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Sample records for mouse abdominal tumor

  1. CT of abdominal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Satoshi; Yamada, Kenji; Ito, Masatoshi; Ito, Hisao; Yamaura, Harutsugu

    1981-01-01

    CT findings in 33 patients who had an abdominal tumor were evaluated. CT revealed a tumor in 31 cases. The organ from which the tumor originated was correctly diagnosed in 18 patients. Whether the tumor was solid or cystic was correctly predicted in 28 patients. The diagnosis malignant or benign nature of tumor was correct, incorrect and impossible, in 23, 3, and five patiens, respectively. (Kondo, M.)

  2. Recurrent desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall | Toughrai | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desmoid tumors most often occur in abdominal wall. Their tendency to recur lead to repeated operations which can make the abdominal wall reconstruction difficult. We report a 28-year-old female history. The patient was referred to our hospital for a recurrent desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall. The tumor was totally ...

  3. Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Differential Diagnosis of Compressive Upper Abdominal Tumor

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    Clara Kimie Miyahira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGIST are rare mesenchymal tumor lesions located outside the gastrointestinal tract. A rare compressing tumor with difficult diagnosis is reported. Presentation of the Case. A male patient, 63 years old, was admitted in the emergency room complaining of stretching and continuous abdominal pain for one day. He took Hyoscine, with partial improvement of symptoms, but got worse due to hyporexia, and the abdominal pain persisted. The patient also reported early satiety and ten-pound weight loss over the last month. Discussion. EGIST could be assessed by CT-guided biopsy, leading to diagnosis and proper treatment with surgical resection or Imatinib. Conclusion. This case report highlights the importance of considering EGIST an important differential diagnosis of compressing upper abdominal tumors.

  4. An Intra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumor, Embedded in the Pancreas, Preoperatively Diagnosed as an Extragastric Growing Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Mizuno

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old woman was found to have a pancreatic tumor by abdominal ultrasound performed for a medical check-up. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a hypovascular tumor measuring 30 mm in diameter in the pancreatic tail. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed. An extragastric growing gastrointestinal stromal tumor was thereby diagnosed preoperatively, and surgical resection was planned. Laparoscopic surgery was attempted but conversion to open surgery was necessitated by extensive adhesions, and distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and partial gastrectomy were performed. The histological diagnosis was an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor. A desmoid tumor is a fibrous soft tissue tumor arising in the fascia and musculoaponeurotic tissues. It usually occurs in the extremities and abdominal wall, and only rarely in the abdominal cavity. We experienced a case with an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor that was histologically diagnosed after laparotomy, which had been preoperatively diagnosed as an extragastric growing gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Although rare, desmoid tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumors. Herein, we report this case with a literature review.

  5. Analysis of tumor-like shadows on abdominal plain x-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hidehiro; Hiraki, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Keizi

    1986-01-01

    We found tumor-like shadows in the upper abdomen in 93 cases out of 400 abdominal plain films, although none of these 93 cases actually had a tumor. We analyzed these tumor-like shadows by computed tomography. For each of the 400 cases we measured the width of flank stripe on the abdominal plain film. Most of the tumor-like shadows in the left upper abdomen were gastric fundus, but it was significant for evaluating plain abdominal film that other organs such as a part of the left lobe of the liver, the upper pole of the left kidney, and a part of the spleen formed tumor-like shadows. The most important factors forming tumor-like shadows on plain abdominal film are the fat volume of the abdominal cauity as well as the fraciform ligament and alterations in the shape and volume of organs such as occur in liver cirrhosis. (author)

  6. Number and location of mouse mammary tumor virus proviral DNA in mouse DNA of normal tissue and of mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, B; Hynes, N E

    1980-01-01

    The Southern DNA filter transfer technique was used to characterize the genomic location of the mouse mammary tumor proviral DNA in different inbred strains of mice. Two of the strains (C3H and CBA) arose from a cross of a Bagg albino (BALB/c) mouse and a DBA mouse. The mouse mammary tumor virus-containing restriction enzyme DNA fragments of these strains had similar patterns, suggesting that the proviruses of these mice are in similar genomic locations. Conversely, the pattern arising from the DNA of the GR mouse, a strain genetically unrelated to the others, appeared different, suggesting that its mouse mammary tumor proviruses are located in different genomic sites. The structure of another gene, that coding for beta-globin, was also compared. The mice strains which we studied can be categorized into two classes, expressing either one or two beta-globin proteins. The macroenvironment of the beta-globin gene appeared similar among the mice strains belonging to one genetic class. Female mice of the C3H strain exogenously transmit mouse mammary tumor virus via the milk, and their offspring have a high incidence of mammary tumor occurrence. DNA isolated from individual mammary tumors taken from C3H mice or from BALB/c mice foster nursed on C3H mothers was analyzed by the DNA filter transfer technique. Additional mouse mammary tumor virus-containing fragments were found in the DNA isolated from each mammary tumor. These proviral sequences were integrated into different genomic sites in each tumor. Images PMID:6245257

  7. Anterior Abdominal Wall Desmoids Tumor in a Five Year Old Girl – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: Desmoid tumors are rare, slow – growing, mesenchymal monoclinic proliferation. It may occur as intra-abdominal tumor usually affecting the mesentery of the intestine or it could be extra-abdominal in which they may affect the popliteal region, the chest wall or the anterior abdominal wall. Reports in children ...

  8. Anterior Abdominal Wall Desmoids Tumor in a Five Year Old Girl – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desmoid tumors are rare, slow – growing, mesenchymal monoclinic proliferation. It may occur as intra-abdominal tumor usually affecting the mesentery of the intestine or it could be extra-abdominal in which they may affect the popliteal region, the chest wall or the anterior abdominal wall. Reports in children less than 10 ...

  9. Giant Desmoid Tumor of the Anterior Abdominal Wall in a Young Female: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahim Koshariya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors (also called desmoids fibromatosis are rare slow growing benign and musculoaponeurotic tumors. Although these tumors have a propensity to invade surrounding tissues, they are not malignant. These tumors are associated with women of fertile age, especially during and after pregnancy. We report a young female patient with a giant desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall who underwent primary resection. The patient had no history of an earlier abdominal surgery. Preoperative evaluation included abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The histology revealed a desmoid tumor. Primary surgical resection with immediate reconstruction of abdominal defect is the best management of this rarity. To the best of our knowledge and PubMed search, this is the first case ever reported in the medical literature of such a giant desmoid tumor arising from anterior abdominal wall weighing 6.5 kg treated surgically with successful outcome.

  10. A Mouse Tumor Model of Surgical Stress to Explore the Mechanisms of Postoperative Immunosuppression and Evaluate Novel Perioperative Immunotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Lee-Hwa; Tanese de Souza, Christiano; Sahi, Shalini; Zhang, Jiqing; Alkayyal, Almohanad A; Ananth, Abhirami Anu; Auer, Rebecca A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection is an essential treatment for most cancer patients, but surgery induces dysfunction in the immune system and this has been linked to the development of metastatic disease in animal models and in cancer patients. Preclinical work from our group and others has demonstrated a profound suppression of innate immune function, specifically NK cells in the postoperative period and this plays a major role in the enhanced development of metastases following surgery. Relatively few animal studies and clinical trials have focused on characterizing and reversing the detrimental effects of cancer surgery. Using a rigorous animal model of spontaneously metastasizing tumors and surgical stress, the enhancement of cancer surgery on the development of lung metastases was demonstrated. In this model, 4T1 breast cancer cells are implanted in the mouse mammary fat pad. At day 14 post tumor implantation, a complete resection of the primary mammary tumor is performed in all animals. A subset of animals receives additional surgical stress in the form of an abdominal nephrectomy. At day 28, lung tumor nodules are quantified. When immunotherapy was given immediately preoperatively, a profound activation of immune cells which prevented the development of metastases following surgery was detected. While the 4T1 breast tumor surgery model allows for the simulation of the effects of abdominal surgical stress on tumor metastases, its applicability to other tumor types needs to be tested. The current challenge is to identify safe and promising immunotherapies in preclinical mouse models and to translate them into viable perioperative therapies to be given to cancer surgery patients to prevent the recurrence of metastatic disease. PMID:24686980

  11. Effect of Audio Coaching on Correlation of Abdominal Displacement With Lung Tumor Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakata, Manabu; Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of audio coaching on the time-dependent behavior of the correlation between abdominal motion and lung tumor motion and the corresponding lung tumor position mismatches. Methods and Materials: Six patients who had a lung tumor with a motion range >8 mm were enrolled in the present study. Breathing-synchronized fluoroscopy was performed initially without audio coaching, followed by fluoroscopy with recorded audio coaching for multiple days. Two different measurements, anteroposterior abdominal displacement using the real-time positioning management system and superoinferior (SI) lung tumor motion by X-ray fluoroscopy, were performed simultaneously. Their sequential images were recorded using one display system. The lung tumor position was automatically detected with a template matching technique. The relationship between the abdominal and lung tumor motion was analyzed with and without audio coaching. Results: The mean SI tumor displacement was 10.4 mm without audio coaching and increased to 23.0 mm with audio coaching (p < .01). The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 with free breathing. Applying audio coaching, the correlation coefficients improved significantly (range, 0.93-0.99; p < .01), and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became larger in 75% of all sessions. Conclusion: Audio coaching served to increase the degree of correlation and make it more reproducible. In addition, the phase shifts between tumor motion and abdominal displacement were improved; however, all patients breathed more deeply, and the SI lung tumor position mismatches became slightly larger with audio coaching than without audio coaching.

  12. Transarterial embolization for postoperative massive hemorrhage in patients with abdominal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiwei; Shi Haifeng; Sun Hao; Zhou Kang; Li Xiaoguang; Pan Jie; Zhang Xiaobo; Liu Wei; Yang Ning; Jin Zhengyu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the feasibility and effectiveness of transarterial embolization for the management of postoperative massive hemorrhage in patients with abdominal tumors. Methods: Between January 2004 and December 2009 in authors' hospital transarterial embolization for postoperative massive hemorrhage was performed in thirteen patients with abdominal tumors. The clinical data and the technical points were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of 13 patients,the bleeding was completely controlled in 10 after single embolization procedure. Re-bleeding occurred in the other 3 patients, and angiography showed the new bleeding arteries. Trans arterial embolization was carried out again, and the bleeding was successfully stopped in 2 patients. The remaining one patient had to be treated with surgery as the microcatheter could not be super-selectively placed into the bleeding vessel. The overall clinical success rate of trans arterial embolization for postoperative massive hemorrhage was 92% (12 /13). No severe complications occurred. Conclusion: Trans arterial embolization is a safe and effective treatment for postoperative massive hemorrhage in patients with abdominal tumors. (authors)

  13. Re-irradiation for abdominal tumor. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narisada, Hiroyuki; Imada, Hajime; Tomoda, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of loco-regional radiotherapy for recurrent abdominal tumor treated with re-irradiation. Re-irradiated areas of 16 patients were eight of pelvic space, five of retroperitonium and three of liver or porta hepatica. Eligibility criteria of re-irradiation were success of initial irradiation, no other effective treatment except re-irradiation, constancy of bowel gas at hunger status and respiratory movement, visceral dosage reduction at re-irradiation. Total dose of initial, second course of radiation were 51.3±10.8 Gy, 50.6±14.2 Gy, respectively. Interval of initial and second course of radiation were 16.6±10.2 months. Local control after second course of radiation was four cases of complete response, five of partial response and seven of stable disease. Median survival periods were 55 months after initial treatment and 28 months after second course of radiation. In two cases of pelvic reirradiation, skin to pelvic space fistula was occurred. Re-irradiation for abdominal tumor may become useful salvage treatment. (author)

  14. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database: A Comprehensive Resource for Mouse Models of Human Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Debra M; Begley, Dale A; Sundberg, John P; Richardson, Joel E; Neuhauser, Steven B; Bult, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Research using laboratory mice has led to fundamental insights into the molecular genetic processes that govern cancer initiation, progression, and treatment response. Although thousands of scientific articles have been published about mouse models of human cancer, collating information and data for a specific model is hampered by the fact that many authors do not adhere to existing annotation standards when describing models. The interpretation of experimental results in mouse models can also be confounded when researchers do not factor in the effect of genetic background on tumor biology. The Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB) database is an expertly curated, comprehensive compendium of mouse models of human cancer. Through the enforcement of nomenclature and related annotation standards, MTB supports aggregation of data about a cancer model from diverse sources and assessment of how genetic background of a mouse strain influences the biological properties of a specific tumor type and model utility. Cancer Res; 77(21); e67-70. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Computer-Aided Detection of Kidney Tumor on Abdominal Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.Y.; Park, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To implement a computer-aided detection system for kidney segmentation and kidney tumor detection on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. Material and Methods: Abdominal CT images were digitized with a film digitizer, and a gray-level threshold method was used to segment the kidney. Based on texture analysis performed on sample images of kidney tumors, a portion of the kidney tumor was selected as seed region for start point of the region-growing process. The average and standard deviations were used to detect the kidney tumor. Starting at the detected seed region, the region-growing method was used to segment the kidney tumor with intensity values used as an acceptance criterion for a homogeneous test. This test was performed to merge the neighboring region as kidney tumor boundary. These methods were applied on 156 transverse images of 12 cases of kidney tumors scanned using a G.E. Hispeed CT scanner and digitized with a Lumisys LS-40 film digitizer. Results: The computer-aided detection system resulted in a kidney tumor detection sensitivity of 85% and no false-positive findings. Conclusion: This computer-aided detection scheme was useful for kidney tumor detection and gave the characteristics of detected kidney tumors

  16. Abdominal Splenosis Mimicking Hepatic Tumor: A Case Report

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    Ming-Lun Yeh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of abdominal splenosis is often undiagnosed until treatment for splenic rupture or splenectomy. This report describes a patient with splenosis mimicking hepatic tumor. The patient had a history of splenic trauma with splenectomy and chronic hepatitis C. After routine abdominal ultrasound revealed a liver nodule, further imaging studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and angiography, were performed. After the patient eventually underwent surgery, pathology revealed splenic tissue. Despite its distinguishable clinical features, splenosis is difficult to identify by modern imaging modalities. Therefore, accurate and timely diagnosis of this disease requires constant vigilance.

  17. Abdominal Wall Desmoid Tumor in a Pregnant Woman and Cesarean Section Managment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mojibian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased risk of sporadic desmoid tumor occurs in increased estrogen level (pregnancy and surgical incisions (abdominal and thorasic. The frequency of desmoid tumors in the general population is 2.4 to 4.3 cases. The case is 30 year old woman with history of previous cesarean section. In fourth month of pregnancy,ultrasonography revealed a 5×7 cm mass in lower segment of the uterus(leiomyoma. The tumor diameter was 20 cm in term gestation. The time of cesarean , incision of skin was done above the umbilicus and below the sternum and incision of uterus was done from fondus vertically down. After delivery, the mass which was separated from uterus and located in the abdominal wall was extracted. The histological investigation diagnosed a desmoid tumor.

  18. Assessment of plasminogen synthesis in vitro by mouse tumor cells using a competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasminogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblin, R.O.; Bell, T.E.; Young, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive, specific competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasmin(ogen) has been developed in order to determine whether mouse tumor cells can synthesize plasminogen in vitro. The rabbit anti-BALB/c mouse plasminogen antibodies used in the assay react with the plasminogen present in serum from BALB/c, C3H, AKR and C57BL/6 mice, and also recognized mouse plasmin. The competition radiommunoassay can detect as little as 50 ng of mouse plasminogen. No competition was observed with preparations of fetal calf, human and rabbit plasminogens. A variety of virus-transformed and mouse tumor cell lines were all found to contain less than 100 ng mouse plasminogen/mg of cell extract protein. Thus, if the plasminogen activator/plasmin system is important in the growth or movement of this group of tumor cells, the cells will be dependent upon the circulatory system of the host for their plasminogen supply. (Auth.)

  19. Allele-specific deletions in mouse tumors identify Fbxw7 as germline modifier of tumor susceptibility.

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    Jesus Perez-Losada

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in finding associations between specific genetic variants and cancer susceptibility in human populations. These studies have identified a range of highly statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and susceptibility to development of a range of human tumors. However, the effect of each SNP in isolation is very small, and all of the SNPs combined only account for a relatively minor proportion of the total genetic risk (5-10%. There is therefore a major requirement for alternative routes to the discovery of genetic risk factors for cancer. We have previously shown using mouse models that chromosomal regions harboring susceptibility genes identified by linkage analysis frequently exhibit allele-specific genetic alterations in tumors. We demonstrate here that the Fbxw7 gene, a commonly mutated gene in a wide range of mouse and human cancers, shows allele-specific deletions in mouse lymphomas and skin tumors. Lymphomas from three different F1 hybrids show 100% allele-specificity in the patterns of allelic loss. Parental alleles from 129/Sv or Spretus/Gla mice are lost in tumors from F1 hybrids with C57BL/6 animals, due to the presence of a specific non-synonymous coding sequence polymorphism at the N-terminal portion of the gene. A specific genetic test of association between this SNP and lymphoma susceptibility in interspecific backcross mice showed a significant linkage (p = 0.001, but only in animals with a functional p53 gene. These data therefore identify Fbxw7 as a p53-dependent tumor susceptibility gene. Increased p53-dependent tumor susceptibility and allele-specific losses were also seen in a mouse skin model of skin tumor development. We propose that analysis of preferential allelic imbalances in tumors may provide an efficient means of uncovering genetic variants that affect mouse and human tumor susceptibility.

  20. Absceso de pared abdominal por tumor maligno de colon transverso.

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Polanco, Sergio; Díaz Rosales, Juan de Dios; Arenas Valles, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Colon cancer is one of the most frequent and mortal digestive tumors. Complications of this disease could be several and in a few cases, could be rare and infrequent. This article present a case of patient with an abdominal wall abscess due to a malignant transverse colonic tumor. Clinic presentation: Male 56 years-old patient with sepsis and a mass in left superior quadrant on abdomen. The patient was underwent to exploratory laparotomy and findings were a large tumor in transv...

  1. Malignant granular cell tumor of the abdominal wall mimicking desmoid tumor: A case report with CT imaging findings and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Je Hong; Ahn, Sung Eun; Lee, Dong Ho; Park, Seong Jin; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lim, Joo Won [Dept. Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are extremely rare mesenchymal neoplasms of Schwann cell origin. Malignant GCTs (MGCTs) comprise 0.5-2% of all GCTs. In the present report, we describe a case of a 66-year-old man with MGCT of the abdominal wall. The patient visited our hospital due to a recently growing palpable soft tissue mass in the abdominal wall. Computed tomography scan revealed a 4.3 × 4.1 × 2.9 cm sized mass arising from the left abdominal wall, which was contemplated as a desmoid tumor before surgical excision. Histopathological examination confirmed MGCT.

  2. Treatment of Extra — Abdominal Desmoid Tumors with Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, Corey; Emory, Cynthia; Adams, Sheila; Cohen, Jonathan; Pitcher, John David; Potter, Benjamin Kyle; Temple, H. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Fibromatosis, or extra-abdominal desmoid tumor, is a benign disease which often has an aggressive clinical course that can be difficult to treat. We performed a retrospective review of 16 patients (12 females and four males) with a mean age of 34.2 years treated with methotrexate and vinblastine for newly diagnosed or recurrent extra-abdominal desmoid tumor. The mean age of our patient cohort was 34.2 years (range 11–70), and the mean tumor size was 11.5 cm (range 2.5–21.2 cm). The mean duration of therapy was 12 months with an average follow-up of 43 months (range 1–149 months). Fourteen of 16 patients demonstrated a clinical response to treatment. Eight of 14 patients demonstrated a radiologic decrease in tumor size. Only one patient progressed on therapy. Six patients developed recurrent symptoms after discontinuation of treatment. Chemotherapy-related symptoms including neutropenia, nausea, and vomiting were common and observed in most patients, however these side effects were mild and transient. Five patients developed peripheral neuropathy that prompted a change from vinblastine to vinorelbine during treatment. One potentially life-threatening complication (pneumocystis pneumonia) occurred which was diagnosed early and successfully treated. The use of methotrexate and vinblastine/vinorelbine in the management of fibromatosis appears to be an effective treatment with minimal treatment-related side effects

  3. Treatment of Extra — Abdominal Desmoid Tumors with Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Corey [Rockefeller Cancer Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72211 (United States); Emory, Cynthia [Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvds, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Adams, Sheila [Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Cedars Medical Center, 1400 NW 12th Avenue (R-12), Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Cohen, Jonathan [Division of Psychology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1695 N.W. 9th Ave. (D-29), Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Pitcher, John David [Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1400 NW 12th Avenue (R-12), Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Potter, Benjamin Kyle [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 6900 Georgia Avenue North West, Washington, D.C., 20307 (United States); Temple, H. Thomas [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1600 N.W. 10th Avenue (R-12), Miami, FL 33136 (United States)

    2011-08-25

    Fibromatosis, or extra-abdominal desmoid tumor, is a benign disease which often has an aggressive clinical course that can be difficult to treat. We performed a retrospective review of 16 patients (12 females and four males) with a mean age of 34.2 years treated with methotrexate and vinblastine for newly diagnosed or recurrent extra-abdominal desmoid tumor. The mean age of our patient cohort was 34.2 years (range 11–70), and the mean tumor size was 11.5 cm (range 2.5–21.2 cm). The mean duration of therapy was 12 months with an average follow-up of 43 months (range 1–149 months). Fourteen of 16 patients demonstrated a clinical response to treatment. Eight of 14 patients demonstrated a radiologic decrease in tumor size. Only one patient progressed on therapy. Six patients developed recurrent symptoms after discontinuation of treatment. Chemotherapy-related symptoms including neutropenia, nausea, and vomiting were common and observed in most patients, however these side effects were mild and transient. Five patients developed peripheral neuropathy that prompted a change from vinblastine to vinorelbine during treatment. One potentially life-threatening complication (pneumocystis pneumonia) occurred which was diagnosed early and successfully treated. The use of methotrexate and vinblastine/vinorelbine in the management of fibromatosis appears to be an effective treatment with minimal treatment-related side effects.

  4. Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small cell tumor in a girl : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Seok

    1998-01-01

    Desmoplastic small cell tumor is a rare primary intra-abdominal disease with a predilection for the adolescent boy. This aggressive tumor involved multiple intraperitoneal organs, peritoneal, mesentery and omental seedings, and sometimes retroperitoneal extension. The author reports a case of this rare tumor, demonstrated by CT, MRI and US, in a 14-year-old girl. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs

  5. Clinical application of preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the resection of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenhua; Wang Qi; He Zhongming; Zhou Jian; Wang Yimin; Wang Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in performing the surgical resection of sacral tumors. Methods: Conventional surgical excision of sacral tumors was employed in 24 patients with sacral tumors (control group), while preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta was carried out in 32 patients with sacral tumors (study group). The operation time, blood loss during the surgery and the one-year recurrence rate of both groups were documented, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Angiography showed that in the study group the sacral tumors were supplied by several vessels, and these feeding arteries were occluded separately. The tumors were successfully removed in all patients with the help of intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta. During the surgery, the surgical area was clearly exposed and the blood loss wa remarkably reduced. After the surgery, no ectopic vascular embolization, renal ischemia, limb ischemia or other complications occurred. Statistically significant difference in the operation time, blood loss during the surgery and the one-year recurrence rate existed between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce the blood loss during the surgery and provide a clear surgical field, and thus the surgical safety can be significantly ensured. (authors)

  6. Combination radiotherapy in an orthotopic mouse brain tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Tamalee R; Camphausen, Kevin

    2012-03-06

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are the most common and aggressive adult primary brain tumors. In recent years there has been substantial progress in the understanding of the mechanics of tumor invasion, and direct intracerebral inoculation of tumor provides the opportunity of observing the invasive process in a physiologically appropriate environment. As far as human brain tumors are concerned, the orthotopic models currently available are established either by stereotaxic injection of cell suspensions or implantation of a solid piece of tumor through a complicated craniotomy procedure. In our technique we harvest cells from tissue culture to create a cell suspension used to implant directly into the brain. The duration of the surgery is approximately 30 minutes, and as the mouse needs to be in a constant surgical plane, an injectable anesthetic is used. The mouse is placed in a stereotaxic jig made by Stoetling (figure 1). After the surgical area is cleaned and prepared, an incision is made; and the bregma is located to determine the location of the craniotomy. The location of the craniotomy is 2 mm to the right and 1 mm rostral to the bregma. The depth is 3 mm from the surface of the skull, and cells are injected at a rate of 2 μl every 2 minutes. The skin is sutured with 5-0 PDS, and the mouse is allowed to wake up on a heating pad. From our experience, depending on the cell line, treatment can take place from 7-10 days after surgery. Drug delivery is dependent on the drug composition. For radiation treatment the mice are anesthetized, and put into a custom made jig. Lead covers the mouse's body and exposes only the brain of the mouse. The study of tumorigenesis and the evaluation of new therapies for GBM require accurate and reproducible brain tumor animal models. Thus we use this orthotopic brain model to study the interaction of the microenvironment of the brain and the tumor, to test the effectiveness of different therapeutic agents with and without

  7. Radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRue, S.M.; Gillette, S.M.; Poulson, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, radiotherapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors in animals has been limited. However, the availability of computerized tomography and other imaging techniques to aid in determining the extent of tumor, an increase in knowledge of dose tolerance of regional organs, the availability of isocentrically mounted megavoltage machines, and the willingness of patients to pursue more aggressive treatment is making radiation therapy of tumors in these regions far more common. Tumor remission has been reported after radiation therapy of thymomas. Radiation therapy has been used to treat mediastinal lymphoma refractory to chemotherapy, and may be beneficial as part of the initial treatment regimen for this disease. Chemodectomas are responsive to radiation therapy in human patients, and favorable response has also been reported in dogs. Although primary lung tumors in dogs are rare, in some cases radiation therapy could be a useful primary or adjunctive therapy. Lung is the dose-limiting organ in the thorax. Bladder and urethral tumors in dogs have been treated using intraoperative and external-beam radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy. These tumors are difficult to control locally with surgery alone, although the optimal method of combining treatment modalities has not been established. Local control of malignant perianal tumors is also difficult to achieve with surgery alone, and radiation therapy should be used. Intraoperative radiation therapy combined with external-beam radiation therapy has been used for the management of metastatic carcinoma to the sublumbar lymph nodes. Tolerance of retroperitoneal tissues may be decreased by disease or surgical manipulation

  8. Mouse Models Recapitulating Human Adrenocortical Tumors: What is lacking?

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    Felicia Leccia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal cortex tumors are divided into benign forms such as primary hyperplasias and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs, and malignant forms or adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs. Primary hyperplasias are rare causes of ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. ACAs are the most common type of adrenal gland tumors and they are rarely functional, i.e producing steroids. When functional, adenomas result in endocrine disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome (hypercortisolism or Conn’s syndrome (hyperaldosteronism. In contrast, ACCs are extremely rare but highly aggressive tumors that may also lead to hypersecreting syndromes. Genetic analyses of patients with sporadic or familial forms of adrenocortical tumors led to the identification of potentially causative genes, most of them being involved in PKA, Wnt/β-catenin and P53 signaling pathways. Development of mouse models is a crucial step to firmly establish the functional significance of candidate genes, to dissect mechanisms leading to tumors and endocrine disorders and in fine to provide in vivo tools for therapeutic screens. In this article we will provide an overview on the existing mouse models (xenografted and genetically engineered of adrenocortical tumors by focusing on the role of PKA and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in this context. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of models that have been developed heretofore and we will point out necessary improvements in the development of next generation mouse models of adrenal diseases.

  9. Evaluation of the fetal abdomen by magnetic resonance imaging. Part 2: abdominal wall defects and tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pinho Matos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although ultrasound is still the gold standard for the assessment of fetal malformations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has gained great prominence in recent years. In situations in which ultrasound has low sensitivity, such as maternal obesity, abdominal scarring, and oligohydramnios, MRI has proven to be a safe and accurate method. Regarding fetal abdominal wall defects, MRI appears to be widely used in the prognostic assessment of gastroschisis with intestinal atresia or of complications of omphalocele, allowing better perinatal management and parental counseling. In addition, MRI allows the assessment of local invasion of fetal abdominal tumors, with significant prognostic value for the postnatal period. In this article, we review the main MRI findings in the evaluation of fetal abdominal wall defects and tumors.

  10. Extragenital malignant mixed Mullerian tumor in the incisional hernia - primary carcinosarcoma in the abdominal wall: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuvela Marinko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This report presents a primary Mullerian carcinosarcoma localized in the incisional hernia i.e. anterior abdominal wall. There is no data in the literature about this localization of extragenital Mullerian carcinosarcoma. Case Outline. The patient had previous medical history of right-sided ovarian cystadenocarcinoma managed by hysterectomy, bilateral ovariectomy and chemotherapy. An incisional hernia occurred 1 year after the operation and Mullerian carcinosarcoma at the right border of the incisional hernia 16 years later. There was no tumor spreading into the abdominal cavity and pelvis. Full thickness of the abdominal wall resection and coexisting incisional hernia resulted in a large 25x20 cm abdominal wall defect managed by the modified components separation technique and implanting meshes. Conclusion. Major abdominal wall resection and abdominal wall reconstruction using the modified components separation technique reinforced with meshes could be one of possible solutions in the surgical treatment of primary malignant mixed Mullerian tumor localized in the abdominal wall. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41030

  11. Tailored Beta-catenin mutational approach in extra-abdominal sporadic desmoid tumor patients without therapeutic intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekhoven, Danique L.M. van; Grünhagenl, Dirk J.; Dalen, Thijs van; Coevorden, Frits van; Bonenkamp, Han J.; Been, Lukas B.; Bemelmans, Marc H.A.; Dijkstra, Sander D.S.; Colombo, Chiara; Gronchi, Alessandro; Verhoef, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of the classical treatment modalities surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of aggressive fibromatosis is presently disputed and there is a shift towards a more conservative approach. The aim of the present study is to objectify tumor growth in patients with extra-abdominal or abdominal wall aggressive fibromatosis, while adhering to a “watchful waiting” policy. Other objectives are to investigate quality of life and to identify factors associated with tumor growth, in particular the relation with the presence of a CTNNB1-gene mutation in the tumor. GRAFITI is a nationwide, multicenter, prospective registration trial. All patients with extra-abdominal or abdominal wall aggressive fibromatosis are eligible for inclusion in the study. Main exclusion criteria are: history of familiar adenomatous polyposis, severe pain, functional impairment, life/limb threating situations in case of progressive disease. Patients included in the study will be treated with a watchful waiting policy during a period of 5 years. Imaging studies with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scan will be performed during follow-up to monitor possible growth: the first years every 3 months, the second year twice and the yearly. In addition patients will be asked to complete a quality of life questionnaire on specific follow-up moments. The primary endpoint is the rate of progression per year, defined by the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). Secondary endpoints are quality of life and the rate of influence on tumor progression for several factors, such as CTNNB1-mutations, age and localization. This study will provide insight in tumor behavior, the effect on quality of life and clinicopathological factors predictive of tumor progression. The GRAFITI trial is registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR), number: NTR4714

  12. Primary solitary peritoneal tumor of the abdominal wall-report of a rare case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiadis, Christoforos; Ioannidis, Aristeidis; Kofina, Konstantinia; Grigoriou, Marios

    2017-06-01

    Abdominal wall tumors are sometimes diagnosed as metastases of ovarian cancer, however, primary peritoneal tumors should be taken into consideration in the final diagnosis. A 49-year-old female patient was admitted in our Department for the excision of a pulpable abdominal wall lump, with no other abnormalities shown on imaging investigation. On histology examination, the excised specimen revealed characteristics of metastatic high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Total hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, omentectomy and appendectomy were performed. No signs of malignancy were proved on histology, leading to the final diagnosis of a primary serous peritoneal tumor. This is the third described case of solitary primary serous peritoneal tumor located in the abdominal wall. This condition should be included in the differential diagnosis of a probable metastatic ovarian carcinoma, as both present similar histologic characteristics.

  13. Dynamic CT in the abdominal organ, 2. Dynamics in the abdominal malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, K [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-03-01

    The potential role of the abdominal dynamic CT in malignant tumors was evaluated. Among total of 112 cases dynamically studied included were, 22 cases of abdominal malignancies, renal cell carcinoma in 7, hepatocellular carcinoma in 7, metastatic liver tumor in 5, renal pelvic carcinoma in 2, and pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma in one. The results led to the following advantages of the abdominal dynamic CT over conventional CT. (1) The tumor thrombus and the lymphnode involvement could be better demonstrated. (2) The tumor vessels and the tumor stain could be depicted. (3) The extent of the tumor in the parenchyma could be better appreciated. The more invasive catheter angiography would likely to be replaced by the abdominal dynamic CT in the selected case.

  14. The correlation between internal and external markers for abdominal tumors: Implications for respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierga, David P.; Brewer, Johanna; Sharp, Gregory C.; Betke, Margrit; Willett, Christopher G.; Chen, George T.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The correlation of the respiratory motion of external patient markers and abdominal tumors was examined. Data of this type are important for image-guided therapy techniques, such as respiratory gating, that monitor the movement of external fiducials. Methods and Materials: Fluoroscopy sessions for 4 patients with internal, radiopaque tumor fiducial clips were analyzed by computer vision techniques. The motion of the internal clips and the external markers placed on the patient's abdominal skin surface were quantified and correlated. Results: In general, the motion of the tumor and external markers were well correlated. The maximum amount of peak-to-peak craniocaudal tumor motion was 2.5 cm. The ratio of tumor motion to external-marker motion ranged from 0.85 to 7.1. The variation in tumor position for a given external-marker position ranged from 2 to 9 mm. The period of the breathing cycle ranged from 2.7 to 4.5 seconds, and the frequency patterns for both the tumor and the external markers were similar. Conclusions: Although tumor motion generally correlated well with external fiducial marker motion, relatively large underlying tumor motion can occur compared with external-marker motion and variations in the tumor position for a given marker position. Treatment margins should be determined on the basis of a detailed understanding of tumor motion, as opposed to relying only on external-marker information

  15. Minimally Invasive, Organ-preserving Surgery for Large Submucosal Tumors in the Abdominal Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Eiji; Tanida, Takashi; Kamei, Aya; Takahashi, Kodai

    2017-06-01

    Surgical resection of submucosal tumors (SMTs) in the abdominal esophagus is not standardized. Enucleation may be a minimally invasive option, whereas its oncological validity is not very clear. Moreover, how to treat the esophageal wall defect after enucleation and necessity of additional antireflux procedure are also undetermined. In 13 patients with a SMT originating the abdominal esophagus laparoscopic enucleation was performed with preserving the integrity of submucosa. When the muscular layer defect was esophagus was dissected posteriorly or the myotomy was not closed. Tumors were resected en-bloc without rupture in all cases. In 5 patients myotomy was closed, whereas in the remaining 8 it was left open. In 11 patients fundoplication was added (Toupet in 5 and Dor in 6). The patients developed neither regurgitation nor stenosis postoperatively. The histopathologic findings revealed leiomyoma in 9 patients, whereas the other 4 were miscellaneous. The average tumor size was 5.5 cm (range, 2.8 to 8.8). Microscopically surgical margin was negative in all cases. Laparoscopic enucleation of SMTs in the abdominal esophagus seems to be safe, reproducible operation enabling preservation of function of the lower esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Even when the muscular defect is not approximated additional fundoplication can minimize the risk of postoperative reflux disease.

  16. Primary solitary peritoneal tumor of the abdominal wall—report of a rare case and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiadis, Christoforos; Ioannidis, Aristeidis; Grigoriou, Marios

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Abdominal wall tumors are sometimes diagnosed as metastases of ovarian cancer, however, primary peritoneal tumors should be taken into consideration in the final diagnosis. A 49-year-old female patient was admitted in our Department for the excision of a pulpable abdominal wall lump, with no other abnormalities shown on imaging investigation. On histology examination, the excised specimen revealed characteristics of metastatic high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Total hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, omentectomy and appendectomy were performed. No signs of malignancy were proved on histology, leading to the final diagnosis of a primary serous peritoneal tumor. This is the third described case of solitary primary serous peritoneal tumor located in the abdominal wall. This condition should be included in the differential diagnosis of a probable metastatic ovarian carcinoma, as both present similar histologic characteristics. PMID:28616156

  17. Cesarean section after abdominal mesh repair for pregnancy-related desmoid tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sara Ooi, Harry Ngo Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, NSW, Australia Abstract: We report the case of a 32-year-old gravida 2 para 1 woman with a background of partially resected desmoid tumor (DT arising from the previous cesarean section (CS scar. This case details the management of her DT by surgical resection and mesh repair and second pregnancy following this. Pregnancy-related DTs are a relatively rare entity, and there is a paucity of literature regarding their management during pregnancy. There are only five reported cases of DTs arising from CS scars. To our knowledge, this is the only report to illustrate that subsequent CS is possible after desmoid resection and abdominal mesh repair. It provides evidence that CS can be safely accomplished following abdominal wall reconstructions and further arguments against elective lower segment CS. Keywords: abdominal wall, cesarean section, complications, desmoid tumor, surgical mesh

  18. Imaging modalities of abdominal tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reither, M.

    1993-01-01

    Further technological progress in cross-sectional imaging modalities, accumuting experience with increasingly refined hardware and software and accumulating specific contrast media allow new algorithms for the assessment of abdominal tumors in children. However, ultrasound remains the diagnostic method of choice: Conventional roentgenology with or without contrast media is decreasing, but often reveals further differential diagnostic details. MRI is becoming more prominent and is often performed immediately after ultrasound. The inauguration of gradient echo sequences and consequent shorter examination times combined with the elimination of pulsation and motion artefacts extends the diagnostic spectrum of the upper and middle abdomen. The application of oral or rectal contrast agents for imaging of the GI tract ameliorates the differentiation of pathologic processes. Recently volumetric CT/ultrafast CT has been gaining in importance for abdominal examinations in the pediatric age group. CT especially is helpful if there are bony structures in the region being examined. CT, however, involves ionizing radiation and timely administration of oral and intravenous contrast material. Moreover, as pediatric radiologists, we must strongly withstand tendencies to perform CT more often because it is less expensive, rather than avoiding ionizing radiation by using MRI. (orig.) [de

  19. Safty and acute toxicities of intraoperative electron radiotherapy for patients with abdominal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Yirui; Feng Qinfu; Li Minghui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety and acute toxicities of intraoperative electron radiotherapy for patients with abdominal tumors. Methods: From May 2008 to August 2009, 52 patients with abdominal tumors were treated with intraoperative electron radiotherapy, including 14 patients with breast cancer,19 with pancreatic cancer, 3 with cervical cancer, 4 with ovarian cancer, 6 with sarcoma, and 6 with other tumors. Fifteen patients were with recurrent tumors. The intraoperative radiotherapy was performed using Mobetron mobile electron accelerator, with total dose of 9 - 18 Gy. In all, 29, 4 and 19 patients received complete resection, palliative resection and surgical exploration, respectively. The complications during the operations and within 6 months after operations were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 (CTC 3.0). Results: The median duration of surgery was 190 minutes. Intraoperative complications were observed in 5 patients, including 3 with hemorrhage, 1 with hypotension,and 1 with hypoxaemia, all of which were treated conservatively. The median hospitalization time and time to take out stitches was 12 and 13 days, respectively. And the in-hospital mortality was 4% (2/52). Twenty-four patients suffered post-operative adverse events, including 3 postoperative infections. With a median follow-up time of 183 days, 20% of patients suffered from grade 3 to 5 adverse events, with hematological toxicities being the most common complication, followed by bellyache. Grade 1 and 2 toxicities which were definitely associated with intraoperative radiotherapy was 28% and 4%, respectively. None of grade 3 to 5 complications were proved to be caused by intraoperative radiotherapy. Conclusions: Intraoperative electron radiotherapy is well tolerable and could be widely used for patients with abdominal tumors, with a little longer time to take out stitches but without more morbidities and toxicities compared surgery alone. (authors)

  20. [Establishment of EL4 tumor-bearing mouse models and investigation on immunological mechanisms of anti-tumor effect of melphalan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-lin; Li, Chuan-gang; Shu, Xiao-hong; Jia, Yu-jie; Qin, Zhi-hai

    2006-03-01

    To establish mouse lymphoma EL4 tumor-bearing mouse models in wild type C57BL/6 mice and nude C57BL/6 mice respectively, and to further investigate the immunological mechanisms of anti-tumor effect of melphalan. Mouse lymphoma EL4 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into wild type C57BL/6 mice (immune-competent mice). Twelve days later, melphalan of different doses were administered intraperitoneally to treat these wild type C57BL/6 tuomr-bearing mice. Tumor sizes were observed and recorded subsequently to find out the minimal dose of melphalan that could cure the tuomr-bearing mice. Then the same amount of EL4 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously into wild type C57BL/6 mice and nude C57BL/6 mice (T cell-deficient mice) simultaneously, which had the same genetic background of C57BL/6. Twelve days later, melphalan of the minimal dose was given intraperitoneally to treat both the wild type and nude C57BL/6 tuomr-bearing mice. Tumor sizes were observed and recorded in these two different types of mice subsequently. A single dose of melphalan (7.5 mg/kg) could cure EL4 tumor-bearing wild type C57BL/6 mice, but could not induce tumor regression in EL4 tumor-bearing nude C57BL/6 mice. A single dose of melphalan has obvious anti-tumor effect on mouse lymphoma EL4 tumor-bearing wild type C57BL/6mice, which requires the involvement of T lymphocytes in the host probably related to their killing functions.

  1. Removal of an intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor by repetitive debulking surgery: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMAZAKI, JIRO; MOTOHASHI, GYO; NISHIDA, KIYOTAKA; TABUCHI, TAKANOBU; UBUKATA, HIDEYUKI; TABUCHI, TAKAFUMI

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, a case of recurrent desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is presented, which was successfully treated by repetitive debulking surgery. In May 2010, a 39-year-old male, with a history of surgical resection of intra-abdominal DSRCT, visited the Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo Medical University Hospital (Ami, Japan) with severe lower abdominal discomfort. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large tumor in the pouch of Douglas with a small number of nodules in the...

  2. Primary solitary peritoneal tumor of the abdominal wall?report of a rare case and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Efthimiadis, Christoforos; Ioannidis, Aristeidis; Kofina, Konstantinia; Grigoriou, Marios

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Abdominal wall tumors are sometimes diagnosed as metastases of ovarian cancer, however, primary peritoneal tumors should be taken into consideration in the final diagnosis. A 49-year-old female patient was admitted in our Department for the excision of a pulpable abdominal wall lump, with no other abnormalities shown on imaging investigation. On histology examination, the excised specimen revealed characteristics of metastatic high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Total hysterectomy, ...

  3. Withaferin A Suppresses Liver Tumor Growth in a Nude Mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of withaferin A on tumor growth and metastasis in liver in a nude mouse model. Methods: Withaferin A was injected through a portal vein to the orthotopic liver tumor in a nude mice model. Xenogen in vivo imaging system was used to monitor tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of ...

  4. Early experience with percutaneous cryoablation of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujak, Jennifer L.; Liu, Patrick T. [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Johnson, Geoffrey B.; Callstrom, Matthew R. [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are all accepted as standard treatments for extra-abdominal desmoid (EAD) tumors, but their effectiveness has been limited by frequent local recurrence. The purpose of this article is to describe our early experiences with using percutaneous cryoablation for local control of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors in five patients whose tumors had failed to respond to standard therapy. In a retrospective search of our institution's radiology database for patients who had undergone percutaneous cryoablation for treatment of EAD tumors between June 2004 and July 2007, we identified five patients (three female and two male). No patients were excluded from this review. Three of these patients had been referred for cryoablation for local tumor control, and two had been referred for palliation of inoperable tumors. The age range of the patients at the time of cryoablation was 9-41 years. The treated EAD tumors were located in the neck, shoulders and trunk and ranged in size from 3.0 cm to 10.0 cm. Medical records were reviewed for short-term and long-term follow-up, and patients were contacted for additional follow-up. Patients were asked to rate their pain as absent, mild, moderate or severe, and to compare it with their levels before cryoablation, describing it as improved, unchanged or worsened. Radiology records were reviewed to follow the size of the EAD tumors before and after cryotherapy. For the three patients referred for local control of EAD tumors, complete tumor coverage with the ablation zones was achieved. Two of these patients, with masses 3.0 cm and 4.9 cm in diameter, reported complete absence of pain at both short-term and long-term follow-up at 13 months and 49 months. Their tumors had completely resolved on long-term imaging follow-up at 19 months and 43 months. The third patient, with a 6.1 cm mass, reported improved mild pain at 6 months, and imaging showed a moderate decrease of tumor size. For the

  5. Analysis of the utility of imaging in autopsied patients with abdominal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Mitsuo

    1983-01-01

    The utility of imaging was studied in 10 autopsy cases of abdominal tumor. Examinations strictly concurred with autopsy findings, in 83 (65.9%) of 126 procedures, and they were useful for the process of clinical diagnosis in 106 (74.1%) : 100% for CT, 87.5% and 12.5% for angiography, 80.0% and 20.0% for oral GI sereis, 50% and 36.4% for RI scan, 68.4% and 10.5% for chest X-P and 50.0% and 24.9% for abdominal X-P, respectively. Utility was not so much related to relative difficulty or complexity of diagnostic process. (Chiba, N.)

  6. Volumetric determination of tumor size abdominal masses. Problems -feasabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, H.; Bautz, W.; Sendler, A.; Fink, U.; Gerhardt, P.

    1995-01-01

    The most important indication for clinically reliable volumetric determination of tumor size in the abdominal region is monitoring liver metastases during chemotherapy. Determination of volume can be effectively realized using 3D reconstruction. Therefore, the primary data set must be complete and contiguous. The mass should be depicted strongly enhanced and free of artifacts. At present, this prerequisite can only be complied with using thin-slice spiral CT. Phantom studies have proven that a semiautomatic reconstruction algorithm is recommendable. The basic difficulties involved in volumetric determination of tumor size are the problems in differentiating active malignant mass and changes in the surrounding tissue, as well as the lack of histomorphological correlation. Possible indications for volumetry of gastrointestinal masses in the assessment of neoadjuvant therapeutic concepts are under scientific evaluation. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Intraoperative Spillage of Favorable Histology Wilms Tumor Cells: Influence of Irradiation and Chemotherapy Regimens on Abdominal Recurrence. A Report From the National Wilms Tumor Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Li, Sierra M.; Breslow, Norman E.; Beckwith, J. Bruce; Ritchey, Michael L.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Haase, Gerald M.; Thomas, Patrick R.M.; Grundy, Paul; Green, Daniel M.; D'Angio, Giulio J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We undertook this study to determine (1) the frequency with which spilled tumor cells of favorable histology produced intra-abdominal disease in patients treated with differing chemotherapy regimens and abdominal radiation therapy (RT) and (2) the patterns of relapse and outcomes in such patients. Methods and Materials: The influence of RT dose (0, 10, and 20 Gy), RT fields (flank, whole abdomen), and chemotherapy with dactinomycin and vincristine (2 drugs) vs. added doxorubicin (three drugs) on intra-abdominal tumor recurrence rates was analyzed by logistic regression in 450 patients. Each patient was considered at risk for two types of failure: flank and subdiaphragmatic beyond-flank recurrence, with the correlation between the two outcomes accounted for in the analyses. Results: The crude odds ratio for the risk of recurrence relative to no RT was 0.35 (0.15-0.78) for 10Gy and 0.08 (0.01-0.58) for 20Gy. The odds ratio for the risk of recurrence for doxorubicin to two drugs after adjusting for RT was not significant. For Stage II patients (NWTS-4), the 8-year event rates with and without spillage, respectively, were 79% and 87% for relapse-free survival (p = 0.07) and 90% and 95% for overall survival (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Irradiation (10 Gy or 20 Gy) reduced abdominal tumor recurrence rates after tumor spillage. Tumor spillage in Stage II patients reduced relapse-free survival and overall survival, but only the latter was of statistical significance. These data provide a basis for assessing the risks vs. benefits when considering treatment for children with favorable histology Wilms tumor and surgical spillage.

  8. Effects of Low Intensity Continuous Ultrasound (LICU on Mouse Pancreatic Tumor Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Bazou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effects of low intensity continuous ultrasound (LICU on the inflammatory response of mouse pancreatic tumor explants. While there are many reports focusing on the application of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS on cell cultures and tissues, the effects of continuous oscillations on biological tissues have never been investigated. Here we present an exploratory study of the effects induced by LICU on mouse pancreatic tumor explants. We show that LICU causes significant upregulation of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α on tumor explants. No detectable effects were observed on tumor vasculature or collagen I deposition, while thermal and mechanical effects were not apparent. Tumor explants responded as a single unit to acoustic waves, with spatial pressure variations smaller than their size.

  9. Chronic ionizing radiation exposure as a tumor promoter in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Trivedi, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have tested a chronic exposure to 90 Y beta-radiation as a tumor promoter in mouse skin previously exposed to a chemical tumor initiator. Three different tests of radiation as a stage I tumor promoter, in skin subsequently given chemical stage II promotion, all indicated that the beta-radiation acted as a weak stage I skin tumor promoter. It showed no action as either a stage II or complete tumor promoter. (author)

  10. Rex3 (reduced in expression 3) as a new tumor marker in mouse hepatocarcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuning, Albert; Jaworski, Maike; Schwarz, Michael; Koehle, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    In a previous microarray expression analysis, Rex3, a gene formerly not linked to tumor formation, was found to be highly overexpressed in both Ctnnb1-(β-Catenin) and Ha-ras-mutated mouse liver tumors. Subsequent analyses by in situ hybridization and real-time PCR confirmed a general liver tumor-specific overexpression of the gene (up to 400-fold). To investigate the role of Rex3 in liver tumors, hepatoma cells were transfected with FLAG- and Myc-tagged Rex3 expression vectors. Rex3 was shown to be exclusively localized to the cytoplasm, as determined by fluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. However, forced overexpression of Rex3 did not significantly affect proliferation or stress-induced apoptosis of transfected mouse hepatoma cells. Rex3 mRNA was determined in primary hepatocytes in culture by real-time PCR. In primary mouse hepatocytes, expression of Rex3 increased while cells dedifferentiated in culture. This effect was abolished when hepatocytes were maintained in a differentiated state. Furthermore, expression of Rex3 decreased in mouse liver with age of mice and the expression profile was highly correlated to that of the tumor markers α-fetoprotein and H19. The findings suggest a role of Rex3 as a marker for hepatocyte differentiation/dedifferentiation processes and tumor formation

  11. Tumor desmoplásico de pequenas células redondas abdominal da infância: relato de caso Abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor of childhood: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses dos Santos Torres

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O tumor desmoplásico de pequenas células redondas (TDPCR é uma neoplasia rara e altamente agressiva, que afeta predominantemente jovens do sexo masculino. Relata-se um caso de TDPCR em um paciente do sexo masculino, de 11 anos, com acometimento intra-abdominal marcado por volumosa massa retroperitoneal em hipocôndrio esquerdo. O estudo histológico da massa revelou presença de blocos de pequenas células tumorais redondas e azuis, envoltas por estroma desmoplásico; a análise imuno-histoquímica evidenciou positividade para desmina, WT-1 e citoceratinas. Após o diagnóstico, o paciente foi submetido a tratamento quimiorradioterápico, tendo evoluído a óbito durante o 24º mês de acompanhamento.Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm, which predominantly affects young males. We report a case of DSRCT affecting an 11-year-old male patient, with intra-abdominal involvement characterized by a large retroperitoneal mass in left hypochondrium. Histological examination of the mass showed the presence of clusters of small blue round tumor cells surrounded by a dense desmoplastic stroma. Immunohistochemical analysis disclosed a positive reaction to desmin, WT-1 and cytokeratins. After diagnosis, the patient underwent chemo radiotherapy treatment, but died at the 24th month of follow-up.

  12. Late orthopedic effects in children with Wilms' tumor treated with abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rate, W.R.; Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; D'Angio, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1984, 31 children with biopsy-proven Wilms' tumor received nephrectomy, chemotherapy, and abdominal irradiation and were followed beyond skeletal maturity. Three patients (10%) developed late orthopedic abnormalities requiring intervention. Ten children received orthovoltage irradiation, and all cases requiring orthopedic intervention or developing a scoliotic curve of greater than 20 degrees were confined to this group, for a complication frequency of 50%. Those children who developed a significant late orthopedic abnormality (SLOA) as defined were treated to a higher median dose (2,890 cGy) and a larger field size (150 cm2) than those who did not (2,580 cGy and 120 cm2). Age at irradiation, sex, and initial stage of disease did not appear to influence the risk of developing an SLOA. No child who received megavoltage irradiation developed an SLOA despite treatment up to 4,000 cGy or to field sizes of 400 cm2. We conclude that modern radiotherapy techniques rarely lead to significant late orthopedic abnormalities previously associated with abdominal irradiation in children with Wilms' tumor

  13. Removal of an intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor by repetitive debulking surgery: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Jiro; Motohashi, Gyo; Nishida, Kiyotaka; Tabuchi, Takanobu; Ubukata, Hideyuki; Tabuchi, Takafumi

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, a case of recurrent desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is presented, which was successfully treated by repetitive debulking surgery. In May 2010, a 39-year-old male, with a history of surgical resection of intra-abdominal DSRCT, visited the Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo Medical University Hospital (Ami, Japan) with severe lower abdominal discomfort. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large tumor in the pouch of Douglas with a small number of nodules in the abdominal cavity. The recurrent DSRCT was diagnosed and removed via lower anterior resection; however, complete resection was impossible due to multiple peritoneal metastases. One year later, the patient developed pain in the right groin due to the growth of metastasized tumor cells in the groin lymph nodes. The affected lymph nodes were removed utilizing an extra-peritoneal approach. At the time of writing, the patient continues to survive without any symptoms 60 months since the initial surgery. In conclusion, surgical debulking is a significant procedure for relieving patient symptoms as well as improving the survival time of patients with metastatic and recurrent DSRCT.

  14. ¹H MRS characterization of neurochemical profiles in orthotopic mouse models of human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Keith M; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Banerjee, Abhishek; Soesbe, Todd C; Spence, Jeffrey S; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Maher, Elizabeth A; Bachoo, Robert M; Choi, Changho

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor, is resistant to currently available treatments. The development of mouse models of human GBM has provided a tool for studying mechanisms involved in tumor initiation and growth as well as a platform for preclinical investigation of new drugs. In this study we used (1) H MR spectroscopy to study the neurochemical profile of a human orthotopic tumor (HOT) mouse model of human GBM. The goal of this study was to evaluate differences in metabolite concentrations in the GBM HOT mice when compared with normal mouse brain in order to determine if MRS could reliably differentiate tumor from normal brain. A TE =19 ms PRESS sequence at 9.4 T was used for measuring metabolite levels in 12 GBM mice and 8 healthy mice. Levels for 12 metabolites and for lipids/macromolecules at 0.9 ppm and at 1.3 ppm were reliably detected in all mouse spectra. The tumors had significantly lower concentrations of total creatine, GABA, glutamate, total N-acetylaspartate, aspartate, lipids/macromolecules at 0.9 ppm, and lipids/macromolecules at 1.3 ppm than did the brains of normal mice. The concentrations of glycine and lactate, however, were significantly higher in tumors than in normal brain. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Kilovoltage Imaging of Implanted Fiducials to Monitor Intrafraction Motion With Abdominal Compression During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorke, Ellen, E-mail: yorke@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Xiong, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Han, Qian [Department of Radiotherapy, Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou (China); Zhang, Pengpeng; Mageras, Gikas; Lovelock, Michael; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during SBRT for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5- to 6-second intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for 3 sessions for each patient. Results: Intrafraction displacement patterns varied between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm, and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single-session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume differed from planned by an average of −1.2% (range, −11.1% to 4.8%) but only for 4 patients was the total 3-session calculated dose to 95% of gross tumor volume more than 3% different from planned. Conclusions: Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable.

  16. Kilovoltage Imaging of Implanted Fiducials to Monitor Intrafraction Motion With Abdominal Compression During Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Gastrointestinal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorke, Ellen; Xiong, Ying; Han, Qian; Zhang, Pengpeng; Mageras, Gikas; Lovelock, Michael; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess intrafraction respiratory motion using a commercial kilovoltage imaging system for abdominal tumor patients with implanted fiducials and breathing constrained by pneumatic compression during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A pneumatic compression belt limited respiratory motion in 19 patients with radiopaque fiducials in or near their tumor during SBRT for abdominal tumors. Kilovoltage images were acquired at 5- to 6-second intervals during treatment using a commercial system. Intrafractional fiducial displacements were measured using in-house software. The dosimetric effect of the observed displacements was calculated for 3 sessions for each patient. Results: Intrafraction displacement patterns varied between patients and between individual treatment sessions. Averaged over 19 patients, 73 sessions, 7.6% of craniocaudal displacements exceeded 0.5 cm, and 1.2% exceeded 0.75 cm. The calculated single-session dose to 95% of gross tumor volume differed from planned by an average of −1.2% (range, −11.1% to 4.8%) but only for 4 patients was the total 3-session calculated dose to 95% of gross tumor volume more than 3% different from planned. Conclusions: Our pneumatic compression limited intrafractional abdominal target motion, maintained target position established at setup, and was moderately effective in preserving coverage. Commercially available intrafractional imaging is useful for surveillance but can be made more effective and reliable.

  17. Application of Benchtop-magnetic resonance imaging in a nude mouse tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäder Karsten

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MRI plays a key role in the preclinical development of new drugs, diagnostics and their delivery systems. However, very high installation and running costs of existing superconducting MRI machines limit the spread of MRI. The new method of Benchtop-MRI (BT-MRI has the potential to overcome this limitation due to much lower installation and almost no running costs. However, due to the low field strength and decreased magnet homogeneity it is questionable, whether BT-MRI can achieve sufficient image quality to provide useful information for preclinical in vivo studies. It was the aim of the current study to explore the potential of BT-MRI on tumor models in mice. Methods We used a prototype of an in vivo BT-MRI apparatus to visualise organs and tumors and to analyse tumor progression in nude mouse xenograft models of human testicular germ cell tumor and colon carcinoma. Results Subcutaneous xenografts were easily identified as relative hypointense areas in transaxial slices of NMR images. Monitoring of tumor progression evaluated by pixel extension analyses based on NMR images correlated with increasing tumor volume calculated by calliper measurement. Gd-BOPTA contrast agent injection resulted in a better differentiation between parts of the urinary tissues and organs due to fast elimination of the agent via kidneys. In addition, interior structuring of tumors could be observed. A strong contrast enhancement within a tumor was associated with a central necrotic/fibrotic area. Conclusions BT-MRI provides satisfactory image quality to visualize organs and tumors and to monitor tumor progression and structure in mouse models.

  18. Novel mouse model for simulating microsurgical tumor excision with facial nerve preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae H; Boyle, Glen M; Panizza, Benedict

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using a mouse tumor model as a microsurgical training tool for otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) trainees. Animal study. We injected athymic nude mice with human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (A431 cell line) deep to the parotid region overlying the masseter muscle. We sacrificed the animals 1 to 3 weeks postinjection, once a visible tumor growth was confirmed. We then asked 10 OHNS trainees to excise the tumor with preservation of the facial nerves under a high-magnification dissecting microscope. The trainees graded the tasks in several areas of specific measures using a visual analogue scale (VAS) including 1) tumor texture, 2) surgical realism, 3) usefulness, and 4) difficulty of the task. Noticeable tumor growth occurred within 5 days following A431 cell injection and reached measureable size (0.5-1.5 cm) within 1 to 3 weeks. The tumor displaced the facial nerve laterally and medially, with few demonstrating infiltration of the nerve. VAS scores (± standard deviation) were 8.1 (± 1.7), 7.7 (± 2.5), 9.0 (± 0.9) and 6.6 (± 1.9) for tumor texture, surgical realism, usefulness, and the difficulty of the task, respectively. We demonstrate a novel, reliable and cost-effective mouse model for simulating tumor extirpation microsurgery with preservation of important neural structures. OHNS trainees have found this simulation model to be realistic, useful, and appropriately challenging. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Investigation of the effects of long-term infusion of 125I-iododeoxyuridine on tumor growth in mice (solid mouse tumor sarcoma-180)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, F.

    1987-05-01

    The present experiments were designed to test the therapeutic qualification of 125 I incorporated in DNA of tumor cells. The tumor-host system used was the solid mouse tumor sarcoma-180 growing on female albino mice (NMRI). A device was built which makes it possible to intravenously infuse tumor bearing mice with solutions of 125 IUdR for several weeks. Three or, respectively, 5 days before the onset of the infusions the mice were inocculated into the right hind leg with 3x10 5 tumor cells in 0.1 ml physiological salt solution. The total activity administered per mouse was 100 μCi infused during a period of 10 days. After termination of the infusions tumor sizes and retained radioactivities were measured every 5 days until death of the animals occured. In comparison with tumors of control animals tumors of mice infused with 125 IUdR showed a mean retardation in growth of about 27% of the volumes of control tumors during the total period of post-infusion observation (25 days). Extension of life expectancy and an increase of the rate of final tumor regression did not occur. Likewise, no significant differences were observed between tumors which were 3 or 5 days old on the first day of infusion. After termination of the infusions the residual whole-body radioactivity per mouse was about 1% of the total activity infused per animal. This was in good agreement with calculations considering rates of incorporation and excretion and confirmed earlier assumptions that only about 5% of the administered IUdR is incorporated initially. The number further confirmed that, during the first 10 days after incorporation, the daily loss of activity - due to cell death - is about 30%. Control animals without tumors showed a faster decrease of incorporated activity or, respectively, loss of cells than tumor bearing mice. This difference could in part be explained by an exhaution of the short-lived cell populations of the reticulo-endothelial system of tumor bearing animals. (orig

  20. Monitoring Prostate Tumor Growth in an Orthotopic Mouse Model Using Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the most commonly diagnosed and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males in USA. Prostate orthotopic mouse model has been widely used to study human CaP in preclinical settings. Measurement of changes in tumor size obtained from noninvasive diagnostic images is a standard method for monitoring responses to anticancer modalities. This article reports for the first time the usage of a three-dimensional (3D ultrasound system equipped with photoacoustic (PA imaging in monitoring longitudinal prostate tumor growth in a PC-3 orthotopic NODSCID mouse model (n = 8. Two-dimensional and 3D modes of ultrasound show great ability in accurately depicting the size and shape of prostate tumors. PA function on two-dimensional and 3D images showed average oxygen saturation and average hemoglobin concentration of the tumor. Results showed a good fit in representative exponential tumor growth curves (n = 3; r2 = 0.948, 0.955, and 0.953, respectively and a good correlation of tumor volume measurements performed in vivo with autopsy (n = 8, r = 0.95, P < .001. The application of 3D ultrasound imaging proved to be a useful imaging modality in monitoring tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model, with advantages such as high contrast, uncomplicated protocols, economical equipment, and nonharmfulness to animals. PA mode also enabled display of blood oxygenation surrounding the tumor and tumor vasculature and angiogenesis, making 3D ultrasound imaging an ideal tool for preclinical cancer research.

  1. Cesarean section after abdominal mesh repair for pregnancy-related desmoid tumor: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Sara; Ngo, Harry

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old gravida 2 para 1 woman with a background of partially resected desmoid tumor (DT) arising from the previous cesarean section (CS) scar. This case details the management of her DT by surgical resection and mesh repair and second pregnancy following this. Pregnancy-related DTs are a relatively rare entity, and there is a paucity of literature regarding their management during pregnancy. There are only five reported cases of DTs arising from CS scars. To our knowledge, this is the only report to illustrate that subsequent CS is possible after desmoid resection and abdominal mesh repair. It provides evidence that CS can be safely accomplished following abdominal wall reconstructions and further arguments against elective lower segment CS.

  2. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-ECTOPIC SPLEEN MIMICKING HEPATIC TUMOR WITH INTRA-ABDOMINAL METASTASES INVESTIGATED VIA TRIPLE-PHASE HELICAL COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN A DOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutara, Kenji; Konno, Toshiaki; Kondo, Hirotaka; Aoki, Kotoyo; Yamazoe, Hinako; Matsunaga, Satoru

    2017-05-01

    A 10-year-old castrated male miniature dachshund was presented with an abdominal mass. The dog had a history of splenectomy. Triple-phase helical computed tomography was utilized, revealing a hepatic mass and multiple intra-abdominal solid masses. In triple-phase helical computed tomography the images, hepatic mass and two of four intra-abdominal masses were heterogenous in all phases. Therefore, we diagnosed a malignant hepatic tumor and presumed intra-abdominal metastases. The masses were surgically removed and were histologically composed of normal spleen tissues, findings which were consistent with ectopic spleen. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Examination of Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Integrity In A Mouse Brain Tumor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Ngoc; Mitchell, Ryan; Savant, Sanjot D.; Bachmeier, Corbin. J.; Hatch, Grant M.; Miller, Donald W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates, both functionally and biochemically, brain tumor-induced alterations in brain capillary endothelial cells. Brain tumors were induced in Balb/c mice via intracranial injection of Lewis Lung carcinoma (3LL) cells into the right hemisphere of the mouse brain using stereotaxic apparatus. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was assessed at various stages of tumor development, using both radiolabeled tracer permeability and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate contrast enhancement (Gad-DTPA). The expression of the drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in the BBB at various stages of tumor development was also evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Median mouse survival following tumor cell injection was 17 days. The permeability of the BBB to 3H-mannitol was similar in both brain hemispheres at 7 and 10 days post-injection. By day 15, there was a 2-fold increase in 3H-mannitol permeability in the tumor bearing hemispheres compared to the non-tumor hemispheres. Examination of BBB permeability with Gad-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI indicated cerebral vascular permeability changes were confined to the tumor area. The permeability increase observed at the later stages of tumor development correlated with an increase in cerebral vascular volume suggesting angiogenesis within the tumor bearing hemisphere. Furthermore, the Gad-DPTA enhancement observed within the tumor area was significantly less than Gad-DPTA enhancement within the circumventricular organs not protected by the BBB. Expression of P-gp in both the tumor bearing and non-tumor bearing portions of the brain appeared similar at all time points examined. These studies suggest that although BBB integrity is altered within the tumor site at later stages of development, the BBB is still functional and limiting in terms of solute and drug permeability in and around the tumor. PMID:23184143

  4. Anesthetic drugs accelerate the progression of postoperative metastases of mouse tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, J; Jersky, J; Katzav, S; Feldman, M; Segal, S

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were made to investigate the effect of four anesthetic drugs that are commonly used in surgical practice on the postoperative growth of mouse tumors in syngeneic recipients. These experiments revealed that some of the anesthetics when applied for surgical excision of the local tumor, strongly accelerated postoperative progression of spontaneous lung metastases produced by the 3LL Lewis lung carcinoma and by the B16 melanoma. Some of the drugs caused the appearance of metastases in...

  5. [Study of the immunological mechanism of anti-tumor effects of 5-FU by establishing EL4 tumor-bearing mouse models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-Lin; Li, Chuan-Gang; Shu, Xiao-Hong; Li, Ming-Xia; Jia, Yu-Jie; Qin, Zhi-Hai

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the immunological mechanism of anti-tumor effect of 5-FU by establishing lymphoma EL4 tumor-bearing mouse models in wild type C57BL/6 mice and nude C57BL/6 mice, respectively. The mouse lymphoma EL4 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into wild type C57BL/6 mice (immune-competent mice). Twelve days later, 5-FU of different doses was administered intraperitoneally to treat these wild type C57BL/6 tumor-bearing mice. The size of tumors in the wild type C57BL/6 mice was observed and recorded to explore the minimal dose of 5-FU that could cure the tumor-bearing mice. Then the same amount of EL4 tumor cells was inoculated subcutaneously into wild type C57BL/6 mice and nude C57BL/6 mice (T cell-deficient mice) simultaneously, which had the same genetic background of C57BL/6. Twelve days later, 5-FU of the minimal dose was given intraperitoneally to treat both the wild type and nude C57BL/6 tumor-bearing mice. The size of tumors in the two different types of mice was observed and recorded. A single dose of 5-FU (75 mg/kg) cured both the EL4 tumor-bearing wild type C57BL/6 mice and the EL4 tumor-bearing nude C57BL/6 mice in the first week. Two weeks after 5-FU treatment, all of the nude mice died of tumor relapse while most of the wild type C57BL/6 mice were fully recovered. A single dose of 5-FU has marked anti-tumor effects on lymphoma EL4 tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice with or without T lymphocytes. The relapse of tumors after 5-FU treatment might be related to the function of T lymphocytes.

  6. SU-G-BRA-07: An Innovative Fiducial-Less Tracking Method for Radiation Treatment of Abdominal Tumors by Diaphragm Disparity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, D; Zhao, W [University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida (United States); Wu, X [Biophysics Research Institute of America, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of tracking abdominal tumors without the use of gold fiducial markers Methods: In this simulation study, an abdominal 4DCT dataset, acquired previously and containing 8 phases of the breathing cycle, was used as the testing data. Two sets of DRR images (45 and 135 degrees) were generated for each phase. Three anatomical points along the lung-diaphragm interface on each of the Digital Reconstructed Radiograph(DRR) images were identified by cross-correlation. The gallbladder, which simulates the tumor, was contoured for each phase of the breathing cycle and the corresponding centroid values serve as the measured center of the tumor. A linear model was created to correlate the diaphragm’s disparity of the three identified anatomical points with the center of the tumor. To verify the established linear model, we sequentially removed one phase of the data (i.e., 3 anatomical points and the corresponding tumor center) and created new linear models with the remaining 7 phases. Then we substituted the eliminated phase data (disparities of the 3 anatomical points) into the corresponding model to compare model-generated tumor center and the measured tumor center. Results: The maximum difference between the modeled and the measured centroid values across the 8 phases were 0.72, 0.29 and 0.30 pixels in the x, y and z directions respectively, which yielded a maximum mean-squared-error value of 0.75 pixels. The outcomes of the verification process, by eliminating each phase, produced mean-squared-errors ranging from 0.41 to 1.28 pixels. Conclusion: Gold fiducial markers, requiring surgical procedures to be implanted, are conventionally used in radiation therapy. The present work shows the feasibility of a fiducial-less tracking method for localizing abdominal tumors. Through developed diaphragm disparity analysis, the established linear model was verified with clinically accepted errors. The tracking method in real time under different

  7. A human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 for tumor radioimmunoimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Miyuki; Hinoda, Yuji; Sasaki, Shigeru; Tsujisaki, Masayuki; Imai, Kohzoh; Oriuchi, Noboru; Endo, Keigo.

    1996-01-01

    A mouse-human chimeric antibody for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was established by using heavy chain loss mouse mutant hybridoma and human immunoglobulin expression vector. The HA58 hybridoma secreted anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) (IgG1,κ). The gene of the mouse variable region of heavy chain was amplified and cloned by the polymerase chain reaction technique directly from the HA58 hybridoma RNA. The variable region of heavy chain was joined with an expression vector which contains human γ1 constant gene. The expression vector was transfected into heavy chain loss mutant cells HA58-7, which produced only murine immunoglobulin light chains. The resultant chimeric MoAb HA58, chHA58, retained full-binding reactivity to ICAM-1 compared with murine HA58 parental antibody. The chimeric MoAb chHA58 showed little antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxic activity against cultured tumor cells. Biodistribution studies with 99m Tc-labeled chHA58 in nude mice bearing human gastric carcinoma JRST cells, demonstrated that the tumor-blood ratio was 1.55 at 18 h after injection, when the tumors were clearly visible in gamma scintigraphy. These data suggest that chHA58 may be of practical use for radioimmunoimaging of a wide variety of tumors. (author)

  8. The Use of Tensor Fascia Lata Pedicled Flap in Reconstructing Full Thickness Abdominal Wall Defects and Groin Defects Following Tumor Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifaat, M.A.; Abdel Gawad, W.S.

    2005-01-01

    The tensor fascia lata is a versatile flap with many uses in reconstructive plastic surgery. As a pedicled flap its reach to the lower abdomen and groin made it an attractive option for reconstructing soft tissue defects after tumor ablation. However, debate exists on the safe dimension of the flap, as distal tip necrosis is common. Also, the adequacy of the fascia lata as a sole substitute for abdominal wall muscles has been disputable. The aim of the current study is to report our experience and clinical observations with this flap in reconstructing those challenging defects and to discuss the possible options to minimize the latter disputable issues. Patients and Methods: From April 2001 to April 2004, 12 pedicled TFL flaps were used to reconstruct 5 central abdominal wall full thickness defects and 6 groin soft tissue defects following tumor resection. ]n one case, bilateral flaps were used to reconstruct a large central abdominal wall defect. There were 4 males and 7 females. Their age ranged from 19 to 60. From the abdominal wall defects group, all repairs were enforced primarily with a prolene mesh except for one patient who was the first in this study. Patients presenting with groin defects required coverage of exposed vessels following tumor resection. All patients in the current study underwent immediate reconstruction. The resulting soft tissue defects in this study were due to resection of 4 abdominal wall desmoid tumors, a colonic carcinoma infiltrating the abdominal wall, 4 primary groin soft developed in a flap used to cover a groin defect. In the former 3 cases, The flap was simply transposed without complete islanding of the flap. In the latter case, a very large flap was harvested beyond the safe limits with its distal edge just above the knee. In addition, wound dehiscence of the flap occurred in 2 other cases from the groin group. Nevertheless, all the wounds healed spontaneously with repeated dressings. Out of the 5 cases that underwent

  9. The Role of IL-1 signaling in a mouse model of Kawasaki Disease-associated Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Daiko; Kurashima, Yosuke; Crother, Timothy R.; Rivas, Magali Noval; Lee, Youngho; Chen, Shuang; Fury, Wen; Bai, Yu; Wagner, Shawn; Li, Debiao; Lehman, Thomas; Fishbein, Michael C.; Hoffmann, Hal; Shah, Prediman K.; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of acquired cardiac disease in US children. In addition to coronary artery abnormalities and aneurysms, it can be associated with systemic arterial aneurysms. We evaluated the development of systemic arterial dilatation and aneurysms, including abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in the Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced KD vasculitis mouse model. Methods and Results We discovered that in addition to aortitis, coronary arteritis and myocarditis, the LCWE-induced KD mouse model is also associated with abdominal aorta dilatation and AAA, as well as renal and iliac artery aneurysms. AAA induced in KD mice was exclusively infrarenal, both fusiform and saccular, with intimal proliferation, myofibroblastic proliferation, break in the elastin layer, vascular smooth muscle cell loss, and inflammatory cell accumulation in the media and adventitia. Il1r−/−, Il1a−/−, and Il1a−/− mice were protected from KD associated AAA. Infiltrating CD11c+ macrophages produced active caspase-1 and caspase-1 or NLRP3 deficiency inhibited AAA formation. Treatment with IL-1R antagonist (Anakinra), anti-IL-1α, or anti-IL-1β mAb blocked LCWE-induced AAA formation. Conclusions Similar to clinical KD, the LCWE-induced KD vasculitis mouse model can also be accompanied by AAA formation. Both IL-1α and IL-1β play a key role, and that use of an IL-1R blocking agent that inhibits both pathways may be a promising therapeutic target not only for KD coronary arteritis, but also for the other systemic arterial aneurysms including AAA that maybe seen in severe cases of KD. The LCWE-induced vasculitis model may also represent an alternative model for AAA disease. PMID:26941015

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: mouse mammary tumor virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term mouse mammary tumor virus 名詞 一般 *... * * * マウス乳癌ウイルス マウスニュウガンウイルス マウスニューガンウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906026078109489 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 mouse mammary tumor virus

  11. Genetically engineered mouse models of craniopharyngioma: an opportunity for therapy development and understanding of tumor biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, John Richard; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2017-05-01

    Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is the commonest tumor of the sellar region in childhood. Two genetically engineered mouse models have been developed and are giving valuable insights into ACP biology. These models have identified novel pathways activated in tumors, revealed an important function of paracrine signalling and extended conventional theories about the role of organ-specific stem cells in tumorigenesis. In this review, we summarize these mouse models, what has been learnt, their limitations and open questions for future research. We then discussed how these mouse models may be used to test novel therapeutics against potentially targetable pathways recently identified in human ACP. © 2017 The Authors. Brain Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Neuropathology.

  12. Tumor Size on Abdominal MRI Versus Pathologic Specimen in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Implications for Radiation Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, William A., E-mail: whall4@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Mikell, John L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Mittal, Pardeep [Department of Radiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Colbert, Lauren [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Prabhu, Roshan S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Kooby, David A. [Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Nickleach, Dana [Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Resource, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Hanley, Krisztina [Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Sarmiento, Juan M. [Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Ali, Arif N.; Landry, Jerome C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining tumor size by comparing the preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo (3-dimensional [3D] volumetric interpolated breath-hold [VIBE]) MRI tumor size with pathologic specimen size. Methods and Materials: The records of 92 patients who had both preoperative contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI images and detailed pathologic specimen measurements were available for review. Primary tumor size from the MRI was independently measured by a single diagnostic radiologist (P.M.) who was blinded to the pathology reports. Pathologic tumor measurements from gross specimens were obtained from the pathology reports. The maximum dimensions of tumor measured in any plane on the MRI and the gross specimen were compared. The median difference between the pathology sample and the MRI measurements was calculated. A paired t test was conducted to test for differences between the MRI and pathology measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the association of disparity between the MRI and pathology sizes with the pathology size. Disparities relative to pathology size were also examined and tested for significance using a 1-sample t test. Results: The median patient age was 64.5 years. The primary site was pancreatic head in 81 patients, body in 4, and tail in 7. Three patients were American Joint Commission on Cancer stage IA, 7 stage IB, 21 stage IIA, 58 stage IIB, and 3 stage III. The 3D VIBE MRI underestimated tumor size by a median difference of 4 mm (range, −34-22 mm). The median largest tumor dimensions on MRI and pathology specimen were 2.65 cm (range, 1.5-9.5 cm) and 3.2 cm (range, 1.3-10 cm), respectively. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI underestimates tumor size by 4 mm when compared with pathologic specimen. Advanced abdominal MRI sequences warrant further investigation for radiation therapy planning in pancreatic adenocarcinoma before

  13. Tumor Size on Abdominal MRI Versus Pathologic Specimen in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Implications for Radiation Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, William A.; Mikell, John L.; Mittal, Pardeep; Colbert, Lauren; Prabhu, Roshan S.; Kooby, David A.; Nickleach, Dana; Hanley, Krisztina; Sarmiento, Juan M.; Ali, Arif N.; Landry, Jerome C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining tumor size by comparing the preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo (3-dimensional [3D] volumetric interpolated breath-hold [VIBE]) MRI tumor size with pathologic specimen size. Methods and Materials: The records of 92 patients who had both preoperative contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI images and detailed pathologic specimen measurements were available for review. Primary tumor size from the MRI was independently measured by a single diagnostic radiologist (P.M.) who was blinded to the pathology reports. Pathologic tumor measurements from gross specimens were obtained from the pathology reports. The maximum dimensions of tumor measured in any plane on the MRI and the gross specimen were compared. The median difference between the pathology sample and the MRI measurements was calculated. A paired t test was conducted to test for differences between the MRI and pathology measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the association of disparity between the MRI and pathology sizes with the pathology size. Disparities relative to pathology size were also examined and tested for significance using a 1-sample t test. Results: The median patient age was 64.5 years. The primary site was pancreatic head in 81 patients, body in 4, and tail in 7. Three patients were American Joint Commission on Cancer stage IA, 7 stage IB, 21 stage IIA, 58 stage IIB, and 3 stage III. The 3D VIBE MRI underestimated tumor size by a median difference of 4 mm (range, −34-22 mm). The median largest tumor dimensions on MRI and pathology specimen were 2.65 cm (range, 1.5-9.5 cm) and 3.2 cm (range, 1.3-10 cm), respectively. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI underestimates tumor size by 4 mm when compared with pathologic specimen. Advanced abdominal MRI sequences warrant further investigation for radiation therapy planning in pancreatic adenocarcinoma before

  14. Intra-Abdominal Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor with Elevated Serum CA 125: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Fang Yang

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare and highly aggressive tumor usually involving the peritoneum. It occurs more commonly in young males and is characterized by distinctive clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic features. The histogenesis of DSRCT remains unknown. Coexpression of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neural antigens in the same cell provides evidence that DSRCT may arise from a primitive pluripotent stem cell with divergent differentiation. Recently, according to cytogenetic studies, some authors have proposed that the divergent differentiation of DSRCT may be the result of the fusion of Ewing's sarcoma gene and Wilms' tumor suppressor gene. Clinically, an elevated serum CA 125 concentration is found in some patients with DSRCT. We present the case of a 29-year-old man with diffuse intra-abdominal DSRCT and elevated serum CA 125 concentration and briefly review the relevant literature.

  15. Neutrophils responsive to endogenous IFN-beta regulate tumor angiogenesis and growth in a mouse tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Jadwiga; Leschner, Sara; Westphal, Kathrin; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried

    2010-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant neoplasias, as the formation of new blood vessels is required for tumors to acquire oxygen and nutrients essential for their continued growth and metastasis. However, the signaling pathways leading to tumor vascularization are not fully understood. Here, using a transplantable mouse tumor model, we have demonstrated that endogenous IFN-beta inhibits tumor angiogenesis through repression of genes encoding proangiogenic and homing factors in tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. We determined that IFN-beta-deficient mice injected with B16F10 melanoma or MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells developed faster-growing tumors with better-developed blood vessels than did syngeneic control mice. These tumors displayed enhanced infiltration by CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils expressing elevated levels of the genes encoding the proangiogenic factors VEGF and MMP9 and the homing receptor CXCR4. They also expressed higher levels of the transcription factors c-myc and STAT3, known regulators of VEGF, MMP9, and CXCR4. In vitro, treatment of these tumor-infiltrating neutrophils with low levels of IFN-beta restored expression of proangiogenic factors to control levels. Moreover, depletion of these neutrophils inhibited tumor growth in both control and IFN-beta-deficient mice. We therefore suggest that constitutively produced endogenous IFN-beta is an important mediator of innate tumor surveillance. Further, we believe our data help to explain the therapeutic effect of IFN treatment during the early stages of cancer development.

  16. Abdominal wall hernias: computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Rosas, George de Queiroz; Mota, Marcos Alexandre; Akisue, Sandra R. Tsukada; Galvao Filho, Mario de Melo.

    2005-01-01

    Abdominal hernias are a common clinical problem Clinical diagnosis of abdominal hernias can sometimes be challenging, particularly in obese patients or patients with previous abdominal surgery. CT scan of the abdomen allows visualization of hernias and their contents and the differentiation from other masses of the abdominal wall such as tumors, hematomas and abscesses. Moreover, CT may identify complications such as incarceration, bowel obstruction, volvulus and strangulation. This study illustrates the CT scan findings observed in different types of abdominal wall hernias. (author)

  17. Heme synthesis in normal mouse liver and mouse liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic cancers from mice and rats demonstrate decreased levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway, and increased heme oxygenase, the heme-catabolizing enzyme. These findings suggest that diminution of P-450, b5, and catalase in these lesions may result from a heme supply that is limited by decreased heme synthesis and increased heme catabolism. Heme synthesis was measured in mouse liver tumors (MLT) and adjacent tumor-free lobes (BKG) by administering the radiolabeled heme precursors 55 FeCl3 and [2- 14 C]glycine and subsequently extracting the heme for determination of specific activity. Despite reduced delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase activity in MLT, both tissues incorporated [2-14C]glycine into heme at similar rates. At early time points, heme extracted from MLT contained less 55Fe than that from BKG. This was attributed to the findings that MLT took up 55Fe at a slower rate than BKG and had larger iron stores than BKG. The amount of heme per milligram of protein was also similar in both tissues. These findings militate against the hypothesis that diminished hemoprotein levels in MLT result from limited availability of heme. It is probable, therefore, that decreased hemoprotein levels in hepatic tumors are linked to a general program of dedifferentiation associated with the cancer phenotype. Diminution of hemoprotein in MLT may result in a relatively increased intracellular heme pool. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthase and heme oxygenase are, respectively, negatively and positively regulated by heme. Thus, their alteration in MLT may be due to the regulatory influences of the heme pool

  18. Sequential enzymatic derivatization coupled with online microdialysis sampling for simultaneous profiling of mouse tumor extracellular hydrogen peroxide, lactate, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Cheng-Kuan; Tseng, Po-Jen; Chiu, Hsien-Ting; Del Vall, Andrea; Huang, Yu-Fen; Sun, Yuh-Chang

    2017-03-01

    Probing tumor extracellular metabolites is a vitally important issue in current cancer biology. In this study an analytical system was constructed for the in vivo monitoring of mouse tumor extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), lactate, and glucose by means of microdialysis (MD) sampling and fluorescence determination in conjunction with a smart sequential enzymatic derivatization scheme-involving a loading sequence of fluorogenic reagent/horseradish peroxidase, microdialysate, lactate oxidase, pyruvate, and glucose oxidase-for step-by-step determination of sampled H 2 O 2 , lactate, and glucose in mouse tumor microdialysate. After optimization of the overall experimental parameters, the system's detection limit reached as low as 0.002 mM for H 2 O 2 , 0.058 mM for lactate, and 0.055 mM for glucose, based on 3 μL of microdialysate, suggesting great potential for determining tumor extracellular concentrations of lactate and glucose. Spike analyses of offline-collected mouse tumor microdialysate and monitoring of the basal concentrations of mouse tumor extracellular H 2 O 2 , lactate, and glucose, as well as those after imparting metabolic disturbance through intra-tumor administration of a glucose solution through a prior-implanted cannula, were conducted to demonstrate the system's applicability. Our results evidently indicate that hyphenation of an MD sampling device with an optimized sequential enzymatic derivatization scheme and a fluorescence spectrometer can be used successfully for multi-analyte monitoring of tumor extracellular metabolites in living animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a mouse-feline chimeric antibody against feline tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOKI, Tomoyoshi; TAKANO, Tomomi; HOHDATSU, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal inflammatory disease caused by FIP virus infection. Feline tumor necrosis factor (fTNF)-alpha is closely involved in the aggravation of FIP pathology. We previously described the preparation of neutralizing mouse anti-fTNF-alpha monoclonal antibody (mAb 2–4) and clarified its role in the clinical condition of cats with FIP using in vitro systems. However, administration of mouse mAb 2–4 to cat may lead to a production of feline anti-mouse antibodies. In the present study, we prepared a mouse-feline chimeric mAb (chimeric mAb 2–4) by fusing the variable region of mouse mAb 2–4 to the constant region of feline antibody. The chimeric mAb 2–4 was confirmed to have fTNF-alpha neutralization activity. Purified mouse mAb 2–4 and chimeric mAb 2–4 were repeatedly administered to cats, and the changes in the ability to induce feline anti-mouse antibody response were investigated. In the serum of cats treated with mouse mAb 2–4, feline anti-mouse antibody production was induced, and the fTNF-alpha neutralization effect of mouse mAb 2–4 was reduced. In contrast, in cats treated with chimeric mAb 2–4, the feline anti-mouse antibody response was decreased compared to that of mouse mAb 2–4-treated cats. PMID:27264736

  20. Visualization of Tumor Angiogenesis Using MR Imaging Contrast Agent Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGF Receptor 2 Antibody Conjugate in a Mouse Tumor Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Hong Young; Yin, Hong Hua; Kim, Sun Hee; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hun Soo; Yoon Kwon Ha Yoon

    2010-01-01

    To visualize tumor angiogenesis using the MRI contrast agent, Gd- DTPA-anti-VEGF receptor 2 antibody conjugate, with a 4.7-Tesla MRI instrument in a mouse model. We designed a tumor angiogenesis-targeting T1 contrast agent that was prepared by the bioconjugation of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) antibody. The specific binding of the agent complex to cells that express VEGFR2 was examined in cultured murine endothelial cells (MS-1 cells) with a 4.7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Angiogenesis-specific T1 enhancement was imaged with the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate using a CT-26 adenocarcinoma tumor model in eight mice. As a control, the use of the Gd-DTPA-anti-rat immunoglobulin G (Gd-DTPA-anti-rat IgG) was imaged with a tumor model in eight mice. Statistical significance was assessed using the Mann-Whitney test. Tumor tissue was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate showed predominant binding to cultured endothelial cells that expressed a high level of VEGFR2. Signal enhancement was approximately three-fold for in vivo T1-weighted MR imaging with the use of the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate as compared with the Gd-DTPA-rat IgG in the mouse tumor model (p < 0.05). VEGFR2 expression in CT-26 tumor vessels was demonstrated using immunohistochemical staining. MR imaging using the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate as a contrast agent is useful in visualizing noninvasively tumor angiogenesis in a murine tumor model

  1. Visualization of Tumor Angiogenesis Using MR Imaging Contrast Agent Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGF Receptor 2 Antibody Conjugate in a Mouse Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Hong Young; Yin, Hong Hua; Kim, Sun Hee; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hun Soo; Yoon Kwon Ha Yoon [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    To visualize tumor angiogenesis using the MRI contrast agent, Gd- DTPA-anti-VEGF receptor 2 antibody conjugate, with a 4.7-Tesla MRI instrument in a mouse model. We designed a tumor angiogenesis-targeting T1 contrast agent that was prepared by the bioconjugation of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) antibody. The specific binding of the agent complex to cells that express VEGFR2 was examined in cultured murine endothelial cells (MS-1 cells) with a 4.7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Angiogenesis-specific T1 enhancement was imaged with the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate using a CT-26 adenocarcinoma tumor model in eight mice. As a control, the use of the Gd-DTPA-anti-rat immunoglobulin G (Gd-DTPA-anti-rat IgG) was imaged with a tumor model in eight mice. Statistical significance was assessed using the Mann-Whitney test. Tumor tissue was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate showed predominant binding to cultured endothelial cells that expressed a high level of VEGFR2. Signal enhancement was approximately three-fold for in vivo T1-weighted MR imaging with the use of the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate as compared with the Gd-DTPA-rat IgG in the mouse tumor model (p < 0.05). VEGFR2 expression in CT-26 tumor vessels was demonstrated using immunohistochemical staining. MR imaging using the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate as a contrast agent is useful in visualizing noninvasively tumor angiogenesis in a murine tumor model

  2. Migration inhibition of immune mouse spleen cells by serum from x-irradiated tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroson, H.

    1978-01-01

    Tumor-specific antigens of the chemically induced MC 429 mouse fibrosarcoma were detected in a 3 M KCl extract of tumor by the inhibition of migration of specifically immune spleen cells. Using this assay with serum from tumor-bearing mice no tumor antigen was detected in serum of mice bearing small tumors, unless the tumor was exposed to local x irradiation (3000 R) 1 day prior to collection of serum. It was concluded that local x irradiation of tumor caused increased concentration of tumor antigen in the serum. When the tumor was allowed to grow extremely large, with necrosis, then host serum did cause migration inhibition of both nonimmune and immune spleen cells. This migration-inhibition effect was not associated with tumor antigen, but with a nonspecific serum factor

  3. SU-F-T-121: Abdominal Compression Effectively Reduces the Interplay Effect and Enables Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy of Liver Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souris, K; Glick, A; Kang, M; Lin, H; McDonough, J; Simone, C; Solberg, T; Ben-Josef, E; Lin, L; Janssens, G; Sterpin, E; Lee, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study if abdominal compression can reduce breathing motion and mitigate interplay effect in pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBSPT) treatment of liver tumors in order to better spare healthy liver volumes compared with photon therapy. Methods: Ten patients, six having large tumors initially treated with IMRT and four having small tumors treated with SBRT, were replanned for PBSPT. ITV and beam-specific PTVs based on 4D-CT were used to ensure target coverage in PBSPT. The use of an abdominal compression belt and volumetric repainting was investigated to mitigate the interplay effect between breathing motion and PBSPT dynamic delivery. An in-house Matlab script has been developed to simulate this interplay effect. The dose is computed on each phase individually by sorting all spots according to their simulated delivery timing. The final dose distribution is then obtained by accumulating all dose maps to a reference phase. Results: For equivalent target coverage PBSPT reduced average healthy liver dose by 9.5% of the prescription dose compared with IMRT/SBRT. Abdominal compression of 113.2±42.2 mmHg was effective for all 10 patients and reduced average motion by 2.25 mm. As a result, the average ITV volume decreased from 128.2% to 123.1% of CTV volume. Similarly, the average beam-specific PTV volume decreased from 193.2% to 183.3%. For 8 of the 10 patients, the average motion was reduced below 5 mm, and up to 3 repainting were sufficient to mitigate interplay. For the other two patients with larger residual motion, 4–5 repainting were needed. Conclusion: We recommend evaluation of the 4DCT motion histogram following simulation and the interplay effect following treatment planning in order to personalize the use of compression and volumetric repainting for each patient. Abdominal compression enables safe and more effective PBS treatment of liver tumors by reduction of motion and interplay effect. Kevin Souris is supported by IBA and Televie Grant

  4. SU-F-T-121: Abdominal Compression Effectively Reduces the Interplay Effect and Enables Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy of Liver Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souris, K [Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Glick, A; Kang, M; Lin, H; McDonough, J; Simone, C; Solberg, T; Ben-Josef, E; Lin, L [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Janssens, G [IBA, Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Sterpin, E [Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lee, J [Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study if abdominal compression can reduce breathing motion and mitigate interplay effect in pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBSPT) treatment of liver tumors in order to better spare healthy liver volumes compared with photon therapy. Methods: Ten patients, six having large tumors initially treated with IMRT and four having small tumors treated with SBRT, were replanned for PBSPT. ITV and beam-specific PTVs based on 4D-CT were used to ensure target coverage in PBSPT. The use of an abdominal compression belt and volumetric repainting was investigated to mitigate the interplay effect between breathing motion and PBSPT dynamic delivery. An in-house Matlab script has been developed to simulate this interplay effect. The dose is computed on each phase individually by sorting all spots according to their simulated delivery timing. The final dose distribution is then obtained by accumulating all dose maps to a reference phase. Results: For equivalent target coverage PBSPT reduced average healthy liver dose by 9.5% of the prescription dose compared with IMRT/SBRT. Abdominal compression of 113.2±42.2 mmHg was effective for all 10 patients and reduced average motion by 2.25 mm. As a result, the average ITV volume decreased from 128.2% to 123.1% of CTV volume. Similarly, the average beam-specific PTV volume decreased from 193.2% to 183.3%. For 8 of the 10 patients, the average motion was reduced below 5 mm, and up to 3 repainting were sufficient to mitigate interplay. For the other two patients with larger residual motion, 4–5 repainting were needed. Conclusion: We recommend evaluation of the 4DCT motion histogram following simulation and the interplay effect following treatment planning in order to personalize the use of compression and volumetric repainting for each patient. Abdominal compression enables safe and more effective PBS treatment of liver tumors by reduction of motion and interplay effect. Kevin Souris is supported by IBA and Televie Grant

  5. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in an Atypical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Abdominal Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncati, Luca; Gatti, Antonietta Morena; Capitani, Federico; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Maiorana, Antonio; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are able to interfere with the function of vital cellular components. Besides in trace heavy metals, which are essential at low concentration for humans, there are heavy metals with a well-known toxic and oncogenic potential. In this study, for the first time in literature, we report the unique adulthood case of an atypical primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the abdominal wall, diagnosed by histology and immunohistochemistry, with the molecular hybridization support. The neoplasia occurred in a patient chronically exposed to a transdermal delivery of heavy metal salts (aluminum and bismuth), whose intracellular bioaccumulation has been revealed by elemental microanalysis.

  6. Transition of Treatment for Patients with Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors: Nagoya University Modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Yoshihiro, E-mail: ynishida@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Tsukushi, Satoshi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65-Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Shido, Yoji [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192 (Japan); Urakawa, Hiroshi; Arai, Eisuke; Ishiguro, Naoki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65-Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2012-02-07

    Treatment modalities for desmoid tumors have been changed because of the high recurrence rate, even after wide resection, and some cases experience spontaneous self-regression during clinical course. The treatment modality in our institutions before 2003 was surgical resection with wide surgical margin, however, meloxicam, which is a NSAID and a selective COX-2 inhibitor has been applied consecutively since 2003. We reviewed the previously reported outcomes of surgical and conservative treatment in our institutions. Among 30 patients receiving surgical treatment, 16 (53%) recurred. Younger age (p < 0.05) was a significant poor factor. According to RECIST for meloxicam treatment, CR was in one, PR in 10, SD in eight, PD in one evaluated at 2011. Older age (p < 0.01) was significantly associated with good outcome for meloxicam treatment. Results of the previous study indicated that surgical treatment alone could not control desmoid tumors, even with negative surgical margin. Considering the functional impairment resulting from surgery with negative surgical margin, a conservative and effective treatment modality with fewer complications is desired. Conservative treatment with meloxicam is a promising novel modality for patients with extra-abdominal desmoid tumors.

  7. Transition of Treatment for Patients with Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors: Nagoya University Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Ishiguro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment modalities for desmoid tumors have been changed because of the high recurrence rate, even after wide resection, and some cases experience spontaneous self-regression during clinical course. The treatment modality in our institutions before 2003 was surgical resection with wide surgical margin, however, meloxicam, which is a NSAID and a selective COX-2 inhibitor has been applied consecutively since 2003. We reviewed the previously reported outcomes of surgical and conservative treatment in our institutions. Among 30 patients receiving surgical treatment, 16 (53% recurred. Younger age ( p < 0.05 was a significant poor factor. According to RECIST for meloxicam treatment, CR was in one, PR in 10, SD in eight, PD in one evaluated at 2011. Older age ( p < 0.01 was significantly associated with good outcome for meloxicam treatment. Results of the previous study indicated that surgical treatment alone could not control desmoid tumors, even with negative surgical margin. Considering the functional impairment resulting from surgery with negative surgical margin, a conservative and effective treatment modality with fewer complications is desired. Conservative treatment with meloxicam is a promising novel modality for patients with extra-abdominal desmoid tumors.

  8. [A Case of an Abdominal Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor with Metastasis in the Medulla Oblongata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Ayaka; Takano, Yoshinao; Honda, Michitaka; Todate, Yukitoshi; Tada, Takeshi; Waragai, Mitsuru; Fukushima, Daizo; Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Sato, Atai; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Teranishi, Yasushi; Sakuma, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    A desmoplastic small round cell tumor(DSRCT)is a very rare malignant tumor that mainly occurs in the intra-abdominal cavity in young adults.This neoplasm has an extremely poor prognosis, with a clinical course characterized by rapid progression and metastasis.We present a 31-year-old man who presented with chief complaints of dysphagia, ataxic gait, and hoarseness.He first underwent surgical resection of a tumor in the medulla oblongata; however, the lesion was suspected to be a metastatic neoplasm.Following a thorough medical examination, the patient was diagnosed with retroperitoneal DSRCT with multiple metastatic lesions.He received multidisciplinary treatment including debulking surgery for the primary lesion; radiotherapy for metastatic lesions in the brain, abdomen, and cervical lymph nodes; hepatic artery embolization for liver metastasis; and systemic chemotherapy.The patient died of progressive disease 17 months after the initial diagnosis.

  9. Nuclear DNA but not mtDNA controls tumor phenotypes in mouse cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Miho; Niikura, Mamoru; Ichikawa, Masami; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Nakada, Kazuto; Honma, Yoshio; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies showed high frequencies of homoplasmic mtDNA mutations in various human tumor types, suggesting that the mutated mtDNA haplotypes somehow contribute to expression of tumor phenotypes. We directly addressed this issue by isolating mouse mtDNA-less (ρ 0 ) cells for complete mtDNA replacement between normal cells and their carcinogen-induced transformants, and examined the effect of the mtDNA replacement on expression of tumorigenicity, a phenotype forming tumors in nude mice. The results showed that genome chimera cells carrying nuclear DNA from tumor cells and mtDNA from normal cells expressed tumorigenicity, whereas those carrying nuclear DNA from normal cells and mtDNA from tumor cells did not. These observations provided direct evidence that nuclear DNA, but not mtDNA, is responsible for carcinogen-induced malignant transformation, although it remains possible that mtDNA mutations and resultant respiration defects may influence the degree of malignancy, such as invasive or metastatic properties

  10. Simultaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and resection of unexpected, associated abdominal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Lorusso, Riccardo; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2004-12-15

    The management of unexpected intra-abdominal malignancy, discovered at laparotomy for elective treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is controversial. It is still unclear whether both conditions should be treated simultaneously or a staged approach is to be preferred. To contribute in improving treatment guidelines, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing laparotomy for elective AAA repair. From January 1994 to March 2003, 253 patients underwent elective, trans-peritoneal repair of an AAA. In four patients (1.6%), an associated, unexpected neoplasm was detected at abdominal exploration, consisting of one renal, one gastric, one ileal carcinoid, and one ascending colon tumor. All of them were treated at the same operation, after aortic repair and careful isolation of the prosthetic graft. The whole series' operative mortality was 3.6%. None of the patients simultaneously treated for AAA and tumor resection died in the postoperative period. No graft-related infections were observed. Simultaneous treatment of AAA and tumor did not prolong significantly the mean length of stay in the hospital, compared to standard treatment of AAA alone. Except for malignancies of organs requiring major surgical resections, simultaneous AAA repair and resection of an associated, unexpected abdominal neoplasm can be safely performed, in most of the patients, sparing the need for a second procedure. Endovascular grafting of the AAA can be a valuable tool in simplifying simultaneous treatment, or in staging the procedures with a very short delay.

  11. Detection of irradiation-induced, membrane heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in mouse tumors using Hsp70 Fab fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangl, Stefan; Themelis, George; Friedrich, Lars; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Molls, Michael; Skerra, Arne; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The major stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is frequently overexpressed in highly aggressive tumors, and elevated intracellular Hsp70 levels mediate protection against apoptosis. Following therapeutic intervention, such as ionizing irradiation, translocation of cytosolic Hsp70 to the plasma membrane is selectively increased in tumor cells and therefore, membrane Hsp70 might serve as a therapy-inducible, tumor-specific target structure. Materials and methods: Based on the IgG1 mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) cmHsp70.1, we produced the Hsp70-specific recombinant Fab fragment (Hsp70 Fab), as an imaging tool for the detection of membrane Hsp70 positive tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Results: The binding characteristics of Hsp70 Fab towards mouse colon (CT26) and pancreatic (1048) carcinoma cells at 4 deg. C were comparable to that of cmHsp70.1 mAb, as determined by flow cytometry. Following a temperature shift to 37 deg. C, Hsp70 Fab rapidly translocates into subcellular vesicles of mouse tumor cells. Furthermore, in tumor-bearing mice Cy5.5-conjugated Hsp70 Fab, but not unrelated IN-1 control Fab fragment (IN-1 ctrl Fab), gradually accumulates in CT26 tumors between 12 and 55 h after i.v. injection. Conclusions: In summary, the Hsp70 Fab provides an innovative, low immunogenic tool for imaging of membrane Hsp70 positive tumors, in vivo.

  12. Mena deficiency delays tumor progression and decreases metastasis in polyoma middle-T transgenic mouse mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Evanthia T; Wang, Yarong; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Sellers, Rani S; Wang, Weigang; Li, Jiufeng; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Gertler, Frank B; Condeelis, John S

    2010-01-01

    The actin binding protein Mammalian enabled (Mena), has been implicated in the metastatic progression of solid tumors in humans. Mena expression level in primary tumors is correlated with metastasis in breast, cervical, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Cells expressing high Mena levels are part of the tumor microenvironment for metastasis (TMEM), an anatomical structure that is predictive for risk of breast cancer metastasis. Previously we have shown that forced expression of Mena adenocarcinoma cells enhances invasion and metastasis in xenograft mice. Whether Mena is required for tumor progression is still unknown. Here we report the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression, metastasis and on normal mammary gland development. To investigate the role of Mena in tumor progression and metastasis, Mena deficient mice were intercrossed with mice carrying a transgene expressing the polyoma middle T oncoprotein, driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus. The progeny were investigated for the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression via staging of primary mammary tumors and by evaluation of morbidity. Stages of metastatic progression were investigated using an in vivo invasion assay, intravital multiphoton microscopy, circulating tumor cell burden, and lung metastases. Mammary gland development was studied in whole mount mammary glands of wild type and Mena deficient mice. Mena deficiency decreased morbidity and metastatic dissemination. Loss of Mena increased mammary tumor latency but had no affect on mammary tumor burden or histologic progression to carcinoma. Elimination of Mena also significantly decreased epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced in vivo invasion, in vivo motility, intravasation and metastasis. Non-tumor bearing mice deficient for Mena also showed defects in mammary gland terminal end bud formation and branching. Deficiency of Mena decreases metastasis by slowing tumor progression and reducing tumor cell invasion and intravasation. Mena

  13. Transgenic overexpression of NanogP8 in the mouse prostate is insufficient to initiate tumorigenesis but weakly promotes tumor development in the Hi-Myc mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bigang; Gong, Shuai; Li, Qiuhui; Chen, Xin; Moore, John; Suraneni, Mahipal V; Badeaux, Mark D; Jeter, Collene R; Shen, Jianjun; Mehmood, Rashid; Fan, Qingxia; Tang, Dean G

    2017-08-08

    This project was undertaken to address a critical cancer biology question: Is overexpression of the pluripotency molecule Nanog sufficient to initiate tumor development in a somatic tissue? Nanog1 is critical for the self-renewal and pluripotency of ES cells, and its retrotransposed homolog, NanogP8 is preferentially expressed in somatic cancer cells. Our work has shown that shRNA-mediated knockdown of NanogP8 in prostate, breast, and colon cancer cells inhibits tumor regeneration whereas inducible overexpression of NanogP8 promotes cancer stem cell phenotypes and properties. To address the key unanswered question whether tissue-specific overexpression of NanogP8 is sufficient to promote tumor development in vivo , we generated a NanogP8 transgenic mouse model, in which the ARR 2 PB promoter was used to drive NanogP8 cDNA. Surprisingly, the ARR 2 PB-NanogP8 transgenic mice were viable, developed normally, and did not form spontaneous tumors in >2 years. Also, both wild type and ARR 2 PB-NanogP8 transgenic mice responded similarly to castration and regeneration and castrated ARR 2 PB-NanogP8 transgenic mice also did not develop tumors. By crossing the ARR 2 PB-NanogP8 transgenic mice with ARR 2 PB-Myc (i.e., Hi-Myc) mice, we found that the double transgenic (i.e., ARR 2 PB-NanogP8; Hi-Myc) mice showed similar tumor incidence and histology to the Hi-Myc mice. Interestingly, however, we observed white dots in the ventral lobes of the double transgenic prostates, which were characterized as overgrown ductules/buds featured by crowded atypical Nanog-expressing luminal cells. Taken together, our present work demonstrates that transgenic overexpression of NanogP8 in the mouse prostate is insufficient to initiate tumorigenesis but weakly promotes tumor development in the Hi-Myc mouse model.

  14. Anti-angiogenesis therapy based on the bone marrow-derived stromal cells genetically engineered to express sFlt-1 in mouse tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X-C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs are important for development, tissue cell replenishment, and wound healing in physiological and pathological conditions. BMSCs were found to preferably reach sites undergoing the process of cell proliferation, such as wound and tumor, suggesting that BMSCs may be used as a vehicle for gene therapy of tumor. Methods Mouse BMSCs were loaded with recombinant adenoviruses which express soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 (sFlt-1. The anti-angiogenesis of sFlt-1 in BMSCs was determined using endothelial cells proliferation inhibition assay and alginate encapsulation assay. The anti-tumor effects of BMSCs expressing sFlt-1 through tail-vein infusion were evaluated in two mouse tumor metastases models. Results BMSCs genetically modified with Adv-GFP-sFlt-1 could effectively express and secret sFlt-1. BMSCs loaded with sFlt-1 gene could preferentially home to tumor loci and decrease lung metastases and prolong lifespan in mouse tumor model through inducing anti-angiogenesis and apoptosis in tumors. Conclusion We demonstrated that BMSCs might be employed as a promising vehicle for tumor gene therapy which can effectively not only improve the concentration of anticancer therapeutics in tumors, but also modify the tumor microenvironment.

  15. Stimulation of cytolytic T lymphocytes by azaguanine-resistant mouse tumor cells in selective hat medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snick, J. van; Uyttenhove, C.; Pel, A. van; Boon, T.

    1981-01-01

    Primed syngeneic or umprimed allogeneic mouse spleen cells were stimulated with azaguanine-resistant P815 tumor cells that were killed by the addition of aminopterin to the stimulation medium. The recovery of lymphocytes and their cytolytic activity and specificity were similar to those obtained after stimulation with irradiated cells. This method conveniently replaces the inactivation of stimulatory cells by irradiation or mitomycin treatment. Moreover, it has the advantage of inactivating not only the stimulatory cells but also the tumor cells that often contaminate the spleens of tumor-bearing animals, provided these animals have been inoculated with azaguanine-resistant tumor cell mutants. (Auth.)

  16. Nódulo umbilical metastático (nódulo da Irmã Maria José: um sinal de alerta para tumoração maligna intra-abdominal - relato de caso Sister Mary Joseph's nodule: a warning sign for intra-abdominal malignant tumors. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Soares Fogaça

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available O nódulo da "Irmã Maria José" é tumor metastático que acomete a cicatriz umbilical e pode ser a primeira evidência de neoplasia intra-abdominal disseminada. Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente com o nódulo da "Irmã Maria José" no qual o diagnóstico do tumor primário só foi possível por meio dos testes imuno-histoquímicos da lesão biopsiada da pele.The umbilical metastatic tumoral nodule, Sister Mary Joseph's nodule, is a rare clinical sign indicative of disseminated intra-abdominal tumor, and may be the first evidence of malignancy. The authors report a case of a patient with umbilical metastatic nodule in whom the diagnosis of the primary tumor was possible by immunohistochemistry of the lesion biopsy.

  17. Transcription of a novel mouse semaphorin gene, M-semaH, correlates with the metastatic ability of mouse tumor cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C R; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Tarabykina, S

    1998-01-01

    identified a novel member of the semaphorin/collapsin family in the two metastatic cell lines. We have named it M-semaH. Northern hybridization to a panel of tumor cell lines revealed transcripts in 12 of 12 metastatic cell lines but in only 2 of 6 nonmetastatic cells and none in immortalized mouse...

  18. Methyl-orvinol-Dual activity opioid receptor ligand inhibits gastrointestinal transit and alleviates abdominal pain in the mouse models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Marta; Jarmuż, Agata; Wasilewski, Andrzej; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Husbands, Stephen; Fichna, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The major IBS-D symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain and discomfort. High density of opioid receptors (ORs) in the GI tract and their participation in the maintenance of GI homeostasis make ORs ligands an attractive option for developing new anti-IBS-D treatments. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of methyl-orvinol on the GI motility and secretion and in mouse models mimicking symptoms of IBS-D. In vitro, the effects of methyl-orvinol on electrical field stimulated smooth muscle contractility and epithelial ion transport were characterized in the mouse colon. In vivo, the following tests were used to determine methyl-orvinol effect on mouse GI motility: colonic bead expulsion, whole GI transit and fecal pellet output. An antinociceptive action of methyl-orvinol was assessed in the mouse model of visceral pain induced by mustard oil. Methyl-orvinol (10 -10 to 10 -6 M) inhibited colonic smooth muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was reversed by naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist) and β-funaltrexamine (selective MOP antagonist). Experiments with a selective KOP receptor agonist, U50488 revealed that methyl-orvinol is a KOP receptor antagonist in the GI tract. Methyl-orvinol enhanced epithelial ion transport. In vivo, methyl-orvinol inhibited colonic bead expulsion and prolonged GI transit. Methyl-orvinol improved hypermotility and reduced abdominal pain in the mouse models mimicking IBS-D symptoms. Methyl-orvinol could become a promising drug candidate in chronic therapy of functional GI diseases such as IBS-D. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribution of alarin in the mouse brain and in tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, N.

    2011-01-01

    Alarin is a 25 amino acid peptide that belongs to the galanin neuropeptide family and is a splice variant of the galanin-like peptide (GALP) gene. It was first identified in gangliocytes of neuroblastic tumors and recently, alarin was demonstrated to stimulate food intake as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in rodents. However, mRNA and protein expression of alarin in the central nervous system have not been described yet. Therefore, we investigated GALP/alarin promoter activity using a transgenic reporter mouse model. This mouse model expresses YFP when the GALP/alarin promoter is active and therefore is a suitable tool to indicate nuclei where GALP/alarin mRNA is expressed. Immunohistochemical analysis of YFP expression in these transgenic mice revealed a wide distribution of GALP/alarin promoter activity throughout the whole murine brain. As the promoter activity studies cannot discriminate between GALP and alarin expression the next aim was to determine the distribution of alarin peptide- in the adult murine brain with an anti-alarin antibody. The specificity of the antibody against alarin was demonstrated by the absence of labeling after pre-absorption of the antiserum with synthetic alarin peptide and in transgenic mouse brains depleted of cells expressing the GALP/alarin gene. In wild type animals alarin-like immunoreacitivity (alarin-LI) was observed in different areas of the murine brain including the accessory olfactory bulb, medial preoptic area and the hypothalamus. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of alarin expression in peripheral tissues revealed high alarin levels in the testis of adult mice, whereas no alarin-Li was detected in the oesophagus of mice and trachea of rats. The galanin peptide family is known to play a role in cancer and alarin was first described in human neuroblastic tumors. Therefore, alarin expression in different CNS-tumor types was determined in the present study. Immunohistochemical analysis of a variety

  20. INDUCTION OF DNA ADDUCTS, TUMORS, AND KI-RAS ONCOGENE MUTATIONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG BY IP. ADMINISTRATION OF DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of DNA adducts, tumors, and Ki-ras oncogene mutations in strain AlJ mouse lung by ip. administration of dibenz[a,h]anthracene Previous studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (P AH) induced lung tumors in the strain NJ mouse model system have demonstrated qua...

  1. Myristoylation drives dimerization of matrix protein from mouse mammary tumor virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Michal; Zábranský, Aleš; Dostál, Jiří; Vaněk, O.; Brynda, Jiří; Lepšík, Martin; Hadravová, Romana; Pichová, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, Jan 5 (2016), č. článku 2. ISSN 1742-4690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304; GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : dimerization * matrix protein * MMTV * molecular dynamics * mouse mammary tumor virus * myristoylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2016 http://retrovirology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12977-015-0235-8

  2. Local control of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Ghert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The local control of desmoid tumors constitutes a continuing treatment dilemma due to its high recurrence rates. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically examine the current treatment of these rare tumors and to specifically evaluate the local failure and response rates of surgery, radiation and systemic therapy. We comprehensively searched the literature for relevant studies across Cinahl, Embase, Medline and the Cochrane databases. Articles were categorized as surgery, radiation, surgery + radiation and systemic therapy (including cytotoxic and non cytotoxic. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled odd ratios (OR for comparative studies and weighted proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI are reported. Thirty-five articles were included in the final analysis. Weighted mean local failure rates were 22% [95% CI (16-28%], 35% [95% CI (26-44%] and 28% [95% CI (18-39%] for radiation alone, surgery alone and surgery + radiation respectively. In the analysis of comparative studies, surgery and radiation in combination had lower local failure rates than radiation alone [OR 0.7 (0.4, 1.2] and surgery alone [OR 0.7 (0.4, 1.0]. Weighted mean stable disease rates were 91% [95% CI (85-96%] and 52% [95% CI (38-65%] for non cytotoxic and cytotoxic chemotherapy respectively. The current evidence suggests that surgery alone has a consistently high rate of local recurrence in managing extra-abdominal desmoid tumors. Radiation therapy in combination with surgery improves local control rates. However, the limited data on systemic therapy for this rare tumor suggests the benefit of using both cytotoxic and non cytotoxic chemotherapy to achieve stable disease.

  3. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors; Peptic ulcer - islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell tumor ... stomach acid. Symptoms may include: Abdominal pain Diarrhea ... and small bowel Vomiting blood (occasionally) Glucagonomas make ...

  4. Immuno-therapy with anti-CTLA4 antibodies in tolerized and non-tolerized mouse tumor models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Persson

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (anti-CTLA4 are a novel form of cancer immunotherapy. While preclinical studies in mouse tumor models have shown anti-tumor efficacy of anti-CTLA4 injection or expression, anti-CTLA4 treatment in patients with advanced cancers had disappointing therapeutic benefit. These discrepancies have to be addressed in more adequate pre-clinical models. We employed two tumor models. The first model is based on C57Bl/6 mice and syngeneic TC-1 tumors expressing HPV16 E6/E7. In this model, the HPV antigens are neo-antigens, against which no central tolerance exists. The second model involves mice transgenic for the proto-oncogen neu and syngeneic mouse mammary carcinoma (MMC cells. In this model tolerance to Neu involves both central and peripheral mechanisms. Anti-CTLA4 delivery as a protein or expression from gene-modified tumor cells were therapeutically efficacious in the non-tolerized TC-1 tumor model, but had no effect in the MMC-model. We also used the two tumor models to test an immuno-gene therapy approach for anti-CTLA4. Recently, we used an approach based on hematopoietic stem cells (HSC to deliver the relaxin gene to tumors and showed that this approach facilitates pre-existing anti-tumor T-cells to control tumor growth in the MMC tumor model. However, unexpectedly, when used for anti-CTLA4 gene delivery in this study, the HSC-based approach was therapeutically detrimental in both the TC-1 and MMC models. Anti-CTLA4 expression in these models resulted in an increase in the number of intratumoral CD1d+ NKT cells and in the expression of TGF-β1. At the same time, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which potentially can support anti-tumor T-cell responses, were lower in tumors of mice that received anti-CTLA4-HSC therapy. The differences in outcomes between the tolerized and non-tolerized models also provide a potential explanation for the low efficacy

  5. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  6. Solitary fibrous tumor of the abdominal wall re-surfacing as unilateral pleural effusion and mass: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Bi

    Full Text Available Background: Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs are rare fibroblastic mesenchymal neoplasms that were initially described in the pleura, but have been increasingly recognized to occur in other parts of the body. They have been traditionally regarded as indolent tumors that are rare to metastasize after surgical resection. Here, we describe a case of a Filipino female who initially presented with unilateral pleural effusion and mass, and was ultimately diagnosed with recurrent solitary fibrous tumor that originated from the abdominal wall. Then, we reviewed existing literature on intra- and extrathoracic SFTs with focus on pathological characteristics, recommendations for treatment as well as post-treatment surveillance. Case presentation: A 79-year-old Filipino female with a history of solitary fibrous tumor of the abdominal wall status post complete surgical resection 3 years ago presented with unilateral pleural effusion and mass, and was diagnosed with recurrent solitary fibrous tumor that metastasized to the lung. She was not a candidate for systemic chemotherapy and ultimately died 1 year later from progressive respiratory failure. Conclusions: Solitary fibrous tumor are rare mesenchymal tumors that were initially described in the pleura, but have now been reported in many other sites. Complete surgical resection is the mainstay therapy for all cases; however, long-term monitoring and surveillance several years after initial presentation is crucial to prevent disease recurrence, and adjuvant treatment may be necessary for patients with high-risk features. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate the clinical utility of risk stratification models and to develop post-treatment surveillance guidelines for extrathoracic SFTs.

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of translationally controlled tumor protein in the mouse digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheverdin, Vadim; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Kyunglim

    2013-09-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein, highly conserved among various species. It plays a major role in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Studies reported so far on TCTP expression in different digestive organs have not led to any understanding of the role of TCTP in digestion, so we localized TCTP in organs of the mouse digestive system employing immunohistochemical techniques. Translationally controlled tumor protein was found expressed in all organs studied: tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and pancreas. The expression of TCTP was found to be predominant in epithelia and neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia; high in serous glands (parotid, submandibular, gastric, intestinal crypts, pancreatic acini) and in neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia, and moderate to low in epithelia. In epithelia, expression of TCTP varied depending on its type and location. In enteric neurons, TCTP was predominantly expressed in the processes. Translationally controlled tumor protein expression in the liver followed porto-central gradient with higher expression in pericentral hepatocytes. In the pancreas, TCTP was expressed in both acini and islet cells. Our finding of nearly universal localization and expression of TCTP in mouse digestive organs points to the hitherto unrecognized functional importance of TCTP in the digestive system and suggests the need for further studies of the possible role of TCTP in the proliferation, secretion, absorption and neural regulation of the digestive process and its importance in the physiology and pathology of digestive process. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as lymphoma. kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic ... and properly administer radiation treatments for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy. top of page ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy. top of page How should I prepare? You ... of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including ...

  10. MUC1 enhances tumor progression and contributes toward immunosuppression in a mouse model of spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinder, Teresa L; Subramani, Durai B; Basu, Gargi D; Bradley, Judy M; Schettini, Jorge; Million, Arefayene; Skaar, Todd; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2008-09-01

    MUC1, a membrane tethered mucin glycoprotein, is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in >80% of human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, the role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has been elusive, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model. We report the characterization of a novel mouse model that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule (PDA.MUC1 mice). Pancreatic tumors arise in an appropriate MUC1-tolerant background within an immune-competent host. Significant enhancement in the development of pancreatic intraepithelial preneoplastic lesions and progression to adenocarcinoma is observed in PDA.MUC1 mice, possibly due to increased proliferation. Tumors from PDA.MUC1 mice express higher levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and IDO compared with PDA mice lacking MUC1, especially during early stages of tumor development. The increased proinflammatory milieu correlates with an increased percentage of regulatory T cells and myeloid suppressor cells in the pancreatic tumor and tumor draining lymph nodes. Data shows that during pancreatic cancer progression, MUC1-mediated mechanisms enhance the onset and progression of the disease, which in turn regulate the immune responses. Thus, the mouse model is ideally suited for testing novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer.

  11. MUC1 enhances tumor progression and contributes towards immunosuppression in a mouse model of spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinder, Teresa L.; Subramani, Durai B.; Basu, Gargi D.; Bradley, Judy M.; Schettini, Jorge; Million, Arefayene; Skaar, Todd

    2008-01-01

    MUC1, a membrane tethered mucin glycoprotein, is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in >80% of human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, the role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has been elusive, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model. We report the characterization of a novel mouse model that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule (PDA.MUC1 mice). Pancreatic tumors arise in an appropriate MUC1-tolerant background within an immune competent host. Significant enhancement in the development of pancreatic intraepithelial pre-neoplastic lesions (PanINs) and progression to adenocarcinoma is observed in PDA.MUC1 mice, possibly due to increased proliferation. Tumors from PDA.MUC1 mice express higher levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and indoleamine 2,3, dioxygenase compared to PDA mice lacking MUC1, especially during early stages of tumor development. The increased pro-inflammatory milieu correlates with an increased percentage of regulatory T cells and myeloid suppressor cells in the pancreatic tumor and tumor draining lymph nodes. Data shows that during pancreatic cancer progression, MUC1-mediated mechanisms enhance the onset and progression of the disease which in turn regulate the immune responses. Thus, the mouse model is ideally-suited for testing novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer. PMID:18713982

  12. Contrast Dose and Radiation Dose Reduction in Abdominal Enhanced Computerized Tomography Scans with Single-phase Dual-energy Spectral Computerized Tomography Mode for Children with Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Gao, Jun; Liu, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Qi-Feng; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Ling; Peng, Yun

    2017-04-05

    Contrast dose and radiation dose reduction in computerized tomography (CT) scan for adult has been explored successfully, but there have been few studies on the application of low-concentration contrast in pediatric abdominal CT examinations. This was a feasibility study on the use of dual-energy spectral imaging and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) for the reduction of radiation dose and iodine contrast dose in pediatric abdominal CT patients with solid tumors. Forty-five patients with solid tumors who had initial CT (Group B) and follow-up CT (Group A) after chemotherapy were enrolled. The initial diagnostic CT scan (Group B) was performed using the standard two-phase enhanced CT with 320 mgI/ml concentration contrast, and the follow-up scan (Group A) was performed using a single-phase enhanced CT at 45 s after the beginning of the 270 mgI/ml contrast injection using spectral mode. Forty percent ASiR was used for the images in Group B and monochromatic images with energy levels ≥60 keV in Group A. In addition, filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction was used for monochromatic images hounsfield unit (HU). The abdominal organs of Groups A and B had similar degrees of absolute and relative enhancement (t = 0.36 and -1.716 for liver, -0.153 and -1.546 for pancreas, and 2.427 and 0.866 for renal cortex, all P> 0.05). Signal-to-noise ratio of the abdominal organs was significantly lower in Group A than in Group B (t = -8.11 for liver, -7.83 for pancreas, and -5.38 for renal cortex, all P 3, indicating clinically acceptable image quality. Single-phase, dual-energy spectral CT used for children with solid abdominal tumors can reduce contrast dose and radiation dose and can also maintain clinically acceptable image quality.

  13. Significance of residual abdominal masses in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmazyn, B.; Horev, G.; Kornreich, L.; Ash, S.; Goshen, Y.; Yaniv, I.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history of children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma who had complete clinical remission and residual abdominal mass after treatment. Material and methods: The charts and imaging findings of all children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma treated and followed at our medical center between 1988 and 1999 were reviewed for the presence, management, clinical course, and prognosis of residual mass. Results: Only children who achieved complete clinical remission were included. The study group consisted of 33 children (20 boys and 13 girls) aged 2.6-17.6 years (mean 7.2 years). Of these, seven (20.6 %) were found to have a residual abdominal mass. Two underwent second-look operation with no evidence of viable tumor on histology. The remaining five were followed by imaging studies for 2.2-9.1 years (mean 6.1 years); none relapsed. Conclusion: Residual mass is not uncommon in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma. The presence of residual mass in a child with complete clinical remission does not alter the long-term prognosis. Therefore, in children with Burkitt's lymphoma and residual mass with no other signs of disease activity, expectant watching may be appropriate. (orig.)

  14. A recombinant endogenous retrovirus amplified in a mouse neuroblastoma is involved in tumor growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothlichet, Julien; Heidmann, Thierry; Mangeney, Marianne

    2006-08-15

    The theory of immunoediting postulates that tumor cells exhibit a reduced immunogenicity to escape eradication by the host immune system. It has been proposed that endogenous retroviruses--provided that they are active--could play a role in this process, via the immunosuppressive domain carried by their envelope protein. Here, we demonstrate that the Neuro-2a tumor cell line--originating from a spontaneous A/J mouse neuroblastoma--produces an infectious retrovirus that most probably results from a recombination event between 2 mouse endogenous retroviral elements. This Neuro-2a-associated recombinant retrovirus derives from the unique ecotropic provirus located at the Emv-1 locus, but with a gag sequence conferring B-tropism, thus allowing its high-level amplification in Neuro-2a cells. We show that knocking down -by RNA interference- this endogenous retrovirus in Neuro-2a cells has no effect on the transformed phenotype of the cells, but results in delayed tumor growth and prolonged animal survival, following engraftment of the cells into immunocompetent mice. Recombination between endogenous retroviruses, amplification of the resulting element and high-level expression of its immunosuppressive activity are therefore likely steps of an immunoediting process, leading to an invading tumor. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Molecular Understanding of Growth Inhibitory Effect from Irradiated to Bystander Tumor Cells in Mouse Fibrosarcoma Tumor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sejal; Srambikkal, Nishad; Yadav, Hansa D.; Shetake, Neena; Balla, Murali M. S.; Kumar, Amit; Ray, Pritha; Ghosh, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Even though bystander effects pertaining to radiation risk assessment has been extensively studied, the molecular players of radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in the context of cancer radiotherapy are poorly known. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated tumor cells on the bystander counterparts in mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI 164 cells) tumor model. Mice co-implanted with WEHI 164 cells γ-irradiated with a lethal dose of 15 Gy and unirradiated (bystander) WEHI 164 cells showed inhibited tumor growth, which was measured in terms of tumor volume and Luc+WEHI 164 cells based bioluminescence in vivo imaging. Histopathological analysis and other assays revealed decreased mitotic index, increased apoptosis and senescence in these tumor tissues. In addition, poor angiogenesis was observed in these tumor tissues, which was further confirmed by fluorescence imaging of tumor vascularisation and CD31 expression by immuno-histochemistry. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory bystander effect was exerted more prominently by soluble factors obtained from the irradiated tumor cells than the cellular fraction. Cytokine profiling of the supernatants obtained from the irradiated tumor cells showed increased levels of VEGF, Rantes, PDGF, GMCSF and IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-6 and SCF. Comparative proteomic analysis of the supernatants from the irradiated tumor cells showed differential expression of total 24 protein spots (21 up- and 3 down-regulated) when compared with the supernatant from the unirradiated control cells. The proteins which showed substantially higher level in the supernatant from the irradiated cells included diphosphate kinase B, heat shock cognate, annexin A1, angiopoietin-2, actin (cytoplasmic 1/2) and stress induced phosphoprotein 1. However, the levels of proteins like annexin A2, protein S100 A4 and cofilin was found to be lower in this supernatant. In conclusion, our results provided deeper insight about

  16. Molecular Understanding of Growth Inhibitory Effect from Irradiated to Bystander Tumor Cells in Mouse Fibrosarcoma Tumor Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejal Desai

    Full Text Available Even though bystander effects pertaining to radiation risk assessment has been extensively studied, the molecular players of radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE in the context of cancer radiotherapy are poorly known. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated tumor cells on the bystander counterparts in mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI 164 cells tumor model. Mice co-implanted with WEHI 164 cells γ-irradiated with a lethal dose of 15 Gy and unirradiated (bystander WEHI 164 cells showed inhibited tumor growth, which was measured in terms of tumor volume and Luc+WEHI 164 cells based bioluminescence in vivo imaging. Histopathological analysis and other assays revealed decreased mitotic index, increased apoptosis and senescence in these tumor tissues. In addition, poor angiogenesis was observed in these tumor tissues, which was further confirmed by fluorescence imaging of tumor vascularisation and CD31 expression by immuno-histochemistry. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory bystander effect was exerted more prominently by soluble factors obtained from the irradiated tumor cells than the cellular fraction. Cytokine profiling of the supernatants obtained from the irradiated tumor cells showed increased levels of VEGF, Rantes, PDGF, GMCSF and IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-6 and SCF. Comparative proteomic analysis of the supernatants from the irradiated tumor cells showed differential expression of total 24 protein spots (21 up- and 3 down-regulated when compared with the supernatant from the unirradiated control cells. The proteins which showed substantially higher level in the supernatant from the irradiated cells included diphosphate kinase B, heat shock cognate, annexin A1, angiopoietin-2, actin (cytoplasmic 1/2 and stress induced phosphoprotein 1. However, the levels of proteins like annexin A2, protein S100 A4 and cofilin was found to be lower in this supernatant. In conclusion, our results provided deeper

  17. Adoptively transferred human lung tumor specific cytotoxic T cells can control autologous tumor growth and shape tumor phenotype in a SCID mouse xenograft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrone Soldano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-tumor efficacy of human immune effector cells, such as cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs, has been difficult to study in lung cancer patients in the clinical setting. Improved experimental models for the study of lung tumor-immune cell interaction as well as for evaluating the efficacy of adoptive transfer of immune effector cells are needed. Methods To address questions related to the in vivo interaction of human lung tumor cells and immune effector cells, we obtained an HLA class I + lung tumor cell line from a fresh surgical specimen, and using the infiltrating immune cells, isolated and characterized tumor antigen-specific, CD8+ CTLs. We then established a SCID mouse-human tumor xenograft model with the tumor cell line and used it to study the function of the autologous CTLs provided via adoptive transfer. Results The tumor antigen specific CTLs isolated from the tumor were found to have an activated memory phenotype and able to kill tumor cells in an antigen specific manner in vitro. Additionally, the tumor antigen-specific CTLs were fully capable of homing to and killing autologous tumors in vivo, and expressing IFN-γ, each in an antigen-dependent manner. A single injection of these CTLs was able to provide significant but temporary control of the growth of autologous tumors in vivo without the need for IL-2. The timing of injection of CTLs played an essential role in the outcome of tumor growth control. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of surviving tumor cells following CTL treatment indicated that the surviving tumor cells expressed reduced MHC class I antigens on their surface. Conclusion These studies confirm and extend previous studies and provide additional information regarding the characteristics of CTLs which can be found within a patient's tumor. Moreover, the in vivo model described here provides a unique window for observing events that may also occur in patients undergoing adoptive cellular

  18. Impact of hydrodynamic injection and phiC31 integrase on tumor latency in a mouse model of MYC-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Woodard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic injection is an effective method for DNA delivery in mouse liver and is being translated to larger animals for possible clinical use. Similarly, phiC31 integrase has proven effective in mediating long-term gene therapy in mice when delivered by hydrodynamic injection and is being considered for clinical gene therapy applications. However, chromosomal aberrations have been associated with phiC31 integrase expression in tissue culture, leading to questions about safety.To study whether hydrodynamic delivery alone, or in conjunction with delivery of phiC31 integrase for long-term transgene expression, could facilitate tumor formation, we used a transgenic mouse model in which sustained induction of the human C-MYC oncogene in the liver was followed by hydrodynamic injection. Without injection, mice had a median tumor latency of 154 days. With hydrodynamic injection of saline alone, the median tumor latency was significantly reduced, to 105 days. The median tumor latency was similar, 106 days, when a luciferase donor plasmid and backbone plasmid without integrase were administered. In contrast, when active or inactive phiC31 integrase and donor plasmid were supplied to the mouse liver, the median tumor latency was 153 days, similar to mice receiving no injection.Our data suggest that phiC31 integrase does not facilitate tumor formation in this C-MYC transgenic mouse model. However, in groups lacking phiC31 integrase, hydrodynamic injection appeared to contribute to C-MYC-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in adult mice. Although it remains to be seen to what extent these findings may be extrapolated to catheter-mediated hydrodynamic delivery in larger species, they suggest that caution should be used during translation of hydrodynamic injection to clinical applications.

  19. Concurrent Longitudinal EPR Monitoring of Tissue Oxygenation, Acidosis, and Reducing Capacity in Mouse Xenograft Tumor Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobko, Andrey A; Evans, Jason; Denko, Nicholas C; Khramtsov, Valery V

    2017-06-01

    Tissue oxygenation, extracellular acidity, and tissue reducing capacity are among crucial parameters of tumor microenvironment (TME) of significant importance for tumor pathophysiology. In this paper, we demonstrate the complementary application of particulate lithium octa-n-butoxy-naphthalocyanine and soluble nitroxide paramagnetic probes for monitoring of these TME parameters using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Two different types of therapeutic interventions were studied: hypothermia and systemic administration of metabolically active drug. In summary, the results demonstrate the utility of EPR technique for non-invasive concurrent longitudinal monitoring of physiologically relevant chemical parameters of TME in mouse xenograft tumor models, including that under therapeutic intervention.

  20. Codon 61 mutations in the c-Harvey-ras gene in mouse skin tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene plus okadaic acid class tumor promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, H; Suganuma, M; Yoshizawa, S; Kanazawa, H; Sugimura, T; Manam, S; Kahn, S M; Jiang, W; Hoshina, S; Weinstein, I B

    1989-01-01

    Three okadaic acid class tumor promoters, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and calyculin A, have potent tumor-promoting activity in two-stage carcinogenesis experiments on mouse skin. DNA isolated from tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and each of these tumor promoters revealed the same mutation at the second nucleotide of codon 61 (CAA----CTA) in the c-Ha-ras gene, determined by the polymerase chain reaction procedure and DNA sequencing. Three potent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type tumor promoters, TPA, teleocidin, and aplysiatoxin, showed the same effects. These results provide strong evidence that this mutation in the c-Ha-ras gene is due to a direct effect of DMBA rather than a selective effect of specific tumor promoters.

  1. Fever and abdominal tumoral masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin C. Dima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 49 year-old man presented to our clinic for pain in the right hypochondrium, diarrhea, and fever. The clinical examination highlights a tumoral formation in the right side of the abdomen, with firm consistency, poorly defined margins, and present mobility in the deep structures. On biological exams, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, inflammatory syndrome, and hypoalbuminaemia were identified. The first computed tomography exam described parietal thickening of the ascending colon, with infiltrative aspect, and multiple local adenopathies, lomboaortic and interaortocave. Moreover, four nodular liver tumors, with hypodense image in native examination, were identified. The lab tests for infectious diseases were all inconclusives: three hemocultures, three stool samples, and three coproparasitological exams were all negatives. Interdisciplinary examinations, internal medicine and infectious diseases, sustained the diagnosis of colonic neoplasm with peritumoral abscess and liver pseudo-tumoral masses. The colonoscopy did not revealed any bowel lesions relevant for neoplasia. This result as well as the bio-clinical context imposed abstention from surgical intervention. Wide spectrum antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were initiated. But, ten days after hospitalization, the second computed tomography exam showed reduction of the ascending colon wall thickness associated with significant increases of the liver tumors is so revealed. The investigations for other possible etiologies were so continued.

  2. Contrast Dose and Radiation Dose Reduction in Abdominal Enhanced Computerized Tomography Scans with Single-phase Dual-energy Spectral Computerized Tomography Mode for Children with Solid Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Yu; Jun Gao; Zhi-Min Liu; Qi-Feng Zhang; Yong Liu; Ling Jiang; Yun Peng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Contrast dose and radiation dose reduction in computerized tomography (CT) scan for adult has been explored successfully, but there have been few studies on the application of low-concentration contrast in pediatric abdominal CT examinations. This was a feasibility study on the use of dual-energy spectral imaging and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) for the reduction of radiation dose and iodine contrast dose in pediatric abdominal CT patients with solid tumors...

  3. Pediatric liver tumors - a pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Priyanka; Tavri, Sidhartha; Patel, Chirag; Gooding, Charles; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Chawla, Soni C.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic masses constitute about 5-6% of all intra-abdominal masses in children. The majority of liver tumors in children are malignant; these malignant liver tumors constitute the third most common intra-abdominal malignancy in the pediatric age group after Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma. Only about one third of the liver tumors are benign. A differential diagnosis of liver tumors in children can be obtained based on the age of the child, clinical information (in particular AFP) and imaging characteristics. The purpose of this review is to report typical clinical and imaging characteristics of benign and malignant primary liver tumors in children. (orig.)

  4. A Bayesian statistical analysis of mouse dermal tumor promotion assay data for evaluating cigarette smoke condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathman, Steven J; Potts, Ryan J; Ayres, Paul H; Harp, Paul R; Wilson, Cody L; Garner, Charles D

    2010-10-01

    The mouse dermal assay has long been used to assess the dermal tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). This mouse skin model has been developed for use in carcinogenicity testing utilizing the SENCAR mouse as the standard strain. Though the model has limitations, it remains as the most relevant method available to study the dermal tumor promoting potential of mainstream cigarette smoke. In the typical SENCAR mouse CSC bioassay, CSC is applied for 29 weeks following the application of a tumor initiator such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Several endpoints are considered for analysis including: the percentage of animals with at least one mass, latency, and number of masses per animal. In this paper, a relatively straightforward analytic model and procedure is presented for analyzing the time course of the incidence of masses. The procedure considered here takes advantage of Bayesian statistical techniques, which provide powerful methods for model fitting and simulation. Two datasets are analyzed to illustrate how the model fits the data, how well the model may perform in predicting data from such trials, and how the model may be used as a decision tool when comparing the dermal tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate from multiple cigarette types. The analysis presented here was developed as a statistical decision tool for differentiating between two or more prototype products based on the dermal tumorigenicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microencapsulated tumor assay: Evaluation of the nude mouse model of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-Zhe; Cheng, Dong-Feng; Ye, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Jia-Xiang; Shi, Min-Min; Han, Bao-San; Peng, Cheng-Hong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish a more stable and accurate nude mouse model of pancreatic cancer using cancer cell microencapsulation. METHODS: The assay is based on microencapsulation technology, wherein human tumor cells are encapsulated in small microcapsules (approximately 420 μm in diameter) constructed of semipermeable membranes. We implemented two kinds of subcutaneous implantation models in nude mice using the injection of single tumor cells and encapsulated pancreatic tumor cells. The size of subcutaneously implanted tumors was observed on a weekly basis using two methods, and growth curves were generated from these data. The growth and metastasis of orthotopically injected single tumor cells and encapsulated pancreatic tumor cells were evaluated at four and eight weeks postimplantation by positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan and necropsy. The pancreatic tumor samples obtained from each method were then sent for pathological examination. We evaluated differences in the rates of tumor incidence and the presence of metastasis and variations in tumor volume and tumor weight in the cancer microcapsules vs single-cell suspensions. RESULTS: Sequential in vitro observations of the microcapsules showed that the cancer cells in microcapsules proliferated well and formed spheroids at days 4 to 6. Further in vitro culture resulted in bursting of the membrane of the microcapsules and cells deviated outward and continued to grow in flasks. The optimum injection time was found to be 5 d after tumor encapsulation. In the subcutaneous implantation model, there were no significant differences in terms of tumor volume between the encapsulated pancreatic tumor cells and cells alone and rate of tumor incidence. There was a significant difference in the rate of successful implantation between the cancer cell microencapsulation group and the single tumor-cell suspension group (100% vs 71.43%, respectively, P = 0.0489) in the orthotropic implantation model. The former method

  6. Characterization of Pancreatic Tumor Motion Using Cine MRI: Surrogates for Tumor Position Should Be Used With Caution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Mary; Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Adusumilli, Saroja; Cao Yue; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Our current understanding of intrafraction pancreatic tumor motion due to respiration is limited. In this study, we characterized pancreatic tumor motion and evaluated the application of several radiotherapy motion management strategies. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer were enrolled in a prospective internal review board-approved study and imaged during shallow free-breathing using cine MRI on a 3T scanner. Tumor borders were agreed on by a radiation oncologist and an abdominal MRI radiologist. Tumor motion and correlation with the potential surrogates of the diaphragm and abdominal wall were assessed. These data were also used to evaluate planning target volume margin construction, respiratory gating, and four-dimensional treatment planning for pancreatic tumors. Results: Tumor borders moved much more than expected. To provide 99% geometric coverage, margins of 20 mm inferiorly, 10 mm anteriorly, 7 mm superiorly, and 4 mm posteriorly are required. Tumor position correlated poorly with diaphragm and abdominal wall position, with patient-level Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.18-0.43. Sensitivity and specificity of gating with these surrogates was also poor, at 53%-68%, with overall error of 35%-38%, suggesting that the tumor may be underdosed and normal tissues overdosed. Conclusions: Motion of pancreatic tumor borders is highly variable between patients and larger than expected. There is substantial deformation with breathing, and tumor border position does not correlate well with abdominal wall or diaphragmatic position. Current motion management strategies may not account fully for tumor motion and should be used with caution.

  7. Cyanine 5.5 conjugated nanobubbles as a tumor selective contrast agent for dual ultrasound-fluorescence imaging in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyi Mai

    Full Text Available Nanobubbles and microbubbles are non-invasive ultrasound imaging contrast agents that may potentially enhance diagnosis of tumors. However, to date, both nanobubbles and microbubbles display poor in vivo tumor-selectivity over non-targeted organs such as liver. We report here cyanine 5.5 conjugated nanobubbles (cy5.5-nanobubbles of a biocompatible chitosan-vitamin C lipid system as a dual ultrasound-fluorescence contrast agent that achieved tumor-selective imaging in a mouse tumor model. Cy5.5-nanobubble suspension contained single bubble spheres and clusters of bubble spheres with the size ranging between 400-800 nm. In the in vivo mouse study, enhancement of ultrasound signals at tumor site was found to persist over 2 h while tumor-selective fluorescence emission was persistently observed over 24 h with intravenous injection of cy5.5-nanobubbles. In vitro cell study indicated that cy5.5-flurescence dye was able to accumulate in cancer cells due to the unique conjugated nanobubble structure. Further in vivo fluorescence study suggested that cy5.5-nanobubbles were mainly located at tumor site and in the bladder of mice. Subsequent analysis confirmed that accumulation of high fluorescence was present at the intact subcutaneous tumor site and in isolated tumor tissue but not in liver tissue post intravenous injection of cy5.5-nanobubbles. All these results led to the conclusion that cy5.5-nanobubbles with unique crosslinked chitosan-vitamin C lipid system have achieved tumor-selective imaging in vivo.

  8. Comparison of planar, PET and well-counter measurements of total tumor radioactivity in a mouse xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael V.; Seidel, Jurgen; Williams, Mark R.; Wong, Karen J.; Ton, Anita; Basuli, Falguni; Choyke, Peter L.; Jagoda, Elaine M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Quantitative small animal radionuclide imaging studies are often carried out with the intention of estimating the total radioactivity content of various tissues such as the radioactivity content of mouse xenograft tumors exposed to putative diagnostic or therapeutic agents. We show that for at least one specific application, positron projection imaging (PPI) and PET yield comparable estimates of absolute total tumor activity and that both of these estimates are highly correlated with direct well-counting of these same tumors. These findings further suggest that in this particular application, PPI is a far more efficient data acquisition and processing methodology than PET. Methods: Forty-one athymic mice were implanted with PC3 human prostate cancer cells transfected with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA (+)) and one additional animal (for a total of 42) with a control blank vector (PSMA (−)). All animals were injected with [ 18 F] DCFPyl, a ligand for PSMA, and imaged for total tumor radioactivity with PET and PPI. The tumors were then removed, assayed by well counting for total radioactivity and the values between these methods intercompared. Results: PET, PPI and well-counter estimates of total tumor radioactivity were highly correlated (R 2 > 0.98) with regression line slopes near unity (0.95 < slope ≤ 1.02) and intercepts near zero (−0.001 MBq ≤ intercept ≤0.004 MBq). Conclusion: Total mouse xenograft tumor radioactivity can be measured with PET or PPI with an accuracy comparable to well counting if certain experimental and pharmacokinetic conditions are met. In this particular application, PPI is significantly more efficient than PET in making these measurements.

  9. Combination use of lentinan with x-ray therapy in mouse experimental tumor system, (3). Combination effect on the metastatic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiio, Tsuyoshi; Ohishi, Kazuo; Niitsu, Iwayasu; Hayashibara, Hiromi; Tsuchiya, Yoshiharu; Yoshihama, Takashi; Moriyuki, Hirobumi

    1988-03-01

    Combination effect of lentinan with X-ray irradiation on the metastatic mouse tumors, L1210, KLN205 and Lewis lung carcinoma were studied. Combination use of lentinan with X-ray therapy prolonged the life of BDF/sub 1/ mice bearing L1210 leukemia in the suitable combination conditions. Combination effects of lentinan with X-ray therapy were also observed on the suppression of the growth of KLN205 squamus cell carcinoma and on the suppression of the metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma. Especially, in the case that lentinan was administered before or after X-ray local irradiation in the pulmorary metastasis system of Lewis lung carcinoma, a marked suppressin of pulmonary metastasis was observed and 2 to 4 mice among 8 tested mice were tumor free.

  10. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cells in Tumor Suppressor Mouse Models of Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R; Xie, Xuanhua; Parada, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    The cellular origins and the mechanisms of progression, maintenance of tumorigenicity, and therapeutic resistance are central questions in the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) field. Using tumor suppressor mouse models, our group recently reported two independent populations of adult GBM-initiating central nervous system progenitors. We found different functional and molecular subtypes depending on the tumor-initiating cell lineage, indicating that the cell of origin is a driver of GBM subtype diversity. Using an in vivo model, we also showed that GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) or glioma stem cells (GSCs) contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and that genetic ablation of GSCs leads to a delay in tumor progression. These studies are consistent with the cell of origin and CSCs as critical regulators of the pathogenesis of GBM. © 2016 Alcantara Llaguno et al; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. In vivo and in vitro radiosensitivities ofnewly established mouse ascites tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Tsuboi, A.; Tsuchiya, T.

    1981-01-01

    The response of two newly established mouse mammary tumors to x irradiation in vitro and in vivo was studied by colony-forming assay in soft agar. Cells irradiated in vivo were more resistant than those irradiated in vitro. The D 0 values for in vitro irradiation were 112 rad at both exponential and stationary phases, while those for in vivo irradiation were 303 rad at exponential phase and 556 rad at stationary phase. This increase in D 0 value, which is greater than the OER, suggests that radiosensitivity in vivo cannot be explained only by hypoxia

  12. The influences of a novel anti-adhesion device, thermally cross-linked gelatin film on peritoneal dissemination of tumor cells: The in vitro and in vivo experiments using murine carcinomatous peritonitis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hiroe; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Horii, Tsunehito; Ozamoto, Yuki; Ueda, Joe; Takagi, Toshitaka; Saitoh, Naoto; Hagiwara, Akeo

    2017-10-10

    To create anti-adhesive materials to be more effective and safer, we developed a thermally cross-linked gelatin film that showed superior anti-adhesive effects with excellent peritoneal regeneration. However, it may act as a convenient scaffold for tumor cell growth, thereby accelerating peritoneal dissemination when used in surgery for abdominal tumors. In this study, we tried to clarify this issue using mouse carcinomatous peritonitis models. First, we examined the in vitro tumor cell growth of mouse B16 melanoma or Colon26 cells on the gelatin film or the conventional hyarulonate/carboxymethylcellulose film. Tumor cell growth on each film was significantly lower than that of the control (no film). Next, we conducted the following in vivo experiments: After the parietal peritoneum was partially removed and covered with each film or without any film, mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with B16 melanoma or Colon26/Nluc cells expressing NanoLuc luciferase gene. At 7 days after the operation, we measured the weight of B16 melanoma tumors or the NanoLuc activity of Colon26/Nluc cells using in vivo imaging at the injured sites. There were no significant differences in the weight of the tumors and the NanoLuc activity among the three groups. We also observed the survival time of mice receiving the same operation and treatments. There was no significant difference in the survival time among the three groups. These results suggest that the gelatin film will likely not accelerate peritoneal dissemination as a convenient scaffold for tumor cell growth when used in surgery for abdominal tumors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Induction of mouse mammary tumor virus RNA in mammary tumors of BALB/c mice treated with urethane, x-irradiation, and hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalides, R.; van Deemter, L.; Nusse, R.; Hageman, P.

    1979-01-01

    The involvement of mouse mammary tumor virus (MTV) in the development of mammary tumors of nonviral etiology in BALB/c mice was studied by measuring the levels of MTV RNA, MTV DNA, and MTV proteins in spontaneously arising and hormally, chemically, and/or physically induced mammary tumors of BALB/c females. The following results were obtained: (1) spontaneous mammary tumors contained very low levels of MTV RNA; 4 x 10 -6 % of the cytoplasmic RNA was MTV RNA. No MTV proteins could be demonstrated by using sensitive radioimmunoassays for MTV proteins p27 and gp52. (2) Mammary tumors induced by treatments with urethane or x-irradiation alone contained higher levels of MTV RNA; these tumors contained 3- and 19-fold more MTV RNA, respectively, compared with spontaneous mammary tumors. (3) Mammary tumors induced by combined treatment with urethane and x-irradiation expressed high levels of MTV RNA in the mammary tumors; a 1,724-fold increase in MTV RNA content compared with spontaneous mammary tumors was observed. However, very low levels of MTV proteins gp52 and p27 were detected, suggesting some kind of impairment at the translation of MTV RNA. MTV RNA was also induced by this treatment in mammary glands and spleens, but not in the livers of tumor-bearing animals. (4) BALB/c females continuously exposed to prolactin contained high levels of MTV RNA and MTV proteins in stimulated mammary glands and in the hormonally induced mammary tumors. These findings suggest that MTV is not responsible for the maintenance and probably also not for the development of all murine mammary cancers

  14. Evaluation of the levels of metalloproteinsase-2 in patients with abdominal aneurysm and abdominal hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewska, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms and abdominal hernias become an important health problems of our times. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and its rupture is one of the most dangerous fact in vascular surgery. There are some theories pointing to a multifactoral genesis of these kinds of diseases, all of them assume the attenuation of abdominal fascia and abdominal aortic wall. The density and continuity of these structures depend on collagen and elastic fibers structure. Reducing the strength of the fibers may be due to changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by the proteolytic enzymes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. These enzymes play an important role in the development of many disease: malignant tumors (colon, breast, lung, pancreas), cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury), connective tissue diseases (Ehler-Danlos Syndrome, Marfan's Syndrome), complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy). One of the most important is matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The aim of the study was an estimation of the MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia, and in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study involved 88 patients aged 42 to 89 years, including 75 men and 13 women. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia (45 persons, representing 51.1% of all group) and patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm (43 persons, representing 48,9% of all group). It was a statistically significant increase in MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia compared to patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. It was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of POCHP in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia. Statistically significant

  15. Localization of mammary tumors in vivo with 131I-labeled Fab fragments of antibodies against mouse mammary epithelial (MME) antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbanks, T.; Peterson, J.A.; Miller, S.; Kaufman, L.; Ortendahl, D.; Ceriani, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Fab fragments of antibodies against cell-type-specific surface antigens of mouse mammary epithelial cells (MME-antigens) were used to localize mammary tumors successfully. The radioiodine-labeled anti-MME (Fab) was injected into mice carrying simulated mammary metastases, and after 24 hours the amount of label per gram of excised tissue was several times greater in the tumor than in liver, brain, lung, or muscle. Kidney showed considerable accumulation of label but this appeared to be nonspecific. Kinetic studies revealed a rapid elimination of labeled Fab in the urine with only 1% of the injected dose remaining in the entire blood pool after 24 hours. Wit a high-purity germanium camera, mammary tumors were clearly located ty the 131 I-labeled anti-MME (Fab), and normalization to /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate distribution in the animal increased the specificity. The density of 131 I-label was fourfold greater over the mammary tumor than over comparable areas of the mouse. No accumulation of 131 I-anti-MME (Fab) was observed in nonmammary tumors nor in mammary tumors when labeled nonspecific Fab was used. An analogous system using an antihuman mammary epithelial antiserum is being developed for localization of breast metastases in humans

  16. Abdominal imaging in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dawei; Wang Wei; Yuan Chunwang; Jia Cuiyu; Zhao Xuan; Zhang Tong; Ma Daqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate abdominal imaging in AIDS. Methods: The imaging examinations (including US, CT and MR) of 6 patients with AIDS associated abdominal foci were analysed retrospectively. All the cases were performed US, and CT scan, of which 4 performed enhanced CT scan and 1 with MR. Results: Abdominal tuberculosis were found in 4 patients, including abdominal lymph nodes tuberculosis (3 cases) and pancreatic tuberculosis (1 case). The imaging of lymph nodes tuberculosis typically showed enlarged peripheral tim enhancement with central low-attenuation on contrast-enhanced CT. Pancreatic tuberculosis demonstrated low-attenuation area in pancreatic head and slightly peripheral enhancement. Disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma was seen in 1 case: CT and MRI scan demonstrated tumour infiltrated along hepatic portal vein and bronchovascular bundles. Pelvic tumor was observed in 1 case: CT scan showed large mass with thick and irregular wall and central low attenuation liquefacient necrotic area in the pelvic cavity. Conclusion: The imaging findings of AIDS with abdominal foci is extraordinarily helpful to the diagnosis of such disease. Tissue biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis. (authors)

  17. The anti-tumor effect of ACNU and x-irradiation on mouse glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hidemitsu; Hori, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Mogami, Heitaro; Hayakawa, Toru.

    1979-01-01

    Anti-tumor activities of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) and x-irradiation on methylcholanthrene induced glioma in C 57 BL mice were studied in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments using cultured glioma cells (MGB cells), the synchronization of cell cycle was done by excess addition of thymidine, and the anti-tumor cell effect were investigated by mean of determinations of DNA synthesis, mitotic index and the number of the living cells following the treatments. As the results, it appeared obvious that ACNU was most effective on MGB cells in S phase and x-irradiation in M phase. As to the combined therapy of ACNU and x-irradiation, the anti-tumor effect was most remarkable when the cells were treated by x-irradiation in the G 2 , M phase, which were hervested by addition of ACNU 44 hours before irradiation. However simultaneous treatment of ACNU and x-irradiation on the cells in G 1 phase was not so remarkable. In vivo experiments the anti-tumor effect of ACNU and x-irradiation on subcutaneously or intracranially transplanted glioma in mice was investigated. Either ACNU 10 mg/kg or local x-irradiation 1240 rads showed inhibitory effect on the tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of the tumor bearing mice. The combination therapy was more effective than ACNU or x-irradiation alone, particularly combination therapy of ACNU and repeated small doses irradiation of x-ray was remarkably effective. Evidence obtained indicated that the combination therapy of ACNU and x-irradiation have synergistic anti-tumor effect on experimental mouse glioma. (author)

  18. In vitro and in vivo studies on the cytotoxicity of irradiated silk fibroin against mouse melanoma tumor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-il; Hwang, Han-Joon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of proteins can be altered by irradiation. But, it is rarely that the researches on the functional properties of irradiated proteins have been reported. Fibroin is a fibrous protein derived from silkworm Bombyx mori and has been suggested as a biomaterial for biomedical application. Therefore, fibroin was selected as a model protein and was examined with the irradiation effects on the cytotoxicity of fibroin on tumor cell. The cytotoxicity of fibroin against mouse melanoma cell (B16BL6) showed a significant increase dependent upon the increase of irradiation dose. And also, the splenocyte proliferation activities of fibroin were increased by gamma irradiation. In addition, the oral administration of irradiated fibroin significantly increased the inhibition rate of tumor growth in tumor-bearing mouse model. The reason might be due to the change of protein structure by gamma irradiation and is being studied. From these result, it could be concluded that the irradiated fibroin might be a potential candidate as a valuable product in food and medical industry.

  19. In vitro and in vivo studies on the cytotoxicity of irradiated silk fibroin against mouse melanoma tumor cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Eui-Baek [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Bioresources and Biosciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate school of Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Sung, Nak-Yun [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sun-Kyu [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Jochiwon 339-800 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-il [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Han-Joon [Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Jochiwon 339-800 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    The physicochemical properties of proteins can be altered by irradiation. But, it is rarely that the researches on the functional properties of irradiated proteins have been reported. Fibroin is a fibrous protein derived from silkworm Bombyx mori and has been suggested as a biomaterial for biomedical application. Therefore, fibroin was selected as a model protein and was examined with the irradiation effects on the cytotoxicity of fibroin on tumor cell. The cytotoxicity of fibroin against mouse melanoma cell (B16BL6) showed a significant increase dependent upon the increase of irradiation dose. And also, the splenocyte proliferation activities of fibroin were increased by gamma irradiation. In addition, the oral administration of irradiated fibroin significantly increased the inhibition rate of tumor growth in tumor-bearing mouse model. The reason might be due to the change of protein structure by gamma irradiation and is being studied. From these result, it could be concluded that the irradiated fibroin might be a potential candidate as a valuable product in food and medical industry.

  20. Heterotypic mouse models of canine osteosarcoma recapitulate tumor heterogeneity and biological behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milcah C. Scott

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is a heterogeneous and rare disease with a disproportionate impact because it mainly affects children and adolescents. Lamentably, more than half of patients with OS succumb to metastatic disease. Clarification of the etiology of the disease, development of better strategies to manage progression, and methods to guide personalized treatments are among the unmet health needs for OS patients. Progress in managing the disease has been hindered by the extreme heterogeneity of OS; thus, better models that accurately recapitulate the natural heterogeneity of the disease are needed. For this study, we used cell lines derived from two spontaneous canine OS tumors with distinctly different biological behavior (OS-1 and OS-2 for heterotypic in vivo modeling that recapitulates the heterogeneous biology and behavior of this disease. Both cell lines demonstrated stability of the transcriptome when grown as orthotopic xenografts in athymic nude mice. Consistent with the behavior of the original tumors, OS-2 xenografts grew more rapidly at the primary site and had greater propensity to disseminate to lung and establish microscopic metastasis. Moreover, OS-2 promoted formation of a different tumor-associated stromal environment than OS-1 xenografts. OS-2-derived tumors comprised a larger percentage of the xenograft tumors than OS-1-derived tumors. In addition, a robust pro-inflammatory population dominated the stromal cell infiltrates in OS-2 xenografts, whereas a mesenchymal population with a gene signature reflecting myogenic signaling dominated those in the OS-1 xenografts. Our studies show that canine OS cell lines maintain intrinsic features of the tumors from which they were derived and recapitulate the heterogeneous biology and behavior of bone cancer in mouse models. This system provides a resource to understand essential interactions between tumor cells and the stromal environment that drive the progression and metastatic propensity of

  1. Heterotypic mouse models of canine osteosarcoma recapitulate tumor heterogeneity and biological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Milcah C; Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Garbe, John R; Cornax, Ingrid; Amaya, Clarissa; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Subramanian, Subbaya; Bryan, Brad A; Modiano, Jaime F

    2016-12-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a heterogeneous and rare disease with a disproportionate impact because it mainly affects children and adolescents. Lamentably, more than half of patients with OS succumb to metastatic disease. Clarification of the etiology of the disease, development of better strategies to manage progression, and methods to guide personalized treatments are among the unmet health needs for OS patients. Progress in managing the disease has been hindered by the extreme heterogeneity of OS; thus, better models that accurately recapitulate the natural heterogeneity of the disease are needed. For this study, we used cell lines derived from two spontaneous canine OS tumors with distinctly different biological behavior (OS-1 and OS-2) for heterotypic in vivo modeling that recapitulates the heterogeneous biology and behavior of this disease. Both cell lines demonstrated stability of the transcriptome when grown as orthotopic xenografts in athymic nude mice. Consistent with the behavior of the original tumors, OS-2 xenografts grew more rapidly at the primary site and had greater propensity to disseminate to lung and establish microscopic metastasis. Moreover, OS-2 promoted formation of a different tumor-associated stromal environment than OS-1 xenografts. OS-2-derived tumors comprised a larger percentage of the xenograft tumors than OS-1-derived tumors. In addition, a robust pro-inflammatory population dominated the stromal cell infiltrates in OS-2 xenografts, whereas a mesenchymal population with a gene signature reflecting myogenic signaling dominated those in the OS-1 xenografts. Our studies show that canine OS cell lines maintain intrinsic features of the tumors from which they were derived and recapitulate the heterogeneous biology and behavior of bone cancer in mouse models. This system provides a resource to understand essential interactions between tumor cells and the stromal environment that drive the progression and metastatic propensity of OS. © 2016

  2. Novel orally available salvinorin A analog PR-38 inhibits gastrointestinal motility and reduces abdominal pain in mouse models mimicking irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałaga, M; Polepally, P R; Sobczak, M; Grzywacz, D; Kamysz, W; Sibaev, A; Storr, M; Do Rego, J C; Zjawiony, J K; Fichna, J

    2014-07-01

    The opioid and cannabinoid systems play a crucial role in multiple physiological processes in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Selective opioid as well as cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists exert a potent inhibitory action on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and pain. In this study, we examined (in vitro and in vivo) whether PR-38 (2-O-cinnamoylsalvinorin B), a novel analog of salvinorin A, can interact with both systems and demonstrate therapeutic effects. We used mouse models of hypermotility, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. We also assessed the influence of PR-38 on the central nervous system by measurement of motoric parameters and exploratory behaviors in mice. Subsequently, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of PR-38 in mouse blood samples after intraperitoneal and oral administration. PR-38 significantly inhibited mouse colonic motility in vitro and in vivo. Administration of PR-38 significantly prolonged the whole GI transit time, and this effect was mediated by µ- and κ-opioid receptors and the CB1 receptor. PR-38 reversed hypermotility and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking functional GI disorders. These data expand our understanding of the interactions between opioid and cannabinoid systems and their functions in the GI tract. We also provide a novel framework for the development of future potential treatments of functional GI disorders. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Klf5 deletion promotes Pten deletion-initiated luminal-type mouse prostate tumors through multiple oncogenic signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Changsheng; Ci, Xinpei; Sun, Xiaodong; Fu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhiqian; Dong, Eric N; Hao, Zhao-Zhe; Dong, Jin-Tang

    2014-11-01

    Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) regulates multiple biologic processes. Its function in tumorigenesis appears contradictory though, showing both tumor suppressor and tumor promoting activities. In this study, we examined whether and how Klf5 functions in prostatic tumorigenesis using mice with prostate-specific deletion of Klf5 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten), both of which are frequently inactivated in human prostate cancer. Histologic analysis demonstrated that when one Pten allele was deleted, which causes mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), Klf5 deletion accelerated the emergence and progression of mPIN. When both Pten alleles were deleted, which causes prostate cancer, Klf5 deletion promoted tumor growth, increased cell proliferation, and caused more severe morphologic and molecular alterations. Homozygous deletion of Klf5 was more effective than hemizygous deletion. Unexpectedly, while Pten deletion alone expanded basal cell population in a tumor as reported, Klf5 deletion in the Pten-null background clearly reduced basal cell population while expanding luminal cell population. Global gene expression profiling, pathway analysis, and experimental validation indicate that multiple mechanisms could mediate the tumor-promoting effect of Klf5 deletion, including the up-regulation of epidermal growth factor and its downstream signaling molecules AKT and ERK and the inactivation of the p15 cell cycle inhibitor. KLF5 also appears to cooperate with several transcription factors, including CREB1, Sp1, Myc, ER and AR, to regulate gene expression. These findings validate the tumor suppressor function of KLF5. They also yield a mouse model that shares two common genetic alterations with human prostate cancer-mutation/deletion of Pten and deletion of Klf5.

  4. Hybrid liposomes showing enhanced accumulation in tumors as theranostic agents in the orthotopic graft model mouse of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Ichihara, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Yoko

    2018-11-01

    Hybrid liposomes (HLs) can be prepared by simply sonicating a mixture of vesicular and micellar molecules in a buffer solution. This study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic effects and ability of HLs to detect (diagnosis) cancer in an orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer with HCT116 cells for the use of HLs as theranostic agents. In the absence of a chemotherapeutic drug, HLs exhibited therapeutic effects by inhibiting the growth of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells in vitro, possibly through an increase in apoptosis. Intravenously administered HLs also caused a remarkable reduction in the relative cecum weight in an orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer. A decrease in tumor size in the cecal sections was confirmed by histological analysis using HE staining. TUNEL staining indicated an induction of apoptosis in HCT116 cells in the orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer. For the detection (diagnosis) of colorectal cancer by HLs, the accumulation of HLs encapsulating a fluorescent probe (ICG) was observed in HCT116 cells in the in vivo colorectal cancer model following intravenous administration. These data indicate that HLs can accumulate in tumor cells in the cecum of the orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer for a prolonged period of time, and inhibit the growth of HCT116 cells.

  5. Tumor cell-derived PDGF-B potentiates mouse mesenchymal stem cells-pericytes transition and recruitment through an interaction with NRP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Inamul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New blood vessel formation, or angiogenic switch, is an essential event in the development of solid tumors and their metastatic growth. Tumor blood vessel formation and remodeling is a complex and multi-step processes. The differentiation and recruitment of mural cells including vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes are essential steps in tumor angiogenesis. However, the role of tumor cells in differentiation and recruitment of mural cells has not yet been fully elucidated. This study focuses on the role of human tumor cells in governing the differentiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to pericytes and their recruitment in the tumor angiogenesis process. Results We show that C3H/10T1/2 mouse embryonic mesenchymal stem cells, under the influence of different tumor cell-derived conditioned media, differentiate into mature pericytes. These differentiated pericytes, in turn, are recruited to bind with capillary-like networks formed by endothelial cells on the matrigel under in vitro conditions and recruited to bind with blood vessels on gel-foam under in vivo conditions. The degree of recruitment of pericytes into in vitro neo-angiogenesis is tumor cell phenotype specific. Interestingly, invasive cells recruit less pericytes as compared to non-invasive cells. We identified tumor cell-secreted platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B as a crucial factor controlling the differentiation and recruitment processes through an interaction with neuropilin-1 (NRP-1 in mesenchymal stem cells. Conclusion These new insights into the roles of tumor cell-secreted PDGF-B-NRP-1 signaling in MSCs-fate determination may help to develop new antiangiogenic strategies to prevent the tumor growth and metastasis and result in more effective cancer therapies.

  6. Estrogen responsiveness of the TFIID subunit TAF4B in the normal mouse ovary and in ovarian tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jennifer R; Hodgkinson, Kendra M; Binder, April K; Seymour, Kimberly A; Korach, Kenneth S; Vanderhyden, Barbara C; Freiman, Richard N

    2013-11-01

    Estrogen signaling in the ovary is a fundamental component of normal ovarian function, and evidence also indicates that excessive estrogen is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. We have previously demonstrated that the gonadally enriched TFIID subunit TAF4B, a paralog of the general transcription factor TAF4A, is required for fertility in mice and for the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells following hormonal stimulation. However, the relationship between TAF4B and estrogen signaling in the normal ovary or during ovarian tumor initiation and progression has yet to be defined. Herein, we show that Taf4b mRNA and TAF4B protein, but not Taf4a mRNA or TAF4A protein, are increased in whole ovaries and granulosa cells of the ovary after exposure to 17beta-estradiol or the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol and that this response occurs within hours after stimulation. Furthermore, this increase occurs via nuclear estrogen receptors both in vivo and in a mouse granulosa cancer cell line, NT-1. We observe a significant increase in Taf4b mRNA in estrogen-supplemented mouse ovarian tumors, which correlates with diminished survival of these mice. These data highlight the novel response of the general transcription factor TAF4B to estrogen in the normal ovary and during ovarian tumor progression in the mouse, suggesting its potential role in regulating actions downstream of estrogen stimulation.

  7. Recurrent abdominal pain: when an epileptic seizure should be suspected? Dor abdominal recorrente: quando suspeitar de crise epiléptica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Franzon

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent episodes of abdominal pain are common in childhood. Among the diagnostic possibilities are migraine and abdominal epilepsy (AE. AE is an infrequent syndrome with paroxystic episodes of abdominal pain, awareness disturbance, EEG abnormalities and positive results with the introduction of antiepileptic drugs. We present one 6 year-old girl who had short episodes of abdominal pain since the age of 4. The pain was followed by cry, fear and occasionally secondary generalization. MRI showed tumor in the left temporal region. As a differential diagnosis, we report a 10 year-old boy who had long episodes of abdominal pain accompanied by blurring of vision, vertigo, gait ataxia, dysarthria, acroparesthesias and vomiting. He received the diagnosis of basilar migraine. In our opinion, AE is part of a large group (partial epilepsies and does not require a special classification. Pediatric neurologists must be aware of these two entities that may cause abdominal pain.Episódios recorrentes de dor abdominal são freqüentes na infância e entre as causas neurológicas há migrânea e epilepsia abdominal (EA. EA é uma síndrome que consiste de episódios paroxísticos de dor abdominal associada à alteração de consciência, anormalidades eletrencefalográficas e boa resposta à terapia anticonvulsivante. Apresentamos uma menina de 6 anos que tinha desde os 4 anos episódios de curta duração de dor abdominal, seguidos por choro, medo e ocasional generalização secundária. A RM mostrou a presença de um tumor em região temporal esquerda. Como diagnóstico diferencial, apresentamos um menino de 10 anos que há 12 meses referia episódios de dor abdominal de longa duração acompanhados por turvação visual, vertigem, marcha atáxica, disartria, acroparestesia e vômito, recebendo posteriormente o diagnóstico de migrânia basilar. Em nossa opinião, EA faz parte de um grande grupo (epilepsias parciais e não requer uma classificação especial

  8. Overexpression and amplification of the c-myc gene in mouse tumors induced by chemical and radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, Ohtsura; Enoki, Yoshitaka; Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1989-03-01

    We examined expression of the c-myc gene by the dot blot hybridization of total cellular RNA from mouse primary tumors induced by chemicals and radiations. Expression of the c-myc gene was found to be elevated in 69 cases among 177 independently induced tumors of 12 different types. DNA from tumors overexpressing the myc gene was analyzed by Southern blotting. No case of rearrangement was detected. However, amplification of the c-myc gene was found in 7 cases of primary sarcomas. These included 4 cases out of 24 methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas and 3 cases out of 7 /alpha/-tocopherol-induced sacromas. We also analyzed 8 cases of sarcomas induced by radiations, but could not find changes in the gene structure of the c-myc gene. Thus, our data indicate tumor type specificity and agent specificity of c-myc gene amplification. (author).

  9. A knock-in mouse line conditionally expressing the tumor suppressor WTX/AMER1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Agnès; Comai, Glenda; Charlet, Aurélie; Jian Motamedi, Fariba; Dhib, Haroun; Bandiera, Roberto; Schedl, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    WTX/AMER1 is an important developmental regulator, mutations in which have been identified in a proportion of patients suffering from the renal neoplasm Wilms' tumor and in the bone malformation syndrome Osteopathia Striata with Cranial Sclerosis (OSCS). Its cellular functions appear complex and the protein can be found at the membrane, within the cytoplasm and the nucleus. To understand its developmental and cellular function an allelic series for Wtx in the mouse is crucial. Whereas mice carrying a conditional knock out allele for Wtx have been previously reported, a gain-of-function mouse model that would allow studying the molecular, cellular and developmental role of Wtx is still missing. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse strain that permits the conditional activation of WTX expression. Wtx fused to GFP was introduced downstream a stop cassette flanked by loxP sites into the Rosa26 locus by gene targeting. Ectopic WTX expression is reported after crosses with several Cre transgenic mice in different embryonic tissues. Further, functionality of the fusion protein was demonstrated in the context of a Wtx null allele. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Trastuzumab anti-tumor efficacy in patient-derived esophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (PDECX mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianhua

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trastuzumab is currently approved for the clinical treatment of breast and gastric cancer patients with HER-2 positive tumors, but not yet for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma patients, whose tumors typically show 5 ~ 35% HER-2 gene amplification and 0 ~ 56% HER-2 protein expression. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Trastuzumab in patient-derived esophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (PDECX mouse models. Methods PDECX models were established by implanting patient esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC tissues into immunodeficient (SCID/nude mice. HER-2 gene copy number (GCN and protein expression were determined in xenograft tissues and corresponding patient EC samples by FISH and IHC analysis. Trastuzumab anti-tumor efficacy was evaluated within these PDECX models (n = 8 animals/group. Furthermore, hotspot mutations of EGFR, K-ras, B-raf and PIK3CA genes were screened for in the PDECX models and their corresponding patient’s ESCC tissues. Similarity between the PDECX models and their corresponding patient’s ESCC tissue was confirmed by histology, morphology, HER-2 GCN and mutation. Results None of the PDECX models (or their corresponding patient’s ESCC tissues harbored HER-2 gene amplification. IHC staining showed HER-2 positivity (IHC 2+ in 2 PDECX models and negativity in 3 PDECX models. Significant tumor regression was observed in the Trastuzumab-treated EC044 HER-2 positive model (IHC 2+. A second HER-2 positive (IHC 2+ model, EC039, harbored a known PIK3CA mutation and showed strong activation of the AKT signaling pathway and was insensitive to Trastuzumab treatment, but could be resensitised using a combination of Trastuzumab and AKT inhibitor AZD5363. In summary, we established 5 PDECX mouse models and demonstrated tumor regression in response to Trastuzumab treatment in a HER-2 IHC 2+ model, but resistance in a HER-2 IHC 2+/PIK3CA mutated model. Conclusions

  11. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...... of the mushroom diets was equivalent to an intake of agaritine, the major phenylhydrazine derivative occurring in the mushroom, of 92 or 166 mg/kg body weight per day. The intake of CP was 106 mg/kg body weight per day. Neither the;freeze-dried mushroom nor CP induced statistically significant increased numbers...

  12. Computed tomography of pediatric abdominal masses

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    Kook, Shin Ho; Ko, Eun Joo; Chung, Eun Chul; Suh, Jung Soo; Rhee, Chung Sik [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-02-15

    Ultrasonography is a very useful diagnostic modality for evaluation of the pediatric abdominal masses, due to faster, cheaper, and no radiation hazard than CT. But CT has more advantages in assessing precise anatomic location, and extent of the pathologic process, and also has particular value in defining the size, relation of the mass to surrounding organs and detection of lymphadenopathy. We analyzed CT features of 35 cases of pathologically proven pediatric abdominal masses for recent 2 years at Ewha Woman's University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1.The most common originating site was kidney (20 cases, 57.1%); followed by gastrointestinal (5 cases, 14.3%), nonrenal retroperitoneal (4 cases, 11.4%), hepatobiliary (3 cases, 8.6%), and genital (3 cases, 8.6%) in order of frequency. 2.The most common mass was hydronephrosis (11 cases, 31.4%), Wilms' tumor (7 cases, 20.0%), neuroblastoma, choledochal cyst, periappendiceal abscess (3 cases, 8.6%, respectively), ovarian cyst (2 cases, 5.7%) were next in order of frequency. 3.Male to female ratio was 4:5 and choledochal cyst and ovarian cyst were found only in females. The most prevalent age group was 1-3 year old (12 cases, 34.3%). 4.With CT, the diagnosis of hydronephrosis was easy in all cases and could evaluate of its severity, renal function and obstruction site with high accuracy. 5.Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma were relatively well differentiated by their characteristic CT features; such as location, shape, margin, middle cross, calyceal appearance and calcification, etc. 6.Ovarian and mensentric cysts had similar CT appearance. 7.In other pediatric abdominal masses, CT provided excellent information about anatomic detail, precise extent of tumor and differential diagnostic findings. So, CT is useful imaging modality for the demonstration and diagnosis of abdominal mass lesions in pediatric patients.

  13. A novel pre-clinical in vivo mouse model for malignant brain tumor growth and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Laura M; Mukherjee, Purna; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; Urits, Ivan; Rosenberg, Joshua A; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2010-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a rapidly progressive disease of morbidity and mortality and is the most common form of primary brain cancer in adults. Lack of appropriate in vivo models has been a major roadblock to developing effective therapies for GBM. A new highly invasive in vivo GBM model is described that was derived from a spontaneous brain tumor (VM-M3) in the VM mouse strain. Highly invasive tumor cells could be identified histologically on the hemisphere contralateral to the hemisphere implanted with tumor cells or tissue. Tumor cells were highly expressive for the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the proliferation marker Ki-67 and could be identified invading through the pia mater, the vascular system, the ventricular system, around neurons, and over white matter tracts including the corpus callosum. In addition, the brain tumor cells were labeled with the firefly luciferase gene, allowing for non-invasive detection and quantitation through bioluminescent imaging. The VM-M3 tumor has a short incubation time with mortality occurring in 100% of the animals within approximately 15 days. The VM-M3 brain tumor model therefore can be used in a pre-clinical setting for the rapid evaluation of novel anti-invasive therapies.

  14. Effects of Oral Administration of Fucoidan Extracted from Cladosiphon okamuranus on Tumor Growth and Survival Time in a Tumor-Bearing Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Okamoto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the anti-tumor activities of the oral administration of fucoidan extracted from Cladosiphon okamuranus using a tumor (colon 26-bearing mouse model. The materials used included low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF: 6.5–40 kDa, intermediate-molecular-weight fucoidan (IMWF: 110–138 kDa and high-molecular-weight fucoidan (HMWF: 300–330 kDa. The IMWF group showed significantly suppressed tumor growth. The LMWF and HMWF groups showed significantly increased survival times compared with that observed in the control group (mice fed a fucoidan-free diet. The median survival times in the control, LMWF, IMWF and HMWF groups were 23, 46, 40 and 43 days, respectively. It was also found that oral administration of fucoidan increased the population of natural killer cells in the spleen. Furthermore, from the results of the experiment using Myd-88 knockout mice, it was found that these effects are related to gut immunity. These results suggest that fucoidan is a candidate anti-tumor functional food.

  15. Critical role of mast cell chymase in mouse abdominal aortic aneurysm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, J; Zhang, J; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2009-01-01

    Mast cell chymase may participate in the pathogenesis of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), yet a direct contribution of this serine protease to AAA formation remains unknown.......Mast cell chymase may participate in the pathogenesis of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), yet a direct contribution of this serine protease to AAA formation remains unknown....

  16. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy change vessel tree geometry and metastatic spread in a small cell lung cancer xenograft mouse tumor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Frenzel

    Full Text Available Tumor vasculature is critical for tumor growth, formation of distant metastases and efficiency of radio- and chemotherapy treatments. However, how the vasculature itself is affected during cancer treatment regarding to the metastatic behavior has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of hypofractionated radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy on vessel tree geometry and metastasis formation in a small cell lung cancer xenograft mouse tumor model to investigate the spread of malignant cells during different treatments modalities.The biological data gained during these experiments were fed into our previously developed computer model "Cancer and Treatment Simulation Tool" (CaTSiT to model the growth of the primary tumor, its metastatic deposit and also the influence on different therapies. Furthermore, we performed quantitative histology analyses to verify our predictions in xenograft mouse tumor model.According to the computer simulation the number of cells engrafting must vary considerably to explain the different weights of the primary tumor at the end of the experiment. Once a primary tumor is established, the fractal dimension of its vasculature correlates with the tumor size. Furthermore, the fractal dimension of the tumor vasculature changes during treatment, indicating that the therapy affects the blood vessels' geometry. We corroborated these findings with a quantitative histological analysis showing that the blood vessel density is depleted during radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy. The CaTSiT computer model reveals that chemotherapy influences the tumor's therapeutic susceptibility and its metastatic spreading behavior.Using a system biological approach in combination with xenograft models and computer simulations revealed that the usage of chemotherapy and radiation therapy determines the spreading behavior by changing the blood vessel geometry of the primary tumor.

  17. Combination use of lentinan with x-ray therapy in mouse experimental tumor system, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiio, Tsuyoshi; Ohishi, Kazuo; Niitsu, Iwayasu; Hayashibara, Hiromi; Tsuchiya, Yoshiharu; Yoshihama, Takashi; Moriyuki, Hirobumi

    1988-01-01

    Combination effect of lentinan with X-ray irradiation on the metastatic mouse tumors, L1210, KLN205 and Lewis lung carcinoma were studied. Combination use of lentinan with X-ray therapy prolonged the life of BDF 1 mice bearing L1210 leukemia in the suitable combination conditions. Combination effects of lentinan with X-ray therapy were also observed on the suppression of the growth of KLN205 squamus cell carcinoma and on the suppression of the metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma. Especially, in the case that lentinan was administered before or after X-ray local irradiation in the pulmorary metastasis system of Lewis lung carcinoma, a marked suppressin of pulmonary metastasis was observed and 2 to 4 mice among 8 tested mice were tumor free. (author)

  18. Pancreatoblastoma, a Rare Childhood Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman ARGON

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatoblastoma, rarely encountered in the literature, is a malignant exocrine tumor seen in the pancreas. A 5-year-old boy suffering from abdominal pain was sent to our institute for further examination and treatment. Clinical examination was normal but for a palpable abdominal tumor mass. Abdominal Doppler ultrasonography showed a mass with well-defined margins within the body of the pancreas. Laboratory tests, including lactic dehydrogenase, alpha-fetoprotein and cancer antigen 125 were abnormal. The tumor invading the splenic vein and transverse colon was removed totally. We observed a hypercellular tumor in histopathological examination. The tumor had epithelial acinar cells and squamoid morules (corpuscles separated by stromal bands. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used after surgery. However, the patient died 14 months later. All data about pancreatoblastoma have to be collected in order to choose the treatment to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of the tumor, to diagnose it early and to develop target-specific treatments.

  19. Role of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy After Surgery for Abdominal Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atallah, Vincent [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bergonie Institute, Bordeaux (France); Honore, Charles [Department of Digestive Surgery, Gustave-Roussy Institute, Paris (France); Orbach, Daniel; Helfre, Sylvie [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Curie Institute, Paris (France); Ducassou, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Universitary Cancer Institute, Toulouse (France); Thomas, Laurence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bergonie Institute, Bordeaux (France); Levitchi, Mihai-Barbu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Alexis-Vautrin Center, Nancy (France); Mervoyer, Augustin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancerologie de l' ouest Institute, Nantes (France); Naji, Salem [Department of Radiation Oncology, Paoli-Calmette Institute, Marseille (France); Dupin, Charles [Department of Radiation Oncology, Universitary Hospital, Bordeaux (France); Bosco-Levy, Pauline J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bergonie Institute, Bordeaux (France); Philippe-Chomette, Pascale [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Hôpital Robert Debré, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Kantor, Guy; Henriques de Figueiredo, Benedicte [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bergonie Institute, Bordeaux (France); Sunyach, Marie-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leon-Berard Center, Lyon (France); Sargos, Paul, E-mail: p.sargos@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bergonie Institute, Bordeaux (France)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic role of adjuvant abdominal radiation therapy (RT) on oncologic outcomes as a part of multimodal treatment in the management of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) and to determine its impact according to the quality of surgical resection. Methods and Materials: All patients treated for primary abdominal DSRCT in 8 French centers from 1991 to 2014 were included. Patients were retrospectively staged into 3 groups: group A treated with adjuvant RT after cytoreductive surgery, group B without RT after cytoreductive surgery, and group C by exclusive chemotherapy. Peritoneal progression-free survival (PPFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. We also performed a direct comparison between groups A and B to evaluate RT after cytoreductive surgery. Radiation therapy was also evaluated according to completeness of surgery: complete cytoreductive surgery (CCS) or incomplete cytoreductive surgery (ICS). Results: Thirty-seven (35.9%), thirty-six (34.9%), and thirty (28.0%) patients were included in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Three-year OS was 61.2% (range, 41.0%-76.0%), 37.6% (22.0%-53.1%), and 17.3% (6.3%-32.8%) for groups A, B, and C, respectively. Overall survival, PPFS, and PFS differed significantly among the 3 groups (P<.001, P<.001, and P<.001, respectively). Overall survival and PPFS were higher in group A (RT group) compared with group B (no RT group) (P=.045 and P=.006, respectively). Three-year PPFS was 23.8% (10.3%-40.4%) for group A and 12.51% (4.0%-26.2%) for group B. After CCS, RT improved PPFS (P=.024), but differences in OS and PFS were not significant (P=.40 and P=.30, respectively). After ICS, RT improved OS (P=.044). A trend of PPFS and PFS increase was observed, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=.073 and P=.076). Conclusions: Adjuvant RT as part of multimodal treatment seems to confer oncologic benefits for patients treated for abdominal DSRCT

  20. Mouse mammary tumor virus uses mouse but not human transferrin receptor 1 to reach a low pH compartment and infect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Enxiu; Obeng-Adjei, Nyamekye; Ying Qihua; Meertens, Laurent; Dragic, Tanya; Davey, Robert A.; Ross, Susan R.

    2008-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a pH-dependent virus that uses mouse transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) for entry into cells. Previous studies demonstrated that MMTV could induce pH 5-dependent fusion-from-with of mouse cells. Here we show that the MMTV envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion requires both the entry receptor and low pH (pH 5). Although expression of the MMTV envelope and TfR1 was sufficient to mediate low pH-dependent syncytia formation, virus infection required trafficking to a low pH compartment; infection was independent of cathepsin-mediated proteolysis. Human TfR1 did not support virus infection, although envelope-mediated syncytia formation occurred with human cells after pH 5 treatment and this fusion depended on TfR1 expression. However, although the MMTV envelope bound human TfR1, virus was only internalized and trafficked to a low pH compartment in cells expressing mouse TfR1. Thus, while human TfR1 supported cell-cell fusion, because it was not internalized when bound to MMTV, it did not function as an entry receptor. Our data suggest that MMTV uses TfR1 for all steps of entry: cell attachment, induction of the conformational changes in Env required for membrane fusion and internalization to an appropriate acidic compartment

  1. Estrogen Responsiveness of the TFIID Subunit TAF4B in the Normal Mouse Ovary and in Ovarian Tumors1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jennifer R.; Hodgkinson, Kendra M.; Binder, April K.; Seymour, Kimberly A.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Vanderhyden, Barbara C.; Freiman, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Estrogen signaling in the ovary is a fundamental component of normal ovarian function, and evidence also indicates that excessive estrogen is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. We have previously demonstrated that the gonadally enriched TFIID subunit TAF4B, a paralog of the general transcription factor TAF4A, is required for fertility in mice and for the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells following hormonal stimulation. However, the relationship between TAF4B and estrogen signaling in the normal ovary or during ovarian tumor initiation and progression has yet to be defined. Herein, we show that Taf4b mRNA and TAF4B protein, but not Taf4a mRNA or TAF4A protein, are increased in whole ovaries and granulosa cells of the ovary after exposure to 17beta-estradiol or the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol and that this response occurs within hours after stimulation. Furthermore, this increase occurs via nuclear estrogen receptors both in vivo and in a mouse granulosa cancer cell line, NT-1. We observe a significant increase in Taf4b mRNA in estrogen-supplemented mouse ovarian tumors, which correlates with diminished survival of these mice. These data highlight the novel response of the general transcription factor TAF4B to estrogen in the normal ovary and during ovarian tumor progression in the mouse, suggesting its potential role in regulating actions downstream of estrogen stimulation. PMID:24068106

  2. Inhibitory effect of gene combination in a mouse model of colon cancer with liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Tong; Niu, Hongxin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish an animal liver metastasis model with human colon cancer and investigate the inhibitory effect of the wild type (WT) p53 gene combined with thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV) and cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC) systems on liver metastasis of colon cancer. A nude mouse liver metastasis model with human colon cancer was established via a spleen cultivation method. A total of 32 nude mice were randomly divided into four groups, each group with eight mice. Group 1 mice received splenic injections of SW480 cells (control group), while group 2 mice were injected with SW480/p53 cells in the spleen. Group 3 mice were administered splenic injections of SW480/TK-CD cells, and GCV and 5-FC were injected into the abdominal cavity. Finally, group 4 mice received splenic injections of SW480/p53 cells mixed in equal proportion with SW480/TK-CD cells, as well as GCV and 5-FC injections in the abdominal cavity. These cells described were constructed in our laboratory and other laboratories. The number of liver metastatic tumors, the liver metastasis rate, conventional pathology, electron microscopy and other indicators in the nude mice of each group were compared and observed. The nude mouse liver metastasis model with human colon cancer was successfully established; the liver metastasis rate of the control group was 100%. The results demonstrated that the rate of liver metastasis in the nude mice in each treatment group decreased, as well as the average number of liver metastatic tumors. Furthermore, the effect of the treatment group with genetic combination (group 4) was the most effective, demonstrating that WTp53 had a synergistic effect with TK/GCV and CD/5-FC. Therefore, the present study successfully established a mouse model of liver metastasis with colon cancer by injecting human colon cancer cells in the spleen. Combined gene therapy was shown to have a synergistic effect, which effectively inhibited the

  3. Measuring interstitial pH and pO2 in mouse tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakesh K; Munn, Lance L; Fukumura, Dai

    2013-07-01

    This protocol outlines methods to measure two extravascular parameters, interstitial pH and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), in mouse tumors. The method for measuring interstitial pH uses fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) of the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). The method for measuring interstitial pO2 is based on the oxygen-dependent quenching of the phosphorescence of albumin-bound palladium meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin, and can be used to measure microvascular as well as interstitial pO2. In addition, the two methods can be used sequentially to measure both pH and pO2 in the same tissues.

  4. Abdominal wall hernias: computed tomography findings; Hernias da parede abdomino-pelvica: aspectos tomograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ippolito, Giuseppe; Rosas, George de Queiroz; Mota, Marcos Alexandre; Akisue, Sandra R. Tsukada; Galvao Filho, Mario de Melo[Hospital e Maternidade Sao Luiz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de US/TC/RMN]. E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br

    2005-07-15

    Abdominal hernias are a common clinical problem Clinical diagnosis of abdominal hernias can sometimes be challenging, particularly in obese patients or patients with previous abdominal surgery. CT scan of the abdomen allows visualization of hernias and their contents and the differentiation from other masses of the abdominal wall such as tumors, hematomas and abscesses. Moreover, CT may identify complications such as incarceration, bowel obstruction, volvulus and strangulation. This study illustrates the CT scan findings observed in different types of abdominal wall hernias. (author)

  5. Oxygen tension measurements of tumors growing in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Markus F.; Dorie, Mary Jo; Brown, J. Martin

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical studies using the Eppendorf histograph have shown that patients whose tumors have a low pO 2 have worse local control after radiotherapy, and have higher metastatic rates. Because preclinical studies of methods of overcoming, or exploiting, hypoxia generally use transplanted tumors in mice, we have compared the oxygenation of mouse tumors with human tumors to determine the appropriateness of the transplanted mouse model for such preclinical studies. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the oxygenation status of subcutaneous (s.c.) tissue and of 12 intradermally (i.d.)- and 7 s.c.-growing mouse or human transplanted tumors in mice using the Eppendorf histograph, and compared the values obtained with measurements of human head and neck nodes. Results: The normal tissue pO 2 profile of air-breathing mice showed a nearly Gaussian distribution (38.2 ± 14.9 mmHg). Breathing 10% O 2 or carbogen resulted in dramatic changes in normal tissue oxygenation. Tumors growing intradermally in the back of air-breathing mice were extremely hypoxic and resistant to expected changes in oxygenation (carbogen breathing, size, and use of anesthetics). Tumors growing s.c. in the foot showed higher oxygen profiles with marked changes in oxygenation when exposing the animals to different levels of oxygen. However, the oxygenation of the mouse tumors transplanted in either site was only a fraction of that of the majority of human tumors. Conclusion: Experimental mouse tumors are markedly hypoxic, with median values of 10-20% of those of human tumors. Hence, mouse tumors are probably good models for the most hypoxic human tumors that respond poorly to radiotherapy; however, caution has to be exercised in extrapolating data from mouse to man

  6. Tumor-Targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in Combination with Trastuzumab Eradicates HER-2-Positive Cervical Cancer Cells in Patient-Derived Mouse Models.

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    Yukihiko Hiroshima

    Full Text Available We have previously developed mouse models of HER-2-positive cervical cancer. Tumors in nude mice had histological structures similar to the original tumor and were stained by anti-HER-2 antibody in the same pattern as the patient's cancer. We have also previously developed tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R and have demonstrated its efficacy against patient-derived tumor mouse models, both alone and in combination. In the current study, we determined the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R in combination with trastuzumab on a patient-cancer nude-mouse model of HER-2 positive cervical cancer. Mice were randomized to 5 groups and treated as follows: (1 no treatment; (2 carboplatinum (30 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks; (3 trastuzumab (20 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks; (4 S. typhimurium A1-R (5 × 107 CFU/body, ip, weekly, 5 weeks; (5 S. typhimurium A1-R (5 × 107 CFU/body, ip, weekly, 5 weeks + trastuzumab (20 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks. All regimens had significant efficacy compared to the untreated mice. The relative tumor volume of S. typhimurium A1-R + trastuzumab-treated mice was smaller compared to trastuzumab alone (p = 0.007 and S. typhimurium A1-R alone (p = 0.039. No significant body weight loss was found compared to the no treatment group except for carboplatinum-treated mice (p = 0.021. Upon histological examination, viable tumor cells were not detected, and replaced by stromal cells in the tumors treated with S. typhimurium A1-R + trastuzumab. The results of the present study suggest that S. typhimurium A1-R and trastuzumab in combination are highly effective against HER-2-expressing cervical cancer.

  7. A case of retroperitoneal carcinoid tumor which was radioeffective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kazuo; Ogawa, Osamu; Yoshimura, Naoki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Rei; Sasaki, Miharu.

    1984-01-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred to our hospital on May, 24, 1978, with complaints of lower abdominal pain, lower abdominal mass, constipation and pollakisuria. Physical examination revealed a lower abdominal tumor which was smooth, elastic soft and of childs' head size. IVP and urethrography revealed left nonvisualizing kidney, right hydronephrosis and deformity of bladder. CT scan revealed a large intrapelvic mass. Under the diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor, operation was done on June, 29, 1978. Adhesive changes between the tumor, sacrococcyx and left internal iliac artery was so severe that the tumor could not be resected, and only biopsy-specimen was taken. Pathohistological diagnosis of the tumor was carcinoid tumor. He received postoperative radiation therapy with total dosis of 5000 rad in 5 weeks, and complete remission was obtained. Now, more than 5 years have passed after operation, no recurrence was detected. Carcinoid tumors are rare and generally are not radioeffective, but some cases without carcinoid syndrome, including our case, are radioeffective. So radiation therapy should be the second choice of treatment for carcinoid tumor. (author)

  8. Therapeutic effects of anti-CD115 monoclonal antibody in mouse cancer models through dual inhibition of tumor-associated macrophages and osteoclasts.

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    Laetitia Fend

    Full Text Available Tumor progression is promoted by Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs and metastasis-induced bone destruction by osteoclasts. Both myeloid cell types depend on the CD115-CSF-1 pathway for their differentiation and function. We used 3 different mouse cancer models to study the effects of targeting cancer host myeloid cells with a monoclonal antibody (mAb capable of blocking CSF-1 binding to murine CD115. In mice bearing sub-cutaneous EL4 tumors, which are CD115-negative, the anti-CD115 mAb depleted F4/80(+ CD163(+ M2-type TAMs and reduced tumor growth, resulting in prolonged survival. In the MMTV-PyMT mouse model, the spontaneous appearance of palpable mammary tumors was delayed when the anti-CD115 mAb was administered before malignant transition and tumors became palpable only after termination of the immunotherapy. When administered to mice already bearing established PyMT tumors, anti-CD115 treatment prolonged their survival and potentiated the effect of chemotherapy with Paclitaxel. As shown by immunohistochemistry, this therapeutic effect correlated with the depletion of F4/80(+CD163(+ M2-polarized TAMs. In a breast cancer model of bone metastasis, the anti-CD115 mAb potently blocked the differentiation of osteoclasts and their bone destruction activity. This resulted in the inhibition of cancer-induced weight loss. CD115 thus represents a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, since a specific blocking antibody may not only inhibit the growth of a primary tumor through TAM depletion, but also metastasis-induced bone destruction through osteoclast inhibition.

  9. White Adipose Tissue Cells Are Recruited by Experimental Tumors and Promote Cancer Progression in Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Daquinag, Alexes; Traktuev, Dmitry O.; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Simmons, Paul J.; March, Keith L.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2010-01-01

    The connection between obesity and accelerated cancer progression has been established, but the mediating mechanisms are not well understood. We have shown that stromal cells from white adipose tissue (WAT) cooperate with the endothelium to promote blood vessel formation through the secretion of soluble trophic factors. Here, we hypothesize that WAT directly mediates cancer progression by serving as a source of cells that migrate to tumors and promote neovascularization. To test this hypothesis, we have evaluated the recruitment of WAT-derived cells by tumors and the effect of their engraftment on tumor growth by integrating a transgenic mouse strain engineered for expansion of traceable cells with established allograft and xenograft cancer models. Our studies show that entry of adipose stromal and endothelial cells into systemic circulation leads to their homing to and engraftment into tumor stroma and vasculature, respectively. We show that recruitment of adipose stromal cells by tumors is sufficient to promote tumor growth. Finally, we show that migration of stromal and vascular progenitor cells from WAT grafts to tumors is also associated with acceleration of cancer progression. These results provide a biological insight for the clinical association between obesity and cancer, thus outlining potential avenues for preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:19491274

  10. Lower abdominal wall reconstructions with pedicled rectus femoris flaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arashiro, Ken; Nishizeki, Osamu; Ishida, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, seven pedicled rectus femoris muscle or musculocutaneous flaps were used to repair lower abdominal defects; three recalcitrant incisional hernias with previous radiotherapy, two long-standing wound infections after synthetic mesh reconstruction, one posttraumatic wall defect and one metastatic tumor. There were two flap complications, one skin paddle necrosis and one wound infection. There was no significant disability of the donor limb encountered. During the two-year and seven month average follow-up, there was no recurrence of the problems except for one minor fascial dehiscence in the patient with metastatic abdominal wall tumor. Easy approach, rapid harvest, relatively large and reliable overlying fascia lata, a single dominant neurovascular pedicle, easy primary closure of the donor site, and minimal donor site morbidity all make the rectus femoris flap a good alternative flap for lower abdominal wall reconstruction. It is especially useful in a condition where synthetic mesh would be unsuitable for defects with infection or recurrent incisional hernia after radiotherapy. (author)

  11. No association between Epstein-Barr Virus and Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus with Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilú; Martínez-López, Juan L. E.; Hernández-Sancén, Paulina; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Torres, Javier; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy affecting women worldwide. It has been suggested that infection by Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus or a similar virus, MMTV-like virus (MMTV-LV), play a role in the etiology of the disease. However, studies looking at the presence of these viruses in breast cancer have produced conflicting results, and this possible association remains controversial. Here, we used polymerase chain reaction assay to screen specific sequences of EBV and MMTV-LV in 86 tumor and 65 adjacent tissues from Mexican women with breast cancer. Neither tumor samples nor adjacent tissue were positive for either virus in a first round PCR and only 4 tumor samples were EBV positive by a more sensitive nested PCR. Considering the study's statistical power, these results do not support the involvement of EBV and MMTV-LV in the etiology of breast cancer.

  12. 10-Year-Old Female with Acute Abdominal Pain with Pancreatic Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K. Powers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 10-year-old female presented to a local emergency department following three days of nausea and vomiting diagnosed with a solid pseudopapillary tumor. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms are a rare form of pancreatic cystic neoplasm that typically presents in young females in their 20–30s and are very rare in children. These neoplasms often present as an asymptomatic tumor found on incidental imaging. When symptomatic they most commonly present with abdominal pain and can also cause a palpable abdominal mass, weight loss, gastrointestinal obstruction, and nausea and vomiting. Timely diagnosis of this rare neoplasm is very important because complete resection of the tumor is the definitive treatment and leads to an excellent long-term survival.

  13. Chronic alcohol intake promotes tumor growth in a diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis mouse model through increased Wnt/Beta-catenin signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol (EtOH) metabolism is involved in both initiating and promoting mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma progression in chronic alcoholics. In this study, we developed a mouse model to test the hypothesis that chronic EtOH consumption promotes tumor growth irrespective of EtOH-related initiati...

  14. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Miyake

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.

  15. Tumor-homing effect of human mesenchymal stem cells in a TH-MYCN mouse model of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Koseki; Kishida, Tsunao; Wakao, Junko; Tanaka, Tomoko; Higashi, Mayumi; Fumino, Shigehisa; Aoi, Shigeyoshi; Furukawa, Taizo; Mazda, Osam; Tajiri, Tatsuro

    2016-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent stem-like cells that are reported to have tumor-suppression effects and migration ability toward damaged tissues or tumors. The aim of this study was to analyze the tumor-homing ability of hMSCs and antitumor potency in a transgenic TH-MYCN mouse model of neuroblastoma (NB). hMSCs (3×10 6 ) labeled with DiR, a lipophilic near-infrared dye, were intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intravenously (i.v.) administered to the TH-MYCN mice. hMSC in vivo kinetics were assayed using the IVIS® imaging system for 24h after injection. Immunohistochemistry using human CD90 antibody was also performed to confirm the location of hMSCs in various organs and tumors. Furthermore, the survival curve of TH-MYCN mice treated with hMSCs was compared to a control group administered PBS. i.p. hMSCs were recognized in the tumors of TH-MYCN mice by IVIS. hMSCs were also located inside the tumor tissue. Conversely, most of the i.v. hMSCs were captured by the lungs, and migration into the tumors was not noted. There was no significant difference in the survival between the hMSC and control groups. The present study suggested that hMSCs may be potential tumor-specific therapeutic delivery vehicles in NB according to their homing potential to tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-tumor cell IDO1 predominantly contributes to enzyme activity and response to CTLA-4/PD-L1 inhibition in mouse glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Lijie; Ladomersky, Erik; Dostal, Carlos R; Lauing, Kristen L; Swoap, Kathleen; Billingham, Leah K; Gritsina, Galina; Wu, Meijing; McCusker, Robert H; Binder, David C; Wainwright, Derek A

    2017-05-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults with a median survival of 14.6months. A contributing factor to GBM aggressiveness is the intratumoral expression of the potently immunosuppressive enzyme, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). The enzymatic activity of IDO1 is associated with the conversion of tryptophan into downstream kynurenine (Kyn), which has previously been hypothesized to contribute toward the suppression of tumor immunity. Utilizing the syngeneic, immunocompetent, intracranial GL261 cell GBM model, we previously demonstrated that tumor cell, but not non-tumor cell IDO1, suppresses T cell-mediated brain tumor regression in mice. Paradoxically, we also showed that the survival advantage mediated by immune checkpoint blockade is abrogated by non-tumor cell IDO1 deficiency. Here, we have built on our past observations and confirm the maladaptive role of tumor cell IDO1 in a novel mouse GBM model. We also demonstrate that, non-tumor cells, rather than mouse GBM cells, are the dominant contributor to IDO1-mediated enzyme activity. Finally, we show the novel associations between maximally-effective immune-checkpoint blockade-mediated survival, non-tumor cell IDO1 and intra-GBM Kyn levels. These data suggest for the first time that, GBM cell-mediated immunosuppression is IDO1 enzyme independent, while the survival benefits of immune checkpoint blockade require non-tumor cell IDO1 enzyme activity. Given that current clinical inhibitors vary in their mechanism of action, in terms of targeting IDO1 enzyme activity versus enzyme-independent effects, this work suggests that choosing an appropriate IDO1 pharmacologic will maximize the effectiveness of future immune checkpoint blockade approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Survey of 200 cases of the abdominal aortography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Jeung; Choi, Doo Suk; Hah, Hae Koo

    1972-01-01

    From 1962 to 1970 about 200 abdominal aortographies were performed in Department of Radiology of National Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, with percutaneous retrograde seldinger catheterization technique. The 200 cases of the abdominal aortography were analyzed as followings. 1) The sex ratio of all patients was 105 (52.5%) males to 95 (47.5%) females. And high incidence was noted in middle age group. (46 patients were from 30 years to 40 years of age) 2) Radiological findings were grouped as 62 (31%) vascular lesion, 113 (56.5%) visceral or other expanding lesions and 29 (14.5%) angiographically nonspecific findings. Total is over 200 due to double lesions in 4 patients. 3) The 62 vascular lesions were composed of 40 aortitis, 28 renal hypertension etc. a) The 40 aortitis was divided into 25 artherosclerotic and 15 nonspecific. The 15 nonspecific aortitis revealed segmental narrowing (2-4 cm) with collaterals. b) In 28 renal hypertension, 17 cases were combined with aortitis, but not in 11 cases (Pure renal hypertension), and 19 cases were unilateral. 4) The highest incidence in 113 (56.5%) visceral or other expanding lesions, was renal lesions (88 cases), and other lesions, such as 12 retroperitoneal masses, 9 liver and pancreatic masses were also noted. The 88 renal lesions were composed of 37 renal tbc, 17 hydronephrosis (excluding tbc hydro), Tumors, 10 cyst etc. a) The most significant findings of renal tuberculosis in renal arteriogrpahy was rarefaction of contrast staining in involved area which was noted in 32 cases (87%) out of 37 renal Tuberculosis. b) All 12 hypernephroma, 1 wilm's tumor, metastaic tumor from fibromyomata uteri revealed pathological vessels and tumor stainings, however these findings were not noted in 2 ureteral carcinoma involving renal pelvis. 5) No permanent complications arose after abdominal aortography. (Percutaneous retrograde seldinger catheterization technique) 6) Abdominal aortography and selective visceral injections gave more

  18. Survey of 200 cases of the abdominal aortography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Jeung; Choi, Doo Suk; Hah, Hae Koo [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    From 1962 to 1970 about 200 abdominal aortographies were performed in Department of Radiology of National Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, with percutaneous retrograde seldinger catheterization technique. The 200 cases of the abdominal aortography were analyzed as followings. 1) The sex ratio of all patients was 105 (52.5%) males to 95 (47.5%) females. And high incidence was noted in middle age group. (46 patients were from 30 years to 40 years of age) 2) Radiological findings were grouped as 62 (31%) vascular lesion, 113 (56.5%) visceral or other expanding lesions and 29 (14.5%) angiographically nonspecific findings. Total is over 200 due to double lesions in 4 patients. 3) The 62 vascular lesions were composed of 40 aortitis, 28 renal hypertension etc. a) The 40 aortitis was divided into 25 artherosclerotic and 15 nonspecific. The 15 nonspecific aortitis revealed segmental narrowing (2-4 cm) with collaterals. b) In 28 renal hypertension, 17 cases were combined with aortitis, but not in 11 cases (Pure renal hypertension), and 19 cases were unilateral. 4) The highest incidence in 113 (56.5%) visceral or other expanding lesions, was renal lesions (88 cases), and other lesions, such as 12 retroperitoneal masses, 9 liver and pancreatic masses were also noted. The 88 renal lesions were composed of 37 renal tbc, 17 hydronephrosis (excluding tbc hydro), Tumors, 10 cyst etc. a) The most significant findings of renal tuberculosis in renal arteriogrpahy was rarefaction of contrast staining in involved area which was noted in 32 cases (87%) out of 37 renal Tuberculosis. b) All 12 hypernephroma, 1 wilm's tumor, metastaic tumor from fibromyomata uteri revealed pathological vessels and tumor stainings, however these findings were not noted in 2 ureteral carcinoma involving renal pelvis. 5) No permanent complications arose after abdominal aortography. (Percutaneous retrograde seldinger catheterization technique) 6) Abdominal aortography and selective visceral injections gave more

  19. Systemic combinatorial peptide selection yields a non-canonical iron-mimicry mechanism for targeting tumors in a mouse model of human glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Ozawa, Michael G.; Moya, Catherine A.; Driessen, Wouter H.P.; Barbu, E. Magda; Nishimori, Hiroyuki; Soghomonyan, Suren; Flores, Leo G.; Liang, Xiaowen; Paolillo, Vincenzo; Alauddin, Mian M.; Basilion, James P.; Furnari, Frank B.; Bogler, Oliver; Lang, Frederick F.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Höök, Magnus; Gelovani, Juri G.; Sidman, Richard L.; Cavenee, Webster K.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2010-01-01

    The management of CNS tumors is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a vascular interface that restricts the passage of most molecules from the blood into the brain. Here we show that phage particles targeted with certain ligand motifs selected in vivo from a combinatorial peptide library can cross the BBB under normal and pathological conditions. Specifically, we demonstrated that phage clones displaying an iron-mimic peptide were able to target a protein complex of transferrin and transferrin receptor (TfR) through a non-canonical allosteric binding mechanism and that this functional protein complex mediated transport of the corresponding viral particles into the normal mouse brain. We also showed that, in an orthotopic mouse model of human glioblastoma, a combination of TfR overexpression plus extended vascular permeability and ligand retention resulted in remarkable brain tumor targeting of chimeric adeno-associated virus/phage particles displaying the iron-mimic peptide and carrying a gene of interest. As a proof of concept, we delivered the HSV thymidine kinase gene for molecular-genetic imaging and targeted therapy of intracranial xenografted tumors. Finally, we established that these experimental findings might be clinically relevant by determining through human tissue microarrays that many primary astrocytic tumors strongly express TfR. Together, our combinatorial selection system and results may provide a translational avenue for the targeted detection and treatment of brain tumors. PMID:21183793

  20. Recent advances of CT in the diagnosis of abdominal malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Y [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-08-01

    Advantages and limitations of CT in the diagnosis of abdominal malignancies are discussed in liver, pancreas, adrenal gland and recurrent tumor. As to hepatocellular carcinoma, main tumors were clearly demonstrated in 83%, equivocally in 9% and negatively in 8%. Rapid injection of contrast material was useful in dividing hepatic masses into hyper- and hypovascular tumors. Sensitivity of pancreatic cancer was high enough, but CT was of limited value in detecting a resectable one. CT was highly effective in diagnosis of adrenal tumors and recurrent tumors.

  1. An investigation of the shedding of macromolecules from the Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    The spontaneous release, or shedding, of cell surface components into the extracellular medium may be important in the determination of several features of the cancer cell phenotype. The release of macromolecules from the Erhlich mouse ascites tumor cell was studied under a variety of experimental conditions to elucidate the origin and the underlying mechanisms of release. The extrinsic macromolecules are a diverse group with apparent molecular weights ranging from 13,500 to 400,000 daltons. External labeling of the cell surface with tritiated 4,4'-diisothiocyano-1,2-diphenylethane-2,2-disulfonic acid ([ 3 H]H 2 DIDS) reveals a slow loss of labeled components at 4 degrees C, while at 21 degrees C and 37 degrees C an initial rapid loss is followed by a slower release. In vitro metabolic labeling with [1- 14 C]-D-glucosamine hydrochloride, D-[2- 3 H]-mannose and various [ 3 H]-L-amino acids results in the appearance of labeled macromolecules in the medium suggesting tumor, not mouse, origin. These data suggest that the extrinsic macromolecules originate from the cell surface. Macromolecules are shed by a temperature and pH sensitive process. These results suggest that a limited proteolytic digestion, or sublethal autolysis, of the cell surface may occur in this system. The macromolecules shed by the Ehrlich cell originate from the surface and are probably released by sublethal autolysis, direct secretion and a passive process

  2. Abdominal masses in infants and children: Analysis of 92 cases with special reference to radiological findings and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Hee; Suh, Jung Ho; Choi, Byung Sook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    The abdominal tumors in children are different from those of adults in respect to age brackets, basic tumor types, sites of origin and clinical manifestations. In children carcinoma are exceedingly uncommon. Most of the tumors are embryonal in origin and teratoma make up the bulk of the remaining neoplasms. Abdominal tumors are usually silent until they have assumed tremendous size. Early detection and aggressive philosophy of management became important as the trend to cure with radiation and chemotherapy increased. In a child with an abdominal mass x-ray exams are useful and often diagnostic. The 92 cases of abdominal masses in infants and children under the age of 16, who had been treated at Severance Hospital for the duration of 14 years from 1960 to 1973 were reviewed in respect to their basic type of tumors, site of origin, age incidence as well as radiographic findings. The results may be briefly summarized as follows; 1. The commonest tumor was ovarian cyst being 25 cases which were largely encountered over the age of 12. The next common tumors were Wilms' tumor, 17 cases, hepatoma, 9 cases, neuroblastoma and hydronephrosis, 8 cases each, teratoma 6 cases, etc. 2. The retroperitoneal space including kidneys were the most commonly involved site (43.5%), of which Wilms' tumor was the commonest. 3. About 2/3 of tumors developed under the age of 6 and the commonest lesions was Wilms' tumor and the next being neuroblastoma, teratoma, ovarian cyst and so forth. 4.In all tumors except ovarian tumors and choledochal cyst, male was more frequently affected. 5. In plain abdominal 75% of neuroblastoma crossed the mid line while in Wilms' tumor only 2 cases (14%) showed midline cross. Calcific density was present in all 6 cases of teratoma (100%) as dense and discrete ossification, in 3 cases of neuroblastoma (38%) characteristically in diffuse stippled appearance and in one case of Wilms' tumor (6%), in which calcification was nonspecific. 9. Intravenous pyelogram was

  3. A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Cardiac Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan Caglar Citak

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac angiosarcomas are extremely rare in childhood, they are rapidly progressive tumours that often present themselves as diagnostic dilemmas, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Also, extracardiac manifestations, including abdominal pain, are extremely rare in patients with intracardiac tumors. We herein present the case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with abdominal pain. Echocardiography and thoracic computed tomography showed right atrial mass. The patient underwent surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Eight months after treatment, abdominal recurrence was detected. The abdominal mass was resected, and radiotherapy and new chemotherapy protocol were given. The present case illustrates a rare case of primary cardiac angiosarcoma posing a diagnostic dilemma in an adolescent girl.

  4. Cultivation of mouse mammary tumor cells derived from DD/Tbr, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Mineko; Iwai, Yoshiaki; Takamori, Yasuhiko; Okumoto, Masaaki; Nishikawa, Ryosuke

    1981-01-01

    The factors affecting production of MuMTV by DD-762 cells, an established cell line from a spontaneous mammary tumor in a DD/Tbr mouse, were examined. When the cells were seeded and cultures medium were refreshed at every 3 - 4 day intervals without passage of cells, virus production began after exponential pase of cell growth and attained to peaks at every 10 - 12 days intervals up to approximately 60 days after seeding. MuMTV production was dependent on cell seeding density. Seeding at higher cell density, virus release occurred earlier. Maximum amount of MuMTV was observed with the medium containing 10 μg INS, 5 μg DXM and 10% FCS. The RDDP activities in the culture fluid were rapidly inactivated by incubation at 37 0 C. (author)

  5. The anti-tumor activity of a neutralizing nanobody targeting leptin receptor in a mouse model of melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis McMurphy

    Full Text Available Environmental and genetic activation of a brain-adipocyte axis inhibits cancer progression. Leptin is the primary peripheral mediator of this anticancer effect in a mouse model of melanoma. In this study we assessed the effect of a leptin receptor antagonist on melanoma progression. Local administration of a neutralizing nanobody targeting the leptin receptor at low dose adjacent to tumor decreased tumor mass with no effects on body weight or food intake. In contrast, systemic administration of the nanobody failed to suppress tumor growth. Daily intraperitoneal injection of high-dose nanobody led to weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia, and central effects mimicking leptin deficiency. The blockade of central actions of leptin by systemic delivery of nanobody may compromise its anticancer effect, underscoring the need to develop peripherally acting leptin antagonists coupled with efficient cancer-targeting delivery.

  6. The anti-tumor activity of a neutralizing nanobody targeting leptin receptor in a mouse model of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurphy, Travis; Xiao, Run; Magee, Daniel; Slater, Andrew; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Cao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and genetic activation of a brain-adipocyte axis inhibits cancer progression. Leptin is the primary peripheral mediator of this anticancer effect in a mouse model of melanoma. In this study we assessed the effect of a leptin receptor antagonist on melanoma progression. Local administration of a neutralizing nanobody targeting the leptin receptor at low dose adjacent to tumor decreased tumor mass with no effects on body weight or food intake. In contrast, systemic administration of the nanobody failed to suppress tumor growth. Daily intraperitoneal injection of high-dose nanobody led to weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia, and central effects mimicking leptin deficiency. The blockade of central actions of leptin by systemic delivery of nanobody may compromise its anticancer effect, underscoring the need to develop peripherally acting leptin antagonists coupled with efficient cancer-targeting delivery.

  7. Sensitivity of MRI tumor biomarkers to VEGFR inhibitor therapy in an orthotopic mouse glioma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian T Farrar

    Full Text Available MRI biomarkers of tumor edema, vascular permeability, blood volume, and average vessel caliber are increasingly being employed to assess the efficacy of tumor therapies. However, the dependence of these biomarkers on a number of physiological factors can compromise their sensitivity and complicate the assessment of therapeutic efficacy. Here we examine the response of these MRI tumor biomarkers to cediranib, a potent vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR inhibitor, in an orthotopic mouse glioma model. A significant increase in the tumor volume and relative vessel caliber index (rVCI and a slight decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC were observed for both control and cediranib treated animals. This contrasts with a clinical study that observed a significant decrease in tumor rVCI, ADC and volume with cediranib therapy. While the lack of a difference between control and cediranib treated animals in these biomarker responses might suggest that cediranib has no therapeutic benefit, cediranib treated mice had a significantly increased survival. The increased survival benefit of cediranib treated animals is consistent with the significant decrease observed for cediranib treated animals in the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV, relative microvascular blood volume (rMBV, transverse relaxation time (T2, blood vessel permeability (K(trans, and extravascular-extracellular space (ν(e. The differential response of pre-clinical and clinical tumors to cediranib therapy, along with the lack of a positive response for some biomarkers, indicates the importance of evaluating the whole spectrum of different tumor biomarkers to properly assess the therapeutic response and identify and interpret the therapy-induced changes in the tumor physiology.

  8. Electroporation of Postimplantation Mouse Embryos In Utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Carcagno, Abel

    2018-02-01

    Gene transfer by electroporation is possible in mouse fetuses within the uterus. As described in this protocol, the pregnant female is anesthetized, the abdominal cavity is opened, and the uterus with the fetuses is exteriorized. A solution of plasmid DNA is injected through the uterine wall directly into the fetus, typically into a cavity like the brain ventricle, guided by fiber optic illumination. Electrodes are positioned on the uterus around the region of the fetus that was injected, and electrical pulses are delivered. The uterus is returned to the abdominal cavity, the body wall is sutured closed, and the female is allowed to recover. The manipulated fetuses can then be collected and analyzed at various times after the electroporation. This method allows experimental access to later-stage developing mouse embryos. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. IL-6 trans-signaling licenses mouse and human tumor microvascular gateways for trafficking of cytotoxic T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Daniel T.; Chen, Qing; Skitzki, Joseph J.; Muhitch, Jason B.; Zhou, Lei; Appenheimer, Michelle M.; Vardam, Trupti D.; Weis, Emily L.; Passanese, Jessica; Wang, Wan-Chao; Gollnick, Sandra O.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Rose-John, Stefan; Repasky, Elizabeth A.; Baumann, Heinz; Evans, Sharon S.

    2011-01-01

    Immune cells are key regulators of neoplastic progression, which is often mediated through their release of cytokines. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 exert tumor-promoting activities by driving growth and survival of neoplastic cells. However, whether these cytokines also have a role in recruiting mediators of adaptive anticancer immunity has not been investigated. Here, we report that homeostatic trafficking of tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells across microvascular checkpoints is limited in tumors despite the presence of inflammatory cytokines. Intravital imaging in tumor-bearing mice revealed that systemic thermal therapy (core temperature elevated to 39.5°C ± 0.5°C for 6 hours) activated an IL-6 trans-signaling program in the tumor blood vessels that modified the vasculature such that it could support enhanced trafficking of CD8+ effector/memory T cells (Tems) into tumors. A concomitant decrease in tumor infiltration by Tregs during systemic thermal therapy resulted in substantial enhancement of Tem/Treg ratios. Mechanistically, IL-6 produced by nonhematopoietic stromal cells acted cooperatively with soluble IL-6 receptor–α and thermally induced gp130 to promote E/P-selectin– and ICAM-1–dependent extravasation of cytotoxic T cells in tumors. Parallel increases in vascular adhesion were induced by IL-6/soluble IL-6 receptor–α fusion protein in mouse tumors and patient tumor explants. Finally, a causal link was established between IL-6–dependent licensing of tumor vessels for Tem trafficking and apoptosis of tumor targets. These findings suggest that the unique IL-6–rich tumor microenvironment can be exploited to create a therapeutic window to boost T cell–mediated antitumor immunity and immunotherapy. PMID:21926464

  10. Wilms tumor in adult: case report; Tumor de Wilms em adulto: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Mauro Guimaraes; Vieira, Sabas Carlos; Rego, Cristiane Fortes Napoleao do [Universidade Estadual do Piaui (UESPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Fortes, Emanuel Augusto de C.; Santana, Gerusia Ibiapina [Hospital Sao Marcos, Teresina, PI (Brazil)]. E-mail: sabasvieira@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Wilms' tumor is the renal tumor with the higher incidence on the childhood, however it rarely occurs in adults.The incidence in this group is estimated at about 1% of all the cases and they have an obscure prognosis. In this report is related a new case in a 52 years old man presenting intensive abdominal pain associated by weightiness. Abdominal ultrasound revealed expansive and complex lesion with indefinite contour in the left flank. Computed tomography of abdomen demonstrated solid lesion on antero-superior pole of the left kidney invading para-vertebral musculature, peri and para-renal spaces. Total nephrectomy and the histopathologic analysis were realized. A nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor) in stage II without anaplasia was diagnosed by the anatomopathological studies.Local radiotherapy was applied. Thereafter was diagnosed pulmonary and hepatic metastasis, and then initiated the chemotherapy with adriamycin, actinomycin and vincristine. The prognosis of Wilms' tumor is worse in adult and it requires an aggressive therapeutic and follow up. (author)

  11. Microultrasound Molecular Imaging of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 in a Mouse Model of Tumor Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Rychak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency microultrasound imaging of tumor progression in mice enables noninvasive anatomic and functional imaging at excellent spatial and temporal resolution, although microultrasonography alone does not offer molecular scale data. In the current study, we investigated the use of microbubble ultrasound contrast agents bearing targeting ligands specific for molecular markers of tumor angiogenesis using high-frequency microultrasound imaging. A xenograft tumor model in the mouse was used to image vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2 expression with microbubbles conjugated to an anti-VEGFR-2 monoclonal antibody or an isotype control. Microultrasound imaging was accomplished at a center frequency of 40 MHz, which provided lateral and axial resolutions of 40 and 90 μm, respectively. The B-mode (two-dimensional mode acoustic signal from microbubbles bound to the molecular target was determined by an ultrasound-based destruction-subtraction scheme. Quantification of the adherent microbubble fraction in nine tumor-bearing mice revealed significant retention of VEGFR-2-targeted microbubbles relative to control-targeted microbubbles. These data demonstrate that contrast-enhanced microultrasound imaging is a useful method for assessing molecular expression of tumor angiogenesis in mice at high resolution.

  12. Tumor control probability after a radiation of animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Muneyasu; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Nesumi, Naofumi

    1975-01-01

    Tumor control and regrowth probability of animal tumors irradiated with a single x-ray dose were determined, using a spontaneous C3H mouse mammary carcinoma. Cellular radiation sensitivity of tumor cells and tumor control probability of the tumor were examined by the TD 50 and TCD 50 assays respectively. Tumor growth kinetics were measured by counting the percentage of labelled mitosis and by measuring the growth curve. A mathematical analysis of tumor control probability was made from these results. A formula proposed, accounted for cell population kinetics or division probability model, cell sensitivity to radiation and number of tumor cells. (auth.)

  13. Enalapril and ASS inhibit tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of islet cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, V; Lopez, C L; Manoharan, J; Maschuw, K; Wichmann, S; Baier, A; Holler, J P; Ramaswamy, A; Bartsch, D K; Waldmann, J

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for angiotensin-converting enzymes involving the angiotensin II-receptor 1 (AT1-R) and the cyclooxygenase pathway in carcinogenesis. The effects of ASS and enalapril were assessed in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs). The effects of enalapril and ASS on proliferation and expression of the AGTR1A and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) were assessed in the neuroendocrine cell line BON1. Rip1-Tag2 mice were treated daily with either 0.6 mg/kg bodyweight of enalapril i.p., 20 mg/kg bodyweight of ASS i.p., or a vehicle in a prevention (weeks 5-12) and a survival group (week 5 till death). Tumor surface, weight of pancreatic glands, immunostaining for AT1-R and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB), and mice survival were analyzed. In addition, sections from human specimens of 20 insulinomas, ten gastrinomas, and 12 non-functional pNENs were evaluated for AT1-R and NFKB (NFKB1) expression and grouped according to the current WHO classification. Proliferation was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in BON1 cells, with the combination being the most effective. Treatment with enalapril and ASS led to significant downregulation of known target genes Vegf and Rela at RNA level. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by enalapril and ASS in the prevention group displayed by a reduction of tumor size (84%/67%) and number (30%/45%). Furthermore, daily treatment with enalapril and ASS prolonged the overall median survival compared with vehicle-treated Rip1-Tag2 (107 days) mice by 9 and 17 days (P=0.016 and P=0.013). The AT1-R and the inflammatory transcription factor NFKB were abolished completely upon enalapril and ASS treatment. AT1-R and NFKB expressions were observed in 80% of human pNENs. Enalapril and ASS may provide an approach for chemoprevention and treatment of pNENs. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Glucose metabolism via the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis and Krebs cycle in an orthotopic mouse model of human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Cho, Steve K; Rakheja, Dinesh; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Kapur, Payal; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Jindal, Ashish; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Good, Levi B; Raisanen, Jack; Sun, Xiankai; Mickey, Bruce; Choi, Changho; Takahashi, Masaya; Togao, Osamu; Pascual, Juan M; Deberardinis, Ralph J; Maher, Elizabeth A; Malloy, Craig R; Bachoo, Robert M

    2012-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that increased flux through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is required to support the metabolic demands of rapid malignant cell growth. Using orthotopic mouse models of human glioblastoma (GBM) and renal cell carcinoma metastatic to brain, we estimated the activity of the PPP relative to glycolysis by infusing [1,2-(13) C(2) ]glucose. The [3-(13) C]lactate/[2,3-(13) C(2) ]lactate ratio was similar for both the GBM and brain metastasis and their respective surrounding brains (GBM, 0.197 ± 0.011 and 0.195 ± 0.033, respectively (p = 1); metastasis: 0.126 and 0.119 ± 0.033, respectively). This suggests that the rate of glycolysis is significantly greater than the PPP flux in these tumors, and that the PPP flux into the lactate pool is similar in both tumors. Remarkably, (13) C-(13) C coupling was observed in molecules derived from Krebs cycle intermediates in both tumor types, denoting glucose oxidation. In the renal cell carcinoma, in contrast with GBM, (13) C multiplets of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) differed from its precursor glutamate, suggesting that GABA did not derive from a common glutamate precursor pool. In addition, the orthotopic renal tumor, the patient's primary renal mass and brain metastasis were all strongly immunopositive for the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase, as were 84% of tumors on a renal cell carcinoma tissue microarray of the same histology, suggesting that GABA synthesis is cell autonomous in at least a subset of renal cell carcinomas. Taken together, these data demonstrate that (13) C-labeled glucose can be used in orthotopic mouse models to study tumor metabolism in vivo and to ascertain new metabolic targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Garcia, Joaquin; Edgar, Mark A.; Meyers, Paul A.; Morris, Carol D.; Panicek, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignant neoplasm typically involving the abdominal cavity of a young male. Extra-abdominal occurrence of this tumor is very rare. We report a 10-year-old girl with primary DSRCT arising within the left femur. The patient presented with knee pain, and radiological findings were strongly suggestive of osteogenic sarcoma. In addition to the typical microscopic appearance and immunophenotype, RT-PCR demonstrated the chimeric transcript of EWS-WT1, which is diagnostic of DSRCT. Pulmonary metastases were present at initial staging studies, but no abdominal or pelvic lesion was present. Despite chemotherapy and complete tumor excision, the patient developed progressive lung and bone metastases and died 3 years after initial presentation. This is the second reported case of primary DSRCT of bone with genetic confirmation. (orig.)

  16. Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Garcia, Joaquin [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Edgar, Mark A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Meyers, Paul A. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY (United States); Morris, Carol D. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, New York, NY (United States); Panicek, David M. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignant neoplasm typically involving the abdominal cavity of a young male. Extra-abdominal occurrence of this tumor is very rare. We report a 10-year-old girl with primary DSRCT arising within the left femur. The patient presented with knee pain, and radiological findings were strongly suggestive of osteogenic sarcoma. In addition to the typical microscopic appearance and immunophenotype, RT-PCR demonstrated the chimeric transcript of EWS-WT1, which is diagnostic of DSRCT. Pulmonary metastases were present at initial staging studies, but no abdominal or pelvic lesion was present. Despite chemotherapy and complete tumor excision, the patient developed progressive lung and bone metastases and died 3 years after initial presentation. This is the second reported case of primary DSRCT of bone with genetic confirmation. (orig.)

  17. Intraoperative ultrasonography in nine dogs with intra-abdominal neoplasm suspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Matos da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS is used in medicine for diagnosis and guidance during oncologic surgery. The aims of this study were to assess the performance, feasibility, advantages and difficulties of the IOUS technique in dogs with suspected intra-abdominal tumors. The study included nine client-owed dogs that had suspected intra-abdominal tumors (spleen, liver or bowel based on transabdominal ultrasound examination and that were subsequently referred for exploratory laparotomy surgery. During surgery, IOUS was performed; results of preoperative transabdominal ultrasonography, inspection by the surgeon and IOUS were compared on a case-by-case basis. IOUS was helpful in determining lesion resection in all cases. Lesions detected solely by the use of IOUS were observed in seven out of nine cases. Analysis of these cases demonstrated that IOUS can be a tool to assist during oncology surgery on the liver, spleen or bowel. Dogs with hepatic tumors can have small non-palpable intraparenchymal nodules, which may be visible by IOUS.

  18. Essential contribution of tumor-derived perlecan to epidermal tumor growth and angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Multhaupt, Hinke; Chan, En

    2004-01-01

    As a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (PG) in basement membranes, perlecan has been linked to tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Here we produced epidermal tumors in immunocompromised rats by injection of mouse RT101 tumor cells. Tumor sections stained with species-specific perlecan...... factor. In vivo, antisense perlecan-transfected cells generated no tumors, whereas untransfected and vector-transfected cells formed tumors with obvious neovascularization, suggesting that tumor perlecan rather than host perlecan controls tumor growth and angiogenesis....

  19. Experimental studies on the radio-sensitizing effect of hydrogen peroxide injected in the transplanted mouse tumor. Usefulness of hyaluronic acid supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akima, Ryo; Tokuhiro, Shiho; Tsuzuki, Kazuhiro; Ue, Hironobu; Ogawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of linac is said to be reduced to 1/3 in advanced tumors which mostly consist of hypoxic cells resistant to radiation (Rd). Local administration of hydrogen peroxide (HP) increases oxygen partial pressure at the site because tissue oxygenation occurs by HP degradation by peroxidase and catalase, and thereby radio-sensitization of those Rd-resistant cells can be expected. Authors have shown the anti-tumor efficacy of HP+Rd in vitro, in vivo, and in clinic with their regimen of KORTUC (Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas). In the third study above (clinical trial), they supplemented hyaluronate (ha) in the HP solution, and the present experiment was performed to see whether ha had any effect in the efficacy of KORTUC regimen. SCCVII tumor cells were subcutaneously transplanted in the femur of female C3H/HE mouse (7 wks old, about 20 g b. wt.) and 10 days later, 0.25 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control), 0.5% HP in PBS (HP gr), or 0.83% ha in the HP (ha gr) was injected in the tumor of about 1 cm diameter. After shielding the mouse with 4.5 mm thick Cu plate except for the tumor-bearing leg, the exposed tumor was locally irradiated (IRR) by 6 MeV electron beam with 30 Gy in the linac (EXL-20TP, Mitsubishi Electric) using the bolus for uniform dose distribution. Survivals at 60 days following irradiation were found to be 0, 0, 25.0, 87.5, 100 and 100% in the control, HP gr, ha gr, control/IRR, HP/IRR gr and ha/IRR gr, respectively. Tumor growth at 31 days was found to be suppressed in more significant order of ha/IRR gr, HP/IRR gr, control/IRR than non-IRR groups. The results suggested that ha could be useful in the anti-tumor efficacy of HP possibly due to ha viscous property for uniform distribution of HP in the tumor. (K.T.)

  20. Ultrasound-guided direct delivery of 3-bromopyruvate blocks tumor progression in an orthotopic mouse model of human pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Shinichi; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H; Buijs, Manon; Wijlemans, Joost W; Kwak, Byung Kook; Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram

    2013-06-01

    Studies in animal models of cancer have demonstrated that targeting tumor metabolism can be an effective anticancer strategy. Previously, we showed that inhibition of glucose metabolism by the pyruvate analog, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), induces anticancer effects both in vitro and in vivo. We have also documented that intratumoral delivery of 3-BrPA affects tumor growth in a subcutaneous tumor model of human liver cancer. However, the efficacy of such an approach in a clinically relevant orthotopic tumor model has not been reported. Here, we investigated the feasibility of ultrasound (US) image-guided delivery of 3-BrPA in an orthotopic mouse model of human pancreatic cancer and evaluated its therapeutic efficacy. In vitro, treatment of Panc-1 cells with 3-BrPA resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. The loss of viability correlated with a dose-dependent decrease in the intracellular ATP level and lactate production confirming that disruption of energy metabolism underlies these 3-BrPA-mediated effects. In vivo, US-guided delivery of 3-BrPA was feasible and effective as demonstrated by a marked decrease in tumor size on imaging. Further, the antitumor effect was confirmed by (1) a decrease in the proliferative potential by Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining and (2) the induction of apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphospate nick end labeling staining. We therefore demonstrate the technical feasibility of US-guided intratumoral injection of 3-BrPA in a mouse model of human pancreatic cancer as well as its therapeutic efficacy. Our data suggest that this new therapeutic approach consisting of a direct intratumoral injection of antiglycolytic agents may represent an exciting opportunity to treat patients with pancreas cancer.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled folate-tripeptide conjugate as a folate receptor-targeeted imaging agent in a tumor-bearing mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Chang Guhn; Kim, Dae Weung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Hyoung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The folate receptor (FR) is an attractive molecular target since it is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors. The purpose of the present study was to synthesize and evaluate the feasibility of a novel {sup 99m}Tc-ECG-EDA (Glu-Cys-Gly-ethylenediamine)-folate as an FR-positive tumor imaging agent in a mouse tumor model. ECG-EDA-folate was synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc using tripeptide ECG as a chelator. FR-positive KB cells were inoculated in athymic nude mice. Following injection of {sup 99m}Tc-ECG-EDA-folate, serial scintigraphy and micro-SPECT/CT imaging were performed at various time points with and without pre-administration of excess free folate. Mean count densities (MCD) for regions of interest drawn on KB tumors and major normal organs at each time point were measured, and uptake ratios of tumor to normal organs were calculated. ECG-EDA-folate was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc with high radiolabeling efficiency and stability (>96 %). FR-positive tumors were clearly visualized on both scintigraphy and micro-SPECT/CT images and the tumor uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ECG-EDA-folate was markedly suppressed with faint visualization of tumors by pre-administration of excess free folate on serial planar scintigraphy, indicating FR-specific binding of the agent. Furthermore, semiquantitative analysis of MCD data showed again that both tumor MCD and tumor-to-normal organ ratios decreased considerably by pre-administration of excess free folate, supporting FR-specific tumor uptake. Tumor-to-normal organ ratios approximately increased with time after injection until 4 h. The present study demonstrated that 9{sup 99m}Tc-ECG-EDA-folate can bind specifically to FR with clear visualization of FR-positive tumors in a mouse tumor model.

  2. CT diagnosis of abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuping; Zhao Zhiying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of CT in diagnosis of abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma. Methods: CT findings of 5 cases surgically and pathologically proved with ectopic pheochromocytoma were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Soft tissue mass with light asymmetry enhancement was found between the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena ca-va in one case. 1 case was completely cystic with light enhancement of the cystwall located in front of the left side of the abdominal aorta. 1 case of large solid mass occurred between the renal hilum and the tail of pancreas, with irregular shape, unclear boundary, central necrosis, calcification and obviously enhancement at the solid part. 2 cases showed as oval soft lump with even density, moderate strengthening located before the abdominal aorta. Paroxysmal hypertension occurred in 3 cases and didn't in 2 cases. Hypertension happened in 1 case during the operation because of stimulation. Blood pressure appeared in 1 case during and after operation. Blood and urinary catecholamine increased significantly in 4 cases. Conclusion: Ectopic pheochromocytoma mainly located surround the abdominal aorta with diverse CT performance. It is helpful for diagnosing when finding a lesion locates at the specified sites combined with typical clinical presentation. CT can not only depict small tumor, but also can show the relationship with surrounding structure, and it provides important information for the operation and prognosis. (authors)

  3. Carnosine retards tumor growth in vivo in an NIH3T3-HER2/neu mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixensberger Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was previously demonstrated that the dipeptide carnosine inhibits growth of cultured cells isolated from patients with malignant glioma. In the present work we investigated whether carnosine also affects tumor growth in vivo and may therefore be considered for human cancer therapy. Results A mouse model was used to investigate whether tumor growth in vivo can be inhibited by carnosine. Therefore, NIH3T3 fibroblasts, conditionally expressing the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu, were implanted into the dorsal skin of nude mice, and tumor growth in treated animals was compared to control mice. In two independent experiments nude mice that received tumor cells received a daily intra peritoneal injection of 500 μl of 1 M carnosine solution. Measurable tumors were detected 12 days after injection. Aggressive tumor growth in control animals, that received a daily intra peritoneal injection of NaCl solution started at day 16 whereas aggressive growth in mice treated with carnosine was delayed, starting around day 19. A significant effect of carnosine on tumor growth was observed up to day 24. Although carnosine was not able to completely prevent tumor growth, a microscopic examination of tumors revealed that those from carnosine treated animals had a significant lower number of mitosis (p Conclusion As a naturally occurring substance with a high potential to inhibit growth of malignant cells in vivo, carnosine should be considered as a potential anti-cancer drug. Further experiments should be performed in order to understand how carnosine acts at the molecular level.

  4. Carnosine retards tumor growth in vivo in an NIH3T3-HER2/neu mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Christof; Zemitzsch, Nadine; Fuchs, Beate; Geiger, Kathrin D; Hermes, Matthias; Hengstler, Jan; Gebhardt, Rolf; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Gaunitz, Frank

    2010-01-06

    It was previously demonstrated that the dipeptide carnosine inhibits growth of cultured cells isolated from patients with malignant glioma. In the present work we investigated whether carnosine also affects tumor growth in vivo and may therefore be considered for human cancer therapy. A mouse model was used to investigate whether tumor growth in vivo can be inhibited by carnosine. Therefore, NIH3T3 fibroblasts, conditionally expressing the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), were implanted into the dorsal skin of nude mice, and tumor growth in treated animals was compared to control mice. In two independent experiments nude mice that received tumor cells received a daily intra peritoneal injection of 500 microl of 1 M carnosine solution. Measurable tumors were detected 12 days after injection. Aggressive tumor growth in control animals, that received a daily intra peritoneal injection of NaCl solution started at day 16 whereas aggressive growth in mice treated with carnosine was delayed, starting around day 19. A significant effect of carnosine on tumor growth was observed up to day 24. Although carnosine was not able to completely prevent tumor growth, a microscopic examination of tumors revealed that those from carnosine treated animals had a significant lower number of mitosis (p < 0.0003) than untreated animals, confirming that carnosine affects proliferation in vivo. As a naturally occurring substance with a high potential to inhibit growth of malignant cells in vivo, carnosine should be considered as a potential anti-cancer drug. Further experiments should be performed in order to understand how carnosine acts at the molecular level.

  5. Differential tumor biology effects of double-initiation in a mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis model comparing wild type versus protein kinase Cepsilon overexpression mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafan; Wheeler, Deric L; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N; Verma, Ajit K; Oberley, Terry D

    2007-12-01

    Our previous studies showed that protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) verexpression in mouse skin resulted in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) elicited by single 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiation and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promotion in the absence of preceding papilloma formation as is typically observed in wild type mice. The present study demonstrates that double-DMBA initiation modulates tumor incidence, multiplicity, and latency period in both wild type and PKCepsilon overexpression transgenic (PKCepsilon-Tg) mice. After 17 weeks (wks) of tumor promotion, a reduction in papilloma multiplicity was observed in double- versus single-DMBA initiated wild type mice. Papilloma multiplicity was inversely correlated with cell death indices of interfollicular keratinocytes, indicating decreased papilloma formation was caused by increased cell death and suggesting the origin of papillomas is in interfollicular epidermis. Double-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice had accelerated carcinoma formation and cancer incidence in comparison to single-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice. Morphologic analysis of mouse skin following double initiation and tumor promotion showed a similar if not identical series of events to those previously observed following single initiation and tumor promotion: putative preneoplastic cells were observed arising from hyperplastic hair follicles (HFs) with subsequent cancer cell infiltration into the dermis. Single-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice exhibited increased mitosis in epidermal cells of HFs during tumor promotion.

  6. Integration of Oncogenes via Sleeping Beauty as a Mouse Model of HPV16+ Oral Tumors and Immunologic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Tseng, Ssu-Hsueh; Jiang, Rosie; Yang, Andrew; Farmer, Emily; Peng, Shiwen; Henkle, Talia; Chang, Yung-Nien; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2018-01-23

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the etiologic factor for cervical cancer and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. Although several prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, no effective therapeutic strategies to control active HPV diseases exist. Tumor implantation models are traditionally used to study HPV-associated buccal tumors. However, they fail to address precancerous phases of disease progression and display tumor microenvironments distinct from those observed in patients. Previously, K14-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models have been used to generate spontaneous tumors. However, the rate of tumor formation is inconsistent, and the host often develops immune tolerance to the viral oncoproteins. We developed a preclinical, spontaneous, HPV16 + buccal tumor model using submucosal injection of oncogenic plasmids expressing HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and sleeping beauty (SB) transposase, followed by electroporation in the buccal mucosa. We evaluated responses to immunization with a pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine and tumor cell migration to distant locations. Mice transfected with plasmids encoding HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and SB transposase developed tumors within 3 weeks. We also found transient anti-CD3 administration is required to generate tumors in immunocompetent mice. Bioluminescence signals from luciferase correlated strongly with tumor growth, and tumors expressed HPV16-associated markers. We showed that pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) administration resulted in antitumor immunity in tumor-bearing mice. Lastly, we demonstrated that the generated tumor could migrate to tumor-draining lymph nodes. Our model provides an efficient method to induce spontaneous HPV + tumor formation, which can be used to identify effective therapeutic interventions, analyze tumor migration, and conduct tumor biology research. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(3); 1-15. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors increase Herceptin transport and treatment efficacy in mouse metastatic brain tumor models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Hu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic drugs and newly developed therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are adequately delivered to most solid and systemic tumors. However, drug delivery into primary brain tumors and metastases is impeded by the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB, significantly limiting drug use in brain cancer treatment.We examined the effect of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5 inhibitors in nude mice on drug delivery to intracranially implanted human lung and breast tumors as the most common primary tumors forming brain metastases, and studied underlying mechanisms of drug transport. In vitro assays demonstrated that PDE5 inhibitors enhanced the uptake of [(14C]dextran and trastuzumab (Herceptin, a humanized monoclonal antibody against HER2/neu by cultured mouse brain endothelial cells (MBEC. The mechanism of drug delivery was examined using inhibitors for caveolae-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis and coated pit/clathrin endocytosis. Inhibitor analysis strongly implicated caveolae and macropinocytosis endocytic pathways involvement in the PDE5 inhibitor-enhanced Herceptin uptake by MBEC. Oral administration of PDE5 inhibitor, vardenafil, to mice with HER2-positive intracranial lung tumors led to an increased tumor permeability to high molecular weight [(14C]dextran (2.6-fold increase and to Herceptin (2-fold increase. Survival time of intracranial lung cancer-bearing mice treated with Herceptin in combination with vardenafil was significantly increased as compared to the untreated, vardenafil- or Herceptin-treated mice (p0.05.These findings suggest that PDE5 inhibitors may effectively modulate BTB permeability, and enhance delivery and therapeutic efficacy of monoclonal antibodies in hard-to-treat brain metastases from different primary tumors that had metastasized to the brain.

  8. A novel rabbit anti-hepatocyte growth factor monoclonal neutralizing antibody inhibits tumor growth in prostate cancer cells and mouse xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanlan; Chen, Yicheng; Ding, Guoqing; Wang, Mingchao; Wu, Haiyang; Xu, Liwei; Rui, Xuefang; Zhang, Zhigen

    2015-01-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor c-Met are correlated with castration-resistance in prostate cancer. Although HGF has been considered as an attractive target for therapeutic antibodies, the lack of cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with human/mouse HGFs is a major obstacle in preclinical developments. We generated a panel of anti-HGF RabMAbs either blocking HGF/c-Met interaction or inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation. We selected one RabMAb with mouse cross-reactivity and demonstrated that it blocked HGF-stimulated downstream activation in PC-3 and DU145 cells. Anti-HGF RabMAb inhibited not only the growth of PC-3 cells but also HGF-dependent proliferation in HUVECs. We further demonstrated the efficacy and potency of the anti-HGF RabMAb in tumor xenograft mice models. Through these in vitro and in vivo experiments, we explored a novel therapeutic antibody for advanced prostate cancer. - Highlights: • HGF is an attractive target for castration-refractory prostate cancer. • We generated and characterized a panel of anti-HGF rabbit monoclonal antibodies. • More than half of these anti-HGF RabMAbs was cross-reactive with mouse HGF. • Anti-HGF RabMAb blocks HGF-stimulated phosphorylation and cell growth in vitro. • Anti-HGF RabMAb inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in xenograft mice

  9. A novel rabbit anti-hepatocyte growth factor monoclonal neutralizing antibody inhibits tumor growth in prostate cancer cells and mouse xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yanlan; Chen, Yicheng; Ding, Guoqing; Wang, Mingchao; Wu, Haiyang; Xu, Liwei; Rui, Xuefang; Zhang, Zhigen, E-mail: srrshurology@163.com

    2015-08-14

    The hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor c-Met are correlated with castration-resistance in prostate cancer. Although HGF has been considered as an attractive target for therapeutic antibodies, the lack of cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with human/mouse HGFs is a major obstacle in preclinical developments. We generated a panel of anti-HGF RabMAbs either blocking HGF/c-Met interaction or inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation. We selected one RabMAb with mouse cross-reactivity and demonstrated that it blocked HGF-stimulated downstream activation in PC-3 and DU145 cells. Anti-HGF RabMAb inhibited not only the growth of PC-3 cells but also HGF-dependent proliferation in HUVECs. We further demonstrated the efficacy and potency of the anti-HGF RabMAb in tumor xenograft mice models. Through these in vitro and in vivo experiments, we explored a novel therapeutic antibody for advanced prostate cancer. - Highlights: • HGF is an attractive target for castration-refractory prostate cancer. • We generated and characterized a panel of anti-HGF rabbit monoclonal antibodies. • More than half of these anti-HGF RabMAbs was cross-reactive with mouse HGF. • Anti-HGF RabMAb blocks HGF-stimulated phosphorylation and cell growth in vitro. • Anti-HGF RabMAb inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in xenograft mice.

  10. Mouse Models of the Skin: Models to Define Mechanisms of Skin Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, D. L.; Verma, A. K.; Denning, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    The multistep model of mouse skin carcinogenesis has facilitated identification of irreversible genetic events of initiation and progression, and epigenetic events of tumor promotion. Mouse skin tumor initiation can be accomplished by a single exposure to a sufficiently small dose of a carcinogen, and this step is rapid and irreversible. However, promotion of skin tumor formation requires a repeated and prolonged exposure to a promoter, and that tumor promotion is reversible. Investigations focused on the mechanisms of mouse carcinogenesis have resulted in the identifications of potential molecular targets of cancer induction and progression useful in planning strategies for human cancer prevention trials. This special issue contains eight papers that focus on mouse models used to study individual proteins expressed in the mouse skin and the role they play in differentiation, tissue homeostasis, skin carcinogenesis, and chemo prevention of skin cancer.

  11. Technical Note: Intrafractional changes in time lag relationship between anterior–posterior external and superior–inferior internal motion signals in abdominal tumor sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Rajesh; Lovelock, D. Michael; Zhang, Pengpeng; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jianping; Yorke, Ellen D.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Wu, Abraham J.; Mageras, Gig S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate constancy, within a treatment session, of the time lag relationship between implanted markers in abdominal tumors and an external motion surrogate. Methods: Six gastroesophageal junction and three pancreatic cancer patients (IRB-approved protocol) received two cone-beam CTs (CBCT), one before and one after treatment. Time between scans was less than 30 min. Each patient had at least one implanted fiducial marker near the tumor. In all scans, abdominal displacement (Varian RPM) was recorded as the external motion signal. Purpose-built software tracked fiducials, representing internal signal, in CBCT projection images. Time lag between superior–inferior (SI) internal and anterior–posterior external signals was found by maximizing the correlation coefficient in each breathing cycle and averaging over all cycles. Time-lag-induced discrepancy between internal SI position and that predicted from the external signal (external prediction error) was also calculated. Results: Mean ± standard deviation time lag, over all scans and patients, was 0.10 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01–0.36 s). External signal lagged the internal in 17/18 scans. Change in time lag between pre- and post-treatment CBCT was 0.06 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01–0.22 s), corresponding to 3.1% ± 3.7% (range 0.6%–10.8%) of gate width (range 1.6–3.1 s). In only one patient, change in time lag exceeded 10% of the gate width. External prediction error over all scans of all patients varied from 0.1 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.4 mm. Conclusions: Time lag between internal motion along SI and external signals is small compared to the treatment gate width of abdominal patients examined in this study. Change in time lag within a treatment session, inferred from pre- to post-treatment measurements is also small, suggesting that a single measurement of time lag at the session start is adequate. These findings require confirmation in a larger number of patients. PMID:26127033

  12. Technical Note: Intrafractional changes in time lag relationship between anterior-posterior external and superior-inferior internal motion signals in abdominal tumor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Rajesh; Lovelock, D Michael; Zhang, Pengpeng; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jianping; Yorke, Ellen D; Goodman, Karyn A; Wu, Abraham J; Mageras, Gig S

    2015-06-01

    To investigate constancy, within a treatment session, of the time lag relationship between implanted markers in abdominal tumors and an external motion surrogate. Six gastroesophageal junction and three pancreatic cancer patients (IRB-approved protocol) received two cone-beam CTs (CBCT), one before and one after treatment. Time between scans was less than 30 min. Each patient had at least one implanted fiducial marker near the tumor. In all scans, abdominal displacement (Varian RPM) was recorded as the external motion signal. Purpose-built software tracked fiducials, representing internal signal, in CBCT projection images. Time lag between superior-inferior (SI) internal and anterior-posterior external signals was found by maximizing the correlation coefficient in each breathing cycle and averaging over all cycles. Time-lag-induced discrepancy between internal SI position and that predicted from the external signal (external prediction error) was also calculated. Mean ± standard deviation time lag, over all scans and patients, was 0.10 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01-0.36 s). External signal lagged the internal in 17/18 scans. Change in time lag between pre- and post-treatment CBCT was 0.06 ± 0.07 s (range 0.01-0.22 s), corresponding to 3.1% ± 3.7% (range 0.6%-10.8%) of gate width (range 1.6-3.1 s). In only one patient, change in time lag exceeded 10% of the gate width. External prediction error over all scans of all patients varied from 0.1 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.4 mm. Time lag between internal motion along SI and external signals is small compared to the treatment gate width of abdominal patients examined in this study. Change in time lag within a treatment session, inferred from pre- to post-treatment measurements is also small, suggesting that a single measurement of time lag at the session start is adequate. These findings require confirmation in a larger number of patients.

  13. Effect of time between x-irradiation and chemotherapy on the growth of three solid mouse tumors. V. Bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, P.R.; Kallman, R.F.; Brown, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to determine the effect of different time intervals between the administration of x-radiation (1200 rad) and bleomycin (20 mg/kg) on the growth delay produced in three mouse tumors. The tumors used were the EMT6 tumor in BALB/c mice and the KHT and RIF-1 sarcomas in C3H mice. All tumors were grown intramuscularly in the gastrocnemius muscle and treatment was carried out at a mean tumor weight of 450 mg. Time to reach 2X (for KHT) or 4X (for EMT6 and RIF-1) treatment volume was used as the endpoint of response. The drug was administered by the intraperitoneal route either 24, 6, or 2 hr before radiation, immediately before the start of radiation, or 3, 6, or 24 hr after radiation. All irradiations were carried out in unanesthetized mice. For a single administration at this dose level, bleomycin alone did not produce a significant growth delay in any of the tumors. In the RIF-1 tumor, growth delays following combination treatments were equal to the addition of the single agent growth delays. In two experiments with EMT6, contrary results were obtained, one producing longer delays following combination treatments than predicted and the other producing shorter delays. This is apparently due to the variability in the growth delay after treatment with radiation alone for this tumor. For the KHT tumor, only small differences from the addition of single agent delays were seen

  14. Pericentriolar Targeting of the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus GAG Protein.

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    Guangzhi Zhang

    Full Text Available The Gag protein of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV is the chief determinant of subcellular targeting. Electron microscopy studies show that MMTV Gag forms capsids within the cytoplasm and assembles as immature particles with MMTV RNA and the Y box binding protein-1, required for centrosome maturation. Other betaretroviruses, such as Mason-Pfizer monkey retrovirus (M-PMV, assemble adjacent to the pericentriolar region because of a cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the Matrix protein. Previous studies suggest that the MMTV Matrix protein may also harbor a similar cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal. Herein, we show that a substantial fraction of MMTV Gag localizes to the pericentriolar region. This was observed in HEK293T, HeLa human cell lines and the mouse derived NMuMG mammary gland cells. Moreover, MMTV capsids were observed adjacent to centrioles when expressed from plasmids encoding either MMTV Gag alone, Gag-Pro-Pol or full-length virus. We found that the cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the MMTV Matrix protein was sufficient for pericentriolar targeting, whereas mutation of the glutamine to alanine at position 56 (D56/A resulted in plasma membrane localization, similar to previous observations from mutational studies of M-PMV Gag. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy studies showed that MMTV capsids accumulate around centrioles suggesting that, similar to M-PMV, the pericentriolar region may be a site for MMTV assembly. Together, the data imply that MMTV Gag targets the pericentriolar region as a result of the MMTV cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal, possibly aided by the Y box protein-1 required for the assembly of centrosomal microtubules.

  15. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Maximizes the Effects of Radiation in Sarcoma Mouse Models Through Destruction of Tumor Vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae-June; Yoon, Changhwan; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Yeo-Jung; Schmidt, Benjamin; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Tap, William D.; Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin; Choy, Edwin; Kirsch, David G.; Simon, M. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. Results: In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumor growth beyond 250 mm 3 within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm 3 for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Conclusions: Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature

  16. Development of a Method to Implement Whole-Genome Bisulfite Sequencing of cfDNA from Cancer Patients and a Mouse Tumor Model

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    Elaine C. Maggi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a method for whole genome cell-free DNA (cfDNA methylation analysis in humans and mice with the ultimate goal to facilitate the identification of tumor derived DNA methylation changes in the blood. Plasma or serum from patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors or lung cancer, and plasma from a murine model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma was used to develop a protocol for cfDNA isolation, library preparation and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of ultra low quantities of cfDNA, including tumor-specific DNA. The protocol developed produced high quality libraries consistently generating a conversion rate >98% that will be applicable for the analysis of human and mouse plasma or serum to detect tumor-derived changes in DNA methylation.

  17. Novel MET/TIE2/VEGFR2 inhibitor altiratinib inhibits tumor growth and invasiveness in bevacizumab-resistant glioblastoma mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Yuji; Park, Soon Young; Henry, Verlene; Smith, Bryan D.; Tiao, Ningyi; Flynn, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma highly expresses the proto-oncogene MET in the setting of resistance to bevacizumab. MET engagement by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) results in receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation mediating tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Evasive revascularization and the recruitment of TIE2-expressing macrophages (TEMs) are also triggered by anti-VEGF therapy. Methods We investigated the activity of altiratinib (a novel balanced inhibitor of MET/TIE2/VEGFR2) against human glioblastoma stem cell lines in vitro and in vivo using xenograft mouse models. The biological activity of altiratinib was assessed in vitro by testing the expression of HGF-stimulated MET phosphorylation as well as cell viability after altiratinib treatment. Tumor volume, stem cell and mesenchymal marker levels, microvessel density, and TIE2-expressing monocyte infiltration were evaluated in vivo following treatment with a control, bevacizumab alone, bevacizumab combined with altiratinib, or altiratinib alone. Results In vitro, HGF-stimulated MET phosphorylation was completely suppressed by altiratinib in GSC17 and GSC267, and altiratinib markedly inhibited cell viability in several glioblastoma stem cell lines. More importantly, in multiple xenograft mouse models, altiratinib combined with bevacizumab dramatically reduced tumor volume, invasiveness, mesenchymal marker expression, microvessel density, and TIE2-expressing monocyte infiltration compared with bevacizumab alone. Furthermore, in the GSC17 xenograft model, altiratinib combined with bevacizumab significantly prolonged survival compared with bevacizumab alone. Conclusions Together, these data suggest that altiratinib may suppress tumor growth, invasiveness, angiogenesis, and myeloid cell infiltration in glioblastoma. Thus, altiratinib administered alone or in combination with bevacizumab may overcome resistance to bevacizumab and prolong survival in patients with glioblastoma. PMID:26965451

  18. Microscopic validation of whole mouse micro-metastatic tumor imaging agents using cryo-imaging and sliding organ image registration

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yiqiao; Zhou, Bo; Qutaish, Mohammed; Wilson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    We created a metastasis imaging, analysis platform consisting of software and multi-spectral cryo-imaging system suitable for evaluating emerging imaging agents targeting micro-metastatic tumor. We analyzed CREKA-Gd in MRI, followed by cryo-imaging which repeatedly sectioned and tiled microscope images of the tissue block face, providing anatomical bright field and molecular fluorescence, enabling 3D microscopic imaging of the entire mouse with single metastatic cell sensitivity. To register ...

  19. PET imaging of tumor neovascularization in a transgenic mouse model with a novel 64Cu-DOTA-knottin peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Haagen; Kimura, Richard H; Withofs, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    for a noninvasive detection and characterization of smaller lung nodules, thus increasing the chances of positive treatment outcome. In this study, we investigate the ability to characterize lung tumors that spontaneously arise in a transgenic mouse model. The tumors are first identified with small animal CT...... peptide are compared with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET small animal imaging. Lung nodules as small as 3 mm in diameter were successfully identified in the transgenic mice by small animal CT, and both 64Cu-DOTA-knottin 2.5F and FDG were able to differentiate lung nodules from the surrounding...... followed by characterization with the use of small animal PET with a novel 64Cu-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacylododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-knottin peptide that targets integrins upregulated during angiogenesis on the tumor associated neovasculature. The imaging results obtained with the knottin...

  20. Radiotherapy-induced anti-tumor immunity contributes to the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and can be augmented by CTLA-4 blockade in a mouse model.

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    Yuya Yoshimoto

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is growing evidence that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in anti-cancer therapy, including radiotherapy. Using mouse tumor models we demonstrate that irradiation-induced anti-tumor immunity is essential for the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and can be augmented by modulation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: C57BL/6 mice, syngeneic EL4 lymphoma cells, and Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/C cells were used. Cells were injected into the right femurs of mice. Ten days after inoculation, tumors were treated with 30 Gy of local X-ray irradiation and their growth was subsequently measured. The effect of irradiation on tumor growth delay (TGD was defined as the time (in days for tumors to grow to 500 mm3 in the treated group minus that of the untreated group. Cytokine production and serum antibodies were measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In the EL4 tumor model, tumors were locally controlled by X-ray irradiation and re-introduced EL4 cells were completely rejected. Mouse EL4-specific systemic immunity was confirmed by splenocyte cytokine production and detection of tumor-specific IgG1 antibodies. In the LL/C tumor model, X-ray irradiation also significantly delayed tumor growth (TGD: 15.4 days and prolonged median survival time (MST to 59 days (versus 28 days in the non-irradiated group. CD8(+ cell depletion using an anti-CD8 antibody significantly decreased the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation (TGD, 8.7 days; MST, 49 days. Next, we examined whether T cell modulation affected the efficacy of radiotherapy. An anti-CTLA-4 antibody significantly increased the anti-tumor activity of radiotherapy (TGD was prolonged from 13.1 to 19.5 days, while anti-FR4 and anti-GITR antibodies did not affect efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation. Immunomodulation, including CTLA-4

  1. Radiotherapy-Induced Anti-Tumor Immunity Contributes to the Therapeutic Efficacy of Irradiation and Can Be Augmented by CTLA-4 Blockade in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yuya; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Mimura, Kousaku; Ando, Ken; Oike, Takahiro; Sato, Hiro; Okonogi, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Takanori; Izawa, Shinichiro; Noda, Shin-ei; Fujii, Hideki; Kono, Koji; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is growing evidence that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in anti-cancer therapy, including radiotherapy. Using mouse tumor models we demonstrate that irradiation-induced anti-tumor immunity is essential for the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and can be augmented by modulation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity. Methods and Materials C57BL/6 mice, syngeneic EL4 lymphoma cells, and Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/C) cells were used. Cells were injected into the right femurs of mice. Ten days after inoculation, tumors were treated with 30 Gy of local X-ray irradiation and their growth was subsequently measured. The effect of irradiation on tumor growth delay (TGD) was defined as the time (in days) for tumors to grow to 500 mm3 in the treated group minus that of the untreated group. Cytokine production and serum antibodies were measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. Results In the EL4 tumor model, tumors were locally controlled by X-ray irradiation and re-introduced EL4 cells were completely rejected. Mouse EL4-specific systemic immunity was confirmed by splenocyte cytokine production and detection of tumor-specific IgG1 antibodies. In the LL/C tumor model, X-ray irradiation also significantly delayed tumor growth (TGD: 15.4 days) and prolonged median survival time (MST) to 59 days (versus 28 days in the non-irradiated group). CD8(+) cell depletion using an anti-CD8 antibody significantly decreased the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation (TGD, 8.7 days; MST, 49 days). Next, we examined whether T cell modulation affected the efficacy of radiotherapy. An anti-CTLA-4 antibody significantly increased the anti-tumor activity of radiotherapy (TGD was prolonged from 13.1 to 19.5 days), while anti-FR4 and anti-GITR antibodies did not affect efficacy. Conclusions Our results indicate that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation. Immunomodulation, including CTLA-4 blockade, may be a

  2. Computed tomography, after abdominal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H.; Toedt, H.C.

    1985-09-01

    The CT-examinations of 131 patients were analyzed after abdominal surgery. After nephrectomy, splenectomy, partial hepatectomy and pancreatectomy a displacement of the neighbouring intraabdominal and retroperitoneal organs was seen. Scar-tissue was observed containing fat, which faciltated the differential diagnosis to tumor recurrency. The changes of the roentgenmorphology were not so obvious after gastrointestinal surgery. After vascular surgery the permeability of an anastomosis or an operated artery could be demonstrated by bolus injection. (orig.).

  3. Role of FDG-PET in the Diagnosis of Recurrence and Assessment of Therapeutic Response in Cervical Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Patients: Comparison of Diagnostic Report between PET, Abdominal CT and Tumor Marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, You Mie; Choe, Jae Gol; Kang, Bung Chul

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to assess the role of positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in the diagnosis of recurrence or the assessment of therapeutic response in cervical and ovarian cancer patients through making a comparison between FDG-PET, abdominal computed tomography (CT) and serum tumor marker. We included 103 cases (67 patients) performed FDG-PET and abdominal CT. There were 42 cervical cancers and 61 ovarian cancers. We retrospectively reviewed the interpretations of PET and CT images as well as the level of tumor marker. We calculated their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for these three modalities. And then we analyzed the differences between these three modalities. Tumor recurrences were diagnosed in 37 cases (11 cervical cancers and 26 ovarian cancers). For PET, CT and tumor marker, in cervical cancer group, sensitivity was 100% (11/11), 54.5% (6/11) and 81.1% (9/11), respectively. And specificity was 93.6% (29/31), 93.6% (29/31) and 100% (31/31). In ovarian cancer group, sensitivity was 96.2% (25/26), 84.6% (22/26) and 80.8% (21/26), and specificity was 94.3% (33/35), 94.3% (33/35), 94.3% (33/35). PET was highly sensitive to detect the intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal metastasis with the help of the CT images to localize the lesions. However, CT had limitations in differentiation of the recurrent tumor from benign fibrotic tissue, identification of viable tumors at the interface of tissues, and detecting extraperitoneal lesions. FDG-PET can be an essential modality to detect the recurrent or residual tumors in gynecologic cancer patients because of its great field of the application and high sensitivity

  4. Recurrent abdominal pain as the presentation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) in an Asian girl: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Ju; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lau, Yu-Lung; Lee, Wen-I; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is characterized by periodic fever, cutaneous rash, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, myalgia, and arthralgia. It is a rare autosomal dominant disease and strongly associated with heterozygous mutations in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor super family 1A (TNFRSF1A) gene. It is believed to be more common in Western countries than in Asian countries. Here, we present the case of a 14-year-old girl with periodic fever and abdominal pain with elevation of inflammatory markers for 2 years. After extensive work-up of infectious etiology with negative results, the diagnosis of TRAPS was made although no gene mutations were identified in the TNFRSF1A gene, MVK gene, and NALP3/CIAS1 gene. She had partial clinical response to corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents. However, the treatment response to TNF-α inhibitor etanercept was dramatic. She has remained symptom free under regular weekly to biweekly etanercept treatment for 2 years. We also reviewed the related literature and summarized the data of 10 Asian cases of TRAPS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Wilms tumor in adult: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Mauro Guimaraes; Vieira, Sabas Carlos; Rego, Cristiane Fortes Napoleao do; Fortes, Emanuel Augusto de C.; Santana, Gerusia Ibiapina

    2004-01-01

    Wilms' tumor is the renal tumor with the higher incidence on the childhood, however it rarely occurs in adults.The incidence in this group is estimated at about 1% of all the cases and they have an obscure prognosis. In this report is related a new case in a 52 years old man presenting intensive abdominal pain associated by weightiness. Abdominal ultrasound revealed expansive and complex lesion with indefinite contour in the left flank. Computed tomography of abdomen demonstrated solid lesion on antero-superior pole of the left kidney invading para-vertebral musculature, peri and para-renal spaces. Total nephrectomy and the histopathologic analysis were realized. A nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor) in stage II without anaplasia was diagnosed by the anatomopathological studies.Local radiotherapy was applied. Thereafter was diagnosed pulmonary and hepatic metastasis, and then initiated the chemotherapy with adriamycin, actinomycin and vincristine. The prognosis of Wilms' tumor is worse in adult and it requires an aggressive therapeutic and follow up. (author)

  6. Spontaneous pyrogen production by mouse histiocytic and myelomonocytic tumor cell lines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodel, P

    1978-05-01

    Tumor-associated fever occurs commonly in acute leukemias and lymphomas. We investigated the capacity for in vitro production of pyrogen by three mouse histiocytic lymphoma cell lines (J-774, PU5-1.8, p 388 D1), one myelomonoyctic line (WEHI-3), and tow lymphoma-derived lines, RAW-8 and R-8. Pyrogen was released spontaneously into the culture medium during growth by all cell lines with macrophage or myeloid characteristics including lysozyme production; R-8 cells, of presumed B-lymphocyte origin, did not produce pyrogen. When injected into mice, the pyrogens gave fever curves typical of endogenous pyrogen, were inactived by heating to 56 degrees C and by pronase digestion, and appeared to be secreted continuously by viable cells. Two pyrogenic molecular species produced by H-774 cells were identified by Sephadex filtration, one of mol wt approximately equal to 30,000, and the other greater than or equal to 60,000. By contrast, three carcinoma cell lines of human origin and SV-40 3T3 mouse fibroblasts did not produce pyrogen in vitro. These results suggest that some malignant cells derived from phagocytic cells of bone marrow origin retain their capacity for pyrogen production, and may spontaneously secrete pyrogen during growth.

  7. Exogenous incorporation of neugc-rich mucin augments n-glycolyl sialic acid content and promotes malignant phenotype in mouse tumor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Daniel F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates embedded in the plasma membrane are one of the main actors involved in the communication of cells with the microenvironment. Neuraminic sialic acids are glycocalyx sugars that play important roles in the modulation of malignant cell behaviour. N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc is synthesized by the cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH, an enzyme expressed in all mammals except humans. In mice, this sugar is synthesized in several somatic tissues. Methods We used the B16 melanoma and F3II mammary carcinoma mouse tumor cell lines. By CMAH directed RT-PCR and NeuGc detection with the specific anti-NeuGc-GM3 antibody 14F7 we evaluated enzyme and ganglioside expression in tumor cells, respectively. Expression of NeuGc-GM3 ganglioside was reached by in vitro incubation with NeuGc-rich bovine submaxillary mucin and evaluated by slot-blot and immunohistochemistry assays using the 14F7 antibody. Tumor cells treated with mucin or purified NeuGc were injected s.c. and i.v. in syngeneic mice to evaluate tumor and metastatic growth. Results In the present work we demonstrated the absence of expression of CMAH enzyme in B16 melanoma and F3II mammary carcinoma cells. In vitro incubation of these NeuGc-negative cells with NeuGc-rich mucin increased the presence of NeuGc in cell membranes for at least 48-72 h, as a component of the GM3 ganglioside. Preincubation with NeuGc-rich mucin reduced tumor latency and increased the metastatic potential of tumor cells in syngeneic animals. Similar results were obtained when cells were incubated with purified NeuGc alone. Conclusion Our results indicate that B16 and F3II mouse tumor cell lines do not express NeuGc in cell membranes but they are able to incorporate NeuGc from an exogenous source, contributing to the malignant phenotype of melanoma and mammary carcinoma cells.

  8. Monitoring of Tumor Growth with [(18)F]-FET PET in a Mouse Model of Glioblastoma: SUV Measurements and Volumetric Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzgreve, Adrien; Brendel, Matthias; Gu, Song; Carlsen, Janette; Mille, Erik; Böning, Guido; Mastrella, Giorgia; Unterrainer, Marcus; Gildehaus, Franz J; Rominger, Axel; Bartenstein, Peter; Kälin, Roland E; Glass, Rainer; Albert, Nathalie L

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive tumor growth monitoring is of particular interest for the evaluation of experimental glioma therapies. This study investigates the potential of positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([(18)F]-FET) to determine tumor growth in a murine glioblastoma (GBM) model-including estimation of the biological tumor volume (BTV), which has hitherto not been investigated in the pre-clinical context. Fifteen GBM-bearing mice (GL261) and six control mice (shams) were investigated during 5 weeks by PET followed by autoradiographic and histological assessments. [(18)F]-FET PET was quantitated by calculation of maximum and mean standardized uptake values within a universal volume-of-interest (VOI) corrected for healthy background (SUVmax/BG, SUVmean/BG). A partial volume effect correction (PVEC) was applied in comparison to ex vivo autoradiography. BTVs obtained by predefined thresholds for VOI definition (SUV/BG: ≥1.4; ≥1.6; ≥1.8; ≥2.0) were compared to the histologically assessed tumor volume (n = 8). Finally, individual "optimal" thresholds for BTV definition best reflecting the histology were determined. In GBM mice SUVmax/BG and SUVmean/BG clearly increased with time, however at high inter-animal variability. No relevant [(18)F]-FET uptake was observed in shams. PVEC recovered signal loss of SUVmean/BG assessment in relation to autoradiography. BTV as estimated by predefined thresholds strongly differed from the histology volume. Strikingly, the individual "optimal" thresholds for BTV assessment correlated highly with SUVmax/BG (ρ = 0.97, p GBM mouse model. PVEC is beneficial to improve accuracy of [(18)F]-FET PET SUV quantification. Although SUVmax/BG and SUVmean/BG increase during the disease course, these parameters do not correlate with the respective tumor size. For the first time, we propose a histology-verified method allowing appropriate individual BTV estimation for volumetric in vivo monitoring of tumor growth

  9. Comparison of planar, PET and well-counter measurements of total tumor radioactivity in a mouse xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael V; Seidel, Jurgen; Williams, Mark R; Wong, Karen J; Ton, Anita; Basuli, Falguni; Choyke, Peter L; Jagoda, Elaine M

    2017-10-01

    Quantitative small animal radionuclide imaging studies are often carried out with the intention of estimating the total radioactivity content of various tissues such as the radioactivity content of mouse xenograft tumors exposed to putative diagnostic or therapeutic agents. We show that for at least one specific application, positron projection imaging (PPI) and PET yield comparable estimates of absolute total tumor activity and that both of these estimates are highly correlated with direct well-counting of these same tumors. These findings further suggest that in this particular application, PPI is a far more efficient data acquisition and processing methodology than PET. Forty-one athymic mice were implanted with PC3 human prostate cancer cells transfected with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA (+)) and one additional animal (for a total of 42) with a control blank vector (PSMA (-)). All animals were injected with [ 18 F] DCFPyl, a ligand for PSMA, and imaged for total tumor radioactivity with PET and PPI. The tumors were then removed, assayed by well counting for total radioactivity and the values between these methods intercompared. PET, PPI and well-counter estimates of total tumor radioactivity were highly correlated (R 2 >0.98) with regression line slopes near unity (0.95radioactivity can be measured with PET or PPI with an accuracy comparable to well counting if certain experimental and pharmacokinetic conditions are met. In this particular application, PPI is significantly more efficient than PET in making these measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Giant Desmoid Tumor and Gardner Syndrome. Case Report and Literature Review

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    Etcheverry MG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardner´s syndrome represents a variant of the genetic disorder called familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP. The inherited pattern is autosomal dominant, however 20-25% of cases may represent new mutations. It is characterized by colonic polyposis with extracolonic manifestations as gastro-duodenal polyposis, osteomas, dental abnormalities and desmoid tumors.We report a case of a 25 years old man with family history of multiple surgeries caused by desmoid tumors without personal history. He visited our hospital complaining of a large tumor in the abdominal wall, and during the preoperative studies we identified colonic and gastroduodenal polyposis. Tumor resection was performed with safety margins that included the entire abdominal wall with total colectomy, ileal-rectal anastomosis and abdominal wall replacement with a protection visceral mesh. Gardner´s syndrome is a rare entity that is important to identify when we have a patient presenting with a desmoid tumor as in this case. Its association with colonic polyposis with high risk of malignant change demand an early aggressive treatment that will determine the survival of the patient.

  11. Relation of external surface to internal tumor motion studied with cine CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, P.-C.M.; Balter, Peter; Luo Dershan; Mohan, Radhe; Pan Tinsu

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of delivering gated-radiation therapy to lung tumors using an external respiratory surrogate relies on not only interfractional and intrafractional reproducibility, but also a strong correlation between external motion and internal tumor motion. The purpose of this work was to use the cine images acquired by four-dimensional computed tomography acquisition protocol to study the relation between external surface motion and internal tumor motion. The respiratory phase information of tumor motion and chest wall motion was measured on the cine images using a proposed region-of-interest (ROI) method and compared to measurement of an external respiratory monitoring device. On eight lung patient data sets, the phase shifts were measured between (1) the signal of a real-time positioning-management (RPM) respiratory monitoring device placed in the abdominal region and four surface locations on the chest wall (2) the RPM signal in the abdominal region and tumor motions, and (3) chest wall surface motions and tumor motions. Respiratory waveforms measured at different surface locations during the same respiratory cycle often varied and had significant phase shifts. Seven of the 8 patients showed the abdominal motion leading chest wall motion. The best correlation (smallest phase shift) was found between the abdominal motion and the superior-inferior (S-I) tumor motion. A wide range of phase shifts was observed between external surface motion and tumor anterior-posterior (A-P)/lateral motion. The result supported the placement of the RPM block in the abdominal region and suggested that during a gated therapy utilizing the RPM system, it is necessary to place the RPM block at the same location as it is during treatment simulation in order to reduce potential errors introduced by the position of the RPM block. Correlations between external motions and lateral/A-P tumor motions were inconclusive due to a combination of patient selection and the limitation of the ROI

  12. Circumvention and reactivation of the p53 oncogene checkpoint in mouse colon tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizu, Wataru; Belinsky, Glenn S; Flynn, Christopher; Noonan, Emily J; Boes, Colleen C; Godman, Cassandra A; Doshi, Bindi; Nambiar, Prashant R; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Giardina, Charles

    2006-10-16

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein is sequence-normal in azoxymethane (AOM)-induced mouse colon tumors, making them a good model for human colon cancers that retain a wild type p53 gene. Cellular localization and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using a cell line derived from an AOM-induced colon tumor (AJ02-NM(0) cells) pointed to constitutively expressed Mdm2 as being an important negative regulator of p53 in these cells. Although the Mdm2 inhibitory protein p19/ARF was expressed in AJ02-NM(0) cells, its level of expression was not sufficient for p53 activation. We tested the response of AJ02-NM(0) cells to the recently developed Mdm2 inhibitor, Nutlin-3. Nutlin-3 was found to activate p53 DNA binding in AJ02-NM(0) cells, to a level comparable to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In addition, Nutlin-3 increased expression of the p53 target genes Bax and PERP to a greater extent than doxorubicin or 5-FU, and triggered a G2/M phase arrest in these cells, compared to a G1 arrest triggered by doxorubicin and 5-FU. The differences in the cellular response may be related to differences in the kinetics of p53 activation and/or its post-translational modification status. In an ex vivo experiment, Nutlin-3 was found to activate p53 target gene expression and apoptosis in AOM-induced tumor tissue, but not in normal adjacent mucosa. Our data indicate that Mdm2 inhibitors may be an effective means of selectively targeting colon cancers that retain a sequence-normal p53 gene while sparing normal tissue and that the AOM model is an appropriate model for the preclinical development of these drugs.

  13. Warburg effect's manifestation in aggressive pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: insights from a mouse cell model applied to human tumor tissue.

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    Stephanie M J Fliedner

    Full Text Available A glycolytic profile unifies a group of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs with distinct underlying gene defects, including von Hippel-Lindau (VHL and succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB mutations. Nevertheless, their tumor aggressiveness is distinct: PHEOs/PGLs metastasize rarely in VHL-, but frequently in SDHB-patients. To date, the molecular mechanisms causing the more aggressive phenotype in SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs remain largely unknown. Recently, however, an excellent model to study aggressive PHEOs (mouse tumor tissue (MTT cells has been developed from mouse PHEO cells (MPC. We employed this model for a proteomics based approach to identify changes characteristic for tumor aggressiveness, which we then explored in a homogeneous set of human SDHB- and VHL-PHEOs/PGLs. The increase of glucose transporter 1 in VHL, and of hexokinase 2 in VHL and SDHB, confirmed their glycolytic profile. In agreement with the cell model and in support of decoupling of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, SDHB tumors showed increased lactate dehydrogenase levels. In SDHB-PGLs OXPHOS complex activity was increased at complex III and, as expected, decreased at complex II. Moreover, protein and mRNA expression of all tested OXPHOS-related genes were higher in SDHB- than in VHL-derived tumors. Although there was no direct evidence for increased reactive oxygen species production, elevated superoxide dismutase 2 expression may reflect elevated oxidative stress in SDHB-derived PHEOs/PGLs. For the first time, we show that despite dysfunction in complex II and evidence for a glycolytic phenotype, the Warburg effect does not seem to fully apply to SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs with respect to decreased OXPHOS. In addition, we present evidence for increased LDHA and SOD2 expression in SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs, proteins that have been proposed as promising therapeutic targets in other cancers. This study provides new insight into pathogenic mechanisms in

  14. INTRAOPERATIVE PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY FOR METASTATIC PERITONEAL TUMORS

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    E. A. Suleimanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the cytoreductive treatment of malignant tumors of the abdominal organs. The actuality of the issue is determined both by increase of the incidence of abdominal cancer in Russia and in majority of developed countries and by high rate diagnosis on late stages of disease. The methods of treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis, based on possible effects on the secondary peritoneal tumors after surgical cytoreduction to reduce the risk of local recurrence and disease progression are described. These methods of additional intraoperative specific antitumor action include intraoperative radiation therapy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, intraoperative photodynamic therapy characterized by differences in difficulty of performance, mechanisms of effect on tumor and healthy tissues, efficiency. Benefits, opportunities and possibilities of application of intraoperative photodynamic therapy (IOPDT for secondary peritoneal tumors are described in details, the results of a number of domestic and foreign clinical studies are shown, the successful application of intraoperative photodynamic therapy in clinical oncology, which allows reducing the risk of secondary tumor lesions of the peritoneum significantly, is demonstrated. Photodynamic therapy – a method with high efficiency and almost no side effects and complications, based on the ability of photosensitizer to accumulate selectively and retain in the high proliferative tissues. The advantages of this type of treatment of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis are a selective effect on the peritoneal carcinomatosis and on visually detected tumor tissue, high efficiency in patients with malignant tumors of the abdominal cavity and pelvis combined with surgical cytoreduction, minimal effect on normal organs and tissues of the patient, well tolerated procedure.

  15. Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Promoter-Containing Retroviral Promoter Conversion Vectors for Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy are Functional in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Reinhard Klein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene directed-enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT is an approach for sensitization of tumor cells to an enzymatically activated, otherwise nontoxic, prodrug. Cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1 metabolizes the prodrugs cyclophosphamide (CPA and ifosfamide (IFA to produce the cytotoxic substances phosphoramide mustard and isophosphoramide mustard as well as the byproduct acrolein. We have constructed a retroviral promoter conversion (ProCon vector for breast cancer GDEPT. The vector allows expression of CYP2B1 from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV promoter known to be active in the mammary glands of transgenic animals. It is anticipated to be used for the generation of encapsulated viral vector producing cells which, when placed inside or close to a tumor, will act as suppliers of the therapeutic CYP2B1 protein as well as of the therapeutic vector itself. The generated vector was effectively packaged by virus producing cells and allowed the production of high levels of enzymatically active CYP2B1 in infected cells which sensitized them to killing upon treatment with both IFA and CPA. Determination of the respective IC50 values demonstrated that the effective IFA dose was reduced by sixteen folds. Infection efficiencies in vivo were determined using a reporter gene-bearing vector in a mammary cancer cell-derived xenograft tumor mouse model.

  16. MRI findings of uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Hyun Young; Hwang, In Taek; Kim, Ju Heon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor is a very rare uterine neoplasm that was first described by Clement and Scully in 1976. Since then, approximately 70 cases have been reported. However, these case reports have mainly described and discussed the pathologic and clinical features, and few radiologic findings have been presented. We experienced a case of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor, which was considered a uterine leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma upon initial impression at preoperative evaluation including transvaginal ultrasonography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. Its diagnosis was pathologically confirmed after total abdominal hysterectomy.

  17. A Patient with Advanced Gastric Cancer Presenting with Extremely Large Uterine Fibroid Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Kuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uterine fibroid tumors (uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine tumors. The incidence of uterine fibroid tumors increases in older women and may occur in more than 30% of women aged 40 to 60. Many uterine fibroid tumors are asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally. Case Presentation. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with general weakness, dyspepsia, abdominal distension, and a palpable abdominal mass. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed a huge tumor mass in the abdomen which was compressing the intestine and urinary bladder. Gastroduodenal endoscopic and biopsy results showed a Borrmann type IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with gastric cancer with disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis. She underwent a hysterectomy with both salphingo-oophorectomy and bypass gastrojejunostomy. Simultaneous uterine fibroid tumor with other malignancies is generally observed without resection. But in this case, a surgical resection was required to resolve an intestinal obstruction and to exclude the possibility of a metastatic tumor. Conclusion. When a large pelvic or ovarian mass is detected in gastrointestinal malignancy patients, physicians try to exclude the presence of a Krukenberg tumor. If the tumors cause certain symptoms, surgical resection is recommended to resolve symptoms and to exclude a metastatic tumor.

  18. Effects of Mg2+ and adenine nucleotides on thymidylate synthetase from different mouse tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, W; Jastreboff, M M

    1984-01-01

    Magnesium ions variably influenced activity of highly purified thymidylate synthetase preparations from different mouse tumors, activating the enzyme from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells and inhibiting the enzyme from L1210 and L5178Y cells and from 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd)-resistant EAC cells. In the presence of Mg2+ in a concentration resulting in either maximum activation or inhibition (25-30 mM) the enzymes from both the sensitive and FdUrd-resistant EAC lines and L5178Y cells were activated by ATP. Under the same conditions of Mg2+ concentration ADP and AMP inhibited the enzyme from the parental but not from the FdUrd-resistant EAC cells.

  19. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 2. Abdominal parenchymal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenacher, L. [Diagnostik Muenchen-Diagnostic Imaging Centre (Germany); Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Holzapfel, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Kinner, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regenburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-03-15

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the parenchymal abdominal organs. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. The working group experts cover the most recent relevant studies concerning liver-specific contrast media with an emphasis on a new classification system for liver adenomas. Additionally studies regarding selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) are reviewed. For the pancreas the most important tumors are described followed by an introduction to the most recently introduced functional imaging techniques. The manuscript concludes with some remarks on recent studies and concerning chronic pancreatitis as well as autoimmune pancreatitis.

  20. Nanopulse Stimulation (NPS Induces Tumor Ablation and Immunity in Orthotopic 4T1 Mouse Breast Cancer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Beebe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanopulse Stimulation (NPS eliminates mouse and rat tumor types in several different animal models. NPS induces protective, vaccine-like effects after ablation of orthotopic rat N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we review some general concepts of NPS in the context of studies with mouse metastatic 4T1 mammary cancer showing that the postablation, vaccine-like effect is initiated by dynamic, multilayered immune mechanisms. NPS eliminates primary 4T1 tumors by inducing immunogenic, caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD. With lower electric fields, like those peripheral to the primary treatment zone, NPS can activate dendritic cells (DCs. The activation of DCs by dead/dying cells leads to increases in memory effector and central memory T-lymphocytes in the blood and spleen. NPS also eliminates immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment and blood. Finally, NPS treatment of 4T1 breast cancer exhibits an abscopal effect and largely prevents spontaneous metastases to distant organs. NPS with fast rise–fall times and pulse durations near the plasma membrane charging time constant, which exhibits transient, high-frequency components (1/time = Hz, induce responses from mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus. Such effects may be responsible for release of danger-associated molecular patterns, including ATP, calreticulin, and high mobility group box 1 (HMBG1 from 4T1-Luc cells to induce immunogenic cell death (ICD. This likely leads to immunity and the vaccine-like response. In this way, NPS acts as a unique onco-immunotherapy providing distinct therapeutic advantages showing possible clinical utility for breast cancers as well as for other malignancies.

  1. Targeted tumor theranostics using folate-conjugated and camptothecin-loaded acoustic nanodroplets in a mouse xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Tsung; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Lin, Jian-Liang; Wang, Chung-Hsin; Chen, Ran-Chou; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to validate the feasibility of receptor-targeted tumor theranostics with folate-conjugated (FA) and camptothecin-loaded (CPT) acoustic nanodroplets (NDs) (collectively termed FA-CPT-NDs). The ND formulation was based on lipid-stabilized low-boiling perfluorocarbon that can undergo acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) under ultrasound (US) exposure. Conjugation of folate enhanced the selective delivery to tumors expressing high levels of folate receptor (FR) under mediation by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed using FR-positive KB and FR-negative HT-1080 cell lines and mouse xenograft tumor models. Simultaneous therapy and imaging were conducted with a clinical US imaging system at mechanical indices of up to 1.4 at a center frequency of 10 MHz. The results demonstrated that FA-CPT-NDs selectively attached to KB cells, but not HT-1080 cells. The targeted ADV caused instant and delayed damage via mechanical disruption and chemical toxicity to decrease the viability of KB cells by up to 45%, a much higher decrease than that achieved by the NDs without folate conjugation. The in vivo experiments showed that FR-mediated targeting successfully enhanced the EPR of FA-CPT-NDs in KB tumors mainly on the tumor periphery as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy and US B-mode imaging. Treatments with FA-CPT-NDs at a CPT dose of 50 μg/kg inhibited the growth of KB tumors for up to six weeks, whereas treatment with NDs lacking folate produced a 4.6-fold increase in tumor volume. For HT-1080 tumors, neither the treatments with FA-CPT-NDs nor those with the NDs lacking folate presented tumor growth inhibition. In summary, FR-targeted tumor theranostics has been successfully implemented with FA-CPT-NDs and a clinical US unit. The ligand-directed and EPR-mediated accumulation provides active and passive targeting capabilities, permitting the antitumor effects of FA-CPT-NDs to be exerted

  2. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Maximizes the Effects of Radiation in Sarcoma Mouse Models Through Destruction of Tumor Vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Changhwan [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Park, Do Joong [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeo-Jung [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Schmidt, Benjamin [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tap, William D. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Choy, Edwin [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Simon, M. Celeste [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); and others

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. Results: In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumor growth beyond 250 mm{sup 3} within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm{sup 3} for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Conclusions: Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature.

  3. SU-G-JeP3-13: Use of Volumetric Indices to Study the Viability of Respiratory Gating in Conjunction with Abdominal Compression in the Management of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tumors Using Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Under the Conditions of Controlled Breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, H; Gomez, J [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM TG-76 report advises lung patients experiencing tumor motion >5mm to use some form of motion management with even smaller limit for complex/special procedures like SBRT. Generally, either respiratory gating or abdominal compression is used for motion management. In this retrospective study, we are using an innovative index, Volumetric Indices (VI) = (GTVnn AND GTV{sub 50+}Xmm)/(GTVnn) to quantify how much of the tumor remains within 1, 2, and 3mm margins throughout the breathing cycle using GTV{sub 50+}Xmm margin on GTV{sub 50}[nn=0,10,20,…90]. Using appropriate limits, VI can provide tumor motion information and to check if RPM gates could have been used in conjunction with abdominal compression to better manage tumor motion. Methods: 64 SBRT patients with a total of 67 lung tumors were studied. 4DCT scans were taken, fully capturing tumor motion throughout the 10 phases of the breathing cycle. For each phase, Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) was segmented and appropriates structures were defined to determine VI values. For the 2mm margin, VI values less than 0.95 for peripheral lesions and 0.97 for central lesions indicate tumor movement greater than 4mm. VI values for 1mm and 3mm margins were also analyzed signifying tumor motion of 2mm & 6mm, respectively. Results: Of the 64 patients, 35 (55%) had motion greater than 4mm & could have benefited from respiratory gating. For 5/8 (63%) middle lobe lesions, 21/27 (78%) lower lobe lesions, and 10/32 (31%) upper lobe lesions, gating could have resulted in smaller ITV. 32/55 (58%) peripheral lesions and 4/12 (33%) central lesions could have had gating. Average ITV decreased by 1.25cc (11.43%) and average VI increased by 0.11. Conclusion: Out of 64 patients, 55% exhibited motion greater than 4mm even with abdominal compression. Even with abdominalcompression, lung tumors can move >4mm as the degree of pressure which a patient can tolerate, is patient specific.

  4. Effect of time between x-irradiation and chemotherapy on the growth of three solid mouse tumors. IV. Actinomycin-d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, P.R.; Kallman, R.F.; Brown, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to determine the effect of different intervals between the administration of x-radiation (1200 rad) and actinomycin-D (200 μg/kg) on the growth delay produced in three mouse tumors. The tumors used were the EMT6 tumor in BALB/c mice and the KHT and RIF-1 sarcomas in C3H mice. All tumors were grown intramuscularly in the gastrocnemius muscle, and treatment was carried out at a mean tumor weight of 450 mg. Time to reach 2 x (for KHT) or 4 x (for EMT6 and RIF-1) treatment volume was used as the endpoint of response. The drug was administered intraperitoneally either 24, 6, or 2 hr before radiation, immediately before the start of radiation, or 3, 6, or 24 hr after radiation. All irradiations were carried out in unanesthetized mice. For a single administration at this dose level (close to the maximum tolerated dose) actinomycin-D did not produce a significant delay in the growth of any of the tumors. For the RIF-1 and KHT tumors, the growth delays produced by drug/radiation combinations generally were not significantly greater than that produced by irradiation alone. For the EMT6 tumor, great variability in the growth delays of combined modality groups seen, with mean growth delays significantly longer than predicted by the radiation alone data. No consistent dependence on timing between irradiation and drug administration was seen

  5. A case report of extrarenal Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Suh, Kwang Sun

    1997-01-01

    Extrarenal Wilms' tumor is a very rare disease, and usually occurs in pediatric patients. We present a case of extrarenal retroperitoneal Wilms' tumor in a six-year old girl with a six-month history of a palpable left abdominal mass. The ultrasonographic and CT features of this tumor showed a well-defined large, inhomogeneous predominantly solid mass which was separate from the left kidney. Surgical pathology confirmed this to be an extrarenal Wilms' tumor

  6. Detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in spontaneous and radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas by polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma gene using histological sections from radiation-induced and spontaneous tumors as the DNA source. Six mouse Rb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments relative to control PCR products on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mouse Rb gene. Tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (5.69 Gy 60 Co γ rays or 0.6 Gy JANUS neutrons, which have been found to have approximately equal radiobiological effectiveness) were analyzed for mouse Rb deletions. Tumors in 6 neutron-irradiated mice had no mouse Rb deletions. However, 1 of 6 tumors from γ-irradiated mice (17%) and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice (33%) showed a deletion in one or both mouse Rb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5' region of the mouse Rb gene. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. In vivo MR guided boiling histotripsy in a mouse tumor model evaluated by MRI and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Martijn; Eikelenboom, Dylan; den Brok, Martijn H; Veltien, Andor; Wassink, Melissa; Wesseling, Pieter; Dumont, Erik; Fütterer, Jurgen J; Adema, Gosse J; Heerschap, Arend

    2016-06-01

    Boiling histotripsy (BH) is a new high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation technique to mechanically fragmentize soft tissue into submicrometer fragments. So far, ultrasound has been used for BH treatment guidance and evaluation. The in vivo histopathological effects of this treatment are largely unknown. Here, we report on an MR guided BH method to treat subcutaneous tumors in a mouse model. The treatment effects of BH were evaluated one hour and four days later with MRI and histopathology, and compared with the effects of thermal HIFU (T-HIFU). The lesions caused by BH were easily detected with T2 w imaging as a hyper-intense signal area with a hypo-intense rim. Histopathological evaluation showed that the targeted tissue was completely disintegrated and that a narrow transition zone (<200 µm) containing many apoptotic cells was present between disintegrated and vital tumor tissue. A high level of agreement was found between T2 w imaging and H&E stained sections, making T2 w imaging a suitable method for treatment evaluation during or directly after BH. After T-HIFU, contrast enhanced imaging was required for adequate detection of the ablation zone. On histopathology, an ablation zone with concentric layers was seen after T-HIFU. In line with histopathology, contrast enhanced MRI revealed that after BH or T-HIFU perfusion within the lesion was absent, while after BH in the transition zone some micro-hemorrhaging appeared. Four days after BH, the transition zone with apoptotic cells was histologically no longer detectable, corresponding to the absence of a hypo-intense rim around the lesion in T2 w images. This study demonstrates the first results of in vivo BH on mouse tumor using MRI for treatment guidance and evaluation and opens the way for more detailed investigation of the in vivo effects of BH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Tumor-associated antigens identified by mRNA expression profiling induce protective anti-tumor immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, S; Lauemøller, S L; Ruhwald, M

    2001-01-01

    Defined tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are attractive targets for anti-tumor immunotherapy. Here, we describe a novel genome-wide approach to identify multiple TAA from any given tumor. A panel of transplantable thymomas was established from an inbred p53-/- mouse strain. The resulting tumors were...... of autoimmune reactions were observed. Thus, it appears possible to evaluate the entire metabolism of any given tumor and use this information rationally to identify multiple epitopes of value in the generation of tumor-specific immunotherapy. We expect that human tumors express similar tumor-specific metabolic...

  9. Tumor-Targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R Promotes Tumoricidal CD8+ T Cell Tumor Infiltration and Arrests Growth and Metastasis in a Syngeneic Pancreatic-Cancer Orthotopic Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takashi; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Ming; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Miyake, Kentaro; Homma, Yuki; Mori, Ryutaro; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The present study determined the effect of the tumor-targeting strain Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) on CD8 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a syngeneic pancreatic-cancer orthotopic mouse model. The effect of tumor-targeting S. typhimurium A1-R on CD8 + TILs was determined on the Pan02 murine pancreatic-adenocarcinoma implanted orthotopically in the pancreatic tail of C57BL/6 immunocompromised mice. Three weeks after orthotopic implantation, mice were randomized as follows G1: untreated control group (n = 8); and G2: S. typhimurium A1-R-treatment group (n = 8, 1 × 10 7 colony forming units [CFU]/body, iv, weekly, 3 weeks). On the 22nd day from initial treatment, all mice were sacrificed and tumors were harvested. The tumor-volume ratio was defined as ratio of tumor volume on the 22nd day relative to the 1st day. The tumor volume ratio was significantly lower in the S. typhimurium A1-R-treated group (G2) (3.0 ± 2.8) than the untreated control (G1) (39.9 ± 30.7, P R-treated mice (G2). Six mice in G1 had peritoneal dissemination, whereas no mice showed peritoneal dissemination in G2 (P R promotes CD8 + T cell infiltration and inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 634-639, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Tuberculosis abdominal Abdominal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rubio; M. T. Gaztelu; A. Calvo; M. Repiso; H. Sarasíbar; F. Jiménez Bermejo; A. Martínez Echeverría

    2005-01-01

    La tuberculosis abdominal cursa con un cuadro inespecífico, con difícil diagnóstico diferencial respecto a otras entidades de similar semiología. Presentamos el caso de un varón que ingresa por presentar dolor abdominal, pérdida progresiva y notoria de peso corporal y fiebre de dos meses de evolución. El cultivo de la biopsia de colon mostró presencia de bacilo de Koch.Abdominal tuberculosis develops according to a non-specific clinical picture, with a difficult differential diagnosis with re...

  11. Case of a sigmoid colon cancer with metachronous metastases to the mesorectum and the abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjimarcou Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Sigmoid colon cancer metachronous metastases commonly occur in the liver and lungs with sporadic reports also to the spleen, stomach, thyroid gland, abdominal wall and upper urinary tract. This is a rare case of metachronous metastases invading the mesorectum and the abdominal wall. Case presentation A 72-year-old female underwent sigmoidectomy for stage I (T2N0 M0 sigmoid colon cancer in May 2008. In June 2009, an abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a tumor 2 cm in size at the lower anterior mesorectum and a second mass 2 cm in size at the anterior abdominal wall midline. Total colonoscopy showed no mucosal lesion. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen level was normal. A biopsy of the mesorectum tumor showed similar histologic characteristics with the primary tumor. Since no other site of recurrence was identified, an abdominoperineal resection was attempted. During the operation and after the removal of the incision recurrence, sinus bradycardia and signs of myocardial ischemia were noticed. A loop transverse colostomy was immediately perfomed and the operation was terminated. Postoperative cardiologic examination revealed an acute myocardium infract. Chemo-radiation of the mesorectum tumor and re-evaluation for surgical excision was decided. Conclusion Metachronous metastasis of the mesorectum from sigmoid colon cancer is extremely rare. Although patterns of lymphatic spread from rectal cancer to sigmoid colon have recently been demonstrated, there is no evidence of metachronous mesorectum invasion from sigmoid colon cancer. This could be the issue for future trials.

  12. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouraya Achach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated.

  13. Significance of bacterial flora in abdominal irradiation-induced inhibition of lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported that abdominal irradiation prior to i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells reduced metastases in lung. Our report described an investigation of the significance of intestinal organisms in the radiation effect. We found that eliminating intestinal organisms with antibiotics totally abolished the radiation effect. Monoassociation of germ-free mice revealed that the radiation effect was observable only for Enterobacter cloacae, never for Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium adlesentis, or Escherichia coli. After abdominal irradiation of regular mice, E. cloacae multiplied in cecal contents, adhered to mucous membranes, invaded the cecal wall, and translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of E. cloacae in place of abdominal irradiation inhibited metastases. E. cloacae-monoassociated mice developed fewer metastases than germ-free mice, and the reduction was further enhanced by abdominal irradiation. We concluded that abdominal irradiation caused the invasion of E. cloacae from the mucous membrane of the intestine and inhibited formation of lung metastases

  14. Abdominal leimyosarcoma simulating a pancreatic cystoadenocarcinoma. A case report and clinical-anatomo radiological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagnini, A.L.; Machado, M.C.C.; Zerbini, C.; Cerri, G.G.; Magalhaes, A.; Pinotti, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present one case of a large abdominal leiomyosarcoma. Due its localization and echographic and tomographic characteristics it was initially thought to be of pancreatic origin. The diagnosis was performed by laparotomy that showed a tumor not related to the pancreas, but the origin of the tumor has not been established. (author)

  15. Computed tomography in therapy planning: Abdominal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munzenrider, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The radiotherapy community is continuing to appreciate the significant contribution CBT can make to planning abdominal radiotherapy and is also beginning to appreciate the pitfalls and limitations of the technique. Specific attention should continue to focus on patient registration with the scanner and simulator radiographs, patient position during scanning and treatment, and effects of involuntary patient motion, especially breathing, on organ and tumor localization. Effects of patient positional changes and of involuntary motion during treatment on treatment planning and execution should be quantitated, as should effects of inhomogeneities, especially gut air, on abdominal dose distribution. Radiotherapy planned with CBT data can impact significantly on morbidity and mortality associated with abdominal malignancies. Faster scanners (with a scanning time of 9 sec or less) should be employed where possible to obtain maximum diagnostic information. Multiplanar reconstruction and true three-dimensional treatment planning can enhance significantly the value of CBT in treatment planning. Radiotherapists, radiodiagnosticians, radiation physicists, and oncologists must be continue to meet the challenge of realizing the true potential of CBT for the benefit of the cancer patients entrusted to their care

  16. Global Expression Profiling and Pathway Analysis of Mouse Mammary Tumor Reveals Strain and Stage Specific Dysregulated Pathways in Breast Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Yang, Jun-Ping; Lang, Yan-Hong; Peng, Li-Xia; Yang, Ming-Ming; Liu, Qin; Meng, Dong-Fang; Zheng, Li-Sheng; Qiang, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Liang; Li, Chang-Zhi; Wei, Wen-Wen; Niu, Ting; Peng, Xing-Si; Yang, Qin; Lin, Fen; Hu, Hao; Xu, Hong-Fa; Huang, Bi-Jun; Wang, Li-Jing; Qian, Chao-Nan

    2018-05-01

    It is believed that the alteration of tissue microenvironment would affect cancer initiation and progression. However, little is known in terms of the underlying molecular mechanisms that would affect the initiation and progression of breast cancer. In the present study, we use two murine mammary tumor models with different speeds of tumor initiation and progression for whole genome expression profiling to reveal the involved genes and signaling pathways. The pathways regulating PI3K-Akt signaling and Ras signaling were activated in Fvb mice and promoted tumor progression. Contrastingly, the pathways regulating apoptosis and cellular senescence were activated in Fvb.B6 mice and suppressed tumor progression. We identified distinct patterns of oncogenic pathways activation at different stages of breast cancer, and uncovered five oncogenic pathways that were activated in both human and mouse breast cancers. The genes and pathways discovered in our study would be useful information for other researchers and drug development.

  17. Tumor targeted delivery of doxorubicin in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Madhankumar

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are benign tumors that have the potential to transform into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs. Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL13Rα2 is a cancer associated receptor expressed in glioblastoma and other invasive cancers. We analyzed IL13Rα2 expression in several MPNST cell lines including the STS26T cell line, as well as in several peripheral nerve sheath tumors to utilize the IL13Rα2 receptor as a target for therapy. In our studies, we demonstrated the selective expression of IL13Rα2 in several peripheral nerve sheath tumors by immunohistochemistry (IHC and immunoblots. We established a sciatic nerve MPNST mouse model in NIH III nude mice using a luciferase transfected STS26T MPNST cell line. Similarly, analysis of the mouse sciatic nerves after tumor induction revealed significant expression of IL13Rα2 by IHC when compared to a normal sciatic nerve. IL13 conjugated liposomal doxorubicin was formulated and shown to bind and internalized in the MPNST cell culture model demonstrating cytotoxic effect. Our subsequent in vivo investigation in the STS26T MPNST sciatic nerve tumor model indicated that IL13 conjugated liposomal doxorubicin (IL13LIPDXR was more effective in inhibiting tumor progression compared to unconjugated liposomal doxorubicin (LIPDXR. This further supports that IL13 receptor targeted nanoliposomes is a potential approach for treating MPNSTs.

  18. Metformin decreases the dose of chemotherapy for prolonging tumor remission in mouse xenografts involving multiple cancer cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Hirsch, Heather A; Struhl, Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Metformin, the first-line drug for treating diabetes, selectively kills the chemotherapy resistant subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSC) in genetically distinct types of breast cancer cell lines. In mouse xenografts, injection of metformin and the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin near the tumor is more effective than either drug alone in blocking tumor growth and preventing relapse. Here, we show that metformin is equally effective when given orally together with paclitaxel, carboplatin, and doxorubicin, indicating that metformin works together with a variety of standard chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, metformin has comparable effects on tumor regression and preventing relapse when combined with a four-fold reduced dose of doxorubicin that is not effective as a monotherapy. Finally, the combination of metformin and doxorubicin prevents relapse in xenografts generated with prostate and lung cancer cell lines. These observations provide further evidence for the CSC hypothesis for cancer relapse, an experimental rationale for using metformin as part of combinatorial therapy in a variety of clinical settings, and for reducing the chemotherapy dose in cancer patients.

  19. Krukenberg tumor in a young woman: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Hatwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Krukenberg tumors mostly occur after 40 years. Metastatic ovarian tumors in young age are very rare and reported to be 2% of all the cases. Thirty percent of all ovarian neoplasms occurring during childhood and adolescence are malignant. A 25-year-old woman, parity- 2, presented with abdominal distension, pain in abdomen and amenorrhea. On examination, 18 weeks lump was palpable, firm to hard in consistency, non-tender and mobile. On ultrasonography bilateral ovarian tumors were reported, without any peritoneal free fluid. Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Microscopic examination revealed signet ring cells with glandular differentiation, diffusely invading the ovarian parenchyma. Tumor cells exhibited strong, diffuse immunopositivity for CEA with focal strong immunopositivity for CK7 and CK20 and immunonegativity for SATB2. Diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor was made. Endoscopic biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma stomach. This case is reported because of its rarity in younger age group.

  20. Anterior Abdominal Wall Leiomyoma Arising De Novo in a Perimenopausal Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed A. Al-Wadaani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Extrauterine or extraintestinal leiomyomas are extremely uncommon especially in the pre-peritoneal area or within the anterior abdominal wall muscles. These tumors have been ascribed to intraoperative seeding during resection of a fibroid or a leiomyoma of gut, to exogenous hormone replacement therapy or a major derangement of glucose and/or lipid metabolism. So far, there is no published report of de novo origin of anterior abdominal wall pure leiomyoma in the literature. The author herein reports a case of perimenopausal multiparous woman without any listing of previous gynecological surgery or hormone therapy who presented with a large pre-peritoneal intramuscular leiomyoma of the anterior abdominal wall. The patient underwent complete primary resection with amelioration of her symptoms.

  1. Staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviloglu, Korhan

    2003-07-01

    To review the current developments in staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma. To overview the steps of damage control laparotomy. The ever increasing importance of the resuscitation phase with current intensive care unit (ICU) support techniques should be emphasized. General surgeons should be familiar to staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma and collaborate with ICU teams, interventional radiologists and several other specialties to overcome this entity.

  2. Abdominal Tuberculosis Mimicking Intra-abdominal Malignancy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    BACKGROUND. Abdominal TB usually presents with nonspecific findings and may thus m.,mw a multitude of gastrointestinal disorders. Abdominal tuberculosis may therefore present as large and palpable intra-abdominal masses usually arising from lymphadenopathy which may mimic lymphomas and other malignancies.

  3. Abdominal tuberculosis mimicking intra-abdominal malignancy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abdominal TB usually presents with nonspecific findings and may thus mimic a multitude of gastrointestinal disorders. Abdominal tuberculosis may therefore present as large and palpable intra-abdominal masses usually arising from lymphadenopathy which may mimic lymphomas and other malignancies.

  4. Outcome of pregnancy in survivors of Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Gimbrere, K.; Gelber, R.D.; Sallan, S.E.; Flamant, F.; Green, D.M.; Heyn, R.M.; Meadows, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Outcome of pregnancy was reported by 99 patients who were cured of childhood Wilms' tumor at seven pediatric cancer centers during 1931 to 1979. These patients carried or sired 191 singleton pregnancies of at least 20 weeks in duration. Among the 114 pregnancies in women who had received abdominal radiotherapy for Wilms' tumor, an adverse outcome occurred in 34 (30%). There were 17 perinatal deaths (five in premature low-birth-weight infants) and 17 other low-birth-weight infants. Compared with white women in the United States, the irradiated women had an increased perinatal mortality rate (relative risk, 7.9) and an excess of low-birth-weight infants (relative risk, 4.0). In contrast, an adverse outcome was found in two (3%) of the 77 pregnancies in nonirradiated female patients with Wilms' tumor and wives of male patients. The high risk of adverse pregnancy outcome should be considered in the counseling and prenatal care of women who have received abdominal radiotherapy for Wilms' tumor

  5. Systemic treatment of Krukenberg tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolak Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Of all ovarian tumors with distinct biological features, 10-25% are secondary ovarian tumors. Among the most common cancers that cause ovarian metastasis are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrium, as well as gastric and lateral cancer. Krukenberg tumors remain asymptomatic until the tumor reaches a certain size, as in the case of primary ovarian cancer. Symptoms are non-specific: abdominal pain (42%, postmenopausal bleeding (18%, weight loss (6% and an increasing abdominal girth (15%. Diagnostic procedures should include physical examination, basic blood and biochemistry tests, radiographic imaging and endoscopy. There are currently no uniform guidelines to be followed in order to treat this cancer. However, the survival rate of selected subgroups of patients may be enhanced by means of cytoreductive surgery (performable among patients with good general health condition, where the metastases are limited only to the ovaries, where the primary tumor is derived from the colorectal cancer, and where there is the absence or minimal residual disease. It is still controversial to use adjuvant chemotherapy following the metastasectomy of Krukenberg tumors. Although this type of treatment seems to provide a survival benefit, there are currently no randomized prospective trials available so as to confirm or deny. Future research should, therefore, be focused on the potentially synergistic effect of surgery and perioperative administration of cytotoxic therapies targeted at high response rates. Studies on new molecularly targeted drugs can also be beneficial.

  6. [Desmoid tumors in three patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohos, E; Kovács, T; Brittig, F; Nagy, A

    2001-12-01

    Desmoids are rare tumors of the connective tissue. It develops about 1:1000 times more in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, Gardner syndrome) compared to normal population. It has been shown in molecular genetic examinations, that different mutations of the APC gene are responsible for desmoid tumors in FAP. It means, that this disease is one of the extraintestinal manifestations of Gardner syndrome. This tumor has high recurrence rate and is growing rapidly, and as a result it is the second most common cause of death in FAP patients. That is why genetic examination for FAP patients is advised to decide if the patient has higher risk for desmoid formation. If the result of the genetic test is positive, it is advisable to try to slow the progression of polyposis with medical treatment, and so to delay the date of the colectomy because the surgical intervention--and connective tissue damage--can induce desmoid formation in these patients. At the same time it is reasonable to examine and regularly control patients with sporadic desmoid tumors searching for other manifestations of Gardner syndrome (colon, stomach and duodenum polyposis, tumor of papilla Vateri, retinopathy, etc.). Palliative surgery is not indicated in patients with inoperable intraabdominal desmoid tumors, because partial resections (R1, R2, debulking) result in further tumor progression. In these patients medical treatment (sulindac, tamoxifen), chemotherapy (doxorubicin, dacarbazin) and radiotherapy or combination of them can result tumor remission. We describe our three patients (an abdominal wall desmoid four years following Cesarean section; a desmoid tumor in the retroperitoneum and in the pelvis diagnosed three years after total colectomy; and a retroperitoneal and abdominal wall desmoid one year after total colectomy) and etiology, diagnosis and therapy of desmoid tumors are discussed.

  7. Mel-18 controls the enrichment of tumor-initiating cells in SP fraction in mouse breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiraman, Harinarayanan; Nobukiyo, Asako; Inoue, Hiroko; Kanno, Masamoto

    2011-06-01

    Side population (SP) cell analysis has been used to identify and isolate a minor population of cells with stem cell properties in normal tissues and in many cancers including breast cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that operate in tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in SP fraction remain unclear. The Polycomb group genes, including Bmi1 and Mel-18, have been implicated in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and suggested to be oncogenic and tumor suppressive, respectively, in breast cancer. In this study, we determined the critical role of Mel-18 in the enrichment mechanisms of TICs with the SP phenotype in a mouse breast cancer cell line, MMK3, that was established from a breast cancer developed spontaneously in Mel-18+/- mice. The Mel-18 protein expression level significantly correlates to the percentage of SP fraction in the mouse breast cancer cell line MMK3 series. The comparison between MMK3V3 (V3) cells containing one copy of the Mel-18 gene and MMK3S2 (S2) cells having twice the amount of Mel-18 expression clearly demonstrates the above relationship. Similar results obtained with the percentage of ALDH+ cells in V3 and S2 further confirmed the correlation between protein expression level of Mel-18 and the TICs. More importantly, transplantation of SP and non-SP cells of V3 and S2 cells into the NOD/SCID mice clearly showed that the heterozygous level of Mel-18 leads to the disappearance of enrichment of TICs into SP fraction in vivo. Stem cell pathway focused gene expression profiling of V3 and S2 cells revealed that the genes Abcg2, Aldh1a1 and Dhh were highly down-regulated in V3 compared to S2. These results indicate that the precise Mel-18 expression level controls TIC enrichment mechanisms through the regulation of channel molecule of Abcg2 and functional TIC marker of Aldhlal. In conclusion, our findings revealed the significance of fine-tuning mechanisms for Mel-18 protein expression level in the maintenance of TIC into SP

  8. Importance of CD200 expression by tumor or host cells to regulation of immunotherapy in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Curry

    Full Text Available Cell-surface CD200 expression by mouse EMT6 breast tumor cells increased primary tumor growth and metastasis to the draining lymph nodes (DLN in normal (WT BALB/c female recipients, while lack of CD200R1 expression in a CD200R1-/- host negated this effect. Silencing CD200 expression in EMT6siCD200 tumor cells also reduced their ability to grow and metastasize in WT animals. The cellular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been studied in detail. We report characterization of tumor infiltrating (TILs and draining lymph node (DLN cells in WT and CD200-/- BALB/c mice, receiving WT tumor cells, or EMT6 lacking CD200 expression (EMT6siCD200 cells. Our data show an important correlation with augmented CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and resistance to tumor growth in mice lacking exposure (on either host cells or tumor to the immunoregulatory molecule CD200. Confirmation of the importance of such CD8+ cells came from monitoring tumor growth and characterization of the TILs and DLN cells in WT mice challenged with EMT6 and EMT6siCD200 tumors and treated with CD8 and CD4 depleting antibodies. Finally, we have assessed the mechanisms(s whereby addition of metformin as an augmenting chemotherapeutic agent in CD200-/- animals given EMT6 tumors and treated with a previously established immunotherapy regime can increase host resistance. Our data support the hypothesis that increased autophagy in the presence of metformin increases CD8+ responses and tumor resistance, an effect attenuated by the autophagy inhibitor verteporfin.

  9. Tumors of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gamboa, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses are performed to establish the cause of chronic abdominal pain in patients. Histological types are considered in patients with primary tumors of unknown origin. Benign and malignant neoplasms are described, including methods of diagnosis and treatment. Clinical manifestations are cited. Early and accurate diagnoses are important for an acceptable outcome in patients with malignant small bowel tumors. Recurrence is provoked many deaths, suggesting the importance of adjuvant chemotherapy [es

  10. The tumor suppressor gene Trp53 protects the mouse lens against posterior subcapsular cataracts and the BMP receptor Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A. Wiley

    2011-07-01

    We previously found that lenses lacking the Acvr1 gene, which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP receptor, had abnormal proliferation and cell death in epithelial and cortical fiber cells. We tested whether the tumor suppressor protein p53 (encoded by Trp53 affected this phenotype. Acvr1 conditional knockout (Acvr1CKO mouse fiber cells had increased numbers of nuclei that stained for p53 phosphorylated on serine 15, an indicator of p53 stabilization and activation. Deletion of Trp53 rescued the Acvr1CKO cell death phenotype in embryos and reduced Acvr1-dependent apoptosis in postnatal lenses. However, deletion of Trp53 alone increased the number of fiber cells that failed to withdraw from the cell cycle. Trp53CKO and Acvr1;Trp53DCKO (double conditional knockout, but not Acvr1CKO, lenses developed abnormal collections of cells at the posterior of the lens that resembled posterior subcapsular cataracts. Cells from human posterior subcapsular cataracts had morphological and molecular characteristics similar to the cells at the posterior of mouse lenses lacking Trp53. In Trp53CKO lenses, cells in the posterior plaques did not proliferate but, in Acvr1;Trp53DCKO lenses, many cells in the posterior plaques continued to proliferate, eventually forming vascularized tumor-like masses at the posterior of the lens. We conclude that p53 protects the lens against posterior subcapsular cataract formation by suppressing the proliferation of fiber cells and promoting the death of any fiber cells that enter the cell cycle. Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens. Enhancing p53 function in the lens could contribute to the prevention of steroid- and radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataracts.

  11. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincek, B.

    2002-01-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  12. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  13. Radioprotection by murine and human tumor-necrosis factor; Dose-dependent effects on hematopoiesis in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloerdal, L; Muench, M O; Warren, D J; Moore, M A.S. [James Ewing Laboratory of Developmental Hematopoiesis, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (USA)

    1989-01-01

    Tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) has been shown to confer significant radioprotection in murine models. Herein, we demonstrate a dose-dependent enhancement of hematological recovery when single doses of either murine or human recombinant TNF are administered prior to irradiation. In addition to its action upon leukocytes and erythocytes, TNF also alleviates radiation-induced thrombocytopenia in the mouse. These effects on circulating blood constituents are further reflected in increased numbers of both primitive (CFU-S) and more differentiated (CFU-GM, CFU-Mega) hematopoietic progenitors in TNF-treated animals. This suggests that TNF exerts it radioprotective effects on a pool of primitive multi-potential hematopoietic cells. (author).

  14. Constitutively active transforming growth factor β receptor 1 in the mouse ovary promotes tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Vincent, David F.; Davis, Anna Jane; Sansom, Owen J.; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2016-01-01

    Despite the well-established tumor suppressive role of TGFβ proteins, depletion of key TGFβ signaling components in the mouse ovary does not induce a growth advantage. To define the role of TGFβ signaling in ovarian tumorigenesis, we created a mouse model expressing a constitutively active TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFBR1) in ovarian somatic cells using conditional gain-of-function approach. Remarkably, these mice developed ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors with complete penetrance, leading to reproductive failure and mortality. The tumors expressed multiple granulosa cell markers and caused elevated serum inhibin and estradiol levels, reminiscent of granulosa cell tumors. Consistent with the tumorigenic effect, overactivation of TGFBR1 altered tumor microenvironment by promoting angiogenesis and enhanced ovarian cell proliferation, accompanied by impaired cell differentiation and dysregulated expression of critical genes in ovarian function. By further exploiting complementary genetic models, we substantiated our finding that constitutively active TGFBR1 is a potent oncogenic switch in mouse granulosa cells. In summary, overactivation of TGFBR1 drives gonadal tumor development. The TGFBR1 constitutively active mouse model phenocopies a number of morphological, hormonal, and molecular features of human granulosa cell tumors and are potentially valuable for preclinical testing of targeted therapies to treat granulosa cell tumors, a class of poorly defined ovarian malignancies. PMID:27344183

  15. Boswellic acid suppresses growth and metastasis of human pancreatic tumors in an orthotopic nude mouse model through modulation of multiple targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungduck Park

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PaCa is one of the most lethal cancers, with an estimated 5-year survival of <5% even when patients are given the best treatment available. In addition, these treatments are often toxic and expensive, thus new agents which are safe, affordable and effective are urgently needed. We describe here the results of our study with acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA, an agent obtained from an Ayurvedic medicine, gum resin of Boswellia serrata. Whether AKBA has an activity against human PaCa, was examined in in vitro models and in an orthotopic nude mouse model of PaCa. We found that AKBA inhibited the proliferation of four different PaCa cell lines (AsPC-1, PANC-28, and MIA PaCa-2 with K-Ras and p53 mutations, and BxPC-3 with wild-type K-Ras and p53 mutation. These effects correlated with an inhibition of constitutively active NF-κB and suppression of NF-κB regulating gene expression. AKBA also induced apoptosis, and sensitized the cells to apoptotic effects of gemcitabine. In the orthotopic nude mouse model of PaCa, p.o. administration of AKBA alone (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the tumor growth; this activity was enhanced by gemcitabine. In addition, AKBA inhibited the metastasis of the PaCa to spleen, liver, and lungs. This correlated with decreases in Ki-67, a biomarker of proliferation, and CD31, a biomarker of microvessel density, in the tumor tissue. AKBA produced significant decreases in the expression of NF-κB regulating genes in the tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed AKBA downregulated the expression of COX-2, MMP-9, CXCR4, and VEGF in the tissues. Overall these results demonstrate that AKBA can suppress the growth and metastasis of human pancreatic tumors in an orthotopic nude mouse model that correlates with modulation of multiple targets.

  16. Tumor-secreted miR-214 induces regulatory T cells: a major link between immune evasion and tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuan; Cai, Xing; Chen, Xi; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Jing; Wang, Zuoyun; Chen, Xiulan; Zhang, Wen; Yokoyama, Seiji; Wang, Cheng; Li, Liang; Li, Limin; Hou, Dongxia; Dong, Lei; Xu, Tao; Hiroi, Takachika; Yang, Fuquan; Ji, Hongbin; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    An increased population of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor-associated microenvironment plays an important role in cancer immune evasion. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed an increased secretion of miR-214 in various types of human cancers and mouse tumor models. Tumor-secreted miR-214 was sufficiently delivered into recipient T cells by microvesicles (MVs). In targeted mouse peripheral CD4+ T cells, tumor-derived miR-214 efficiently downregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and promoted Treg expansion. The miR-214-induced Tregs secreted higher levels of IL-10 and promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, in vivo studies indicated that Treg expansion mediated by cancer cell-secreted miR-214 resulted in enhanced immune suppression and tumor implantation/growth in mice. The MV delivery of anti-miR-214 antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) into mice implanted with tumors blocked Treg expansion and tumor growth. Our study reveals a novel mechanism through which cancer cell actively manipulates immune response via promoting Treg expansion. PMID:25223704

  17. Can tumor uptake Tc-99m MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.S.F.; Zeng, Z.J.; Yao, Y.M.; Shi, S.M.P.; Shi, S.Z.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study a distribution of Tc-99m MDP in mice bearing tumor cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m MDP was analyzed in seven human tumor cell lines (SPC-A1 adenocarcinoma of lung cancer, P37 Breast cancer, T24 Bladder cancer, SKOV2 Ovary carcinoma, Hela-229 Cervical carcinoma, Osteosarcoma, A375 Melanoma) and one mouse lung cancer cell line (Lewis). They were transplanted into 13, 4, 5, 5, 4, 5 athymic mice, 6 SCID nude mice and 4 C57 black mice, respectively. Approximately 10(7) cells of each cell line were injected subcutaneously into a right chest of mouse. After 5∼6 weeks, the Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy were determined 5-6 hours after i.v. injection of 74MBq in 0.05ml every mouse. Result: Biodistribution and tumor uptake MDP was different in the various cell types investigated. Region of interests (RIOs) placed on a small part of the tumor and horizontal copied to left chest or spine of mice in Tc-99m MDP imaging and the average count ratio (tumor to background ratio: T/B, tumor to spine ratio: T/NT) in each ROI was calculated. 13 nude mice bearing the adenocarcinoma (SPC-A1) were sacrificed and biodistribution was determined after Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy. Results were expressed as % injected dose/gram (%ID/g), mean±SD. T-ulcer=ulcer of tumor, T-round=surrounding of tumor, T-center=the center of tumor, Thor-sp=thoracic spine, Lum-ver=lumbar vertebra, LN=lymph node. Conclusions: Tumor can uptake Tc-99m MDP including adenocarcinoma. Higher uptake rate in the center tissue of tumor is than other part of tumor. It maybe connected with necrosis or fibrosis of tumor

  18. 10-Year-Old Female with Acute Abdominal Pain with Pancreatic Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Charles K. Powers; Molly Posa; Dhanashree Rajderkar; Jaclyn Otero

    2017-01-01

    A previously healthy 10-year-old female presented to a local emergency department following three days of nausea and vomiting diagnosed with a solid pseudopapillary tumor. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms are a rare form of pancreatic cystic neoplasm that typically presents in young females in their 20–30s and are very rare in children. These neoplasms often present as an asymptomatic tumor found on incidental imaging. When symptomatic they most commonly present with abdominal pain and can als...

  19. X-ray phase contrast with injected gas for tumor microangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundström, U; Larsson, D H; Burvall, A; Hertz, H M; Westermark, U K; Henriksson, M Arsenian

    2014-01-01

    We show that the microvasculature of mouse tumors can be visualized using propagation-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging with gas as the contrast agent. The large density difference over the gas–tissue interface provides high contrast, allowing the imaging of small-diameter blood vessels with relatively short exposure times and low dose using a compact liquid-metal-jet x-ray source. The method investigated is applied to tumors (E1A/Ras-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts) grown in mouse ears, demonstrating sub-15-µm-diameter imaging of their blood vessels. The exposure time for a 2D projection image is a few seconds and a full tomographic 3D map takes some minutes. The method relies on the strength of the vasculature to withstand the gas pressure. Given that tumor vessels are known to be more fragile than normal vessels, we investigate the tolerance of the vasculature of 12 tumors to gas injection and find that a majority withstand 200 mbar pressures, enough to fill 12-µm-diameter vessels with gas. A comparison of the elasticity of tumorous and non-tumorous vessels supports the assumption of tumor vessels being more fragile. Finally, we conclude that the method has the potential to be extended to the imaging of 15 µm vessels in thick tissue, including mouse imaging, making it of interest for, e.g., angiogenesis research. (paper)

  20. Tumor radiation responses and tumor oxygenation in aging mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    1989-01-01

    EMT6 mouse mammary tumors transplanted into aging mice are less sensitive to radiation than tumors growing in young adult animals. The experiments reported here compare the radiation dose-response curves defining the survivals of tumor cells in aging mice and in young adult mice. Cell survival curves were assessed in normal air-breathing mice and in mice asphyxiated with N 2 to produce uniform hypoxia throughout the tumors. Analyses of survival curves revealed that 41% of viable malignant cells were severely hypoxic in tumors in aging mice, while only 19% of the tumor cells in young adult animals were radiobiologically hypoxic. This did not appear to reflect anaemia in the old animals. Treatment of aging animals with a perfluorochemical emulsion plus carbogen (95% O 2 /5% CO 2 ) increased radiation response of the tumors, apparently by improving tumor oxygenation and decreasing the number of severely hypoxic, radiation resistant cells in the tumors. (author)

  1. Intra-Abdominal Testicular Seminoma in a Woman with Testicular Feminization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana D. Rasalkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intra-abdominal testicular tumor in a 36-year-old married lady presenting with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea. The patient was later diagnosed with testicular feminization syndrome, a form of male pseudohermaphroditism. This testicular tumor was histologically proven as seminoma. Due to rarity, imaging findings in patients with testicular feminization syndrome and intraabdominal testicular tumor have been poorly documented. So far, only one case report had described the combined role of CT and MR imaging in intraabdominal testicular sex-cord stromal tumor. To our knowledge, this case is first to document USG and MR imaging in addition to MR spectroscopy features in intraabdominal testicular seminoma.

  2. Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumors: CT findings and clinicopathological correlations in 13 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouli, Malik [Department of Radiology, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 Rue Camille Desmoulines, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Viala, Juliette [Department of Radiology, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 Rue Camille Desmoulines, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 Rue Camille Desmoulines, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Fizazi, Karim [Department of Medicine, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 Rue Camille Desmoulines, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Duvillard, Pierre [Department of Histopathology, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 Rue Camille Desmoulines, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Vanel, Daniel [Department of Radiology, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 Rue Camille Desmoulines, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)]. E-mail: vanel@igr.fr

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: We report computed tomography (CT) findings in 13 patients with a primary abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Materials and methods: 13 cases (12 men, 1 woman, mean age = 24.8 years) were found in our hospital database between 1991 and 2003. Clinical, CT and histopathological features were studied retrospectively. Results: Peritoneal involvement was the most common feature. In 10 cases, several lobulated peritoneal soft tissue masses (with a mean of four masses per patient) were seen. Two patients had diffused irregular peritoneal carcinomatosis without any distinct peritoneal masses. One patient had a solitary mass in the pelvic space. The main sites of peritoneal involvement were the pelvic space (n 7), omentum (n = 5), retroperitoneal space (n = 4), small bowel mesentery (n = 3), paracolic gutter (n = 2 on the right and n = 1 on the left), transverse colon mesentery (n = 1), peri-splenic space (n = 1), peri-hepatic space (n 1). The soft tissue masses were often bulky (mean 6 cm, range 1-28 cm), lobulated and heterogeneous with hypodense areas (in 73% of cases). In six cases, moderate ascites was seen. In one case of pelvic involvement, unilateral hydronephrosis was seen. Adenopathies were present in seven cases at the time of the diagnosis (at intraperitoneal, retroperitoneal and pelvic sites in six patients and in the groin in one patient). Five patients had liver metastases (four lesions per case excepted one patient with 30 metastases). Associated thoracic metastases were seen in three patients. The diagnosis was confirmed with four CT-guided percutaneous biopsies. Conclusion: Although CT features are nonspecific, the diagnosis of desmoplastic small round cell tumor may be suspected in young men with multiple bulky heterogeneous peritoneal soft tissue masses. Imaging is useful for staging and also to guide biopsies.

  3. Properties of internalization factors contributing to the uptake of extracellular DNA into tumor-initiating stem cells of mouse Krebs-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgova, Evgeniya V; Potter, Ekaterina A; Proskurina, Anastasiya S; Minkevich, Alexandra M; Chernych, Elena R; Ostanin, Alexandr A; Efremov, Yaroslav R; Bayborodin, Sergey I; Nikolin, Valeriy P; Popova, Nelly A; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Bogachev, Sergey S

    2016-05-25

    Previously, we demonstrated that poorly differentiated cells of various origins, including tumor-initiating stem cells present in the ascites form of mouse cancer cell line Krebs-2, are capable of naturally internalizing both linear double-stranded DNA and circular plasmid DNA. The method of co-incubating Krebs-2 cells with extracellular plasmid DNA (pUC19) or TAMRA-5'-dUTP-labeled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was used. It was found that internalized plasmid DNA isolated from Krebs-2 can be transformed into competent Escherichia coli cells. Thus, the internalization processes taking place in the Krebs-2 cell subpopulation have been analyzed and compared, as assayed by E. coli colony formation assay (plasmid DNA) and cytofluorescence (TAMRA-DNA). We showed that extracellular DNA both in the form of plasmid DNA and a PCR product is internalized by the same subpopulation of Krebs-2 cells. We found that the saturation threshold for Krebs-2 ascites cells is 0.5 μg DNA/10(6) cells. Supercoiled plasmid DNA, human high-molecular weight DNA, and 500 bp PCR fragments are internalized into the Krebs-2 tumor-initiating stem cells via distinct, non-competing internalization pathways. Under our experimental conditions, each cell may harbor 340-2600 copies of intact plasmid material, or up to 3.097 ± 0.044×10(6) plasmid copies (intact or not), as detected by quantitative PCR. The internalization dynamics of extracellular DNA, copy number of the plasmids taken up by the cells, and competition between different types of double-stranded DNA upon internalization into tumor-initiating stem cells of mouse ascites Krebs-2 have been comprehensively analyzed. Investigation of the extracellular DNA internalization into tumor-initiating stem cells is an important part of understanding their properties and possible destruction mechanisms. For example, a TAMRA-labeled DNA probe may serve as an instrument to develop a target for the therapy of cancer, aiming at elimination of

  4. Malignant renal tumors in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, C.; Torterolo, J.; Irigoyen, B.; Bel, M.; Elias, E.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Professionals who work in pediatric oncology, we see childhood cancer as a common disease, but in fact constitutes about 2% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide. Wilms tumor accounts for 6% of all childhood tumors and presentation bilateral accounts for 4-6% of all Wilms tumors diagnosed. Theoretical Framework: In the period between the year 1994-2003 period were attended in the Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Center, a total of 29 cases of malignant renal tumors, corresponding to 86% (25 cases) to Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma tumor. The Wilms is of embryonic origin, capable of metastatic spread, (85% lungs 15% liver). Very sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which confers high cure rates (85%); having a multidisciplinary treatment model, combining surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The role of nursing in comprehensive cancer care child is essential in the prevention and early detection of side effects or complications. Case report: S.D. currently 10 years old. In 10/1994, at 8 months of age, was diagnosed with bilateral Wilms tumor. On admission her weight was 8200gr with abdominal circumference 50cm. Conducted pre-operative MDT and 02/1995 nephrectomy of the left kidney and right kidney lumpectomy (tumor nodule 420gr. and a 250gr.). MDT begins in 03/1995 01/1996 ending. 09/2003 with abdominal pain and vomiting, and kidney failure. 10/2003 lumpectomy biopsy (sclerotic nodule associated with maturation nephroblastoma). Currently severe renal insufficiency plan enters dialysis. Nursing process: Objectives: 1) To prepare the child and family to the side effects and possible complications of chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy 2) Prevent and minimize related complications tumor and / or treatment. Care Plan comprises four stages: A) rating and customer income. B) Implement care chemotherapy C) post-operative Care D) Implement radiation care

  5. The Use of CT Scan in Hemodynamically Stable Children with Blunt Abdominal Trauma : Look before You Leap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nellensteijn, David R.; Greuter, Marcel J.; el Moumni, Moustafa; Hulscher, Jan B.

    We set out to determine the diagnostic value of computed tomographic (CT) scans in relation to the radiation dose, tumor incidence, and tumor mortality by radiation for hemodynamically stable pediatric patients with blunt abdominal injury. We focused on the changes in management because of new

  6. Mouse ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters Conferring Multi-Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaizhang, L I; Zhang, Wen; Yin, Xuejiao; Xing, Shilai; Xie, Qunhui; Cao, Zhengyu; Zhao, Bin

    2015-04-28

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter is one of the largest and most ancient protein families with members functioning from protozoa to human. The resistance of cancer and tumor cells to anticancer drugs is due to the over-expression of some ABC transporters, which may finally lead to chemotherapy failure. The mouse ABC transporters are classified into seven subfamilies by phylogenetic analysis. The mouse ABC transporter gene, alias, chromosomal location and function have been determined. Within the ABC super-family, the MDR transporters (Abcb1, Abcc1, Abcg2) in mouse models have been proved to be valuable to investigate the biochemistry and physiological functions. This review concentrates on the multidrug resistance of mouse ABC transporters in cancer and tumor cells.

  7. Origin of Androgen-Insensitive Poorly Differentiated Tumors in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy J. Huss

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Following castration, the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP model demonstrates rapid development of SV40-Tag-driven poorly differentiated tumors that express neuroendocrine cell markers. The cell population dynamics within the prostates of castrated TRAMP mice were characterized by analyzing the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd and the expression of SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and androgen receptor (AR. Fourteen days postcastration, the remaining epithelial cells and adenocarcinoma cells were nonproliferative and lacked detectable SV40-Tag or synaptophysin expression. In contrast, morphologically distinct intraglandular foci were identified which expressed SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and Ki67, but that lacked AR expression. These proliferative SV40-Tag and synaptophysin-expressing intraglandular foci were associated with the rare BrdUrd-retaining cells. These foci expanded rapidly in the postcastration prostate environment, in contrast to the AR- and SV40-Tag-expressing adenocarcinoma cells that lost SV40-Tag expression and underwent apoptosis after castration. Intraglandular foci of synaptophysin-expressing cells were also observed in the prostates of intact TRAMP mice at a comparable frequency; however, they did not progress to rapidly expanding tumors until much later in the life of the mice. This suggests that the foci of neuroendocrine-like cells that express SV40-Tag and synaptophysin, but lack AR, arise independent of androgen-deprivation and represent the source of the poorly differentiated tumors that are the lethal phenotype in the TRAMP model.

  8. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma: case report of an infrequent tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Moreno-Loaíza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is an infrequent tumor both in our environment and in the world. There is no conclusive evidence on its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, treatment or prognosis. Clinical case. We report a 77 year-old female patient, of mixed racial origin, native of Cusco (Peru who consulted for abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, postprandial vomiting and bloating of three months course. At the time of examination she had second to third degree protein malnutrition with a BMI of 16.88 kg/m2, signs of moderate to severe chronic anemia and an 8 cm abdominal tumor in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. The multislice spiral abdominal CT and ultrasonography revealed the presence of a solid tumor in the second portion of the duodenum. The patient was submitted to a gastroenterostomy without tumor resection. Biopsy confirmed tubular adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, no other primary tumors were found in the stomach, pancreas, biliary tree and colon. The patient was stabilized and was treated with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and leucovorin. Literature review. The article includes a brief review on the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this condition. Discussion. Management is not straightforward. There is little literature on the subject leaving decisions up to the attending physician’s criteria. We believe that all cases of rare diseases should be studied in depth, give rise to a thorough review of literature and, above all, be brought to the attention of the medical community.

  9. [Relationship between sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agent in vivo and in vitro: experiment with mouse lymphoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-gang; Li, Mo-lin; Shu, Xiao-hong; Jia, Yu-jie; Liu, Yong-ji; Li, Ming

    2007-06-12

    To study the relationship of the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agent between in vivo and in vitro. Mouse lymphoma cells of the line E14 were cultured and melphalan resistant EL4 cell line (EL4/melphalan) was established by culturing EL4 cells with continuous low-concentration and intermittent gradually-increasing-concentration of melphalan in vitro. MTT assay was used to evaluate the drug sensitivity and the resistance index of the EL4/melphalan cells to melphalan was calculated. EL4/melphalan and EL4 cells of the concentration of 5 x 10(8)/L were inoculated separately into 20 C57BL/6 mice subcutaneously. 12 days later, the EL4 and EL4/melphalan tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into 2 groups respectively, 5 mice in each group. Treatment groups were given 7.5 mg/kg melphalan intraperitoneally, and control groups were given the same volume of normal saline. The tumor size was observed every other day. Compared with the EL4 cells, the EL4/melphalan cells had no obvious changes morphologically. They could grow in RPMI 1640 medium containing 5 mg/ml melphalan. The resistance index was 2.87 against melphalan. After the treatment of melphalan of the dose 7.5 mg/kg, the tumor sizes of the treatment groups and control groups inoculated with both EL4 cells and the EL4/melphalan cells gradually decreased at the similar speed, and about one week later all tumors disappeared. However, the tumors of the control groups grew progressively and all the mice died at last. The chemotherapeutic effects of tumors in vivo have nothing to do with the effects of the chemotherapeutic agents on tumor cells in vitro. The tumor cells resistant to melphalan in vitro remain sensitive to the drug in vivo.

  10. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Replacing an Absent Kidney in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samin Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas with rare occurrence in children specially in the retroperitoneum. We describe a young child who presented with an abdominal mass. Both ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a large right-sided abdominal mass in the anatomic place of right kidney, while no kidney or ureter was observed at that side. He underwent surgical resection of the tumor with a primary impression of Wilms tumor. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of retroperitoneal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and absent kidney. This case suggests the very rare probability of association of MPNSTs in children with genitourinary tract anomalies such as renal agenesis.

  11. Pediatric hepatic rhabdoid tumor: A rare cause of abdominal mass in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kapral, MD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric hepatic rhabdoid tumors are rare tumors of the liver, with few cases reported in the literature. These aggressive tumors can be difficult to differentiate from hepatoblastomas on imaging alone, and surgical biopsy combined with special immunohistochemical stains can assist in differentiating these 2 tumor types. We present a case of hepatic rhabdoid tumor in a 7-month-old female infant, which was originally thought to be a hepatoblastoma; however, using BAF47 staining for INI-1 we were able to diagnose a rhabdoid tumor and affect the patient's medical oncologic therapy. Earlier detection and a better understanding of the imaging features of hepatic rhabdoid tumor may aid in improved patient management and treatment planning. Keywords: Rhabdoid tumor, INI-1, Hepatoblastoma, Pediatric, Rhabdomyosarcoma

  12. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  13. Cross-species comparison of aCGH data from mouse and human BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstege, Henne; Wessels, Lodewyk FA; Nederlof, Petra M; Jonkers, Jos; Beers, Erik van; Velds, Arno; Liu, Xiaoling; Joosse, Simon A; Klarenbeek, Sjoerd; Schut, Eva; Kerkhoven, Ron; Klijn, Christiaan N

    2010-01-01

    Genomic gains and losses are a result of genomic instability in many types of cancers. BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers are associated with increased amounts of chromosomal aberrations, presumably due their functions in genome repair. Some of these genomic aberrations may harbor genes whose absence or overexpression may give rise to cellular growth advantage. So far, it has not been easy to identify the driver genes underlying gains and losses. A powerful approach to identify these driver genes could be a cross-species comparison of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data from cognate mouse and human tumors. Orthologous regions of mouse and human tumors that are commonly gained or lost might represent essential genomic regions selected for gain or loss during tumor development. To identify genomic regions that are associated with BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers we compared aCGH data from 130 mouse Brca1 Δ/Δ ;p53 Δ/Δ , Brca2 Δ/Δ ;p53 Δ/Δ and p53 Δ/Δ mammary tumor groups with 103 human BRCA1-mutated, BRCA2-mutated and non-hereditary breast cancers. Our genome-wide cross-species analysis yielded a complete collection of loci and genes that are commonly gained or lost in mouse and human breast cancer. Principal common CNAs were the well known MYC-associated gain and RB1/INTS6-associated loss that occurred in all mouse and human tumor groups, and the AURKA-associated gain occurred in BRCA2-related tumors from both species. However, there were also important differences between tumor profiles of both species, such as the prominent gain on chromosome 10 in mouse Brca2 Δ/Δ ;p53 Δ/Δ tumors and the PIK3CA associated 3q gain in human BRCA1-mutated tumors, which occurred in tumors from one species but not in tumors from the other species. This disparity in recurrent aberrations in mouse and human tumors might be due to differences in tumor cell type or genomic organization between both species. The selection of the oncogenome during

  14. Recurrence of Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor: A Rare Pancreatic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Punch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP is a rare disease of young females that does not usually recur after resection. Here we report a case of an elderly female with history of SPTP ten years ago who presented with anorexia and a palpable left lower quadrant abdominal mass. Imaging revealed metastatic disease and US-guided biopsy of the liver confirmed the diagnosis of SPTP. Due to her advanced age and comorbidities, she elected to undergo hospice care. The objective of this case report is to increase awareness of this tumor and its possibility of recurrence, necessitating further guidelines for follow-up.

  15. SICOD: modification system anatomophysiological relationship of organs and tumors in radiation therapy thoracic-abdominal; SICOD: sistema de modificacion de la relacion anatomofisiologica de organos tumores toracico-abdominales en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Miranda, S.; Gomez-Millan Barrachina, J.; Ortiz Seidel, M.; Bayo Lozano, E.

    2011-07-01

    In radiotherapy are used to pursue some distributions tumoricidal and tolerable while the surrounding organs. This is achieved using techniques normally for the modulation of the beams, but few do away shyly and mechanically critical organ tumor: Prone breast treatment or use of belly board. What we want here is more than a diaphragmatic compression or extracranial stereotactic, is a mechanical system to modify the relationship of chest-abdominal organs as proposed in surgery usually operating tables. Want to achieve for example a kidney that may move a synchronously with breathing more than 2 cm in their peri renal fat sack, moves only millimeters embedded in the most closed and close to the backbone of your bag, or we can reduce movement of the diaphragm only on the side of affected lung, making breathing tolerable for patients with low performance status.

  16. Chromosomal instability in mouse embryonic fibroblasts null for the transcriptional co-repressor Ski

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelain, Katherine; Armisen, Ricardo; Aguirre, Adam; Ueki, Nobuhide; Toro, Jessica; Colmenares, Clemencia; Hayman, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Ski is a transcriptional regulator that has been considered an oncoprotein, given its ability to induce oncogenic transformation in avian model systems. However, studies in mouse and in some human tumor cells have also indicated a tumor suppressor activity for this protein. We found that Ski−/− mouse embryo fibroblasts exhibit high levels of genome instability, namely aneuploidy, consistent with a tumor suppressor function for Ski. Time-lapse microscopy revealed lagging chromosomes and chroma...

  17. STI571 (Gleevec) improves tumor growth delay and survival in irradiated mouse models of glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Ling; Shinohara, Eric T.; Kim, Dong; Tan Jiahuai; Osusky, Kate; Shyr, Yu; Hallahan, Dennis E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain neoplasm that is essentially incurable. Although radiation therapy prolongs survival, GBMs progress within areas of irradiation. Recent studies in invertebrates have shown that STI571 (Gleevec; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ) enhances the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation. In the present study, the effectiveness of STI571 in combination with radiation was studied in mouse models of GBM. Methods and Materials: Murine GL261 and human D54 GBM cell lines formed tumors in brains and hind limbs of C57BL6 and nude mice, respectively. GL261 and D54 cells were treated with 5 μmol/L of STI571 for 1 h and/or irradiated with 3 Gy. Protein was analyzed by Western immunoblots probed with antibodies to caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, phospho-Akt, Akt, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α and β. Tumor volumes were assessed in mice bearing GL261 or D54 tumors treated with 21 Gy administered in seven fractionated doses. Histologic sections from STI571-treated mice were stained with phospho-Akt and phospho-PDGFR β antibodies. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to study the response of mice bearing intracranial implants of GL261. Results: STI571 penetrated the blood-brain barrier, which resulted in a reduction in phospho-PDGFR in GBM. STI571-induced apoptosis in GBM was significantly enhanced by irradiation. STI571 combined with irradiation induced caspase 3 cleavage in GBM cells. Glioblastoma multiforme response to therapy correlated with an increase in tumor growth delay and survival when STI571 was administered in conjunction with daily irradiation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that STI571 has the potential to augment radiotherapy and thereby improve median survival

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion

  19. CYP2F2-generated metabolites, not styrene oxide, are a key event mediating the mode of action of styrene-induced mouse lung tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzan, G; Bus, J; Hotchkiss, J; Harkema, J; Banton, M; Sarang, S

    2012-02-01

    Styrene induces lung tumors in mice but not in rats. Although metabolism of styrene to 7,8-styrene oxide (SO) by CYP2E1 has been suggested as a mediator of styrene toxicity, lung toxicity is not attenuated in CYP2E1 knockout mice. However, styrene and/or SO metabolism by mouse lung Clara cell-localized CYP2F2 to ring-oxidized cytotoxic metabolite(s) has been postulated as a key metabolic gateway responsible for both lung toxicity and possible tumorigenicity. To test this hypothesis, the lung toxicity of styrene and SO was evaluated in C57BL/6 (WT) and CYP2F2⁻/⁻ knockout mice treated with styrene (400 mg/kg/day, gavage, or 200 or 400 mg/kg/day, ip) or S- or R-SO (200 mg/kg/day, ip) for 5 days. Styrene treated WT mice displayed significant necrosis and exfoliation of Clara cells, and cumulative BrdU-labeling index of S-phase cells was markedly increased in terminal bronchioles of WT mice exposed to styrene or S- or RSO. In contrast, Clara and terminal bronchiole cell toxicity was not observed in CYP2F2⁻/⁻ mice exposed to either styrene or SO. This study clearly demonstrates that the mouse lung toxicity of both styrene and SO is critically dependent on metabolism by CYP2F2. Importantly, the human isoform of CYP2F, CYP2F1, is expressed at much lower levels and likely does not catalyze significant styrene metabolism, supporting the hypothesis that styrene-induced mouse lung tumors may not quantitatively, or possibly qualitatively, predict lung tumor potential in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Imaging of lung metastasis tumor mouse model using [{sup 18}F]FDG small animal PET and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, June Youp; Woo, Sang Keun; Lee, Tae Sup [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to image metastaic lung melanoma model with optimal pre-conditions for animal handling by using [{sup 18}F]FDG small animal PET and clinical CT. The pre-conditions for lung region tumor imaging were 16-22 h fasting and warming temperature at 30 .deg. C. Small animal PET image was obtained at 60 min postinjection of 7.4 MBq [{sup 18}F]FDG and compared pattern of [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake and glucose standard uptake value (SUVG) of lung region between Ketamine/Xylazine (Ke/Xy) and Isoflurane (Iso) anesthetized group in normal mice. Metastasis tumor mouse model to lung was established by intravenous injection of B16-F10 cells in C57BL/6 mice. In lung metastasis tumor model, [{sup 18}F]FDG image was obtained and fused with anatomical clinical CT image. Average blood glucose concentration in normal mice were 128.0 {+-} 22.87 and 86.0 {+-} 21.65 mg/dL in Ke/Xy group and Iso group, respectively. Ke/Xy group showed 1.5 fold higher blood glucose concentration than Iso group. Lung to Background ratio (L/B) in SUVG image was 8.6 {+-} 0.48 and 12.1 {+-}0.63 in Ke/Xy group and Iso group, respectively. In tumor detection in lung region, [{sup 18}F]FDG image of Iso group was better than that of Ke/Xy group, because of high L/B ratio. Metastatic tumor location in [{sup 18}F]FDG small animal PET image was confirmed by fusion image using clinical CT. Tumor imaging in small animal lung region with [{sup 18}F]FDG small animal PET should be considered pre-conditions which fasting, warming and an anesthesia during [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake. Fused imaging with small animal PET and CT image could be useful for the detection of metastatic tumor in lung region.

  1. Chronic abdominal wall pain misdiagnosed as functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Assen, Tijmen; de Jager-Kievit, Jenneke W A J; Scheltinga, Marc R; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2013-01-01

    The abdominal wall is often neglected as a cause of chronic abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to identify chronic abdominal wall pain syndromes, such as anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), in a patient population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain, including irritable bowel syndrome, using a validated 18-item questionnaire as an identification tool. In this cross-sectional analysis, 4 Dutch primary care practices employing physicians who were unaware of the existence of ACNES were selected. A total of 535 patients ≥18 years old who were registered with a functional abdominal pain diagnosis were approached when they were symptomatic to complete the questionnaire (maximum 18 points). Responders who scored at least the 10-point cutoff value (sensitivity, 0.94; specificity, 0.92) underwent a diagnostic evaluation to establish their final diagnosis. The main outcome was the presence and prevalence of ACNES in a group of symptomatic patients diagnosed with functional abdominal pain. Of 535 patients, 304 (57%) responded; 167 subjects (31%) recently reporting symptoms completed the questionnaire. Of 23 patients who scored above the 10-point cutoff value, 18 were available for a diagnostic evaluation. In half of these subjects (n = 9) functional abdominal pain (including IBS) was confirmed. However, the other 9 patients were suffering from abdominal wall pain syndrome, 6 of whom were diagnosed with ACNES (3.6% prevalence rate of symptomatic subjects; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.6), whereas the remaining 3 harbored a painful lipoma, an abdominal herniation, and a painful scar. A clinically relevant portion of patients previously diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome in a primary care environment suffers from an abdominal wall pain syndrome such as ACNES.

  2. Mouse models of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakur Mohibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Despite advances in genetic and biochemical analyses, the incidence of breast cancer and its associated mortality remain very high. About 60 - 70% of breast cancers are Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α positive and are dependent on estrogen for growth. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs have therefore provided an effective targeted therapy to treat ER-α positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, development of resistance to endocrine therapy is frequent and leads to cancer recurrence. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the development of ER-α positive tumors and their resistance to ER antagonists is currently limited due to lack of experimental models of ER-α positive breast cancer. In most mouse models of breast cancer, the tumors that form are typically ER-negative and independent of estrogen for their growth. However, in recent years more attention has been given to develop mouse models that develop different subtypes of breast cancers, including ER-positive tumors. In this review, we discuss the currently available mouse models that develop ER-α positive mammary tumors and their potential use to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ER-α positive breast cancer development and endocrine resistance.

  3. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institue of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoon Sung [Dept. of Pathology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  4. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul; Bae, Yoon Sung

    2012-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  5. Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with yolk sac and teratomatous components in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Manivel, J Carlos; Olson, Erik J

    2013-05-01

    Mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary have rarely been reported in veterinary species. A 3-year-old intact female Labrador Retriever dog was presented for lethargy, abdominal distention, and a midabdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (23 cm in diameter) left ovarian tumor and multiple small (2-3 cm in diameter) pale tan masses on the peritoneum and abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Histological examination of the left ovary revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with a yolk sac component with rare Schiller-Duval bodies and a teratomatous component comprised primarily of neural differentiation. The abdominal metastases were solely comprised of the yolk sac component. The yolk sac component was diffusely immunopositive for cytokeratin with scattered cells reactive for α-fetoprotein and placental alkaline phosphatase. Within the teratomatous component, the neuropil was diffusely immunopositive for S100, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive cells. Ovarian germ cell tumors may be pure and consist of only 1 germ cell element or may be mixed and include more than 1 germ cell element, such as teratoma and yolk sac tumor.

  6. Transgenic mouse models of hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirma, Nameer B; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R

    2012-09-01

    Mouse models of breast cancer, especially transgenic and knockout mice, have been established as valuable tools in shedding light on factors involved in preneoplastic changes, tumor development and malignant progression. The majority of mouse transgenic models develop estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors. This is seen as a drawback because the majority of human breast cancers present an ER positive phenotype. On the other hand, several transgenic mouse models have been developed that produce ER positive mammary tumors. These include mice over-expressing aromatase, ERα, PELP-1 and AIB-1. In this review, we will discuss the value of these models as physiologically relevant in vivo systems to understand breast cancer as well as some of the pitfalls involving these models. In all, we argue that the use of transgenic models has improved our understanding of the molecular aspects and biology of breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. VACUUM THERAPY VERSUS ABDOMINAL EXERCISES ON ABDOMINAL OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevein Mohammed Mohammed Gharib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a medical condition that may adversely affect wellbeing and leading to increased incidence of many health problems. Abdominal obesity tends to be associated with weight gain and obesity and it is significantly connected with different disorders like coronary heart disease and type II diabetes mellitus.This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of vacuum therapy as compared to abdominal exercises on abdominal obesity in overweight and obese women. Methods: Thirtyoverweight and obese women participated in this study with body mass index > 25 kg/m2andwaist circumference ≥ 85 cm. Their ages ranged from 28 - 40 years old.The subjects were excluded if they have diabetes, abdominal infection diseases or any physical limitation restricting exercise ability. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups; group I and group II. Group I received vacuum therapy sessions (by the use of LPG device in addition to aerobic exercise training. Group II received abdominal exercises in addition to the same aerobic exercisesgiven to group I. This study was extended for successive 8 weeks (3 sessions/ week. All subjects were assessed for thickness ofnthe abdominal skin fold, waist circumference and body mass index. Results: The results of this study showeda significant difference between group I and group II post-interventionas regarding to the mean values of waist circumference and abdominal skin fold thickness (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aerobic exercises combined with vacuum therapy (for three sessions/week for successive 8 weeks have a positive effect on women with abdominal obesity in terms of reducing waist circumference and abdominal skin fold thickness.

  8. Vasculature analysis of patient derived tumor xenografts using species-specific PCR assays: evidence of tumor endothelial cells and atypical VEGFA-VEGFR1/2 signalings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieche, Ivan; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Decaudin, Didier; Dangles-Marie, Virginie; Vacher, Sophie; Vallerand, David; Richon, Sophie; Hatem, Rana; De Plater, Ludmilla; Dahmani, Ahmed; Némati, Fariba; Angevin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Tumor endothelial transdifferentiation and VEGFR1/2 expression by cancer cells have been reported in glioblastoma but remain poorly documented for many other cancer types. To characterize vasculature of patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs), largely used in preclinical anti-angiogenic assays, we designed here species-specific real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays. Human and mouse PECAM1/CD31, ENG/CD105, FLT1/VEGFR1, KDR/VEGFR2 and VEGFA transcripts were analyzed in a large series of 150 PDXs established from 8 different tumor types (53 colorectal, 14 ovarian, 39 breast and 15 renal cell cancers, 6 small cell and 5 non small cell lung carcinomas, 13 cutaneous melanomas and 5 glioblastomas) and in two bevacizumab-treated non small cell lung carcinomas xenografts. As expected, mouse cell proportion in PDXs -evaluated by quantifying expression of the housekeeping gene TBP- correlated with all mouse endothelial markers and human VEGFA RNA levels. More interestingly, we observed human PECAM1/CD31 and ENG/CD105 expression in all tumor types, with higher rate in glioblastoma and renal cancer xenografts. Human VEGFR expression profile varied widely depending on tumor types with particularly high levels of human FLT1/VEGFR1 transcripts in colon cancers and non small cell lung carcinomas, and upper levels of human KDR/VEGFR2 transcripts in non small cell lung carcinomas. Bevacizumab treatment induced significant low expression of mouse Pecam1/Cd31, Eng/Cd105, Flt1/Vegfr1 and Kdr/Vefr2 while the human PECAM1/CD31 and VEGFA were upregulated. Taken together, our results strongly suggest existence of human tumor endothelial cells in all tumor types tested and of both stromal and tumoral autocrine VEGFA-VEGFR1/2 signalings. These findings should be considered when evaluating molecular mechanisms of preclinical response and resistance to tumor anti-angiogenic strategies

  9. Understanding Collagen Organization in Breast Tumors to Predict and Prevent Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    mouse mammary tumor virus polyoma middle T (MMTV-PyMT) mice crossed with MMP13 KO mice, noted proportionately more “thin collagen fibers” (rela- tive to...mammary gland gene expression and increased tumor growth following social isolation. Cancer Prev. Res. 2, 850–861. Wohleb, E.S., Hanke, M.L., Corona , A.W...1:100 dilution of mouse anti-Collagen II (II-II6B3; Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank, Iowa City, IA) or a mouse monoclonal anti-Collagen I ( Cat

  10. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumor) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liné, A; Sanchez, J; Jayyosi, L; Birembaut, P; Ohl, X; Poli-Mérol, M-L; François, C

    2017-06-01

    The intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH/Masson's tumor) is a rare benign tumor of the skin and subcutaneous vessels. We report, in four pediatric cases, clinical presentation, care (diagnostic and surgical) of Masson's tumor in children. Two boys (two years) and two girls (four and six years) showed a pain subcutaneous tumor (one to five centimeters). They were in the transverse abdominal muscle, between two metatarsals, at the front of thigh and in the axilla. Imaging performed (MRI, Doppler ultrasound) evoked either a hematoma, a lymphangioma or hemangioma. The indication for removal was selected from pain and/or parental concern. The diagnosis was histologically. A lesion persisted in residual form (incomplete initial resection), and is currently not scalable for eleven years. This tumor is characterized by excessive proliferation and papillary endothelial cells in the vessels, following a thrombotic event. It is found mainly in adults (no specific age), and preferentially localizes in the face and limbs. The clinical differential diagnosis of this tumor is angiosarcoma. The imagery has not allowed in our series to diagnose but still essential to eliminate differential diagnoses. Only surgical excision with histological examination can differentiate. Our study emphasizes the possibility of pediatric cases with two cases of unusual locations (abdominal and axilla). Clinical presentations we met, now lead us to direct our histologist looking for a Masson tumor in any child with a subcutaneous tumor and/or intramuscular pain, sudden onset, and vascular appearance (after excluding an arteriovenous malformation). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel LIMK2 Inhibitor Blocks Panc-1 Tumor Growth in a mouse xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Roni; Haklai, Roni; Elad-Tzfadia, Galit; Wolfson, Haim J; Carmeli, Shmuel; Kloog, Yoel

    2014-01-01

    LIM kinases (LIMKs) are important cell cytoskeleton regulators that play a prominent role in cancer manifestation and neuronal diseases. The LIMK family consists of two homologues, LIMK1 and LIMK2, which differ from one another in expression profile, intercellular localization, and function. The main substrate of LIMK is cofilin, a member of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) protein family. When phosphorylated by LIMK, cofilin is inactive. LIMKs play a contributory role in several neurodevelopmental disorders and in cancer growth and metastasis. We recently reported the development and validation of a novel LIMK inhibitor, referred to here as T56-LIMKi, using a combination of computational methods and classical biochemistry techniques. Here we report that T56-LIMKi inhibits LIMK2 with high specificity, and shows little or no cross-reactivity with LIMK1. We found that T56-LIMKi decreases phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin) levels and thus inhibits growth of several cancerous cell lines, including those of pancreatic cancer, glioma and schwannoma. Because the most promising in-vitro effect of T56-LIMKi was observed in the pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1, we tested the inhibitor on a nude mouse Panc-1 xenograft model. T56-LIMKi reduced tumor size and p-cofilin levels in the Panc-1 tumors, leading us to propose T56-LIMKi as a candidate drug for cancer therapy.

  12. Scarless abdominal fat graft harvest for neurosurgical procedures: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Victoria T; Duckworth, Edward A M

    2015-02-01

    Background Abdominal fat grafts are often harvested for use in skull base reconstruction and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak repairs, and for operations traversing the nasal sinuses or mastoid bone. Although the endoscopic transnasal surgery has gained significant popularity, in part because it is considered "scarless," a common adjunct, the abdominal fat graft, can result in a disfiguring scar across the abdomen. Objective This is the first report of a scarless abdominal fat graft technique for skull base reconstruction. Methods Ten patients with a median age of 56.5 years (range: 45-73 years) underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal tumor resection with intraumbilical fat graft harvest. Careful circumferential fat dissection at the umbilicus, with progressive retraction of the graft, was crucial to ensure maximal visualization and to prevent injury to the subcutaneous vessels and rectus fascia. Results Following reconstruction of the sellar skull base, all patients did well postoperatively with no evidence of CSF leak. At 12-week follow-up for all patients, there was no evidence of scar, intracavity hematoma, or wound infection. Conclusions Fat graft harvest through an intraumbilical incision results in a scar-free abdominal harvest, and is a useful procedural adjunct to complement "scarless" brain surgery.

  13. Bulky abdominal masses in pediatrics: iconographic essay; Massas abdominais volumosas em pediatria: ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fabiano; Faria, Andreia V.; Kluge, Patricia D.; Volpato, Ricardo G.; Santos, Sergio L.M. dos; Caserta, Nelson M.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas]. E-mail: fabiano97@bol.com.br

    2005-04-15

    The ultrasound, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance findings of 19 patients with abdominal bulky masses diagnosed as hydronephrosis, Wilms' tumor, neuroblastoma, adrenal carcinoma, sarcoma, hemangioendothelioma, hepatoblastoma, mesenchymal hamartoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, choledochal cyst, splenic cyst, lymphoma, enteric cyst, teratoma, hydrometrocolpos and lipoma are presented. Imaging findings (including ultrasound, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are important tools for the evaluation of abdominal masses in pediatric patients and can contribute to the diagnosis and evaluation of the extension of these diseases. (author)

  14. Eighty-two year old female with long term abdominal pain, fever and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz Nicolás, G; Zafar Iqbal-Mirza, S; Gonzáles Carhuancho, J A; Mollejo Villanueva, M

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of an old woman, consulting for fever, abdominal pain and constitutional symptoms one year of evolution. The differential diagnosis is between infectious, tumoral, or inflammatory disease, which may be located at the abdominal level, performing additional tests to rule out abdominal process. The existence of pain in the legs and level scan left thigh of a mass of hard consistency, makes us raise another diagnosis. Finally show on ultrasound soft tissue inflammatory changes regarding panniculitis. From this finding aetiologies of panniculitis are reviewed. Skin biopsy that shows the final diagnosis is made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  15. Development of new mouse lung tumor models expressing EGFR T790M mutants associated with clinical resistance to kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regales, Lucia; Balak, Marissa N; Gong, Yixuan; Politi, Katerina; Sawai, Ayana; Le, Carl; Koutcher, Jason A; Solit, David B; Rosen, Neal; Zakowski, Maureen F; Pao, William

    2007-08-29

    The EGFR T790M mutation confers acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors in human EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, is occasionally detected before treatment, and may confer genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. To study further its role in lung tumorigenesis, we developed mice with inducible expression in type II pneumocytes of EGFR(T790M) alone or together with a drug-sensitive L858R mutation. Both transgenic lines develop lung adenocarcinomas that require mutant EGFR for tumor maintenance but are resistant to an EGFR kinase inhibitor. EGFR(L858R+T790M)-driven tumors are transiently targeted by hsp90 inhibition. Notably, EGFR(T790M)-expressing animals develop tumors with longer latency than EGFR(L858R+T790M)-bearing mice and in the absence of additional kinase domain mutations. These new mouse models of mutant EGFR-dependent lung adenocarcinomas provide insight into clinical observations. The models should also be useful for developing improved therapies for patients with lung cancers harboring EGFR(T790M) alone or in conjunction with drug-sensitive EGFR kinase domain mutations.

  16. Development of new mouse lung tumor models expressing EGFR T790M mutants associated with clinical resistance to kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Regales

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The EGFR T790M mutation confers acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors in human EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, is occasionally detected before treatment, and may confer genetic susceptibility to lung cancer.To study further its role in lung tumorigenesis, we developed mice with inducible expression in type II pneumocytes of EGFR(T790M alone or together with a drug-sensitive L858R mutation. Both transgenic lines develop lung adenocarcinomas that require mutant EGFR for tumor maintenance but are resistant to an EGFR kinase inhibitor. EGFR(L858R+T790M-driven tumors are transiently targeted by hsp90 inhibition. Notably, EGFR(T790M-expressing animals develop tumors with longer latency than EGFR(L858R+T790M-bearing mice and in the absence of additional kinase domain mutations.These new mouse models of mutant EGFR-dependent lung adenocarcinomas provide insight into clinical observations. The models should also be useful for developing improved therapies for patients with lung cancers harboring EGFR(T790M alone or in conjunction with drug-sensitive EGFR kinase domain mutations.

  17. Body weight considerations in the B6C3F1 mouse and the use of dietary control to standardize background tumor incidence in chronic bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leakey, Julian E.A.; Seng, John E.; Allaben, William T.

    2003-01-01

    In B6C3F 1 mice, the rate of body growth influences susceptibility to liver neoplasia and large variations in body weight can complicate the interpretation of bioassay data. The relationship between body weight and liver tumor incidence was calculated for historical control populations of male and female ad libitum-fed mice (approx. 2750 and 2300 animals, respectively) and in populations of male and female mice which had been subjected to forced body weight reduction due to either dietary restriction or exposure to noncarcinogenic chemicals (approx. 1600 and 1700, respectively). Resulting tumor risk data were then used to construct idealized weight curves for male and female B6C3F 1 mice; these curves predict a terminal background liver tumor incidence of 15-20%. Use of dietary control to manipulate body growth of male B6C3F 1 mice to fit the idealized weight curve was evaluated in a 2-year bioassay of chloral hydrate. Cohorts of mice were successfully maintained at weights approximating their idealized target weights throughout the study. These mice exhibited less body weight variation than their ad libitum-fed counterparts (e.g., standard deviations of body weight were 1.4 and 3.4 g for respective control groups at 36 weeks). Historical control body weight and tumor risk data from the two male mouse populations were utilized to predict background liver tumor rates for each experimental group of the chloral hydrate study. The predicted background tumor rates closely matched the observed rates for both the dietary controlled and ad libitum-fed chloral hydrate control groups when each mouse was evaluated according to either its weekly food consumption or its weekly change in body weight

  18. Curcumin Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Human Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bimonte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from transformed cells arising in tissues forming the pancreas. The best chemotherapeutic agent used to treat pancreatic cancer is the gemcitabine. However, gemcitabine treatment is associated with many side effects. Thus novel strategies involving less toxic agents for treatment of pancreatic cancer are necessary. Curcumin is one such agent that inhibits the proliferation and angiogenesis of a wide variety of tumor cells, through the modulation of many cell signalling pathways. In this study, we investigated whether curcumin plays antitumor effects in MIA PaCa-2 cells. In vitro studies showed that curcumin inhibits the proliferation and enhances apoptosis of MIA PaCa-2 cells. To test whether the antitumor activity of curcumin is also observed in vivo, we generated an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer by injection of MIA PaCa-2 cells in nude mice. We placed mice on diet containing curcumin at 0.6% for 6 weeks. In these treated mice tumors were smaller with respect to controls and showed a downregulation of the transcription nuclear factor NF-κB and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Overall, our data indicate that curcumin has a great potential in treatment of human pancreatic cancer through the modulation of NF-κB pathway.

  19. Solitary Fibrous Tumor Arising from Stomach: CT Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Kwon, Jieun; Park, Jong-pil; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2007-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are spindle-cell neoplasms that usually develop in the pleura and peritoneum, and rarely arise in the stomach. To our knowledge, there is only one case reporting a solitary fibrous tumor arising from stomach in the English literature. Here we report the case of a 26-year-old man with a large solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach which involved the submucosa and muscular layer and resembled a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach, based on what was seen during abdominal computed tomography. A solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach, although rare, could be considered as a diagnostic possibility for gastric submucosal tumors. PMID:18159603

  20. Anti-tumor activity of high-dose EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and sequential docetaxel in wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer cell nude mouse xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Zhang, Qianqian; Fang, Shu; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zhehai

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is still a challenge. This study explored antitumor activity of high-dose icotinib (an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) plus sequential docetaxel against wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells-generated nude mouse xenografts. Nude mice were subcutaneously injected with wild-type EGFR NSCLC A549 cells and divided into different groups for 3-week treatment. Tumor xenograft volumes were monitored and recorded, and at the end of experiments, tumor xenografts were removed for Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Compared to control groups (negative control, regular-dose icotinib [IcoR], high-dose icotinib [IcoH], and docetaxel [DTX]) and regular icotinib dose (60 mg/kg) with docetaxel, treatment of mice with a high-dose (1200 mg/kg) of icotinib plus sequential docetaxel for 3 weeks (IcoH-DTX) had an additive effect on suppression of tumor xenograft size and volume (P Icotinib-containing treatments markedly reduced phosphorylation of EGFR, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase B (Akt), but only the high-dose icotinib-containing treatments showed an additive effect on CD34 inhibition (P icotinib plus docetaxel had a similar effect on mouse weight loss (a common way to measure adverse reactions in mice), compared to the other treatment combinations. The study indicate that the high dose of icotinib plus sequential docetaxel (IcoH-DTX) have an additive effect on suppressing the growth of wild-type EGFR NSCLC cell nude mouse xenografts, possibly through microvessel density reduction. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:27852073

  1. Surgical Stress Abrogates Pre-Existing Protective T Cell Mediated Anti-Tumor Immunity Leading to Postoperative Cancer Recurrence.

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    Abhirami A Ananth

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor CD8+ T cells are a key determinant for overall survival in patients following surgical resection for solid malignancies. Using a mouse model of cancer vaccination (adenovirus expressing melanoma tumor-associated antigen (TAA-dopachrome tautomerase (AdDCT and resection resulting in major surgical stress (abdominal nephrectomy, we demonstrate that surgical stress results in a reduction in the number of CD8+ T cell that produce cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, Granzyme B in response to TAA. This effect is secondary to both reduced proliferation and impaired T cell function following antigen binding. In a prophylactic model, surgical stress completely abrogates tumor protection conferred by vaccination in the immediate postoperative period. In a clinically relevant surgical resection model, vaccinated mice undergoing a positive margin resection with surgical stress had decreased survival compared to mice with positive margin resection alone. Preoperative immunotherapy with IFNα significantly extends survival in surgically stressed mice. Importantly, myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC population numbers and functional impairment of TAA-specific CD8+ T cell were altered in surgically stressed mice. Our observations suggest that cancer progression may result from surgery-induced suppression of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Preoperative immunotherapies aimed at targeting the prometastatic effects of cancer surgery will reduce recurrence and improve survival in cancer surgery patients.

  2. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha reduces the outgrowth of hepatic micrometastasis of colorectal tumors in a mouse model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shu-Fan; Sun, Kai; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Xue; Cai, Ning; Liu, Yan-Jun; Xu, Long-Mei; Kong, Xian-Ming; Wei, Li-Xin

    2014-01-08

    Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) often develop liver metastases, in which case surgery is considered the only potentially curative treatment option. However, liver surgery is associated with a risk of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, which is thought to promote the growth of colorectal liver metastases. The influence of IR-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) elevation in the process still is unknown. To investigate the role of TNF-α in the growth of pre-existing micrometastases in the liver following IR, we used a mouse model of colorectal liver metastases. In this model, mice received IR treatment seven days after intrasplenic injections of colorectal CT26 cells. Prior to IR treatment, either TNF-α blocker Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α, which could inhibit IR-induced TNF-α elevation, was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Hepatic IR treatment significantly promoted CT26 tumor growth in the liver, but either Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α pretreatment reversed this trend. Further studies showed that the CT26 + IR group prominently increased the levels of ALT and AST, liver necrosis, inflammatory infiltration and the expressions of hepatic IL-6, MMP9 and E-selectin compared to those of CT26 group. Inhibition of TNF-α elevation remarkably attenuated the increases of these liver inflammatory damage indicators and tumor-promoting factors. These findings suggested that inhibition of TNF-α elevation delayed the IR-enhanced outgrowth of colorectal liver metastases by reducing IR-induced inflammatory damage and the formation of tumor-promoting microenvironments. Both Enbrel and low-dose TNF-α represented the potential therapeutic approaches for the protection of colorectal liver metastatic patients against IR injury-induced growth of liver micrometastases foci.

  3. Antibody-linked drug destroys tumor cells and tumor blood vessels in many types of cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A team led by Brad St. Croix, Ph.D., Senior Associate Scientist, Mouse Cancer Genetics Program, has developed an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that destroys both tumor cells and the blood vessels that nourish them. The drug significantly shrank breast tumors, colon tumors and several other types of cancer and prolonged survival. Learn more...  

  4. Characterization of the tumor-promoting activity of m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid in SENCAR mouse skin and its inhibition by gallotannin, oligomeric proanthocyanidin, and their monomeric units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilan Chen; Elisabeth M. Perchellet; Xiao Mei Gao; Fatima K. Johnson; Amy W. Davis; Steven W. Newell; Richard W. Hemingway; Vittorio Bottari; Jean-Pierre Perchellett

    1996-01-01

    m-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid (CPBA). Which induces ornithine decarboxylase activity as much as 12-0- terradecanoyIp horbol-13-acetate (TPA ). was tested for its ability to induce DNA synthesis. bydroperoxide (HPx) production. and tumor promotion in mouse epidermis in vivo. After an early inhibition. CPBA stimulates DNA synthesis. A response which is maintained between 16...

  5. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in diagnosis of abdominal and pelvic neoplasm in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailing; Li, Fangxuan; Liu, Juntian; Zhang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of abdominal and pelvic masses in adults has gained tremendous popularity. However, the application of the same treatment in children is not as popular because of apprehensions regarding inadequate tissues for the biopsy and accidental puncture of vital organs. Data of the application of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in 105 pediatric patients with clinically or ultrasound-diagnosed abdominopelvic masses were reviewed. Diagnostic procedures were conducted in our institution from May 2011 to May 2013. The biopsies were conducted on 86 malignant lesions and 19 benign lesions. 86 malignant tumors comprised neuroblastomas (30 cases), hepatoblastomas (15 cases), nephroblastomas (11 cases), and primitive neuroectodermal tumors/malignant small round cells (6 cases). Among malignant tumor cases, only a pelvic primitive neuroectodermal tumor did not receive a pathological diagnosis. Therefore, the biopsy accuracy was 98.8 % in malignant tumor. However, the biopsies for one neuroblastomas and one malignant small round cell tumor were inadequate for cytogenetic analysis. Therefore, 96.5 % of the malignant tumor patients received complete diagnosis via biopsy. 19 benign tumors comprised mature teratoma (10 cases), hemangioendothelioma (3 cases), paraganglioma (2 cases), and infection (2 cases). The diagnostic accuracy for benign neoplasm was 100 %. Five patients experienced postoperative complications, including pain (2 patients), bleeding from the biopsy site (2 patients), and wound infection (1 patient). Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy is an efficient, minimally invasive, accurate, and safe diagnostic method that can be applied in the management of abdominal or pelvic mass of pediatric patients.

  6. Mesothelioma as a rapidly developing Giant Abdominal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Dinesh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare lesion and is known for local recurrence. This is first case report of a rapidly developing massive abdominal tumor with histological finding of benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM. We describe a BCM arising in the retroperitoneal tis[sue on the right side, lifting ascending colon and cecum to the left side of abdomen. Patient was an active 58-year-old man who noticed a rapid abdominal swelling within a two month time period with a weight gain of 40 pounds. Patient had no risk factors including occupational (asbestos, cadmium, family history, social (alcohol, smoking or history of trauma. We will discuss the clinical, radiologic, intra-operative, immunohistochemical, pathologic findings, and imaging six months after surgery. Patient has no recurrence and no weight gain on follow up visits and imaging.

  7. Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Secor, Eric R; Flynn, John R; Jellison, Evan R; Kuhn, Liisa T

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT). Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS) of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model.

  8. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Torres, Lucas Rios; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; D' ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2013-06-15

    Objective: to evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis). Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others). Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant) out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14%) cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%), steatosis (3%), adrenal nodule (0.7%) and cholelithiasis (0.3%). Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis. (author)

  9. The diagnostic application of Ga-67 scintigraphy in primary lung cancer, hepatoma and abdominal abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiumi, Yoshihiko

    1983-01-01

    It is difficult to detect tumor lesions by 67 Gascintigraphy, though it is named as a tumor scintigraphy. Recently, 67 Ga-scintigraphy is well used in the detection of inflammatic lesions. This paper is to discuss the detectability of lesions and diagnostic limitation on operability by 67 Ga-scintigraphy to primary lung cancer, minute hepatoma and abdominal absccess. Primary lung cancer: In detecting metastatic hilar lymph nodes, the sensitivity is 54%, and the specificity is 78%. In detecting metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes, the sensitivity is 32% and the specificity is 89%. Minute hepatoma : The detectability depended on the size of the lesion. It is hard to detect lesions with under 2 cm by 67 Ga-scintigraphy. Abdominal abscess : The sensitivity is 88%, and the specificity is 92%. (author)

  10. Desmoid Fibromatosis of the Abdominal Wall: Surgical Resection and Reconstruction with Biological Matrix Egis®

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    Saveria Tropea

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumor is a rare monoclonal fibroblast proliferation that is regarded as benign. The clinical management of desmoid tumors is very complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach because of the unpredictable disease course. For those cases localized in the anterior abdominal wall, symptomatic and unresponsive to medical treatment, radical resection and reconstruction with a prosthetic device are indicated. We present here a case of desmoid fibromatosis of the left anterolateral abdominal wall with a marked increase of the mass that required a large excision followed by reconstruction with biological matrix. The fact that it can be incorporated in patient tissue without a fibrotic response and that it can resist future infections, together with a very competetive price, made the new collagen matrix Egis® our first choice.

  11. Desmoid Fibromatosis of the Abdominal Wall: Surgical Resection and Reconstruction with Biological Matrix Egis®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropea, Saveria; Mocellin, Simone; Stramare, Roberto; Bonavina, Maria Giuseppina; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Rastrelli, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Desmoid tumor is a rare monoclonal fibroblast proliferation that is regarded as benign. The clinical management of desmoid tumors is very complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach because of the unpredictable disease course. For those cases localized in the anterior abdominal wall, symptomatic and unresponsive to medical treatment, radical resection and reconstruction with a prosthetic device are indicated. We present here a case of desmoid fibromatosis of the left anterolateral abdominal wall with a marked increase of the mass that required a large excision followed by reconstruction with biological matrix. The fact that it can be incorporated in patient tissue without a fibrotic response and that it can resist future infections, together with a very competetive price, made the new collagen matrix Egis® our first choice. PMID:28413398

  12. Cytoplasmic transfer of heritable elements other than mtDNA from SAMP1 mice into mouse tumor cells suppresses their ability to form tumors in C57BL6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Akinori; Tani, Haruna; Takibuchi, Gaku; Ishikawa, Kaori; Sakurazawa, Ryota; Inoue, Takafumi; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Nakada, Kazuto; Takenaga, Keizo; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2017-11-04

    In a previous study, we generated transmitochondrial P29mtSAMP1 cybrids, which had nuclear DNA from the C57BL6 (referred to as B6) mouse strain-derived P29 tumor cells and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exogenously-transferred from the allogeneic strain SAMP1. Because P29mtSAMP1 cybrids did not form tumors in syngeneic B6 mice, we proposed that allogeneic SAMP1 mtDNA suppressed tumor formation of P29mtSAMP1 cybrids. To test this hypothesis, current study generated P29mt(sp)B6 cybrids carrying all genomes (nuclear DNA and mtDNA) from syngeneic B6 mice by eliminating SAMP1 mtDNA from P29mtSAMP1 cybrids and reintroducing B6 mtDNA. However, the P29mt(sp)B6 cybrids did not form tumors in B6 mice, even though they had no SAMP1 mtDNA, suggesting that SAMP1 mtDNA is not involved in tumor suppression. Then, we examined another possibility of whether SAMP1 mtDNA fragments potentially integrated into the nuclear DNA of P29mtSAMP1 cybrids are responsible for tumor suppression. We generated P29 H (sp)B6 cybrids by eliminating nuclear DNA from P29mt(sp)B6 cybrids and reintroducing nuclear DNA with no integrated SAMP1 mtDNA fragment from mtDNA-less P29 cells resistant to hygromycin in selection medium containing hygromycin. However, the P29 H (sp)B6 cybrids did not form tumors in B6 mice, even though they carried neither SAMP1 mtDNA nor nuclear DNA with integrated SAMP1 mtDNA fragments. Moreover, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bacterial infection were not involved in tumor suppression. These observations suggest that tumor suppression was caused not by mtDNA with polymorphic mutations or infection of cytozoic bacteria but by hypothetical heritable cytoplasmic elements other than mtDNA from SAMP1 mice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emblica officinalis extract induces autophagy and inhibits human ovarian cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, growth of mouse xenograft tumors.

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    Alok De

    Full Text Available Patients with ovarian cancer (OC may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla, have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen - CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1α expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC.

  14. Is It Worthwhile to Fully Evaluate the Stomach in Every Ultrasound Examination of the Abdominal Cavity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, M.; Navabi, J.; Salimi, Gh.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of abdominal sonography in the fasting state with no hypotonic agents in the detection and exclusion of gastric lesions. One-hundred patients with normal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 94 patients with a major gastric abnormality (including 59 intraluminal tumors, three submucosal masses, 29 ulcers, two polyps and one hypertrophied gastric mucosa) and 75 patients with minor gastric abnormalities (mainly gastritis) were enrolled into the study. Of the 100 normal patients, ultrasound showed four false positive results with 96% specificity of the examination. Within the major gastric lesion group, ultrasound was true positive in 55 of 59 tumors, 15 of 29 ulcers, three of three submucosal masses and the case of giant gastric mucosa. It was negative in the detection of gastric polyps. It could detect only 8% of minor gastric abnormalities. Abdominal sonography in the fasting state, if carefully performed, is sufficiently accurate in detection and exclusion of major gastric lesions. Therefore, although it cannot replace endoscopic and barium studies of the stomach, careful evaluation of the stomach is recommended in every sonographic evaluation of the abdominal cavity

  15. Case report 480: Periosteal amyloid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.O.; Karjoo, R.; Johnstone, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, a 66-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic left pretibial tumor of 7 years duration. Serial radiographs over this period demonstrated a slowly enlarging periosteal tumor with focal and increasing calcifications/ossifications. No involvement of the underlying medullary bone, as demonstrated by computed tomography was noted. Following the diagnosis by biopsy of an amyloid tumor, serum and urine electrophoreses, complete blood count, SMAC panel, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum rheumatoid factor level were found to be within reference ranges. A needle biopsy of the abdominal wall failed to reveal amyloid in the fat by Congo-red staining. (orig.)

  16. Loss of Serglycin Promotes Primary Tumor Growth and Vessel Functionality in the RIP1-Tag2 Mouse Model for Spontaneous Insulinoma Formation.

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    Andrew Hamilton

    Full Text Available The serglycin proteoglycan is mainly expressed by hematopoietic cells where the major function is to retain the content of storage granules and vesicles. In recent years, expression of serglycin has also been found in different forms of human malignancies and a high serglycin expression level has been correlated with a more migratory and invasive phenotype in the case of breast cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Serglycin has also been implicated in the development of the tumor vasculature in multiple myeloma and hepatocellular carcinoma where reduced expression of serglycin was correlated with a less extensive vasculature. To further investigate the contribution of serglycin to tumor development, we have used the immunocompetent RIP1-Tag2 mouse model of spontaneous insulinoma formation crossed into serglycin deficient mice. For the first time we show that serglycin-deficiency affects orthotopic primary tumor growth and tumor vascular functionality of late stage carcinomas. RIP1-Tag2 mice that lack serglycin develop larger tumors with a higher proliferative activity but unaltered apoptosis compared to normal RIP1-Tag2 mice. The absence of serglycin also enhances the tumor vessel functionality, which is better perfused than in tumors from serglycin wild type mice. The presence of the pro-angiogenic modulators vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were decreased in the serglycin deficient mice which suggests a less pro-angiogenic environment in the tumors of these animals. Taken together, we conclude that serglycin affects multiple aspects of spontaneous tumor formation, which strengthens the theory that serglycin acts as an important mediator in the formation and progression of tumors.

  17. Expression of NR1I3 in mouse lung tumors induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumasu, H.; Cordeiro, Y.G.; Rochetti, A.L.; Barra, C.N.; Sámora, T.S.; Strefezzi, R.F.; Dagli, M.L.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) is reported to be a possible novel therapeutic target for some cancers, including lung, brain and hematopoietic tumors. Here, we characterized expression of NR1I3 in a mouse model of lung carcinogenesis induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the most potent tobacco carcinogen. Lung tumors were collected from mice treated with NNK (400 mg/kg) and euthanized after 52 weeks. Benign and malignant lesions were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry, with samples snap-frozen for mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemically, we found that most macrophages and type I and II pneumocytes expressed NR1I3, whereas fibroblasts and endothelial cells were NR1I3 − . Compared with benign lesions, malignant lesions had less NR1I3 + tumor cells. Gene expression analysis also showed an inverse correlation between NR1I3 mRNA expression and tumor size (P=0.0061), suggesting that bigger tumors expressed less NR1I3 transcripts, in accordance with our immunohistochemical NR1I3 tests. Our results indicate that NR1I3 expression decreased during progression of malignant lung tumors induced by NNK in mice

  18. Expression of NR1I3 in mouse lung tumors induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasu, H.; Cordeiro, Y.G.; Rochetti, A.L.; Barra, C.N.; Sámora, T.S.; Strefezzi, R.F. [Laboratório de Oncologia Comparada e Translacional, Departmento de Medicina Veterinária, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP (Brazil); Dagli, M.L.Z. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental e Comparada, Departmento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) is reported to be a possible novel therapeutic target for some cancers, including lung, brain and hematopoietic tumors. Here, we characterized expression of NR1I3 in a mouse model of lung carcinogenesis induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the most potent tobacco carcinogen. Lung tumors were collected from mice treated with NNK (400 mg/kg) and euthanized after 52 weeks. Benign and malignant lesions were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry, with samples snap-frozen for mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemically, we found that most macrophages and type I and II pneumocytes expressed NR1I3, whereas fibroblasts and endothelial cells were NR1I3{sup −}. Compared with benign lesions, malignant lesions had less NR1I3{sup +} tumor cells. Gene expression analysis also showed an inverse correlation between NR1I3 mRNA expression and tumor size (P=0.0061), suggesting that bigger tumors expressed less NR1I3 transcripts, in accordance with our immunohistochemical NR1I3 tests. Our results indicate that NR1I3 expression decreased during progression of malignant lung tumors induced by NNK in mice.

  19. Postoperative findings following the Whipple procedure : determination of prevalence and morphologic abdominal CT features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortele, KJ; Lemmerling, M; de Hemptinne, B; De Vos, M; De Bock, G; Kunnen, M

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine characteristic CT findings following the Whipple procedure and to evaluate the usefulness of CT in re-dieting tumor recurrence. Eighty-four postoperative abdominal CT scans and medical records of 43 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Perioperative

  20. Single-mass mutations associated with mouse lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, I.; Berman, J.W.; Diamond, L.E.; Newcomb, E.W.; Villasante, A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors study the induction of mouse lymphomas after treatment with a chemical carcinogen, nitrosomethyl urea (NMU), or with gamma irradiation. The koplan fractionated gamma radiation scheme and an established protocol for NMU tumor formation were chosen as protocols for induction of mouse lymphomas. In both cases, the mice developed thymic lymphomas with up to 90% incidence. In NMU induction, the latency period is shorter than irradiation

  1. Increased diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy in patients with chronic abdominal pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Chronic abdominal pain is one of the most common chief complaints, but the underlying pathophysiology often remains unknown after routine clinical evaluation. Capsule endoscopy (CE is a new technique for the visualization of the entire small bowel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of CE in patients with chronic abdominal pain of obscure origin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred forty three patients with chronic abdominal pain with no significant lesions were enrolled in this study. CE was performed in all patients. RESULTS: A diagnosis was made in 23.0% of patients screened with CE. Of the 243 patients, 19 (7.8% were diagnosed with Crohn's disease, 15 (6.2% with enteritis, 11 (4.5% with idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia, 5 (2.1% with uncinariasis, and a number of other diagnoses including small bowel tumor, ascariasis, and anaphylactoid purpura. Five patients had abnormal transit time, and capsule retention occurred in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to other previous studies, we found that CE is an effective diagnostic tool for patients with abdominal pain.

  2. An activated form of ADAM10 is tumor selective and regulates cancer stem-like cells and tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Nayanendu; Eissman, Moritz F.; Xu, Kai; Llerena, Carmen; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Ding, Bi-Sen; Cao, Zhongwei; Rafii, Shahin; Ernst, Matthias; Scott, Andrew M.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.; Lackmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane metalloprotease ADAM10 sheds a range of cell surface proteins, including ligands and receptors of the Notch, Eph, and erbB families, thereby activating signaling pathways critical for tumor initiation and maintenance. ADAM10 is thus a promising therapeutic target. Although widely expressed, its activity is normally tightly regulated. We now report prevalence of an active form of ADAM10 in tumors compared with normal tissues, in mouse models and humans, identified by our conformation-specific antibody mAb 8C7. Structure/function experiments indicate mAb 8C7 binds an active conformation dependent on disulfide isomerization and oxidative conditions, common in tumors. Moreover, this active ADAM10 form marks cancer stem-like cells with active Notch signaling, known to mediate chemoresistance. Importantly, specific targeting of active ADAM10 with 8C7 inhibits Notch activity and tumor growth in mouse models, particularly regrowth after chemotherapy. Our results indicate targeted inhibition of active ADAM10 as a potential therapy for ADAM10-dependent tumor development and drug resistance. PMID:27503072

  3. Secondary abdominal appendicular pregnancy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosso Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The case report describes a 29-year-old nulliparous woman that was admitted at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Clinical Hospital Osijek complaining of mild abdominal pain without vaginal discharge. Case Outline. The patient’s menstrual cycle was irregular, from 30-45 days. An ultrasound examination showed suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy with a βHCG level of 1358 IU/L. Due to the presence of liquid in the pouch of Douglas the patient underwent emergency laparoscopy, which showed the presence of tumor mass between the right Fallopian tube and the appendix. These two structures associated with adhesions corresponded to secondary implantation after spontaneous tubal abortion which was confirmed by histopathologic analysis. Conclusion. Laparoscopy has emerged as the “gold standard” in the diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy, in this case the secondary abdominal pregnancy. From the diagnostic point of view, all women of reproductive age should be considered pregnant until proven otherwise, also keeping in mind that ectopic pregnancies can have different locations and many clinical features.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of Tc-99m-labeled RRL-containing peptide as a non-invasive tumor imaging agent in a mouse fibrosarcoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2015-11-01

    Arginine-arginine-leucine (RRL) is considered a tumor endothelial cell-specific binding sequence. RRL-containing peptide targeting tumor vessels is an excellent candidate for tumor imaging. In this study, we developed RRL-containing hexapeptides and evaluated their feasibility as a tumor imaging agent in a HT-1080 fibrosarcoma-bearing murine model. The hexapeptide, glutamic acid-cysteine-glycine (ECG)-RRL was synthesized using Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. Radiolabeling efficiency was evaluated using instant thin-layer chromatography. Uptake of Tc-99m ECG-RRL within HT-1080 cells was evaluated in vitro by confocal microscopy and cellular binding affinity was calculated. Gamma images were acquired In HT-1080 fibrosarcoma tumor-bearing mice, and the tumor-to-muscle uptake ratio was calculated. The inflammatory-to-normal muscle uptake ratio was also calculated in an inflammation mouse model. A biodistribution study was performed to calculate %ID/g. A high yield of Tc-99m ECG-RRL complexes was prepared after Tc-99m radiolabeling. Binding of Tc-99m ECG-RRL to tumor cells had was confirmed by in vitro studies. Gamma camera imaging in the murine model showed that Tc-99m ECG-RRL accumulated substantially in the subcutaneously engrafted tumor and that tumoral uptake was blocked by co-injecting excess RRL. Moreover, Tc-99m ECG-RRL accumulated minimally in inflammatory lesions. We successfully developed Tc-99m ECG-RRL as a new tumor imaging candidate. Specific tumoral uptake of Tc-99m ECG-RRL was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and it was determined to be a good tumor imaging candidate. Additionally, Tc-99m ECG-RRL effectively distinguished between cancerous tissue and inflammatory lesions.

  5. Involvement of EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a and associated molecules in pathogenesis of urethane induced mouse lung tumors: Potential targets for cancer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Manuraj; Sahay, Satya; Tiwari, Prakash; Upadhyay, Daya S.; Sultana, Sarwat; Gupta, Krishna P.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we showed the correlation of EZH2, SUV39H1 or G9a expression and histone modifications with the urethane induced mouse lung tumorigenesis in the presence or absence of antitumor agent, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6). Tumorigenesis and the molecular events involved therein were studied at 1, 4, 12 or 36 weeks after the exposure. There were no tumors at 1 or 4 weeks but tumors started appearing at 12 weeks and grew further till 36 weeks after urethane exposure. Among the molecular events, upregulation of EZH2 and SUV39H1 expressions appeared to be time dependent, but G9a expression was altered significantly only at later stages of 12 or 36 weeks. Alteration in miR-138 expression supports the upregulation of its target, EZH2. H3K9me2, H3K27me3 or H4K20me3 was found to be altered at 12 or 36 weeks. However, ChIP analysis of p16 and MLH1 promoters showed their binding with H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 which was maximum at 36 weeks. Thus, histone modification and their interactions with gene promoter resulted in the reduced expression of p16 and MLH1. IP6 prevented the incidence and the size of urethane induced lung tumors. IP6 also prevented the urethane induced alterations in EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a expressions and histone modifications. Our results suggest that the alterations in the histone modification pathways involving EZH2 and SUV39H1 expressions are among the early events in urethane induced mouse lung tumorigenesis and could be exploited for cancer control. - Highlights: • Urethane induces mouse lung tumor in a time dependent manner. • EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a induced by urethane and progress with time • Downregulation of miRNA-138 supports the EZH2 upregulation. • Methylation of histones showed a consequence of upregulated EZH2, SUV39H1 and G9a. • IP6 inhibits urethane induced changes and prevents tumor development

  6. Involvement of EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a and associated molecules in pathogenesis of urethane induced mouse lung tumors: Potential targets for cancer control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Manuraj; Sahay, Satya; Tiwari, Prakash [Carcinogenesis Laboratory, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow –226001 (India); Upadhyay, Daya S. [Laboratory Animals Services, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (India); Sultana, Sarwat [Dept. Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Krishna P., E-mail: krishnag522@yahoo.co.in [Carcinogenesis Laboratory, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow –226001 (India)

    2014-10-15

    In the present study, we showed the correlation of EZH2, SUV39H1 or G9a expression and histone modifications with the urethane induced mouse lung tumorigenesis in the presence or absence of antitumor agent, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6). Tumorigenesis and the molecular events involved therein were studied at 1, 4, 12 or 36 weeks after the exposure. There were no tumors at 1 or 4 weeks but tumors started appearing at 12 weeks and grew further till 36 weeks after urethane exposure. Among the molecular events, upregulation of EZH2 and SUV39H1 expressions appeared to be time dependent, but G9a expression was altered significantly only at later stages of 12 or 36 weeks. Alteration in miR-138 expression supports the upregulation of its target, EZH2. H3K9me2, H3K27me3 or H4K20me3 was found to be altered at 12 or 36 weeks. However, ChIP analysis of p16 and MLH1 promoters showed their binding with H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 which was maximum at 36 weeks. Thus, histone modification and their interactions with gene promoter resulted in the reduced expression of p16 and MLH1. IP6 prevented the incidence and the size of urethane induced lung tumors. IP6 also prevented the urethane induced alterations in EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a expressions and histone modifications. Our results suggest that the alterations in the histone modification pathways involving EZH2 and SUV39H1 expressions are among the early events in urethane induced mouse lung tumorigenesis and could be exploited for cancer control. - Highlights: • Urethane induces mouse lung tumor in a time dependent manner. • EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a induced by urethane and progress with time • Downregulation of miRNA-138 supports the EZH2 upregulation. • Methylation of histones showed a consequence of upregulated EZH2, SUV39H1 and G9a. • IP6 inhibits urethane induced changes and prevents tumor development.

  7. The study on mechanism of the modified Chinese herbal compound, jianpijiedu, on a mouse model of hepatic carcinoma cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoguo; Luo, Haoxuan; Deng, Liuxiang; Zhang, Shijun; Chen, Zexiong

    2016-10-01

    Various studies have investigated hepatic carcinoma cachexia, however, there is little published information regarding the effect of Chinese Medicine carcinoma cachexia. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of modified Chinese herbal compound jianpijiedu (MJPJD) on a mouse model of ascites‑induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia. C57BL/6 mice were randomized to five groups: Control (Group A); xenograft tumor (Group B); low concentration of MJPJD (Group C); high concentration of MJPJD (Group D) and medroxyprogesterone (MPA) combined with indometacin (IND; Group E). The mouse model of ascites‑induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia was established by abdominal injection of H22 hepatic carcinoma cells. Subsequently, the body weight, food intake and gastrocnemius weight were recorded, and the levels of interleukin (IL)‑lα, IL‑6, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) in ascites were detected by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. The protein expression levels of muscle RING‑finger protein‑1 (MU‑RF1) and atrogin 1 were detected by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, and the mRNA levels in gastrocnemius were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the xenograft tumor group, the administration of MJPJD inhibited the increase in body weight and the volume of ascites, the consumption of gastrocnemius was reduced, the net weight of ascites was maintained, the food intake was enhanced and the levels of the cytokines IL‑lα, IL‑6, TNF‑α in ascites and the levels of MU‑RF1 and atrogin 1 proteins were reduced. These results indicated that MJPJD delays the pathological process of ascites‑induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia, and the mechanism of action may be correlated with a reduction in the levels of IL‑lα, IL‑6, TNF‑α and inhibiting the activation of the ubiquitin proteosome pathway.

  8. Isolation and characterization of proteins of the mouse mammary tumour virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenbrink, F.

    1980-01-01

    A vaccination procedure was developed to mouse mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) induced mouse mammary tumorigenesis. The structural proteins of MuMTV were purified so that their immunogenic qualities were retained. Radioimmunoassays were developed for the proteins. (Auth.)

  9. Recurrence of Pelvic Chondrosarcoma through Fascial Defect into Abdominal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Gökkuş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our patient was a 76-year-old female who has been operated on 2 times in 8 years for pelvic chondrosarcoma. The patient came to our clinic with a large mass in left iliac region which extended into the paravertebral area. Physical examination and preoperative imagining studies revealed a mass at the left iliac area that infiltrated sciatic notch and extended from posterior iliac region towards the anterior side of iliac bone through the sciatic notch and an incisional hernia including descending colon. The mass was also penetrating the abdominal cavity through the hernia. Surgical intervention was planned. Since the tumor infiltrated the sciatic nerve, hemipelvectomy was indicated. Patient refused hemipelvectomy. Therefore, palliative debulking surgery was considered. We treated the case with marginal excision and abdominal wall reconstruction employing prolene and vicryl suture materials in order to prevent a postoperative visceral herniation and local invasion. At the latest follow-up appointment in 2 years, the patient still had no signs of tumor recurrence. This case showed us that an incisional hernia can serve as a pathway for the recurrence invasion of the chondrosarcoma.

  10. Anti-EGFR therapy radiosensitizes human lung adenocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Li Tianran; Tian Jiahe; Qu Baolin; Zhu Hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Gefitinib on radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse. Methods: Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was used to establish nude mouse xenograft tumor model. The mice were derided into 4 groups: control, irradiation alone, Gefinitib alone and radiation combined with Genifitib. Radiation schedule was 3 fractions of 5 Gy, once daily. Gefitinib was daily administered by gavage at 100 mg/(kg·day -1 ) for 14 days. In the combination group, radiotherapy was performed 2 hours after Gefitinib administration. Tumor diameter was measured every other day. Percentage of tumor growth inhibition, growth delay time and regrowth delay time were evaluated. Results: For A549 xenografts in radiation alone, gefitinib alone and combination therapy groups, the percentage of tumor growth inhibition was 22.7%, 12.4% and 38.2%, respectively (F=25.75, P=0.000). Tumor growth delay time was 6.0, 7.8 and 21.6 days, respectively (F=70.49, P=0.000). Tumor regrowth delay time in combination therapy and irradiation alone groups was 23.4 and 10.2 days. (F=174.24, P= 0.000). Sensitizing enhancement ratio of combination group was 1.5 in growth and 1.7 in regrowth. Conclusions: Anti-EGFR therapy enhances the radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse. (authors)

  11. Giant thoracic schwannoma presenting with abrupt onset of abdominal pain: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Giant intradural extramedullary schwannomas of the thoracic spine are not common. Schwannomas, that is, tumors derived from neoplastic Schwann cells, and neurofibromas represent the most common intradural extramedullary spinal lesions. We report the case of a patient with a giant thoracic schwannoma presenting unusually with acute abdominal pain and with delayed neurological impairment. Case presentation A 26-year-old Hispanic man with no previous medical problems presented with acute periumbilical pain. After extensive work-up including an exploratory laparotomy for appendectomy, magnetic resonance imaging scans of the lumbar and thoracic spine revealed a giant intradural extramedullary thoracic schwannoma within the spinal canal posterior to the T9, T10, and T11 vertebral bodies. Magnetic resonance imaging signal prolongation was noted in the spinal cord both rostral and caudal to the schwannoma. The patient underwent an urgent laminectomy from T8 to L1. After sacrificing the T10 root, the tumor was removed en bloc. Postoperatively, the patient improved significantly gaining antigravity strength in both lower extremities. Conclusion The T10 dermatome is represented by the umbilical region. This referred pain may represent a mechanism by which a giant thoracic schwannoma may present as acute abdominal pain. Acute, intense abdominal pain with delayed neurologic deficit is a rare presentation of a thoracic schwannoma but should be considered as a possible cause of abdominal pain presenting without clear etiology. Although these lesions may be delayed in their diagnosis, early diagnosis and treatment may lead to an improved clinical outcome. PMID:19946504

  12. Giant thoracic schwannoma presenting with abrupt onset of abdominal pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Isaac

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Giant intradural extramedullary schwannomas of the thoracic spine are not common. Schwannomas, that is, tumors derived from neoplastic Schwann cells, and neurofibromas represent the most common intradural extramedullary spinal lesions. We report the case of a patient with a giant thoracic schwannoma presenting unusually with acute abdominal pain and with delayed neurological impairment. Case presentation A 26-year-old Hispanic man with no previous medical problems presented with acute periumbilical pain. After extensive work-up including an exploratory laparotomy for appendectomy, magnetic resonance imaging scans of the lumbar and thoracic spine revealed a giant intradural extramedullary thoracic schwannoma within the spinal canal posterior to the T9, T10, and T11 vertebral bodies. Magnetic resonance imaging signal prolongation was noted in the spinal cord both rostral and caudal to the schwannoma. The patient underwent an urgent laminectomy from T8 to L1. After sacrificing the T10 root, the tumor was removed en bloc. Postoperatively, the patient improved significantly gaining antigravity strength in both lower extremities. Conclusion The T10 dermatome is represented by the umbilical region. This referred pain may represent a mechanism by which a giant thoracic schwannoma may present as acute abdominal pain. Acute, intense abdominal pain with delayed neurologic deficit is a rare presentation of a thoracic schwannoma but should be considered as a possible cause of abdominal pain presenting without clear etiology. Although these lesions may be delayed in their diagnosis, early diagnosis and treatment may lead to an improved clinical outcome.

  13. Potentiation of X-ray response by quinacrine in experimental mouse mammary carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubort, S.; Goldfeder, A.

    1984-01-01

    Two mouse mammary carcinomas were subjected to various doses of 250 KV X-rays alone or in combination with quinacrine-HCl (Atabrine). The tumors, maintained by subcutaneous implant in isogenic mouse hosts, were: MT2 (X/Gf mouse strain) and DBAH (DBA/2J strain). X-rays were given locally in single doses to the tumor while the body was shielded. Quinacrine was given ad lib in drinking water (0.03%) for 5 days beginning 48 hr before X-rays. Quinacrine alone had no effect on tumor growth, and was well-tolerated by the mice, which recovered rapidly after slight, transient weight loss. In the MT2 tumor, quinacrine had only a small potentiating effect, reducing the TCD-50 from 57.5 Gy (54.9, 60.2 95% confidence) to 49.0 (47.5, 52.5) Gy for the combination treatment. Conversely, in the DBAH tumor a substantial potential was obtained (E.R. = 2.0), the TCD-50 being reduced from 50.1 (46.8, 53.7) Gy to 25.1 (22.9, 27.5) Gy. The mechanism of this potential is under investigation. Since the more responsive DBAH tumor is known to be less hypoxic than the MT2 tumor, sensitization of hypoxic cells does not appear to play a role in quinacrine-induced potentiation

  14. Oncolytic adenovirus targeting cyclin E overexpression repressed tumor growth in syngeneic immunocompetent mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Rao, Xiao-Mei; Wechman, Stephen L.; Li, Xiao-Feng; McMasters, Kelly M.; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials have indicated that preclinical results obtained with human tumor xenografts in mouse models may overstate the potential of adenovirus (Ad)-mediated oncolytic therapies. We have previously demonstrated that the replication of human Ads depends on cyclin E dysregulation or overexpression in cancer cells. ED-1 cell derived from mouse lung adenocarcinomas triggered by transgenic overexpression of human cyclin E may be applied to investigate the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic Ads. Ad-cycE was used to target cyclin E overexpression in ED-1 cells and repress tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse model for investigation of oncolytic virotherapies. Murine ED-1 cells were permissive for human Ad replication and Ad-cycE repressed ED-1 tumor growth in immunocompetent FVB mice. ED-1 cells destroyed by oncolytic Ads in tumors were encircled in capsule-like structures, while cells outside the capsules were not infected and survived the treatment. Ad-cycE can target cyclin E overexpression in cancer cells and repress tumor growth in syngeneic mouse models. The capsule structures formed after Ad intratumoral injection may prevent viral particles from spreading to the entire tumor. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1731-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  15. An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass. Derya Erdog˘ an a. , Yasemin Ta ¸scı Yıldız b. , Esin Cengiz Bodurog˘lu c and Naciye Go¨nu¨l Tanır d. Abdominal tuberculosis is rare in childhood. It may be difficult to diagnose as it mimics various disorders. We present a 12-year-old child with an unusual ...

  16. Enhancement of radiation response of SqII mouse tumors by combined treatment with misonidazole, vidarabine, and ACNU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hideo; Akita, Yuzo; Kosaka, Noboru; Majima, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that misonidazole (Miso.) is a hypoxic cell sensitizer, vidarabine (Ara-A) is a PLD repair inhibitor, and ACNU is an anticancer drug derivative of nitrosourea. The effect of combined use of these drugs and radiation was studied. SqII tumor, an anaplastic squamous cell carcinoma was transplanted to the right thighs of WHT male mice. At 9 days after transplantation, the tumors of about 600 mm 3 were treated by several protocols. After the treatment, tumor growth curves were drawn and the time required to reach twice the initial volume of the treatment was determined. The results were as follows. The combination of 3 agents, Miso., Ara-A, and radiation was the most effective, followed by that of Miso., ACNU, and radiation, which was better than another combination of Miso. and radiation. The effect of Ara-A, ACNU and radiation was inferior to Miso. and radiation. The effect of Miso., Ara-A and ACNU was further inferior to radiation alone. The combination of 4 agents, Miso., Ara-A, ACNU and radiation was effective in the same degree or slightly inferior to Miso., Ara-A and radiation. On the other hand, effect of combined treatment with drugs and radiation without Miso. was not so remarkable on this mouse tumor, in other words, Miso. played the most important role among these 3 drugs. This study showed that the combination of Miso., Ara-A and radiation was the most effective among these tested and may be useful for the clinical control of cancer. Furthermore, this combination did not include anticancer drugs which cause bone marrow suppression and intestinal disorders. (author)

  17. Enhancement of radiation response of SqII mouse tumors by combined treatment with misonidazole, vidarabine, and ACNU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakura, Hideo; Akita, Yuzo; Kosaka, Noboru; Majima, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Norio

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that misonidazole (Miso.) is a hypoxic cell sensitizer, vidarabine (Ara-A) is a PLD repair inhibitor, and ACNU is an anticancer drug derivative of nitrosourea. The effect of combined use of these drugs and radiation was studied. SqII tumor, an anaplastic squamous cell carcinoma was transplanted to the right thighs of WHT male mice. At 9 days after transplantation, the tumors of about 600 mm/sup 3/ were treated by several protocols. After the treatment, tumor growth curves were drawn and the time required to reach twice the initial volume of the treatment was determined. The results were as follows. The combination of 3 agents, Miso., Ara-A, and radiation was the most effective, followed by that of Miso., ACNU, and radiation, which was better than another combination of Miso. and radiation. The effect of Ara-A, ACNU and radiation was inferior to Miso. and radiation. The effect of Miso., Ara-A and ACNU was further inferior to radiation alone. The combination of 4 agents, Miso., Ara-A, ACNU and radiation was effective in the same degree or slightly inferior to Miso., Ara-A and radiation. On the other hand, effect of combined treatment with drugs and radiation without Miso. was not so remarkable on this mouse tumor, in other words, Miso. played the most important role among these 3 drugs. This study showed that the combination of Miso., Ara-A and radiation was the most effective among these tested and may be useful for the clinical control of cancer. Furthermore, this combination did not include anticancer drugs which cause bone marrow suppression and intestinal disorders.

  18. BRE enhances in vivo growth of tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Ben Chung-Lap; Li Qing; Chow, Stephanie Ka-Yee; Ching, Arthur Kar-Keung; Liew, Choong Tsek; Lim, Pak-Leong; Lee, Kenneth Ka-Ho; Chan, John Yeuk-Hon; Chui, Y.-L.

    2005-01-01

    Human BRE, a death receptor-associating intracellular protein, attenuates apoptotic response of human and mouse tumor cell lines to death receptor stimuli in vitro. In this report, we addressed whether the in vitro antiapoptotic effect of BRE could impact on tumor growth in vivo. We have shown that the mouse Lewis lung carcinoma D122 stable transfectants of human BRE expression vector developed into local tumor significantly faster than the stable transfectants of empty vector and parental D122, in both the syngeneic C57BL/6 host and nude mice. In vitro growth of the BRE stable transfectants was, however, not accelerated. No significant difference in metastasis between the transfectants and the parental D122 was detected. Thus, overexpression of BRE promotes local tumor growth but not metastasis. We conclude that the enhanced tumor growth is more likely due to the antiapoptotic activity of BRE than any direct effect of the protein on cell proliferation

  19. Copy number variation analysis of matched ovarian primary tumors and peritoneal metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel A Malek

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer. The high rate of mortality is due to the large tumor burden with extensive metastatic lesion of the abdominal cavity. Despite initial chemosensitivity and improved surgical procedures, abdominal recurrence remains an issue and results in patients' poor prognosis. Transcriptomic and genetic studies have revealed significant genome pathologies in the primary tumors and yielded important information regarding carcinogenesis. There are, however, few studies on genetic alterations and their consequences in peritoneal metastatic tumors when compared to their matched ovarian primary tumors. We used high-density SNP arrays to investigate copy number variations in matched primary and metastatic ovarian cancer from 9 patients. Here we show that copy number variations acquired by ovarian tumors are significantly different between matched primary and metastatic tumors and these are likely due to different functional requirements. We show that these copy number variations clearly differentially affect specific pathways including the JAK/STAT and cytokine signaling pathways. While many have shown complex involvement of cytokines in the ovarian cancer environment we provide evidence that ovarian tumors have specific copy number variation differences in many of these genes.

  20. Dyspnea, Tachycardia, and New Onset Seizure as a Presentation of Wilms Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor is found in 1 in 10,000 children and most commonly presents in asymptomatic toddlers whose care givers notice a nontender abdominal mass in the right upper quadrant. This case of Wilms tumor presented as a critically ill eleven-year old with significant tachypnea, dyspnea, vague abdominal pain, intermittent emesis, new onset seizure, metabolic acidosis, and hypoxemia. This is the first case in the literature of Wilms Tumor with cavoatrial involvement and seizure and pulmonary embolism resulting in aggressive resuscitation and treatment. Treatment included anticoagulation, chemotherapy, nephrectomy, and surgical resection of thrombi, followed by adjunctive chemotherapy with pulmonary radiation.

  1. Abdominal manifestations of autoimmune disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantopoulou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease was recognized as a systemic disease since various extrapancreatic lesions were observed in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The real etiology and pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is still not clearly understood. Moreover the exact role of IgG4 or IgG4-positive plasma cells in this disease has not yet been elucidated. only some inconsistent biological features such as hypergammaglobulinemia or hypocomplementemia support the autoimmune nature of the disease process. various names have been ascribed to this clinicopathological entity including IgG4-related sclerosing disease, IgG4-related systemic sclerosing disease, IgG4-related disease, IgG4-related autoimmune disease, hyper-IgG4 disease and IgG4-related systemic disease. The extrapancreatic lesions of IgG4-RD also exhibit the same characteristic histologic features including dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, massive storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis as seen in IgG4-related pancreatitis. Abdominal manifestations include the following organs/systems: Bile ducts: Sclerosing cholangitis; Gallbladder and liver: Acalculous sclerosis cholecytitis with diffuse wall thickening; hepatic inflammatory pseudotumorts; Kidneys: round or wedge-shaped renal cortical nodules, peripheral cortical; lesions, mass like lesions or renal pelvic involvement; Prostate, urethra, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, uterine cervix; Autoimmune prostatitis; Retroperitoneum: Retroperitoneal fibrosis. thin or mildly thick homogeneous soft tissue lesion surrounding the abdominal aorta and its branches but also bulky masses causing hydronephroureterosis; Mesentery: Sclerosing mesenteritis usually involving the root of the mesentery; Bowel: Inflammatory bowel diseases mimicking Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. various types of sclerosing nodular lesions of the bowel wall; Stomach: Gastritis, gastric ulcers and focal masses mimicking submucosal tumor; omentum: Infiltration mimicking

  2. Accuracy of abdominal lymph node scintigraphy in tumor diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharczyk, D.

    1978-01-01

    In view of the diagnostical correspondence between lymph node scintigraphy and X-ray lymphograpy, this dissertation, which is based on 110 systematic comparative evaluations, examines the diagnostical weight of the scintigraphic criteria for tumor growth, discusses diagnostical discrepancies and confirms the efficacy of lymph node scintigraphy in detecting malignomas. In discussing the diagnostical results in the light of previous experience, the shortcomings of the nuclear medical method in tumor diagnostics are shown to be attributable to the uncertainty of the individual scintigraphic criteria. Owing to the variability of the lymph node system as to topography, anatomy and retention rate and the fact that it cannot morphologically be well differentiated in the scintigram, X-ray lymphography to verify the scintigraphic result and preclude misinterpretation remains an indispensable measure. (orig.) [de

  3. Intensity modulated radiation-therapy for preoperative posterior abdominal wall irradiation of retroperitoneal liposarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, Alberto; De Wever, Ivo; Van Limbergen, Erik; Vanstraelen, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative external-beam radiation therapy (preop RT) in the management of Retroperitoneal Liposarcomas (RPLS) typically involves the delivery of radiation to the entire tumor mass: yet this may not be necessary. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new strategy of preop RT for RPLS in which the target volume is limited to the contact area between the tumoral mass and the posterior abdominal wall. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and Jan 2005, 18 patients with the diagnosis of RPLS have been treated following a pilot protocol of pre-op RT, 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy/day. The Clinical Target Volume (CTV) has been limited to the posterior abdominal wall, region at higher risk for local relapse. A Three-Dimensional conformal (3D-CRT) and an Intensity Modulated (IMRT) plan were generated and compared; toxicity was reported following the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Results: All patients completed the planned treatment and the acute toxicity was tolerable: 2 patients experienced Grade 3 and 1 Grade 2 anorexia while 2 patients developed Grade 2 nausea. IMRT allows a better sparing of the ipsilateral and the contralateral kidney. All tumors were successfully resected without major complications. At a median follow-up of 27 months 2 patients developed a local relapse and 1 lung metastasis. Conclusions: Our strategy of preop RT is feasible and well tolerated: the rate of resectability is not compromised by limiting the preop CTV to the posterior abdominal wall and a better critical-structures sparing is obtained with IMRT

  4. Although Abundant in Tumor Tissue, Mast Cells Have No Effect on Immunological Micro-milieu or Growth of HPV-Induced or Transplanted Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanawaz Mohammed Ghouse

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: High numbers of mast cells populate the stroma of many types of neoplasms, including human papilloma virus-induced benign and malignant tumors in man and mouse. Equipped with numerous pattern recognition receptors and capable of executing important pro-inflammatory responses, mast cells are considered innate sentinels that significantly impact tumor biology. Mast cells were reported to promote human papilloma virus (HPV-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and neo-angiogenesis in an HPV-driven mouse model of skin cancer. We analyzed HPV-induced epithelial hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma formation, as well as growth of tumors inoculated into the dermis, in mice lacking skin mast cells. Unexpectedly, the absence of mast cells had no effect on HPV-induced epithelial growth or angiogenesis, on growth kinetics of inoculated tumors, or on the immunological tumor micro-milieu. Thus, the conspicuous recruitment of mast cells into tumor tissues cannot necessarily be equated with important mast cell functions in tumor growth. : Mast cells accumulate in high numbers in many human tumors, and they are widely viewed as important promoters of tumor growth. Ghouse et al. show that growth, angiogenesis, and the immunological micro-milieu of tumors growing in mice genetically deficient for mast cells are unchanged compared to control tumors. Keywords: mast cells, HPV-induced skin cancer, tumor angiogenesis, tumor micro-milieu

  5. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in association with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in the endovascular era: vigilance remains critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Matthew C; Ross, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  6. Childhood kidney tumors - the relevance of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, J.-P.; Schrader, C.; Ley, S.; Troeger, J.; Guenther, P.; Furtwaengler, R.; Graf, N.; Leuschner, I.; Edelhaeuser, M.

    2005-01-01

    Kidney tumors represent 6.2% of malignant tumors in children. History, clinical course and radiological findings are necessary elements in the differential diagnosis of the different renal tumors. In the case of nephroblastoma, chemotherapy is based solely on the radiological diagnosis without prior histology. In therapy-optimizing studies of the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, preoperative chemotherapy is performed. Therapy monitoring is performed in the course of and after preoperative chemotherapy to verify tumor response. Radiological staging plays a significant role in deciding on further treatment and in operative planning. Three-dimensional visualization of the abdominal situs can assist preoperative planning. In summary, diagnostic imaging in renal tumors in children plays a role in differential diagnosis, staging, monitoring of therapy, and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  7. SR-1000 radiofrequency chemo-hyperthermia for recurrent and metastatic peritoneo-pelvic malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jingwei; Xiong Jinghong; Xu Guozhen; Yu Zihao; Li Yexiong; Yin Weibo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of intraperitoneal chemo-hyperthermia (IPCH) with SR-1000 radiofrequency (RF) for recurrent or metastatic peritoneo-pelvic malignant tumors. Methods: Twenty-one patients with recurrent or metastatic peritoneo-pelvic malignant tumors received chemo-hyperthermia, with 9 having local pain and 14 having ascites. The Karnofsky scores were 40-80. After abdominal cavity aspiration and infusion of hot NS and chemotherapeutic agents, the temperature of abdominal cavity was increased and maintained at 40.5-42.5 degree C for 60-90 minutes with SR-1000 RF. Hyperthermia was given twice per week and chemotherapy once per week, with the whole treatment lasting for 2-4 weeks. The commonly used drugs were DDP, MMC, 5-FU and so on. Results: Local pain was relieved in 8 of 9 patients, complete disappearance of ascites in 10 of 14. The common side-effects were fat necrosis (14.3%) and abdominal pain (24.8%). Conclusions: Intraperitoneal chemo-hyperthermia with SR-1000 RF appears to be a promising new approach for patients with recurrent or metastatic peritoneo-pelvic malignant tumors, especially for those who did not response to systemic chemotherapy or whose tumor recurred after chemotherapy. As to bulky lesions, local supplementary radiotherapy should be given in order to obtain better local control

  8. Longitudinal Multiplexed Measurement of Quantitative Proteomic Signatures in Mouse Lymphoma Models Using Magneto-Nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Rok; Appelmann, Iris; Miething, Cornelius; Shultz, Tyler O; Ruderman, Daniel; Kim, Dokyoon; Mallick, Parag; Lowe, Scott W; Wang, Shan X

    2018-01-01

    Cancer proteomics is the manifestation of relevant biological processes in cancer development. Thus, it reflects the activities of tumor cells, host-tumor interactions, and systemic responses to cancer therapy. To understand the causal effects of tumorigenesis or therapeutic intervention, longitudinal studies are greatly needed. However, most of the conventional mouse experiments are unlikely to accommodate frequent collection of serum samples with a large enough volume for multiple protein assays towards single-object analysis. Here, we present a technique based on magneto-nanosensors to longitudinally monitor the protein profiles in individual mice of lymphoma models using a small volume of a sample for multiplex assays. Methods: Drug-sensitive and -resistant cancer cell lines were used to develop the mouse models that render different outcomes upon the drug treatment. Two groups of mice were inoculated with each cell line, and treated with either cyclophosphamide or vehicle solution. Serum samples taken longitudinally from each mouse in the groups were measured with 6-plex magneto-nanosensor cytokine assays. To find the origin of IL-6, experiments were performed using IL-6 knock-out mice. Results: The differences in serum IL-6 and GCSF levels between the drug-treated and untreated groups were revealed by the magneto-nanosensor measurement on individual mice. Using the multiplex assays and mouse models, we found that IL-6 is secreted by the host in the presence of tumor cells upon the drug treatment. Conclusion: The multiplex magneto-nanosensor assays enable longitudinal proteomic studies on mouse tumor models to understand tumor development and therapy mechanisms more precisely within a single biological object.

  9. Abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordany, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Abdominal injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Ten percent of trauma-related deaths are due to abdominal injury. Thousands of children are involved in auto accidents annually; many suffer severe internal injury. Child abuse is a second less frequent but equally serious cause of internal abdominal injury. The descriptions of McCort and Eisenstein and their associates in the 1960s first brought to attention the frequency and severity of visceral injury as important manifestations of the child abuse syndrome. Blunt abdominal trauma often causes multiple injuries; in the past, many children have been subjected to exploratory surgery to evaluate the extent of possible hidden injury. Since the advent of noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques including radionuclide scans and ultrasound and, especially, computed tomography (CT), the radiologist has been better able to assess (accurately) the extent of abdominal injury and thus allow conservative therapy in many cases. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs following gunshot wounds, stabbing, and other similar injury. This is fortunately, a relatively uncommon occurrence in most pediatric centers and will not be discussed specifically here, although many principles of blunt trauma diagnosis are valid for evaluation of penetrating abdominal trauma. If there is any question that a wound has extended intraperitonelly, a sinogram with water-soluble contrast material allows quick, accurate diagnosis. The presence of large amounts of free intraperitoneal gas suggests penetrating injury to the colon or other gas-containing viscus and is generally considered an indication for surgery

  10. Impact of associating liver partition and portal vein occlusion for staged hepatectomy on tumor growth in a mouse model of liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yutaro; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Matsuo, Kenichi; Murakami, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Kasahara, Kohei; Tanaka, Kuniya

    2018-01-01

    The impact of associating liver partition and portal vein occlusion for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) on tumor growth activity was investigated. A BALB/c mouse model (male, 8-10 weeks old) of liver metastasis labeled by red fluorescent protein was established. Changes in future liver remnant (FLR) volumes, tumor growth activity, and levels of cytokines and growth factors in liver tissues during the treatment period were compared among the models involving ALPPS, portal vein ligation (PVL), or sham operation. The ratio of the FLR volume to body weight at 24 h after the procedure was greater for ALPPS (4.45 ± 0.12 × 10 -2 ) than for PVL (3.79 ± 0.12 × 10 -2 ; P = 0.003) and sham operation (3.18 ± 0.16 × 10 -2 ; P < 0.001). No differences in tumor progression in the FLR were observed at any time point after the procedures. Within the deportalized liver (DL), although tumor progression was observed during a later period after ALPPS (9 days postoperative) and PVL (12 days postoperative), no acceleration of tumor growth after ALPPS was observed in an early period similar to PVL. ALPPS induces a rapid increase in FLR volume and avoids remnant tumor progression during the early postoperative period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular analysis of radiation-induced experimental tumors in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, O.; Muto, M.; Suzuki, F.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular analysis was made on mouse tumors induced by radiation and chemicals. Expression of oncogenes was studied in 12 types of 178 mouse tumors. Southern blotting was done on tumors in which overexpression of oncogenes was noted. Amplification of the myc oncogene was found in chemically induced sarcomas, but not those induced by radiations. Radiogenic thymomas were studied in detail. These thymomas were induced in two different ways. The first was thymomas induced by direct irradiation of F1 mice between C57BL/6NxC3H/He. Southern analysis of DNA revealed deletion of specific minisatellite bands in these tumors. DNA from directly induced thymomas induced focus formation when transfected into normal Golden hamster cells. The mouse K-ras oncogene was detected in these transformants. The second type of thymomas was induced by X-irradiation of thymectomized B10.thy1.2 mice in which normal thymus from congenic B10,thy1.1. mice was grafted. Thymomas of the donor origin was analysed by transfection and the transformants by DNA from those indirectly induced thymomas did not contain activated ras oncogenes. (author)

  12. Monitoring therapy with MEK inhibitor U0126 in a novel Wilms tumor model in Wt1 knockout Igf2 transgenic mice using 18F-FDG PET with dual-contrast enhanced CT and MRI: early metabolic response without inhibition of tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Leo G; Yeh, Hsin-Hsien; Soghomonyan, Suren; Young, Daniel; Bankson, James; Hu, Qianghua; Alauddin, Mian; Huff, Vicki; Gelovani, Juri G

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of the role of genetic alterations in Wilms tumor development could be greatly advanced using a genetically engineered mouse models that can replicate the development and progression of this disease in human patients and can be monitored using non-invasive structural and molecular imaging optimized for renal tumors. Repetitive dual-contrast computed tomography (CT; intravenous and intraperitoneal contrast), T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and delayed 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) were utilized for characterization of Igf2 biallelic expression/Wt1 knockout mouse model of Wilms tumor. For CT imaging, Ioversol 678 mg/ml in 200 μl was administered i.p. followed by 100 μl injected intravenously at 20 and 15 min prior to imaging, respectively. Static PET imaging studies were acquired at 1, 2, and 3 h after i.v. administration of (18)F-FDG (400 μCi). Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images (TE/TR 8.5/620 ms) were acquired before and immediately after i.v. injection of 0.4 ml/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine followed by T2-weighted images (TE/TR 60/300 ms). Tumor tissue samples were characterized by histopathology and immunohistochemistry for Glut1, FASN, Ki67, and CD34. In addition, six Wt1-Igf2 mice were treated with a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 (50 μmol/kg i.p.) every 4 days for 6 weeks. (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging was repeated at different days after initiation of therapy with U0126. The percent change of initial tumor volume and SUV was compared to non-treated historic control animals. Overall, the best tumor-to-adjacent kidney contrast as well as soft tissue contrast for other abdominal organs was achieved using T2-weighted MRI. Delayed (18)F-FDG PET (3-h post (18)F-FDG administration) and dual-contrast CT (intravenous and intraperitoneal contrast) provided a more accurate anatomic and metabolic characterization of Wilms tumors in Wt1-Igf2 mice

  13. Tumores malignos primarios del hígado

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime de la Hoz de la Hoz; Jorge Brieva M.; José J. Arias A.; Pedro E. Morales M.

    1986-01-01

    Treinta y seis tumores malignos primarios del hígado fueron seleccionados de protocolos de patología en un periodo de 20 años, Los hepatomas continúan siendo bastante raros en el mundo occidental. Existen regiones del África y Asia en que es endémico. Aunque en la mayoría de los pacientes la consulta es debida a dolor y masa abdominal por crecimiento del tumor, gracias a los adelantos recientes en los métodos diagnósticos, pequeños tumores están siendo cada vez mas diagnosticados. La detec...

  14. Studies on cross-immunity among syngeneic tumors by immunization with gamma-irradiated tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Izumi

    1977-01-01

    In order to clarify whether cross-immunity among 3-methyl-cholanthrene (MCA)-induced sarcomas in C3H/He mice can be established or not, transplantations of syngeneic tumors were carried out in mice immunized with gamma-irradiated (13,000 rad 60 Co) tumor cells and in those immunized with living tumor cells thereafter. The following results were obtained. By using immunizing procedure with only gamma-irradiated tumor cells, a pair of tumors originating from one and the same mouse showed cross-resistance to each other. However, no such evidence was seen among tumors originating from different mice. Cross-immunity among syngeneic tumors originating from different mice could be clearly observed, when immunizing procedure using living tumor cells was added after the treatment with gamma-irradiated tumor cells. It was considered that common antigenicity among MCA-induced sarcoma cells was decreased by gamma-irradiation and that individual differences of tumor antigenecity were shown distinctly under such conditions. (auth.)

  15. Cone-beam computed tomography internal motion tracking should be used to validate 4-dimensional computed tomography for abdominal radiation therapy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rankine, Leith; Wan, Hanlin; Parikh, Parag

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate that fiducial tracking during pretreatment Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) can accurately measure tumor motion and that this method should be used to validate 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) margins before each treatment fraction. Methods and Materials For 31 patients with abdominal tumors and...

  16. [An exceptional mimicker of ovarian tumors: cancer in a pelvic horseshoe kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel

    2013-01-01

    although the horseshoe kidney is a frequent congenital abnormality, the likelihood of it being the cause of a malignant tumor that looks like an ovarian neoplasm has not been reported. a 53-year-old female came to the hospital with a pelvic tumor. The patient had a history of a simple hysterectomy due to uterine myomatosis. At abdominal physical examination we identified a rounded hypogastric tumor, 20 cm diameter, firm, and fixed. On pelvic examination the mass was easily palpated through the vaginal fornix. The diagnosis of a probable ovarian neoplasm, caused by a residual ovary syndrome was made, therefore she was admitted to the gynecology service. Computed tomography scans showed a tumor located in the right side of a deformed pelvic kidney. Hence, the gynecology service sent the patient to the surgical oncology department, where the assumption was confirmed. The analysis of the RX studies showed a possible neoplasm from a pelvic horseshoe kidney. The patient underwent an exploratory abdominal surgery, and a 19 cm tumor was excised. The pathology department reported a chromophobe cell carcinoma. tumors in the pelvic horseshoe kidney may simulate an ovarian neoplasms in females.

  17. Other PET tracers for neuroendocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M

    In this article the applicability of (124)I-MIBG and (11)C-5-HTP PET for the detection of abdominal gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is discussed. (124)I-MIBG is a positron-emitting variant of (123)I-MIBG and therefore suited for PET imaging. Due to the better intrinsic characteristics

  18. Diagnostic application of Ga-67 scintigraphy in primary lung cancer, hepatoma and abdominal abscess. On surgical operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiumi, Yoshihiko (National Central Hospital of Fukuoka (Japan))

    1983-05-01

    It is difficult to detect tumor lesions by /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy, though it is named as a tumor scintigraphy. Recently, /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy is well used in the detection of inflammatic lesions. This paper is to discuss the detectability of lesions and diagnostic limitation on operability by /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy to primary lung cancer, minute hepatoma and abdominal abscess. Primary lung cancer: In detecting metastatic hilar lymph nodes, the sensitivity is 54%, and the specificity is 78%. In detecting metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes, the sensitivity is 32% and the specificity is 89%. Minute hepatoma : The detectability depended on the size of the lesion. It is hard to detect lesions with under 2 cm by /sup 67/Ga-scintigraphy. Abdominal abscess : The sensitivity is 88%, and the specificity is 92%.

  19. ADAM12 produced by tumor cells rather than stromal cells accelerates breast tumor progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohlich, Camilla; Nehammer, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar

    2011-01-01

    that ADAM12 deficiency reduces breast tumor progression in the PyMT model. However, the catalytic activity of ADAM12 appears to be dispensable for its tumor-promoting effect. Interestingly, we demonstrate that ADAM12 endogenously expressed in tumor-associated stroma in the PyMT model does not influence......Expression of ADAM12 is low in most normal tissues, but is markedly increased in numerous human cancers, including breast carcinomas. We have previously shown that overexpression of ADAM12 accelerates tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer (PyMT). In the present study, we found...... hypothesized, however, that the tumor-associated stroma may stimulate ADAM12 expression in tumor cells, based on the fact that TGF-ß1 stimulates ADAM12 expression and is a well-known growth factor released from tumor-associated stroma. TGF-ß1 stimulation of ADAM12-negative Lewis lung tumor cells induced ADAM12...

  20. Incidentally detected gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Canbak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are mesenchymal tumors located primarily in the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to present a case report of GIST incidentally detected during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.A 60-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to abdominal pain for one day. The physical examination revealed sensitivity on the right upper quadrant. In the laboratory examinations, white blood cell count 6,490 k/uL, hemoglobin 12 g/dL, hematocrit 35% and other biochemical tests were normal. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hydropic gallbladder, several gallstones with a maximum diameter of 15 mm and pericholecystic fluid collection was present. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was planned due to acute cholecystitis. In exploration, beside the presence of acute cholecystitis, a mass of approximately 5 cm, located 15 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz was detected. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Conversion to open laparotomy was done; small intestine resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor with CD117, CD34 and S100 positivity was detected on histopathologic examination.It is thought that GISTs are mesenchymal tumors originating from precursors of Kajal cells. GISTs are usually detected in their 60s. The first option for treatment is surgical resection.

  1. Can We Spare the Pancreas and Other Abdominal Organs at Risk? A Comparison of Conformal Radiotherapy, Helical Tomotherapy and Proton Beam Therapy in Pediatric Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouglar, Emmanuel; Wagner, Antoine; Delpon, Grégory; Campion, Loïc; Meingan, Philippe; Bernier, Valérie; Demoor-Goldschmidt, Charlotte; Mahé, Marc-André; Lacornerie, Thomas; Supiot, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Late abdominal irradiation toxicity during childhood included renal damage, hepatic toxicity and secondary diabetes mellitus. We compared the potential of conformal radiotherapy (CRT), helical tomotherapy (HT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) to spare the abdominal organs at risk (pancreas, kidneys and liver- OAR) in children undergoing abdominal irradiation. We selected children with abdominal tumors who received more than 10 Gy to the abdomen. Treatment plans were calculated in order to keep the dose to abdominal OAR as low as possible while maintaining the same planned target volume (PTV) coverage. Dosimetric values were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The dose distribution of 20 clinical cases with a median age of 8 years (range 1-14) were calculated with different doses to the PTV: 5 medulloblastomas (36 Gy), 3 left-sided and 2 right-sided nephroblastomas (14.4 Gy to the tumor + 10.8 Gy boost to para-aortic lymphnodes), 1 left-sided and 4 right-sided or midline neuroblastomas (21 Gy) and 5 Hodgkin lymphomas (19.8 Gy to the para-aortic lymphnodes and spleen). HT significantly reduced the mean dose to the whole pancreas (WP), the pancreatic tail (PT) and to the ipsilateral kidney compared to CRT. PBT reduced the mean dose to the WP and PT compared to both CRT and HT especially in midline and right-sided tumors. PBT decreased the mean dose to the ispilateral kidney but also to the contralateral kidney and the liver compared to CRT. Low dose to normal tissue was similar or increased with HT whereas integral dose and the volume of normal tissue receiving at least 5 and 10 Gy were reduced with PBT compared to CRT and HT. In children undergoing abdominal irradiation therapy, proton beam therapy reduces the dose to abdominal OAR while sparing normal tissue by limiting low dose irradiation.

  2. The Thrombospondin-1 Mimetic ABT-510 Increases the Uptake and Effectiveness of Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in a Mouse Model of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Campbell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC comprises approximately 90% of ovarian cancers and arises from the surface epithelium. Typical treatment of EOC involves cytoreductive surgery combined with chemotherapy. More recent therapies have targeted the tumor vasculature using antiangiogenic compounds such as thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1. TSP-1 mimetic peptides such as ABT-510 have been created and have been in various clinical trials. We have previously shown that ABT-510 reduces abnormal vasculature associated with tumor tissue and increases the presence of mature blood vessels. It has been hypothesized that treatment with antiangiogenic compounds would allow increased delivery of cytotoxic agents and enhance treatment. In this study, we evaluated the potential role of ABT-510 and various chemotherapeutics (cisplatin and paclitaxel on tumor progression, angiogenesis, and the benefits of combinational treatments on tissue uptake and perfusion using an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model of EOC. Animals were treated with ABT-510 (100 mg/kg per day alone or in combination with cisplatin (2 mg/kg per 3 days or paclitaxel (10 mg/kg per 2 days at 60 days after tumor induction. Radiolabeled and fluorescently labeled paclitaxel demonstrated a significant increase in tumor uptake after ABT-510 treatment. Combined treatment with ABT-510 and cisplatin or paclitaxel resulted in a significant increase in tumor cell and tumor endothelial cell apoptosis and a resultant decrease in ovarian tumor size. Combined treatment also regressed secondary lesions and eliminated the presence of abdominal ascites. The results from this study show that through vessel normalization, ABT-510 increases uptake of chemotherapy drugs and can induce regression of advanced ovarian cancer.

  3. Can tumor uptake Tc-99m MDP ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yand Shun, Fang; Yao, Ming; Zeng, Jun; Shi Zhen, Yu; Zhao Lan, Xiang; Dong Qiang, Gang

    2003-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake within tumor through analyze a distribution of Tc-99m MDP in mice bearing tumor cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m MDP was analyzed in seven human tumor cell lines ( SPC-A1 adenocarcinoma of lung cancer, Bcap-37 Breast cancer, T-24 Bladder cancer, SKOV3 Ovary carcinoma, Hela-229 Cervical carcinoma, SCI-OS Osteosarcoma, SCI-375 Melanoma) and mouse Lewis lung cancer cell line. They were transplanted into athymic mice, SCID nude mice and C57BL/6 mice, respectively. Approximately 10(6) cells of each cell line were injected subcutaneously into a right chest of mouse. After 4 and 5 weeks, the Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy were determined 6 hours after tail vein injection of 74MBq in 0.05ml every mouse. Result: Biodistribution and tumor uptake MDP was different in the various cell types investigated. According to the Region Ratio program of Siemens Power Macintosh 9500 Computer System, region of interests (RIOs) placed on a small part of the tumor and horizontal copied to left background (T/B) and thoracic spine (T/N) of mice in Tc-99m MDP imaging. The average cpm/pixel ratios were calculated by standardized uptake measure (SUM) and determined the tumor-positive value (T/B) greater than or equal to 1.2. T/B of cell lines were sorted from higher to lower as follows: SCI-OS, Lewis, SKOV3, SCI-375, T-24, SPC-A1, Bcap-37, Hela-229. T/N: SCI-OS, SKOV3, T-24, SCI-375, Lewis, SPC-A1, Bcap-37, Hela-229. The biodistribution data of 99Tcm-MDP in SPC-A1 tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice were given as ID/g and represent the means D (n=13) in 30 hours after injection of Tc-99m MDP. ID/g of major tissue were sorted from higher to lower as follows: thoracic spine, lumbar, ribs, kidneys, the center of tumor, the ulcer of tumor, the surrounding of tumor, lymph node, blood, lungs, heart, liver. Conclusions: Most of tumor can uptake Tc-99m MDP including human adenocarcinoma. The uptake rate in the center tissue of

  4. [Detection of fps tumor antigen with mono-specific anti-fps serum in tumors induced by acute transforming ALV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Peng; Li, Jianliang; Cui, Zhizhong

    2013-03-04

    To prepare anti-fps mono-specific serum, and detect the fps antigen in tumors induced by acute transforming avian leukosis/sarcoma virus containing v-fps oncogene. Two part of v-fps gene was amplified by RT-PCR using the Fu-J viral RNA as the template. Mono-specific serum was prepared by immuning Kunming white mouse with both two recombinant infusion proteins expressed by the prokaryotic expression system. Indirect immunofluorescent assay was used to detect fps antigen in tumor tissue suspension cells and CEF infected by sarcoma supernatant. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect fps antigen in tumor tissue. The mouse mono-specific serum was specific as it had no cross reaction with classical ALV-J strains. The result reveals that the tumor tissue suspension cells, the CEF infected by sarcoma supernatant, and the slice immunohistochemistry of the sarcoma showed positive results. The anti-fps mono-specific serum was prepared, and the detection method was established, which laid the foundation for the study of viral biological characteristics and mechanism of tumourgenesis of acute transforming avian leukosis/sarcoma virus containing v-fps oncogene.

  5. An unusual cause of intra-abdominal calcification: A lithopedion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Andrade, Daniel; Ruivo, Catarina; Portilha, M. Antónia; Brito, Jorge B.; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Curvo-Semedo, Luís

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 77-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency department complaining of diffuse abdominal pain for five days, associated with nausea, vomiting and constipation. Physical examination disclosed a large incarcerated umbilical hernia, which was readily apparent on supine abdominal plain films. These also showed a calcified heterogeneous mass in the mid-abdominal region, which was further characterized by CT as a lithopedion (calcified ectopic pregnancy). This is one of the few cases studied on a MDCT equipment, and it clearly enhances the post-processing abilities of this imaging method which allows diagnostic high-quality MIP images. Lithopedion is a rare entity, with less than 300 cases previously described in the medical literature. However, many reported cases corresponded to cases of skeletonization or collections of fetal bone fragments discovered encysted in the pelvic region at surgery or autopsy. It is thus estimated that true lithopedion is a much rarer entity. The diagnosis may be reached by a suggestive clinical history and a palpable mass on physical examination, while the value of modern cross-sectional techniques is still virtually unknown. Ultrasonography may depict an empty uterine cavity and a calcified abdominal mass of non-specific characteristics, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are able to reach a conclusive diagnosis and may additionally define the involvement of adjacent structures. The differential diagnosis includes other calcified pathologic situations, including ovarian tumors, uterine fibroids, urinary tract neoplasms, inflammatory masses or epiploic calcifications

  6. Fibroblast growth factor-2-induced host stroma reaction during initial tumor growth promotes progression of mouse melanoma via vascular endothelial growth factor A-dependent neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo

    2007-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 has been considered to play a critical role in neovascularization in several tumors; however, its precise role in tumor progression is not fully understood. In the present study, we have characterized the role of FGF-2 in B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells, focusing on effects during the initial phase of tumor growth. FGF-2 was injected at the tumor inoculation site of dorsal skin during the initial phase. FGF-2 induced marked tumor growth and lymph node metastasis. This was well correlated with an increase in neovascularization in the host stroma. FGF-2 also recruited inflammatory and mesenchymal cells in host stroma. Marked tumor growth, pulmonary metastasis and intensive neovascularization in tumor parenchyma were also observed after a single injection of FGF-2 into the footpad inoculation site. In contrast, repeated injections of FGF-2 at a site remote from the footpad tumor were ineffective in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. These promoting activities of FGF-2 were blocked by local injections of a glucocorticoid hormone, suggesting that host inflammatory responses induced by FGF-2 are associated with FGF-2-induced tumor progression. In addition, although FGF-2 did not promote cellular proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA expression in B16-BL6 cells in vitro, FGF-2 induced VEGFA expression in host stroma rather than tumor tissue, and local injections of a neutralizing antibody against VEGFA inhibited these activities of FGF-2 in vivo. These results indicate that abundant FGF-2 during the initial phase of tumor growth induces VEGFA-dependent intensive neovascularization in host stroma, and supports marked tumor growth and metastasis.

  7. A pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor diagnosed during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are increasingly being discovered. A case of PNET diagnosed and treated during the management of acute appendicitis is presented and discussed. The importance of imaging modalities in patients with acute abdominal pain is emphasized. To the best our knowledge, this is the ...

  8. Neutron issues in the JANUS mouse program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, the JANUS program in the Biological and Medical Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has compiled a database on the response of both sexes of an F 1 hybrid mouse, the B6CF 1 (C57BL/6 x BALB/c), to external whole- body irradiation by 60 Co γ-rays and fission neutrons. Three basic patterns of exposure for both neutrons and γ-rays have been investigated: single exposures, 24 equal once-weekly exposures, and 60 equal once-weekly exposures. All irradiations were terminated at predetermined total doses, with dose calculated in centigrays at the midline of the mouse. Three endpoints will be discussed in this paper: (1) life shortening, (2) a point estimate for cumulative mortality, and (3) the hazard function. Life shortening is used as an analysis endpoint because it summarizes, in a single index, the integrated effect of all injuries accumulated by an organism. Histopathological analyses of the mice used in the ANL studies have indicated that 85% of the deaths were caused by neoplasms. Connective tissue tumors were the dominant tumor in the B6CF 1 mouse, with tumors of lymphoreticular origin accounting for approximately 80% of this class. The latter two endpoints will therefore be used to describe the life table experience of mice dying from the lymphoreticular class of tumors. Dose-response models will be applied to the three endpoints in order to describe the response function for neutron exposures, evaluate the effect of dose range and pattern of exposure on the response function for neutrons, and provide a set of neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values of the ANL database. 25 refs

  9. The effectiveness of an immobilization device in conformal radiotherapy for lung tumor: reduction of respiratory tumor movement and evaluation of the daily setup accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negoro, Yoshiharu; Nagata, Yasushi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Mizowaki, Takashi; Araki, Norio; Takayama, Kenji; Kokubo, Masaki; Yano, Shinsuke; Koga, Sachiko; Sasai, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Yuta; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the daily setup accuracy and the reduction of respiratory tumor movement using a body frame in conformal therapy for solitary lung tumor. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with a solitary lung tumor underwent conformal therapy using a body frame. The body shell of the frame was shaped to the patient's body contour. The respiratory tumor movement was estimated using fluoroscopy, and if it was greater than 5 mm, pressure was applied to the patient's abdomen with the goal of minimizing tumor movement. CT images were then obtained, and a treatment planning was made. A total dose of 40 or 48 Gy was delivered in 4 fractions. Portal films were obtained at each treatment, and the field displacements between them and the simulation films were measured for daily setup errors. The patients were repositioned if the setup error was greater than 3 mm. Correlations were analyzed between patient characteristics and the tumor movement, or the tumor movement reduction and the daily setup errors. Results: Respiratory tumor movement ranged from 0 to 20 mm (mean 7.7 mm). The abdominal press reduced the tumor movement significantly from a range of 8 to 20 mm to a range of 2 to 11 mm (p=0.0002). Daily setup errors were within 5 mm in 90%, 100%, and 93% of all verifications in left-right, anterior-posterior, and cranio-caudal directions, respectively. Patient repositioning was performed in 25% of all treatments. No significant correlation was detected between patient characteristics and tumor movement, tumor movement reduction, and the daily setup errors. Conclusions: The abdominal press was successful in reducing the respiratory tumor movement. Daily setup accuracy using the body frame was acceptable. Verification should be performed at each treatment in hypofractionated conformal therapy

  10. Abdominal ultrasonography in the diagnostic work-up in children with recurrent abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Strandberg, C; Pærregaard, Anders

    1997-01-01

    We report on our experience with routine abdominal ultrasonography in 120 children (aged 3-15 years) with recurrent abdominal pain, in order to determine the diagnostic value of this investigation. Eight children (7%) revealed sonographic abnormalities: gallbladder stone (n = 2), splenomegaly (n...... = 1) and urogenital abnormalities (n = 5). The recurrent abdominal pain could be explained by these findings in only two (may be three) cases. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic value of abdominal ultrasonography in unselected children with recurrent abdominal pain is low. However, the direct visualization...... of the abdominal structures as being normal may be helpful to the parents and the child in their understanding and acceptance of the benign nature of recurrent abdominal pain....

  11. Mucinous cystic tumors of the pancreas - report of a radiological diagnostic and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Sonia Marcelino; Marchiori, Edson; Borges, Aurea Valeria Rosa Mohana; Dinoa, Vanessa de Albuquerque; Santos, Maria Cristina Soares dos

    1997-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas can be either inflammatory (pseudocyst) or neoplastic. Neoplastic cysts contain either serous or mucinous fluid. Mucinous cystic tumor are more common in the tail of the pancreas of young women with palpable upper abdominal mass. The treatment is total excision of the lesion, and has very good results. The authors report the case of a 41-year-old woman, who presented a large palpable upper abdominal mass and fever. Abdominal sonography and CT scan have shown a heterogeneous cyst in the pancreas body and tail. The histologic diagnosis was mucinous cystic tumor of the pancreas. The treatment was removal of the body and tail of the pancreas together with the cyst. One year after surgery, the patient is doing well. (author)

  12. Usefulness of MR angiography in renal tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Toshitsugu; Morimoto, Kouji; Nishimura, Kenji; Tsujimura, Akira; Yasunaga, Yutaka; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Takaha, Minato (Osaka National Hospital (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    MR angiography using a gradient-echo, pulse sequence FLASH (fast, low-angle shot) method during breath-hold with a MAGNETOM H-15 scanner (1.5 Tesla; Siemens Medical System) was performed on 27 patients with renal tumor at our clinic between Feburary 20, 1990 and September 30, 1991 and we studied to evaluate its usefulness. Of these 27 patients, 22 patients including one patient under hemodialysis treatment had renal cell carcinoma and one patient had oncocytoma pathologically proven from the excised specimens. The remaining four patients including two patients associated with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus were clinically diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma based on the result of imaging examinations such as excretory urography, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional angiography. However, they could not be operated on because their tumors were too advanced. By reconstruction of the data of consecutive coronal scans of the abdominal blood vessels such as the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava and renal arteries and veins simultaneously without any intravenous contrast materials. Our present study revealed that MR angiography has some advantages, especially with regard to preoperative angiographic information about the abdomen of patients with renal tumor. That is, MR angiography can delineate many kinds of arteries and veins of the abdomen simultaneously and in a broader range, as well as it can be performed on the patients with hypersensitivity to iodinate contrast materials or renal insufficiency in a usual fashion. Furthermore, our present study suggested that the MR angiography is useful for assessing the presence and extent of inferior vena caval tumor thrombus of renal cell carcinoma and for clearly distinguishing tumor lesion and the surrounding normal renal parenchyma in the patients with renal tumor. (author).

  13. Usefulness of MR angiography in renal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Toshitsugu; Morimoto, Kouji; Nishimura, Kenji; Tsujimura, Akira; Yasunaga, Yutaka; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Takaha, Minato

    1992-01-01

    MR angiography using a gradient-echo, pulse sequence FLASH (fast, low-angle shot) method during breath-hold with a 'MAGNETOM H-15' scanner (1.5 Tesla; Siemens Medical System) was performed on 27 patients with renal tumor at our clinic between Feburary 20, 1990 and September 30, 1991 and we studied to evaluate its usefulness. Of these 27 patients, 22 patients including one patient under hemodialysis treatment had renal cell carcinoma and one patient had oncocytoma pathologically proven from the excised specimens. The remaining four patients including two patients associated with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus were clinically diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma based on the result of imaging examinations such as excretory urography, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional angiography. However, they could not be operated on because their tumors were too advanced. By reconstruction of the data of consecutive coronal scans of the abdominal blood vessels such as the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava and renal arteries and veins simultaneously without any intravenous contrast materials. Our present study revealed that MR angiography has some advantages, especially with regard to preoperative angiographic information about the abdomen of patients with renal tumor. That is, MR angiography can delineate many kinds of arteries and veins of the abdomen simultaneously and in a broader range, as well as it can be performed on the patients with hypersensitivity to iodinate contrast materials or renal insufficiency in a usual fashion. Furthermore, our present study suggested that the MR angiography is useful for assessing the presence and extent of inferior vena caval tumor thrombus of renal cell carcinoma and for clearly distinguishing tumor lesion and the surrounding normal renal parenchyma in the patients with renal tumor. (author)

  14. Radiologic findings of submucosal tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak; You, Jin Jong [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Gastrointestinal submucosal tumors originate from submucosal histologic structures such as muscles, lymph nodes, nerves, fibers and vessels. Most patients are asymptomatic. Lesions that are large or ulcerated may cause abdominal pain or upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and those that grow intraluminally sometimes become pedunculated and occasionally prolapse to cause intussusception. Adenocarcinoma is the most common primary gastrointestinal tumor, accounting for approximately 90-95% of such lesions, while submucosal tumors account for approximately 2-6% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Because their overlying mucosa appears normal, submucosal tumors age after difficult to visualize endoscopically, and for this reason, barium studies or CT scans are helpful for diagnosis. In this paper, variable CT and barium study findings of the different types of gastrointestinal submucosal tumor are demonstrated, and a brief discussion of the respective disease entities is included. (author)

  15. Radiologic findings of submucosal tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak; You, Jin Jong

    2000-01-01

    Gastrointestinal submucosal tumors originate from submucosal histologic structures such as muscles, lymph nodes, nerves, fibers and vessels. Most patients are asymptomatic. Lesions that are large or ulcerated may cause abdominal pain or upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and those that grow intraluminally sometimes become pedunculated and occasionally prolapse to cause intussusception. Adenocarcinoma is the most common primary gastrointestinal tumor, accounting for approximately 90-95% of such lesions, while submucosal tumors account for approximately 2-6% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Because their overlying mucosa appears normal, submucosal tumors age after difficult to visualize endoscopically, and for this reason, barium studies or CT scans are helpful for diagnosis. In this paper, variable CT and barium study findings of the different types of gastrointestinal submucosal tumor are demonstrated, and a brief discussion of the respective disease entities is included. (author)

  16. The value of plain abdominal radiographs in management of abdominal emergencies in Luth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashindoitiang, J A; Atoyebi, A O; Arogundade, R A

    2008-01-01

    The plain abdominal x-ray is still the first imaging modality in diagnosis of acute abdomen. The aim of this study was to find the value of plain abdominal x-ray in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos university teaching hospital. The accurate diagnosis of the cause of acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging undertakings in emergency medicine. This is due to overlapping of clinical presentation and non-specific findings of physical and even laboratory data of the multifarious causes. Plain abdominal radiography is one investigation that can be obtained readily and within a short period of time to help the physician arrive at a correct diagnosis The relevance of plain abdominal radiography was therefore evaluated in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos over a 12 month period (April 2002 to March 2003). A prospective study of 100 consecutively presenting patients with acute abdominal conditions treated by the general surgical unit of Lagos University Teaching Hospital was undertaken. All patients had supine and erect abdominal x-ray before any therapeutic intervention was undertaken. The diagnostic features of the plain films were compared with final diagnosis to determine the usefulness of the plain x-ray There were 54 males and 46 females (M:F 1.2:1). Twenty-four percent of the patients had intestinal obstruction, 20% perforated typhoid enteritis; gunshot injuries and generalized peritonitis each occurred in 13%, blunt abdominal trauma in 12%, while 8% and 10% had acute appendicitis and perforated peptic ulcer disease respectively. Of 100 patients studied, 54% had plain abdominal radiographs that showed positive diagnostic features. Plain abdominal radiograph showed high sensitivity in patients with intestinal obstruction 100% and perforated peptic ulcer 90% but was less sensitive in patients with perforated typhoid, acute appendicitis, and blunt abdominal trauma and generalized peritonitis. In conclusion, this study

  17. Hypercholesterolemia Induced by a PCSK9 Gain-of-Function Mutation Augments Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in C57BL/6 Mice-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Graham, Mark J; Mullick, Adam E; Daugherty, Alan

    2016-09-01

    Gain-of-function mutations of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) lead to hypercholesterolemia. This study was to determine whether infection of normocholesterolemic mice with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector expressing a gain-of-function mutation of mouse PCSK9 increased angiotensin II (AngII)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms. In an initial study, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with either an empty vector or PCSK9 gain-of-function mutation (D377Y). AAV at 3 doses and fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 6 weeks. Two weeks after AAV injection, mice were infused with AngII for 4 weeks. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were increased dose dependently in mice injected with AAV containing PCSK9D377Y mutation and positively associated with elevations of plasma cholesterol concentrations. Infection with intermediate and high doses of PCSK9D377Y.AAV led to equivalent increases of maximal width of abdominal aortas in C57BL/6 mice infused with AngII. Therefore, the intermediate dose was used in subsequent experiments. We then determined effects of PCSK9D377Y.AAV infection on 5 normolipidemic mouse strains, demonstrating that C57BL/6 mice were the most susceptible to this AAV infection. PCSK9D377Y.AAV infected male C57BL/6 mice were also compared with age-matched male low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice. Although plasma cholesterol concentrations were lower in mice infected with PCSK9D377Y.AAV, these mice had equivalent abdominal aortic aneurysmal formation, compared to low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice. In a separate study, reduced plasma PCSK9 concentrations by PCSK9 antisense oligonucleotides in male low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice did not influence AngII-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAV-mediated infection with a mouse PCSK9 gain-of-function mutation is a rapid, easy, and efficient approach for inducing hypercholesterolemia and promoting abdominal aortic aneurysms in C57BL/6 mice infused with Ang

  18. Malignancy risk prediction for primary jejunum-ileal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at identifying factors associated with primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy, defining a prediction model with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to distinguish malign from benign neoplasms. These tumors are rare, have highly unspecific presentation and, frequently, are diagnosed late. We reviewed the charts of 42 patients with primary jejunum-ileal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery of Rio de Janeiro State University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, from 1969 to 1998. We performed bivariate analyses, based on chi² test, searching associations between tumors malignancy and demographic and clinical variables. Then logistic regression was employed to consider the independent effect of variables previously identified on malignancy risk. The malign tumors included 11 adenocarcinomas, 7 leiomyosarcomas, 5 carcinoids and 4 lymphomas; the benign tumors included 10 leiomyomas, 2 hamartomas, and single cases of adenoma, multiple neurilemoma and choristoma. The bivariate analyses indicated the association between malignancy and palpable abdominal mass (P = 0.003, period from signs and symptoms onset to diagnosis (P = 0.016, anemia (P = 0.020, anorexia (P = 0.003, abdominal pain (P = 0.031, weight loss (P = 0.001, nausea and vomit (P = 0.094, and intestinal obstruction (P = 0.066; no association with patients demographic characteristics were found. In the final logistic regression model, weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction were statistically associated with the dependent variable of interest. Based only on three variables -- weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction -- the model defined was able to predict primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy with sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 80.0%, and accuracy of 83.3%.

  19. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    From 1971 to 1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF 1 mice irradiated with 60 Co γ rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons; normal and tumor tissues from mice in these studies were preserved in paraffin blocks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene in the paraffin-embedded tissues. Microtomed sections were used as the DNA source in PCR reaction mixtures. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments (relative to control PCR products) on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. The tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (569 cGy of 60 Co γ rays or 60 cGy of JANUS neutrons, doses that have been found to have approximately equal biological effectiveness in the BCF, mouse) were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies, all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southem blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, I of 6 tumors from γ-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice had a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5' region of the mRb gene

  20. Immunologic analyses of mouse cystathionase in normal and leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikel, I.; Faibes, D.; Uren, J.R.; Livingston, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbit antisera have been raised against mouse liver cystathionase and shown to possess enzyme neutralizing activity. Agar gel double immunodiffusion analyses demonstrated that both mouse liver cystathionase and rat liver cystathionase react with the antisera, the latter enzyme being completely cross-reactive with the former. Following radioiodination of the purified rat liver enzyme, a double antibody radioimmunoassay was developed in which greater than 90% of the labeled protein could be specifically precipitated with the anti-mouse cystathionase antibodies. In this test the purified rat liver and mouse liver enzymes were virtually indistinguishable, generating superimposable competition displacement curves on a protein mass basis. These results indicate that both enzymes are immunologically identical, thus validating the use of the rat in lieu of the murine liver enzyme as radiolabeled tracer in an assay for mouse cystathionase. In addition, competition radioimmunoassays demonstrated that the immunological reactivities of both the purified rat liver and mouse liver enzymes were equally heat sensitive. The sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 1 ng of enzyme protein/0.22 mL of assay mixture, and the assay could be used to detect the presence of enzyme protein in tissue homogenates of single mouse organs. Mouse or rat cross-reactivity with human liver cystathionase was incomplete; but, with the exception of heart and spleen, parallel radioimmunoassay competition displacement curves were obtained for cystathionase from different mouse organs including thymus. Extracts of 7-, 9-, and 10-month-old spontaneous AKR mouse thymomas were tested in the radioimmunoassay along with extracts of age-matched thymuses which were grossly tumor free. A reaction of nonidentity was observed for all of the tumor extracts while a reaction identical with that of the pure liver enzyme was found with all of the normal thymus extracts

  1. Mast cells trigger epithelial barrier dysfunction, bacterial translocation and postoperative ileus in a mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, S. A.; Dhawan, S.; van Bree, S. H.; Cailotto, C.; van Diest, S. A.; Duarte, J. M.; Stanisor, O. I.; Hilbers, F. W.; Nijhuis, L.; Koeman, A.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; Zuurbier, C. J.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.; de Jonge, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Abdominal surgery involving bowel manipulation commonly results in inflammation of the bowel wall, which leads to impaired intestinal motility and postoperative ileus (POI). Mast cells have shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of POI in mouse models and human studies. We studied

  2. Bilateral sertoli-leydig cell tumor of the ovary: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Kiran; Maheshwari Veena; Rashid Seema; Bhargava Shruti

    2009-01-01

    Sertoli leydig cell tumors also known as arrhenoblastoma, are a rare member of the sex cord-stromal tumor group of ovarian and testicular cancers, comprising less than 1% of all ovarian tumors, which occur in young adults and are almost always unilateral. We hereby report a case of a 17-year-old female presenting with a short history of irregular menses and an abdominal lump, which was histologically proven to be a bilateral sertoli leydig cell tumor of the ovary, an exceptionally rare...

  3. Pharmacological doses of daily ascorbate protect tumors from radiation damage after a single dose of radiation in an intracranial mouse glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Carole; Fabre, Marie-Sophie; Collis, Sarah V; Castro, M Leticia; Field, Cameron S; Schleich, Nanette; McConnell, Melanie J; Herst, Patries M

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological ascorbate is currently used as an anti-cancer treatment, potentially in combination with radiation therapy, by integrative medicine practitioners. In the acidic, metal-rich tumor environment, ascorbate acts as a pro-oxidant, with a mode of action similar to that of ionizing radiation; both treatments kill cells predominantly by free radical-mediated DNA damage. The brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is very resistant to radiation; radiosensitizing GBM cells will improve survival of GBM patients. Here, we demonstrate that a single fraction (6 Gy) of radiation combined with a 1 h exposure to ascorbate (5 mM) sensitized murine glioma GL261 cells to radiation in survival and colony-forming assays in vitro. In addition, we report the effect of a single fraction (4.5 Gy) of whole brain radiation combined with daily intraperitoneal injections of ascorbate (1 mg/kg) in an intracranial GL261 glioma mouse model. Tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: one group received a single dose of 4.5 Gy to the brain 8 days after tumor implantation, a second group received daily intraperitoneal injections of ascorbate (day 8-45) after implantation, a third group received both treatments and a fourth control group received no treatment. While radiation delayed tumor progression, intraperitoneal ascorbate alone had no effect on tumor progression. Tumor progression was faster in tumor-bearing mice treated with radiation and daily ascorbate than in those treated with radiation alone. Histological analysis showed less necrosis in tumors treated with both radiation and ascorbate, consistent with a radio-protective effect of ascorbate in vivo. Discrepancies between our in vitro and in vivo results may be explained by differences in the tumor microenvironment, which determines whether ascorbate remains outside the cell, acting as a pro-oxidant, or whether it enters the cells and acts as an anti-oxidant.

  4. Effect of administration route on FES uptake into MCF-7 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, Joanna B.; Jones, Lynne A.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Welch, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    We have observed that intraperitoneal administration of [ 18 F]fluoroestradiol (FES), a radiolabeled estrogen receptor ligand, results in higher abdominal organ uptake and slower blood clearance than intravenous administration in female mice. In SCID mice bearing MCF-7 human tumors SC, IP administration resulted in tumor uptake that was only about one third that obtained with IV administration. Thus, the route of administration of a radiopharmaceutical for imaging or radiotherapy of a tumor in the abdomen, an ovarian tumor, for example, could have a profound effect on the efficiency and selectivity of delivery of the agent to the tumor

  5. Solitary fibrous tumor of the liver: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li-Xiong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatic solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is a rare tumor originating from the mesenchyme. Here we report a new case of SFT in the liver and review the clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. The patient was a 59-year-old man who presented with progressive fatigue for 3 months and an abdominal mass for 3 days. On laboratory tests, no abnormality was detected except that abdominal ultrasonography revealed a 9.0 × 6.2 cm hypoechogenic mass in the left lobe of the liver. A computed tomographic scan confirmed a hypodense lesion in the left lobe of the liver. The patient underwent left hepatectomy. SFT was diagnosed on the basis of histopathological findings. The patient was free from all symptoms and had no signs of local recurrence after 24 months' follow up.

  6. Effects of daily treatment with a radioprotector WR-2721 on Ehrlich's ascites tumors in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebuchi, Makoto; Shinohara, Shigeo; Kimura, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Kunio; Shima, Akihiro

    1981-01-01

    Mice were injected daily with a radioprotector WR-2721 (S-2-[3-aminopropyl-amino]ethylphosphorothioic acid) after inoculation with Ehrlich's ascites tumor cells. Increases in weight of mice, volume of ascitic fluid and number of ascitic cells per mouse were reduced by the daily administration of 5 mg/mouse of the drug, indicating a suppressive effect of WR-2721 on growth of ascitic cells. But daily treatment with 5 mg/mouse of WR-2721 caused earlier death of tumor-bearing mice. (author)

  7. Tumor vessel normalization after aerobic exercise enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadler, Keri L; Thomas, Nicholas J; Galie, Peter A; Bhang, Dong Ha; Roby, Kerry C; Addai, Prince; Till, Jacob E; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Chen, Christopher S; Ryeom, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    Targeted therapies aimed at tumor vasculature are utilized in combination with chemotherapy to improve drug delivery and efficacy after tumor vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are highly disorganized with disrupted blood flow impeding drug delivery to cancer cells. Although pharmacologic anti-angiogenic therapy can remodel and normalize tumor vessels, there is a limited window of efficacy and these drugs are associated with severe side effects necessitating alternatives for vascular normalization. Recently, moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to induce vascular normalization in mouse models. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the tumor vascular normalization induced by exercise. Shear stress, the mechanical stimuli exerted on endothelial cells by blood flow, modulates vascular integrity. Increasing vascular shear stress through aerobic exercise can alter and remodel blood vessels in normal tissues. Our data in mouse models indicate that activation of calcineurin-NFAT-TSP1 signaling in endothelial cells plays a critical role in exercise-induced shear stress mediated tumor vessel remodeling. We show that moderate aerobic exercise with chemotherapy caused a significantly greater decrease in tumor growth than chemotherapy alone through improved chemotherapy delivery after tumor vascular normalization. Our work suggests that the vascular normalizing effects of aerobic exercise can be an effective chemotherapy adjuvant.

  8. Lurbinectedin induces depletion of tumor-associated macrophages, an essential component of its in vivo synergism with gemcitabine, in pancreatic adenocarcinoma mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, María Virtudes; Guillén, María José; López-Casas, Pedro Pablo; Sarno, Francesca; Gallardo, Alberto; Álamo, Patricia; Cuevas, Carmen; Hidalgo, Manuel; Galmarini, Carlos María; Allavena, Paola; Avilés, Pablo; Mangues, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We explored whether the combination of lurbinectedin (PM01183) with the antimetabolite gemcitabine could result in a synergistic antitumor effect in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) mouse models. We also studied the contribution of lurbinectedin to this synergism. This drug presents a dual pharmacological effect that contributes to its in vivo antitumor activity: (i) specific binding to DNA minor grooves, inhibiting active transcription and DNA repair; and (ii) specific depletion of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). We evaluated the in vivo antitumor activity of lurbinectedin and gemcitabine as single agents and in combination in SW-1990 and MIA PaCa-2 cell-line xenografts and in patient-derived PDA models (AVATAR). Lurbinectedin-gemcitabine combination induced a synergistic effect on both MIA PaCa-2 [combination index (CI)=0.66] and SW-1990 (CI=0.80) tumor xenografts. It also induced complete tumor remissions in four out of six patient-derived PDA xenografts. This synergism was associated with enhanced DNA damage (anti-γ-H2AX), cell cycle blockage, caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. In addition to the enhanced DNA damage, which is a consequence of the interaction of the two drugs with the DNA, lurbinectedin induced TAM depletion leading to cytidine deaminase (CDA) downregulation in PDA tumors. This effect could, in turn, induce an increase of gemcitabine-mediated DNA damage that was especially relevant in high-density TAM tumors. These results show that lurbinectedin can be used to develop ‘molecularly targeted’ combination strategies. PMID:27780828

  9. Lurbinectedin induces depletion of tumor-associated macrophages, an essential component of its in vivo synergism with gemcitabine, in pancreatic adenocarcinoma mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virtudes Céspedes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored whether the combination of lurbinectedin (PM01183 with the antimetabolite gemcitabine could result in a synergistic antitumor effect in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA mouse models. We also studied the contribution of lurbinectedin to this synergism. This drug presents a dual pharmacological effect that contributes to its in vivo antitumor activity: (i specific binding to DNA minor grooves, inhibiting active transcription and DNA repair; and (ii specific depletion of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs. We evaluated the in vivo antitumor activity of lurbinectedin and gemcitabine as single agents and in combination in SW-1990 and MIA PaCa-2 cell-line xenografts and in patient-derived PDA models (AVATAR. Lurbinectedin-gemcitabine combination induced a synergistic effect on both MIA PaCa-2 [combination index (CI=0.66] and SW-1990 (CI=0.80 tumor xenografts. It also induced complete tumor remissions in four out of six patient-derived PDA xenografts. This synergism was associated with enhanced DNA damage (anti-γ-H2AX, cell cycle blockage, caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. In addition to the enhanced DNA damage, which is a consequence of the interaction of the two drugs with the DNA, lurbinectedin induced TAM depletion leading to cytidine deaminase (CDA downregulation in PDA tumors. This effect could, in turn, induce an increase of gemcitabine-mediated DNA damage that was especially relevant in high-density TAM tumors. These results show that lurbinectedin can be used to develop ‘molecularly targeted’ combination strategies.

  10. Imaging Primary Mouse Sarcomas After Radiation Therapy Using Cathepsin-Activatable Fluorescent Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuneo, Kyle C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Mito, Jeffrey K.; Javid, Melodi P. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ferrer, Jorge M. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Kim, Yongbaek [Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. David [The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Bawendi, Moungi G. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Brigman, Brian E. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirsch, David G., E-mail: david.kirsch@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes can detect tumors in mice and in canine patients. We previously showed that these probes can detect microscopic residual sarcoma in the tumor bed of mice during gross total resection. Many patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and other tumors undergo radiation therapy (RT) before surgery. This study assesses the effect of RT on the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue. Methods and Materials: A genetically engineered mouse model of STS was used to generate primary hind limb sarcomas that were treated with hypofractionated RT. Mice were injected intravenously with cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes, and various tissues, including the tumor, were imaged using a hand-held imaging device. Resected tumor and normal muscle samples were harvested to assess cathepsin expression by Western blot. Uptake of activated probe was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Parallel in vitro studies using mouse sarcoma cells were performed. Results: RT of primary STS in mice and mouse sarcoma cell lines caused no change in probe activation or cathepsin protease expression. Increasing radiation dose resulted in an upward trend in probe activation. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence showed that a substantial proportion of probe-labeled cells were CD11b-positive tumor-associated immune cells. Conclusions: In this primary murine model of STS, RT did not affect the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between tumor and normal muscle. Cathepsin-activated probes labeled tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Our results suggest that it would be feasible to include patients who have received preoperative RT in clinical studies evaluating cathepsin-activated imaging probes.

  11. Two cases of false aneurysm rupture induced by nonvascular tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiromasa; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Tamura, Nobushige; Sakaguchi, Genichi; Kobayashi, Taira; Furukawa, Tomokuni; Matsushita, Akihito; Sunagawa, Gengo; Murashita, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    We presented here 2 cases of rare nonvascular tumor involving the aorta. A 69-year-old woman. She presented leg edema and dyspnea on admission. Computed tomography revealed abdominal aortic aneurysm perforating left common iliac vein. Abdominal aortic aneurysm replacement and fistula closure were done on an emergency basis. Immunohistologic examination revealed that malignant mesothelioma invaded the aortic wall. A 47-year-old woman presented with dyspnea. Enhanced computed tomography revealed rupture of the descending aortic aneurysm (saccular type). Aortic replacement was done on an emergency basis. One year after the operation, computed tomography revealed a giant mass (160 x 70 mm) surrounding the descending thoracic aorta. On biopsy, malignant schwannoma was found to invade the descending aorta. Sometimes nonvascular tumors form aneurysms. So we should be careful in diagnosis before operation. (author)

  12. Tumor de Wilms: Hallazgo coincidente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Galindo López

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El tumor de Wilms o nefroblastoma representa el 6% de los cánceres infantiles y se considera la formación abdominal y renal maligna más frecuente en la edad pediátrica. En Estados Unidos se diagnostican aproximadamente 500 nuevos casos por año, siendo más frecuente el hallazgo a los 36 meses de edad, aunque es posible encontrarlo en momentos tan tempranos como el nacimiento, e incluso hasta los 15 años de edad, con igual probabilidad de encontrarlo en niñas y niños a cualquier edad. Es un tumor agresivo, tiene la capacidad de alcanzar gran tamaño e incluso hacer metástasis a distancia. Se presenta por su inusual manifestación inicial el caso de un paciente de 28 meses de edad, sexo masculino, que consultó al servicio de urgencias por dolor en rodilla izquierda de 24 horas de evolución, acompañado de imposibilidad para la marcha. Al examen físico inicial se encontró presencia de masa abdominal.

  13. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruque, A. V.; Qazi, S. H.; Khan, M. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma patients, and to see if the role of computed tomography scan could be limited to only those cases in which sonography was positive. Methods: The retrospective study covered 10 years, from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009, and was conducted at the Department of Radiology and Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It comprised cases of 174 children from birth to 14 years who had presented with blunt abdominal trauma and had focussed abdominal sonography for trauma done at the hospital. The findings were correlated with computed tomography scan of the abdomen and clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma were calculated for blunt abdominal trauma. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 174 cases, 31 (17.81%) were later confirmed by abdominal scan. Of these 31 children, sonography had been positive in 29 (93.54%) children. In 21 (67.74%) of the 31 children, sonography had been true positive; 8 (25%) (8/31) were false positive; and 2 (6%) (2/31) were false negative. There were 6 (19.3%) children in which sonography was positive and converted to laparotomy. There was no significant difference on account of gender (p>0.356). Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in the study had sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 73%, and negative predictive value of 73% with accuracy of 94%. All patients who had negative sonography were discharged later, and had no complication on clinical follow-up. Conclusions: Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma is a fairly reliable mode to assess blunt abdominal trauma in children. It is a useful tool to pick high-grade solid and hollow viscous injury. The results suggest that the role of computed tomography scan can be

  14. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Ahmad Vaqas; Qazi, Saqib Hamid; Khan, Muhammad Arif Mateen; Akhtar, Wassem; Majeed, Amina

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the role of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma patients, and to see if the role of computed tomography scan could be limited to only those cases in which sonography was positive. The retrospective study covered 10 years, from January 1,2000 to December 31,2009, and was conducted at the Department of Radiology and Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It comprised cases of 174 children from birth to 14 years who had presented with blunt abdominal trauma and had focussed abdominal sonography for trauma done at the hospital. The findings were correlated with computed tomography scan of the abdomen and clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma were calculated for blunt abdominal trauma. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 174 cases, 31 (17.81%) were later confirmed by abdominal scan. Of these 31 children, sonography had been positive in 29 (93.54%) children. In 21 (67.74%) of the 31 children, sonograpy had been true positive; 8 (25%) (8/31) were false positive; and 2 (6%) (2/31) were false negative. There were 6 (19.3%) children in which sonography was positive and converted to laparotomy. There was no significant difference on account of gender (p>0.356). Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in the study had sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 73%, and negative predictive value of 73% with accuracy of 94%. All patients who had negative sonography were discharged later, and had no complication on clinical follow-up. Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma is a fairly reliable mode to assess blunt abdominal trauma in children. It is a useful tool to pick high-grade solid and hollow viscous injury. The results suggest that the role of computed tomography scan can be limited to those cases in which focussed

  15. Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kohli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications.

  16. A metastatic adrenal tumor from a hepatocellular carcinoma: combination therapy with transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Jin; Cho, Yun Ku; Ahn, Yong Sik; Kim, Mi Young [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    The adrenal gland is the second most common site of metastasis from a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for these tumors has been reported to be a potentially effective alternative to an adrenalectomy, especially for inoperable patients. However, for intermediate or large adrenal tumors, combination therapy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and RFA can be attempted as it may reduce the heat sink effect. A 74-year-old patient presented with abdominal discomfort. Abdominal CT images revealed a 5.0 cm sized right adrenal mass. A percutaneous biopsy of the adrenal mass revealed a metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. TACE was performed on the adrenal mass. However, a one-month follow-up CT image revealed a residual viable tumor. RFA was performed for the adrenal tumor six weeks after the TACE. No procedure-related major complications were noted. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level had also been normalized after the treatment, and 10-month follow-up CT images showed no definite evidence of viable adrenal tumor.

  17. Mast Cells in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Guo-Ping; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are proinflammatory cells that play important roles in allergic responses, tumor growth, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although the presence and function of MCs in atherosclerotic lesions have been thoroughly studied in human specimens......, in primary cultured vascular cells, and in atherosclerosis in animals, their role in AAA was recognized only recently. Via multiple activation pathways, MCs release a spectrum of mediators � including histamine, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteoglycans, and proteases � to activate...... neighboring cells, degrade extracellular matrix proteins, process latent bioactive molecules, promote angiogenesis, recruit additional inflammatory cells, and stimulate vascular cell apoptosis. These activities associate closely with medial elastica breakdown, medial smooth-muscle cell loss and thinning...

  18. A giant adrenal lipoma presenting in a woman with chronic mild postprandial abdominal pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Drygiannakis, Ioannis; Tzortzinis, Anastasios; Papanas, Nikolaos; Fiska, Aliki

    2011-04-05

    Adrenal lipomas are rare, small, benign, non-functioning tumors, which must be histopathologically differentiated from other tumors such as myelolipomas or liposarcomas. They are usually identified incidentally during autopsy, imaging, or laparotomy. Occasionally, they may present acutely due to complications such as abdominal pain from retroperitoneal bleeding, or systemic symptoms of infection. We report a giant adrenal lipoma (to the best of our knowledge, the second largest in the literature) clinically presenting with chronic mild postprandial pain. A 54-year-old Caucasian woman presented several times over a period of 10 years to various emergency departments complaining of long-term mild postprandial abdominal pain. Although clinical examinations were unrevealing, an abdominal computed tomography scan performed at her most recent presentation led to the identification of a large lipoma of the left adrenal gland, which occupied most of the retroperitoneal space. Myelolipoma was ruled out due to the absence of megakaryocytes, immature leukocytes, or erythrocytes. Liposarcoma was ruled out due to the absence of lipoblasts. The size of the lipoma (16 × 14 × 7 cm) is, to the best of our knowledge, the second largest reported to date. After surgical resection, our patient was relieved of her symptoms and remains healthy six years postoperatively. Physicians should be aware that differential diagnosis of mild chronic abdominal pain in patients presenting in emergency rooms may include large adrenal lipomas. When initial diagnostic investigation is not revealing, out-patient specialist evaluation should be planned to enable appropriate further investigations.

  19. Gallic Acid Attenuates Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion by Inhibiting Inflammatory Reaction in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangbing; Wu, Yunhua; Gao, Qi; Shen, Cong; Chen, Zilu; Wang, Kang; Yu, Junhui

    2018-01-01

    Background Intra-abdominal adhesion is one of the most common complications after abdominal surgery. The efficacy of current treatments for intra-abdominal adhesion is unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effect of gallic acid on the prevention and treatment of intra-abdominal adhesions after abdominal surgery using an intra-abdominal adhesion rat model. Material/Methods The experimental rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, the control group, the chitosan group, and 3 gallic acid groups of different concentrations. All rats except those in the sham operation group received cecal abrasion to induce adhesion. From the first postoperative day, the rats in the gallic acid groups were administered different concentrations of gallic acid in a 2-ml gavage daily. All rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7, and the degree of intra-abdominal adhesion was evaluated by the naked eye. The amount of collagen deposited between the injured peritoneal tissues was assessed by Sirius red staining. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were measured by ELISA. Western blot was used to detect the level of NF-κB phosphorylation in the injured peritoneal or adhesion tissues of the rats. Results Compared with the control group, the scores of intra-abdominal adhesions in the rats treated with larger doses of gallic acid were significantly decreased, and the degree of inflammation and fibrosis was also significantly decreased. Gallic acid significantly reduced IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 serum levels. NF-κB phosphorylation in the higher gallic acid groups was significantly reduced. Conclusions Gallic acid inhibits the formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in rats by inhibiting the inflammatory reaction and fibrogenesis. Gallic acid is a promising drug for preventing intra-abdominal adhesions. PMID:29429982

  20. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  1. Misregulation of Stromelysin-1 in Mouse Mammary Tumor Cells Accompanies Acquisition of Stromelysin-1 dependent Invasive Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, A.; Srebrow, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Terracio, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-02-21

    Stromelysin-1 is a member of the metalloproteinase family of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes that regulates tissue remodeling. We previously established a transgenic mouse model in which rat stromelysin-1 targeted to the mammary gland augmented expression of endogenous stromelysin-1, disrupted functional differentiation, and induced mammary tumors. A cell line generated from an adenocarcinoma in one of these animals and a previously described mammary tumor cell line generated in culture readily invaded both a reconstituted basement membrane and type I collagen gels, whereas a nonmalignant, functionally normal epithelial cell line did not. Invasion of Matrigel by tumor cells was largely abolished by metalloproteinase inhibitors, but not by inhibitors of other proteinase families. Inhibition experiments with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides revealed that Matrigel invasion of both cell lines was critically dependent on stromelysin-1 expression. Invasion of collagen, on the other hand, was reduced by only 40-50%. Stromelysin-1 was expressed in both malignant and nonmalignant cells grown on plastic substrata. Its expression was completely inhibited in nonmalignant cells, but up-regulated in tumor cells, in response to Matrigel. Thus misregulation of stromelysin-1 expression appears to be an important aspect of mammary tumor cell progression to an invasive phenotype. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes that have been implicated in a variety of normal developmental and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis. The MMP family comprises at least 15 members with different, albeit overlapping, substrate specificities. During activation of latent MMPs, their propeptides are cleaved and they are converted to a lower molecular weight form by other enzymes, including serine proteinases, and by autocatalytic cleavage. Among the MMPs, stromelysin-1 (SL1) possesses the broadest substrate specificity. Despite

  2. Intravascular application of electrocautery in a rabbit model of abdominal aortic endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xin, Yi; Li, Na; Li, Diankun; Li, Jingxing; Gu, Chengxiong

    2017-07-01

    Effective therapies for preventing perioperative complications such as thrombosis and inflammation after coronary endarterectomy (CE) are lacking. Electrocoagulation electrotomes have been routinely used in surgery for their cutting, clotting, and hemostatic properties. As strong flattening tools, their electrocautery function may prevent mechanical intimal-adventitial injury to arterial circulation and attenuate stenosis. The present study investigated the effects of intravascular application of electrocautery on ameliorating inflammation and thrombosis in a rabbit model of abdominal aortic endarterectomy. New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the sham, control (endarterectomy), and study (endarterectomy + electrocautery) groups with 10 in each group. Abdominal aortas were partially blocked and intima was removed. Electrocautery was performed with an electrocoagulation electrotome through the entire blocked vessel lumen. Vascular ultrasound parameters, molecular biological and histological characteristics of the abdominal aorta including vascular diameter, blood flow velocity, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis rate of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) were evaluated postoperatively by vascular Doppler ultrasound, ELISA, real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence at various time points. Compared with the endarterectomy + electrocautery group, the isolated endarterectomy group had significantly increased levels and gene expression of TNF-α and IL-6 (Pelectrocautery has favorable short-term effects on the abdominal aorta and can reduce inflammation in a rabbit model of abdominal aorta endarterectomy. Long-term anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects on arterial remodeling and the clinical value of electrocautery in CE remain to be determined.

  3. A recombinant lentiviral PDGF-driven mouse model of proneural glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahme, Gilbert J; Luikart, Bryan W; Cheng, Chao; Israel, Mark A

    2018-02-19

    Mouse models of glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumor, are critical for understanding GBM pathology and can contribute to the preclinical evaluation of therapeutic agents. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling has been implicated in the development and pathogenesis of GBM, specifically the proneural subtype. Although multiple mouse models of PDGF-driven glioma have been described, they require transgenic mice engineered to activate PDGF signaling and/or impair tumor suppressor genes and typically represent lower-grade glioma. We designed recombinant lentiviruses expressing both PDGFB and a short hairpin RNA targeting Cdkn2a to induce gliomagenesis following stereotactic injection into the dentate gyrus of adult immunocompetent mice. We engineered these viruses to coexpress CreERT2 with PDGFB, allowing for deletion of floxed genes specifically in transduced cells, and designed another version of this recombinant lentivirus in which enhanced green fluorescent protein was coexpressed with PDGFB and CreERT2 to visualize transduced cells. The dentate gyrus of injected mice showed hypercellularity one week post-injection and subsequently developed bona fide tumors with the pathologic hallmarks of GBM leading to a median survival of 77 days post-injection. Transcriptomic analysis of these tumors revealed a proneural gene expression signature. Informed by the genetic alterations observed in human GBM, we engineered a novel mouse model of proneural GBM. While reflecting many of the advantages of transgenic mice, this model allows for the facile in vivo testing of gene function in tumor cells and makes possible the rapid production of large numbers of immunocompetent tumor-bearing mice for preclinical testing of therapeutics. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Zeyneloğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome are causes of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment may improve organ functions. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring is vital during evaluation of the patients and in the management algorithms. The incidence, definition and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome were reviewed here.

  5. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  6. PDX-MI: Minimal Information for Patient-Derived Tumor Xenograft Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meehan, Terrence F.; Conte, Nathalie; Goldstein, Theodore; Inghirami, Giorgio; Murakami, Mark A.; Brabetz, Sebastian; Gu, Zhiping; Wiser, Jeffrey A.; Dunn, Patrick; Begley, Dale A.; Krupke, Debra M.; Bertotti, Andrea; Bruna, Alejandra; Brush, Matthew H.; Byrne, Annette T.; Caldas, Carlos; Christie, Amanda L.; Clark, Dominic A.; Dowst, Heidi; Dry, Jonathan R.; Doroshow, James H.; Duchamp, Olivier; Evrard, Yvonne A.; Ferretti, Stephane; Frese, Kristopher K.; Goodwin, Neal C.; Greenawalt, Danielle; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hermans, Els; Houghton, Peter J.; Jonkers, Jos; Kemper, Kristel; Khor, Tin O.; Lewis, Michael T.; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; Mason, Jeremy; Medico, Enzo; Neuhauser, Steven B.; Olson, James M.; Peeper, Daniel S.; Rueda, Oscar M.; Seong, Je Kyung; Trusolino, Livio; Vinolo, Emilie; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Weinstock, David M.; Welm, Alana; Weroha, S. John; Amant, Frédéric; Pfister, Stefan M.; Kool, Marcel; Parkinson, Helen; Butte, Atul J.; Bult, Carol J.

    2017-01-01

    Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) mouse models have emerged as an important oncology research platform to study tumor evolution, mechanisms of drug response and resistance, and tailoring chemotherapeutic approaches for individual patients. The lack of robust standards for reporting on PDX models

  7. Altered Gene Expression Profile in Mouse Bladder Cancers Induced by Hydroxybutyl(butylnitrosamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisheng Yao

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A variety of genetic alterations and gene expression changes are involved in the pathogenesis of bladder tumor. To explore these changes, oligonucleotide array analysis was performed on RNA obtained from carcinogen-induced mouse bladder tumors and normal mouse bladder epithelia using Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA MGU74Av2 GeneChips. Analysis yielded 1164 known genes that were changed in the tumors. Certain of the upregulated genes included EGFR-Ras signaling genes, transcription factors, cell cycle-related genes, and intracellular signaling cascade genes. However, downregulated genes include mitogen-activated protein kinases, cell cycle checkpoint genes, Rab subfamily genes, Rho subfamily genes, and SH2 and SH3 domains-related genes. These genes are involved in a broad range of different pathways including control of cell proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Using the pathway visualization tool GenMAPP, we found that several genes, including TbR-l, STAT1, Smad1, Smad2, Jun, NFκB, and so on, in the TGF-β signaling pathway and p115 RhoGEF, RhoGDl3, MEKK4A/MEKK4B, P13KA, and JNK in the G13 signaling pathway were differentially expressed in the tumors. In summary, we have determined the expression profiles of genes differentially expressed during mouse bladder tumorigenesis. Our results suggest that activation of the EGFR-Ras pathway, uncontrolled cell cycle, aberrant transcription factors, and G13 and TGF-β pathways are involved, and the cross-talk between these pathways seems to play important roles in mouse bladder tumorigenesis.

  8. Accuracy of the abdominal examination for identifying children with blunt intra-abdominal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelgais, Kathleen M; Kuppermann, Nathan; Kooistra, Joshua; Garcia, Madelyn; Monroe, David J; Mahajan, Prashant; Menaker, Jay; Ehrlich, Peter; Atabaki, Shireen; Page, Kent; Kwok, Maria; Holmes, James F

    2014-12-01

    To determine the accuracy of complaints of abdominal pain and findings of abdominal tenderness for identifying children with intra-abdominal injury (IAI) stratified by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. This was a prospective, multicenter observational study of children with blunt torso trauma and a GCS score ≥13. We calculated the sensitivity of abdominal findings for IAI with 95% CI stratified by GCS score. We examined the association of isolated abdominal pain or tenderness with IAI and that undergoing acute intervention (therapeutic laparotomy, angiographic embolization, blood transfusion, or ≥2 nights of intravenous fluid therapy). Among the 12 044 patients evaluated, 11 277 (94%) had a GCS score of ≥13 and were included in this analysis. Sensitivity of abdominal pain for IAI was 79% (95% CI, 76%-83%) for patients with a GCS score of 15, 51% (95% CI, 37%-65%) for patients with a GCS score of 14, and 32% (95% CI, 14%-55%) for patients with a GCS score of 13. Sensitivity of abdominal tenderness for IAI also decreased with decreasing GCS score: 79% (95% CI, 75%-82%) for a GCS score of 15, 57% (95% CI, 42%-70%) for a GCS score of 14, and 37% (95% CI, 19%-58%) for a GCS score of 13. Among patients with isolated abdominal pain and/or tenderness, the rate of IAI was 8% (95% CI, 6%-9%) and the rate of IAI undergoing acute intervention was 1% (95% CI, 1%-2%). The sensitivity of abdominal findings for IAI decreases as GCS score decreases. Although abdominal computed tomography is not mandatory, the risk of IAI is sufficiently high that diagnostic evaluation is warranted in children with isolated abdominal pain or tenderness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The importance of time interval to development of second tumor in metachronous bilateral wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulino, Arnold C.; Thakkar, Bharat; Henderson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the time interval to development of second tumor is a prognostic factor for overall survival in children with metachronous bilateral Wilms' tumor and to give a recommendation regarding screening of the contralateral kidney in patients with Wilms' tumor. Materials and Management: A literature search using MEDLINE was performed of manuscripts in the English language from 1950-1996 and identified 108 children with metachronous bilateral Wilms' tumor. Children were classified according to time interval to development of a contralateral Wilms' tumor ( 78 mos (2), 78 - < 84 mos (1), 84 - < 90 mos (0), 90 - < 96 mos (1), ≥ 96 mos (0). Analysis of overall survival in patients with a time interval of < 18 months and ≥ 18 months showed a 10 year survival of 39.6% and 55.2%, respectively (p = 0.024, log-rank test). Conclusions: Children with metachronous bilateral Wilms' tumor who develop a contralateral tumor at a time interval of ≥ 18 months from the initial Wilms' tumor had a better overall survival than children with a time interval of < 18 months. Screening by abdominal ultrasound of the contralateral kidney for more than 5 years after initial diagnosis of Wilms' tumor may not be necessary since 102/106 (96.2%) of children had a time interval to second tumor of < 60 months

  10. Internal Mammary Vessels’ Impact on Abdominal Skin Perfusion in Free Abdominal Flap Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Nergård, MD

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions:. Using the IMV in free abdominal flap breast reconstruction had a significant effect on abdominal skin perfusion and may contribute to abdominal wound healing problems. The reperfusion of the abdominal skin was a dynamic process showing an increase in perfusion in the affected areas during the postoperative days.

  11. Ultrasonic characterization of three animal mammary tumors from three-dimensional acoustic tissue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamou, Jonathan M.

    This dissertation investigated how three-dimensional (3D) tissue models can be used to improve ultrasonic tissue characterization (UTC) techniques. Anatomic sites in tissue responsible for ultrasonic scattering are unknown, which limits the potential applications of ultrasound for tumor diagnosis. Accurate 3D models of tumor tissues may help identify the scattering sites. Three mammary tumors were investigated: a rat fibroadenoma, a mouse carcinoma, and a mouse sarcoma. A 3D acoustic tissue model, termed 3D impedance map (3DZM), was carefully constructed from consecutive histologic sections for each tumor. Spectral estimates (scatterer size and acoustic concentration) were obtained from the 3DZMs and compared to the same estimates obtained with ultrasound. Scatterer size estimates for three tumors were found to be similar (within 10%). The 3DZMs were also used to extract tissue-specific scattering models. The scattering models were found to allow clear distinction between the three tumors. This distinction demonstrated that UTC techniques may be helpful for noninvasive clinical tumor diagnosis.

  12. Bilateral sertoli-leydig cell tumor of the ovary: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Kiran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sertoli leydig cell tumors also known as arrhenoblastoma, are a rare member of the sex cord-stromal tumor group of ovarian and testicular cancers, comprising less than 1% of all ovarian tumors, which occur in young adults and are almost always unilateral. We hereby report a case of a 17-year-old female presenting with a short history of irregular menses and an abdominal lump, which was histologically proven to be a bilateral sertoli leydig cell tumor of the ovary, an exceptionally rare entity in itself.

  13. Wilms tumor in a child with trisomy 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H; Pelegano, J

    2000-01-01

    A 4-year-old black boy with trisomy 13, a history of frequent urinary tract infections, and a horseshoe kidney with painless gross hematuria was examined. An abdominal mass was detected and surgically resected. Examination of the surgical specimen revealed a Wilms tumor. Given the concurrence of trisomy 13 and Wilms tumor and the presence of another such case in the literature, there may be just cause to suspect a locus on chromosome 13 that affects the probability of developing Wilms tumor. Given the increasingly longer survival of patients with trisomy 13, clinicians may need to be aware of the possibility of renal malignant disease in this population of patients.

  14. Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Due To Wilm's Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mahwish; Manzoor, Jaida; Saleem, Muhammad; Anwar, Saadia; Mehmood, Qaiser; Hameed, Ambreen; Ali, Agha Shabbir

    2017-05-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, along with histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed.

  15. Paraneoplastic cushing syndrome due to wilm's tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizan, M.; Anwar, S.; Hameed, A.; Manzoor, J.; Saleem, M.; Mehmood, Q.; Ali, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, alongwith histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed. (author)

  16. Establishment and evaluation of a transgenic mouse model of arthritis induced by overexpressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα plays a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Blockade of TNFα by monoclonal antibody has been widely used for the therapy of RA since the 1990s; however, its mechanism of efficacy, and potential safety concerns of the treatment are still not fully understood. This study sought to establish a transgenic arthritic mouse model by overexpressing human TNFα (hTNFα and to apply this model as a means to evaluate therapeutic consequences of TNFα inhibitors. The transgenic mouse line (TgTC with FVB background was generated by incorporating 3′-modified hTNFα gene sequences. A progressively erosive polyarthritis developed in the TgTC mice, with many characteristics observed in human rheumatoid arthritis, including polyarticular swelling, impairment of movement, synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone erosion. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that hTNFα is not only expressed in hyperplastic synovial membrane, but also in tissues without lesions, including brain, lung and kidney. Treatment of the TgTC mice with anti-hTNFα monoclonal antibodies (mAb significantly decreased the level of hTNFα in the diseased joint and effectively prevented development of arthritis in a dose-dependent response fashion. Our results indicated that the TgTC mice represent a genetic model which can be used to comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis and therapeutics of TNFα-related diseases.

  17. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V; Teichmann, Lino L; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A Karolina; Manz, Markus G; Flavell, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models cannot support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we describe two mouse strains called MITRG and MISTRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked into their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes, macrophages and NK cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34(+) progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MITRG and MISTRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology.

  18. Expression of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in rodent lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swafford, D.S.; Tesfaigzi, J.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Aberrations on the short arm of chromosome 9 are among the earliest genetic changes in human cancer. p16{sup INK4a} is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that lies within human 9p21, a chromosome region associated with frequent loss of heterozygosity in human lung tumors. The p16{sup INK4a} protein functions as an inhibitor of cyclin D{sub 1}-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene product enabling cell-cycle progression. Thus, overexpression of cyclin D{sub 1}, mutation of cyclin-dependent kinase genes, or loss of p16{sup INK4a} function, can all result in functional inactivation of Rb. Inactivation of Rb by mutation or deletion can result in an increase in p16{sup INK4a} transcription, suggesting that an increased p16{sup INK4a} expression in a tumor cell signals dysfunction of the pathway. The p16{sup (INK4a)} gene, unlike some tumor suppressor genes, is rarely inactivated by mutation. Instead, the expression of this gene is suppressed in some human cancers by hypermethylation of the CpG island within the first exon or by homozygous deletion: 686. Chromosome losses have been observed at 9p21 syntenic loci in tumors of the mouse and rat, two species often used as animal models for pulmonary carcinogenesis. Expression of p16{sup INK4a} is lost in some mouse tumor cell lines, often due to homozygous deletion. These observations indicate that p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction may play a role in the development of neoplasia in rodents as well as humans. The purpose of the current investigation was to define the extent to which p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction contributes to the development of rodent lung tumors and to determine the mechanism of inactivation of the gene. There is no evidence to suggest a loss of function of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in these primary murine lung tumors by mutation, deletion, or methylation.

  19. Tumor-Specific Immunotherapy of Mammary Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    .... To enhance the activation of CD4(+) T helper cells, autologous mouse mammary tumor cells have been transfected with syngeneic MHC class II genes plus costimulatory and antigen presentation accessory molecules, including B7-1, B7-2...

  20. Top 50 Highly Cited Articles on Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) in Abdominal Radiology: A Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Wu, Yuhao; O’Keeffe, Michael E; Berger, Ferco H; McLaughlin, Patrick D; Nicolaou, Savvas

    2017-01-01

    Summary This study aims to identify the 50 most highly cited articles on dual energy computed tomography (DECT) in abdominal radiology Thomson Reuters Web of Science All Databases was queried without year or language restriction. Only original research articles with a primary focus on abdominal radiology using DECT were selected. Review articles, meta-analyses, and studies without human subjects were excluded. Fifty articles with the highest average yearly citation were identified. These articles were published between 2007 and 2017 in 12 journals, with the most in Radiology (12 articles). Articles had a median of 7 authors, with all first authors but one primarily affiliated to radiology departments. The United States of America produced the most articles (16), followed by Germany (13 articles), and China (7 articles). Most studies used Dual Source DECT technology (35 articles), followed by Rapid Kilovoltage Switching (14 articles), and Sequential Scanning (1 article). The top three scanned organs were the liver (24%), kidney (16%), and urinary tract (15%). The most commonly studied pathology was urinary calculi (28%), renal lesion/tumor (23%), and hepatic lesion/tumor (20%). Our study identifies intellectual milestones in the applications of DECT in abdominal radiology. The diversity of the articles reflects on the characteristics and quality of the most influential publications related to DECT. PMID:29657641

  1. Carcinoid tumor of the cecal appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo Mauri, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    The carcinoid tumors of the cecal appendix are the most frequent of all appendicular tumors, with no clinical manifestations in general. The general objective of this paper was to present an interesting case of carcinoid tumor found in a 26 years-old woman, whose clinical picture was diagnosed as subacute appendicitis. She was hospitalized and treated with antibiotics with good recovery and discharged 10 days later. She had no abdominal tumors confirmed clinically and echographically at that time. Three months later, the patient was operated on and underwent cecal appendicectomy. The pathological anatomy analysis yielded argentaffinoma in the distal third of the cecal appendix with mucosal infiltration. She was referred to the oncology service to be followed up. She has been free from any complication with good recovery for 10 years. The annual ultrasound and the CT scan show that there is neither regional adenopathy nor hepatic metastasis

  2. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    From 1971--1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF 1 mice irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. Absence of any of these fragments on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. Tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southern blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, 1 of 6 tumors from γ-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice showed a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5' region of the mRb gene

  3. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  4. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Cleva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior.METHODS:We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique.RESULTS:The mean age of the patients was 56±13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3% had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior. The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6±0.6 L and FVC (2.0±0.7 L with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8±0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p= 0.59 for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed.CONCLUSIONS:Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery.

  5. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleva, Roberto de; Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira de; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2014-07-01

    Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6 ± 0.6 L) and FVC (2.0 ± 0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8 ± 0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p=0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery.

  6. Physicians' Abdominal Auscultation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Gade; Peter, Kruse; Andersen, Ole Trier

    1998-01-01

    Background: Abdominal auscultation has an important position in the physical examination of the abdomen. Little is known about rater agreement. The aim of this study was to describe rater agreement and thus, indirectly, the value of the examination. Methods: In a semi-virtual setup 12 recordings...... subjects and in patients with intestinal obstruction was acceptable for a clinical examination. Abdominal auscultation is a helpful clinical examination in patients with acute abdominal pain....

  7. Polysaccharides Extracted from Rhizoma Pleionis Have Antitumor Properties In Vitro and in an H22 Mouse Hepatoma Ascites Model In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukun Fang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant ascites is a highly severe and intractable complication of advanced or recurrent malignant tumors that is often immunotherapy-resistant. Rhizoma Pleionis is widely used in traditional medicine as an antimicrobial and anticancer agent, but its effectiveness in treating malignant ascites is unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of polysaccharides isolated from Rhizoma Pleionis (PRP on murine hepatocarcinoma H22 cells in an ascites model. We have found that the main components of PRP, that presented a relative molecular weight of 383.57 kDa, were mannose and glucose. We also found that PRP reduced the occurrence of abdominal ascites and increased survival in our mouse model. An immune response in the ascites tumor model was observed by performing a lymphocytes proliferation experiment and an E-rosette test. The ratios of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and NK cells in the spleen were examined by flow cytometry, and the mRNA expression of Foxp3+in CD4+CD25+ (T regulatory Tregs was measured by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The levels of the cytokines TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-2 (interleukin, and IFN-γ (interferon in the serum and ascites supernatants were measured by ELISA. The expression of Foxp3 and Stat3 in peritoneal cells in the mouse model was measured by immunocytochemistry. The results indicated that PRP increased H22 tumor cell apoptosis in vivo by activating and enhancing the immune response. Furthermore, the effects of PRP on the proliferation of H22 cells were assessed by the CCK8 assay, Hoechest 33258, and TU