), CD144(+), Tie2(+), CD31(+), vWF(-), CD34(-), CD133(-). There are two major collecting vessels: one draining the right and left ventricles along the left conal vein and running upwards to the left side of the pulmonary trunk and further to the nearest lymph nodes (under the aortic arch and near the trachea), and the other one with its major branch running along the left cardiac vein and further on the surface of the coronary sinus and the left atrium to paratracheal lymph nodes. The extracardiac collectors gain the smooth muscle cell layer during late postnatal stages.

  16. The functional landscape of mouse gene expression

    Zhang Wen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale quantitative analysis of transcriptional co-expression has been used to dissect regulatory networks and to predict the functions of new genes discovered by genome sequencing in model organisms such as yeast. Although the idea that tissue-specific expression is indicative of gene function in mammals is widely accepted, it has not been objectively tested nor compared with the related but distinct strategy of correlating gene co-expression as a means to predict gene function. Results We generated microarray expression data for nearly 40,000 known and predicted mRNAs in 55 mouse tissues, using custom-built oligonucleotide arrays. We show that quantitative transcriptional co-expression is a powerful predictor of gene function. Hundreds of functional categories, as defined by Gene Ontology 'Biological Processes', are associated with characteristic expression patterns across all tissues, including categories that bear no overt relationship to the tissue of origin. In contrast, simple tissue-specific restriction of expression is a poor predictor of which genes are in which functional categories. As an example, the highly conserved mouse gene PWP1 is widely expressed across different tissues but is co-expressed with many RNA-processing genes; we show that the uncharacterized yeast homolog of PWP1 is required for rRNA biogenesis. Conclusions We conclude that 'functional genomics' strategies based on quantitative transcriptional co-expression will be as fruitful in mammals as they have been in simpler organisms, and that transcriptional control of mammalian physiology is more modular than is generally appreciated. Our data and analyses provide a public resource for mammalian functional genomics.

  17. Biological activity of the bryostatin analog Merle 23 on mouse epidermal cells and mouse skin.

    Kelsey, Jessica S; Cataisson, Christophe; Chen, Jinqiu; Herrmann, Michelle A; Petersen, Mark E; Baumann, David O; McGowan, Kevin M; Yuspa, Stuart H; Keck, Gary E; Blumberg, Peter M


    Bryostatin 1, a complex macrocyclic lactone, is the subject of multiple clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. Although bryostatin 1 biochemically functions like the classic mouse skin tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to bind to and activate protein kinase C, paradoxically, it fails to induce many of the typical phorbol ester responses, including tumor promotion. Intense synthetic efforts are currently underway to develop simplified bryostatin analogs that preserve the critical functional features of bryostatin 1, including its lack of tumor promoting activity. The degree to which bryostatin analogs maintain the unique pattern of biological behavior of bryostatin 1 depends on the specific cellular system and the specific response. Merle 23 is a significantly simplified bryostatin analog that retains bryostatin like activity only to a limited extent. Here, we show that in mouse epidermal cells the activity of Merle 23 was either similar to bryostatin 1 or intermediate between bryostatin 1 and PMA, depending on the specific parameter examined. We then examined the hyperplastic and tumor promoting activity of Merle 23 on mouse skin. Merle 23 showed substantially reduced hyperplasia and was not tumor promoting at a dose comparable to that for PMA. These results suggest that there may be substantial flexibility in the design of bryostatin analogs that retain its lack of tumor promoting activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A pilot study comparing mouse and mouse-emulating interface devices for graphic input.

    Kanny, E M; Anson, D K


    Adaptive interface devices make it possible for individuals with physical disabilities to use microcomputers and thus perform many tasks that they would otherwise be unable to accomplish. Special equipment is available that purports to allow functional access to the computer for users with disabilities. As technology moves from purely keyboard applications to include graphic input, it will be necessary for assistive interface devices to support graphics as well as text entry. Headpointing systems that emulate the mouse in combination with on-screen keyboards are of particular interest to persons with severe physical impairment such as high level quadriplegia. Two such systems currently on the market are the HeadMaster and the Free Wheel. The authors have conducted a pilot study comparing graphic input speed using the mouse and two headpointing interface systems on the Macintosh computer. The study used a single subject design with six able-bodied subjects, to establish a baseline for comparison with persons with severe disabilities. Results of these preliminary data indicated that the HeadMaster was nearly as effective as the mouse and that it was superior to the Free Wheel for graphics input. This pilot study, however, demonstrated several experimental design problems that need to be addressed to make the study more robust. It also demonstrated the need to include the evaluation of text input so that the effectiveness of the interface devices with text and graphic input could be compared.

  19. Characterization of the mouse pancreatic islet proteome and comparative analysis with other mouse tissues.

    Petyuk, Vladislav A; Qian, Wei-Jun; Hinault, Charlotte; Gritsenko, Marina A; Singhal, Mudita; Monroe, Matthew E; Camp, David G; Kulkarni, Rohit N; Smith, Richard D


    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and especially the insulin-producing beta cells, play a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Alterations in the expression of multiple proteins in the islets that contribute to the maintenance of islet function are likely to underlie the pathogenesis of types 1 and 2 diabetes. To identify proteins that constitute the islet proteome, we provide the first comprehensive proteomic characterization of pancreatic islets for mouse, the most commonly used animal model in diabetes research. Using strong cation exchange fractionation coupled with reversed phase LC-MS/MS we report the confident identification of 17,350 different tryptic peptides covering 2612 proteins having at least two unique peptides per protein. The data set also identified approximately 60 post-translationally modified peptides including oxidative modifications and phosphorylation. While many of the identified phosphorylation sites corroborate those previously known, the oxidative modifications observed on cysteinyl residues reveal potentially novel information suggesting a role for oxidative stress in islet function. Comparative analysis with 15 available proteomic data sets from other mouse tissues and cells revealed a set of 133 proteins predominantly expressed in pancreatic islets. This unique set of proteins, in addition to those with known functions such as peptide hormones secreted from the islets, contains several proteins with as yet unknown functions. The mouse islet protein and peptide database accessible at (, provides an important reference resource for the research community to facilitate research in the diabetes and metabolism fields.

  20. Loganin inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse 3T3L1 adipocytes and mouse model.

    Li, Yang; Li, Zheng; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Chenxu; Shen, Bingyu; Tian, Ye; Feng, Haihua


    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vascular walls. ApoCIII is an independent factor which promotes atherosclerotic processes. This study aimed to investigate whether Loganin administration inhibits the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. In the apoCIII-induced mouse adipocytes, the levels of cytokines, including TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and their gene expressions were measured through RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) proteins was analyzed by Western blotting. Our results showed that Loganin markedly decreased TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6 concentrations as well as their gene expressions. Western blotting analysis indicated that Loganin suppressed the activation of NF-κB signaling. In the Tyloxapol-treated mouse model, Loganin reduced the contents of TC and TG in mouse serum. The results of Oil Red-O Staining showed that Loganin reduced the production of lipid droplets. So it is suggested that Loganin might be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing the inflammation stress in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Seldin, M.F. [Univ. of California Davis, CA (United States)] [and others


    We have recently identified a new vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan (HA) synthases. Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse. All three genes encode predicted plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains and approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity to the Streptococcus pyogenes HA synthase, HasA. Furthermore, expression of any one HAS gene in transfected mammalian cells leads to high levels of HA biosynthesis. We now report the chromosomal localization of the three HAS genes in human and in mouse. The genes localized to three different positions within both the human and the mouse genomes. HAS1 was localized to the human chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 boundary and Has1 to mouse Chr 17. HAS2 was localized to human chromosome 8q24.12 and Has2 to mouse Chr 15. HAS3 was localized to human chromosome 16q22.1 and Has3 to mouse Chr 8. The map position for HAS1 reinforces the recently reported relationship between a small region of human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 17. HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Comparative stereology of the mouse and finch left ventricle.

    Bossen, E H; Sommer, J R; Waugh, R A


    The volume fractions and surface per unit cell volume of some subcellular components of the left ventricles of the finch and mouse were quantitated by stereologic techniques. These species were chosen for study because they have similar heart rates but differ morphologically in some respects: fiber diameter is larger in the mouse; the mouse has transverse tubules while the finch does not; and the finch has a form of junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (JSR), extended JSR (EJSR), located in the cell interior with no direct plasmalemmal contact, while the mouse interior JSR (IJSR) abuts on transverse tubules. Our data show that the volume fraction (Vv) and surface area per unit cell volume (Sv) of total SR, and free SR (FSR) are similar. The volume fractions of mitochondria, myofibrils, and total junctional SR were also similar. The Sv of the cell surface of the finch was similar to the Sv of the cell surface of the mouse (Sv-plasmalemma plus Sv of the transverse tubules). The principal difference was in the distribution of JSR; the mouse peripheral JSR (PJSR) represents only 9% of the total JSR, while the finch PJSR accounts for 24% of the bird's JSR. The similar volume fractions of total junctional SR (PJSR + EJSR in the finch; PJSR + IJSR in the mouse) suggest that the EJSR is not an embryologic remnant, and raises the possibility that some function of JSR is independent of plasmalemmal contact.

  3. Effect of Duplicate Genes on Mouse Genetic Robustness: An Update

    Zhixi Su


    Full Text Available In contrast to S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, analyses based on the current knockout (KO mouse phenotypes led to the conclusion that duplicate genes had almost no role in mouse genetic robustness. It has been suggested that the bias of mouse KO database toward ancient duplicates may possibly cause this knockout duplicate puzzle, that is, a very similar proportion of essential genes (PE between duplicate genes and singletons. In this paper, we conducted an extensive and careful analysis for the mouse KO phenotype data and corroborated a strong effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetics robustness. Moreover, the effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetic robustness is duplication-age dependent, which holds after ruling out the potential confounding effect from coding-sequence conservation, protein-protein connectivity, functional bias, or the bias of duplicates generated by whole genome duplication (WGD. Our findings suggest that two factors, the sampling bias toward ancient duplicates and very ancient duplicates with a proportion of essential genes higher than that of singletons, have caused the mouse knockout duplicate puzzle; meanwhile, the effect of genetic buffering may be correlated with sequence conservation as well as protein-protein interactivity.

  4. Engineering subtle targeted mutations into the mouse genome.

    Menke, Douglas B


    Homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells offers an exquisitely precise mechanism to introduce targeted modifications to the mouse genome. This ability to produce specific alterations to the mouse genome has become an essential tool for the analysis of gene function and the development of mouse models of human disease. Of the many thousands of mouse alleles that have been generated by gene targeting, the majority are designed to completely ablate gene function, to create conditional alleles that are inactivated in the presence of Cre recombinase, or to produce reporter alleles that label-specific tissues or cell populations (Eppig et al., 2012, Nucleic Acids Res 40:D881-D886). However, there is a variety of powerful motivations for the introduction of subtle targeted mutations (STMs) such as point mutations, small deletions, or small insertions into the mouse genome. The introduction of STMs allows the ablation of specific transcript isoforms, permits the functional investigation of particular domains or amino acids within a protein, provides the ability to study the role of specific sites with in cis-regulatory elements, and can result in better mouse models of human genetic disorders. In this review, I examine the current strategies that are commonly used to introduce STMs into the mouse genome and highlight new gene targeting technologies, including TALENs and CRISPR/Cas, which are likely to influence the future of gene targeting in mice.

  5. Identification of glutamate transporters and receptors in mouse testis

    Jia-hua HU; Na YANG; Ying-hua MA; Jie JIANG; Jin-fu ZHANG; Jian FEI; Li-he GUO


    AIM: To investigate the presence of glutamate transporters and receptors in mouse testis. METHODS: Glutamate uptake analysis was performed to study the function of glutamate transporters in mouse testis. Comparative RT-PCR technique and sequencing analysis were used to study the expression of glutamate receptors and transporters in mouse testis. RESULTS: Mouse testis possessed glutamate uptake capacity with sodium-dependence. Vmax value of glutamate uptake was (1.60 ± 0.21) pmol/min per mg protein and Km value of glutamate uptake was (11.0±1.6) μmol/L in mouse testis according to saturation analysis. Furthermore, the uptake activity could be inhibited by DHK (GLT1 selective inhibitor) and THA (glutamate uptake inhibitor). In addition, RT-PCR results revealed that glutamate transporters (GLT1 and EAAC1) and ionotropic glutamate receptors (NR1, NR2B, GluR6 and KA2) were expressed in mouse testis. CONCLUSION: Glutamate transporters and receptors do exist in mouse testis.

  6. The spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) completes nephrogenesis before birth.

    Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W; Cullen-McEwen, Luise; Wintour, E Marelyn; Moritz, Karen


    The spiny mouse is relatively mature at birth. We hypothesized that like other organs, the kidney may be more developed in the spiny mouse at birth, than in other rodents. If nephrogenesis is complete before birth, the spiny mouse may provide an excellent model with which to study the effects of an altered intrauterine environment on renal development. Due to its desert adaptation, the spiny mouse may have a reduced cortex-to-medulla ratio but an equivalent total nephron number to the C57/BL mouse. Kidneys were collected from fetal and neonatal spiny mice and sectioned for gross examination of metanephric development. Kidneys were collected from adult spiny mice (10 wk of age), and glomerular number, volume, and cortex-to-medulla ratios were determined using unbiased stereology. Nephrogenesis is complete in spiny mouse kidneys before birth. Metanephrogenesis begins at approximately day 18, and by day 38 of a 40-day gestation, the nephrogenic zone is no longer present. Spiny mice have a significantly (P < 0.001) lower total nephron number compared with C57/BL mice, although the total glomerular volume is similar. The cortex-to-medulla ratio of the spiny mouse is significantly (P < 0.01) smaller. The spiny mouse is the first rodent species shown to complete nephrogenesis before birth. This makes it an attractive candidate for the study of fetal and neonatal kidney development and function. The reduced total nephron number and cortex-to-medulla ratio in the spiny mouse may contribute to its ability to highly concentrate its urine under stressful conditions (i.e., dehydration).

  7. Mouse embryos' fusion for the tetraploid complementation assay.

    Gertsenstein, Marina


    Production of the germline-competent chimeras using genetically modified ES cell lines is an essential step in the establishment of novel mouse models. In addition chimeras provide a powerful tool to study the cell lineage and to analyze complex phenotypes of mutant mice. Mouse chimeras with tetraploid embryos are used to rescue extraembryonic defects, to analyze an impact of gene function on specific lineage, to study the interaction between embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, and to produce mutant embryos and mice for the phenotype analysis. Tetraploid embryos are generated by the fusion of two blastomeres of the mouse embryo. The applications of tetraploid complementation assay and the protocol are described below.

  8. Sequence and chromosomal localization of the mouse brevican gene

    Rauch, U; Meyer, H; Brakebusch, C


    Brevican is a brain-specific proteoglycan belonging to the aggrecan family. Phage clones containing the complete mouse brevican open reading frame of 2649 bp and the complete 3'-untranslated region of 341 bp were isolated from a mouse brain cDNA library, and cosmid clones containing the mouse bre...... to an alternative brevican cDNA, coding for a GPI-linked isoform. Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis mapped the brevican gene (Bcan) to chromosome 3 between the microsatellite markers D3Mit22 and D3Mit11....

  9. 网络口碑 Word of mouse


    英文里“word of mouth”意思是“口碑”,但是大家听说过“word of mouse”吗?这两个短语有什么关系呢?Word of mouse is an electronic version of the time—tested idea of WOrd of mouth. Numerous advertisers have jumped on the word of mouse bandwagon using a variety of innovative techniques to get their message out to consumers,and businesses all over the world rely on word of mouse to promote good reputations.

  10. Mouse models for studying the formation and propagation of prions.

    Watts, Joel C; Prusiner, Stanley B


    Prions are self-propagating protein conformers that cause a variety of neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. Mouse models have played key roles in deciphering the biology of prions and in assessing candidate therapeutics. The development of transgenic mice that form prions spontaneously in the brain has advanced our understanding of sporadic and genetic prion diseases. Furthermore, the realization that many proteins can become prions has necessitated the development of mouse models for assessing the potential transmissibility of common neurodegenerative diseases. As the universe of prion diseases continues to expand, mouse models will remain crucial for interrogating these devastating illnesses.

  11. Neuron Loss in Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease

    Oliver Wirths


    Full Text Available Since their initial generation in the mid 1990s, transgenic mouse models of Alzheimers's disease (AD have been proven to be valuable model systems which are indispensable for modern AD research. Whereas most of these models are characterized by extensive amyloid plaque pathology, inflammatory changes and often behavioral deficits, modeling of neuron loss was much less successful. The present paper discusses the current achievements of modeling neuron loss in transgenic mouse models based on APP/Aβ and Tau overexpression and provides an overview of currently available AD mouse models showing these pathological alterations.

  12. Cellular and genetic analysis of mouse blastocyst development

    Pedersen, R A; Spindle, A I


    The development of mouse embryos was studied by both cellular and genetic approaches. In the cellular analysis, determination of cell fate in blastocysts and in cell populations derived from them was studied in an attempt to estimate the time that these cells become committed to their fate. In the genetic analysis, existing mutations that are lethal to mouse embryos were used to discern essential features of early development. In this review, the timing of cell determination in the inner cell mass and the primary ectoderm, and the manifestation of defects in mouse embryos that are homozygous for the A/sup y/ allele of the agouti locus were considered.

  13. Generation of targeted mouse mutants by embryo microinjection of TALENs.

    Wefers, Benedikt; Ortiz, Oskar; Wurst, Wolfgang; Kühn, Ralf


    Gene engineering for generating targeted mouse mutants is a key technology for biomedical research. Using TALENs as nucleases to induce targeted double-strand breaks, the mouse genome can be directly modified in zygotes in a single step, without the need for embryonic stem cells. Thereby, knockout and knockin alleles can be generated fast and efficiently by embryo microinjection of TALEN mRNAs and targeting vectors. In this article we present an introduction into the TALEN technology and provide protocols for the application of TALENs in mouse zygotes.

  14. Mouse models of rhinovirus infection and airways disease.

    Bartlett, Nathan W; Singanayagam, Aran; Johnston, Sebastian L


    Mouse models are invaluable tools for gaining insight into host immunity during virus infection. Until recently, no practical mouse model for rhinovirus infection was available. Development of infection models was complicated by the existence of distinct groups of viruses that utilize different host cell surface proteins for binding and entry. Here, we describe mouse infection models, including virus purification and measurement of host immune responses, for representative viruses from two of these groups: (1) infection of unmodified Balb/c mice with minor group rhinovirus serotype 1B (RV-1B) and (2) infection of transgenic Balb/c mice with major group rhinovirus serotype 16 (RV-16).

  15. Cloning and sequencing of mouse GABA transporter complementary DNA



    A cDNA encoding the mouse GABA transporter has been isolated and sequenced.The results show that the mouse GABA transporter cDNA differs from that of the rat by 60 base pairs at the open reading frame region but the deduced amino acid sequences of the two cDNAs are identical and both composed of 599 amino acids.However,the amino acid sequence is different from the sequence deduced from a recently published mouse GABA transporter cDNA.

  16. Meeting Report: The Twelfth International Mouse Genome Conference

    Manolakou, Katerina; Cross, Sally H.; Simpson, Eleanor H.; Jackson, Ian J.


    The annual International Mouse Genome Conference (IMGC) is where, scientifically speaking, classical mouse genetics meets the relative newcomer of genomics. The 12th meeting took place last October in the delightful Bavarian village of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and we were greeted by the sight on the mountains of the first snowfall of the season. However the discussions left little time for exploration. Minds of participants in Garmisch were focused by a recent document produced by the NIH and by discussions within other funding agencies worldwide. If implemented, the proposals will further enhance the status of the mouse as the principal model for study of the function of the human genome.

  17. Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus from Zika: Study

    ... 167128.html Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus From Zika: Study More research is needed on effects in ... A malaria drug protected mice fetuses from the Zika virus, researchers report. In humans, Zika infection during ...

  18. An approach for ergonomic design of mouse wheel

    Gao Sande; Nakana Keijiro; and Huang Loulin


    A new method for ergonomic design of a computer mouse is proposed in this paper. In the method, the movements of joints and tip of the forefinger during operating a mouse was captured by a high-speed video camera. The captured videos were ana- lyzed and an algorithm was developed to decide the size and location of the mouse wheel according to ergonomic principles. The al- gorithm was then coded in a software package with Visual C++ and OpenGL languages. Results of the calculation and simulation agreed well with those of the experiments. The software can also be used for shape design of mouse body, buttons and their layouts.

  19. Mouse Karyotype Obtained by Combining DAPI Staining with Image Analysis


    In this study, mitotic metaphase chromosomes in mouse were identified by a new chromosome fluorescence banding technique combining DAPI staining with image analysis. Clear 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) multiple bands like G-bands could be produced in mouse. The MetaMorph software was then used to generate linescans of pixel intensity for the banded chromosomes from short arm to long arm. These linescans were sufficient not only to identify each individual chromosome but also analyze the physical sites of bands in chromosome. Based on the results, the clear and accurate karyotype of mouse metaphase chromosomes was established. The technique is therefore considered to be a new method for cytological studies of mouse.

  20. A Mouse Model of Chronic West Nile Virus Disease

    Graham, Jessica B.; Swarts, Jessica L.; Wilkins, Courtney; Thomas, Sunil; Green, Richard; Sekine, Aimee; Voss, Kathleen M.; Mooney, Michael; Choonoo, Gabrielle; Miller, Darla R.; Pardo Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Gale, Michael


    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013)F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans. PMID:27806117

  1. The functional diversity of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.

    Baden, Tom; Berens, Philipp; Franke, Katrin; Román Rosón, Miroslav; Bethge, Matthias; Euler, Thomas


    In the vertebrate visual system, all output of the retina is carried by retinal ganglion cells. Each type encodes distinct visual features in parallel for transmission to the brain. How many such 'output channels' exist and what each encodes are areas of intense debate. In the mouse, anatomical estimates range from 15 to 20 channels, and only a handful are functionally understood. By combining two-photon calcium imaging to obtain dense retinal recordings and unsupervised clustering of the resulting sample of more than 11,000 cells, here we show that the mouse retina harbours substantially more than 30 functional output channels. These include all known and several new ganglion cell types, as verified by genetic and anatomical criteria. Therefore, information channels from the mouse eye to the mouse brain are considerably more diverse than shown thus far by anatomical studies, suggesting an encoding strategy resembling that used in state-of-the-art artificial vision systems.

  2. Inhibitory zinc-enriched terminals in mouse spinal cord

    Danscher, G; Jo, S M; Varea, E;


    The ultrastructural localization of zinc transporter-3, glutamate decarboxylase and zinc ions in zinc-enriched terminals in the mouse spinal cord was studied by zinc transporter-3 and glutamate decarboxylase immunohistochemistry and zinc selenium autometallography, respectively.The distribution...

  3. A Mouse Model of Chronic West Nile Virus Disease.

    Jessica B Graham


    Full Text Available Infection with West Nile virus (WNV leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans.

  4. Mouse Gives Birth to Pups Using 3-D Printed Ovary

    ... Mouse Gives Birth to Pups Using 3-D Printed Ovary Breakthrough ... to use hormone replacement therapies in order to trigger puberty," explained co-researcher Monica Laronda. She's a ...

  5. A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome.

    Yue, Feng; Cheng, Yong; Breschi, Alessandra; Vierstra, Jeff; Wu, Weisheng; Ryba, Tyrone; Sandstrom, Richard; Ma, Zhihai; Davis, Carrie; Pope, Benjamin D; Shen, Yin; Pervouchine, Dmitri D; Djebali, Sarah; Thurman, Robert E; Kaul, Rajinder; Rynes, Eric; Kirilusha, Anthony; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine; Antoshechkin, Igor; DeSalvo, Gilberto; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Zaleski, Chris; Dobin, Alex; Prieto, Pablo; Lagarde, Julien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Tanzer, Andrea; Denas, Olgert; Li, Kanwei; Bender, M A; Zhang, Miaohua; Byron, Rachel; Groudine, Mark T; McCleary, David; Pham, Long; Ye, Zhen; Kuan, Samantha; Edsall, Lee; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Rasmussen, Matthew D; Bansal, Mukul S; Kellis, Manolis; Keller, Cheryl A; Morrissey, Christapher S; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Dogan, Nergiz; Harris, Robert S; Cayting, Philip; Kawli, Trupti; Boyle, Alan P; Euskirchen, Ghia; Kundaje, Anshul; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jansen, Camden; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Erickson, Drew T; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Sloan, Cricket A; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Lacerda de Sousa, Beatriz; Beal, Kathryn; Pignatelli, Miguel; Flicek, Paul; Lian, Jin; Kahveci, Tamer; Lee, Dongwon; Kent, W James; Ramalho Santos, Miguel; Herrero, Javier; Notredame, Cedric; Johnson, Audra; Vong, Shinny; Lee, Kristen; Bates, Daniel; Neri, Fidencio; Diegel, Morgan; Canfield, Theresa; Sabo, Peter J; Wilken, Matthew S; Reh, Thomas A; Giste, Erika; Shafer, Anthony; Kutyavin, Tanya; Haugen, Eric; Dunn, Douglas; Reynolds, Alex P; Neph, Shane; Humbert, Richard; Hansen, R Scott; De Bruijn, Marella; Selleri, Licia; Rudensky, Alexander; Josefowicz, Steven; Samstein, Robert; Eichler, Evan E; Orkin, Stuart H; Levasseur, Dana; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Skoultchi, Arthur; Gosh, Srikanta; Disteche, Christine; Treuting, Piper; Wang, Yanli; Weiss, Mitchell J; Blobel, Gerd A; Cao, Xiaoyi; Zhong, Sheng; Wang, Ting; Good, Peter J; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B; Zhou, Xiao-Qiao; Pazin, Michael J; Feingold, Elise A; Wold, Barbara; Taylor, James; Mortazavi, Ali; Weissman, Sherman M; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael P; Guigo, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R; Gilbert, David M; Hardison, Ross C; Beer, Michael A; Ren, Bing


    The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types. By comparing with the human genome, we not only confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences, but also find a large degree of divergence of sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization. Our results illuminate the wide range of evolutionary forces acting on genes and their regulatory regions, and provide a general resource for research into mammalian biology and mechanisms of human diseases.

  6. Gene expression and behaviour in mouse models of HD.

    Bowles, K R; Brooks, S P; Dunnett, S B; Jones, L


    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease, resulting in expansion of the CAG repeat in exon 1 of the HTT gene. The resulting mutant huntingtin protein has been implicated in the disruption of a variety of cellular functions, including transcription. Mouse models of HD have been central to the development of our understanding of gene expression changes in this disease, and are now beginning to elucidate the relationship between gene expression and behaviour. Here, we review current mouse models of HD and their characterisation in terms of gene expression. In addition, we look at how this can inform behaviours observed in mouse models of disease. The relationship between gene expression and behaviour in mouse models of HD is important, as this will further our knowledge of disease progression and its underlying molecular events, highlight new treatment targets, and potentially provide new biomarkers for therapeutic trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Characterization of the Twin-Eye Laser Mouse Sensor

    Javier Moreno


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the experimental characterization of a laser mouse sensor used in some optical mouse devices. The sensor characterized is called twin-eye laser mouse sensor and uses the Doppler effect to measure displacement as an alternative to optical flow-based mouse sensors. The experimental characterization showed similar measurement performances to optical flow sensors except in the sensitivity to height changes and when measuring nonlinear displacements, where the twin-eye sensor offered better performance. The measurement principle of this optical sensor can be applied to the development of alternative inexpensive applications that require planar displacement measurement and poor sensitivity to z-axis changes such as mobile robotics.

  8. Role of glucose in cloned mouse embryo development

    Zhiming Han; Rita Vassena; Maggie M. Y. Chi; Santhi Potireddy; Miriam Sutovsky; Kelle H. Moley; Peter Sutovsky; Keith E. Latham


    Cloned mouse embryos display a marked preference for glucose-containing culture medium, with enhanced development to the blastocyst stage in glucose-containing medium attributable mainly to an early...

  9. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J;


    During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations. The dec...

  10. Immunologic applications of conditional gene modification technology in the mouse.

    Sharma, Suveena; Zhu, Jinfang


    Since the success of homologous recombination in altering mouse genome and the discovery of Cre-loxP system, the combination of these two breakthroughs has created important applications for studying the immune system in the mouse. Here, we briefly summarize the general principles of this technology and its applications in studying immune cell development and responses; such implications include conditional gene knockout and inducible and/or tissue-specific gene over-expression, as well as lineage fate mapping. We then discuss the pros and cons of a few commonly used Cre-expressing mouse lines for studying lymphocyte development and functions. We also raise several general issues, such as efficiency of gene deletion, leaky activity of Cre, and Cre toxicity, all of which may have profound impacts on data interpretation. Finally, we selectively list some useful links to the Web sites as valuable mouse resources.

  11. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others


    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  12. A Comparative Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in the Mouse Genome

    Yue, Feng; Cheng, Yong; Breschi, Alessandra; Vierstra, Jeff; Wu, Weisheng; Ryba, Tyrone; Sandstrom, Richard; Ma, Zhihai; Davis, Carrie; Pope, Benjamin D.; Shen, Yin; Pervouchine, Dmitri D.; Djebali, Sarah; Thurman, Bob; Kaul, Rajinder; Rynes, Eric; Kirilusha, Anthony; Marinov, Georgi K.; Williams, Brian A.; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine; Antoshechkin, Igor; DeSalvo, Gilberto; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Zaleski, Chris; Dobin, Alex; Prieto, Pablo; Lagarde, Julien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Tanzer, Andrea; Denas, Olgert; Li, Kanwei; Bender, M. A.; Zhang, Miaohua; Byron, Rachel; Groudine, Mark T.; McCleary, David; Pham, Long; Ye, Zhen; Kuan, Samantha; Edsall, Lee; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Bansal, Mukul S.; Keller, Cheryl A.; Morrissey, Christapher S.; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Dogan, Nergiz; Harris, Robert S.; Cayting, Philip; Kawli, Trupti; Boyle, Alan P.; Euskirchen, Ghia; Kundaje, Anshul; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jansen, Camden; Malladi, Venkat S.; Cline, Melissa S.; Erickson, Drew T.; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Sloan, Cricket A.; Rosenbloom, Kate R.; de Sousa, Beatriz Lacerda; Beal, Kathryn; Pignatelli, Miguel; Flicek, Paul; Lian, Jin; Kahveci, Tamer; Lee, Dongwon; Kent, W. James; Santos, Miguel Ramalho; Herrero, Javier; Notredame, Cedric; Johnson, Audra; Vong, Shinny; Lee, Kristen; Bates, Daniel; Neri, Fidencio; Diegel, Morgan; Canfield, Theresa; Sabo, Peter J.; Wilken, Matthew S.; Reh, Thomas A.; Giste, Erika; Shafer, Anthony; Kutyavin, Tanya; Haugen, Eric; Dunn, Douglas; Reynolds, Alex P.; Neph, Shane; Humbert, Richard; Hansen, R. Scott; De Bruijn, Marella; Selleri, Licia; Rudensky, Alexander; Josefowicz, Steven; Samstein, Robert; Eichler, Evan E.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Levasseur, Dana; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Skoultchi, Arthur; Gosh, Srikanta; Disteche, Christine; Treuting, Piper; Wang, Yanli; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Blobel, Gerd A.; Good, Peter J.; Lowdon, Rebecca F.; Adams, Leslie B.; Zhou, Xiao-Qiao; Pazin, Michael J.; Feingold, Elise A.; Wold, Barbara; Taylor, James; Kellis, Manolis; Mortazavi, Ali; Weissman, Sherman M.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Snyder, Michael P.; Guigo, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Gilbert, David M.; Hardison, Ross C.; Beer, Michael A.; Ren, Bing


    Summary As the premier model organism in biomedical research, the laboratory mouse shares the majority of protein-coding genes with humans, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications, and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types. By comparing with the human genome, we not only confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences, but also find a large degree of divergence of other sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization. Our results illuminate the wide range of evolutionary forces acting on genes and their regulatory regions, and provide a general resource for research into mammalian biology and mechanisms of human diseases. PMID:25409824

  13. An Atlas of Combinatorial Transcriptional Regulation in Mouse and Man

    Ravasi, Timothy


    Combinatorial interactions among transcription factors are critical to directing tissue-specific gene expression. To build a global atlas of these combinations, we have screened for physical interactions among the majority of human and mouse DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs). The complete networks contain 762 human and 877 mouse interactions. Analysis of the networks reveals that highly connected TFs are broadly expressed across tissues, and that roughly half of the measured interactions are conserved between mouse and human. The data highlight the importance of TF combinations for determining cell fate, and they lead to the identification of a SMAD3/FLI1 complex expressed during development of immunity. The availability of large TF combinatorial networks in both human and mouse will provide many opportunities to study gene regulation, tissue differentiation, and mammalian evolution.

  14. FDA Scientists Develop Mouse Model for Zika Research

    ... news/fullstory_162111.html FDA Scientists Develop Mouse Model for Zika Research Researchers hope strain of mice will help speed development of vaccines, treatments To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news ...

  15. Teratogenic evaluation of epichlorohydrin in the mouse and rat and glycidol in the mouse.

    Marks, T A; Gerling, F S; Staples, R E


    Pregnant outbred albino rats (CD) and mice (CD-1) were given epichlorohydrin by gastric intubation on d 6-15 of gestation. The rats were killed on d 21 (d 18 for mice) and the offspring checked for gross, visceral, and skeletal malformations. Epichlorohydrin caused a significant reduction in the weight gain of pregnant rats at 80 mg/kg.d as compared with the control group treated only with the vehicle. However, there was no evidence of teratogenicity in the rat fetuses even at a dose level (160 mg/kg.d) that caused the death of some of the treated dams. Epichlorohydrin also did not produce a statistically significant increase in the average percent of malformed mouse fetuses, even at 160 mg/kg.d, a dose that killed 3 of 32 treated dams. The 120 and 160 mg/kg.d levels did cause a significant (p less than 0.05) reduction in the average fetal weight as compared with controls. In addition, the 120 mg/kg.d dose produced the statistically significantly increase in the liver weight of the pregnant mouse. These observations indicate that the 120 and 160 mg/kg.d dose levels were toxic toward the dams and their unborn offspring. In a similar mouse study, glycidol showed no evidence of teratogenicity. There was a significant increase in the number of stunted fetuses at 200 mg/kg.d, but all of these were present in a single litter. Further, the same dose killed 5 of 30 dams.

  16. Rapid genetic algorithm optimization of a mouse computational model: Benefits for anthropomorphization of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes

    Corina Teodora Bot


    Full Text Available While the mouse presents an invaluable experimental model organism in biology, its usefulness in cardiac arrhythmia research is limited in some aspects due to major electrophysiological differences between murine and human action potentials (APs. As previously described, these species-specific traits can be partly overcome by application of a cell-type transforming clamp (CTC to anthropomorphize the murine cardiac AP. CTC is a hybrid experimental-computational dynamic clamp technique, in which a computationally calculated time-dependent current is inserted into a cell in real time, to compensate for the differences between sarcolemmal currents of that cell (e.g., murine and the desired species (e.g., human. For effective CTC performance, mismatch between the measured cell and a mathematical model used to mimic the measured AP must be minimal. We have developed a genetic algorithm (GA approach that rapidly tunes a mathematical model to reproduce the AP of the murine cardiac myocyte under study. Compared to a prior implementation that used a template-based model selection approach, we show that GA optimization to a cell-specific model results in a much better recapitulation of the desired AP morphology with CTC. This improvement was more pronounced when anthropomorphizing neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes to human-like APs than to guinea pig APs. CTC may be useful for a wide range of applications, from screening effects of pharmaceutical compounds on ion channel activity, to exploring variations in the mouse or human genome. Rapid GA optimization of a cell-specific mathematical model improves CTC performance and may therefore expand the applicability and usage of the CTC technique.

  17. Selective binding of specific mouse genomic DNA fragments by mouse vimentin filaments in vitro.

    Wang, X; Tolstonog, G; Shoeman, R L; Traub, P


    Mouse vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs) reconstituted in vitro were analyzed for their capacity to select certain DNA sequences from a mixture of about 500-bp-long fragments of total mouse genomic DNA. The fragments preferentially bound by the IFs and enriched by several cycles of affinity binding and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification were cloned and sequenced. In general, they were G-rich and highly repetitive in that they often contained Gn, (GT)n, and (GA)n repeat elements. Other, more complex repeat sequences were identified as well. Apart from the capacity to adopt a Z-DNA and triple helix configuration under superhelical tension, many fragments were potentially able to form cruciform structures and contained consensus binding sites for various transcription factors. All of these sequence elements are known to occur in introns and 5'/3'-flanking regions of genes and to play roles in DNA transcription, recombination and replication. A FASTA search of the EMBL data bank indeed revealed that sequences homologous to the mouse repetitive DNA fragments are commonly associated with gene-regulatory elements. Unexpectedly, vimentin IFs also bound a large number of apparently overlapping, AT-rich DNA fragments that could be aligned into a composite sequence highly homologous to the 234-bp consensus centromere repeat sequence of gamma-satellite DNA. Previous experiments have shown a high affinity of vimentin for G-rich, repetitive telomere DNA sequences, superhelical DNA, and core histones. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that, after penetration of the double nuclear membrane via an as yet unidentified mechanism, vimentin IFs cooperatively fix repetitive DNA sequence elements in a differentiation-specific manner in the nuclear periphery subjacent to the nuclear lamina and thus participate in the organization of chromatin and in the control of transcription, replication, and recombination processes. This includes aspects of global

  18. Magnolol inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mouse mastitis model.

    Wei, Wang; Dejie, Liang; Xiaojing, Song; Tiancheng, Wang; Yongguo, Cao; Zhengtao, Yang; Naisheng, Zhang


    Mastitis comprises an inflammation of the mammary gland, which is almost always linked with bacterial infection. The treatment of mastitis concerns antimicrobial substances, but not very successful. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory therapy with Chinese traditional medicine becomes an effective way for treating mastitis. Magnolol is a polyphenolic binaphthalene compound extracted from the stem bark of Magnolia sp., which has been shown to exert a potential for anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of magnolol on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis mouse model in vivo and the mechanism of this protective effects in LPS-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMECs) in vitro. The damage of tissues was determined by histopathology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα) protein, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were determined by Western blot. The results showed that magnolol significantly inhibit the LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production both in vivo and vitro. Magnolol declined the phosphorylation of IκBα, p65, p38, ERK, and JNK in LPS-stimulated MMECs. Furthermore, magnolol inhibited the expression of TLR4 in LPS-stimulated MMECs. In vivo study, it was also observed that magnolol attenuated the damage of mastitis tissues in the mouse models. These findings demonstrated that magnolol attenuate LPS-stimulated inflammatory response by suppressing TLR4/NF-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling system. Thereby, magnolol may be a therapeutic agent against mastitis.

  19. Characterization of the mouse pancreatic islet proteome and comparative analysis with other mouse tissues

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Qian, Weijun; Hinault, Charlotte; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Singhal, Mudita; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Smith, Richard D.


    The pancreatic islets of Langerhans and insulin-producing beta cells in particular play a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and the islet dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To contribute to the understanding of the biology of the pancreatic islets we applied proteomic techniques based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Here as an initial step we present the first comprehensive proteomic characterization of pancreas islets of the mouse, the commonly used animal model for diabetes research. Two-dimensional SCX LC/RP LC-MS/MS has been applied to characterize of the mouse islet proteome, resulting in the confident identification of 17,350 different tryptic peptides covering 2,612 proteins with at least two unique peptide identifications per protein. The dataset also allowed identification of a number of post-translational modifications including several modifications relevant to oxidative stress and phosphorylation. While many of the identified phosphorylation sites corroborates with previous known sites, the oxidative modifications observed on cysteinyl residues potentially reveal novel information related to the role of oxidation stress in islet functions. Comparative analysis of the islet proteome database with 15 available proteomic datasets from other mouse tissues and cells revealed a set of 68 proteins uniquely detected only in the pancreatic islets. Besides proteins with known functions, like islet secreted peptide hormones, this unique set contains a number of proteins with yet unknown functions. The resulting peptide and protein database will be available at web site of the NCRR proteomic center (

  20. Endodcytic labelling of visceral endoderm of mouse perigastrulation embryos



    Authors: Yoh Wada, Minako Aoyama, Ge-Hong Sun-Wada, Nobuyuki Kawamura & Hiroyuki Tabata ### Abstract In this protocol we describe methods for observation endocytic activity in the mouse embryos. The methods are optimised for mouse embryos at E5.5~E7.2 pregastrulation/gastrulation stages. We optimise three different experimental schemes for tracing the embryonic endocytosis. In utero labelling scheme, an endocytic tracer is introduced into circulation of a pregnant mother to follow...

  1. End Sequencing and Finger Printing of Human & Mouse BAC Libraries

    Fraser, C


    This project provided for continued end sequencing of existing and new BAC libraries constructed to support human sequencing as well as to initiate BAC end sequencing from the mouse BAC libraries constructed to support mouse sequencing. The clones, the sequences, and the fingerprints are now an available resource for the community at large. Research and development of new metaodologies for BAC end sequencing have reduced costs and increase throughput.

  2. "The Lion and the Mouse"教学案例



    @@ 一、教学内容(Teaching content) There is a lion. He is big. He is very strong. His teeth are big and sharp. This is a mouse. She is small. Her teeth are small and sharp. The lion is hungryv. The mouse is afraid, "Don't eat me,please." Oh! The lion is in the net! He is very afraid, "Help! Help! Who can help me?"

  3. Glycidol degrades scrapie mouse prion protein.

    Yamamoto, M; Horiuchi, M; Ishiguro, N; Shinagawa, M; Matsuo, T; Kaneko, K


    Agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion) are known to be extremely resistant to physicochemical inactivation procedures such as heat, radiation, chemical disinfectants such as detergents, alcohols, glutaraldehyde, formalin, and so on. Because of its remarkable resistance, it is difficult to inactivate prion. Chemical inactivation seems to be a practical method because it is applicable to large or fixed surfaces and complicated equipment. Here, three epoxides: beta-propiolactone, propylene oxide, and glycidol (GLD) were examined of their inactivation ability against scrapie-mouse prion protein (PrP(Sc)) under various conditions of chemical concentration, incubation time, and temperature. Among these chemicals, GLD worked most effectively and degraded PrP into small fragments. As a result of the bioassay, treatment with 3% GLD for 5 hr and 5% GLD for 2, 5 hr or 12 hr at room temperature prolonged the mean incubation time by 44, 30, 110 and 73 days, respectively. From dose-incubation time standard curve, the decrease in infectivity titers were estimated as 10(3) or more. Therefore, degradation of PrP(Sc) by GLD decreased the scrapie infectivity. It is also suggested that pH and salt concentrations influence the effect of GLD. Although further study is necessary to determine the optimal condition, GLD may be a potential prion disinfectant.

  4. Computer simulations of the mouse spermatogenic cycle

    Debjit Ray


    Full Text Available The spermatogenic cycle describes the periodic development of germ cells in the testicular tissue. The temporal–spatial dynamics of the cycle highlight the unique, complex, and interdependent interaction between germ and somatic cells, and are the key to continual sperm production. Although understanding the spermatogenic cycle has important clinical relevance for male fertility and contraception, there are a number of experimental obstacles. For example, the lengthy process cannot be visualized through dynamic imaging, and the precise action of germ cells that leads to the emergence of testicular morphology remains uncharacterized. Here, we report an agent-based model that simulates the mouse spermatogenic cycle on a cross-section of the seminiferous tubule over a time scale of hours to years, while considering feedback regulation, mitotic and meiotic division, differentiation, apoptosis, and movement. The computer model is able to elaborate the germ cell dynamics in a time-lapse movie format, allowing us to trace individual cells as they change state and location. More importantly, the model provides mechanistic understanding of the fundamentals of male fertility, namely how testicular morphology and sperm production are achieved. By manipulating cellular behaviors either individually or collectively in silico, the model predicts causal events for the altered arrangement of germ cells upon genetic or environmental perturbations. This in silico platform can serve as an interactive tool to perform long-term simulation and to identify optimal approaches for infertility treatment and contraceptive development.

  5. Plantarflexion Contracture in the mdx Mouse

    Garlich, Michael W.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Dorsey, Lisa L.; Lowe, Dawn A.


    Objective Contractures are a major clinical issue for patients with muscular dystrophies. However, it is unknown whether contractures are present in the widely used mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop methods to measure muscle contractures in mice, to determine whether plantarflexion contractures are present in mdx mice, and to analyze the composition of the major muscles involved. Design Hindlimbs of eight wild type and six mdx mice were assessed every 2 wks during the course of a 12-wk study. Assessments included range of motion and in vivo torques about the ankle. At the end of the study, mice were euthanized, and muscles were analyzed for composition. Results The mdx mice had ~10 degrees less dorsiflexion, increased passive torque moving the ankle into dorsiflexion, and an increased passive-to-active torque ratio relative to wild type mice. Gastrocnemius muscle composition alterations included increased wet mass, decreased protein content, and increased collagen. Conclusions The results indicate that mdx mice have plantarflexion contractures similar to those seen in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In future studies, these measures can be used to assess strategies to slow the progression of contractures that occur with muscular dystrophies. PMID:21403594

  6. Euthanasia of mouse fetuses and neonates.

    Klaunberg, Brenda A; O'malley, James; Clark, Terri; Davis, Judith A


    We sought to determine whether any of the common methods of euthanasia for adult rodents would lead to an acceptable death for fetuses or neonates. We wanted to identify a method that was rapid, free of signs of pain or distress, reliable, and minimally distressful to the person performing the procedure and that minimized the amount of handling required to perform the procedure. We evaluated six methods of euthanasia, with and without anesthesia, in three age groups of mice: gravid mice (E14-20) and neonatal pups (P1-P7 and P8-P14). Euthanasia methods included: halothane inhalation, carbon dioxide inhalation, intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital, intravenous potassium chloride, and cervical dislocation with and without anesthesia. Noninvasive echocardiography was used to assess heartbeat during euthanasia. With cardiac arrest as the definition of death, no method of euthanasia killed fetal mice. Halothane inhalation (5% by vaporizer) was not an acceptable method of euthanasia for mice of the age groups tested. Intraperitoneal administration of sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia required a higher dose than the previously established dose, and there is a risk of reduced efficacy in pregnant animals due to potential intrauterine injection. Carbon dioxide asphyxiation was the most efficient method of euthanasia for neonatal mouse pups P1-14. For pregnant adult mice, intravenous potassium chloride under anesthesia, carbon dioxide asphyxiation, and cervical dislocation alone or under anesthesia were excellent methods of euthanasia. Copyright 2004 American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  7. Longitudinal analysis of mouse SDOCT volumes

    Antony, Bhavna J.; Carass, Aaron; Lang, Andrew; Kim, Byung-Jin; Zack, Donald J.; Prince, Jerry L.


    Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), in addition to its routine clinical use in the diagnosis of ocular diseases, has begun to fund increasing use in animal studies. Animal models are frequently used to study disease mechanisms as well as to test drug efficacy. In particular, SDOCT provides the ability to study animals longitudinally and non-invasively over long periods of time. However, the lack of anatomical landmarks makes the longitudinal scan acquisition prone to inconsistencies in orientation. Here, we propose a method for the automated registration of mouse SDOCT volumes. The method begins by accurately segmenting the blood vessels and the optic nerve head region in the scans using a pixel classification approach. The segmented vessel maps from follow-up scans were registered using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm to the baseline scan to allow for the accurate longitudinal tracking of thickness changes. Eighteen SDOCT volumes from a light damage model study were used to train a random forest utilized in the pixel classification step. The area under the curve (AUC) in a leave-one-out study for the retinal blood vessels and the optic nerve head (ONH) was found to be 0.93 and 0.98, respectively. The complete proposed framework, the retinal vasculature segmentation and the ICP registration, was applied to a secondary set of scans obtained from a light damage model. A qualitative assessment of the registration showed no registration failures.

  8. Preclinical fluorescent mouse models of pancreatic cancer

    Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M.


    Here we describe our cumulative experience with the development and preclinical application of several highly fluorescent, clinically-relevant, metastatic orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer. These models utilize the human pancreatic cancer cell lines which have been genetically engineered to selectively express high levels of the bioluminescent green fluorescent (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP). Fluorescent tumors are established subcutaneously in nude mice, and tumor fragments are then surgically transplanted onto the pancreas. Locoregional tumor growth and distant metastasis of these orthotopic implants occurs spontaneously and rapidly throughout the abdomen in a manner consistent with clinical human disease. Highly specific, high-resolution, real-time visualization of tumor growth and metastasis may be achieved in vivo without the need for contrast agents, invasive techniques, or expensive imaging equipment. We have shown a high correlation between florescent optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging in these models. Alternatively, transplantation of RFP-expressing tumor fragments onto the pancreas of GFP-expressing transgenic mice may be used to facilitate visualization of tumor-host interaction between the pancreatic tumor fragments and host-derived stroma and vasculature. Such in vivo models have enabled us to serially visualize and acquire images of the progression of pancreatic cancer in the live animal, and to demonstrate the real-time antitumor and antimetastatic effects of several novel therapeutic strategies on pancreatic malignancy. These fluorescent models are therefore powerful and reliable tools with which to investigate human pancreatic cancer and therapeutic strategies directed against it.

  9. Active axial stress in mouse aorta.

    Agianniotis, A; Rachev, A; Stergiopulos, N


    The study verifies the development of active axial stress in the wall of mouse aorta over a range of physiological loads when the smooth muscle cells are stimulated to contract. The results obtained show that the active axial stress is virtually independent of the magnitude of pressure, but depends predominately on the longitudinal stretch ratio. The dependence is non-monotonic and is similar to the active stress-stretch dependence in the circumferential direction reported in the literature. The expression for the active axial stress fitted to the experimental data shows that the maximum active stress is developed at longitudinal stretch ratio 1.81, and 1.56 is the longitudinal stretch ratio below which the stimulation does not generate active stress. The study shows that the magnitude of active axial stress is smaller than the active circumferential stress. There is need for more experimental investigations on the active response of different types of arteries from different species and pathological conditions. The results of these studies can promote building of refined constrictive models in vascular rheology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Control of nucleus positioning in mouse oocytes.

    Almonacid, Maria; Terret, Marie-Emilie; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène


    The position of the nucleus in a cell can instruct morphogenesis in some cases, conveying spatial and temporal information and abnormal nuclear positioning can lead to disease. In oocytes from worm, sea urchin, frog and some fish, nucleus position regulates embryo development, it marks the animal pole and in Drosophila it defines the future dorso-ventral axis of the embryo and of the adult body plan. However, in mammals, the oocyte nucleus is centrally located and does not instruct any future embryo axis. Yet an off-center nucleus correlates with poor outcome for mouse and human oocyte development. This is surprising since oocytes further undergo two extremely asymmetric divisions in terms of the size of the daughter cells (enabling polar body extrusion), requiring an off-centering of their chromosomes. In this review we address not only the bio-physical mechanism controlling nucleus positioning via an actin-mediated pressure gradient, but we also speculate on potential biological relevance of nuclear positioning in mammalian oocytes and early embryos. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Mouse lung adhesion assay for Bordetella pertussis

    Burns, K.A.; Freer, J.H. (Department of Microbiology, Alexander Stone Building, Bearsden, Glasgow, Scotland)


    The ability of Bordetella pertussis to adhere to cell surfaces has been demonstrated by adhesion to tissue culture cells and adhesion to chicken, hamster or rabbit trachea in organ culture. In this report a mouse lung assay for adhesion is described and the results obtained using two virulent strains of B. pertussis and their avirulent counterparts. These were a C modulation of one of the original virulent strains and a phase IV variant of the other virulent strain. Organisms were radiolabelled by adding 1 (37 K Bq) of (/sup 14/C)glutamic acid per 10 ml of culture medium before inoculation and incubation for 5 days. The lungs were washed by perfusion in situ with at least two volumes (1 ml) of sterile 1% (w/v) casamino acids. The percentage of the inoculated organisms retained in the lungs was determined, after removal of the lungs, by one of the following two methods: viable count or radioactive count. Results for both methods were expressed as the percentage of the inoculum retained in the lungs plus or minus one standard deviation.

  12. Neural localization of addicsin in mouse brain.

    Akiduki, Saori; Ochiishi, Tomoyo; Ikemoto, Mitsushi J


    Addicsin is a member of the prenylated Rab acceptor (PRA) 1 domain family and a murine homolog of the rat glutamate-transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18). This protein is considered to function as a modulator of the neural glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1). However, its molecular functions remain largely unknown. Here, we examined the regional and cellular localization of addicsin in the central nervous system (CNS) by using a newly generated antibody specific for the protein. Distribution analysis by Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the protein was widely distributed in various regions of the mature CNS, including the olfactory bulbs, cerebral cortex, amygdala, hippocampus CA1-3 fields, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum. Double immunofluorescence analysis revealed that addicsin was expressed in the somata of principal neurons in the CNS such as the pyramidal cells and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons scattered in the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the protein showed pre-synaptic localization in the stratum lucidum of the CA3 field of the hippocampal formation. Subcellular localization analysis of highly purified synaptic fractions prepared from mouse forebrain supported the cytoplasmic and pre-synaptic distribution of addicsin. These results suggest that addicsin has neural expression and may play crucial roles in the basic physiological functions of the mature CNS.

  13. Mouse Model Resources for Vision Research

    Jungyeon Won


    Full Text Available The need for mouse models, with their well-developed genetics and similarity to human physiology and anatomy, is clear and their central role in furthering our understanding of human disease is readily apparent in the literature. Mice carrying mutations that alter developmental pathways or cellular function provide model systems for analyzing defects in comparable human disorders and for testing therapeutic strategies. Mutant mice also provide reproducible, experimental systems for elucidating pathways of normal development and function. Two programs, the Eye Mutant Resource and the Translational Vision Research Models, focused on providing such models to the vision research community are described herein. Over 100 mutant lines from the Eye Mutant Resource and 60 mutant lines from the Translational Vision Research Models have been developed. The ocular diseases of the mutant lines include a wide range of phenotypes, including cataracts, retinal dysplasia and degeneration, and abnormal blood vessel formation. The mutations in disease genes have been mapped and in some cases identified by direct sequencing. Here, we report 3 novel alleles of Crxtvrm65, Rp1tvrm64, and Rpe65tvrm148 as successful examples of the TVRM program, that closely resemble previously reported knockout models.

  14. Multistage chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Weeks, C.E.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.


    Skin tumors in mice can be induced by the sequential application of a subthreshold dose of a carcinogen (initiation phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a noncarcinogenic tumor promoter. The initiation phase requires only a single application of either a direct acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen which has to be metabolized before being active and is essentially an irreversible step which probably involves a somatic cell mutation. There is a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activites of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their ability to bind covalently to epidermal DNA. Laboratory results suggest that bay region diol-epoxides are the ultimate carcinogenic form of PAH carcinogens. Potent inhibitors and stimulators of PAH tumor initiation appear to affect the level of the PAH diol-epoxide reacting with specific DNA bases. Reecent data suggests that the tumor promotion stage involves at least three important steps: (1) the induction of embryonic looking cells (dark cells) in adult epidermis; (2) an increased production of epidermal prostaglandins and polyamines; (3) sustained proliferation of dark cells. Retinoic acid specifically inhibits step two whereas the anti-inflammatory steriod fluocinolone acetonide is a potent inhibitor of steps one and three. The mechanism and the importance of a specific sequence for each step in chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin are detailed.

  15. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic mouse models of autism.

    Kazdoba, T M; Leach, P T; Crawley, J N


    More than a hundred de novo single gene mutations and copy-number variants have been implicated in autism, each occurring in a small subset of cases. Mutant mouse models with syntenic mutations offer research tools to gain an understanding of the role of each gene in modulating biological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism. Knockout, knockin and transgenic mice incorporating risk gene mutations detected in autism spectrum disorder and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders are now widely available. At present, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed solely by behavioral criteria. We developed a constellation of mouse behavioral assays designed to maximize face validity to the types of social deficits and repetitive behaviors that are central to an autism diagnosis. Mouse behavioral assays for associated symptoms of autism, which include cognitive inflexibility, anxiety, hyperactivity, and unusual reactivity to sensory stimuli, are frequently included in the phenotypic analyses. Over the past 10 years, we and many other laboratories around the world have employed these and additional behavioral tests to phenotype a large number of mutant mouse models of autism. In this review, we highlight mouse models with mutations in genes that have been identified as risk genes for autism, which work through synaptic mechanisms and through the mTOR signaling pathway. Robust, replicated autism-relevant behavioral outcomes in a genetic mouse model lend credence to a causal role for specific gene contributions and downstream biological mechanisms in the etiology of autism.

  16. Gene expression profile analysis of type 2 diabetic mouse liver.

    Fang Zhang

    Full Text Available Liver plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis, and impaired hepatic glucose metabolism contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the precise gene expression profile of diabetic liver and its association with diabetes and related diseases are yet to be further elucidated. In this study, we detected the gene expression profile by high-throughput sequencing in 9-week-old normal and type 2 diabetic db/db mouse liver. Totally 12132 genes were detected, and 2627 genes were significantly changed in diabetic mouse liver. Biological process analysis showed that the upregulated genes in diabetic mouse liver were mainly enriched in metabolic processes. Surprisingly, the downregulated genes in diabetic mouse liver were mainly enriched in immune-related processes, although all the altered genes were still mainly enriched in metabolic processes. Similarly, KEGG pathway analysis showed that metabolic pathways were the major pathways altered in diabetic mouse liver, and downregulated genes were enriched in immune and cancer pathways. Analysis of the key enzyme genes in fatty acid and glucose metabolism showed that some key enzyme genes were significantly increased and none of the detected key enzyme genes were decreased. In addition, FunDo analysis showed that liver cancer and hepatitis were most likely to be associated with diabetes. Taken together, this study provides the digital gene expression profile of diabetic mouse liver, and demonstrates the main diabetes-associated hepatic biological processes, pathways, key enzyme genes in fatty acid and glucose metabolism and potential hepatic diseases.

  17. Transcriptional divergence and conservation of human and mouse erythropoiesis.

    Pishesha, Novalia; Thiru, Prathapan; Shi, Jiahai; Eng, Jennifer C; Sankaran, Vijay G; Lodish, Harvey F


    Mouse models have been used extensively for decades and have been instrumental in improving our understanding of mammalian erythropoiesis. Nonetheless, there are several examples of variation between human and mouse erythropoiesis. We performed a comparative global gene expression study using data from morphologically identical stage-matched sorted populations of human and mouse erythroid precursors from early to late erythroblasts. Induction and repression of major transcriptional regulators of erythropoiesis, as well as major erythroid-important proteins, are largely conserved between the species. In contrast, at a global level we identified a significant extent of divergence between the species, both at comparable stages and in the transitions between stages, especially for the 500 most highly expressed genes during development. This suggests that the response of multiple developmentally regulated genes to key erythroid transcriptional regulators represents an important modification that has occurred in the course of erythroid evolution. In developing a systematic framework to understand and study conservation and divergence between human and mouse erythropoiesis, we show how mouse models can fail to mimic specific human diseases and provide predictions for translating findings from mouse models to potential therapies for human disease.

  18. Variables influencing DNA-binding in mouse liver.

    Neumann, H G


    The suitability of certain mouse strains for carcinogenicity testing has been questioned. Some chemicals increase the incidence of liver tumors above a relatively high background, an effect not seen in rats. This raises the question whether species and tissue specific effects are involved which are reflected in the DNA binding of metabolites. DNA binding indices in mouse liver have been determined in only a few instances. They are comparable to those found for rat liver DNA with aniline, benzo(a)-pyrene, butadiene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylnitrosourea and they are lower in the mouse with aflatoxin B1, trans-4-acetylaminostilbene and 2-aminofluorene derivatives. The available data on DNA binding in mouse liver suggest that the same adducts are formed as in rats but that metabolism and repair are variables which can modify the extent of DNA damage. However, the extent of DNA binding does not always correlate with the susceptibility of this tissue to carcinogenesis. But mouse liver is no exception in this respect. It is concluded that the formation of mouse liver tumors in long term studies with genotoxic chemicals indicates tumor initiating potential. In contrast, there are other chemicals such as chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides which do not bind to DNA to any extent and which are not genotoxic in common short term tests and yet give rise to liver tumors in mice but not in rats. Positive results in long term studies are suggested to indicate promoting properties of such compounds.

  19. Mouse models to study dengue virus immunology and pathogenesis

    Raphaël M. Zellweger


    Full Text Available The development of a compelling murine model of dengue virus (DENV infection has been challenging, because dengue virus clinical isolates do not readily replicate or cause pathology in immunocompetent mice. However, research using immunocompromised mice and/or mouse-adapted viruses allows to investigate questions that may be impossible to address in human studies. In this review, we discuss the potential strengths and limitations of existing mouse models of dengue disease. Human studies are descriptive by nature; moreover, the strain, time, and sequence of infection are often unknown. In contrast, in mice, the conditions of infection are well defined and a large number of experimental parameters can be varied at will. Therefore, mouse models offer an opportunity to experimentally test hypotheses that are based on epidemiological observations. In particular, gain-of-function or loss-of-function models can be established to assess how different components of the immune system (either alone or in combination contribute to protection or pathogenesis during secondary infections or after vaccination. In addition, mouse models have been used for pre-clinical testing of antiviral drug or for vaccine development studies. Conclusions based on mouse experiments must be extrapolated to DENV infection in humans with caution due to the inherent limitations of animal models. However, research in mouse models is a useful complement to in vitro and epidemiological data, and may delineate new areas that deserve attention during future human studies.

  20. On Parallel Streams through the Mouse Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

    Daniel eDenman


    Full Text Available The mouse visual system is an emerging model for the study of cortical and thalamic circuit function. To maximize the usefulness of this model system, it is important to analyze the similarities and differences between the organization of all levels of the murid visual system with other, better studied systems (e.g., non-human primates and the domestic cat. While the understanding of mouse retina and cortex has expanded rapidly, less is known about mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN. Here, we study whether parallel processing streams exist in mouse dLGN. We use a battery of stimuli that have been previously shown to successfully distinguish parallel streams in other species: electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm, contrast-reversing stationary gratings at varying spatial phase, drifting sinusoidal gratings, dense noise for receptive field reconstruction, and frozen contrast-modulating noise. As in the optic nerves of domestic cats and non-human primates, we find evidence for multiple conduction velocity groups after optic chiasm stimulation. As in so-called ‘visual mammals’, we find a subpopulation of mouse dLGN cells showing non-linear spatial summation. However, differences in stimulus selectivity and sensitivity do not provide sufficient basis for identification of clearly distinct classes of relay cells. Nevertheless, consistent with presumptively homologous status of dLGNs of all mammals, there are substantial similarities between response properties of mouse dLGN neurons and those of cats and primates.

  1. Astonishing advances in mouse genetic tools for biomedical research.

    Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Jackson, Walker S


    The humble house mouse has long been a workhorse model system in biomedical research. The technology for introducing site-specific genome modifications led to Nobel Prizes for its pioneers and opened a new era of mouse genetics. However, this technology was very time-consuming and technically demanding. As a result, many investigators continued to employ easier genome manipulation methods, though resulting models can suffer from overlooked or underestimated consequences. Another breakthrough, invaluable for the molecular dissection of disease mechanisms, was the invention of high-throughput methods to measure the expression of a plethora of genes in parallel. However, the use of samples containing material from multiple cell types could obfuscate data, and thus interpretations. In this review we highlight some important issues in experimental approaches using mouse models for biomedical research. We then discuss recent technological advances in mouse genetics that are revolutionising human disease research. Mouse genomes are now easily manipulated at precise locations thanks to guided endonucleases, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both also having the potential to turn the dream of human gene therapy into reality. Newly developed methods of cell type-specific isolation of transcriptomes from crude tissue homogenates, followed by detection with next generation sequencing (NGS), are vastly improving gene regulation studies. Taken together, these amazing tools simplify the creation of much more accurate mouse models of human disease, and enable the extraction of hitherto unobtainable data.

  2. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K


    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%.

  3. The LEGSKO mouse: a mouse model of age-related nuclear cataract based on genetic suppression of lens glutathione synthesis.

    Xingjun Fan

    Full Text Available Age-related nuclear cataracts are associated with progressive post-synthetic modifications of crystallins from various physical chemical and metabolic insults, of which oxidative stress is a major factor. The latter is normally suppressed by high concentrations of glutathione (GSH, which however are very low in the nucleus of the old lens. Here we generated a mouse model of oxidant stress by knocking out glutathione synthesis in the mouse in the hope of recapitulating some of the changes observed in human age-related nuclear cataract (ARNC. A floxed Gclc mouse was generated and crossed with a transgenic mouse expressing Cre in the lens to generate the LEGSKO mouse in which de novo GSH synthesis was completely abolished in the lens. Lens GSH levels were reduced up to 60% in homozygous LEGSKO mice, and a decreasing GSH gradient was noticed from cortical to nuclear region at 4 months of age. Oxidation of crystallin methionine and sulfhydryls into sulfoxides was dramatically increased, but methylglyoxal hydroimidazolones levels that are GSH/glyoxalase dependent were surprisingly normal. Homozygous LEGSKO mice developed nuclear opacities starting at 4 months that progressed into severe nuclear cataract by 9 months. We conclude that the LEGSKO mouse lens mimics several features of human ARNC and is thus expected to be a useful model for the development of anti-cataract agents.


    韩代书; 赵青; 葛晔华; 周建平; 马静; 陈克铨; 薛社普


    Objective. To investigate the roles of mouse erythroid differentiation and denueleation factor (MEDDF), a novel factor cloned in our laboratory recently, in erythroid terminal differentiation.Methods. Mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells were transfected with eukaryotic expression plasmid pcD-NA-MEDDF. Then we investigated the changes on characteristics of cell growth by analyzing cells growth rate,mitotic index and colony-forming rate in semi-solid medium. The expressions of c-myc and β-globin genes were analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Results. MEL ceils transfected with pcDNA-MEDDF showed significant lower growth rate, mitotic index,and colony-forming rate in semi-solid medium ( P<0.01 ). The percentage of benzidine-positive cells was 32.8% after transfection. The expression of β-globin in cells transfected with pcDNA-MEDDF was 3.43 times higher than that of control (MEL transfected with blank vector, pcDNA3. 1 ), and the expression of c-myc decreased by 66.3%.Conclusions. MEDDF can induce differentiation of MEL cell and suppress its malignancy.

  5. Phenotype of the taurine transporter knockout mouse.

    Warskulat, Ulrich; Heller-Stilb, Birgit; Oermann, Evelyn; Zilles, Karl; Haas, Helmut; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter


    This chapter reports present knowledge on the properties of mice with disrupted gene coding for the taurine transporter (taut-/- mice). Study of those mice unraveled some of the roles of taurine and its membrane transport for the development and maintenance of normal organ functions and morphology. When compared with wild-type controls, taut-/- mice have decreased taurine levels in skeletal and heart muscle by about 98%, in brain, kidney, plasma, and retina by 80 to 90%, and in liver by about 70%. taut-/- mice exhibit a lower body mass as well as a strongly reduced exercise capacity compared with taut+/- and wild-type mice. Furthermore, taut-/- mice show a variety of pathological features, for example, subtle derangement of renal osmoregulation, changes in neuroreceptor expression, and loss of long-term potentiation in the striatum, and they develop clinically relevant age-dependent disorders, for example, visual, auditory, and olfactory dysfunctions, unspecific hepatitis, and liver fibrosis. Taurine-deficient animal models such as acutely dietary-manipulated foxes and cats, pharmacologically induced taurine-deficient rats, and taurine transporter knockout mouse are powerful tools allowing identification of the mechanisms and complexities of diseases mediated by impaired taurine transport and taurine depletion (Chapman et al., 1993; Heller-Stilb et al., 2002; Huxtable, 1992; Lake, 1993; Moise et al., 1991; Novotny et al., 1991; Pion et al., 1987; Timbrell et al., 1995; Warskulat et al., 2004, 2006b). Taurine, which is the most abundant amino acid in many tissues, is normally found in intracellular concentrations of 10 to 70 mmol/kg in mammalian heart, brain, skeletal muscle, liver, and retina (Chapman et al., 1993; Green et al., 1991; Huxable, 1992; Timbrell et al., 1995). These high taurine levels are maintained by an ubiquitous expression of Na(+)-dependent taurine transporter (TAUT) in the plasma membrane (Burg, 1995; Kwon and Handler, 1995; Lang et al., 1998

  6. The recombinational anatomy of a mouse chromosome.

    Kenneth Paigen


    Full Text Available Among mammals, genetic recombination occurs at highly delimited sites known as recombination hotspots. They are typically 1-2 kb long and vary as much as a 1,000-fold or more in recombination activity. Although much is known about the molecular details of the recombination process itself, the factors determining the location and relative activity of hotspots are poorly understood. To further our understanding, we have collected and mapped the locations of 5,472 crossover events along mouse Chromosome 1 arising in 6,028 meioses of male and female reciprocal F1 hybrids of C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ mice. Crossovers were mapped to a minimum resolution of 225 kb, and those in the telomere-proximal 24.7 Mb were further mapped to resolve individual hotspots. Recombination rates were evolutionarily conserved on a regional scale, but not at the local level. There was a clear negative-exponential relationship between the relative activity and abundance of hotspot activity classes, such that a small number of the most active hotspots account for the majority of recombination. Females had 1.2x higher overall recombination than males did, although the sex ratio showed considerable regional variation. Locally, entirely sex-specific hotspots were rare. The initiation of recombination at the most active hotspot was regulated independently on the two parental chromatids, and analysis of reciprocal crosses indicated that parental imprinting has subtle effects on recombination rates. It appears that the regulation of mammalian recombination is a complex, dynamic process involving multiple factors reflecting species, sex, individual variation within species, and the properties of individual hotspots.

  7. Distribution of cytoglobin in the mouse brain

    Stefan eReuss


    Full Text Available Cytoglobin (Cygb is a vertebrate globin with so far poorly defined function. It is expressed in the fibroblast cell-lineage but has also been found in neurons. Here we provide, using immunohistochemistry, a detailed study on the distribution of Cygb in the mouse brain. While Cygb is a cytoplasmic protein in active cells of the supportive tissue, in neurons it is located in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. We found the expression of Cygb in all brain regions, although only a fraction of the neurons was Cygb-positive. Signals were of different intensity ranging from faint to very intense. Telencephalic neurons in all laminae of the cerebral cortex, in the olfactory bulb (in particular periglomerular cells, in the hippocampal formation (strongly stained pyramidal cells with long processes, basal ganglia (scattered multipolar neurons in the dorsal striatum, dorsal and ventral pallidum, and in the amygdala (neurons with unlabeled processes were labeled by the antibody. In the diencephalon, we observed Cygb-positive neurons of moderate intensity in various nuclei of the dorsal thalamus, in the hypothalamus, metathalamus (geniculate nuclei, epithalamus with strong labeling of habenular nucleus neurons and no labeling of pineal cells, and in the ventral thalamus. Tegmental neurons stood out by strongly stained somata with long processes in, e.g., the laterodorsal nucleus. In the tectum, faintly labeled neurons and fibers were detected in the superior colliculus. The cerebellum exhibited unlabeled Purkinje-neurons but signs of strong afferent cortical innervation. Neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord showed moderate immunofluorescence. Peripheral ganglia were not labeled by the antibody. The Meynert-fascicle and the olfactory and optic nerves/tracts were the only Cygb-immunoreactive fiber systems. Notably, we found a remarkable level of colocalization of Cygb and neuronal nitric oxide-synthase in neurons, which supports a functional association.

  8. Integrative analysis of the mouse embryonic transcriptome.

    Singh, Amar V; Knudsen, Kenneth B; Knudsen, Thomas B


    Monitoring global gene expression provides insight into how genes and regulatory signals work together to guide embryo development. The fields of developmental biology and teratology are now confronted with the need for automated access to a reference library of gene-expression signatures that benchmark programmed (genetic) and adaptive (environmental) regulation of the embryonic transcriptome. Such a library must be constructed from highly-distributed microarray data. Birth Defects Systems Manager (BDSM), an open access knowledge management system, provides custom software to mine public microarray data focused on developmental health and disease. The present study describes tools for seamless data integration in the BDSM library (MetaSample, MetaChip, CIAeasy) using the QueryBDSM module. A field test of the prototype was run using published microarray data series derived from a variety of laboratories, experiments, microarray platforms, organ systems, and developmental stages. The datasets focused on several developing systems in the mouse embryo, including preimplantation stages, heart and nerve development, testis and ovary development, and craniofacial development. Using BDSM data integration tools, a gene-expression signature for 346 genes was resolved that accurately classified samples by organ system and developmental sequence. The module builds a potential for the BDSM approach to decipher a large number developmental processes through comparative bioinformatics analysis of embryological systems at-risk for specific defects, using multiple scenarios to define the range of probabilities leading from molecular phenotype to clinical phenotype. We conclude that an integrative analysis of global gene-expression of the developing embryo can form the foundation for constructing a reference library of signaling pathways and networks for normal and abnormal regulation of the embryonic transcriptome. These tools are available free of charge from the web-site http

  9. Radioadaptive Cytoprotective Pathways in the Mouse Retina

    Zanello, Susana B.; Wotring, V.; Theriot, C.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.


    Exposure to cosmic radiation implies a risk of tissue degeneration. Radiation retinopathy is a complication of radiotherapy and exhibits common features with other retinopathies and neuropathies. Exposure to a low radiation dose elicits protective cellular events (radioadaptive response), reducing the stress of a subsequent higher dose. To assess the risk of radiation-induced retinal changes and the extent to which a small priming dose reduces this risk, we used a mouse model exposed to a source of Cs-137-gamma radiation. Gene expression profiling of retinas from non-irradiated control C57BL/6J mice (C) were compared to retinas from mice treated with a low 50 mGy dose (LD), a high 6 Gy dose (HD), and a combined treatment of 50 mGy (priming) and 6 Gy (challenge) doses (LHD). Whole retina RNA was isolated and expression analysis for selected genes performed by RTqPCR. Relevant target genes associated with cell death/survival, oxidative stress, cellular stress response and inflammation pathways, were analyzed. Cellular stress response genes were upregulated at 4 hr after the challenge dose in LHD retinas (Sirt1: 1.5 fold, Hsf1: 1.7 fold, Hspa1a: 2.5 fold; Hif1a: 1.8 fold, Bag1: 1.7). A similar trend was observed in LD animals. Most antioxidant enzymes (Hmox1, Sod2, Prdx1, Cygb, Cat1) and inflammatory mediators (NF B, Ptgs2 and Tgfb1) were upregulated in LHD and LD retinas. Expression of the pro-survival gene Bcl2 was upregulated in LD (6-fold) and LHD (4-fold) retinas. In conclusion, cytoprotective gene networks activation in the retina suggests a radioadaptive response to a priming irradiation dose, with mitigation of the deleterious effects of a subsequent high dose exposure. The enhancement of these cytoprotective mechanisms has potential value as a countermeasure to ocular alterations caused by radiation alone or in combination with other factors in spaceflight environments.

  10. TRPM3 expression in mouse retina.

    R Lane Brown

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute a large family of cation permeable ion channels that serve crucial functions in sensory systems by transducing environmental changes into cellular voltage and calcium signals. Within the retina, two closely related members of the melastatin TRP family, TRPM1 and TRPM3, are highly expressed. TRPM1 has been shown to be required for the depolarizing response to light of ON-bipolar cells, but the role of TRPM3 in the retina is unknown. Immunohistochemical staining of mouse retina with an antibody directed against the C-terminus of TRPM3 labeled the inner plexiform layer (IPL and a subset of cells in the ganglion cell layer. Within the IPL, TRPM3 immunofluorescence was markedly stronger in the OFF sublamina than in the ON sublamina. Electroretinogram recordings showed that the scotopic and photopic a- and b-waves of TRPM3(-/- mice are normal indicating that TRPM3 does not play a major role in visual processing in the outer retina. TRPM3 activity was measured by calcium imaging and patch-clamp recording of immunopurified retinal ganglion cells. Application of the TRPM3 agonist, pregnenolone sulfate (PS, stimulated increases in intracellular calcium in ~40% of cells from wild type and TRPM1(‑/‑ mice, and the PS-stimulated increases in calcium were blocked by co-application of mefenamic acid, a TRPM3 antagonist. No PS-stimulated changes in fluorescence were observed in ganglion cells from TRPM3(-/- mice. Similarly, PS-stimulated currents that could be blocked by mefenamic acid were recorded from wild type retinal ganglion cells but were absent in ganglion cells from TRPM3-/- mice.

  11. Carcinogenic effects in a phenylketonuria mouse model.

    Neil Sidell

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disorder caused by impaired phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH. This condition results in hyperphenylalaninemia and elevated levels of abnormal phenylalanine metabolites, among which is phenylacetic acid/phenylacetate (PA. In recent years, PA and its analogs were found to have anticancer activity against a variety of malignancies suggesting the possibility that PKU may offer protection against cancer through chronically elevated levels of PA. We tested this hypothesis in a genetic mouse model of PKU (PAH(enu2 which has a biochemical profile that closely resembles that of human PKU. Plasma levels of phenylalanine in homozygous (HMZ PAH(enu2 mice were >12-fold those of heterozygous (HTZ littermates while tyrosine levels were reduced. Phenylketones, including PA, were also markedly elevated to the range seen in the human disease. Mice were subjected to 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA carcinogenesis, a model which is sensitive to the anticancer effects of the PA derivative 4-chlorophenylacetate (4-CPA. Tumor induction by DMBA was not significantly different between the HTZ and HMZ mice, either in total tumor development or in the type of cancers that arose. HMZ mice were then treated with 4-CPA as positive controls for the anticancer effects of PA and to evaluate its possible effects on phenylalanine metabolism in PKU mice. 4-CPA had no effect on the plasma concentrations of phenylalanine, phenylketones, or tyrosine. Surprisingly, the HMZ mice treated with 4-CPA developed an unexplained neuromuscular syndrome which precluded its use in these animals as an anticancer agent. Together, these studies support the use of PAH(enu2 mice as a model for studying human PKU. Chronically elevated levels of PA in the PAH(enu2 mice were not protective against cancer.

  12. Characterization of a pneumococcal meningitis mouse model

    Mook-Kanamori Barry


    Full Text Available Abstract Background S. pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of meningitis, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop an integrated and representative pneumococcal meningitis mouse model resembling the human situation. Methods Adult mice (C57BL/6 were inoculated in the cisterna magna with increasing doses of S. pneumoniae serotype 3 colony forming units (CFU; n = 24, 104, 105, 106 and 107 CFU and survival studies were performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, brain, blood, spleen, and lungs were collected. Subsequently, mice were inoculated with 104 CFU S. pneumoniae serotype 3 and sacrificed at 6 (n = 6 and 30 hours (n = 6. Outcome parameters were bacterial outgrowth, clinical score, and cytokine and chemokine levels (using Luminex® in CSF, blood and brain. Meningeal inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, parenchymal and subarachnoidal hemorrhages, microglial activation and hippocampal apoptosis were assessed in histopathological studies. Results Lower doses of bacteria delayed onset of illness and time of death (median survival CFU 104, 56 hrs; 105, 38 hrs, 106, 28 hrs. 107, 24 hrs. Bacterial titers in brain and CSF were similar in all mice at the end-stage of disease independent of inoculation dose, though bacterial outgrowth in the systemic compartment was less at lower inoculation doses. At 30 hours after inoculation with 104 CFU of S. pneumoniae, blood levels of KC, IL6, MIP-2 and IFN- γ were elevated, as were brain homogenate levels of KC, MIP-2, IL-6, IL-1β and RANTES. Brain histology uniformly showed meningeal inflammation at 6 hours, and, neutrophil infiltration, microglial activation, and hippocampal apoptosis at 30 hours. Parenchymal and subarachnoidal and cortical hemorrhages were seen in 5 of 6 and 3 of 6 mice at 6 and 30 hours, respectively. Conclusion We have developed and validated a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis.

  13. Genetically modified mouse models addressing gonadotropin function.

    Ratner, Laura D; Rulli, Susana B; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T


    The development of genetically modified animals has been useful to understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the gonadotropin function. It is well known that alterations in the secretion of a single hormone is capable of producing profound reproductive abnormalities. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone normally secreted by the human placenta, and structurally and functionally it is related to pituitary LH. LH and hCG bind to the same LH/hCG receptor, and hCG is often used as an analog of LH to boost gonadotropin action. There are many physiological and pathological conditions where LH/hCG levels and actions are elevated. In order to understand how elevated LH/hCG levels may impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis we have developed a transgenic mouse model with chronic hCG hypersecretion. Female mice develop many gonadal and extragonadal phenotypes including obesity, infertility, hyperprolactinemia, and pituitary and mammary gland tumors. This article summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms involved in pituitary gland tumorigenesis and hyperprolactinemia in the female mice hypersecreting hCG, in particular the relationship of progesterone with the hyperprolactinemic condition of the model. In addition, we describe the role of hyperprolactinemia as the main cause of infertility and the phenotypic abnormalities in these mice, and the use of dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline to normalize these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Mouse models for inherited endocrine and metabolic disorders.

    Piret, Siân E; Thakker, Rajesh V


    In vivo models represent important resources for investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying endocrine and metabolic disorders, and for pre-clinical translational studies that may include the assessments of new treatments. In the study of endocrine diseases, which affect multiple organs, in vivo models provide specific advantages over in vitro models, which are limited to investigation of isolated systems. In recent years, the mouse has become the popular choice for developing such in vivo mammalian models, as it has a genome that shares ∼85% identity to that of man, and has many physiological systems that are similar to those in man. Moreover, methods have been developed to alter the expression of genes in the mouse, thereby generating models for human diseases, which may be due to loss- or gain-of-function mutations. The methods used to generate mutations in the mouse genome include: chemical mutagenesis; conventional, conditional and inducible knockout models; knockin models and transgenic models, and these strategies are often complementary. This review describes some of the different strategies that are utilised for generating mouse models. In addition, some mouse models that have been successfully generated by these methods for some human hereditary endocrine and metabolic disorders are reviewed. In particular, the mouse models generated for parathyroid disorders, which include: the multiple endocrine neoplasias; hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome; disorders of the calcium-sensing receptor and forms of inherited hypoparathyroidism are discussed. The advances that have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms of these human diseases by investigations of these mouse models are described.

  15. Mass spectrometry analysis of hepcidin peptides in experimental mouse models.

    Harold Tjalsma

    Full Text Available The mouse is a valuable model for unravelling the role of hepcidin in iron homeostasis, however, such studies still report hepcidin mRNA levels as a surrogate marker for bioactive hepcidin in its pivotal function to block ferroportin-mediated iron transport. Here, we aimed to assess bioactive mouse Hepcidin-1 (Hep-1 and its paralogue Hepcidin-2 (Hep-2 at the peptide level. To this purpose, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR and tandem-MS was used for hepcidin identification, after which a time-of-flight (TOF MS-based methodology was exploited to routinely determine Hep-1 and -2 levels in mouse serum and urine. This method was biologically validated by hepcidin assessment in: i 3 mouse strains (C57Bl/6; DBA/2 and BABL/c upon stimulation with intravenous iron and LPS, ii homozygous Hfe knock out, homozygous transferrin receptor 2 (Y245X mutated mice and double affected mice, and iii mice treated with a sublethal hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol. The results showed that detection of Hep-1 was restricted to serum, whereas Hep-2 and its presumed isoforms were predominantly present in urine. Elevations in serum Hep-1 and urine Hep-2 upon intravenous iron or LPS were only moderate and varied considerably between mouse strains. Serum Hep-1 was decreased in all three hemochromatosis models, being lowest in the double affected mice. Serum Hep-1 levels correlated with liver hepcidin-1 gene expression, while acute liver damage by paracetamol depleted Hep-1 from serum. Furthermore, serum Hep-1 appeared to be an excellent indicator of splenic iron accumulation. In conclusion, Hep-1 and Hep-2 peptide responses in experimental mouse agree with the known biology of hepcidin mRNA regulators, and their measurement can now be implemented in experimental mouse models to provide novel insights in post-transcriptional regulation, hepcidin function, and kinetics.

  16. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Control Environmental Stimulation through a Mouse Wheel

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kun-Tsan; Chiang, Ming-Shan


    This study assessed whether two people with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to control environmental stimulation using thumb poke ability with a mouse wheel and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replacing standard mouse driver, and turning a mouse into a precise thumb poke detector).…

  17. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Control Environmental Stimulation through a Mouse Wheel

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kun-Tsan; Chiang, Ming-Shan


    This study assessed whether two people with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to control environmental stimulation using thumb poke ability with a mouse wheel and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replacing standard mouse driver, and turning a mouse into a precise thumb poke detector).…

  18. EMMA—mouse mutant resources for the international scientific community

    Wilkinson, Phil; Sengerova, Jitka; Matteoni, Raffaele; Chen, Chao-Kung; Soulat, Gaetan; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Fessele, Sabine; Hagn, Michael; Massimi, Marzia; Pickford, Karen; Butler, Richard H.; Marschall, Susan; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Pickard, Amanda; Raspa, Marcello; Scavizzi, Ferdinando; Fray, Martin; Larrigaldie, Vanessa; Leyritz, Johan; Birney, Ewan; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P.; Brown, Steve; Herault, Yann; Montoliu, Lluis; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Smedley, Damian


    The laboratory mouse is the premier animal model for studying human disease and thousands of mutants have been identified or produced, most recently through gene-specific mutagenesis approaches. High throughput strategies by the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) are producing mutants for all protein coding genes. Generating a knock-out line involves huge monetary and time costs so capture of both the data describing each mutant alongside archiving of the line for distribution to future researchers is critical. The European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA) is a leading international network infrastructure for archiving and worldwide provision of mouse mutant strains. It operates in collaboration with the other members of the Federation of International Mouse Resources (FIMRe), EMMA being the European component. Additionally EMMA is one of four repositories involved in the IKMC, and therefore the current figure of 1700 archived lines will rise markedly. The EMMA database gathers and curates extensive data on each line and presents it through a user-friendly website. A BioMart interface allows advanced searching including integrated querying with other resources e.g. Ensembl. Other resources are able to display EMMA data by accessing our Distributed Annotation System server. EMMA database access is publicly available at PMID:19783817

  19. Cytoarchitecture of mouse and rat cingulate cortex with human homologies.

    Vogt, Brent A; Paxinos, George


    A gulf exists between cingulate area designations in human neurocytology and those used in rodent brain atlases with a major underpinning of the former being midcingulate cortex (MCC). The present study used images extracted from the Franklin and Paxinos mouse atlas and Paxinos and Watson rat atlas to demonstrate areas comprising MCC and modifications of anterior cingulate (ACC) and retrosplenial cortices. The laminar architecture not available in the atlases is also provided for each cingulate area. Both mouse and rat have a MCC with neurons in all layers that are larger than in ACC and layer Va has particularly prominent neurons and reduced neuron densities. An undifferentiated ACC area 33 lies along the rostral callosal sulcus in rat but not in mouse and area 32 has dorsal and ventral subdivisions with the former having particularly large pyramidal neurons in layer Vb. Both mouse and rat have anterior and posterior divisions of retrosplenial areas 29c and 30, although their cytology is different in rat and mouse. Maps of the rodent cingulate cortices provide for direct comparisons with each region in the human including MCC and it is significant that rodents do not have a posterior cingulate region composed of areas 23 and 31 like the human. It is concluded that rodents and primates, including humans, possess a MCC and this homology along with those in ACC and retrosplenial cortices permit scientists inspired by human considerations to test hypotheses on rodent models of human diseases.

  20. In vivo axial loading of the mouse tibia.

    Melville, Katherine M; Robling, Alexander G; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H


    Noninvasive methods to apply controlled, cyclic loads to the living skeleton are used as anabolic procedures to stimulate new bone formation in adults and enhance bone mass accrual in growing animals. These methods are also invaluable for understanding bone signaling pathways. Our focus here is on a particular loading model: in vivo axial compression of the mouse tibia. An advantage of loading the tibia is that changes are present in both the cancellous envelope of the proximal tibia and the cortical bone of the tibial diaphysis. To load the tibia of the mouse axially in vivo, a cyclic compressive load is applied up to five times a week to a single tibia per mouse for a duration lasting from 1 day to 6 weeks. With the contralateral limb as an internal control, the anabolic response of the skeleton to mechanical stimuli can be studied in a pairwise experimental design. Here, we describe the key parameters that must be considered before beginning an in vivo mouse tibial loading experiment, including methods for in vivo strain gauging of the tibial midshaft, and then we describe general methods for loading the mouse tibia for an experiment lasting multiple days.

  1. A superovulation protocol for the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus).

    Pasco, Rachael; Gardner, David K; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley


    This study aimed to develop a superovulation protocol for the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus). The spiny mouse is a desert-adapted rodent species, with a long oestrus cycle (11 days) compared with rat and mouse, and gives birth to few (mean litter size is 3) precocial offspring after a relatively long gestation (39 days). We successfully optimised a superovulation protocol that elicited a 5-fold increase in the normal ovulation rate of this species. To induce superovulation in the spiny mouse 2 injections of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG, 10 IU each), 9h apart, were required, followed by 20 IU of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). This protocol was successful in 100% of females trialed and at 33 h post-hCG an average of 14.7 ± 1.5, 1-2 cell embryos were recovered. Histological analysis of ovaries following superovulation revealed large corpus lutea and post-ovulatory follicles occupying a large part of the ovary. Ovulation commenced 6-12 h after the hCG injection and continued until 24-33 h post-hCG as indicated by both histological analysis of ovaries and the presence of oocytes/embryos in the oviduct. This superovulation protocol will facilitate the development of an in vitro culture system for spiny mouse embryos.

  2. A provisional gene regulatory atlas for mouse heart development.

    Hailin Chen

    Full Text Available Congenital Heart Disease (CHD is one of the most common birth defects. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying normal cardiac development is an important step towards early identification of abnormalities during the developmental program and towards the creation of early intervention strategies. We developed a novel computational strategy for leveraging high-content data sets, including a large selection of microarray data associated with mouse cardiac development, mouse genome sequence, ChIP-seq data of selected mouse transcription factors and Y2H data of mouse protein-protein interactions, to infer the active transcriptional regulatory network of mouse cardiac development. We identified phase-specific expression activity for 765 overlapping gene co-expression modules that were defined for obtained cardiac lineage microarray data. For each co-expression module, we identified the phase of cardiac development where gene expression for that module was higher than other phases. Co-expression modules were found to be consistent with biological pathway knowledge in Wikipathways, and met expectations for enrichment of pathways involved in heart lineage development. Over 359,000 transcription factor-target relationships were inferred by analyzing the promoter sequences within each gene module for overrepresentation against the JASPAR database of Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS motifs. The provisional regulatory network will provide a framework of studying the genetic basis of CHD.

  3. Dipole source localization of mouse electroencephalogram using the Fieldtrip toolbox.

    Lee, Chungki; Oostenveld, Robert; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Lae Hyun; Sung, Hokun; Choi, Jee Hyun


    The mouse model is an important research tool in neurosciences to examine brain function and diseases with genetic perturbation in different brain regions. However, the limited techniques to map activated brain regions under specific experimental manipulations has been a drawback of the mouse model compared to human functional brain mapping. Here, we present a functional brain mapping method for fast and robust in vivo brain mapping of the mouse brain. The method is based on the acquisition of high density electroencephalography (EEG) with a microarray and EEG source estimation to localize the electrophysiological origins. We adapted the Fieldtrip toolbox for the source estimation, taking advantage of its software openness and flexibility in modeling the EEG volume conduction. Three source estimation techniques were compared: Distribution source modeling with minimum-norm estimation (MNE), scanning with multiple signal classification (MUSIC), and single-dipole fitting. Known sources to evaluate the performance of the localization methods were provided using optogenetic tools. The accuracy was quantified based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The mean detection accuracy was high, with a false positive rate less than 1.3% and 7% at the sensitivity of 90% plotted with the MNE and MUSIC algorithms, respectively. The mean center-to-center distance was less than 1.2 mm in single dipole fitting algorithm. Mouse microarray EEG source localization using microarray allows a reliable method for functional brain mapping in awake mouse opening an access to cross-species study with human brain.

  4. Dipole source localization of mouse electroencephalogram using the Fieldtrip toolbox.

    Chungki Lee

    Full Text Available The mouse model is an important research tool in neurosciences to examine brain function and diseases with genetic perturbation in different brain regions. However, the limited techniques to map activated brain regions under specific experimental manipulations has been a drawback of the mouse model compared to human functional brain mapping. Here, we present a functional brain mapping method for fast and robust in vivo brain mapping of the mouse brain. The method is based on the acquisition of high density electroencephalography (EEG with a microarray and EEG source estimation to localize the electrophysiological origins. We adapted the Fieldtrip toolbox for the source estimation, taking advantage of its software openness and flexibility in modeling the EEG volume conduction. Three source estimation techniques were compared: Distribution source modeling with minimum-norm estimation (MNE, scanning with multiple signal classification (MUSIC, and single-dipole fitting. Known sources to evaluate the performance of the localization methods were provided using optogenetic tools. The accuracy was quantified based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. The mean detection accuracy was high, with a false positive rate less than 1.3% and 7% at the sensitivity of 90% plotted with the MNE and MUSIC algorithms, respectively. The mean center-to-center distance was less than 1.2 mm in single dipole fitting algorithm. Mouse microarray EEG source localization using microarray allows a reliable method for functional brain mapping in awake mouse opening an access to cross-species study with human brain.

  5. Mouse tissues express multiple splice variants of prominin-1.

    Kristel Kemper

    Full Text Available Prominin-1, a heavily glycosylated pentaspan membrane protein, is mainly known for its function as a marker for (cancer stem cells, although it can also be detected on differentiated cells. Mouse prominin-1 expression is heavily regulated by splicing in eight different variants. The function or the expression pattern of prominin-1 and its splice variants (SVs is thus far unknown. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the prominin-1 splice variants on mRNA level in several mouse tissues and found a broad tissue expression of the majority of SVs, but a specific set of SVs had a much more restricted expression profile. For instance, the testis expressed only SV3 and SV7. Moreover, SV8 was solely detected in the eye. Intriguingly, prominin-1 knockout mice do not suffer from gross abnormalities, but do show signs of blindness, which suggest that SV8 has a specific function in this tissue. In addition, databases searches for putative promoter regions in the mouse prominin-1 gene revealed three potential promoter regions that could be linked to specific SVs. Interestingly, for both SV7 and SV8, a specific potential promoter region could be identified. To conclude, the majority of mouse prominin-1 splice variants are widely expressed in mouse tissues. However, specific expression of a few variants, likely driven by specific promoters, suggests distinct regulation and a potential important function for these variants in certain tissues.

  6. A Comprehensive Atlas of the Adult Mouse Penis.

    Phillips, Tiffany R; Wright, David K; Gradie, Paul E; Johnston, Leigh A; Pask, Andrew J


    Mice are routinely used to study the development of the external genitalia and, in particular, the process of male urethral closure. This is because misplacement of the male penile urethra, or hypospadias, is amongst the most common birth defects reported in humans. While mice present a tractable model to study penile development, several structures differ between mice and humans, and there is a lack of consensus in the literature on their annotation and developmental origins. Defining the ontology of the mouse prepuce is especially important for the relevance and interpretation of mouse models of hypospadias to human conditions. We have developed a detailed annotation of the adult mouse penis that addresses these differences and enables an accurate comparison of murine and human hypospadias phenotypes. Through MRI data, gross morphology and section histology, we define the origin of the mouse external and internal prepuces, their relationship to the single human foreskin as well as provide a comprehensive view of the various structures of the mouse penis and their associated muscle attachments within the body. These data are combined to annotate structures in a novel 3D adult penis atlas that can be downloaded, viewed at any angle, and manipulated to examine the relationship of various structures.

  7. NIH Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers: the power of centralized phenotyping

    Kent Lloyd, K. C.; Cline, Gary W.; Wasserman, David H.


    The Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers (MMPCs) were founded in 2001 by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to advance biomedical research by providing the scientific community with standardized, high-quality phenotyping services for mouse models of diabetes, obesity, and their complications. The intent is to allow researchers to take optimum advantage of the many new mouse models produced in labs and in high-throughput public efforts. The six MMPCs are located at universities around the country and perform complex metabolic tests in intact mice and hormone and analyte assays in tissues on a fee-for-service basis. Testing is subsidized by the NIH in order to reduce the barriers for mouse researchers. Although data derived from these tests belong to the researcher submitting mice or tissues, these data are archived after publication in a public database run by the MMPC Coordinating and Bioinformatics Unit. It is hoped that data from experiments performed in many mouse models of metabolic diseases, using standard protocols, will be useful in understanding the nature of these complex disorders. The current areas of expertise include energy balance and body composition, insulin action and secretion, whole-body and tissue carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cardiovascular and renal function, and metabolic pathway kinetics. In addition to providing services, the MMPC staff provides expertise and advice to researchers, and works to develop and refine test protocols to best meet the community’s needs in light of current scientific developments. Test technology is disseminated by publications and through annual courses. PMID:22940748

  8. Piezo-actuated mouse intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    Yoshida, Naoko; Perry, Anthony C F


    The mouse is a genetically tractable model organism widely used to study mammalian development and disease. However, mouse metaphase II (mII) oocytes are exquisitely sensitive and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with conventional pipettes generally kills them. This problem can be solved with piezo-actuated micromanipulation, in which the piezo-electric effect (crystal deformation in response to an externally applied voltage) propels a microinjection needle tip forward in a precise and rapid movement. Piezo-actuated micromanipulation enhances the penetration of membranes and matrices, and mouse ICSI is a major application. Here we describe a comprehensive, step-by-step mouse piezo ICSI protocol for non-specialists that can be completed in 2-4 h. The protocol is a basic prelude to multiple applications, including nuclear transfer cloning, spermatid injection, blastocyst injection, mII transgenesis, and streamlining micromanipulation in primates and livestock. Moreover, piezo ICSI can be used to obtain offspring from 'dead' (non-motile) sperm, enabling trivial sperm freezing protocols for mouse strain storage and shipment.

  9. A vertical mouse and ergonomic mouse pads alter wrist position but do not reduce carpal tunnel pressure in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Schmid, Annina B; Kubler, Paul A; Johnston, Venerina; Coppieters, Michel W


    Non-neutral wrist positions and external pressure leading to increased carpal tunnel pressure during computer use have been associated with a heightened risk of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This study investigated whether commonly used ergonomic devices reduce carpal tunnel pressure in patients with CTS. Carpal tunnel pressure was measured in twenty-one patients with CTS before, during and after a computer mouse task using a standard mouse, a vertical mouse, a gel mouse pad and a gliding palm support. Carpal tunnel pressure increased while operating a computer mouse. Although the vertical mouse significantly reduced ulnar deviation and the gel mouse pad and gliding palm support decreased wrist extension, none of the ergonomic devices reduced carpal tunnel pressure. The findings of this study do therefore not endorse a strong recommendation for or against any of the ergonomic devices commonly recommended for patients with CTS. Selection of ergonomic devices remains dependent on personal preference.

  10. Differentiations of transplanted mouse spermatogonial stem cells in the adult mouse renal parenchyma in vivo

    Da-peng WU; Da-lin HE; Xiang LI; Zhao-hui LIU


    Aim:Spermatogonial stem cells can initiate the process of cellular differentia-tion to generate mature spermatozoa, but whether it possess the characteristic of pluripotency and plasticity, similar to embryonic stem cells, has not been elucidated. This study was designed to evaluate the differentiation potential of spermatogonial stem cells into renal cells in vivo. Methods: Neonatal mouse spermatogonial stem cells were transplanted into mature male mice lacking en-dogenous spermatogenesis. The restoration of fertility in recipient males was observed. Spermatogonial stem cells were then injected into renal parenchyma of mature female mice to make a new extracellular environment for differentia-tion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technology (FISH) was used to detect the expression of chromosome Y in recipient renal tissues. To determine the type of cells differentiated from spermatogonial stem cells, the expression of ricinus communis agglutinin, vimentin, CD45, and F4/80 proteins were examined in the renal tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results: The proliferation of seminiferous epithelial cells was distinctly observed in seminiferous tubules of transplanted testes, whereas no regeneration of spermatogenesis was observed in non-transplanted control testes. In transplanted female renal tissues, FISH showed a much stronger immuno-fluorescence signal of chromosome Y in the nucleolus of epithelial cells of the renal tubule and podocytes of the glomerulus. Conclusion: The spermatogonial stem cells were successfully purified from mouse testicles. This finding demonstrated that spermatogonial stem cells could not only restore damaged spermatogenesis, but were also capable of differentiat-ing into mature renal parenchyma cells in vivo.

  11. Study on Isolation, Passage, Cryopreservation and Histology of Mouse Fibroblasts

    ZHANG Gui-xue; LIU Yan; HU Peng-fei


    The embryonic ages were determined for the best preparation of mouse fibroblasts. Four methods were adapted to verify cryopreservation of mouse fibroblasts. The results showed that embryonic cryopreserving method was best one with 0.86 of thawing viability. The embryos from 13-14 d pregnant mouse were superior to 11-12 d and 15-16 d in isolating, growing, laying and living. The first 6 generations were better than following ones in the same aspects above. Cell laying time became longer and vailable time became shorter after the sixth generation. With culture time increasing, fibroblast nuclear size became larger, fibrous filament appeared among fibroblasts, and macrocyst vesicle with fioccule appeared in the cells. Cyst vesicle structure with pyknotic granule appeared in 24 h cultured fibroblasts and macrocyst vesicle also appeared in passaging fibroblasts.

  12. Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases.

    Seok, Junhee; Warren, H Shaw; Cuenca, Alex G; Mindrinos, Michael N; Baker, Henry V; Xu, Weihong; Richards, Daniel R; McDonald-Smith, Grace P; Gao, Hong; Hennessy, Laura; Finnerty, Celeste C; López, Cecilia M; Honari, Shari; Moore, Ernest E; Minei, Joseph P; Cuschieri, Joseph; Bankey, Paul E; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Sperry, Jason; Nathens, Avery B; Billiar, Timothy R; West, Michael A; Jeschke, Marc G; Klein, Matthew B; Gamelli, Richard L; Gibran, Nicole S; Brownstein, Bernard H; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Calvano, Steve E; Mason, Philip H; Cobb, J Perren; Rahme, Laurence G; Lowry, Stephen F; Maier, Ronald V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Herndon, David N; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G


    A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we show that, although acute inflammatory stresses from different etiologies result in highly similar genomic responses in humans, the responses in corresponding mouse models correlate poorly with the human conditions and also, one another. Among genes changed significantly in humans, the murine orthologs are close to random in matching their human counterparts (e.g., R(2) between 0.0 and 0.1). In addition to improvements in the current animal model systems, our study supports higher priority for translational medical research to focus on the more complex human conditions rather than relying on mouse models to study human inflammatory diseases.

  13. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.


    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  14. Characterization of mouse Dach2, a homologue of Drosophila dachshund.

    Davis, R J; Shen, W; Sandler, Y I; Heanue, T A; Mardon, G


    The Drosophila genes eyeless, eyes absent, sine oculis and dachshund cooperate as components of a network to control retinal determination. Vertebrate homologues of these genes have been identified and implicated in the control of cell fate. We present the cloning and characterization of mouse Dach2, a homologue of dachshund. In situ hybridization studies demonstrate Dach2 expression in embryonic nervous tissues, sensory organs and limbs. This pattern is similar to mouse Dach1, suggesting a partially redundant role for these genes during development. In addition, we determine that Dach2 expression in the forebrain of Pax6 mutants and dermamyotome of Pax3 mutants is not detectably altered. Finally, genetic mapping experiments place mouse Dach2 on the X chromosome between Xist and Esx1. The identification of human DACH2 sequences at Xq21 suggests a possible role for this gene in Allan-Herndon syndrome, Miles-Carpenter syndrome, X-linked cleft palate and/or Megalocornea.

  15. Study on the Vesiculation during Mouse Sperm Acrosome Reaction

    林家豪; 周作民; 胡志刚; 王黎熔; 林敏; 张适


    The location of the mono-membrane and the bi-membrane vesicles of mouse sperm was identified using Con A in conjugation with the colloidal gold. The observation showed that both mono-membrane vesicfes and outer layer of the hi-membrane vesicles come from the outer acrosome membrane. The inner membrane layer of the bi-member vesicles and residual membrane distributed among the vesicles are really the ptasmatemma. It is suggested that the outer acrosome membrane did not fuse with the pfasmafemma during mouse sperm acrosome reaction and that both the mono-membrane and the bi-membrane vesicles of mouse sperm were formed due to winding of the outer acrosome membrane.

  16. Behavioral and Neuroanatomical Phenotypes in Mouse Models of Autism.

    Ellegood, Jacob; Crawley, Jacqueline N


    In order to understand the consequences of the mutation on behavioral and biological phenotypes relevant to autism, mutations in many of the risk genes for autism spectrum disorder have been experimentally generated in mice. Here, we summarize behavioral outcomes and neuroanatomical abnormalities, with a focus on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of postmortem mouse brains. Results are described from multiple mouse models of autism spectrum disorder and comorbid syndromes, including the 15q11-13, 16p11.2, 22q11.2, Cntnap2, Engrailed2, Fragile X, Integrinβ3, MET, Neurexin1a, Neuroligin3, Reelin, Rett, Shank3, Slc6a4, tuberous sclerosis, and Williams syndrome models, and inbred strains with strong autism-relevant behavioral phenotypes, including BTBR and BALB. Concomitant behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities can strengthen the interpretation of results from a mouse model, and may elevate the usefulness of the model system for therapeutic discovery.

  17. The value of incomplete mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Radde, Rebecca; Duma, Cecilia; Goedert, Michel; Jucker, Mathias


    To study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a variety of mouse models has been generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or the presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial AD. With aging, these mice develop several lesions similar to those of AD, including diffuse and neuritic amyloid deposits, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, dystrophic neurites and synapses, and amyloid-associated neuroinflammation. Other characteristics of AD, such as neurofibrillary tangles and nerve cell loss, are not satisfactorily reproduced in these models. Mouse models that recapitulate only specific aspects of AD pathogenesis are of great advantage when deciphering the complexity of the disease and can contribute substantially to diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. Incomplete mouse models have been key to the development of Abeta42-targeted therapies, as well as to the current understanding of the interrelationship between cerebral beta-amyloidosis and tau neurofibrillary lesions, and are currently being used to develop novel diagnostic agents for in vivo imaging.

  18. Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases

    Seok, Junhee; Warren, H. Shaw; Cuenca, Alex G.; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Baker, Henry V.; Xu, Weihong; Richards, Daniel R.; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Gao, Hong; Hennessy, Laura; Finnerty, Celeste C.; López, Cecilia M.; Honari, Shari; Moore, Ernest E.; Minei, Joseph P.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Bankey, Paul E.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Sperry, Jason; Nathens, Avery B.; Billiar, Timothy R.; West, Michael A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Brownstein, Bernard H.; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Calvano, Steve E.; Mason, Philip H.; Cobb, J. Perren; Rahme, Laurence G.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Maier, Ronald V.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Herndon, David N.; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Abouhamze, Amer; Balis, Ulysses G. J.; Camp, David G.; De, Asit K.; Harbrecht, Brian G.; Hayden, Douglas L.; Kaushal, Amit; O’Keefe, Grant E.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Qian, Weijun; Schoenfeld, David A.; Shapiro, Michael B.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; Smith, Richard D.; Storey, John D.; Tibshirani, Robert; Toner, Mehmet; Wilhelmy, Julie; Wispelwey, Bram; Wong, Wing H


    A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we show that, although acute inflammatory stresses from different etiologies result in highly similar genomic responses in humans, the responses in corresponding mouse models correlate poorly with the human conditions and also, one another. Among genes changed significantly in humans, the murine orthologs are close to random in matching their human counterparts (e.g., R2 between 0.0 and 0.1). In addition to improvements in the current animal model systems, our study supports higher priority for translational medical research to focus on the more complex human conditions rather than relying on mouse models to study human inflammatory diseases. PMID:23401516

  19. Protocol for Isolating the Mouse Circle of Willis.

    Hur, Justine Claire; Blaise, Régis; Limon, Isabelle


    The cerebral arterial circle (circulus arteriosus cerebri) or circle of Willis (CoW) is a circulatory anastomosis surrounding the optic chiasma and hypothalamus that supplies blood to the brain and surrounding structures. It has been implicated in several cerebrovascular disorders, including cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-associated vasculopathies, intracranial atherosclerosis and intracranial aneurysms. Studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases for the identification of novel drug targets for their prevention require animal models. Some of these models may be transgenic, whereas others will involve isolation of the cerebro-vasculature, including the CoW.The method described here is suitable for CoW isolation in any mouse lineage and has considerable potential for screening (expression of genes, protein production, posttranslational protein modifications, secretome analysis, etc.) studies on the large vessels of the mouse cerebro-vasculature. It can also be used for ex vivo studies, by adapting the organ bath system developed for isolated mouse olfactory arteries.

  20. Development of neural precursor cells from mouse embryonic stem cells

    WU Xuan; LI Hai-di; Li Shu-nong; XU Hai-wei; XU Ling


    Objective: To explore the serum-free culture conditions for differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (ES cells)into neural precursor cells (NPC) and compare the effects of human embryonic fibroblasts (HEF) as the feeder layer of ES with that of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF)in vitro. Methods: Mouse ES cells were cultured in or not in feeder layer cells medium containing or not leukemia inhibitory factor to suppress their differentiation. Immunocytochemical method was used to identify NPC by detecting nestin antigen and alkaline phosphatase. Results: The ES cells cultured in HEF were positive to alkaline phosphatase. Serum-free medium allowed the differentiation of ES cells into NPC. Conclusion:HEF could replace MEF and keep the undifferentiated condition of ES cells with more benefits. NPC of high purity could be cultured from ES cells by serum-free culture method.

  1. The atlas of mouse development eHistology resource.

    Graham, Elizabeth; Moss, Julie; Burton, Nick; Roochun, Yogmatee; Armit, Chris; Richardson, Lorna; Baldock, Richard


    The Atlas of Mouse Development by Professor Mathew Kaufman is an essential text for understanding mouse developmental anatomy. This definitive and authoritative atlas is still in production and is essential for any biologist working with the mouse embryo, although the last revision dates back to 1994. Here, we announce the eHistology online resource that provides free access to high-resolution colour images digitized from the original histological sections ( used by Kaufman for the Atlas. The images are provided with the original annotations and plate numbering of the paper atlas and enable viewing the material to cellular resolution. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Immune Responses Following Mouse Peripheral Nerve Xenotransplantation in Rats

    Lai-Jin Lu


    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation offers a potentially unlimited source for tissues and organs for transplantation, but the strong xenoimmune responses pose a major obstacle to its application in the clinic. In this study, we investigate the rejection of mouse peripheral nerve xenografts in rats. Severe intragraft mononuclear cell infiltration, graft distension, and necrosis were detected in the recipients as early as 2 weeks after mouse nerve xenotransplantation. The number of axons in xenografts reduced progressively and became almost undetectable at week 8. However, mouse nerve xenotransplantation only led to a transient and moderate increase in the production of Th1 cytokines, including IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. The data implicate that cellular immune responses play a critical role in nerve xenograft rejection but that further identification of the major effector cells mediating the rejection is required for developing effective means to prevent peripheral nerve xenograft rejection.

  3. mouseTube – a database to collaboratively unravel mouse ultrasonic communication [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Nicolas Torquet


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vocalisation is a broadly used proxy to evaluate social communication in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. The efficacy and robustness of testing these models suffer from limited knowledge of the structure and functions of these vocalisations as well as of the way to analyse the data. We created mouseTube, an open database with a web interface, to facilitate sharing and comparison of ultrasonic vocalisations data and metadata attached to a recording file. Metadata describe 1 the acquisition procedure, e.g., hardware, software, sampling frequency, bit depth; 2 the biological protocol used to elicit ultrasonic vocalisations; 3 the characteristics of the individual emitting ultrasonic vocalisations (e.g., strain, sex, age. To promote open science and enable reproducibility, data are made freely available. The website provides searching functions to facilitate the retrieval of recording files of interest. It is designed to enable comparisons of ultrasonic vocalisation emission between strains, protocols or laboratories, as well as to test different analysis algorithms and to search for protocols established to elicit mouse ultrasonic vocalisations. Over the long term, users will be able to download and compare different analysis results for each data file. Such application will boost the knowledge on mouse ultrasonic communication and stimulate sharing and comparison of automatic analysis methods to refine phenotyping techniques in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Enhancement of mouse sperm motility by trophinin-binding peptide

    Park Seong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trophinin is an intrinsic membrane protein that forms a complex in the cytoplasm with bystin and tastin, linking it microtubule-associated motor dynein (ATPase in some cell types. Previously, we found that human sperm tails contain trophinin, bystin and tastin proteins, and that trophinin-binding GWRQ (glycine, tryptophan, arginine, glutamine peptide enhanced motility of human sperm. Methods Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine trophinin protein in mouse spermatozoa from wild type mouse, by using spermatozoa from trophinin null mutant mice as a negative control. Multivalent 8-branched GWRQ (glycine, tryptophan, arginine, glutamine peptide or GWRQ-MAPS, was chemically synthesized, purified by HPLC and its structure was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Effect of GWRQ-MAPS on mouse spermatozoa from wild type and trophinin null mutant was assessed by a computer-assisted semen analyzer (CASA. Results Anti-trophinin antibody stained the principal (central piece of the tail of wild type mouse sperm, whereas the antibody showed no staining on trophinin null sperm. Phage particles displaying GWRQ bound to the principal piece of sperm tail from wild type but not trophinin null mice. GWRQ-MAPS enhanced motility of spermatozoa from wild type but not trophinin null mice. CASA showed that GWRQ-MAPS enhanced both progressive motility and rapid motility in wild type mouse sperm. Conclusions Present study established the expression of trophinin in the mouse sperm tail and trophinin-dependent effect of GWRQ-MAPS on sperm motility. GWRQ causes a significant increase in sperm motility.

  5. Spallanzani's mouse: a model of restoration and regeneration.

    Heber-Katz, E; Leferovich, J M; Bedelbaeva, K; Gourevitch, D


    The ability to regenerate is thought to be a lost phenotype in mammals, though there are certainly sporadic examples of mammalian regeneration. Our laboratory has identified a strain of mouse, the MRL mouse, which has a unique capacity to heal complex tissue in an epimorphic fashion, i.e., to restore a damaged limb or organ to its normal structure and function. Initial studies using through-and-through ear punches showed rapid full closure of the ear holes with cartilage growth, new hair follicles, and normal tissue architecture reminiscent of regeneration seen in amphibians as opposed to the scarring usually seen in mammals. Since the ear hole closure phenotype is a quantitative trait, this has been used to show-through extensive breeding and backcrossing--that the trait is heritable. Such analysis reveals that there is a complex genetic basis for this trait with multiple loci. One of the major phenotypes of the MRL mouse is a potent remodeling response with the absence or a reduced level of scarring. MRL healing is associated with the upregulation of the metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the downregulation of their inhibitors TIMP-2 and TIMP-3, both present in inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. This model has more recently been extended to the heart. In this case, a cryoinjury to the right ventricle leads to near complete scarless healing in the MRL mouse whereas scarring is seen in the control mouse. In the MRL heart, bromodeoxyuridine uptake by cardiomyocytes filling the wound site can be seen 60 days after injury. This does not occur in the control mouse. Function in the MRL heart, as measured by echocardiography, returns to normal.

  6. Expression of lactoperoxidase in differentiated mouse colon epithelial cells.

    Kim, Byung-Wook; Esworthy, R Steven; Hahn, Maria A; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Chu, Fong-Fong


    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is known to be present in secreted fluids, such as milk and saliva. Functionally, LPO teams up with dual oxidases (DUOXs) to generate bactericidal hypothiocyanite in the presence of thiocyanate. DUOX2 is expressed in intestinal epithelium, but there is little information on LPO expression in this tissue. To fill the gap of knowledge, we have analyzed Lpo gene expression and its regulation in mouse intestine. In wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) mouse intestine, an appreciable level of mouse Lpo gene expression was detected in the colon, but not the ileum. However, in B6 mice deficient in glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 and -2, GPx1/2-double-knockout (DKO), which had intestinal pathology, the colon Lpo mRNA levels increased 5- to 12-fold depending on mouse age. The Lpo mRNA levels in WT and DKO 129S1/SvlmJ (129) colon were even higher, 9- and 5-fold, than in B6 DKO colon. Higher levels of Lpo protein and enzymatic activity were also detected in the 129 mouse colon compared to B6 colon. Lpo protein was expressed in the differentiated colon epithelial cells, away from the crypt base, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Similar to human LPO mRNA, mouse Lpo mRNA had multiple spliced forms, although only the full-length variant 1 was translated. Higher methylation was found in the 129 than in the B6 strain, in DKO than in control colon, and in older than in juvenile mice. However, methylation of the Lpo intragenic CpG island was not directly induced by inflammation, because dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis did not increase DNA methylation in B6 DKO colon. Also, Lpo DNA methylation is not correlated with gene expression.

  7. Expression of casein kinase 2 during mouse embryogenesis

    Mestres, P; Boldyreff, B; Ebensperger, C;


    This paper deals with the expression and distribution of casein kinase 2 (CK-2) subunits in mouse embryos at different developmental stages. Expression was investigated at the mRNA level of CK-2 alpha- and beta-subunits by in situ hybridization and distribution at the protein level by immunohisto......This paper deals with the expression and distribution of casein kinase 2 (CK-2) subunits in mouse embryos at different developmental stages. Expression was investigated at the mRNA level of CK-2 alpha- and beta-subunits by in situ hybridization and distribution at the protein level...

  8. A Polarization and Spectral Study of the Mouse

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Gaensler, B.; Law, C.

    Recent detection of a young pulsar powering the Mouse G359.23-0.82 (Camilo et al. 2002) as well as the discovery of diffuse X-ray emission from the nebula (Gaensler et al. 2004) have motivated us to investigate the structural details of this remarkable source in radio wavelengths. We present multi-configuration VLA observations of the Mouse with its pulsar powered bow shock between 2 and 90cm wavelengths and compare the morphological details of its polarized and total intensity emission. We also show the spectral characteristics across this elongated radio and X-ray source

  9. Partial agonistic action of endomorphins in the mouse spinal cord.

    Mizoguchi, H; Wu, H E; Narita, M


    The partial agonistic properties of endogenous mu-opioid peptides endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 for G-protein activation were determined in the mouse spinal cord, monitoring the increases in guanosine-5'-o-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding. The G-protein activation induced by endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin in the spinal cord was significantly, but partially, attenuated by co-incubation with endomorphin-1 or endomorphin-2. The data indicates that endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 are endogenous partial agonists for mu-opioid receptor in the mouse spinal cord.

  10. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina;


    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin...... protein associated with both cell types. In mouse placentas, lack of LPL expression resulted in increased EL mRNA expression. These results suggest that the cellular expression of EL and LPL in human placenta is different. Nevertheless, the two lipases might have overlapping functions in the mouse...... placenta. Our data also suggest that the major portions of both proteins are stored in an inactive form in human term placenta....

  11. Methods of in-vivo mouse lung micro-CT

    Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Nixon, Earl; Thiesse, Jacqueline; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ross, Alan; Hoffman, Eric


    Micro-CT will have a profound influence on the accumulation of anatomical and physiological phenotypic changes in natural and transgenetic mouse models. Longitudinal studies will be greatly facilitated, allowing for a more complete and accurate description of events if in-vivo studies are accomplished. The purpose of the ongoing project is to establish a feasible and reproducible setup for in-vivo mouse lung micro-computed tomography (μCT). We seek to use in-vivo respiratory-gated μCT to follow mouse models of lung disease with subsequent recovery of the mouse. Methodologies for optimizing scanning parameters and gating for the in-vivo mouse lung are presented. A Scireq flexiVent ventilated the gas-anesthetized mice at 60 breaths/minute, 30 cm H20 PEEP, 30 ml/kg tidal volume and provided a respiratory signal to gate a Skyscan 1076 μCT. Physiologic monitoring allowed the control of vital functions and quality of anesthesia, e.g. via ECG monitoring. In contrary to longer exposure times with ex-vivo scans, scan times for in-vivo were reduced using 35μm pixel size, 158ms exposure time and 18μm pixel size, 316ms exposure time to reduce motion artifacts. Gating via spontaneous breathing was also tested. Optimal contrast resolution was achieved at 50kVp, 200μA, applying an aluminum filter (0.5mm). There were minimal non-cardiac related motion artifacts. Both 35μm and 1μm voxel size images were suitable for evaluation of the airway lumen and parenchymal density. Total scan times were 30 and 65 minutes respectively. The mice recovered following scanning protocols. In-vivo lung scanning with recovery of the mouse delivered reasonable image quality for longitudinal studies, e.g. mouse asthma models. After examining 10 mice, we conclude μCT is a feasible tool evaluating mouse models of lung pathology in longitudinal studies with increasing anatomic detail available for evaluation as one moves from in-vivo to ex-vivo studies. Further developments include automated

  12. Application of hepatitis B virus replication mouse model


    AIM:To evaluate the value of the hepatitis B virus(HBV) replication mouse model with regard to several aspects of the study of HBV biology.METHODS:To evaluate the HBV replication mouse model in detecting the efficacy of anti-HBV agents,the interferon inducer polyinosinic-polytidylin acid(polyIC) and nucleotide analogues adefovir and entecavir were administered to mice injected with wild type pHBV4.1,and the inhibiting effect of these agents on HBV DNA replication was evaluated.To identify the model's value ...

  13. Effects of morphine in the isolated mouse urinary bladder.

    Acevedo, C G; Tamayo, L; Contreras, E


    Acute morphine increased the responses to acetylcholine of the isolated mouse urinary bladder. A chronic morphine treatment did not change the responses of the urinary bladder to acetylcholine or ATP. The acute administration of morphine did not modify the contractile response to ATP in the urinary bladders from untreated or chronically morphine treated mice. Methadone and ketocyclazocine decreased the responses to the electrical stimulation of the urinary bladder. These depressant effects were not modified by naloxone. The results suggest the nonexistence of opiate receptors in the mouse urinary bladder and the lack of direct effects of morphine on the neuroeffector junction.

  14. In mouse oocytes the mitochondrion-originated germinal body-like structures accumulate mouse Vasa homologue (MVH) protein.

    Reunov, Arkadiy A; Reunova, Yulia A


    Mouse Vasa homologue (MVH) antibodies were applied to mouse Graafian oocytes to clarify if mitochondrion-originated germinal body-like structures, described previously by conventional electron microscopy, were associated with the germ plasm. It was found that both the mitochondrion-like structures with cristae and the germinal body-like structures that lacked any signs of cristae were labelled specifically by the anti-MVH antibody. Moreover, some granules were MVH-positive ultrastructural hybrids of the mitochondria and germinal body-like structures, the presence of which clearly supported the idea of a mitochondrial origin for the germinal body-like structures. This finding is the first evidence that mitochondrion-originated germinal body-like granules represent mouse germ plasm.

  15. Species status assessment report New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus) (jumping mouse) lives in dense riparian herbaceous vegetation along streams from southern Colorado to...

  16. Discrimination of tumorigenic triazole conazoles from phenobarbital by transcriptional analyses of mouse liver gene expression

    Conazoles are fungicides used to control fungal growth in environmental settings and to treat humans with fungal infections. Mouse hepatotumorigenic conazoles display many of the same hepatic toxicologic responses as the mouse liver carcinogen phenobarbital (PB): constitutive and...

  17. Curcuma longa L. as a therapeutic agent in intestinal motility disorders. 2: Safety profile in mouse

    Micucci, Matteo; Aldini, Rita; Cevenini, Monica; Colliva, Carolina; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roda, Giulia; Montagnani, Marco; Camborata, Cecilia; Camarda, Luca; Chiarini, Alberto; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Budriesi, Roberta


    Curcuma extract exerts a myorelaxant effect on the mouse intestine. In view of a possible use of curcuma extract in motor functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, a safety profile study has been carried out in the mouse...

  18. The effects of X-rays on the mitotic activity of mouse epidermis

    Knowlton, N.P. Jr.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Hoffman, J.G.


    This report describes a simplified technique of obtaining the mitotic index of mouse skin and indicates the surprising sensitivity of the mitotic activity of mouse epithelium to the effects of x-rays.

  19. Discrimination of tumorigenic triazole conazoles from phenobarbital by transcriptional analyses of mouse liver gene expression

    Conazoles are fungicides used to control fungal growth in environmental settings and to treat humans with fungal infections. Mouse hepatotumorigenic conazoles display many of the same hepatic toxicologic responses as the mouse liver carcinogen phenobarbital (PB): constitutive and...

  20. Molecular examinations of Babesia microti in rodents and rodent-attached ticks from urban and sylvatic habitats in Germany.

    Obiegala, Anna; Pfeffer, Martin; Pfister, Kurt; Karnath, Carolin; Silaghi, Cornelia


    Small mammals serve as reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens, especially for those which are not transmitted transovarially in ticks - such as Babesia microti. Molecular investigations on the prevalence of B. microti in wild small mammals and on attached ticks from differently structured areas may provide information on the circulation of B. microti in different ecological niches. In 2012 and 2013, 622 rodents (396 Myodes glareolus, 178 Apodemus flavicollis, 36 Apodemus sylvaticus, 4 Apodemus agrarius, 7 Microtus arvalis, 1 Microtus agrestis) were captured from three differently structured habitats (urban, sylvatic, recultivated) in Germany. Attached ticks were collected from 449 small mammals (3250 Ixodes ricinus, 7 Ixodes trianguliceps, 133 Dermacentor reticulatus). A representative selection of a maximum of 5 ticks per developmental stage and species per 30 rodents of each species, location and year resulting in 965 ticks was further investigated. DNA was extracted from tick, blood and spleen samples, and tested by PCR for the partial 18S rRNA gene of B. microti with subsequent sequencing. The prevalence was significantly higher in rodents from the sylvatic site (4.6%) than in rodents captured at both other sites (-0.6%) (χ(2)=11.95; p=0.00125). Body and spleen weight of infected M. glareolus from the sylvatic site were significantly higher compared to those from non-infected individuals from that site (p=0.00288 and p=0.00017, respectively). Babesia microti DNA was detected in 3 out of 965 attached ticks (0.3%; 95%CI: 0-1) from all sites, but they derived exclusively from rodents captured at the sylvatic site. At the same site, I. ricinus nymphs (7.7%; 95%CI: 1-25.3) were significantly more often infected than I. ricinus larvae (0%; 95%CI: 0-1.3)(χ(2)=26.72; prodents was also found at that site. I. trianguliceps occurred exclusively and the majority of M. glareolus at that site. Thus, it may be assumed that the circulation of B. microti is more efficient

  1. Hypoplastic basement membrane of the lens anlage in the inheritable lens aplastic mouse (lap mouse).

    Aso, S; Baba, R; Noda, S; Ikuno, S; Fujita, M


    Adult homozygous lap mice show various eye abnormalities such as aphakia, retinal disorganization, and dysplasia of the cornea and anterior chamber. In the fetal eye of a homozygous lap mouse, the lens placode appears to develop normally. However, the lens vesicle develops abnormally to form a mass of cells without a cavity, and the mass vanishes soon afterward. Apoptotic cell death is associated with the disappearance of the lens anlage. We examined the basement membranes of the lens anlage of this mutant by immunohistochemical methods under light microscopy using antibodies against basement membrane components of the lens anlage, type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and entactin and by transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry showed the distribution and intensity of antibody binding to the lens anlage to be almost the same for each these antibodies regardless of the stage of gestation or whether the anlagen were from normal BALB/c or lap mice. Thus, positive continuous reactions were observed around the exterior region of the lens anlage from day 10 of gestation for type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan antibodies, and at least from day 11of gestation for entactin antibody. The basement membrane lamina densa of both normal and lap mice was shown by electron microscopy to be discontinuous at days 10 and 10.5 of gestation. However, by day 11 the lamina densa was continuous in the lens anlagen of normal mice but still discontinuous in the lap mice. By day 12 of gestation, the lamina densa had thickened markedly in normal mice, whereas in lap mice it remained discontinuous and its thinness indicated hypoplasia. These results indicate that, while all basement components examined are produced and deposited in the normal region of the lens anlage in the lap mouse, the basement membrane is, for some reason, imperfectly formed. The time at which hypoplasia of the basement membrane was observed

  2. Using the Scroll Wheel on a Wireless Mouse as a Motion Sensor

    Taylor, Richard S.; Wilson, William R.


    Since its inception in the mid-80s, the computer mouse has undergone several design changes. As the mouse has evolved, physicists have found new ways to utilize it as a motion sensor. For example, the rollers in a mechanical mouse have been used as pulleys to study the motion of a magnet moving through a copper tube as a quantitative demonstration…

  3. Characterization of mouse Clpp protease cDNA, gene, and protein

    Andresen, B S; Corydon, T J; Wilsbech, M


    characterized the mouse Clpp cDNA sequence, the organization of the mouse gene, the chromosomal localization, and the tissue-specific expression pattern. Moreover. the cellular localization and processing of mouse Clpp was studied by overexpression in transfected eukaryotic cells. Our results indicate...

  4. Determination of alternative pathway of complement activity in mouse serum using rabbit erythrocytes

    Dijk, H. van; Rademaker, P.M.; Willers, J.M.N


    Rabbit, mouse and sheep erythrocytes expressing different concentrations of membrane sialic acid were used to study possible modes of activation of the alternative complement (C) pathway in mouse, human and guinea pig serum. Mouse erythrocytes activated only human serum, whereas rabbit erythrocytes

  5. A simplified immunohistochemical classification of skeletal muscle fibres in mouse

    M. Kammoun


    Full Text Available The classification of muscle fibres is of particular interest for the study of the skeletal muscle properties in a wide range of scientific fields, especially animal phenotyping. It is therefore important to define a reliable method for classifying fibre types. The aim of this study was to establish a simplified method for the immunohistochemical classification of fibres in mouse. To carry it out, we first tested a combination of several anti myosin heavy chain (MyHC antibodies in order to choose a minimum number of antibodies to implement a semi-automatic classification. Then, we compared the classification of fibres to the MyHC electrophoretic pattern on the same samples. Only two anti MyHC antibodies on serial sections with the fluorescent labeling of the Laminin were necessary to classify properly fibre types in Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles in normal physiological conditions. This classification was virtually identical to the classification realized by the electrophoretic separation of MyHC. This immunohistochemical classification can be applied to the total area of Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles. Thus, we provide here a useful, simple and time-efficient method for immunohistochemical classification of fibres, applicable for research in mouse

  6. Phenotypic and functional characterization of Bst+/− mouse retina

    Hamidreza Riazifar


    Full Text Available The belly spot and tail (Bst+/− mouse phenotype is caused by mutations of the ribosomal protein L24 (Rpl24. Among various phenotypes in Bst+/− mice, the most interesting are its retinal abnormalities, consisting of delayed closure of choroid fissures, decreased ganglion cells and subretinal vascularization. We further characterized the Bst+/− mouse and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms to assess the feasibility of using this strain as a model for stem cell therapy of retinal degenerative diseases due to retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss. We found that, although RGCs are significantly reduced in retinal ganglion cell layer in Bst+/− mouse, melanopsin+ RGCs, also called ipRGCs, appear to be unchanged. Pupillary light reflex was completely absent in Bst+/− mice but they had a normal circadian rhythm. In order to examine the pathological abnormalities in Bst+/− mice, we performed electron microscopy in RGC and found that mitochondria morphology was deformed, having irregular borders and lacking cristae. The complex activities of the mitochondrial electron transport chain were significantly decreased. Finally, for subretinal vascularization, we also found that angiogenesis is delayed in Bst+/− associated with delayed hyaloid regression. Characterization of Bst+/− retina suggests that the Bst+/− mouse strain could be a useful murine model. It might be used to explore further the pathogenesis and strategy of treatment of retinal degenerative diseases by employing stem cell technology.

  7. Measurements of radon activity concentration in mouse tissues and organs.

    Ishimori, Yuu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the biokinetics of inhaled radon, radon activity concentrations in mouse tissues and organs were determined after mice had been exposed to about 1 MBq/m(3) of radon in air. Radon activity concentrations in mouse blood and in other tissues and organs were measured with a liquid scintillation counter and with a well-type HP Ge detector, respectively. Radon activity concentration in mouse blood was 0.410 ± 0.016 Bq/g when saturated with 1 MBq/m(3) of radon activity concentration in air. In addition, average partition coefficients obtained were 0.74 ± 0.19 for liver, 0.46 ± 0.13 for muscle, 9.09 ± 0.49 for adipose tissue, and 0.22 ± 0.04 for other organs. With these results, a value of 0.414 for the blood-to-air partition coefficient was calculated by means of our physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The time variation of radon activity concentration in mouse blood during exposure to radon was also calculated. All results are compared in detail with those found in the literature.

  8. Topography and areal organization of mouse visual cortex.

    Garrett, Marina E; Nauhaus, Ian; Marshel, James H; Callaway, Edward M


    To guide future experiments aimed at understanding the mouse visual system, it is essential that we have a solid handle on the global topography of visual cortical areas. Ideally, the method used to measure cortical topography is objective, robust, and simple enough to guide subsequent targeting of visual areas in each subject. We developed an automated method that uses retinotopic maps of mouse visual cortex obtained with intrinsic signal imaging (Schuett et al., 2002; Kalatsky and Stryker, 2003; Marshel et al., 2011) and applies an algorithm to automatically identify cortical regions that satisfy a set of quantifiable criteria for what constitutes a visual area. This approach facilitated detailed parcellation of mouse visual cortex, delineating nine known areas (primary visual cortex, lateromedial area, anterolateral area, rostrolateral area, anteromedial area, posteromedial area, laterointermediate area, posterior area, and postrhinal area), and revealing two additional areas that have not been previously described as visuotopically mapped in mice (laterolateral anterior area and medial area). Using the topographic maps and defined area boundaries from each animal, we characterized several features of map organization, including variability in area position, area size, visual field coverage, and cortical magnification. We demonstrate that higher areas in mice often have representations that are incomplete or biased toward particular regions of visual space, suggestive of specializations for processing specific types of information about the environment. This work provides a comprehensive description of mouse visuotopic organization and describes essential tools for accurate functional localization of visual areas.

  9. A mouse monoclonal antibody against Alexa Fluor 647.

    Wuethrich, Irene; Guillen, Eduardo; Ploegh, Hidde L


    Fluorophores are essential tools in molecular and cell biology. However, their application is mostly confined to the singular exploitation of their fluorescent properties. To enhance the versatility and expand the use of the fluorophore Alexa Fluor 647 (AF647), we generated a mouse monoclonal antibody against it. We demonstrate its use of AF647 for immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, and cytofluorimetry.

  10. The mouse "xenotropic" gammaretroviruses and their XPR1 receptor

    Kozak Christine A


    Full Text Available Abstract The xenotropic/polytropic subgroup of mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs all rely on the XPR1 receptor for entry, but these viruses vary in tropism, distribution among wild and laboratory mice, pathogenicity, strategies used for transmission, and sensitivity to host restriction factors. Most, but not all, isolates have typical xenotropic or polytropic host range, and these two MLV tropism types have now been detected in humans as viral sequences or as infectious virus, termed XMRV, or xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. The mouse xenotropic MLVs (X-MLVs were originally defined by their inability to infect cells of their natural mouse hosts. It is now clear, however, that X-MLVs actually have the broadest host range of the MLVs. Nearly all nonrodent mammals are susceptible to X-MLVs, and all species of wild mice and several common strains of laboratory mice are X-MLV susceptible. The polytropic MLVs, named for their apparent broad host range, show a more limited host range than the X-MLVs in that they fail to infect cells of many mouse species as well as many nonrodent mammals. The co-evolution of these viruses with their receptor and other host factors that affect their replication has produced a heterogeneous group of viruses capable of inducing various diseases, as well as endogenized viral genomes, some of which have been domesticated by their hosts to serve in antiviral defense.

  11. Modeling fragile X syndrome in the Fmr1 knockout mouse.

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M; Leach, Prescott T; Silverman, Jill L; Crawley, Jacqueline N


    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a commonly inherited form of intellectual disability and one of the leading genetic causes for autism spectrum disorder. Clinical symptoms of FXS can include impaired cognition, anxiety, hyperactivity, social phobia, and repetitive behaviors. FXS is caused by a CGG repeat mutation which expands a region on the X chromosome containing the FMR1 gene. In FXS, a full mutation (> 200 repeats) leads to hypermethylation of FMR1, an epigenetic mechanism that effectively silences FMR1 gene expression and reduces levels of the FMR1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that is important for the regulation of protein expression. In an effort to further understand how loss of FMR1 and FMRP contribute to FXS symptomology, several FXS animal models have been created. The most well characterized rodent model is the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse, which lacks FMRP protein due to a disruption in its Fmr1 gene. Here, we review the behavioral phenotyping of the Fmr1 KO mouse to date, and discuss the clinical relevance of this mouse model to the human FXS condition. While much remains to be learned about FXS, the Fmr1 KO mouse is a valuable tool for understanding the repercussions of functional loss of FMRP and assessing the efficacy of pharmacological compounds in ameliorating the molecular and behavioral phenotypes relevant to FXS.




    1 The response of C2C12 mouse myotubes to stimulation with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other nucleotides was studied by measuring changes in membrane potential. 2 A transient hyperpolarization followed by a slowly declining depolarization of the cells was observed in the presence of ATP (10-mu-

  13. Automatic Detection of Wild-type Mouse Cranial Sutures

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.;

    , automatic detection of the cranial sutures becomes important. We have previously built a craniofacial, wild-type mouse atlas from a set of 10 Micro CT scans using a B-spline-based nonrigid registration method by Rueckert et al. Subsequently, all volumes were registered nonrigidly to the atlas. Using...

  14. Somatic structural rearrangements in genetically engineered mouse mammary tumors

    Varela, I.; Klijn, C.N.; Stephens, P.J.; Mudie, L.J.; Stebbings, L.; Galappaththige, D.; Van der Gulden, H.; Schut, E.; Klarenbeek, S.; Campbell, P.J.; Wessels, L.F.A.; Stratton, M.R.; Jonkers, J.; Futreal, P.A.; Adams, D.J.


    Background: Here we present the first paired-end sequencing of tumors from genetically engineered mouse models of cancer to determine how faithfully these models recapitulate the landscape of somatic rearrangements found in human tumors. These were models of Trp53-mutated breast cancer, Brca1- and B

  15. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.


    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The spatia

  16. In vivo intrinsic optical signal imaging of mouse retinas

    Wang, Benquan; Yao, Xincheng


    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging is a promising noninvasive method for advanced study and diagnosis of eye diseases. Before pursuing clinical applications, more IOS studies employing animal models are necessary to establish the relationship between IOS distortions and eye diseases. Ample mouse models are available for investigating the relationship between IOS distortions and eye diseases. However, in vivo IOS imaging of mouse retinas is challenging due to the small ocular lens (compared to frog eyes) and inevitable eye movements. We report here in vivo IOS imaging of mouse retinas using a custom-designed functional OCT. The OCT system provided high resolution (3 μm) and high speed (up to 500 frames/s) imaging of mouse retinas. An animal holder equipped with a custom designed ear bar and bite bar was used to minimize eye movement due to breathing and heartbeats. Residual eye movement in OCT images was further compensated by accurate image registration. Dynamic OCT imaging revealed rapid IOSs from photoreceptor outer segments immediately (IOS changes were also observed from inner retinal layers with delayed time courses compared to that of photoreceptor IOSs.

  17. In vivo nonlinear spectral imaging in mouse skin

    J.A. Palero (Jonathan); H.S. de Bruijn (Riette); A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel (Angélique); H.J.C.M. Sterenborg (Dick); H.C. Gerritsen (Hans)


    textabstractWe report on two-photon autofluorescence and second harmonic spectral imaging of live mouse tissues. The use of a high sensitivity detector and ultraviolet optics allowed us to record razor-sharp deep-tissue spectral images of weak autofluorescence and short-wavelength second harmonic

  18. History and milestones of mouse models of autoimmune diseases.

    Yu, Xinhua; Huang, Qiaoniang; Petersen, Frank


    Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders mediated by self-reactive T cells and/or autoantibodies. Mice, as the most widely used animal for modeling autoimmune disorders, have been extensively used in the investigation of disease pathogenesis as well as in the search for novel therapeutics. Since the first mouse model of multiple sclerosis was established more than 60 years ago, hundreds of mouse models have been established for tens of autoimmune diseases. These mouse models can be divided into three categories based on the approaches used for disease induction. The first one represents the induced models in which autoimmunity is initiated in mice by immunization, adoptive transfer or environmental factors. The second group is formed by the spontaneous models where mice develop autoimmune disorders without further induction. The third group refers to the humanized models in which mice bearing humanized cells, tissues, or genes, develop autoimmune diseases either spontaneously or by induction. This article reviews the history and highlights the milestones of the mouse models of autoimmune diseases.

  19. SIRT1 regulates the mouse gastric emptying and intestinal growth

    This study addressed physiological significance of SIRT1 gene on mouse gastrointestinal growth and function (gastric emptying and intestinal growth). SIRT1 (a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase) is a key cellular energy sensor, and involved in a wide variety of cellular functions including energy me...

  20. SIRT1 inhibits the mouse intestinal motility and epithelial proliferation

    SIRT1 inhibits the mouse intestinal motility and epithelial proliferation. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, is involved in a wide array of cellular processes, including glucose homeostasis, energy metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis, and immune response. However, it is un...

  1. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Christian Much


    Full Text Available Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  2. Regulation of hematopoietic stem cells during mouse development

    C. Orelio (Claudia)


    textabstractThe hematopoietic system is comprised of many different cell types that fulfill important physiological functions throughout embryonic and adult stages of mouse development. As the mature blood cells have a limited life-span, the pool of blood cells needs constant replenishing. At the ba



    1 The response of C2C12 mouse myotubes to stimulation with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other nucleotides was studied by measuring changes in membrane potential. 2 A transient hyperpolarization followed by a slowly declining depolarization of the cells was observed in the presence of ATP

  4. Controlling complexity : the clinical relevance of mouse complex genetics

    Schughart, Klaus; Libert, Claude; Kas, Martien J


    Experimental animal models are essential to obtain basic knowledge of the underlying biological mechanisms in human diseases. Here, we review major contributions to biomedical research and discoveries that were obtained in the mouse model by using forward genetics approaches and that provided key in

  5. Expression of TRAIL in Mouse Uterine Endometrium during Embryo Implantation

    Dong-mei TAN; Ming-zhong HE; Qi CHEN; Guo-qi LAI; Li-zhi WANG; Yi TAN


    Objective To investigate the expression of TRAIL in mouse uterine endometrium during embryo implantation and its role in the apoptosis of decidual cells.Methods Expression of TRAIL in uterine endometrium of pregnant mouse from d 1 to d 8 was detected with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Results The expressed level of TRAIL mRNA in uterine endometrium of pregnant mouse from d 1 to d 8 was higher during embryo implantation than that prior to embryo implantation (P<0. 05). No expression of TRAIL protein in mouse utrine endometrium was detected through d 1 to d 3. However, TRAIL protein was found in the luminal epithelial cells to which embryos attached on d 4. Moreover, TRAIL was expressed solely in decidual cells around invadting embryos through d 5 to d 6 while in trophoblastic cells adjacent to decidua through d 7 to d 8.Conclusion Apoptosis of luminal epithelial cells of endometrium induced by TRAIL could be one of mechanisms with which embryos penertrated the epithelial barrier,and apoptosis of both decidual cells and trophoblastic cells induced by TRAIL may play an important role during accruate invasion of trophoblastic cells.

  6. Automated morphometry of transgenic mouse brains in MR images

    Scheenstra, Alize Elske Hiltje


    Quantitative and local morphometry of mouse brain MRI is a relatively new field of research, where automated methods can be exploited to rapidly provide accurate and repeatable results. In this thesis we reviewed several existing methods and applications of quantitative morphometry to brain MR image

  7. Aquaporin expression patterns in the developing mouse salivary gland.

    Larsen, Helga S; Ruus, Ann-Kristin; Galtung, Hilde Kanli


    Little is known about the presence of the various membrane-located water channels, aquaporins (AQP), during the prenatal and postnatal development of the mouse submandibular salivary gland (SMG). To learn more about AQPs in the developing aspect of salivary glands, we investigated trends in the expression patterns of several AQPs using the embryonic, early postnatal, and young adult mouse SMGs as models. We have chosen AQPs previously found in salivary glands in other animals. Transcripts of AQPs 1, 3, 4, 5, and 8 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantified. Aquaporin proteins 1, 3, 4, and 5, but not AQP protein 8, were detected and quantified using western blotting. The various AQPs showed distinct transcript and protein-expression patterns. The change in trends may indicate that the importance of the various AQPs varies throughout the developmental stages in the mouse SMG. Their presence might be related to cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, transepithelial transport, osmosensing, or cell volume regulation; all roles that in the literature are linked to the various AQPs. Overall, this study demonstrates that AQP presentation varies and has a specific expression pattern during the development of mouse SMG. This feature may be important for glandular anatomical and physiological development.

  8. Oxidative DNA damage in mouse sperm chromosomes: Size matters.

    Kocer, Ayhan; Henry-Berger, Joelle; Noblanc, Anais; Champroux, Alexandre; Pogorelcnik, Romain; Guiton, Rachel; Janny, Laurent; Pons-Rejraji, Hanae; Saez, Fabrice; Johnson, Graham D; Krawetz, Stephen A; Alvarez, Juan G; Aitken, R John; Drevet, Joël R


    Normal embryo and foetal development as well as the health of the progeny are mostly dependent on gamete nuclear integrity. In the present study, in order to characterize more precisely oxidative DNA damage in mouse sperm we used two mouse models that display high levels of sperm oxidative DNA damage, a common alteration encountered both in in vivo and in vitro reproduction. Immunoprecipitation of oxidized sperm DNA coupled to deep sequencing showed that mouse chromosomes may be largely affected by oxidative alterations. We show that the vulnerability of chromosomes to oxidative attack inversely correlated with their size and was not linked to their GC richness. It was neither correlated with the chromosome content in persisting nucleosomes nor associated with methylated sequences. A strong correlation was found between oxidized sequences and sequences rich in short interspersed repeat elements (SINEs). Chromosome position in the sperm nucleus as revealed by fluorescent in situ hybridization appears to be a confounder. These data map for the first time fragile mouse sperm chromosomal regions when facing oxidative damage that may challenge the repair mechanisms of the oocyte post-fertilization.

  9. Calcium Glucarate Prevents Tumor Formation in Mouse Skin


    Objective Calcium Glucarate (Cag), Ca salt of D-glucaric acid is a naturally occurring non-toxic compound present in fruits, vegetables and seeds of some plants, and suppress tumor growth in different models. Due to lack of knowledge about its mode of action its uses are limited in cancer chemotherapy thus the objective of the study was to study the mechanism of action of Cag on mouse skin tumorigenesis. Methods We have estimated effect of Cag on DMBA induced mouse skin tumor development following complete carcinogenesis protocol. We measured, epidermal transglutaminase activity (TG), a marker of cell differentiation after DMBA and/or Cag treatment and [3H] thymidine incorporation into DNA as a marker for cell proliferation. Results Topical application of Cag suppressed the DMBA induced mouse skin tumor development. Topical application of Cag significantly modifies the critical events of proliferation and differentiation TG activity was found to be reduced after DMBA treatment. Reduction of the TG activity was dependent on the dose of DMBA and duration of DMBA exposure. Topical application of Cag significantly alleviated DMBA induced inhibition of TG. DMBA also caused stimulation of DNA synthesis in epidermis, which was inhibited by Cag. Conclusion Cag inhibits DMBA induced mouse skin tumor development. Since stimulation of DNA synthesis reflects proliferation and induction of TG represents differentiation, the antitumorigenic effect of Cag is considered to be possibly due to stimulation of differentiation and suppression of proliferation.

  10. A scaling analysis of a cat and mouse Markov chain

    Litvak, Nelly; Robert, Philippe


    If ($C_n$) a Markov chain on a discrete state space $S$, a Markov chain ($C_n, M_n$) on the product space $S \\times S$, the cat and mouse Markov chain, is constructed. The first coordinate of this Markov chain behaves like the original Markov chain and the second component changes only when both coo

  11. A scaling analysis of a cat and mouse Markov chain

    Litvak, Nelly; Robert, Philippe


    Motivated by an original on-line page-ranking algorithm, starting from an arbitrary Markov chain $(C_n)$ on a discrete state space ${\\cal S}$, a Markov chain $(C_n,M_n)$ on the product space ${\\cal S}^2$, the cat and mouse Markov chain, is constructed. The first coordinate of this Markov

  12. On the Winternest of the Dwarf-Mouse (Mus minutus)

    Schlegel, H.


    The mode of nidification of the Dwarf- or Harvest-Mouse, essentially different from that of its congeners, is a fact well known to naturalists, and so singular in its nature, that it must attract the curiosity of every one. Little, however, is known about the varieties which the nests present and no


    An immunocompromised mouse model was used to characterize Aeromonas strains for their ability to cause opportunistic, extraintestinal infections. A total of 34 isolates of Aeromonas (A. hydrophila [n = 12]), A. veronii biotype sobria [n = 7], A. caviae [n = 4], A. enchelia [n = 4...

  14. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.


    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The spatia

  15. Preference for concentric orientations in the mouse superior colliculus

    Ahmadlou, Mehran; Heimel, J Alexander


    The superior colliculus is a layered structure important for body- and gaze-orienting responses. Its superficial layer is, next to the lateral geniculate nucleus, the second major target of retinal ganglion axons and is retinotopically organized. Here we show that in the mouse there is also a

  16. Absence of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations in mouse brain tumors

    Seyfried Thomas N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome occur in numerous tumor types including brain tumors. These mutations are generally found in the hypervariable regions I and II of the displacement loop and unlikely alter mitochondrial function. Two hypervariable regions of mononucleotide repeats occur in the mouse mitochondrial genome, i.e., the origin of replication of the light strand (OL and the Arg tRNA. Methods In this study we examined the entire mitochondrial genome in a series of chemically induced brain tumors in the C57BL/6J strain and spontaneous brain tumors in the VM mouse strain. The tumor mtDNA was compared to that of mtDNA in brain mitochondrial populations from the corresponding syngeneic mouse host strain. Results Direct sequencing revealed a few homoplasmic base pair insertions, deletions, and substitutions in the tumor cells mainly in regions of mononucleotide repeats. A heteroplasmic mutation in the 16srRNA gene was detected in a spontaneous metastatic VM brain tumor. Conclusion None of the mutations were considered pathogenic, indicating that mtDNA somatic mutations do not likely contribute to the initiation or progression of these diverse mouse brain tumors.

  17. A method to quantify mouse coat-color proportions.

    Songthip Ounpraseuth

    Full Text Available Coat-color proportions and patterns in mice are used as assays for many processes such as transgene expression, chimerism, and epigenetics. In many studies, coat-color readouts are estimated from subjective scoring of individual mice. Here we show a method by which mouse coat color is quantified as the proportion of coat shown in one or more digital images. We use the yellow-agouti mouse model of epigenetic variegation to demonstrate this method. We apply this method to live mice using a conventional digital camera for data collection. We use a raster graphics editing program to convert agouti regions of the coat to a standard, uniform, brown color and the yellow regions of the coat to a standard, uniform, yellow color. We use a second program to quantify the proportions of these standard colors. This method provides quantification that relates directly to the visual appearance of the live animal. It also provides an objective analysis with a traceable record, and it should allow for precise comparisons of mouse coats and mouse cohorts within and between studies.

  18. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.


    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The

  19. Cardiac disease and arrhythmogenesis: Mechanistic insights from mouse models

    Lois Choy


    Full Text Available The mouse is the second mammalian species, after the human, in which substantial amount of the genomic information has been analyzed. With advances in transgenic technology, mutagenesis is now much easier to carry out in mice. Consequently, an increasing number of transgenic mouse systems have been generated for the study of cardiac arrhythmias in ion channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. Mouse hearts are also amenable to physical manipulation such as coronary artery ligation and transverse aortic constriction to induce heart failure, radiofrequency ablation of the AV node to model complete AV block and even implantation of a miniature pacemaker to induce cardiac dyssynchrony. Last but not least, pharmacological models, despite being simplistic, have enabled us to understand the physiological mechanisms of arrhythmias and evaluate the anti-arrhythmic properties of experimental agents, such as gap junction modulators, that may be exert therapeutic effects in other cardiac diseases. In this article, we examine these in turn, demonstrating that primary inherited arrhythmic syndromes are now recognized to be more complex than abnormality in a particular ion channel, involving alterations in gene expression and structural remodelling. Conversely, in cardiomyopathies and heart failure, mutations in ion channels and proteins have been identified as underlying causes, and electrophysiological remodelling are recognized pathological features. Transgenic techniques causing mutagenesis in mice are extremely powerful in dissecting the relative contributions of different genes play in producing disease phenotypes. Mouse models can serve as useful systems in which to explore how protein defects contribute to arrhythmias and direct future therapy.

  20. Linking topography to tonotopy in the mouse auditory thalamocortical circuit

    Hackett, Troy A; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; O'Brien, Barbara M J;


    The mouse sensory neocortex is reported to lack several hallmark features of topographic organization such as ocular dominance and orientation columns in primary visual cortex or fine-scale tonotopy in primary auditory cortex (AI). Here, we re-examined the question of auditory functional topography...

  1. Subplate in the developing cortex of mouse and human

    Wang, Wei Zhi; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Oeschger, Franziska M


    Abstract The subplate is a largely transient zone containing precocious neurons involved in several key steps of cortical development. The majority of subplate neurons form a compact layer in mouse, but are dispersed throughout a much larger zone in the human. In rodent, subplate neurons are amon...

  2. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mouse visible specific locus test. 798.5200 Section 798.5200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...)F1 or (101×C3H)F1 hybrids. Females shall be T stock virgins. (ii) Age. Healthy sexually...

  3. Mouse Xenograft Model for Mesothelioma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    The National Cancer Institute is seeking parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize a new mouse model for monoclonal antibodies and immunoconjugates that target malignant mesotheliomas. Applications of the technology include models for screening compounds as potential therapeutics for mesothelioma and for studying the pathology of mesothelioma.

  4. ZNF 197L is dispensable in mouse development | Tang | African ...

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... We used gene trap method to identify mice gene of unknown function and to establish their mouse line. Here, we found one ... The insertion of trap vector into the first intron of this gene resulted in mutation.

  5. Establishing the colitis-associated cancer progression mouse models.

    Zheng, Haiming; Lu, Zhanjun; Wang, Ruhua; Chen, Niwei; Zheng, Ping


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been reported as an important inducer of colorectal cancer (CRC). The most malignant IBD-associated CRC type has been highlighted as colitis-associated cancer (CAC). However, lack of CAC cases and difficulties of the long follow-up research have challenged researchers in molecular mechanism probing. Here, we established pre-CAC mouse models (dextran sulfate sodium [DSS] group and azoxymethane [AOM] group) and CAC mouse model (DSS/AOM group) to mimic human CAC development through singly or combinational treatment with DSS and AOM followed by disease activity index analysis. We found that these CAC mice showed much more severe disease phenotype, including serious diarrhea, body weight loss, rectal prolapse and bleeding, bloody stool, tumor burden, and bad survival. By detecting expression patterns of several therapeutic targets-Apc, p53, Kras, and TNF-α-in these mouse models through western blot, histology analysis, qRT-PCR, and ELISA methods, we found that the oncogene Kras expression remained unchanged, while the tumor suppressors-Apc and p53 expression were both significantly downregulated with malignancy progression from pre-CAC to CAC, and TNF-α level was elevated the most in CAC mice blood which is of potential clinical use. These data indicated the successful establishment of CAC development mouse models, which mimics human CAC well both in disease phenotype and molecular level, and highlighted the promoting role of inflammation in CAC progression. This useful tool will facilitate the further study in CAC molecular mechanism.

  6. Morphological phenotyping of mouse hearts using optical coherence tomography

    Cua, Michelle; Lin, Eric; Lee, Ling; Sheng, Xiaoye; Wong, Kevin S. K.; Tibbits, Glen F.; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Sarunic, Marinko V.


    Transgenic mouse models have been instrumental in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind many genetically based cardiovascular diseases such as Marfan syndrome (MFS). However, the characterization of their cardiac morphology has been hampered by the small size of the mouse heart. In this report, we adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging fixed adult mouse hearts, and applied tools from computational anatomy to perform morphometric analyses. The hearts were first optically cleared and imaged from multiple perspectives. The acquired volumes were then corrected for refractive distortions, and registered and stitched together to form a single, high-resolution OCT volume of the whole heart. From this volume, various structures such as the valves and myofibril bundles were visualized. The volumetric nature of our dataset also allowed parameters such as wall thickness, ventricular wall masses, and luminal volumes to be extracted. Finally, we applied the entire acquisition and processing pipeline in a preliminary study comparing the cardiac morphology of wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of MFS.

  7. RBE of fast neutrons for apoptosis in mouse thymocytes

    Warenius, HM; Down, JD


    We compared apoptosis in mouse thymocytes following exposure to low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET), 625-MeV (p-->Be+) fast neutrons and low LET, 4-MeV photons by flow cytometric analysis of hypodiploid cells. The incidence of apoptotic cell death rose steeply at very low radiation doses

  8. Cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult mouse brain.

    Olivia L Bordiuk

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons, can be observed in the adult brain of many mammalian species, including humans. Despite significant progress in our understanding of adult neurogenesis, we are still missing data about the extent and location of production of neural precursors in the adult mammalian brain. We used 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU to map the location of proliferating cells throughout the entire adult mouse brain and found that neurogenesis occurs at two locations in the mouse brain. The larger one we define as the main proliferative zone (MPZ, and the smaller one corresponds to the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The MPZ can be divided into three parts. The caudate migratory stream (CMS occupies the middle part of the MPZ. The cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the CMS toward the olfactory bulbs forms the rostral migratory stream. The thin layer of proliferating cells extending posteriorly from the CMS forms the midlayer. We have not found any additional aggregations of proliferating cells in the adult mouse brain that could suggest the existence of other major neurogenic zones in the adult mouse brain.

  9. Resveratrol prevents nicotine-induced teratogenesis in cultured mouse embryos

    Lin, C.; Yon, J.M.; Jung, A.Y.; Lee, J.G.; Jung, K.Y.; Kang, J.K.; Lee, B.J.; Yun, Y.W.; Nam, S.Y.


    Nicotine, a major toxic component in tobacco smoke, leads to severe embryonic damage during organogenesis in embryos. We investigated whether resveratrol would positively influence nicotine-induced teratogenesis in mouse embryos (embryonic day 8.5) cultured for 48 h using a whole embryo culture syst

  10. Mouse allergen, lung function, and atopy in Puerto Rican children.

    Erick Forno

    Full Text Available To examine the relation between mouse allergen exposure and asthma in Puerto Rican children.Mus m 1, Der p 1, Bla g 2, and Fel d 1 allergens were measured in dust samples from homes of Puerto Rican children with (cases and without (controls asthma in Hartford, CT (n = 449 and San Juan (SJ, Puerto Rico (n = 678. Linear or logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis of mouse allergen (Mus m 1 and lung function (FEV(1 and FEV(1/FVC and allergy (total IgE and skin test reactivity (STR to ≥1 allergen measures.Homes in SJ had lower mouse allergen levels than those in Hartford. In multivariate analyses, mouse allergen was associated with higher FEV(1 in cases in Hartford (+70.6 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI = 8.6-132.7 ml, P = 0.03 and SJ (+45.1 ml, 95% CI =  -0.5 to 90.6 ml, P = 0.05. In multivariate analyses of controls, mouse allergen was inversely associated with STR to ≥1 allergen in non-sensitized children (odds ratio [OR] for each log-unit increment in Mus m 1 = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9, P<0.01. In a multivariate analysis including all children at both study sites, each log-increment in mouse allergen was positively associated with FEV(1 (+28.3 ml, 95% CI = 1.4-55.2 ml, P = 0.04 and inversely associated with STR to ≥1 allergen (OR for each log-unit increment in Mus m 1 = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.6-0.9, P<0.01.Mouse allergen is associated with a higher FEV(1 and lower odds of STR to ≥1 allergen in Puerto Rican children. This may be explained by the allergen itself or correlated microbial exposures.

  11. Effect of genistein on mouse blastocyst development in vitro

    Wen-hsiung CHAN; Hsiang-yu LU; Nion-heng SHIAO


    Aim: To examine the cytotoxic effects of genistein, an isoflavone compound, on early postimplantation embryonic development in vitro. Methods: Mouse blastocysts were incubated in medium with or without genistein (25 or 50 μmol/L) or daidzein (50 μmol/L) for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth was investigated by dual differential staining, apoptosis was analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and apoptotic or necrotic cells were visualized by Annexin-V and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Implantation and postimplantation development of embryos were measured by in vitro development analysis. Results: TUNEL staining and Annexin-V/PI staining. showed that genistein dose-dependently increased apoptosis in mouse blastocysts, while daidzein, another soy isoflavone, had no such effect. The pretreatment of the blastocysts with genistein caused fewer cells than the control group and this effect was primary in the inner cell mass. The genistein-pretreated blastocysts showed normal levels of implantation on culture dishes in vitro, but significantly fewer genistein-pretreated embryos reached the later stages of embryonic development versus the controls, with many of the former embryos dying at relatively early stages of development. In addition, genistein treatment de-creased the development of morulas into blastocysts, and dietary genistein was found to induce cell apoptosis and decrease cell proliferation in an animal assay model of embryogenesis. Conclusions: Our results collectively indicate that genistein treatment of mouse blastocysts induces apoptosis, decreases cell numbers, retards early postimplantation blastocyst development, and increases early-stage blastocyst death in vitro, while dietary genistein appears to negatively affect mouse embryonic development in vivo by inducing cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. These novel findings provide important new insights into the effect of genistein

  12. Detection of single photons by toad and mouse rods.

    Reingruber, Jürgen; Pahlberg, Johan; Woodruff, Michael L; Sampath, Alapakkam P; Fain, Gordon L; Holcman, David


    Amphibian and mammalian rods can both detect single photons of light even though they differ greatly in physical dimensions, mammalian rods being much smaller in diameter than amphibian rods. To understand the changes in physiology and biochemistry required by such large differences in outer segment geometry, we developed a computational approach, taking into account the spatial organization of the outer segment divided into compartments, together with molecular dynamics simulations of the signaling cascade. We generated simulations of the single-photon response together with intrinsic background fluctuations in toad and mouse rods. Combining this computational approach with electrophysiological data from mouse rods, we determined key biochemical parameters. On average around one phosphodiesterase (PDE) molecule is spontaneously active per mouse compartment, similar to the value for toad, which is unexpected due to the much smaller diameter in mouse. A larger number of spontaneously active PDEs decreases dark noise, thereby improving detection of single photons; it also increases cGMP turnover, which accelerates the decay of the light response. These constraints explain the higher PDE density in mammalian compared with amphibian rods that compensates for the much smaller diameter of mammalian disks. We further find that the rate of cGMP hydrolysis by light-activated PDE is diffusion limited, which is not the case for spontaneously activated PDE. As a consequence, in the small outer segment of a mouse rod only a few activated PDEs are sufficient to generate a signal that overcomes noise, which permits a shorter lifetime of activated rhodopsin and greater temporal resolution.

  13. Periodic properties of the histaminergic system of the mouse brain.

    Rozov, Stanislav V; Zant, Janneke C; Karlstedt, Kaj; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti


    Brain histamine is involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and alertness. Despite the widespread use of the mouse as an experimental model, the periodic properties of major markers of the mouse histaminergic system have not been comprehensively characterized. We analysed the daily levels of histamine and its first metabolite, 1-methylhistamine, in different brain structures of C57BL/6J and CBA/J mouse strains, and the mRNA level and activity of histidine decarboxylase and histamine-N-methyltransferase in C57BL/6J mice. In the C57BL/6J strain, histamine release, assessed by in vivo microdialysis, underwent prominent periodic changes. The main period was 24 h peaking during the activity period. Additional 8 h periods were also observed. The release was highly positively correlated with active wakefulness, as shown by electroencephalography. In both mouse strains, tissue histamine levels remained steady for 24 h in all structures except for the hypothalamus of CBA/J mice, where 24-h periodicity was observed. Brain tissue 1-methylhistamine levels in both strains reached their maxima in the periods of activity. The mRNA level of histidine decarboxylase in the tuberomamillary nucleus and the activities of histidine decarboxylase and histamine-N-methyltransferase in the striatum and cortex did not show a 24-h rhythm, whereas in the hypothalamus the activities of both enzymes had a 12-h periodicity. These results show that the activities of histamine-metabolizing enzymes are not under simple direct circadian regulation. The complex and non-uniform temporal patterns of the histaminergic system of the mouse brain suggest that histamine is strongly involved in the maintenance of active wakefulness.

  14. A Mouse Model for Laser-induced Choroidal Neovascularization.

    Shah, Ronil S; Soetikno, Brian T; Lajko, Michelle; Fawzi, Amani A


    The mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model has been a crucial mainstay model for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) research. By administering targeted laser injury to the RPE and Bruch's membrane, the procedure induces angiogenesis, modeling the hallmark pathology observed in neovascular AMD. First developed in non-human primates, the laser-induced CNV model has come to be implemented into many other species, the most recent of which being the mouse. Mouse experiments are advantageously more cost-effective, experiments can be executed on a much faster timeline, and they allow the use of various transgenic models. The miniature size of the mouse eye, however, poses a particular challenge when performing the procedure. Manipulation of the eye to visualize the retina requires practice of fine dexterity skills as well as simultaneous hand-eye-foot coordination to operate the laser. However, once mastered, the model can be applied to study many aspects of neovascular AMD such as molecular mechanisms, the effect of genetic manipulations, and drug treatment effects. The laser-induced CNV model, though useful, is not a perfect model of the disease. The wild-type mouse eye is otherwise healthy, and the chorio-retinal environment does not mimic the pathologic changes in human AMD. Furthermore, injury-induced angiogenesis does not reflect the same pathways as angiogenesis occurring in an age-related and chronic disease state as in AMD. Despite its shortcomings, the laser-induced CNV model is one of the best methods currently available to study the debilitating pathology of neovascular AMD. Its implementation has led to a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of AMD, as well as contributing to the development of many of the AMD therapies currently available.

  15. Indirubin Treatment of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in a Mouse Model and Activity in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Lai, Jin-Lun; Liu, Yu-Hui; Peng, Yong-Chong; Ge, Pan; He, Chen-Fei; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ying-Yu; Guo, Ai-Zhen; Hu, Chang-Min


    Indirubin is a Chinese medicine extracted from indigo and known to be effective for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia, neoplasia, and inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of indirubin in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced mouse mastitis model. The indirubin mechanism and targets were evaluated in vitro in mouse mammary epithelial cells. In the mouse model, indirubin significantly attenuated the severity of inflammatory lesions, edema, inflammatory hyperemia, milk stasis and local tissue necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration. Indirubin significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 caused by LPS. In vitro, indirubin inhibited LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. It also downregulated LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and inhibited phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) P65 protein and inhibitor of kappa B. In addition to its effect on the NF-κB signaling pathway, indirubin suppressed the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), P38, and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Indirubin improved LPS-induced mouse mastitis by suppressing TLR4 and downstream NF-κB and MAPK pathway inflammatory signals and might be a potential treatment of mastitis and other inflammatory diseases.

  16. Automated classification of mouse pup isolation syllables: from cluster analysis to an Excel-based "mouse pup syllable classification calculator".

    Grimsley, Jasmine M S; Gadziola, Marie A; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J


    Mouse pups vocalize at high rates when they are cold or isolated from the nest. The proportions of each syllable type produced carry information about disease state and are being used as behavioral markers for the internal state of animals. Manual classifications of these vocalizations identified 10 syllable types based on their spectro-temporal features. However, manual classification of mouse syllables is time consuming and vulnerable to experimenter bias. This study uses an automated cluster analysis to identify acoustically distinct syllable types produced by CBA/CaJ mouse pups, and then compares the results to prior manual classification methods. The cluster analysis identified two syllable types, based on their frequency bands, that have continuous frequency-time structure, and two syllable types featuring abrupt frequency transitions. Although cluster analysis computed fewer syllable types than manual classification, the clusters represented well the probability distributions of the acoustic features within syllables. These probability distributions indicate that some of the manually classified syllable types are not statistically distinct. The characteristics of the four classified clusters were used to generate a Microsoft Excel-based mouse syllable classifier that rapidly categorizes syllables, with over a 90% match, into the syllable types determined by cluster analysis.

  17. Selective expression of myosin IC Isoform A in mouse and human cell lines and mouse prostate cancer tissues.

    Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Sielski, Neil L; Hofmann, Wilma A


    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily. We recently identified a novel isoform and showed that the MYOIC gene in mammalian cells encodes three isoforms (isoforms A, B, and C). Furthermore, we demonstrated that myosin IC isoform A but not isoform B exhibits a tissue specific expression pattern. In this study, we extended our analysis of myosin IC isoform expression patterns by analyzing the protein and mRNA expression in various mammalian cell lines and in various prostate specimens and tumor tissues from the transgenic mouse prostate (TRAMP) model by immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, and by indirect immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded prostate specimen. Analysis of a panel of mammalian cell lines showed an increased mRNA and protein expression of specifically myosin IC isoform A in a panel of human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines but not in non-cancer prostate or other (non-prostate-) cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that myosin IC isoform A expression is significantly increased in TRAMP mouse prostate samples with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions and in distant site metastases in lung and liver when compared to matched normal tissues. Our observations demonstrate specific changes in the expression of myosin IC isoform A that are concurrent with the occurrence of prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse prostate cancer model that closely mimics clinical prostate cancer. These data suggest that elevated levels of myosin IC isoform A may be a potential marker for the detection of prostate cancer.

  18. Analysis of 16S libraries of mouse gastrointestinal microflora reveals a large new group of mouse intestinal bacteria

    Salzman, NH; de Jong, H; Paterson, Y; Harmsen, HJM; Welling, GW; Bos, NA


    Total genomic DNA from samples of intact mouse small intestine, large intestine, caecum and faeces was used as template for PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences with conserved bacterial primers. Phylogenetic analysis of the amplification products revealed 40 unique 16S rDNA sequences. Of

  19. Osteopontin is expressed in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy and promotes mouse blastocyst attachment and invasion in vitro.

    Qian-Rong Qi

    Full Text Available Embryo implantation into the maternal uterus is a decisive step for successful mammalian pregnancy. Osteopontin (OPN is a member of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein family and participates in cell adhesion and invasion. In this study, we showed that Opn mRNA levels are up-regulated in the mouse uterus on day 4 and at the implantation sites on days 5 and 8 of pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry localized the OPN protein to the glandular epithelium on day 4 and to the decidual zone on day 8 of pregnancy. OPN mRNA and proteins are induced by in vivo and in vitro decidualization. OPN expression in the endometrial stromal cells is regulated by progesterone, a key regulator during decidualization. As a secreted protein, the protein level of OPN in the uterine cavity is enriched on day 4, and in vitro embryo culturing has indicated that OPN can facilitate blastocyst hatching and adhesion. Knockdown of OPN attenuates the adhesion and invasion of blastocysts in mouse endometrial stromal cells by suppressing the expression and enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the trophoblast. Our data indicated that OPN expression in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy is essential for blastocyst hatching and adhesion and that the knockdown of OPN in mouse endometrial stroma cells could lead to a restrained in vitro trophoblast invasion.

  20. Rescue of retinal morphology and function in a humanized mouse at the mouse retinol-binding protein locus.

    Liu, Li; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shen, Jingling; Wakana, Shigeharu; Araki, Kimi; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Lei, Lei; Li, Zhenghua


    Retinol-binding protein RBP4 is the specific carrier for retinol in the blood. We previously produced a Rbp4-deficient (Rbp4(-/-)) mouse that showed electroretinogram (ERG) abnormalities, accompanied by histological and electron-microscopic changes such as fewer synapses in the inner plexiform layer in the central retina. To address whether human RBP4 gene expression can rescue the phenotypes observed in Rbp4(-/-) mice, we produced a humanized (Rbp4(hRBP4orf/ hRBP4orf)) mouse with a human RBP4 open reading frame in the mouse Rbp4 locus using a Cre-mutant lox recombination system. In Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice, the tissue-specific expression pattern of hRBP4orf was roughly the same as that of mouse Rbp4. ERG and morphological abnormalities observed in Rbp4(-/-) mice were rescued in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice as early as 7 weeks of age. The temporal expression pattern of hRBP4orf in the liver of Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice was similar to that of mouse Rbp4 in Rbp4(+/+)mice. In contrast, hRBP4orf expression levels in eyes were significantly lower at 6 and 12 weeks of age compared with mouse Rbp4 but were restored to the control levels at 24 weeks. The serum hRBP4 levels in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice were approximately 30% of those in Rbp4(+/+) at all ages examined. In accordance with this finding, the plasma retinol levels remained low in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice. Retinol accumulation in the liver occurred in control and Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice but was higher in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice at 30 weeks of age. Mouse transthyretin expression was not altered in Rbp4(-/-) or Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice. Taken together, 30% of the serum RBP4 level was sufficient to correct the abnormal phenotypes observed in Rbp4(-/-) mice.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 30 January 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2016.156.

  1. Effect of computer mouse gain and visual demand on mouse clicking performance and muscle activation in a young and elderly group of experienced computer users

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Jensen, Bente R.


    The present study evaluated the specific effects of motor demand and visual demands on the ability to control motor output in terms of performance and muscle activation. Young and elderly subjects performed multidirectional pointing tasks with the computer mouse. Three levels of mouse gain...... was only to a minor degree influenced by mouse gain (and target sizes) indicating that stability of the forearm/hand is of significance during computer mouse control. The study has implications for ergonomists, pointing device manufacturers and software developers....

  2. Neuronal Representation of Ultraviolet Visual Stimuli in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    Zhongchao Tan; Wenzhi Sun; Tsai-Wen Chen; Douglas Kim; Na Ji


    The mouse has become an important model for understanding the neural basis of visual perception. Although it has long been known that mouse lens transmits ultraviolet (UV) light and mouse opsins have absorption in the UV band, little is known about how UV visual information is processed in the mouse brain. Using a custom UV stimulation system and in vivo calcium imaging, we characterized the feature selectivity of layer 2/3 neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). In adult mice, a compara...

  3. Micro-imaging of the Mouse Lung via MRI

    Wang, Wei

    Quantitative measurement of lung microstructure is of great significance in assessment of pulmonary disease, particularly in the earliest stages. Conventional stereological assessment of ex-vivo fixed tissue specimens under the microscope has a long and successful tradition and is regarded as a gold standard, but the invasive nature limits its applications and the practicality of use in longitudinal studies. The technique for diffusion MRI-based 3He lung morphometry was previously developed and validated for human lungs, and was recently extended to ex-vivo mouse lungs. The technique yields accurate, quantitative information about the microstructure and geometry of acinar airways. In this dissertation, the 3He lung morphometry technique is for the first time successfully implemented for in-vivo studies of mice. It can generate spatially-resolved maps of parameters that reveal the microstructure of mouse lung. Results in healthy mice indicate excellent agreement between in-vivo morphometry via 3He MRI and microscopic morphometry after sacrifice. The implementation and validation of 3He morphometry in healthy mice open up new avenues for application of the technique as a precise, noninvasive, in-vivo biomarker of changes in lung microstructure, within various mouse models of lung disease. We have applied 3He morphometry to the Sendai mouse model of lung disease. Specifically, the Sendai-virus model of chronic obstructive lung disease has demonstrated an innate immune response in mouse airways that exhibits similarities to the chronic airway inflammation in human COPD and asthma, but the effect on distal lung parenchyma had not been investigated. We imaged the time course and regional distribution of mouse lung microstructural changes in vivo after Sendai virus (SeV) infection with 1H and 3He diffusion MRI. 1H MR images detected the SeV-induced pulmonary inflammation in vivo and 3He lung morphometry showed modest increase in alveolar duct radius distal to airway

  4. Neuronal Representation of Ultraviolet Visual Stimuli in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    Tan, Zhongchao; Sun, Wenzhi; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas; Ji, Na


    The mouse has become an important model for understanding the neural basis of visual perception. Although it has long been known that mouse lens transmits ultraviolet (UV) light and mouse opsins have absorption in the UV band, little is known about how UV visual information is processed in the mouse brain. Using a custom UV stimulation system and in vivo calcium imaging, we characterized the feature selectivity of layer 2/3 neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). In adult mice, a comparable percentage of the neuronal population responds to UV and visible stimuli, with similar pattern selectivity and receptive field properties. In young mice, the orientation selectivity for UV stimuli increased steadily during development, but not direction selectivity. Our results suggest that, by expanding the spectral window through which the mouse can acquire visual information, UV sensitivity provides an important component for mouse vision. PMID:26219604

  5. Fibroblast growth factor 9 activates akt and MAPK pathways to stimulate steroidogenesis in mouse leydig cells.

    Lai, Meng-Shao; Cheng, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Pei-Rong; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq; Huang, Bu-Miin


    Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) is a multifunctional polypeptide belonging to the FGF family and has functions related to bone formation, lens-fiber differentiation, nerve development, gap-junction formation and sex determination. In a previous study, we demonstrated that FGF9 stimulates the production of testosterone in mouse Leydig cells. In the present study, we used both primary mouse Leydig cells and MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells to further investigate the molecular mechanism of FGF9-stimulated steroidogenesis. Results showed that FGF9 significantly activated steroidogenesis in both mouse primary and tumor Leydig cells (psteroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells. In conclusion, FGF9 specifically activated the Akt and ERK1/2 in normal mouse Leydig cells and the Akt, JNK and ERK1/2 in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells to stimulate steroidogenesis.

  6. Some properties of the smooth muscle of mouse vas deferens.

    Holman, M E; Taylor, G S; Tomita, T


    1. Contractions of the mouse vas deferens in response to electrical stimulation differ form those recorded form the guinea-pig vas deferens in that they are abolished by tetrodotoxin. 2. Changes in membrane potentials were recorded form the smooth muscle of both preparations in response to stimulation with current pulses applied by an intracellular electrode and by alrge extracellular plate electrodes. 3. Both preparations behaved similarly in response to intracellular stimulation. Electrotonic potentials in response to extracellular current pulses spread in a longitudinal direction in the guinea-pig vas deferens in accordance with the cable-like properties of this preparation. In contrast, no longitudinal spread of eletrotonus was observed in the mouse vas deferens. 4. Responses to nerve stimulation differed in the two preparations. In the guinea-pig, single stimuli caused excitatory junction potentials (e.j.p.s) which gave rise to action potentials. Some cells from the mouse vas deferens showed similar e.j.p.s and action potentials, although the threshold for the initiation of action potentials was lower and more variable. 5. The majority of cells in the mouse vas deferens failed to show action potentials in response to a single stimuli even though the amplitude of e.j.p.s was from 35 to 40 mV. This was probably due to the large resting membrane potentials of these cells, as all-or-nothing action potentials could be evoked if successive e.j.p.s were allowed to sum with each other or if a depolarizing current pulse was applied at the peak of an e.j.p. 6. The nature of the response to nerve stimulation recorded from differnt cells in the mouse vas deferens could be correlated with the amplitude and time course of the response of the same cell to intracellular stimulation. 7. It is concluded that individual smooth muscle cells in both preparations are probably coupled electrically but that there are few, if any, low resistance pathways in the longitudinal direction

  7. Posterolateral inter-transverse lumbar fusion in a mouse model

    Bobyn Justin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal fusion is a common orthopaedic procedure that has been previously modeled using canine, lapine, and rodent subjects. Despite the increasing availability of genetically modified mouse strains, murine models have only been infrequently described. Purpose To present an efficient and minimally traumatic procedure for achieving spinal fusion in a mouse model and determine the optimal rhBMP-2 dose to achieve sufficient fusion mass. Method MicroCT reconstructions of the unfused mouse spine and human spine were compared to design a surgical approach. In phase 1, posterolateral lumbar spine fusion in the mouse was evaluated using 18 animals allocated to three experimental groups. Group 1 received decortication only (n = 3, Group 2 received 10 μg rhBMP-2 in a collagen sponge bilaterally (n = 6, and Group 3 received 10 μg rhBMP-2 + decortication (n = 9. The surgical technique was assessed for intra-operative safety, efficacy, access and reproducibility. Spines were harvested for analysis at 3 weeks (Groups 1, 2 and 1, 2, and 3 weeks (Group 3. In phase 2, a dose response study was carried out in an additional 18 animals with C57BL6 mice receiving sponges containing 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 μg of rhBMP-2 per sponge bilaterally. Results The operative procedure via midline access was rapid and reproducible, and fusion of the murine articular processes was found to be analogous to the human procedure. Unlike reports from other species, decortication alone (Group 1 yielded no new bone formation. Addition of rhBMP-2 (Groups 2 and 3 yielded a significant bone mass that bridged the L4-L6 vertebrae. The subsequent dose response experiment revealed that 0.5 μg rhBMP-2 per sponge was sufficient to create a fusion mass. Conclusion We describe a new approach for mouse lumbar spine fusion that is safe, efficient, and highly reproducible. The technique we employed is analogous to the human midline procedure and may be highly

  8. Vitrification solution without sucrose for cryopreservation in mouse blastocysts.

    Joo, Jong Kil; Lee, Young Ju; Jeong, Ju Eun; Kim, Seung Chul; Ko, Gyoung Rae; Lee, Kyu Sup


    This study was designed to investigate the survival rate of vitrified mouse blastocysts depending on the presence or absence of sucrose in vitrification solution. Mouse two-cell embryos were collected and cultured to blastocysts. Two vitrification solutions were prepared. The control solution was composed of 25% glycerol, 25% ethylene glycol, and 0.5 M sucrose (G25E250.5S) containing 2.5 mL glycerol, 2.5 mL ethylene glycol, 2 mL SSS, and 0.855 g sucrose in 5 mL PB1. The experimental solution was composed of 25% glycerol and 25% ethylene glycol (G25E25) and contained 2.5 mL glycerol and 2.5 mL ethylene glycol in 5 mL PB1. Artificial shrinkage was conducted by aspirating the blastocoelic fluid using an ICSI pipette. To examine the effect of sucrose in the vitrification solution on the survival rate of mouse blastocysts, the shrunken-equilibrated blastocysts were rehydrated or vitrified after being exposed to one of the two vitrification solutions. After exposure and the vitrification-thawing process, the re-expansion rate and hatching rate were evaluated after 6 hours of in vitro culture. The re-expansion rate of mouse blastocysts exposed to vitrification solution with and without sucrose were not different in the experimental solution (without sucrose) (98%) and the control solution (with sucrose) (92%) (p>0.05). The hatching rate was higher in the experimental solution (95%) than in the control solution (88%), but did not differ across two treatments (p>0.05). The re-expansion rate of mouse blastocysts vitrified in the control solution was 92% and 94%, respectively (p>0.05), and the hatching rate was higher in the experimental solution (90%) than in the control solution (74%) (p<0.05). Sucrose need not be added in vitrification solution for freezing of artificially shrunken mouse blastocysts.

  9. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Improve Computer Pointing Efficiency through a Mouse Wheel

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien


    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to improve their pointing performance using finger poke ability with a mouse wheel through a Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (DPAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, changes a…

  10. Fast and Reliable Mouse Picking Using Graphics Hardware

    Hanli Zhao


    Full Text Available Mouse picking is the most commonly used intuitive operation to interact with 3D scenes in a variety of 3D graphics applications. High performance for such operation is necessary in order to provide users with fast responses. This paper proposes a fast and reliable mouse picking algorithm using graphics hardware for 3D triangular scenes. Our approach uses a multi-layer rendering algorithm to perform the picking operation in linear time complexity. The objectspace based ray-triangle intersection test is implemented in a highly parallelized geometry shader. After applying the hardware-supported occlusion queries, only a small number of objects (or sub-objects are rendered in subsequent layers, which accelerates the picking efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate the high performance of our novel approach. Due to its simplicity, our algorithm can be easily integrated into existing real-time rendering systems.

  11. Simultaneous molecular and anatomical imaging of the mouse in vivo.

    Goertzen, Andrew L; Meadors, A Ken; Silverman, Robert W; Cherry, Simon R


    Non-invasive imaging technologies are opening up new windows into mouse biology. We have developed a mouse imaging system that integrates positron emission tomography (PET) with x-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing simultaneous anatomic and molecular imaging in vivo with the potential for precise registration of the two image volumes. The x-ray system consists of a compact mini-focal x-ray tube and an amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector with a low-noise CMOS readout. The PET system uses planar arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. We describe the design of this dual-modality imaging system and show, for the first time, simultaneously acquired PET and CT images in a phantom and in mice.

  12. Genetically modified mouse models for premature ovarian failure (POF).

    Jagarlamudi, Krishna; Reddy, Pradeep; Adhikari, Deepak; Liu, Kui


    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a complex disorder that affects approximately 1% of women. POF is characterized by the depletion of functional ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years, and clinically, patients may present with primary amenorrhea or secondary amenorrhea. Although some genes have been hypothesized to be candidates responsible for POF, the etiology of most of the cases is idiopathic, with the underlying causes still unidentified because of the heterogeneity of the disease. In this review, we consider some mutant mouse models that exhibit phenotypes which are comparable to human POF, and we suggest that the use of these mouse models may help us to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying POF in humans.

  13. The expression of SEIPIN in the mouse central nervous system.

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Xie, Beibei; Qi, Yanfei; Du, Ximing; Wang, Shaoshi; Zhang, Yumei; Paxinos, George; Yang, Hongyuan; Liang, Huazheng


    Immunohistochemical staining was used to investigate the expression pattern of SEIPIN in the mouse central nervous system. SEIPIN was found to be present in a large number of areas, including the motor and somatosensory cortex, the thalamic nuclei, the hypothalamic nuclei, the mesencephalic nuclei, some cranial motor nuclei, the reticular formation of the brainstem, and the vestibular complex. Double labeling with NeuN antibody confirmed that SEIPIN-positive cells in some nuclei were neurons. Retrograde tracer injections into the spinal cord revealed that SEIPIN-positive neurons in the motor and somatosensory cortex and other movement related nuclei project to the mouse spinal cord. The present study found more nuclei positive for SEIPIN than shown using in situ hybridization and confirmed the presence of SEIPIN in neurons projecting to the spinal cord. The results of this study help to explain the clinical manifestations of patients with Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (Bscl2) gene mutations.

  14. Segmentation of the mouse hippocampal formation in magnetic resonance images.

    Richards, Kay; Watson, Charles; Buckley, Rachel F; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Yang, Zhengyi; Keller, Marianne D; Beare, Richard; Bartlett, Perry F; Egan, Gary F; Galloway, Graham J; Paxinos, George; Petrou, Steven; Reutens, David C


    The hippocampal formation plays an important role in cognition, spatial navigation, learning, and memory. High resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging makes it possible to study in vivo changes in the hippocampus over time and is useful for comparing hippocampal volume and structure in wild type and mutant mice. Such comparisons demand a reliable way to segment the hippocampal formation. We have developed a method for the systematic segmentation of the hippocampal formation using the perfusion-fixed C57BL/6 mouse brain for application in longitudinal and comparative studies. Our aim was to develop a guide for segmenting over 40 structures in an adult mouse brain using 30 μm isotropic resolution images acquired with a 16.4 T MR imaging system and combined using super-resolution reconstruction.

  15. Computerized assessment of social approach behavior in mouse

    Damon T Page


    Full Text Available Altered sociability is a core feature of a variety of human neurological disorders, including autism. Social behaviors may be tested in animal models, such as mice, to study the biological bases of sociability and how this is altered in neurodevelopmental disorders. An easily quantifiable social behavior frequently used to assess sociability in the mouse is the tendency to approach and interact with an unfamiliar mouse. Here we present a novel computer-assisted method for scoring social approach behavior in mice using a three-chambered apparatus. We find consistent results between data scored using the computer assisted method and a human observer, making computerized assessment a reliable, low cost, high-throughput method for testing sociability.

  16. Isolation and Culture of Satellite Cells from Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    Musarò, Antonio; Carosio, Silvia


    Skeletal muscle tissue is characterized by a population of quiescent mononucleated myoblasts, localized between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of myofibers, known as satellite cells. Satellite cells play a pivotal role in muscle homeostasis and are the major source of myogenic precursors in mammalian muscle regeneration.This chapter describes protocols for isolation and culturing satellite cells isolated from mouse skeletal muscles. The classical procedure, which will be discussed extensively in this chapter, involves the enzymatic dissociation of skeletal muscles, while the alternative method involves isolation of satellite cells from isolated myofibers in which the satellite cells remain in their in situ position underneath the myofiber basal lamina.In particular, we discuss the technical aspect of satellite cell isolation, the methods necessary to enrich the satellite cell fraction and the culture conditions that optimize proliferation and myotube formation of mouse satellite cells.

  17. Gain and frequency tuning within the mouse cochlear apex

    Oghalai, John S.; Raphael, Patrick D. [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Gao, Simon [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Hee Yoon [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Groves, Andrew K. [Department of Neuroscience, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, and Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Zuo, Jian [Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Applegate, Brian E. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas (United States)


    Normal mammalian hearing requires cochlear outer hair cell active processes that amplify the traveling wave with high gain and sharp tuning, termed cochlear amplification. We have used optical coherence tomography to study cochlear amplification within the apical turn of the mouse cochlea. We measured not only classical basilar membrane vibratory tuning curves but also vibratory responses from the rest of the tissues that compose the organ of Corti. Basilar membrane tuning was sharp in live mice and broad in dead mice, whereas other regions of the organ of Corti demonstrated phase shifts consistent with additional filtering beyond that provided by basilar membrane mechanics. We use these experimental data to support a conceptual framework of how cochlear amplification is tuned within the mouse cochlear apex. We will also study transgenic mice with targeted mutations that affect different biomechanical aspects of the organ of Corti in an effort to localize the underlying processes that produce this additional filtering.

  18. Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Mouse Click Motions

    Youngsu Cha


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study energy harvesting from the mouse click motions of a robot finger and a human index finger using a piezoelectric material. The feasibility of energy harvesting from mouse click motions is experimentally and theoretically assessed. The fingers wear a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material. We model the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in a finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The model is validated through energy harvesting experiments in the robot and human fingers with the systematically varying load resistance. We find that energy harvesting is maximized at the matched load resistance to the impedance of the piezoelectric material, and the harvested energy level is tens of nJ.

  19. Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Mouse Click Motions.

    Cha, Youngsu; Hong, Jin; Lee, Jaemin; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Keehoon


    In this paper, we study energy harvesting from the mouse click motions of a robot finger and a human index finger using a piezoelectric material. The feasibility of energy harvesting from mouse click motions is experimentally and theoretically assessed. The fingers wear a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material. We model the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in a finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The model is validated through energy harvesting experiments in the robot and human fingers with the systematically varying load resistance. We find that energy harvesting is maximized at the matched load resistance to the impedance of the piezoelectric material, and the harvested energy level is tens of nJ.

  20. Laser Doppler velocimetry using a modified computer mouse

    Zaron, Edward D.


    A computer mouse has been modified for use as a low-cost laser Doppler interferometer and used to measure the two-component fluid velocity of a flowing soap film. The mouse sensor contains two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, photodiodes, and signal processing hardware integrated into a single package, approximately 1 cm2 in size, and interfaces to a host computer via a standard USB port. Using the principle of self-mixing interferometry, whereby laser light re-enters the laser cavity after being scattered from a moving target, the Doppler shift and velocity of scatterers dispersed in the flow are measured. Observations of the boundary layer in a turbulent soap film channel flow demonstrate the capabilities of the sensor.

  1. Current Concepts: Mouse Models of Sjögren's Syndrome

    Tegan N. Lavoie


    Full Text Available Sjögren's syndrome (SjS is a complex chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology which primarily targets the exocrine glands, resulting in eventual loss of secretory function. The disease can present as either primary SjS or secondary SjS, the latter of which occurs concomitantly with another autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, or primary biliary cirrhosis. Current advancements in therapeutic prevention and treatment for SjS are impeded by lack of understanding in the pathophysiological and clinical progression of the disease. Development of appropriate mouse models for both primary and secondary SjS is needed in order to advance knowledge of this disease. This paper details important features, advantages, and pitfalls of current animal models of SjS, including spontaneous, transgenic, knockout, immunization, and transplantation chimera mouse models, and emphasizes the need for a better model in representing the human SjS phenotype.

  2. Mixing Board Versus Mouse Interaction In Value Adjustment Tasks

    Bergner, Steven; Kirkpatrick, Arthur E; Möller, Torsten


    We present a controlled, quantitative study with 12 participants comparing interaction with a haptically enhanced mixing board against interaction with a mouse in an abstract task that is motivated by several practical parameter space exploration settings. The study participants received 24 sets of one to eight integer values between 0 and 127, which they had to match by making adjustments with physical or graphical sliders. Based on recorded slider motion path data, we developed an analysis algorithm that identifies and measures different types of activity intervals, including error time moving irrelevant sliders and end time in breaks after completing each trial item. Our results showed a significant increase in speed of the mixing board interaction accompanied by reduced perceived cognitive load when compared with the traditional mouse-based GUI interaction. The gains in speed are largely due to the improved times required for the hand to reach for the first slider (acquisition time) and also when moving b...

  3. Axon and muscle spindle hyperplasia in the myostatin null mouse.

    Elashry, Mohamed I; Otto, Anthony; Matsakas, Antonios; El-Morsy, Salah E; Jones, Lisa; Anderson, Bethan; Patel, Ketan


    Germline deletion of the myostatin gene results in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the tension-generating (extrafusal) fibres in skeletal muscle. As this gene is expressed predominantly in myogenic tissues it offers an excellent model with which to investigate the quantitative relationship between muscle and axonal development. Here we show that skeletal muscle hyperplasia in myostatin null mouse is accompanied by an increase in nerve fibres in major nerves of both the fore- and hindlimbs. We show that axons within these nerves undergo hypertrophy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the age-related neural atrophic process is delayed in the absence of myostatin. Finally, we show that skeletal muscle hyperplasia in the myostatin null mouse is accompanied by an increase in the number of muscle spindles (also called stretch receptors or proprioceptors). However, our work demonstrates that the mechanisms regulating intrafusal fibre hyperplasia and hypertrophy differ from those that control the aetiology of extrafusal fibres.

  4. Vascular development and hemodynamic force in the mouse yolk sac

    Monica D Garcia


    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling of the mouse embryonic yolk sac is a highly dynamic process dependent on multiple genetic signaling pathways as well as biomechanical factors regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. During this early developmental window, the initial primitive vascular network of the yolk sac undergoes a dynamic remodeling process concurrent with the onset of blood flow, in which endothelial cells establish a branched, hierarchical structure of large vessels and smaller capillary beds. In this review, we will describe the molecular and biomechanical regulators which guide vascular remodeling in the mouse embryonic yolk sac, as well as live imaging methods for characterizing endothelial cell and hemodynamic function in cultured embryos.

  5. Optical mapping system for visualizing arrhythmias in isolated mouse atria.

    Schmidt, Robyn; Nygren, Anders


    Optical mapping has become an important technique in the study of cardiac electrophysiology, especially in terms of investigating the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias. The increasing availability of transgenic mice as models for cardiovascular disease is driving the need for instrumentation suitable for the study of electrical activity in the mouse heart. In this paper we evaluate our optical mapping system's ability to clearly record induced arrhythmic activity in an isolated mouse atrial preparation. Preliminary results indicate that the signal quality is high enough that individual optically recorded action potentials can be discerned in many pixels, even without post-processing for noise removal. The optical mapping video is clear enough for general observations regarding the patterns of electrical propagation during arrhythmic behaviour. The induced arrhythmias appear to have a regular pattern of activity, and are likely best classified as atrial tachycardias.

  6. Isotropic Optical Mouse Placement for Mobile Robot Velocity Estimation

    Sungbok Kim


    Full Text Available This paper presents the isotropic placement of multiple optical mice for the velocity estimation of a mobile robot. It is assumed that there can be positional restriction on the installation of optical mice at the bottom of a mobile robot. First, the velocity kinematics of a mobile robot with an array of optical mice is obtained and the resulting Jacobian matrix is analysed symbolically. Second, the isotropic, anisotropic and singular optical mouse placements are identified, along with the corresponding characteristic lengths. Third, the least squares mobile robot velocity estimation from the noisy optical mouse velocity measurements is discussed. Finally, simulation results for several different placements of three optical mice are given.

  7. Genetic Mouse Models of Huntington's Disease: Focus on Electrophysiological Mechanisms

    Carlos Cepeda


    Full Text Available The discovery of the HD (Huntington's disease gene in 1993 led to the creation of genetic mouse models of the disease and opened the doors for mechanistic studies. In particular, the early changes and progression of the disease could be followed and examined systematically. The present review focuses on the contribution of these genetic mouse models to the understanding of functional changes in neurons as the HD phenotype progresses, and concentrates on two brain areas: the striatum, the site of most conspicuous pathology in HD, and the cortex, a site that is becoming increasingly important in understanding the widespread behavioural abnormalities. Mounting evidence points to synaptic abnormalities in communication between the cortex and striatum and cell-cell interactions as major determinants of HD symptoms, even in the absence of severe neuronal degeneration and death.

  8. How Age Affects Pointing with Mouse and Touchpad

    Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren


    Effects of age on pointing performance have become increasingly important as computers have become extensively used by still larger parts of the population. This study empirically investigates young (12-14 years), adult (25-33 years), and elderly (61-69 years) participants' performance when...... pointing with mouse and touchpad. The goal is to provide an integrated analysis of (a) how these three age groups differ in pointing performance, (b) how these differences are affected by the two pointing devices, and (c) how the submovement structure of cursor trajectories may explain performance...... neither more nor less errors than young and adult participants. All three age groups were slower and made more errors with the touchpad than the mouse, but the touchpad slowed down elderly participants more than young participants, who in turn were slowed down more than adult participants. Adult...

  9. Transgenic mouse - Methods and protocols, 2nd edition

    Carlo Alberto Redi


    Full Text Available Marten H. Hofner (from the Dept. of Pathology of the Groningen University and Jan M. van Deursen (from the Mayo College of Medicine at Rochester, MN, USA provided us with the valuable second edition of Transgenic mouse: in fact, eventhough we are in the –omics era and already equipped with the state-of-the-art techniques in whatsoever field, still we need to have gene(s functional analysis data to understand common and complex deseases. Transgenesis is still an irreplaceable method and protocols to well perform it are more than welcome. Here, how to get genetic modified mice (the quintessential model of so many human deseases considering how much of the human genes are conserved in the mouse and the great block of genic synteny existing between the two genomes is analysed in deep and presented in clearly detailed step by step protocols....

  10. Gene expression profiles of mouse spermatogenesis during recovery from irradiation

    Shah, Fozia J; Tanaka, Masami; Nielsen, John E


    BACKGROUND: Irradiation or chemotherapy that suspend normal spermatogenesis is commonly used to treat various cancers. Fortunately, spermatogenesis in many cases can be restored after such treatments but knowledge is limited about the re-initiation process. Earlier studies have described...... the cellular changes that happen during recovery from irradiation by means of histology. We have earlier generated gene expression profiles during induction of spermatogenesis in mouse postnatal developing testes and found a correlation between profiles and the expressing cell types. The aim of the present...... work was to utilize the link between expression profile and cell types to follow the cellular changes that occur during post-irradiation recovery of spermatogenesis in order to describe recovery by means of gene expression. METHODS: Adult mouse testes were subjected to irradiation with 1 Gy...

  11. Dissecting Alzheimer disease in Down syndrome using mouse models

    Xun Yu eChoong


    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is a common genetic condition caused by the presence of three copies of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21. This greatly increases the risk for Alzheimer disease (AD, but although virtually all people with DS have AD neuropathology by 40 years of age, not all develop dementia. To dissect the genetic contribution of trisomy 21 to DS phenotypes including those relevant to AD, a range of DS mouse models has been generated which are trisomic for chromosome segments syntenic to human chromosome 21. Here, we consider key characteristics of human AD in DS (AD-DS, and our current state of knowledge on related phenotypes in AD and DS mouse models. We go on to review important features needed in future models of AD-DS, to understand this type of dementia and so highlight pathogenic mechanisms relevant to all populations at risk of AD.

  12. Mouse Mutagenesis Using N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea (ENU).

    Salinger, Andrew P; Justice, Monica J


    INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes chemical mutagenesis of male mice using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), which is the most efficient method for obtaining mouse mutations in phenotype-driven screens. A fractionated dose of ENU, an alkylating agent, can produce a mutation rate as high as 1.5 × 10(-3) in male mouse spermatogonial stem cells. Treatment with ENU produces point mutations that provide a unique mutant resource: They reflect the consequences of single gene changes independent of position effects, provide a fine structure dissection of protein function, display a range of mutant effects from complete or partial loss of function to exaggerated function, and discover gene functions in an unbiased manner. After treatment with ENU, mice are mated in genetic screens designed to uncover mutations of interest. Screens for dominant, recessive, and modifying mutations can be performed.

  13. A new spontaneous mouse mutation in the Kcne1 gene.

    Letts, V A; Valenzuela, A; Dunbar, C; Zheng, Q Y; Johnson, K R; Frankel, W N


    A new mouse mutant, punk rocker (allele symbol Kcne1(pkr)), arose spontaneously on a C57BL/10J inbred strain background and is characterized by a distinctive head-tossing, circling, and ataxic phenotype. It is also profoundly and bilaterally deaf. The mutation resides in the Kcne1 gene on Chromosome (Chr) 16 and has been identified as a single base change within the coding region of the third exon. The C to T nucleotide substitution causes an arginine to be altered to a termination codon at amino acid position 67, and predictably this will result in a significantly truncated protein product. The Kcne1(pkr) mutant represents the first spontaneous mouse model for the human disorder, Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, associated with mutations in the homologous KCNE1 gene on human Chr 21.

  14. Genetic Mouse Models: The Powerful Tools to Study Fat Tissues.

    Kong, Xingxing; Williams, Kevin W; Liu, Tiemin


    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with a variety of comorbidities that contribute to mortality around the world. Although significant effort has been expended in understanding mechanisms that mitigate the consequences of this epidemic, the field has experienced limited success thus far. The potential ability of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to counteract obesity and metabolic disease in rodents (and potentially in humans) has been a topical realization. Recently, there is also another thermogenic fat cell called beige adipocytes, which are located among white adipocytes and share similar activated responses to cyclic AMP as classical BAT. In this chapter, we review contemporary molecular strategies to investigate the role of adipose tissue depots in metabolism. In particular, we will discuss the generation of adipose tissue-specific knockout and overexpression of target genes in various mouse models. We will also discuss how to use different Cre (cyclization recombination) mouse lines to investigate diverse types of adipocytes.

  15. Mouse models of ciliopathies: the state of the art

    Dominic P. Norris


    Full Text Available The ciliopathies are an apparently disparate group of human diseases that all result from defects in the formation and/or function of cilia. They include disorders such as Meckel-Grüber syndrome (MKS, Joubert syndrome (JBTS, Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS and Alström syndrome (ALS. Reflecting the manifold requirements for cilia in signalling, sensation and motility, different ciliopathies exhibit common elements. The mouse has been used widely as a model organism for the study of ciliopathies. Although many mutant alleles have proved lethal, continued investigations have led to the development of better models. Here, we review current mouse models of a core set of ciliopathies, their utility and future prospects.

  16. Reduced Expression of SARM in Mouse Spleen during Polymicrobial Sepsis.

    Gong, Yu; Zou, Lin; Cen, Dongzhi; Chao, Wei; Chen, Dunjin


    Objective Immune dysfunction, including prominent apoptosis of immune cells and decreased functioning of the remaining immune cells, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Sterile α and HEAT/armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) is implicated in the regulation of immune cell apoptosis. This study aimed to elucidate SARM contributes to sepsis-induced immune cell death and immunosuppression. Methods A mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis was generated by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). SARM gene and protein expression, caspase 3 cleavage and intracellular ATP production were measured in the mouse spleens. Results CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis specifically attenuated both the gene and protein expression of SARM in the spleens. Moreover, the attenuation of SARM expression synchronized with splenocyte apoptosis, as evidenced by increased caspase 3 cleavage and ATP depletion. Conclusions These findings suggest that SARM is a potential regulator of sepsis-induced splenocyte apoptosis.

  17. Optical properties of mouse biotissues and their optical phantoms

    Krainov, A. D.; Mokeeva, A. M.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Agrba, P. D.; Kirillin, M. Yu.


    Based on spectrophotometric measurements in the range of 700-1100 nm performed with the use of an integrating sphere, we have obtained absorption and scattering spectra of internal organs of mouse, as well as of aqueous solutions of India ink and Lipofundin, which are basic model media for creating optical phantoms of biological tissues. To retrieve the spectra of optical characteristics, we have used original formulas that relate the parameters of the medium with measured spectrophotometric characteristics and that are constructed based on classical analytical models of propagation of light in turbid media. As a result of comparison of spectra of biotissues and model media, we have developed a mixture of Lipofundin and India ink serving as mouse optical phantoms for problems of optical medical diagnostics.

  18. Mapping of the Mouse Actin Capping Protein Beta Subunit Gene

    Cooper John A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capping protein (CP, a heterodimer of α and β subunits, is found in all eukaryotes. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments in vitro and controls actin assembly and cell motility in vivo. Vertebrates have three isoforms of CPβ produced by alternatively splicing from one gene; lower organisms have one gene and one isoform. Results We isolated genomic clones corresponding to the β subunit of mouse CP and identified its chromosomal location by interspecies backcross mapping. Conclusions The CPβ gene (Cappb1 mapped to Chromosome 4 between Cdc42 and D4Mit312. Three mouse mutations, snubnose, curly tail, and cribriform degeneration, map in the vicinity of the β gene.

  19. Zicam-induced damage to mouse and human nasal tissue.

    Jae H Lim

    Full Text Available Intranasal medications are used to treat various nasal disorders. However, their effects on olfaction remain unknown. Zicam (zinc gluconate; Matrixx Initiatives, Inc, a homeopathic substance marketed to alleviate cold symptoms, has been implicated in olfactory dysfunction. Here, we investigated Zicam and several common intranasal agents for their effects on olfactory function. Zicam was the only substance that showed significant cytotoxicity in both mouse and human nasal tissue. Specifically, Zicam-treated mice had disrupted sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons to odorant stimulation and were unable to detect novel odorants in behavioral testing. These findings were long-term as no recovery of function was observed after two months. Finally, human nasal explants treated with Zicam displayed significantly elevated extracellular lactate dehydrogenase levels compared to saline-treated controls, suggesting severe necrosis that was confirmed on histology. Our results demonstrate that Zicam use could irreversibly damage mouse and human nasal tissue and may lead to significant smell dysfunction.

  20. Transcriptomic profiling of trichloroethylene exposure in male mouse liver

    Yan Jiang


    Full Text Available Chronic Trichloroethylene (TCE exposure could induce hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, and occupational exposure in humans was suggested to be associated with liver cancer. To understand the role of non-genotoxic mechanism(s for TCE action, we examined the gene expression and DNA methylation changes in the liver of B6C3F1 mice orally administered with TCE for 5 days. As a beginning step, we profiled gene expression alterations induced by the TCE in mouse livers. Here we describe in detail the experimental methods, quality controls, and other information associated with our data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under GSE58819. Our data provide useful information for gene expression responses to TCE in mouse liver.