WorldWideScience

Sample records for motorcycling

  1. Motorcycle Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Chuck; Girard, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    At the end of a secondary school science study of mechanics, a summary lab uses a motorcycle to provide students with the chance to apply some of the concepts they have studied. Exercises from this motorcycle physics lab are discussed. (Author/JN)

  2. Motorcycles on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Motorcycles are the subject of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of motorcycles, types of motorcycles, special interest motorcycle clubs, motorcycle rallies, the Harley-Davidson company, and Rolling Thunder. A list of websites of interest and a glossary of "motorcycle jargon" are included.

  3. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  4. Motorcycle Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing a vacuum bagging process for forming composite parts helped a small Oklahoma Company to improve its manufacturing process. President of Performance Extremes, Larry Ortega, and his partners make motorcycle parts from carbon/epoxy to reduce weight. Using vacuum bags, parts have a better surface and fewer voids inside. When heat used in the vacuum bag process caused deformation upon cooling, a solution found in another tech brief solved the problem. A metal plate inside the vacuum bag made for more even heat transfer. A third article described a simple procedure for repairing loose connector pins, which the company has also utilized.

  5. Motorcycle helmet use laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) encourages States to enact legislation that requires all motorcycle riders to wear helmets. Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traff...

  6. Motorcycle Mechanic. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugus, Mickey; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    These teacher's materials are for a 19-unit competency-based course on entry-level motorcycle mechanics at the secondary and postsecondary levels. The 19 units are: (1) introduction to motorcycle repair; (2) general safety; (3) tools and equipment; (4) metric measurements; (5) fasteners; (6) service department operations; (7) motorcycle engines;…

  7. Connected motorcycle system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This project characterized the performance of Connected Vehicle Systems (CVS) on motorcycles based on two key components: global positioning and wireless communication systems. Considering that Global Positioning System (GPS) and 5.9 GHz Dedicated Sh...

  8. Magnesium motorcycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianyong Cao; Zonghe Zhang; Dongxia Xiang; Jun Wang

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, the lightest engineering structural metal, has been comprehensively used in castings of aviation and aerospace, communication and transportation, and IT components. This paper introduced the history, advantages and difficulties of magnesium castings for motorcycle application as well as its application state in China. It also indicated the production situation of magnesium motorcycle components in CQMST and difficulties need to overcome for further development. (orig.)

  9. Role of motorcycle type in fatal motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Campbell, Marvin

    2010-12-01

    Motorcycles vary in design and performance capability, and motorcyclists may select certain motorcycle types based on driving preferences. Conversely, motorcycle performance capability may influence the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding. Both mechanisms may affect fatal crash risk when examined by motorcycle type. Although it was not possible to estimate the effect of each mechanism, the current study analyzed fatal crash data for evidence of motorcycle type differences in risky driving behaviors and risk of driver death. Street legal motorcycles were classified into 10 types based on design characteristics and then further grouped as cruiser/standard, touring, sport touring, sport/unclad sport, supersport, and all others. For each motorcycle type, driver death rates per 10,000 registered vehicle years and the prevalence of fatal crash characteristics such as speeding were analyzed. Differences among motorcycle types concerning the effect of engine displacement were examined using Poisson regression. Overall, driver death rates for supersport motorcycles were four times as high as those for cruiser/standard motorcycles. Fatally injured supersport drivers were most likely to have been speeding and most likely to have worn helmets, but least likely to have been impaired by alcohol compared with drivers of other motorcycle types. The patterns in driver factors held after accounting for the effects of age and gender. Increased engine displacement was associated with higher driver death rates for each motorcycle type. Strong effects of motorcycle type were observed on driver death rates and on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors such as speeding and alcohol impairment. Although the current study could not completely disentangle the effects of motorcycle type and rider characteristics such as age on driver death rates, the effects of both motorcycle type and rider age on the likelihood of risky driving behaviors were observed among fatally

  10. Security Alarm for Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ismail

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A security alarm for motorcycle has been developed. This equipment consists of two parts. Part one is as a remote control, where it produces a radio signal with frequency of 37.5 MHz to turn on (activate or to turn off alarm. Part two consists of sensor, receiver to receive signal from part one, and alarm. This part two will be attached to motorcycle while part one will be kept as a key by the owner of motorcycle. This equipment has been tested in the laboratory and it worked well. When part two is activated by pushing the “set button” in part one, then any movement of part two (as a movement of motor cycle by about 20 cm from initial position will cause the alarm sounds continuously. The alarm will be off whenever the “reset button” in part one is pushed. Part one (a remote control can activate part two with a maximum of twelve meter separation apart. This shows that the equipment can be used as a security alarm to prevent the motorcycle to be stolen in the future.

  11. Traction Control System for Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardinale Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traction control is a widely used control system to increase stability and safety of four wheel vehicles. Automatic stability control is used in the BMW K1200R motorcycle and in motoGP competition, but not in other motorcycles. This paper presents an algorithm and a low-cost real-time hardware implementation for motorcycles. A prototype has been developed, applied on a commercial motorcycle, and tested in a real track. The control system that can be tuned by the driver during the race has been appreciated by the test driver.

  12. Texas motorcycle crash countermeasure workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) contracted with the Texas A&M : Transportation Institute (TTI) to develop a 5-year strategic plan for improving motorcycle safety : in the State of Texas. The Texas Strategic Action Plan for Motorcycl...

  13. Va-Room: Motorcycle Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about motorcycle safety. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it offers statistics concerning motorcycle accidents; information on how to choose the proper machine; basic information about the operation of the…

  14. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  15. Motorcycle noise in a park environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Blue Ridge Parkway National Park provided an environment where sound level : measurements could be made for numerous motorcycle pass-by events. Data were examined : for five motorcycle categories: cruiser, sport, dual purpose, touring, and : mope...

  16. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerhuis, A.P.; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the

  17. Motorcycle Safety Education. Bulletin No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Instructional Services.

    This guide for motorcycle safety instructors is intended to provide essential information in a usable format for teaching the basic knowledge and skills to (1) maintain the motorcycle in a safe riding condition; (2) develop an ability to handle the motorcycle in a safe and sane manner; (3) develop defensive driving techniques; and (4) understand…

  18. Motorcycle trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    During the last decade there has been a significant increase in the number of motorcycle sales and registrations in the United States. At the same time there has been a shift in the demographics of motorcycle users and increased focus on motorcycle s...

  19. Connected motorcycle crash warning interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to dat...

  20. White LED motorcycle headlamp design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing

    2015-09-01

    The motorcycle headlamp is composed of a white LED module, an elliptical reflector, a parabolic reflector and a toric lens. We use non-sequential ray to improve the optical efficiency of the compound reflectors. Using the toric lens can meet ECE_113 regulation and obtain a good uniformity.

  1. Evaluation of Motorcycle Safety in Kansas : Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, motorcycle fatalities have increased at an alarming rate in the United States. Motorcycle safety issues in Kansas are no different from the national scenario. Accordingly, this study attempted to investigate motorcycle cr...

  2. New Jersey motorcycle fatality rates : final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Motorcycle crashes have been increasing in recent years, more than doubling since 1991. In 2007 there were 84 fatal motorcycle crashes in New Jersey. This report describes the methods and findings of an investigation of motorcycle crashes in New Jers...

  3. Motorcycle and scooter speeds approaching urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D; Buchanan, J

    2012-09-01

    Five urban, uncontrolled T-intersections known to be motorcycle crash 'black spots' were monitored using instrumentation and a roadside observer. Two sets of twelve-hour observations were collected for each site (N≈100,000). Instrumentation recorded the 'events' of vehicles passing to measure, speed, direction, lane position, vehicle type (broadly characterised) and headway. Observers further recorded times of bicycle events, type of motorcycle (scooters or motorcycles), the behaviour of motorcycles and the use of 'high conspicuity' gear such as clothing or helmets. Results establish that motorcycles travel around 10% faster than the other traffic (car mean speed=34.97 km/h), with motorcycles travelling on average 3.3 km/h faster than cars. Motorcycles were 3.4 times more likely to be exceeding the speed limit than cars. Similar results are described for scooters. Also examined are the influences on mean speeds such as the time of day, the presence of a car at the t-intersection, and the influence of free headway. The results are compared for robustness across locations and days. It is concluded that in urban areas motorcycles are travelling significantly faster than other traffic. These findings are discussed against a concern to reduce motorcycle crashes by improving conspicuity and previous research that implicates a 'looked-but-failed-to-see' effect for car drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Motorcycle Education Curriculum Specifications. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report contains specifications for a motorcycle safety education curriculum designed to reduce the incidence and severity of motorcycle accidents. The specifications prescribe objectives, prerequisites, methods, materials, equipment, facilities, and proficiency measures for six units of instruction: (1) basic riding skills, (2) street riding…

  5. Motorcycle Safety Education. A Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Board of Education, Columbus.

    This curriculum guide was produced to assist instructors of educational programs for novice motorcycle operators, automobile drivers, and all highway users. An introductory section discusses program implementation concerns, such as public relations, legal considerations, scheduling, staff, students, facilities, motorcycles, insurance, financial…

  6. 40 CFR 205.171-3 - Test motorcycle sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test motorcycle sample selection. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-3 Test motorcycle sample selection. A test motorcycle to be used for selective enforcement audit testing...

  7. The Prospect of Motorcycle Safety Education in Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alfred S.

    Motorcycle safety education will become a necessity in the near future due to the growing demands of secondary students for education in this area. The Motorcycle Safety Foundation is sponsored by major motorcycle industries and is involved with developing programs and materials to promote motorcycle safety education. The high rate of motorcycle…

  8. Motorcycle Training for California Driver Licensing Personnel. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Motor Vehicles, Sacramento.

    The development of a 6-hour motorcycle course of instruction for personnel responsible for motorcycle licensing is described in this project report. The primary goals are stated and include (1) training driver licensing personnel in motorcycle safety and principles of operation, and (2) purchasing and installing appropriate motorcycle skill…

  9. Motorcycle-related hospitalizations of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Hua; Liu, Hang-Tsung; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the injury pattern, mechanisms, severity, and mortality of the elderly hospitalized for treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents. Motorcycle-related hospitalization of 994 elderly and 5078 adult patients from the 16,548 hospitalized patients registered in the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The motorcycle-related elderly trauma patients had higher injury severity, less favorable outcomes, higher proportion of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), prolonged hospital and ICU stays and higher mortality than those adult motorcycle riders. It also revealed that a significant percentage of elderly motorcycle riders do not wear a helmet. Compared to patients who had worn a helmet, patients who had not worn a helmet had a lower first Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and a greater percentage presented with unconscious status (GCS score ≤8), had sustained subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral contusion, severe injury (injury severity score 16-24 and ≥25), had longer hospital stay and higher mortality, and had required admission to the ICU. Elderly motorcycle riders tend to present with a higher injury severity, worse outcome, and a bodily injury pattern differing from that of adult motorcycle riders, indicating the need to emphasize use of protective equipment, especially helmets, to reduce their rate and severity of injury. Copyright © 2017 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving motorcycle conspicuity through innovative headlight configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchet, Maud; Cavallo, Viola; Dang, Nguyen-Thong; Vienne, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Most motorcycle crashes involve another vehicle that violated the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. Two kinds of perceptual failures of other road users are often the cause of such accidents: motorcycle-detection failures and motion-perception errors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different headlight configurations on motorcycle detectability when the motorcycle is in visual competition with cars. Three innovative headlight configurations were tested: (1) standard yellow (central yellow headlight), (2) vertical white (one white light on the motorcyclist's helmet and two white lights on the fork in addition to the central white headlight), and (3) vertical yellow (same configuration as (2) with yellow lights instead of white). These three headlight configurations were evaluated in comparison to the standard configuration (central white headlight) in three environments containing visual distractors formed by car lights: (1) daytime running lights (DRLs), (2) low beams, or (3) DRLs and low beams. Video clips of computer-generated traffic situations were displayed briefly (250ms) to 57 drivers. The results revealed a beneficial effect of standard yellow configuration and the vertical yellow configuration on motorcycle detectability. However, this effect was modulated by the car-DRL environment. Findings and practical recommendations are discussed with regard to possible applications for motorcycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Innovative motorcycle headlight design as a short-term solution for improving motorcycle visibility

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALLO, Viola; RANCHET, Maud; ESPIE, Stéphane; VIENNE, Fabrice; DANG, Nguyen-Thong

    2015-01-01

    The most frequent motorcycle accidents involve another vehicle violating the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. In-depth accident studies have shown that perceptual errors made by other vehicle drivers are a very frequent cause of motorcyclists' accidents and fatalities. Two kinds of perceptual errors can be distinguished. The first one is no or late detection of the motorcycle, which is mainly due to its low visual conspicuity (especially because of their small size). The principa...

  12. Improving motorcycle conspicuity through innovative headlight configurations

    OpenAIRE

    RANCHET, Maud; CAVALLO, Viola; DANG, Nguyen-Thong; VIENNE, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    L'article décrit une expérimentation qui évalue différentes configurations de feux avant de moto susceptibles d'améliorer la détectabilité des motocycles dans des environnements comportant des distracteurs visuels (constitués par les feux de circulation diurne des voitures). Most motorcycle crashes involve another vehicle that violated the motorcycle's right-of-way at an inter-section. Two kinds of perceptual failures of other road users are often the cause of such accidents:motorcycle-det...

  13. Motorcycle injuries in north-central Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-23

    Mar 23, 2011 ... become important source of morbidity and mortality. This is coupled with ... traffic, and poor licensing of the motorcycle riders. The objectives of this ... In addition, there is no legislation concerning safety devices such as crash ...

  14. Motorcycle lane-sharing : literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the use of lane-sharing (also sometimes referred to as lane-splitting and filtering) nationally and internationally and includes discussions on motorcycle and driver (auto) safety, and the potential benefits of lane-sharing.

  15. Effects of alcohol on motorcycle riding skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Alcohol is known to disrupt the effect of neurotransmitters and impair various psychomotor skills. Indeed, alcohol intoxication is a significant risk factor for fatal traffic crashes, especially when riding a motorcycle. At present, there is sparse r...

  16. Rising gasoline prices increase new motorcycle sales and fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Hilsenrath, Peter E

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether sales of new motorcycles was a mechanism to explain the relationship between motorcycle fatalities and gasoline prices. The data came from the Motorcycle Industry Council, Energy Information Administration and Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1984-2009. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions estimated the effect of inflation-adjusted gasoline price on motorcycle sales and logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) between new and old motorcycle fatalities when gasoline prices increase. New motorcycle sales were positively correlated with gasoline prices (r = 0.78) and new motorcycle fatalities (r = 0.92). ARIMA analysis estimated that a US$1 increase in gasoline prices would result in 295,000 new motorcycle sales and, consequently, 233 new motorcycle fatalities. Compared to crashes on older motorcycle models, those on new motorcycles were more likely to be young riders, occur in the afternoon, in clear weather, with a large engine displacement, and without alcohol involvement. Riders on new motorcycles were more likely to be in fatal crashes relative to older motorcycles (OR 1.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.28) when gasoline prices increase. Our findings suggest that, in response to increasing gasoline prices, people tend to purchase new motorcycles, and this is accompanied with significantly increased crash risk. There are several policy mechanisms that can be used to lower the risk of motorcycle crash injuries through the mechanism of gas prices and motorcycle sales such as raising awareness of motorcycling risks, enhancing licensing and testing requirements, limiting motorcycle power-to-weight ratios for inexperienced riders, and developing mandatory training programs for new riders.

  17. Role of Motorcycle Running Lights in Reducing Motorcycle Crashes during Daytime; A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Seyed Rasoul; Hossayni, Seyed Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to other transportation modes, riding motorcycle is prone to accidents. Motorcyclists are more exposed to physical injury than the car drivers. Many multi-vehicle motorcycles crashes occur, there is right-of- way violation takes place in which another vehicle turns in fronts of a motorcycle, or a sudden cross of path of an on-coming motorcycle. One main factor which leads to high rate of motorcycle crashes is lack of conspicuity of motorcycles by other road users especially during day time traffic. This paper highlights previous studies on the implementation of motorcycle DRLs, focusing on the efficacy of the DRLs to improve motorcycle conspicuity. This paper reviews the impacts of DRL by motorcyclists on multi-vehicle motorcycle crash. The three categories of effects of motorcycle DRLs were reviewed. All literature, supporting that operating headlights during daytime appears to be an influential and effective approach to reduce rate of collision by improving motorcycle’s conspicuity in traffic. The motorcycle DRLs managed to reduce about 4 to 20% of motorcycle crash risk. This paper also recommends that motorcycle DRLs must be used globally, especially in countries with high motorcycle accidents to improve the safety of the riders as well as their pillion riders. PMID:27162907

  18. Federally mandating motorcycle helmets in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Simon, Chad; Choi, Ariel; Hsia, Katie; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-03-09

    Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing potential counterarguments. The decision to ride a motorcycle without a helmet has consequences that affect more than just the motorcyclist. In an effort to prevent unnecessary healthcare costs, injuries, and deaths, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be strongly considered. Helmet use on motorcycles fits squarely within the purview of the federal government public health and economic considerations.

  19. MOTORCYCLE CRASH PREDICTION MODEL FOR NON-SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HARNEN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to develop a prediction model for motorcycle crashes at non-signalized intersections on urban roads in Malaysia. The Generalized Linear Modeling approach was used to develop the model. The final model revealed that an increase in motorcycle and non-motorcycle flows entering an intersection is associated with an increase in motorcycle crashes. Non-motorcycle flow on major road had the greatest effect on the probability of motorcycle crashes. Approach speed, lane width, number of lanes, shoulder width and land use were also found to be significant in explaining motorcycle crashes. The model should assist traffic engineers to decide the need for appropriate intersection treatment that specifically designed for non-exclusive motorcycle lane facilities.

  20. A comprehensive engineering analysis of motorcycle crashes in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify recurring or common road characteristics of motorcycle crashes : in Maryland from 1998 to 2007. Motorcycle crash data was obtained from the National Highway : Traffic Safety Administrations Crash Outcome Data...

  1. Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use in Ilorin, ... Remember me ... The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin metropolis, ...

  2. Sim-based detection tools to minimize motorcycle theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triansyah, F. A.; Mudhafar, Z.; Lestari, C.; Amilia, S.; Ruswana, N. D.; Junaeti, E.

    2018-05-01

    The number of motorcycles in Indonesia spurs the increased criminal acts of motorcycle theft. In addition, the number of motorcycles increases the number of traffic accidents caused by improper motorists. The purpose of this research is to make METEOR (SIM Detector) which is a tool to detect the feasibility of SIM (driver license) which is used to operate and protect motorcycle against theft. METEOR is made through the assembly, encoding, testing, and sequencing stages of the motorcycle. Based on the research that has been done, METEOR generated that can detect the SIM by using additional RFID chip and can be set on the motorcycle. Without the proper SIM, motorized chests coupled with METEOR cannot be turned on. So it can be concluded that motorcycles with additional METEOR is able to be a safety device against theft and as a tool to test the feasibility of motorcycle riders.

  3. Examining the impact of age and multitasking on motorcycle conspicuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Jonathan L; Boyce, Michael W; Fekety, Drea K; Sawyer, Ben; Smither, Janan A

    2012-01-01

    This poster presents a study to assess one's ability to detect motorcycles under different conditions of conspicuity while performing a secondary visual load task. Previous research in which participants were required to detect motorcycles revealed differences in age (young adults/older adult) as well as differences associated with motorcycle conspicuity conditions. Past research has specifically found motorcycles with headlights ON and modulating headlights (flashing) to be more conspicuous than motorcycles with headlights OFF within traffic conditions. The present study seeks to provide more information on the effects of multitasking on motorcycle conspicuity and safety. The current study seeks to determine the degree to which multitasking limits the conspicuity of a motorcycle within traffic. We expect our results will indicate main effects for distraction task, age, gender, motorcycle lighting conditions, and vehicular DRLs on one's ability to effectively detect a motorcycle. The results have implications for motorcycle safety in general and through this research, a better understanding of motorcycle conspicuity can be established so as to minimize the risk involved with motorcycle operation.

  4. A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Doumen, M.J.A. & Norden, Y. van

    2013-01-01

    The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The

  5. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets AGENCY: National... Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final rule amended the helmet labeling... compliance test procedures of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle helmets, in order to make it more difficult to...

  6. Innovative motorcycle headlight design as a means of improving motorcycle perceptibility for car drivers

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALLO, Viola; ESPIE, Stéphane; RANCHET, Maud; VIENNE, Fabrice; DANG, Nguyen-Thong

    2014-01-01

    Les travaux présentés portent sur l'évaluation de différentes configurations de feux avant de moto destinées à améliorer la perceptibilité des motocycles pour les automobilistes. The most frequent motorcycle accidents involve another vehicle violating the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. The low visual conspicuity of motorcycles is the primary reason why they are often not detected or seen or too late. The main safety measure in the past has been the compulsory use of daytime ...

  7. Motorcycle right-of-way accidents--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chih-Wei

    2011-05-01

    The most typical automobile-motorcycle collision take places when an automobile manoeuvres into the path of an approaching motorcycle by violating the motorcycle's right of way (ROW). The present paper provides a comprehensive review of past research that examined motorcycle ROW accidents. Articles and publications were selected for relevance and research strength through a comprehensive search of major databases such as Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS), Compendex, and Medline. Two major causes of such a crash scenario are the lack of motorcycle conspicuity and motorist's speed/distance judgment error, respectively. A substantial number of studies have manipulated physical characteristics of motorcycles and motorcyclists to enhance conspicuity, along with research addressing motorists' gap-acceptance behaviours and arrival time judgments when confronting motorcycles. Although various conspicuity aids have proven effective, some researchers reported that motorcyclist's/motorcycle's brightness per se may be less important as a determinant of conspicuity than brightness contrast between the motorcyclists and the surroundings. Larger vehicles tended to be judged to arrive sooner than motorcycles. Such a speed/distance judgment error is likely attributable to some psychological effects such that larger automobiles appear more threatening than motorcycles. Older motorists particularly have difficulties in accurately estimating the distance and the speed of an approaching motorcycle. Research examining the effects of conspicuity measures on motorists' speed/distance judgments when confronting motorcycles has been rather inconclusive. Past research offers valuable insight into the underlying motorcycle ROW crash mechanisms. However, with ageing society and a rapid change in traffic composition (e.g., more larger motorcycles) in recent years, prior research findings should be updated. The present study finally provides recommendations for future research

  8. KEY COMPONENTS OF A MOTORCYCLE-TRAFFIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. HUSSAIN

    2005-01-01

    The small- and medium-sized type motorcycles (150c.c. and below made up 99% of the motorcycles population in Malaysia. A static motorcyclist measured about 0.8m in width, 2.0m in length, and requires an operating width of 1.3m. At a lane width of 1.7m or below, motorcycle flow applies the lane or headway concept. Above this optimum value, motorcycle flow adopted the space concept. This implied that a motorcycle path should be more than 1.7m wide to allow two motorcyclists to pass each other.

  9. Economic burden of motorcycle accidents in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudebong, M; Wurapa, F; Nonvignon, J; Norman, I; Awoonor-Williams, J K; Aikins, M

    2011-12-01

    Motorcycles are the most popular means of transportation in northern Ghana, and their accidents are major causes of out-patient attendance and admissions in the Bolgatanga Municipality. This paper estimates the economic burden of motorcycle accidents in the Bolgatanga Municipality in Northern Ghana. Retrospective cross-sectional cost study. Data were collected from Drivers and Vehicle Licensing Authority, the Police, health facilities and motorcycle accident victims. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used for data collection. Cost analysis was based on the standard road accident cost conceptual framework. Ninety-eight percent of vehicles registered in the municipality in 2004 - 2008 were motorcycles. The motorcycles were significantly more than the cars registered. The economic burden of motorcycle accidents was estimated to be about US$1.2 million, of which, 52% were accident-related costs (i.e. property damage and administration) and 48% casualty-related costs (i.e. medical costs, out-of-pocket expenses, lost labour outputs, intangible costs and funeral expenses). Most motorcycle accident victims were in their productive ages and were males. Only a third of the motorcycles were insured. Majority of the riders (71%) did not possess valid driving license and would want to avoid the police. Main motorcycle injuries were head injuries, fractures, lacerations and contusions. Majority of the accidents were caused by lack of formal motorcycle riding training, abuse of alcohol, unrestrained animals and donkey carts. Motorcycle accidents could be reduced through law enforcement, continuous mass education and helmet use.

  10. Direct medical costs of motorcycle crashes in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Daniel; Wasserstein, David; Nathens, Avery B; Bai, Yu Qing; Redelmeier, Donald A; Wodchis, Walter P

    2017-11-20

    There is no reliable estimate of costs incurred by motorcycle crashes. Our objective was to calculate the direct costs of all publicly funded medical care provided to individuals after motorcycle crashes compared with automobile crashes. We conducted a population-based, matched cohort study of adults in Ontario who presented to hospital because of a motorcycle or automobile crash from 2007 through 2013. For each case, we identified 1 control absent a motor vehicle crash during the study period. Direct costs for each case and control were estimated in 2013 Canadian dollars from the payer perspective using methodology that links health care use to individuals over time. We calculated costs attributable to motorcycle and automobile crashes within 2 years using a difference-in-differences approach. We identified 26 831 patients injured in motorcycle crashes and 281 826 injured in automobile crashes. Mean costs attributable to motorcycle and automobile crashes were $5825 and $2995, respectively ( p motorcycle crashes compared with automobile crashes (2194 injured annually/100 000 registered motorcycles v. 718 injured annually/100 000 registered automobiles; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8 to 3.3, p motorcycles v. 12 severe injuries annually/100 000 registered automobiles; IRR 10.4, 95% CI 8.3 to 13.1, p motorcycle in Ontario costs the public health care system 6 times the amount of each registered automobile. Medical costs may provide an additional incentive to improve motorcycle safety. © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  11. Motorcycle safety among motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists in developing countries: A case study of Maoming, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Connor Y H; Loo, Becky P Y

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of motorcycle taxis have been involved in traffic crashes in many developing countries. This study examines the characteristics of both motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists, investigates the risks they pose to road safety, and provides recommendations to minimize their risks. Based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey of 867 motorcycle taxi drivers and 2,029 nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming, South China, comparisons were made to analyze differences of personal attributes, attitudes toward road safety, and self-reported behavior of the 2 groups. Results of the chi-square tests show that not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming held poor attitudes toward road safety and both groups reported unsafe driving behavior. There is much room for improving local road safety education among all motorcyclists in Maoming. Yet, motorcycle taxi drivers were more likely to pose road safety risks than nonoccupational motorcyclists under some circumstances, such as speeding late at night or early in the morning, not requiring passengers to wear helmets, and running a red light. The results of the binary logistic regression model show that possessing a vehicle license for a motorcycle or not was the common significant predictor for unsafe driving behavior of motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists. Therefore, enforcement against all motorcyclists not showing vehicle licenses for their motorcycles should be stepped up. Motorcycle safety is largely poor in Maoming. Therefore, efforts to improve motorcycle safety should be strengthened by targeting not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subparts D and E - Motorcycle Noise Emission Test Procedures [Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motorcycle Noise Emission Test... (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles. Appendix I to Subparts D and E—Motorcycle Noise...

  13. Driver Education for Motorcycle Operation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council, Forrest M.; And Others

    A three-year pilot project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a statewide off-road motorcycle training program for beginning drivers in North Carolina. The first year of the program involved approximately 422 students from five locations, the second year involved seven sites across the State. The three basic criteria for the…

  14. Instructor Revs Up Ailing Motorcycle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Bob Monroig smiles every day on his way to work at Lake Washington Technical College (LWTC), high atop a hill overlooking the affluent Seattle suburb of Kirkland, Washington. He's created his own job within a job, where he's the Harley-Davidson University program coordinator and tenured faculty in the Motorcycle, Marine, & Power Equipment…

  15. causes and consequences of commercial motorcycle accidents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Accident associated with the use of motorcycle for commercial transportation in Makurdi metropolis was ... deaths, over speeding accounted for 27 percent of accidents and deaths respectively, .... 10. 7. 5. (a). (b). Possession of wing mirror and Crash helmet. Yes. No. 12 .... reduce the risk of serious head and brain injuries.

  16. A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Craen, Saskia; Doumen, Michelle J A; van Norden, Yvette

    2014-02-01

    The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of 'looked-but-failed-to-see' crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the road. This paper tries to unravel whether - acknowledging the differences in exposure - car drivers indeed fail to yield for motorcycles more often than for other cars. For this purpose we compared the causes of crashes on intersections (e.g. failing to give priority, speeding, etc.) between different crash types (car-motorcycle or car-car). In addition, we compared the crash causes of dual drivers (i.e. car drivers who also have their motorcycle licence) with regular car drivers. Our crash analysis suggests that car drivers do not fail to give priority to motorcycles relatively more often than to another car when this car/motorcycle approaches from a perpendicular angle. There is only one priority situation where motorcycles seem to be at a disadvantage compared to cars. This is when a car makes a left turn, and fails to give priority to an oncoming motorcycle. This specific crash scenario occurs more often when the oncoming vehicle is a motorcycle than when it is a car. We did not find a significant difference between dual drivers and regular car drivers in how often they give priority to motorcycles compared to cars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Burden of motorcycle-related injury in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin NA; Baharuddin, Kamarul A; Mohamad, Syarifah Mastura S

    2015-01-01

    Background Road traffic injury (RTI) contributes to major morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Most of the injuries are caused by road-related injuries that specifically relate to motorcycle crash. We attempted to conduct a short survey to determine the magnitude of burden related to motorcycle-related RTIs in Malaysia. We hypothesize that motorcycle-related RTI in Malaysia contributes significantly to the health burden in the country. Methods The cross-sectiona...

  18. Thermal analysis on motorcycle disc brake geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Zurin W., S.; Talib, R. J.; Ismail, N. I.

    2017-08-01

    Braking is a phase of slowing and stop the movement of motorcycle. During braking, the frictional heat was generated and the energy was ideally should be faster dissipated to surrounding to prevent the built up of the excessive temperature which may lead to brake fluid vaporization, thermoelastic deformation at the contact surface, material degradation and failure. In this paper, solid and ventilated type of motorcycle disc brake are being analyse using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. The main focus of the analysis is the thermal behaviour during braking for solid and ventilated disc brake. A comparison between both geometries is being discussed to determine the better braking performance in term of temperature distribution. It is found that ventilated disc brake is having better braking performance in terms of heat transfer compare to solid disc.

  19. Environmental impact of Converted Electrical Motorcycle

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan, Pek Yang; Henz, Martin; Weigl, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the environmental impact of the conversion of an internal combustion engine (ICE) sports motorcycle into a converted battery-powered electric vehicle (CBEV). Zero tailpipe emissions might lead to the assumption that such an ICE-to-BEV conversion will always yield net positive environmental benefits in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reductions, but energy inputs and materials impacts associated with the conversion of a CBEV are weighed against savings ...

  20. Motorcycle Accident injuries seen at Kakamega Provincial Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Injuries related to motorcycles contribute significantly to the number of road traffic injuries This study was aimed at determining the pattern of injuries caused by motorcycle crash among patients seen at Kakamega provincial hospital in Kenya... Methods: This was a cross sectional study which was conducted in ...

  1. The impact of motorcycle accidents on the obstetric population in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contexts: Motorcycle accidents are very common in most cities in Nigeria since the introduction of motorcycle for public commercial transportation in the early 1980s and because most pregnant women use this popular means of transport it may contribute to non-obstetric causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and ...

  2. Lower Limb Injuries Arising From Motorcycle Crashes | Kortor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycle accidents are the second most common cause of road traffic accidents in both developing and developed countries. In this study we aim to look at the pattern and characteristics of lower limb injuries arising from motorcycle accidents and evaluate early outcome of treatment. Methods: All the patients ...

  3. Motorcycle Mechanic: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 4912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Enterprise and Advanced Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The graduate of the Motorcycle Mechanic apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) repair and maintain motorcycles and ATVs which are powered with internal combustion engines; (2) comprehend work orders, technical bulletins and estimates, and relate the information to the job at hand; (3) interpret warranty policy…

  4. Economic burden of motorcycle accidents in Northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycles are the most popular means of transportation in northern Ghana, and their accidents are major causes of out-patient attendance and admis-sions in the Bolgatanga Municipality. Objective: This paper estimates the economic burden of motorcycle accidents in the Bolgatanga Municipality in Northern ...

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  6. Motorcycle injuries in north-central Nigeria | Nwadiaro | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The increasing use of commercial motorcycle as mode of transportation in urban cities in Nigeria has become important source of morbidity and mortality. This is coupled with poor helmet use, narrow roads, increasing traffic, and poor licensing of the motorcycle riders. The objectives of this study are to ...

  7. Motorcycle injury among secondary school students in the Tiko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: injury from motorcycle is a considerable cause of disability and death in the world and especially in low and middle-income countries; it is one of the most serious public health problems. In Cameroon, motorcycle is commonly used for transportation particularly among students. The aim of this paper is to study ...

  8. Fatal motorcycle accidents in the county of Funen (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1988-01-01

    A study of motorcycle fatalities in the period 1977-1983 in the county of Funen, Denmark was compared with an analysis of data obtained from the Accident Register at the Odense University Hospital. Among the operators killed one fifth were illegally operating the motorcycle. A remarkable statisti......A study of motorcycle fatalities in the period 1977-1983 in the county of Funen, Denmark was compared with an analysis of data obtained from the Accident Register at the Odense University Hospital. Among the operators killed one fifth were illegally operating the motorcycle. A remarkable...... statistical difference in distribution of accidents involved motorcycles and the total distribution of motorcycles in the county was reported, thus finding an over-representation of heavy motorcycles in the present study. No important differences were found in the distribution of type of accidents compared...... to other studies. In the present study all but one victim were tested for blood-alcohol concentration (BAC). The results differ from previous studies in as much as 50% of the killed operators of an accident involving motorcycles had a BAC above 0.08%. The reported distribution by age, licensing experience...

  9. Risk Factor Profile of Motorcycle Crash Victims in Rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Road traffic injuries involving motorcycles are increasing especially in rural Kenya resulting in both human and economic loss. This study was done to identify the risk factors and the host characteristics associated with motorcycle injury victims in rural setting so as to institute appropriate interventions for ...

  10. Childhood motorcycle-related injuries in a Nigerian city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate share of the deaths and disabilities that result from road traffic accidents. We undertook ... death and disability among children aged 1 - 14 years.2 In developing countries motorcycle .... represent a global phenomenon, but poor countries bear the brunt of the ensuing higher ...

  11. Motorcycle fuel tanks and pelvic fractures: A motorcycle fuel tank syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Lauren; Baldock, Matthew; Fitzharris, Michael; Duflou, Johan; Dal Nevo, Ross; Griffiths, Michael; Brown, Julie

    2016-08-17

    Pelvic injuries are a serious and commonly occurring injury to motorcycle riders involved in crashes, yet there has been limited research investigating the mechanisms involved in these injuries. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in pelvic injuries to crashed motorcyclists. This study involved in-depth crash investigation and 2 convenience-based data sets were used. These data sets investigated motorcycle crashes in the Sydney, Newcastle, and Adelaide regions. Participants included motorcycle riders who had crashed either on a public road or private property within the study areas. The mechanism of injury and the type of injuries were investigated. The most frequent cause of pelvic injuries in crashed motorcyclists was due to contact with the motorcycle fuel tank during the crash (85%). For riders who had come into contact with the fuel tank, the injury types were able to be grouped into 3 categories based on the complexity of the injury. The complexity of the injury appeared to increase with impact speed but this was a nonsignificant trend. The pelvic injuries that did not occur from contact with the fuel tank in this sample differed in asymmetry of loading and did not commonly involve injury to the bladder. They were commonly one-sided injuries but this differed based on the point of loading; however, a larger sample of these injuries needs to be investigated. Overall improvements in road safety have not been replicated in the amelioration of pelvic injuries in motorcyclists and improvements in the design of crashworthy motorcycle fuel tanks appear to be required.

  12. Dynamic stability of an aerodynamically efficient motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amrit; Limebeer, David J. N.

    2012-08-01

    Motorcycles exhibit two potentially dangerous oscillatory modes known as 'wobble' and 'weave'. The former is reminiscent of supermarket castor shimmy, while the latter is a low frequency 'fish-tailing' motion that involves a combination of rolling, yawing, steering and side-slipping motions. These unwanted dynamic features, which can occur when two-wheeled vehicles are operated at speed, have been studied extensively. The aim of this paper is to use mathematical analysis to identify important stability trends in the on-going design of a novel aerodynamically efficient motorcycle known as the ECOSSE Spirit ES1. A mathematical model of the ES1 is developed using a multi-body dynamics software package called VehicleSim [Anon, VehicleSim Lisp Reference Manual Version 1.0, Mechanical Simulation Corporation, 2008. Available at http://www.carsim.com]. This high-fidelity motorcycle model includes realistic tyre-road contact geometry, a comprehensive tyre model, tyre relaxation and a flexible frame. A parameter set representative of a modern high-performance machine and rider is used. Local stability is investigated via the eigenvalues of the linearised models that are associated with equilibrium points of interest. A comprehensive study of the effects of frame flexibilities, acceleration, aerodynamics and tyre variations is presented, and an optimal passive steering compensator is derived. It is shown that the traditional steering damper cannot be used to stabilise the ES1 over its entire operating speed range. A simple passive compensator, involving an inerter is proposed. Flexibility can be introduced deliberately into various chassis components to change the stability characteristics of the vehicle; the implications of this idea are studied.

  13. AIR QUALITY DETERIORATION IN TEHRAN DUE TO MOTORCYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafiepour and H. Kamalan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Since there is a rise of motorcycles population as well as other motor vehicles, it seems that air Pollution deterioration should be studied as one of its environmental impacts. The main objective of this study was to develop a number of scenarios in order to determine the amount of Tehran's air pollution attributable to motorcycles and select the best and the most probable case to be recommended for implementation. The first step was to collect data such as the number of active motorcycles, daily traffic volume, average traveling speed and actual emission factors. For this purpose, a detailed questionnaire was designed to be completed by field surveys and measurements. The collected data were compared with traffic volume data, manufacturing statistics and the latest production capacity forecast in this field. Finally, with this data and emission factors for each type of motorcycle, an emissions inventory model was chosen to provide annual emissions from motorcycles in Tehran in different scenarios. The results showed that in 2002, there has been about 450'000 active motorcycles (4-stroke 58%, 2-stroke 28%, and moped 14% with average speed of 40 km/h and average mileage of 110 km/d. Five scenarios were developed. The best scenario was "Changing all motorcycles to 4-strokes under EU-97 standard" which would result in reduction of NMVOC by 75%, CO by 35% and PM10 by 88%.

  14. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís dos Santos Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  15. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, André Luís Dos Santos; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  16. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  17. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amanda Lima de; Petroianu, Andy; Gonçalves, Dafne Maria Villar; Pereira, Gisele Araújo; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession) and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver's license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11) years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%). Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver's license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver's license for at least one year. among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  18. Examination of factors associated in motorcycle crashes in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors associated with motorcycle crashes in work zones. This analysis was completed : through the collection and inspection of three types of data: 1) practices used throughout the country on this topic, : 2) crash reports a...

  19. Texas strategic action plan for motorcycles : 2013-2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Texas Strategic Action Plan for Motorcycles: 2013-2018 provides an integrated : approach to identify implementable strategies and action steps to make the : road environment and infrastructure safer for motorcyclists and other powered : two- and ...

  20. Motorcycle accidents: morbidity and associated factors in a city of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motorcycle accidents: morbidity and associated factors in a city of northeast of Brazil. Alessandro L. Cavalcanti, Belchior Lucena, Iris S. Rodrigues, Amanda L. Silva, Taua T. Lima, Alidianne Fabia C. Xavier ...

  1. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Motorcycle Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Vigneron, Antoine E.; Yan, Lie

    2014-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for computing motorcycle graphs that runs in (Formula presented.) time for any (Formula presented.), improving on all previously known algorithms. The main application of this result is to computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. It allows us to compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon with (Formula presented.) holes in (Formula presented.) expected time. If all input coordinates are (Formula presented.)-bit rational numbers, we can compute the straight skeleton of a (possibly degenerate) polygon with (Formula presented.) holes in (Formula presented.) expected time. In particular, it means that we can compute the straight skeleton of a simple polygon in (Formula presented.) expected time if all input coordinates are (Formula presented.)-bit rationals, while all previously known algorithms have worst-case running time (Formula presented.). © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  2. A Faster Algorithm for Computing Motorcycle Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2014-08-29

    We present a new algorithm for computing motorcycle graphs that runs in (Formula presented.) time for any (Formula presented.), improving on all previously known algorithms. The main application of this result is to computing the straight skeleton of a polygon. It allows us to compute the straight skeleton of a non-degenerate polygon with (Formula presented.) holes in (Formula presented.) expected time. If all input coordinates are (Formula presented.)-bit rational numbers, we can compute the straight skeleton of a (possibly degenerate) polygon with (Formula presented.) holes in (Formula presented.) expected time. In particular, it means that we can compute the straight skeleton of a simple polygon in (Formula presented.) expected time if all input coordinates are (Formula presented.)-bit rationals, while all previously known algorithms have worst-case running time (Formula presented.). © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  3. Motorcycle safety programmes in Malaysia: how effective are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin Umar, R S

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents the approach taken by the Malaysian Government to contain motorcycle casualties in Malaysia. It involves the exposure control, crash prevention, behaviour modification and injury control related to humans, vehicles and the environment based on pre-crash, crash and post-crash scenarios of motorcycle accidents. These initiatives emanated mainly from the research and development carried out by the Road Safety Research Centre at Universiti Putra Malaysia. Recent outcomes from these initiatives are presented and their impact is highlighted.

  4. Factors Associated with Road Accidents among Brazilian Motorcycle Couriers

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with reports of road accidents, among motorcycle couriers in two medium-sized municipalities in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by motorcycle couriers that had worked for at least 12 months in this profession. The outcomes analyzed were reports on accidents and serious accidents over the 12 months prior to the survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of logistic regression were carried ou...

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SPINE FRACTURES IN MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT VICTIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Argolo Bittencourt de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the incidence of spinal injuries between 2000-2010 due to motorcycle accidents and the relation to the increase in motorcycle sales in the same period, as well as the anatomical distribution of these spinal injuries. Methods: Data were collected from 1,295 records of patients who have suffered spinal injury resulting from motorcycle accidents admitted to the ward TRM (Spinal Cord Trauma of the Hospital Geral do Estado da Bahia from 2000 to 2010 in this retrospective study. We selected 110 medical records and collected information on sex, age, neurological deficit on admission (according to Frankel scale, diagnosis, and level of injury. Results: Between 2000 and 2010 there was an increase of almost five times in the incidence of patients who have suffered spinal injury due to motorcycle accidents. More than half (51.4% had cervical spine injury, 37.2% thoracic spine injury and 11.34% had lumbar spine injury. Only 34.3% of patients had no neurological deficit on admission and patients with thoracic spine fracture had a higher incidence and severity of lesion. The average age of patients was 30 years. Conclusions: The increased incidence of spinal injuries due motorcycle accidents occurred in the same period in which there was an increase in motorcycle sales in the country. Patients who have suffered those injuries were young, with higher incidence in the cervical and thoracic spinal levels and high rates of neurological deficit.

  6. How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Narelle; Debnath, Ashim Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the similarities and differences between bicycle and motorcycle crashes with other motor vehicles. If similar treatments can be effective for both bicycle and motorcycle crashes, then greater benefits in terms of crash costs saved may be possible for the same investment in treatments. To reduce the biases associated with under-reporting of these crashes to police, property damage and minor injury crashes were excluded. The most common crash type for both bicycles (31.1%) and motorcycles (24.5%) was intersection from adjacent approaches. Drivers of other vehicles were coded most at fault in the majority of two-unit bicycle (57.0%) and motorcycle crashes (62.7%). The crash types, patterns of fault and factors affecting fault were generally similar for bicycle and motorcycle crashes. This confirms the need to combat the factors contributing to failure of other drivers to yield right of way to two-wheelers, and suggest that some of these actions should prove beneficial to the safety of both motorized and non-motorized two-wheelers. In contrast, child bicyclists were more often at fault, particularly in crashes involving a vehicle leaving the driveway or footpath. The greater reporting of violations by riders and drivers in motorcycle crashes also deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  8. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Rising Motorcycle Fatalities, 1990–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Jim P.; Hilsenrath, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among young adults. Although automobile fatalities have declined in recent years, motorcycle fatalities are rapidly increasing. The purpose of our research was to quantify the relationship between changing fuel prices and motorcycle fatalities. Our findings suggest that people increasingly rely on motorcycles to reduce their fuel costs in response to rising gasoline prices. We estimate that use of motorcycles and scooters instead of 4-wheeled vehicles results in over 1500 additional motorcycle fatalities annually for each dollar increase in gas prices. Motorcycle safety should receive more attention as a leading public health issue. PMID:19696374

  9. Improving car drivers' perception of motorcycles: innovative headlight design as a short-term solution to mitigate accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Espie , Stéphane; Cavallo , Viola; RANCHET , Maud; PINTO , Maria; Vienne , Fabrice; DANG , NT

    2014-01-01

    10th International Motorcycle Conference, COLOGNE, ALLEMAGNE, 29-/09/2014 - 30/09/2014; The most frequent motorcycle accidents involve another vehicle violating the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. The low visual conspicuity of motorcycles (especially because of their small size) is the primary reason why motorcycles are often not detected or seen or too late. The main safety measure in the past has been the use of daytime running lights (DRLs) by motorcycles, which became compul...

  10. Burden of motorcycle-related injury in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin Na; Baharuddin, Kamarul A; Mohamad, Syarifah Mastura S

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injury (RTI) contributes to major morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Most of the injuries are caused by road-related injuries that specifically relate to motorcycle crash. We attempted to conduct a short survey to determine the magnitude of burden related to motorcycle-related RTIs in Malaysia. We hypothesize that motorcycle-related RTI in Malaysia contributes significantly to the health burden in the country. The cross-sectional survey involves data searching related to RTI in Malaysia from the relevant agencies such as the Ministry of Health Malaysia, Royal Police Force, and Malaysia Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) through their official websites and PubMed search. The three agencies are well established and recognized by the Malaysian government in dealing with data collection for the injury nationwide. The primary aim is to determine the prevalence of motorcycle-related RTI, and secondary outcomes are the overall mortality and the contributing factors. Of the cause of trauma, 80 % is due to RTI, and the most vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and motorcyclists are affected the most. Of all RTI, 70 % is contributed by the motorcycle crash, and there are a significant number of deaths for both rider and pillion rider of the motorcycle than for other types of vehicles. Human error is the main reason to be blamed, specifically the attitude of the riders on the road. Trauma is one of the common reasons for death and hospitalization in Malaysia. Motorcycle-related RTI in Malaysia contributes significantly to the health burden in Malaysia. The Malaysian government and non-government agencies have worked together seriously in implementing a preventive measure to reduce the incidence and aftermath of motorcycle-related RTI. However, data is still lacking, and every effort is made to increase the amount of research in the field. Strengths of the article are as follows:Latest alarming data on motorcycle

  11. Effectiveness of antilock braking systems in reducing motorcycle fatal crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R

    2011-04-01

    Overbraking and underbraking have been shown to be common factors in motorcycle crashes. Antilock braking systems (ABS) prevent wheels from locking during braking and may make riders less reluctant to apply full braking force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ABS in fatal motorcycle crashes. Motorcycle drivers involved in fatal crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years were compared for 13 motorcycle models with optional ABS and those same models without the option during 2003-2008. Motorcycles with optional ABS were included only if the presence of the option could be identified from the vehicle identification number. The rate of fatal motorcycle crashes per 10,000 registered vehicle years was 37 percent lower for ABS models than for their non-ABS versions. ABS appears to be highly effective in preventing fatal motorcycle crashes based on some early adopters of motorcycle ABS technology.

  12. Motorcycle helmets: What about their coating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnegg, Michaël; Massonnet, Geneviève; Gueissaz, Line

    2015-07-01

    In traffic accidents involving motorcycles, paint traces can be transferred from the rider's helmet or smeared onto its surface. These traces are usually in the form of chips or smears and are frequently collected for comparison purposes. This research investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of the coatings found on motorcycles helmets. An evaluation of the similarities between helmet and automotive coating systems was also performed.Twenty-seven helmet coatings from 15 different brands and 22 models were considered. One sample per helmet was collected and observed using optical microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy was then used and seven replicate measurements per layer were carried out to study the variability of each coating system (intravariability). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were also performed on the infrared spectra of the clearcoats and basecoats of the data set. The most common systems were composed of two or three layers, consistently involving a clearcoat and basecoat. The coating systems of helmets with composite shells systematically contained a minimum of three layers. FTIR spectroscopy results showed that acrylic urethane and alkyd urethane were the most frequent binders used for clearcoats and basecoats. A high proportion of the coatings were differentiated (more than 95%) based on microscopic examinations. The chemical and physical characteristics of the coatings allowed the differentiation of all but one pair of helmets of the same brand, model and color. Chemometrics (PCA and HCA) corroborated classification based on visual comparisons of the spectra and allowed the study of the whole data set at once (i.e., all spectra of the same layer). Thus, the intravariability of each helmet and its proximity to the others (intervariability) could be more readily assessed. It was also possible to determine the most discriminative chemical variables based on the study of the PCA loadings. Chemometrics

  13. Macroeconomic fluctuations and motorcycle fatalities in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Gumus, Gulcin

    2014-03-01

    The effects of business cycles on health outcomes in general, and on traffic fatalities in particular, have received much attention recently. In this paper, we focus on motorcycle safety and examine the impact of changing levels of economic activity on fatal crashes by motorcyclists in the United States. We analyze state-level longitudinal data with 1,104 state/year observations from the 1988-2010 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Using the extensive motorcycle crash characteristics available in FARS, we examine not only total fatality rates but also rates decomposed by crash type, day, time, and the level of the motorcycle operator's blood alcohol content. Our results are consistent with much of the existing literature showing that traffic fatality rates are pro-cyclical. The estimates suggest that a 10% increase in real income per capita is associated with a 10.4% rise in the total motorcycle fatality rate. Along with potential mechanisms, policymakers and public health officials should consider the effects of business cycles on motorcycle safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  15. The roles of motorcyclists and car drivers in conspicuity-related motorcycle crashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Doumen, M. Bos, N. & Norden, Y. van

    2012-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the available research on the different factors of influence on the perception of motorcycles. It also presents analyses of Dutch motorcycle crashes which provide a description of the relative occurrence of car-motorcycle crashes in the Netherlands. Finally, this

  16. 77 FR 51649 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... motorcycle braking regulations from around the world, including the U.S. motorcycle brake systems standard.... Partial Failure Test--Split Service Brake System I. Power-Assisted Braking System Failure Test V. Other... motorcycle brake system technologies. In order to address modern braking technologies, the agency sought to...

  17. Traffic tech: Examination of changes to the motorcycle law in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Puerto Rico enacted a comprehensive motorcycle safety law in 2007 to address the rise in fatal motorcycle crashes. Prior to the enactment of the law, the popularity of motorcycle riding increased rapidly from 47,920 registrations in 2000, to 89,379 i...

  18. Issues in motorcycle sensory and cognitive conspicuity: the impact of motorcycle low-beam headlights and riding experience on drivers' decisions to turn across the path of a motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Lenné, Michael G

    2012-11-01

    Crashes involving a passenger car and a motorcycle, where the car is turning across the path of the motorcycle, are a major crash type of motorcycle riders. It has been proposed that the incidence of such crashes could be reduced through improvements in motorcycle conspicuity. Operation of low-beam headlights on motorcycles has been discussed as one approach for improving the "sensory conspicuity" of motorcycles during daylight hours, whilst previous experience as a rider may serve to heighten "cognitive conspicuity" through raised awareness of motorcyclists on our roads. Twenty-three experienced car drivers with no riding experience ("drivers") and 20 experienced car drivers who were also motorcycle riders ("driver-riders") completed a series of trials in a driving simulator where their task in each trial was to turn ahead of an oncoming vehicle if they felt that they had sufficient room to do so safely. A key manipulation across trials was whether the oncoming vehicle was a motorcycle with headlights on, or a motorcycle with headlights off. Time gap (short, medium, long) was also manipulated. Results indicate that, at time gaps defined in the current study as short, low-beam headlights may confer some benefit in gap acceptance by encouraging drivers to accept fewer gaps ahead of a motorcycle with headlights on than ahead of a motorcycle with headlights off. No statistically significant differences in gap acceptance between the headlight conditions were found at either the medium or long time gaps. Irrespective of time gap, driver-riders were found to adopt a more efficient turn strategy than drivers with no direct riding experience. Overall, the present research provides support for the use of low-beam headlights and riding experience as tools through which to augment the sensory and cognitive conspicuity of motorcycles, respectively. It is proposed that further research aim to explore directly the precise mechanisms underlying the observed effects. Copyright

  19. Structural optimization of a motorcycle chassis by pattern search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scappaticci, Lorenzo; Bartolini, Nicola; Guglielmino, Eugenio; Risitano, Giacomo

    2017-08-01

    Changes to the technical regulations of the motorcycle racing world classes introduced the new Moto2 category. The vehicles are prototypes that use single-brand tyres and engines derived from series production, supplied by a single manufacturer. The stability and handling of the vehicle are highly dependent on the geometric properties of the chassis. The performance of a racing motorcycle chassis can be primarily evaluated in terms of weight and stiffness. The aim of this work is to maximize the performance of a tubular frame designed for a motorcycle racing in the Moto2 category. The goal is the implementation of an optimization algorithm that acts on the dimensions of the single pipes of the frame and involves the design of an objective function to minimize the weight of the frame by controlling its stiffnesses.

  20. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  1. What drives bikers to attend a motorcycling event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinette Kruger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Africa Bike Week, considered South Africa’s premier biking event, attracts large numbers of bikers, especially Harley-Davidson bikers, and bike enthusiasts from across the country. This study investigated these visitors and clustered them based on their motives for attending the event. As background to the study, we provide a broad survey of the literature on what motivates people to attend motorcycling events. Motorcycle tourism has received international research attention, especially in the US, but to date has been neglected in South Africa. Our study helps to fill this gap, particularly as regards biker and attendee characteristics. We found that three distinct market segments can be identified at the event; each one being motivated by a different set of motives. Recommendations are made to attract, retain and expand each segment. Event organisers can also use this information to expand motorcycle tourism in South Africa.

  2. [Motorcycle couriers: characteristics of traffic accidents in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; de Andrade, Selma Maffei

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding characteristics of traffic accidents with motorcycle couriers in the cities of Londrina and Maringá, in the State of Paraná (Brazil). A total of 327 couriers who reported, in 2005/2006, motorcycle accident in the previous 12 months took part in the study (147 in Londrina and 180 in Maringá). Of all the interviewed, 39.6% reported more than one traffic accident. The accidents were perceived as serious by 21.4% of them and 56.3% reported knowing a convalescing courier due to a traffic accident. Most injuries (82.9%) occurred during work hours. Significant differences were observed between the cities concerning climatic conditions (p=0.013), time of the day (p=0.002), pre-hospital care (p=0.032) and hospital admission (paccidents highlight the susceptibility of motorcycle couriers to these events and the need for strategies and specific prevention policies.

  3. The Effects of Motorcycle Helmet Legislation on Craniomaxillofacial Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nicholas S; Newbury, Patrick A; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Davis, Alan T; Mann, Robert J; Polley, John W; Girotto, John A

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle helmet legislation has been a contentious topic for over a half-century. Benefits of helmet use in motorcycle trauma patients are well documented. In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law in favor of a partial helmet law. The authors describe the early clinical effects on facial injuries throughout Michigan. Retrospective data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program trauma database were evaluated. Included were 4643 motorcycle trauma patients presenting to 29 Level I and II trauma centers throughout Michigan 3 years before and after the law repeal (2009 to 2014). Demographics, external cause of injury codes, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes, and injury details were gathered. The proportion of unhelmeted trauma patients increased from 20 percent to 44 percent. Compared with helmeted trauma patients, unhelmeted patients were nearly twice as likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.90), including fractures (relative risk, 2.02) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.94). Unhelmeted patients had a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score and higher Injury Severity Scores. Patients presenting after helmet law repeal were more likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.46), including fractures (relative risk, 1.28) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.56). No significant differences were observed for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, or Glasgow Coma Scale score (p > 0.05). This study highlights the significant negative impact of relaxed motorcycle helmet laws leading to an increase in craniomaxillofacial injuries. The authors urge state and national legislators to reestablish universal motorcycle helmet laws.

  4. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  5. Standard of victims and injuries in trauma with motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Soares Simoneti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, at least one in nine hospitalized patients was a traffic accident victim. The impact of these numbers implies economic, social and administrative repercussions. Objectives: To raise epidemiological data on victims of traumatic events with motorcycles forwarded to a tertiary level hospital (Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba to describe the injuries and discuss the impact on quality of life of these victims. Method: Prospective study that included trauma victims from accidents with motorcycles, between April and September, 2013, referenced to a tertiary level hospital. For data collection, standardized form was drawn up with trauma scores, mechanism of trauma and description of injuries. Results: A total of 143 patients were analyzed: 83.2% men and 16.8% women, with the predominance of the age group between 20–29 years (49.6%. The use of helmets was reported in 98.5% of cases. The male gender accounted for about 86% in the category of the motorcycle driver. The main mechanisms of trauma were collisions (72.7%, followed by drop of motorcycle (15.4%. The most frequent injuries were bruises (72.9% and cut- blunt injuries (13.8%. The most affected anatomical segments were the arms and legs, representing 83% of the cases. All patients were assessed for Revised Trauma Score (RTS; victims with RTS=12 amounted to 97.9%, suggesting relatively light gravity of most patients. Conclusions: The findings of this study, as the standard majority of victims of accidents involving motorcycles are compatible with the literature. The dominance of the economically active population of the country in as costly and disabling events such as motorcycle accidents implies the need for new strategies in traffic management and public health.

  6. Motorcycle protective clothing: protection from injury or just the weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rome, Liz; Ivers, Rebecca; Fitzharris, Michael; Du, Wei; Haworth, Narelle; Heritier, Stephane; Richardson, Drew

    2011-11-01

    Apart from helmets, little is known about the effectiveness of motorcycle protective clothing in reducing injuries in crashes. The study aimed to quantify the association between usage of motorcycle clothing and injury in crashes. Cross-sectional analytic study. Crashed motorcyclists (n=212, 71% of identified eligible cases) were recruited through hospitals and motorcycle repair services. Data was obtained through structured face-to-face interviews. The main outcome was hospitalization and motorcycle crash-related injury. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for injury adjusting for potential confounders. Motorcyclists were significantly less likely to be admitted to hospital if they crashed wearing motorcycle jackets (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91), pants (RR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.94), or gloves (RR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.26-0.66). When garments included fitted body armour there was a significantly reduced risk of injury to the upper body (RR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.66-0.89), hands and wrists (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.38-0.81), legs (RR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90), feet and ankles (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). Non-motorcycle boots were also associated with a reduced risk of injury compared to shoes or joggers (RR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.75). No association between use of body armour and risk of fracture injuries was detected. A substantial proportion of motorcycle designed gloves (25.7%), jackets (29.7%) and pants (28.1%) were assessed to have failed due to material damage in the crash. Motorcycle protective clothing is associated with reduced risk and severity of crash related injury and hospitalization, particularly when fitted with body armour. The proportion of clothing items that failed under crash conditions indicates a need for improved quality control. While mandating usage of protective clothing is not recommended, consideration could be given to providing incentives for usage of protective clothing, such as tax exemptions for safety

  7. Regenerative Intelligent Brake Control for Electric Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Castillo Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle models whose propulsion system is based on electric motors are increasing in number within the automobile industry. They will soon become a reliable alternative to vehicles with conventional propulsion systems. The main advantages of this type of vehicles are the non-emission of polluting gases and noise and the effectiveness of electric motors compared to combustion engines. Some of the disadvantages that electric vehicle manufacturers still have to solve are their low autonomy due to inefficient energy storage systems, vehicle cost, which is still too high, and reducing the recharging time. Current regenerative systems in motorcycles are designed with a low fixed maximum regeneration rate in order not to cause the rear wheel to slip when braking with the regenerative brake no matter what the road condition is. These types of systems do not make use of all the available regeneration power, since more importance is placed on safety when braking. An optimized regenerative braking strategy for two-wheeled vehicles is described is this work. This system is designed to recover the maximum energy in braking processes while maintaining the vehicle’s stability. In order to develop the previously described regenerative control, tyre forces, vehicle speed and road adhesion are obtained by means of an estimation algorithm. A based-on-fuzzy-logic algorithm is programmed to carry out an optimized control with this information. This system recuperates maximum braking power without compromising the rear wheel slip and safety. Simulations show that the system optimizes energy regeneration on every surface compared to a constant regeneration strategy.

  8. Associations between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in fatal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Wilson, Fernando; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott; Thombs, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Helmet use reduces mortality risk for motorcyclists, regardless of drug and alcohol use. However, the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet utilization is not well known. This study examines the relationship between drug use and motorcycle helmet use among fatally injured motorcycle riders. Using data from the 2005-2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we examined the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 9861 fatally injured motorcycle riders in the United States. For fatally injured motorcycle riders, use of alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs was associated with increased odds of not wearing a motorcycle helmet, controlling for the effects of state motorcycle helmet laws and other confounding variables. Predicted probabilities indicate that helmet use substantially decreases among fatally injured riders mixing alcohol with marijuana and other drugs. Furthermore, the likelihood of helmet use between marijuana-only users and other drug users is virtually the same across all blood alcohol content (BAC) levels. This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug use norms among motorcycle riders.

  9. Motorcycle crashes potentially preventable by three crash avoidance technologies on passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R

    2018-07-04

    The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the motorcycle crash population that would be potential beneficiaries of 3 crash avoidance technologies recently available on passenger vehicles. Two-vehicle crashes between a motorcycle and a passenger vehicle that occurred in the United States during 2011-2015 were classified by type, with consideration of the functionality of 3 classes of passenger vehicle crash avoidance technologies: frontal crash prevention, lane maintenance, and blind spot detection. Results were expressed as the percentage of crashes potentially preventable by each type of technology, based on all known types of 2-vehicle crashes and based on all crashes involving motorcycles. Frontal crash prevention had the largest potential to prevent 2-vehicle motorcycle crashes with passenger vehicles. The 3 technologies in sum had the potential to prevent 10% of fatal 2-vehicle crashes and 23% of police-reported crashes. However, because 2-vehicle crashes with a passenger vehicle represent fewer than half of all motorcycle crashes, these technologies represent a potential to avoid 4% of all fatal motorcycle crashes and 10% of all police-reported motorcycle crashes. Refining the ability of passenger vehicle crash avoidance systems to detect motorcycles represents an opportunity to improve motorcycle safety. Expanding the capabilities of these technologies represents an even greater opportunity. However, even fully realizing these opportunities can affect only a minority of motorcycle crashes and does not change the need for other motorcycle safety countermeasures such as helmets, universal helmet laws, and antilock braking systems.

  10. Changes in motorcycle-related injuries and deaths after mandatory motorcycle helmet law in a district of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Ederer, David; Vo, Van Anh Ha; Pham, An Van; Mounts, Anthony; Nolen, Leisha D; Sugerman, David

    2018-01-02

    Our study measured the change in head injuries and deaths among motorcycle users in Cu Chi district, a suburban district of Ho Chi Minh City. Hospital records for road traffic injuries (RTIs) were collected from the Cu Chi Trauma Centre and motorcycle-related death records were obtained from mortality registries in commune health offices. Head injury severity was categorized using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare rates pre- and post-law (2005/2006-2009/2010). Cu Chi's population, stratified by year, age, and sex, was used as the denominator. Of records identifying the transportation mode at the time of injury, motorcyclists accounted for most injuries (3,035, 87%) and deaths (238, 90%). Head injuries accounted for 70% of motorcycle-related hospitalizations. Helmet use was not recorded in any death records and not in 97% of medical records. Males accounted for most injuries (73%) and deaths (88%). The median age was 28 years and 32 years for injuries and deaths, respectively. Compared to the pre-law period, rates of motorcycle injuries (RR = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.58), head injuries (RR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.31-0.39), severe head injuries (RR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.34-0.63), and deaths (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89) significantly decreased in the post-law period. Rates of head injuries and deaths among motorcycle riders decreased significantly after implementation of the mandatory helmet law in Vietnam. To further examine the impact of the motorcycle helmet law, including compliance and helmet quality, further emphasis should be placed on gathering helmet use data from injured motorcyclists.

  11. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of motorcycle exhaust regular testing data--a case study of Taipei City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chi; Chen, Lu-Yen; Jeng, Fu-Tien

    2009-06-01

    In Taiwan, a continuous increase in the number of motorcycles has made exhaust pollution one of the major emission sources of air pollutants. The regular testing program carried out by the Republic of China Environmental Protection Agency was designed to reduce air pollutant emissions by enhancing maintenance and repair. During the execution period, abundant testing results were accumulated to discuss pollutant emissions from motorcycles. Exhaust testing data of motorcycles in Taipei City from 1996 to 2005 were chosen as the basic data to survey changes in motorcycle exhaust. Effects of motorcycle age and mileage on exhaust pollution were studied. The introduction of advanced emission standards enhances the elimination of high-emitting motorcycles. The testing data indicate that the testing rate rose from approximately 50 to 70% and the failure rate changed from approximately 15 to 10%. The operation cycles of two-stroke motorcycles make them high-emitting vehicles. Concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are higher in two-stroke motorcycle exhaust than that in four-stroke motorcycles. In contrast, the concentration of carbon dioxide produced from complete oxidation processes is lower in exhaust from two-stroke motorcycles. Therefore, failure rates of two-stroke motorcycles are higher than those of four-stroke motorcycles and were also observed to deactivate more easily. On the basis of analytical results of testing data, we found that failure rates show a gradually increasing trend for motorcycles older than 3 yr or used for mileages greater than 10,000 km, and failure rates are highly correlated to the age/mileage of motorcycles. We reason that the accumulation of age or mileage means accumulating usage time of engines and emission control systems. Concentrations of pollutant emissions would increase because of engine wear and emission control system deactivation. After discussing changes of failure rates and pollutant emissions, some suggestions are

  13. Outcome of pregnancy in women with motorcycle accidents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and seventeen pregnant women managed in the maternity section of the University of Teaching Hospital, Calabar as a result of motorcycle accidents were assessed to determine maternal and perinatal complications and outcome of such pregnancies. The incidence of 6.6% of all deliveries was established ...

  14. Dentofacial injuries in commercial motorcycle accidents in Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the pattern of dentofacial injuries in commercial motorcycle accidents among riders and passengers in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital based study conducted in 6 out of 10 regional capitals in the months of December 2011 to September 2012. Analyzed information included age, ...

  15. How motorcycle helmets affect trauma mortality: Clinical and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2017-08-18

    Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. A clinical data set including 2,868 trauma patients was analyzed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical center in Central Taiwan. A path analysis framework and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the marginal effect of helmet use on mortality. Using a helmet did not directly reduce the mortality rate but rather indirectly reduced the mortality rate through intervening variables such as the severity of head injuries, number of craniotomies, and complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet can reduce the fatality rate by 1.3%, the rate of severe head injury by 34.5%, the craniotomy rate by 7.8%, and the rate of complications during therapeutic processes by 1.5%. These rates comprise 33.3% of the mortality rate for people who do not wear helmets, 67.3% of the severe head injury rate, 60.0% of the craniotomy rate, and 12.2% of the rate of complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet and trauma system designation are crucial factors that reduce the fatality rate.

  16. Pattern of injuries from motorcycle accidents in Abia State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycle accidents are very common and cause major injuries. The Abia State government banned commercial motorcyclists from operating in the major cities of the state in July, 2009. Objectives: To determine the influence of this ban on the cause and pattern of injuries due to road traffic accidents. Design: ...

  17. Motorcycle Related Abdominal Trauma in Children in Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between January 1998 and December 2001, 38 children aged between 1-15 years were admitted to the UCTH with the history of motorcycle related abdominal trauma. A male preponderance was observed and incidence of trauma increases with age. It was lowest at preschool age under five years (16%) but peaked at ...

  18. Motorcycle related ocular injuries in Irrua Specialist Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a prospective study of all cases of motorcycle related accidents with involvement of the eyes seen at the Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2005. The study was conducted to assess the severity of ocular trauma, ocular structures mostly affected and initial effect on visual acuity in such ...

  19. Motorcycle injuries as an emerging public health problem in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: motorcycle injuries; prevalence, treatment outcome, injury pattern, Tanzania .... Data was analyzed using SPSS computer software version 11.5. ... the Weill Bugando University College of Health Sciences/Bugando Medical Centre ..... to helmet use include impaired rider vision, attenuation of critical traffic sounds, ...

  20. Aerodynamic benefit for a cyclist by a following motorcycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E; Toparlar, Y.; Andrianne, Th.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many accidents have occurred between cyclists and in-race motorcycles, even yielding fatal injuries. The accidents and the potential aerodynamics issues have impelled the present authors to perform dedicated wind-tunnel measurements and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations

  1. The burden of disease in commercial motorcycle injuries at Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Commercial motor cycling no doubt eases domestic transportation in our country. However, the economic effect as well as the morbidity and mortality arising from motorcycle crashes calls for strict laws to regulate its use by government. Licensing of riders and enforcement of traffic laws including the use of crash ...

  2. Electric motorcycle charging station powered by solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwattanapong, Akarawat; Chantharasenawong, Chawin

    2018-01-01

    This research proposes a design and verification of an off-grid photovoltaic system (PVS) for electric motorcycle charging station to be located in King’s Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand. The system is designed to work independently (off-grid) and it must be able to fully charge the batteries of a typical passenger electric motorcycle every evening. A 1,000W Toyotron electric motorcycle is chosen for this study. It carries five units of 12.8V 20Ah batteries in series; hence its maximum energy requirement per day is 1,200Wh. An assessment of solar irradiation data and the Generation Factor in Bangkok, Thailand suggests that the charging system consists of one 500W PV panel, an MPPT charge controller, 48V 150Ah battery, a 1,000W DC to AC inverter and other safety devices such as fuses and breakers. An experiment is conducted to verify the viability of the off-grid PVS charging station by collecting the total daily energy generation data in the raining season and winter. The data suggests that the designed off-grid solar power charging station for electric motorcycle is able to supply sufficient energy for daily charging requirements.

  3. The Financial Implication of Treating Motorcycle Limb Trauma in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The total cost of care of injuries is usually much more than the cost of hospitalization. This study was designed to determine the total cost to the patient, of limb injuries sustained from motorcycle crashes. Method: The study design was based on the cost-of illness method. Only patients who were employed and ...

  4. Motorcycle limb injuries in a developing Country | Oluwadiya | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    42.2% were due to collision with automobiles, 22% pedestrian while 8.7% were collisions between motorcycles. The use of protective/safety devices was practically non-existent. Seventy-six (66.1%) patients had lower limbs injuries, 25 (21.7%) patients had upper limb injuries while the remaining 14 (12.2%) injured both ...

  5. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reference in § 86.1). (2) For rotary engines, displacement means the maximum volume of a combustion chamber... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  6. 40 CFR 86.419-78 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the nearest whole cubic centimetre, in accordance with ASTM E 29-67. (2) For rotary engines... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  7. The challenges facing commercial motorcycle occupation in Etsako ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the challenges facing commercial motorcycle occupation in Edo State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was adopted. Data were collected through questionnaires and in-depth interviews (IDIs) among selected motorcyclists, police officers and road safety officials in Etsako West Local Government ...

  8. Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, C.C.; Jwo, W.S.; Chien, W.L.; Liu, Y.L.; Chen, S.W.; Hsu, C.Y. [Chienkuo Technology Univ., Changhua, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A hybrid electric motorcycle (HEM) was described. The HEM was developed from a modified 50 cc motorcycle currently available on the market. The motorcycle gearbox was attached to the back wheel. A master-slave tracking control method was used to expedite the HEM's development phases and cost. A 600 watt DC servo-motor was used to track the speed of the rear wheel of the HEM as well as to increase torque. The real time master-slave composite was comprised of a gearbox, a frequency-voltage converter, and a proportional, integrative, and derivative (PID) speed tracking controller. The frequency-voltage converter was used to convert the frequency signals of the rear wheels and electric motor rotational speeds into voltage signals. A Hall was used to sense 4 permanent magnets place along the rear wheel. A Schmitt trigger gate was used to detect signals from the rear wheel. An actuation system consisted of a motor driving circuit, a current-limiting protection circuit, and a low battery voltage protection circuit. It was concluded that the HEM design is both feasible and highly marketable. Artificial intelligence will be used to build a high performance hybrid motorcycle in the future. 10 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  9. Further Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Using CODES Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Linked data from the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) in seven : states was used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as the : basis of a 1996 Report to Congress on the Benefits of Safety Belts and : Motorcycle Helmets (D...

  10. The Four-Ball Gyro and Motorcycle Countersteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J. Ronald; Carroll, Bradley W.

    2017-04-01

    Most two-wheel motorcycle riders know that, at highway speeds, if you want to turn left you push on the left handlebar and pull on the right handlebar. This is called countersteering. Countersteering is counterintuitive since pushing left and pulling right when the front wheel is not spinning would turn the wheel to the right. All good motorcycle instructors teach countersteering but few understand the physics of why it works, even though there is considerable discussion about it among motorcycle riders. This paper gives a simplified explanation of gyroscopic precession and then applies this to the front wheel of a motorcycle using two steps: 1) explaining how the wheel's lean is initiated, and 2) explaining how the lean will cause the wheel to turn. To assist with this discussion and to demonstrate the conclusions, a "wheel" was constructed using copper pipe, a bicycle wheel hub, and one pound of lead in each of four "balls" at the end of the spokes (see Fig. 1).

  11. Influence of benzene emission from motorcycle on Bangkok air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Muttamara, S.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    This study investigated the influence of benzene concentration from motorcycle exhaust emissions on ambient air quality in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Measurement of benzene concentration in exhaust emissions is performed on a standard test driving cycle through which each motorcycle to be tested is driven. The test result revealed that average benzene concentrations in exhaust emission for the test motorcycles ranged from 3.02 to 109.68 mg/m 3. The finding also indicated that two-stroke motorcycles emitted five times more benzene than that of four-stroke motorcycles. Four air monitoring sites were strategically established to determine the relationship between average benzene concentrations with different traffic configurations in each traffic zone of BMR during peak/non-peak hours, day/night times and weekday/weekend. The shape of the curve for benzene level usually shows two peaks corresponding to the morning and evening traffic rush or commuter rush hours. The finding shows that the mean concentrations for benzene in all monitoring stations in the ambient air for peak hours (07:00-09:00 and 16:00-18:00 h) ranged from 15.1 to 42.4 μg/m 3. For non-peak hour (11:30-15:00 h), benzene levels were found in the range 16.3-30.9 μg/m 3. It is observed that higher levels of benzene are found among roadside stations with slow moving traffic while lower levels are found among roadside stations with fast traffic movement. Additional factors such as temperature, wind speed, rainfall, etc. are also considered in this study to determine the relationship between traffic conditions and ambient benzene levels.

  12. Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Motorcycle crash-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations for traumatic brain injury in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Katherine J; Marshall, Stephen W; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Naumann, Rebecca B; Waller, Anna E

    2015-01-01

    To examine statewide emergency department (ED) visit data for motorcycle crash morbidity and healthcare utilization due to traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and non-TBIs. North Carolina ED data (2010-2012) and hospital discharge data (2009-2011). Statewide ED visits and hospitalizations due to injuries from traffic-related motorcycle crashes stratified by TBI status. Descriptive study. Descriptive statistics include age, sex, mode of transport, disposition, expected source of payment, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges. Over the study period, there were 18 780 ED visits and 3737 hospitalizations due to motorcycle crashes. Twelve percent of ED visits for motorcycle crashes and 26% of hospitalizations for motorcycle crashes had a diagnosis of TBI. Motorcycle crash-related hospitalizations with a TBI diagnosis had median hospital charges that were nearly $9000 greater than hospitalizations without a TBI diagnosis. Emergency department visits and hospitalizations due to motorcycle crashes with a TBI diagnosis consumed more healthcare resources than motorcycle crash-related ED visits and hospitalizations without a TBI diagnosis. Increased awareness of motorcyclists by other road users and increased use of motorcycle helmets are 2 strategies to mitigate the incidence and severity of motorcycle crash injuries, including TBIs.

  14. Motorcycle detection and counting using stereo camera, IR camera, and microphone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bo; Gibson, David R. P.; Middleton, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Detection, classification, and characterization are the key to enhancing motorcycle safety, motorcycle operations and motorcycle travel estimation. Average motorcycle fatalities per Vehicle Mile Traveled (VMT) are currently estimated at 30 times those of auto fatalities. Although it has been an active research area for many years, motorcycle detection still remains a challenging task. Working with FHWA, we have developed a hybrid motorcycle detection and counting system using a suite of sensors including stereo camera, thermal IR camera and unidirectional microphone array. The IR thermal camera can capture the unique thermal signatures associated with the motorcycle's exhaust pipes that often show bright elongated blobs in IR images. The stereo camera in the system is used to detect the motorcyclist who can be easily windowed out in the stereo disparity map. If the motorcyclist is detected through his or her 3D body recognition, motorcycle is detected. Microphones are used to detect motorcycles that often produce low frequency acoustic signals. All three microphones in the microphone array are placed in strategic locations on the sensor platform to minimize the interferences of background noises from sources such as rain and wind. Field test results show that this hybrid motorcycle detection and counting system has an excellent performance.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates emitted by motorcycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Chau Thuy; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2013-01-01

    We determined eleven PAHs and four NPAHs in particulates and regulated pollutants (CO, CO 2 , HC, NO x , PM) exhausted from motorcycles to figure out the characteristics of motorcycle exhausts. Fluoranthene and pyrene accounted for more than 50% of the total detected PAHs. Among four detected NPAHs, 6-nitrochrysene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were the predominant NPAHs and were highly correlated relationship with their parent PAHs (R = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively). The PM and HC emissions tended to be close to the PAH emissions. NO x and NPAHs were negatively correlated. Despite their small engine size, motorcycles emitted much more PM and PAHs, showed stronger PAH-related carcinogenicity and indirect-acting mutagenicity, but weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenic potency than automobiles. This is the first study to analyze both PAHs and NPAHs emitted by motorcycles, which could provide useful information to design the emission regulations and standards for motorcycles such as PM. -- Highlights: ► We characterized PAHs and NPAHs distribution in motorcycle exhausts. ► NPAHs concentrations were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of PAHs. ► We found larger amounts of PM and PAHs in exhaust of motorcycles than of automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed stronger PAH-related toxicity than automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenicity than automobiles. -- Control polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in particulates emitted by motorcycles due to their toxic potency

  16. Using travel socialization and underlying motivations to better understand motorcycle usage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Lai, Chi-Yen

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces self-determination theory (SDT) to refine previous models of vehicle usage motivation. We add travel socialization theory regarding parental influence on vehicle usage to enhance previous structural models describing motorcycle usage behavior. Our newly developed model was empirically verified in a sample of 721 motorcycle users in Taiwan. In addition to instrumental, symbolic, and affective motivations, perceived parental attitudes (PPAs) towards motorcycle riding were found to have a significant effect on individuals' motorcycle use habits. Additionally, participants who perceived their parents to have more positive attitudes toward motorcycles were found to have more experience being chauffeured on motorcycles by their parents. Based on these results, we suggest means to confront the challenges brought on by the rapid growth of motorcycle usage, especially serious motorcycle traffic accidents. These results improve our understanding motorcycle usage in Taiwan and can be used by transportation professionals who are seeking solutions to the rapid growth of motorcycle usage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Burn injuries related to motorcycle exhaust pipes: a study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzavakis, Ioannis; Frangakis, Constantine E; Charalampopoulou, Ava; Petridou, Eleni

    2005-05-01

    To identify measures that should reduce the incidence of burn injuries resulting from motorcycle exhaust pipes through epidemiological analysis of such injuries. During a 5-year period, 251 persons who suffered burn injuries related to motorcycle exhaust pipes have contacted four major hospitals belonging to the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS) operating since 1996 in Greece. These burn injuries were studied in relation to person, environment and vehicle characteristics. The estimated countrywide incidence of burns from motorcycle exhaust pipes was 17 per 100,000 person-years (208 per 100,000 motorcycle-years). The incidence was two times higher for children than for older persons and among the latter it was 60% higher among females than among males. Most of burn injuries (70.5%) concerned motorcycle passengers, mainly when getting on or off motorcycle, with peak incidence during summer. The most frequent location of burn wounds was below the knee and particularly the right leg. It was estimated that the risk of motorcycle exhaust pipe burns when wearing shorts could be reduced by 46% through wearing long pants. Among the victims 65.3% experienced second degree burns. Motorcycle exhaust burns could be substantially reduced by systematically wearing long pants, by incorporating in the design of motorcycles external thermo resistant shields with adequate distance to the exhaust pipe, and by avoiding riding with children on motorcycles.

  18. Impact of the effect of economic crisis and the targeted motorcycle safety programme on motorcycle-related accidents, injuries and fatalities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, T H; Umar, R S Radin; Zulkaurnain, S; Kulanthayan, S

    2005-03-01

    In 1997, a Motorcycle Safety Programme (MSP) was introduced to address the motorcycle-related accident problem. The MSP was specifically targeted at motorcyclists. In addition to the MSP, the recent economic recession has significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic-related incidents. This paper examines the effects of the recent economic crisis and the MSP on motorcycle-related accidents, casualties and fatalities in Malaysia. The autocorrelation integrated moving average model with transfer function was used to evaluate the overall effects of the interventions. The variables used in developing the model were gross domestic product and MSPs. The analysis found a 25% reduction in the number of motorcycle-related accidents, a 27% reduction in motorcycle casualties and a 38% reduction in motorcycle fatalities after the implementation of MSP. Findings indicate that the MSP has been one of the effective measures in reducing motorcycle safety problems in Malaysia. Apart from that, the performance of the country's economy was also found to be significant in explaining the number of motorcycle-related accidents, casualties and fatalities in Malaysia.

  19. Offsetting or Enhancing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Safety Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Cross-cultural effects on the perception and appraisal of approaching motorcycles at junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, YM; Sheppard, E; Crundall, D

    2015-01-01

    Crundall et al. (2008) reported that perceptual errors (failing to perceive) and not appraisal errors (failing to make a correct judgment about safety) are likely to explain the relatively high number of right of way violation accidents involving motorcycles in relation to cars. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of exposure to motorcycles on these types of errors by comparing drivers from Malaysia where motorcycles are very common with drivers from the UK where motorcyc...

  1. Improving car drivers' perception of motorcycle motion through innovative headlight configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Viola; Ranchet, Maud; Pinto, Maria; Espié, Stéphane; Vienne, Fabrice; Dang, Nguyen-Thong

    2015-08-01

    The most frequent cause of motorcycle accidents occurs when another vehicle violates the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. In addition to detection errors, misperception of the approaching motorcycle's speed and time-to-arrival is another driver error that accounts for these accidents, although this error has been studied less often. Such misperceptions have been shown to be related to the small size of motorcycles and to their small angular velocity when approaching. In two experiments we tested the impact of different motorcycle headlight configurations in various ambient lighting conditions (daytime, dusk, and nighttime). The participants drove on a driving simulator and had to turn left across a line of vehicles composed of motorcycles and cars. The motorcycles were approaching at different speeds and were equipped with either a "standard" headlight, a "horizontal" configuration (added to the standard headlight were two lights on the rearview mirrors so as to visually increase the horizontal dimension of the motorcycle), a "vertical" configuration (one light on the rider's helmet and two lights on the fork were added to the standard headlight so as to increase the vertical dimension of the motorcycle), or a "combined" configuration (combining the horizontal and vertical configurations). The findings of the first experiment in nighttime conditions indicated that both the vertical and combined configurations significantly increased the gap car drivers accepted with respect to the motorcycle as compared to the standard configuration, and that the accepted gaps did not differ significantly from those accepted for cars. The advantage of the vertical and combined configurations showed up especially when the motorcycle's approach speed was high. The findings of the second experiment in dusk and daytime conditions indicated similar patterns, but the headlight-configuration effect was less pronounced at dusk, and nonsignificant during the day. The results

  2. Universal Motorcycle Helmet Laws to Reduce Injuries: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yinan; Vaidya, Namita; Finnie, Ramona; Reynolds, Jeffrey; Dumitru, Cristian; Njie, Gibril; Elder, Randy; Ivers, Rebecca; Sakashita, Chika; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Compton, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate number of motor vehicle deaths and injuries in the U.S. Motorcycle helmet use can lead to an estimated 42% reduction in risk for fatal injuries and a 69% reduction in risk for head injuries. However, helmet use in the U.S. has been declining and was at 60% in 2013. The current review examines the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet laws in increasing helmet use and reducing motorcycle-related deaths and injuries. Databases relevant to health or transportation were searched from database inception to August 2012. Reference lists of reviews, reports, and gray literature were also searched. Analysis of the data was completed in 2014. A total of 60 U.S. studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Implementing universal helmet laws increased helmet use (median, 47 percentage points); reduced total deaths (median, -32%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, -29%); and reduced total injuries (median, -32%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, -24%). Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use (median, -39 percentage points); increased total deaths (median, 42%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, 24%); and increased total injuries (median, 41%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, 8%). Universal helmet laws are effective in increasing motorcycle helmet use and reducing deaths and injuries. These laws are effective for motorcyclists of all ages, including younger operators and passengers who would have already been covered by partial helmet laws. Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use and increased deaths and injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Study of vibration and its effect on health of the motorcycle rider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumara BS

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The motorcycle riders are subjected to extreme vibrations due to the vibrations of its engine, improper structural design of the motorcycle and the bad road conditions. The literature review reveals that the vibrations are most hazardous to the health if it exceeds the limit. The experiments were conducted to measure the magnitude of the vibrations acting on the rider during motorcycle riding under various road conditions. Experimental values of accelerations and frequencies which are beyond permissible limits according to the literature confirm that vibration certainly affects health of the motorcycle rider

  4. Design, simulation, and prototype production of a through the road parallel hybrid electric motorcycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaei, Behzad; Habibidoost, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Design, simulation, and manufacturing of a hybrid electric motorcycle are explained. • The electric machine is mounted in the front wheel hub of an ordinary motorcycle. • Two different energy control strategy are implemented. • The simulation results show that the motorcycle performance is improved. • The acceleration is improved and the fuel consumption and pollutions are decreased. - Abstract: In this paper, design, simulation, and conversion of a normal motorcycle to a Hybrid Electric Motorcycle (HEM) is described. At first, a simple model designed and simulated using ADVISOR2002. Then, the controller schematic and its optimized control strategy are described. A 125 cc ICE motorcycle is selected and converted into a HEM. A brushless DC (BLDC) motor assembled in the front wheel and a normal internal combustion engine in the rear wheel propel the motorcycle. The nominal powers are 6.6 kW and 500 W for the ICE and BLDC respectively. The original motorcycle has a Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) that is the best choice for a HEM power transmission because it can operate in the automatic handling mode and has high efficiency. Moreover, by using the CVT, the ICE can be started while motorcycle is running. Finally, three operating modes of HEM, two implemented energy control strategies, and HEM engine control system by servomotors, and LCD display are explained

  5. Speed-volume relationship and headway distribution analysis of motorcycle (case study: Teuku Nyak Arief Road)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahara, E.; Prasetya, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    In many developing countries, transportation modes are more varied than the other country. For example, in Jakarta, Indonesia, in some roadway, motorcycle is the most dominant vehicle, with total volume is four times higher than a passenger car. Thus, the traffic characteristic in motorcycle-dominated traffic differs from a common traffic situation. The purpose of this study is to apply the concept and theory developed to analyze motorcycle behaviour under motorcycle-dominated traffic condition. The survey is applied by recording the traffic flow movement of research location at specified time period. The macroscopic characteristic analyzed in this research is a speed-flow relationship based on motorcycle equivalent unit (MCU). Furthermore, a detail microscopic characteristic analyzed that is motorcycle time headway regarding traffic flow. MCU values computed were consists of motorcycle (MC), light vehicle (LV) and heavy vehicle (HV). Those values were calculated 1.00, 6.13 and 10.71 respectively. The speed and volume relationship result is showing a linear regression model with R2 value is 0.58, it can be explained that the correlation between two variables is intermediate. The headway distribution of motorcycle is compatible with the negative exponential distribution which fitted with the proposed theory for a small vehicle such as a motorcycle.

  6. Fuels demand by light vehicles and motorcycles In Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jose Manoel Antelo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the consumption of gasoline, alcohol and natural gas vehicle (NGV) by light vehicles and motorcycles in Brazil. Through the estimation of fleets per consumption class, in an environment influenced by a new engine technology (flex-fuel), this exercise estimates the fleet-elasticity of cars (and motorcycles) powered by gasoline, hydrated alcohol, natural gas vehicle (NGV) and flex-fuel, in addition to the income elasticity within the period from January, 2000 to December, 2008. This paper uses an alternative variable as income proxy and estimates the five different fleets through the combination of vehicles sales and scrapping curves. This paper's conclusion is that given specific issues of the Brazilian fuel market, in special prices and technological innovations, the fleets' equations for the consumption of the three fuels represent in a more significant manner the relationships expected between supply and demand variables than the commonly used functions of prices and income. (author)

  7. Pedestrian-motorcycle collisions: associated risks and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariffin Aqbal Hafeez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the statistics, there are serious concerns over the relatively high number of fatal motor vehicle crashes involving pedestrianmotorcycle in Malaysia. The high number of motorcycle registration on road, compounded by its popularity as the major mode of transportation in the nation, imposes safety risk to pedestrians, as well as to other road users. Data from 1,626 related road crashes of Royal Malaysia Police (RMP for the 2009-2013 period were retrospectively collected via MIROS Road Accident Analysis and Database System (M-ROADS. The data were then analyzed via logistic regression method to determine associations between risks and injury severity in pedestrian-motorcycle collisions. The results indicate that five factors were significantly related to injury severity, which include age, location of body injury, as well as speed limit, road geometry and lighting condition of collision site. Subsequently, focus group discussions with stakeholders were also conducted to gather relevant data to identify related issues and suggestions on motorcycle safety technology with regards to collision with pedestrian.

  8. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  9. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  10. Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yuan-Yong; Lu, Shao-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a successful design and implement of a shunt-winding hybrid electric motorcycle management system which utilizes an electronic control unit (ECU) to integrate two major subsystems together, one being the traditional system of 125 c.c. internal combustion engine and the other an electric power motor. The hybrid electric motorcycle is assembled together robustly by these two major subsystems and eventually leads to successful road tests. The hybrid power system thus implemented can recharge its own batteries with electricity provided by the electrical recharge system and thus increasing the cruising mileages largely. The testing results obtained by using the proposed experimental platform indicate that lead-acid cells can boost their state of charge (SOC) by approximately 4% when it is operated under the hybrid mode for four driving cycles (about 1600 s) with the recharger on in a standard ECE-40 testing procedure. The results of road tests also clearly show that the pollutant emissions of the engine can be reduced at a lower speed or idling condition, and the problem of insufficient cruising range for electric motorcycles can also be greatly enhanced.

  11. Factors Associated with Road Accidents among Brazilian Motorcycle Couriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with reports of road accidents, among motorcycle couriers in two medium-sized municipalities in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by motorcycle couriers that had worked for at least 12 months in this profession. The outcomes analyzed were reports on accidents and serious accidents over the 12 months prior to the survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of logistic regression were carried out to investigate factors that were independently associated with the outcomes. Seven hundred and fifty motorcycle couriers, of mean age 29.5 years (standard deviation = 8.1 ), were included in the study. Young age (18 to 24 years compared to ≥25 years, odds ratio [OR] = 1.77) speeding (OR = 1.48), and use of cell phones while driving (OR = 1.43) were factors independently associated with reports of accidents. For serious accidents, there was an association with alternation of work shifts (OR = 1.91) and speeding (OR = 1.67). The characteristics associated with accidents—personal (young age), behavioral (use of cell phones while driving and speeding), and professional (speeding and alternation of work shifts)—reveal the need to adopt wide-ranging strategies to reduce these accidents, including better work conditions for these motorcyclists. PMID:22629158

  12. Factors associated with road accidents among Brazilian motorcycle couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with reports of road accidents, among motorcycle couriers in two medium-sized municipalities in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by motorcycle couriers that had worked for at least 12 months in this profession. The outcomes analyzed were reports on accidents and serious accidents over the 12 months prior to the survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of logistic regression were carried out to investigate factors that were independently associated with the outcomes. Seven hundred and fifty motorcycle couriers, of mean age 29.5 years (standard deviation = 8.1 ), were included in the study. Young age (18 to 24 years compared to ≥ 25 years, odds ratio [OR] = 1.77) speeding (OR = 1.48), and use of cell phones while driving (OR = 1.43) were factors independently associated with reports of accidents. For serious accidents, there was an association with alternation of work shifts (OR = 1.91) and speeding (OR = 1.67). The characteristics associated with accidents-personal (young age), behavioral (use of cell phones while driving and speeding), and professional (speeding and alternation of work shifts)-reveal the need to adopt wide-ranging strategies to reduce these accidents, including better work conditions for these motorcyclists.

  13. Safety system for child pillion riders of underbone motorcycles in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, S; Karmegam, K; Bahri, M T Shamsul; Naeini, H Sadeghi; Kulanthayan, S

    2014-01-01

    Motorcycles are a common mode of transport for most Malaysians. Underbone motorcycles are one of the most common types of motorcycle used in Malaysia due to their affordable price and ease of use, especially in heavy traffic in the major cities. In Malaysia, it is common to see a young or child pillion rider clinging on to an adult at the front of the motorcycle. One of the main issues facing young pillion riders is that their safety is often not taken into account when they are riding on a motorcycle. This article reviews the legally available systems in child safety for underbone motorcycles in Malaysia while putting forth the need for a safety system for child pillion riders. Various databases were searched for underbone motorcycle safety systems, related legislation, motorcycle accident data, and types of injuries and these were reviewed to put forth the need for a new safety system. In motorcycle-related accidents, children usually sustain lower limb injuries, which could temporarily or permanently inhibit the child's movements. Accident statistics in Malaysia, especially those involving motorcycles, reflect a pressing need for a reduction in the number of accidents. In Malaysia, the legislation does not go beyond the mandatory use of safety helmets for young pillion users. There is a pressing need for another safety system or mechanism(s) for young pillion riders of underbone motorcycles. Enforcement of laws to enforce the usage of passive safety systems such as helmets and protective gear is difficult in underdeveloped and developing countries. The intervention of new technology is inevitable. Therefore, this article highlights the need for a new safety backrest system for child pillion riders to ensure their safety.

  14. Raising Barriers to 'Outlaw Motorcycle Gang-Related Events' : Underlining the Difference between Pre-Emption and Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Ruitenburg (Teun)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFighting outlaw motorcycle gangs is currently one of the top priorities of many governments around the world. This is due to the notion that outlaw motorcycle gangs do not consist solely of motorcycle enthusiasts. Numerous cases reveal that these clubs, or at least their members, are

  15. The impact of the Thai motorcycle transition on road traffic injury: Thai Cohort Study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Thailand. The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall. In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.

  16. Literature survey of motorcycle accidents with respect to the influence of engine size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, J. van; Klootwijk, C.W.; Ruijs, P.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    For completion of the type approval of two- or three-wheeled motor vehicles, and in particular of Directive 95/1/EC of the European Community, the Directorate General III (Industry) commissioned a study to examine wether there is a relation between motorcycle accident occurence and motorcycle engine

  17. Vulnerability of motorcycle riders and co-riders to injuries in multi-occupant crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadiya, Kehinde Sunday; Ojo, Owolabi Dele; Adegbehingbe, Olayinka Oladiran; Mock, Charles; Popoola, Ogunsuyi Sunday

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries, most motorcycles are ridden with more than one occupant. The objective of this study was to establish the relative vulnerability of riders and co-riders to injury and determine the injury risk factors in multi-occupant motorcycle crashes. Between January and December 2010, we collected crash and injury data from victims of multi-occupant motorcycle. It is a hospital-based study. The probability of sustaining injuries was similar for co-riders and riders, but co-riders were more likely to sustain severe injuries. Occupants of >2-occupant motorcycles were also more likely to be involved in risky behaviours like not wearing helmet and speeding than those on 2-occupant motorcycles. Occupants of motorcycles on which there were more than two occupants were at an increased risk of sustaining injuries compared with occupants of motorcycles with only two occupants (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3). Motorcycle co-riders were more vulnerable to severe injuries than riders. The significance of the study finding to prevention was discussed.

  18. 75 FR 13809 - Reclassification of Motorcycles (Two and Three Wheeled Vehicles) in the Guide to Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Taxation, page 3-2. Item I.E.2. Motorcycles: This item includes two-wheeled and three-wheeled motorcycles... FHWA from their motor vehicle registration systems. As a result, such data is based on the definitions... bicycles. \\4\\ American National Standards Institute, http://webstore.ansi.org/?source=google&adgroup=ansi...

  19. Injury patterns and mortality rates of motorcycle-related head injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycles are an emerging means of public transportation in many developing countries and has a poor safety record when compared to other road users. Subsequently, motorcycle injuries have been on the rise and head injuries are the leading cause of death, severe injury and disability globally.

  20. Car and Motorcycle Show Brings “Gearheads” and Fans Together | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On Sept. 24, the Building 549 parking lot was full of cars; however, unlike any regular work day, the spaces were filled with a variety of classic cars, street rods, motorcycles, and unique modern cars for display in the first car and motorcycle show hosted at NCI at Frederick.

  1. Case studies in contact burns caused by exhaust pipes of motorcycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lee, Su-Shin; Tu, Chao-Hung; Chen, I-Heng; Chang, Kao-Ping C; Tsai, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2002-06-01

    Contact burns caused by the exhaust pipe of motorcycles are rarely reported. We performed retrospective studies of such cases in 78 patients with complete records. The majority of victims were unmarried (75.7%), young (exhaust pipe and its outside cover on moving motorcycles showed that the temperature reached 170-250 and 40-60 degrees C, respectively. For the prevention of these injuries, our suggestions include well-designed external shield with adequate separation from the exhaust pipe, motorcycle parking lots of adequate width (>120cm), the wearing of trousers by motorcyclists, decrease of the density of motorcycle traffic, and development of the electric assisted cycle in place of the fuel-driven motorcycle.

  2. Risky driving and the perception of motorcycle accident causes among Chinese motorcyclists in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K

    2012-09-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to explore the relationship between risk-taking acts while driving motorcycles and perceived causes of motorcycle accidents, as well as their contribution to active involvement in traffic accidents among Chinese motorcyclists in Hong Kong. Active involvement means the riders was likely at fault for the crash. A total of 774 motorcyclists were recruited, of whom 292 had been involved in active motorcycle accident in the previous 3 years. All were asked to fill in a questionnaire, which was developed to assess their risk-taking acts while driving a motorcycle and perception of motorcycle accident causes. The results of the study revealed 3 dimensions of accident causes, namely, driving-related, environment-related, and belief-related causes. These motorcycle accident causes were correlated with risk-taking acts while driving a motorcycle. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk-taking acts while driving motorcycles (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.036, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.020-1.052), perception of driving-related cause (adjusted OR: 0.941, 95% CI: 0.916-0.967), and belief-related cause (adjusted OR: 1.134, 95% CI: 1.088-1.182) were significant factors contributing to involvement in active traffic accidents by motorcycle riders after controlling for concurrent demographic variables. The study highlights that perceived causes of motorcycle accidents are multidimensional, including those areas related to driving, the environment, and beliefs. It substantiates previous studies that a higher degree of driving-related risk perception is related to a lower degree of risk-taking acts while driving. Further research is needed to understand why belief-related causes, sometimes called superstitions, lead riders to believe that it is beyond their ability to affect accident causation and prevention.

  3. Mental disorders and delivery motorcycle drivers (motoboys): a dangerous association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieling, R R; Szobot, C M; Matte, B; Coelho, R S; Kieling, C; Pechansky, F; Rohde, L A

    2011-01-01

    Low and middle-income countries experience an expressive growth in the number of circulating motorcycles, paralleled by an increasing number of traffic accidents. Delivery motorcycles drivers ("motoboys") are generally perceived as accountable for this scenario. Although traffic accidents have a multivariate etiology, mental disorders, such as substance use disorders (SUD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are often involved. This paper aims at investigating the prevalence of ADHD, SUD and other mental disorders in a sample of Brazilian motoboys, and additionally, to evaluate the association between psychiatric diagnoses, motorcycle accidents and traffic violation tickets. A convenient sample of subjects was invited to participate in a cross-sectional assessment including an inventory of traffic accidents and violations. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on semi-structured and clinical interviews. A sample of 101 motoboys was assessed. Overall, 75% of subjects had a positive lifetime history of at least one psychiatric disorder. SUD was the most frequent diagnosis (43.6% for alcohol, 39.6% for cannabis). ADHD was associated with a higher number of traffic accidents (p=0.002), and antisocial personality disorder (APD) was associated with a greater number of traffic violations (p=0.007). The prevalence of mental disorders was much higher in our sample than in the general population. ADHD and APD, but not SUD, were associated with negative traffic outcomes. These findings have implications for public mental health planning since mental disorders can be both prevented and treated, improving driving behavior and increasing road safety. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of sensory and cognitive conspicuity in the prevention of collisions between motorcycles and trucks at T-intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Ghanbari, Mahshid; Hamid, Hussain; Abdul-Halin, Alfian; Ng, Choy Peng

    2016-11-01

    Motorcyclists are particularly vulnerable to injury in crashes with heavy vehicles due to substantial differences in vehicle mass, the degree of protection and speed. There is a considerable difference in height between motorcycles and trucks; motorcycles are viewed by truck drivers from downward angles, and shorter distances between them mean steeper downward angles. Hence, we anticipated that the effects of motorcycle conspicuity treatments would be different for truck drivers. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effects of motorcycle conspicuity treatments on the identification and detection of motorcycles by truck drivers. Two complementary experiments were performed; the first experiment assessed the impact of motorcycle sensory conspicuity on the ability of un-alerted truck drivers to detect motorcycles, and the second experiment assessed the motorcycle cognitive conspicuity to alerted truck drivers. The sensory conspicuity was measured in terms of motorcycle detection rates by un-alerted truck drivers when they were not anticipating a motorcycle within a realistic driving scene, while the cognitive conspicuity was determined by the time taken by alerted truck drivers to actively search for a motorcycle. In the first experiment, the participants were presented with 10 pictures and were instructed to report the kinds of vehicles that were presented in the pictures. Each picture was shown to the participants for 600ms. In the second experiment, the participants were presented with the same set of pictures and were instructed to respond by clicking the right button on a mouse as soon as they detected a motorcycle in the picture. The results indicate that the motorcycle detection rate increases, and the response time to search for a motorcycle decreases, as the distance between the targeted motorcycle and the viewer decreases. This is true regardless of the type of conspicuity treatment used. The use of daytime running headlights (DRH) was found to

  5. Involvement of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal crashes in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal motorcycle crashes and the interrelationships of endorsement status and motorcycle type with operator characteristics like riding impaired. Cases were drawn from a database tracking fatal crashes occurring within Cuyahoga County, Ohio, from 2005 to 2011. Analysis focused on 75 fatal motorcycle crashes in which the deceased motorcycle operators were male and coroner's reports, police crash reports, and license endorsement status were available. Analysis included comparison of means, chi square testing, and binary logistic regression. More than half of motorcyclists (53%) did not have motorcycle endorsements. Mean age of unendorsed riders was 36.8 years, compared to 44.2 years for endorsed riders. Motorcyclists were considered at fault in 69 percent of cases, most often due to reckless operation, failure to control, or speeding. Mean blood alcohol concentration for fatally injured motorcyclists was 0.06 percent. Marijuana was the most common drug identified in blood tests. Nonendorsement was associated with younger age, single-vehicle crash, and having a prior license suspension. Neither endorsement status nor bike type was associated with likelihood of testing positive for alcohol or drugs of abuse. Riders of sport motorcycles were more likely than cruiser/touring bike operators to be wearing helmets and less likely to be endorsed. The large proportion of unendorsed motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes in northeast Ohio highlights the need for more stringent licensing requirements that make it more difficult to ride without an endorsement and limit learner's permit renewals.

  6. A dynamic analysis of motorcycle ownership and usage: a panel data modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chieh-Hua; Chiou, Yu-Chiun; Huang, Wan-Ling

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to develop motorcycle ownership and usage models with consideration of the state dependence and heterogeneity effects based on a large-scale questionnaire panel survey on vehicle owners. To account for the independence among alternatives and heterogeneity among individuals, the modeling structure of motorcycle ownership adopts disaggregate choice models considering the multinomial, nested, and mixed logit formulations. Three types of panel data regression models--ordinary, fixed, and random effects--are developed and compared for motorcycle usage. The estimation results show that motorcycle ownership in the previous year does exercise a significantly positive effect on the number of motorcycles owned by households in the current year, suggesting that the state dependence effect does exist in motorcycle ownership decisions. In addition, the fixed effects model is the preferred specification for modeling motorcycle usage, indicating strong evidence for existence of heterogeneity. Among various management strategies evaluated under different scenarios, increasing gas prices and parking fees will lead to larger reductions in total kilometers traveled. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Traffic conflict assessment for non-lane-based movements of motorcycles under congested conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xuan Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conflict under congested conditions is one of the main safety issues of motorcycle traffic in developing countries. Unlike cars, motorcycles often display non-lane-based movements such as swerving or oblique following of a lead vehicle when traffic becomes congested. Very few studies have quantitatively evaluated the effects of such non-lane-based movements on traffic conflict. Therefore, in this study we aim to develop an integrated model to assess the traffic conflict of motorcycles under congested conditions. The proposed model includes a concept of safety space to describe the non-lane-based movements unique to motorcycles, new features developed for traffic conflict assessment such as parameters of acceleration and deceleration, and the conditions for choosing a lead vehicle. Calibration data were extracted from video clips taken at two road segments in Ho Chi Minh City. A simulation based on the model was developed to verify the dynamic non-lane-based movements of motorcycles. Subsequently, the assessment of traffic conflict was validated by calculating the probability of sudden braking at each time interval according to the change in the density of motorcycle flow. Our findings underscore the fact that higher flow density may lead to conflicts associated with a greater probability of sudden breaking. Three types of motorcycle traffic conflicts were confirmed, and the proportions of each type were calculated and discussed.

  8. [Occupational risk factors and perceptions of air pollution by motorcycle taxi drivers in Cotonou, Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawin, Hervé; Ayi Fanou, Lucie; Hinson, Vikkey; Tollo, Brice; Fayomi, Benjamin; Ouendo, Edgard-Marius

    Motorcycle taxis occupy a major place in urban transport. Motorcycle taxi drivers are exposed to occupational risk factors (ORF) including air pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate these ORF among motorcycle taxi drivers and their perceptions of air pollution. This mixed study was conducted on motorcycle taxi drivers in Cotonou. The qualitative study was based on focus groups concerning 16 items from the Participatory Occupational Risk Screening Guide (DEPARIS) until saturation and after triangulation of data. The quantitative study consisted of administering a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, cardiopulmonary diseases, and perception of air -pollution risk factors among 397 Cotonou motorcycle taxi drivers. Drivers perceived poor road conditions, effort and handling, and lack of social security as unsatisfactory ORF. Their mean age was 40.95 ± 8.75 years and 45.84% had primary -education. They had been working as motorcycle taxi drivers for an average of 134.95 ± 101.53 months with an average income of FCFA 3138 ± 1238. These occupational factors were significantly associated with cardiopulmonary disorders, observed in 63.2% of drivers. Less than 1/3 of drivers felt that air pollution affected their personal health. Motorcycle taxi drivers have a poor perception of ORF and the severity of exposure to air pollution in this occupation. There is a need to take action to promote the health of this population.

  9. Fuels demand by light vehicles and motorcycles In Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jose Manoel Antelo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the consumption of gasoline, alcohol and natural gas vehicle (NGV) by light vehicles and motorcycles in Brazil. Through the estimation of fleets per consumption class, in an environment influenced by a new engine technology (flex-fuel), this exercise estimates the fleet-elasticity of cars (and motorcycles) powered by gasoline, hydrated alcohol, natural gas vehicle (NGV) and flex-fuel, in addition to the income elasticity within the period from January, 2000 to December, 2008. This paper uses an alternative variable as income proxy and estimates the five different fleets through the combination of vehicles sales and scrapping curves. This paper's conclusion is that given specific issues of the Brazilian fuel market, in special prices and technological innovations, the fleets' equations for the consumption of the three fuels represent in a more significant manner the relationships expected between supply and demand variables than the commonly used functions of prices and income. (author)

  10. Years of potential life lost due to motorcycle accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Emília Cavalcante Valença Fernandes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents represent a serious public health problem, because they kill approximately 1.24 million persons annually, and leave another 20 to 50 million with non-fatal lesions and traumatisms worldwide. In Brazil, in the year 2011, motorcyclists alone were responsible for one third of these deaths. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the years of potential life lost due to motorcycle accidents, according to sex and age group, and analyze the trend of the indicator for the state of Pernambuco in the period from 2005 to 2014. Methods and Results an ecological study based on data from the System of Information about Mortality was used. The indicator and rate were calculated by using the age limit of 70 years. The linear regression model and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used, at the level of significance of 5% and confidence of 95%. The most affected sex and age-range were men between 20-29 years of age. The rates followed a trend of growth in both sexes, in the young population with the exception of those from 10 to 19 years of age. Conclusions: This context points out the magnitude and precociousness of motorcycle accidents in both sexes and the young population.

  11. Application of Data Mining Algorithm to Recipient of Motorcycle Installment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Dhika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the subsidiaries that provide services of finance related to the purchase of a motorcycle on credit. At the time of applying, consumers enter their personal data. Based on the personal data, it will be known whether the consumer credit data is approved or rejected. From 224 consumer data obtained, it is known that the number of consumers whose applications are approved is 87% or about 217 consumers and consumers whose application is rejected is 16% or as much as 6 consumers. Acceptance of motorcycle financing on credit by using the method of applying the algorithm through CRIS-P DM is the industry standard in the processing of data mining. The algorithm used in the decision making is the algorithm C4.5. The results obtained previously, the level of accuracy is measured with the Confusion Matrix and Receiver Operating characteristic (ROC. Evaluation of the Confusion Matrix is intended to seek the value of accuracy, precision value, and the value of recall data. While the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC is used to find data tables and comparison Area Under Curve (AUC.

  12. Crash sequence based risk matrix for motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Thor, Craig P; Chen, Sheng-Yin

    2018-04-05

    Considerable research has been conducted related to motorcycle and other powered-two-wheeler (PTW) crashes; however, it always has been controversial among practitioners concerning with types of crashes should be first targeted and how to prioritize resources for the implementation of mitigating actions. Therefore, there is a need to identify types of motorcycle crashes that constitute the greatest safety risk to riders - most frequent and most severe crashes. This pilot study seeks exhibit the efficacy of a new approach for prioritizing PTW crash causation sequences as they relate to injury severity to better inform the application of mitigating countermeasures. To accomplish this, the present study constructed a crash sequence-based risk matrix to identify most frequent and most severe motorcycle crashes in an attempt to better connect causes and countermeasures of PTW crashes. Although the frequency of each crash sequence can be computed from crash data, a crash severity model is needed to compare the levels of crash severity among different crash sequences, while controlling for other factors that also have effects on crash severity such drivers' age, use of helmet, etc. The construction of risk matrix based on crash sequences involve two tasks: formulation of crash sequence and the estimation of a mixed-effects (ME) model to adjust the levels of severities for each crash sequence to account for other crash contributing factors that would have an effect on the maximum level of crash severity in a crash. Three data elements from the National Automotive Sampling System - General Estimating System (NASS-GES) data were utilized to form a crash sequence: critical event, crash types, and sequence of events. A mixed-effects model was constructed to model the severity levels for each crash sequence while accounting for the effects of those crash contributing factors on crash severity. A total of 8039 crashes involving 8208 motorcycles occurred during 2011 and 2013 were

  13. Analysis of effects of manhole covers on motorcycle driver maneuvers: a nonparametric classification tree approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Yen

    2014-01-01

    A manhole cover is a removable plate forming the lid over the opening of a manhole to allow traffic to pass over the manhole and to prevent people from falling in. Because most manhole covers are placed in roadway traffic lanes, if these manhole covers are not appropriately installed or maintained, they can represent unexpected hazards on the road, especially for motorcycle drivers. The objective of this study is to identify the effects of manhole cover characteristics as well as driver factors and traffic and roadway conditions on motorcycle driver maneuvers. A video camera was used to record motorcycle drivers' maneuvers when they encountered an inappropriately installed or maintained manhole cover. Information on 3059 drivers' maneuver decisions was recorded. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were applied to explore factors that can significantly affect motorcycle driver maneuvers when passing a manhole cover. Nearly 50 percent of the motorcycle drivers decelerated or changed their driving path to reduce the effects of the manhole cover. The manhole cover characteristics including the level difference between manhole cover and pavement, the pavement condition over the manhole cover, and the size of the manhole cover can significantly affect motorcycle driver maneuvers. Other factors, including traffic conditions, lane width, motorcycle speed, and loading conditions, also have significant effects on motorcycle driver maneuvers. To reduce the effects and potential risks from the manhole covers, highway authorities not only need to make sure that any newly installed manhole covers are as level as possible but also need to regularly maintain all the manhole covers to ensure that they are in good condition. In the long run, the size of manhole covers should be kept as small as possible so that the impact of manhole covers on motorcycle drivers can be effectively reduced. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher

  14. Effect of gasoline/methanol blends on motorcycle emissions: Exhaust and evaporative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Li, Jiaqiang; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-02-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and M15 (consisting of 85% gasoline and 15% methanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions, including regulated and unregulated emissions, of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED), respectively. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions, including carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and methanol, were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dintrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), Tenax TA and silica gel, respectively. The experimental results showed that, for exhaust emission, compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, the concentration of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 11%-34.5% and 63%-84% respectively, while the concentration of NOx increased by 76.9%-107.7%. Compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, BTEX from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 16%-60% while formaldehyde increased by 16.4%-52.5%. For evaporative emission, diurnal losses were more than hot soak losses and turned out to be dominated in evaporative emissions. In addition, compared with gasoline fueling motorcycles, the evaporative emissions of THC, carbonyls and VOCs from motorcycles fueled with M15 increased by 11.7%-37%, 38%-45% and 16%-42%, respectively. It should be noted that the growth rate of methanol was as high as 297%-1429%. It is important to reduce the evaporative emissions of methanol fueling motorcycles.

  15. Evaluation of innovative motorcycle headlight configurations: effect on car drivers’ perception of motorcyles’ motion

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALLO, Viola; RANCHET, Maud; PINTO, Maria; ESPIE, Stéphane; VIENNE, Fabrice; DANG, Nguyen-Thong

    2014-01-01

    L'expérimentation présentée étudie l'effet de 4 configurations de feux avant de moto sur l'acceptation de créneaux temporels par des automobilistes lorsqu'ils tournent à gauche face à des motocycles. The most frequent cause of motorcycle accidents involves another vehicle violating the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. In addition to detection errors, the misperception of the approaching motorcycle's speed and time-to-arrival is another driver error that may account for these a...

  16. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, risky behaviors, and motorcycle injuries: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,1,2 Leili Abedi,3 Minoo Mahini,4 Shahrokh Amiri,5 Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh6 1Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Safe Community Promotion, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Counseling, Aras International Campus, University of Tehran, Jolfa, 5Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 6Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association of motorcycle traffic injuries with motorcycle riding behavior and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD while controlling for individual correlates of motorcycle traffic injuries.Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 298 patients with motorcycle trauma along with 151 control patients admitted to the Shohada and Imam Reza university hospitals as the two referral specialty centers in the East Azarbyjan Province of Iran in 2013. The Persian version of the Motorcycle Riding Behavior Questionnaire and the Persian version of Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scales (the self-report short version were used to assess riding behavior and screen for adult ADHD, respectively. The scale has four subscales, comprising subscale A (inattention, subscale B (hyperactivity, impulsivity, subscale C (A + C, and subscale D (ADHD index. The statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11.Results: All subjects were male and aged 13–79 years. Approximately 54% of the participants were married and 13% had academic education. Approximately 18% of the motorcycle riders stated that their motorcycle riding was only for fun purposes. More than two thirds of the participants did not

  17. Development of a statewide motorcycle safety plan for Texas : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to develop a statewide plan to reduce motorcycle crashes and : injuries in the state of Texas. The project included a review of published literature on current and proposed : countermeasures for reducing the...

  18. A study on the stability of a motorcycle wheel-swingarm suspension with chain transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, S.; Leonelli, L.

    2017-11-01

    The present study describes a possible driving mechanism for a self-excited oscillation observed in motorcycle dynamics, often referred to as chatter. This phenomenon, affecting the performance of road racing motorcycles, has been simulated in straight running braking manoeuvres with multibody motorcycle models. It involves rear suspension bounce and driveline oscillation in the frequency range between 17 and 22 Hz. A simplified model of a motorcycle rear suspension with chain transmission is proposed and its stability in equilibrium configurations is studied via eigenvalue analysis. The sensitivity with respect to all its governing parameters is analysed by means of stability maps and the self-excitation mechanism is explained with the aid of energy balance analysis and phase diagrams. It is found that the key role for the instability onset is played by the gradient of the nonlinear characteristic slip function of the tyre.

  19. Factors associated with the relationship between motorcycle deaths and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the Kuznets curve relationship for motorcycle deaths. The Kuznets curve describes the inverted U-shape relationship between economic development and, in this case, motorcycle deaths. In early stages of development we expect deaths to increase with increasing motorization. Eventually deaths decrease as technical, policy and political institutions respond to demands for increased safety. We examine this effect as well as some of the factors which might explain the Kuznets relationship: in particular motorcycle helmet laws, medical care and technology improvements, and variables representing the quality of political institutions. We apply a fixed effects negative binomial regression analysis on a panel of 25 countries covering the period 1970-1999. Our results broadly suggest that implementation of road safety regulation, improvement in the quality of political institutions, and medical care and technology developments have contributed to reduced motorcycle deaths.

  20. Switching from motorcycle taxi to walking: A case study of transit station access in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornraht Pongprasert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the factors affecting residents near transit stations within 1000 m, who are referred to as transit-oriented development (TOD residents, to reduce motorcycle taxi use and encourage walking to stations. These two modes of commuting are the most popular among over 85% of residents. However, motorcycle taxis are the main pedestrian barriers that hinder easy access and walkability in TODs of Bangkok, because they ride, stop, and provide services on sidewalks. From 2013 to 2015, these problems substantially increased the number of motorcycle taxis that are not willing and able to follow the rules. The increasing number of pedestrian accidents on sidewalks is related to the increase in the number of motorcycle taxis. According to a survey on pedestrian safety with 249 respondents, over 25% of walkers feel unsafe to walk, while 40% of motorcycle-taxi users riding to stations do not walk because they are afraid of accidents. In modal split, the share of walking reduces from 76% for areas < 500 m, to 25% for areas between 500 and 1000 m from transit stations, respectively. Hence, the number of motorcycle taxis in the 500–1000 m range is twice as high compared to that within the 500 m area. If motorcycle taxi users would accept a longer walking distance to station by 36 m or would be willing to walk to the station within 9.15 min, 54% of them may switch to walking to stations. Moreover, based on the estimation results of the logistic regression models, middle-adult aged residents, office employees, residents owning a car, and people living far from stations are less likely to walk. Average income households and commuters during non-peak hours tend to use motorcycle taxis more. On the other hand, residents living far from stations tend to use motorcycle taxis less, because most of the motorcycle taxi services are located near transit stations. Keywords: Transit accessibility, Pedestrian, Walkability

  1. The relationship between gasoline price and patterns of motorcycle fatalities and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P

    2015-06-01

    Economic factors such as rising gasoline prices may contribute to the crash trends by shaping individuals' choices of transportation modalities. This study examines the relationship of gasoline prices with fatal and non-fatal motorcycle injuries. Data on fatal and non-fatal motorcycle injuries come from California's Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System for 2002-2011. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions were used to estimate the impact of inflation-adjusted gasoline price per gallon on trends of motorcycle injuries. Motorcycle fatalities and severe and minor injuries in California were highly correlated with increasing gasoline prices from 2002 to 2011 (r=0.76, 0.88 and 0.85, respectively). In 2008, the number of fatalities and injuries reached 13,457--a 34% increase since 2002, a time period in which inflation-adjusted gasoline prices increased about $0.30 per gallon every year. The majority of motorcycle riders involved in crashes were male (92.5%), middle-aged (46.2%) and non-Hispanic white (67.9%). Using ARIMA modelling, we estimated that rising gasoline prices resulted in an additional 800 fatalities and 10,290 injuries from 2002 to 2011 in California. Our findings suggest that increasing gasoline prices led to more motorcycle riders on the roads and, consequently, more injuries. Aside from mandatory helmet laws and their enforcement, other strategies may include raising risk awareness of motorcyclists and investment in public transportation as an alternative transportation modality to motorcycling. In addition, universally mandated training courses and strict licensing tests of riding skills should be emphasised to help reduce the motorcycle fatal and non-fatal injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Modeling the effect of operator and passenger characteristics on the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In Iran more than 25% of crash fatalities belong to motorcycle operators and passengers in the recent years, from which about 20% are related to passenger fatalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the motorcycle operator and passenger characteristics as well as other contributory factors that may affect the fatality risk of motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. To this end, motorcycle crash data between 2009 and 2012 was extracted from Iran traffic crash database and a logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio estimates for each of the study variables. The fatality risk of motorcyclists has a direct relationship with the number of pillion passengers carried. Results also indicate that the amount of increase in the likelihood of having a fatality in a motorcycles crash is considerably higher when the operator is accompanied by a male passenger of the same age. Furthermore, results showed that if the crash is occurred in the darkness, on curves, in rural areas and on highways, then the crash would be more likely to be fatal. Moreover, the head-on collisions, older operators, unlicensed operators and not using a safety helmet were found to increase the likelihood of a fatality in a motorcycle crash. Preventative measures such as, imposing stricter rules regarding safety helmet usage and confining the number of pillion passengers to one, might be implemented to reduce the fatality risk in motorcycle crashes. In addition, more appropriate infrastructures for penalizing offending motorcyclists could also reduce the frequency of law violations such as not wearing helmet or riding without motorcycle license, which in turn, would result into a reduction in the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  3. Motorcycle injury among secondary school students in the Tiko municipality, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyagwui, Asonganyi Edwin; Fredinah, Namatovu; Che, Longho Bernard; Yulia, Blomstedt

    2016-01-01

    Injury from motorcycle is a considerable cause of disability and death in the world and especially in low and middle-income countries; it is one of the most serious public health problems. In Cameroon, motorcycle is commonly used for transportation particularly among students. The aim of this paper is to study the risk-factors of the motorcycle-related accidents and injuries among secondary school students' in the Tiko municipality, Cameroon. A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2012 on 391 students age 16-24 from public and private schools in the Tiko Municipality. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between risk factors and injuries. A closed-ended and few open-ended questionnaire was used to collect data. The study showed that over 70% of students used motorcycles always or often. Few had undergone any formal training for driving a motorcycle. The vast majority reported not wearing protective gear while driving or riding a motorcycle. Usage of protective gear was particularly low among girls. Over 16% reported using a motorbike always or occasionally under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Over 58% of respondents reported having an accident and over 35% were injured when driving or riding a motorcycle. Those who lived at the Tiko-Douala road have three times higher probability to sustain accidents and injuries than students residing elsewhere (OR 3.19 (1.20-8.46). It is deeply alarming that every second respondent in the study reported having been in an accident and every third motorcycle user was somehow injured. We therefore call for an immediate attention and a deeper investigation into the highlighted situation, particularly at Tiko-Douala road.

  4. Penetrating injury caused by the gear pedal of a motor-cycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case of a penetrating injury to the left lower extremity caused by the gear pedal of a motor-cycle that pierced through the foot of one of the 3 passengers on a motor-cycle involved in a road traffic accident. He had no neurovascular injury but was found radiologically to have an ipsilateral tibia fracture. The object was ...

  5. Influence of front light configuration on the visual conspicuity of motorcycles

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO, Maria; CAVALLO, Viola; SAINT PIERRE, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    A recent study (Cavallo and Pinto, 2012) showed that daytime running lights (DRLs) on cars create “visual noise” that interferes with the lighting of motorcycles and affects their visual conspicuity. In the present experiment, we tested three conspicuity enhancements designed to improve motorcycle detectability in a car-DRL environment: a triangle configuration (a central headlight plus two lights located on the rear view mirrors), a helmet configuration (a light located on the mo...

  6. Brand Launching and Sustainingin a developing country : The case study of Honda on Vietnam Motorcycle Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Xuan Thu

    2009-01-01

      Abstract Date May 29th, 2009 Course Master Thesis EFO705, International Marketing Tutor Daniel Tolstoy Authors Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen Thi Xuan Thu Nguyen Title Brand Launching and Sustaining in a Developing CountryPurpose The project is to investigate the Brand Launching and Sustaining in a The Case Study of Honda on Vietnam Motorcycle Market developing country through the study on how Honda has successfully launched and sustained its Brand on the Motorcycle Market of Vietnam. Problems Hond...

  7. Characteristics of Motorcycle Ownership and Use of University Students in Malaysian and Indonesian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putranto L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycle ownership and use increased rapidly in Indonesian cities in recent years. People could not cope with severe congestion due to unsatisfactory public transport and uncontrolled land use delopment. This led to motorcycle use for almost any trip. However, in Malaysia motorcycles were mainly used for local short distance travel. In this paper the characteristics of motorcycle ownership and use of university students in Malaysian and Indonesian cities were discussed. A total of 398 university students in eight cities were asked to fill the questionnaires. They consist of general questions regarding their socio-economic back-ground and travel habit along with 25 perceptional questions regarding affordability/ attractiveness of owning motorcycle and practicability/safety of motorcycle use. A variance based structural equation modelling called partial least square-path modelling (PLS-PM was used for analysis. The results show that indicators explaining affordability and acceptability were exactly the same in Penang and combination of seven cities in Indonesia.

  8. Injury severity in delivery-motorcycle to vehicle crashes in the Seoul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Younshik; Song, Tai-Jin; Yoon, Byoung-Jo

    2014-01-01

    More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In addition, the fatality rate for motorcycle crashes is about 12% of the fatality rate for road traffic crashes, which is considered to be high, although motorcycle crashes account for only 5% of road traffic crashes in South Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes that have occurred during delivery. To examine the risk of different injury levels sustained under all crash types of vehicle-to-motorcycle, this study applied an ordered probit model. Based on the results, this study proposes policy implications to reduce the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes during delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  10. A mixed logit analysis of two-vehicle crash severities involving a motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheed, Mohammad Saad B; Gkritza, Konstantina; Zhang, Wei; Hans, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    Using motorcycle crash data for Iowa from 2001 to 2008, this paper estimates a mixed logit model to investigate the factors that affect crash severity outcomes in a collision between a motorcycle and another vehicle. These include crash-specific factors (such as manner of collision, motorcycle rider and non-motorcycle driver and vehicle actions), roadway and environmental conditions, location and time, motorcycle rider and non-motorcycle driver and vehicle attributes. The methodological approach allows the parameters to vary across observations as opposed to a single parameter representing all observations. Our results showed non-uniform effects of rear-end collisions on minor injury crashes, as well as of the roadway speed limit greater or equal to 55mph, the type of area (urban), the riding season (summer) and motorcyclist's gender on low severity crashes. We also found significant effects of the roadway surface condition, clear vision (not obscured by moving vehicles, trees, buildings, or other), light conditions, speed limit, and helmet use on severe injury outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of horizontally curved roadway section characteristics on motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabauer, Douglas J; Li, Xiaolong

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency on horizontally curved roadway sections in Washington State using police-reported crash data linked with roadway data and augmented with barrier presence information. Data included 4915 horizontal curved roadway sections with 252 of these sections experiencing 329 motorcycle-to-barrier crashes between 2002 and 2011. Negative binomial regression was used to predict motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency using horizontal curvature and other roadway characteristics. Based on the model results, the strongest predictor of crash frequency was found to be curve radius. This supports a motorcycle-to-barrier crash countermeasure placement criterion based, at the very least, on horizontal curve radius. With respect to the existing horizontal curve criterion of 820 feet or less, curves meeting this criterion were found to increase motorcycle-to-barrier crash frequency rate by a factor of 10 compared to curves not meeting this criterion. Other statistically significant predictors were curve length, traffic volume and the location of adjacent curves. Assuming curves of identical radius, the model results suggest that longer curves, those with higher traffic volume, and those that have no adjacent curved sections within 300 feet of either curve end would likely be better candidates for a motorcycle-to-barrier crash countermeasure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Injuries and absenteeism among motorcycle taxi drivers who are victims of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Kevan G N; Lucas-Neto, Alfredo; Gama, Bruno D; Lima-Neto, Jose C; Lucas, Rilva Suely C C; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2014-08-01

    Facial injuries frequently occur in traffic accidents involving motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial injuries among motorcycle drivers who perform motorcycle taxi service. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 210 participants who served as motorcycle taxi drivers in a city in northeastern Brazil completed a survey concerning their experience of accidents involving facial injuries and consequent hospitalization and absenteeism from work. The motorcycle drivers included in the study were randomly selected from a list provided by the city. Out of the respondents, 165 (78.6%) who were involved in traffic accidents in the last 12 months, 15 (9.1%) reported facial injuries. The types of facial injury most frequently reported involved soft tissues (n = 8; 53.3%), followed by simple fracture (n = 4; 26.7%) and dentoalveolar fracture (n = 3; 20%). We found an association between facial injuries and absenteeism, as well as an association between the presence of facial injury and the need for hospitalization for a period of 2 days or more. Respondents reported that they had accidents, but due to the use of full face motorcycle helmet the number of facial injuries was low. For most of them, absenteeism was observed for a period of one month or more. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Marketing Mix and Purchasing Behavior for Japanese Motorcycle Brand in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Susilowati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing population in Indonesia leads to increasing demand for motorcycles as one of transportation means. Ease of operation and affordable prices cause motorcycles as a very popular transportation means in Indonesia, especially in big cities. This is because of the traffic density and the people's desire to arrive at their destination quickly. One of the Japanese brands, Honda Beat is the highest selling motorcycle brand in Indonesia based on the data from The Indonesian Motorcycle Industry Association. In this study, we investigate the relationship of marketing mix with consumer purchasing behavior of this specific brand. A judgmental sampling was applied to 100 consumers in Greater Jakarta. Multiple linear regression was employed to analyze the data. The results indicated that promotions have the highest influence on consumer purchasing behaviors of the brand (coeff. = 0.503, then followed by products (coeff. = 0.320, and price perceptions (coeff. = 0.224. This study contributes to the marketing literature by adding a new empirical evidence on how marketing mix can generate perception and preference of brand personality, especially in motorcycle brands. The findings of this study will assist managers of motorcycle brand to maximize specific factors from marketing mix analysis to increase consumer purchasing behavior. Finally, in terms of the method employed in marketing studies, this study contributes to the literature by adding a new combination of a quantitative study of multiple linear regression and personal opinion of consumers.

  14. [Deaths due to motorcycle accidents and their association with variables related to social reproduction in a northeastern Brazilian state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Paul Hindenburg Nobre de Vasconcelos; Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Oliveira, Fernando José Moreira

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this article was to identify the association between motorcycle deaths and variables related to Samaja's theory of social reproduction in the period 2000-2005 in the state of Pernambuco. An ecological, case-control study was carried out, with municipalities as the unit of analysis. Cases were defined as the 20% of municipalities with the highest local empirical Bayesian coefficients for mortality due to motorcycle accidents, and controls as the 40% with the lowest coefficients. The municipalities with the greatest chances of high coefficients for mortality due to motorcycle accidents showed high population growth factors and increases in the total fleet of motorcycles, with low population densities, low GDP per capita, and more than 20 motorcycles per thousand inhabitants. We conclude that the variables related to macro-policies proved to have greater force in explaining higher chances of motorcycle death.

  15. Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedagama D.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

  16. Comparison of moped, scooter and motorcycle crash risk and crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ross A; Haworth, Narelle L

    2013-08-01

    The increased popularity of mopeds and motor scooters in Australia and elsewhere in the last decade has contributed substantially to the greater use of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) as a whole. As the exposure of mopeds and scooters has increased, so too has the number of reported crashes involving those PTW types, but there is currently little research comparing the safety of mopeds and, particularly, larger scooters with motorcycles. This study compared the crash risk and crash severity of motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive data cleansing was undertaken to separate motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in police-reported crash data covering the five years to 30 June 2008. The crash rates of motorcycles (including larger scooters) and mopeds in terms of registered vehicles were similar over this period, although the moped crash rate showed a stronger downward trend. However, the crash rates in terms of distance travelled were nearly four times higher for mopeds than for motorcycles (including larger scooters). More comprehensive distance travelled data is needed to confirm these findings. The overall severity of moped and scooter crashes was significantly lower than motorcycle crashes but an ordered probit regression model showed that crash severity outcomes related to differences in crash characteristics and circumstances, rather than differences between PTW types per se. Greater motorcycle crash severity was associated with higher (>80km/h) speed zones, horizontal curves, weekend, single vehicle and nighttime crashes. Moped crashes were more severe at night and in speed zones of 90km/h or more. Larger scooter crashes were more severe in 70km/h zones (than 60km/h zones) but not in higher speed zones, and less severe on weekends than on weekdays. The findings can be used to inform potential crash and injury countermeasures tailored to users of different PTW types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Increase of the Vehicle Mass for 3-Wheeled Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action changes the regulatory definition of a motorcycle to include 3-wheeled vehicles weighing up to 1749 pounds effective for 1998 and later model year motorcycles for which emission standards are in place.

  18. Effectiveness of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing crashes, the first cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Matteo; Strandroth, Johan; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes; Fildes, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing real-life crashes. Since the European Parliament has voted on legislation making ABS mandatory on all new motorcycles over 125 cc from 2016, the fitment rate in Europe is likely to increase in the coming years. Though previous research has focused on mostly large displacement motorcycles, this study used police reports from Spain (2006-2009), Italy (2009), and Sweden (2003-2012) in order to analyze a wide range of motorcycles, including scooters, and compare countries with different motorcycling habits. The statistical analysis used odds ratio calculations with an induced exposure approach. Previous research found that head-on crashes were the least ABS-affected crash type and was therefore used as the nonsensitive crash type for ABS in these calculations. The same motorcycle models, with and without ABS, were compared and the calculations were carried out for each country separately. Crashes involving only scooters were further analyzed. The effectiveness of motorcycle ABS in reducing injury crashes ranged from 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12-36) in Italy to 29% (95% CI, 20-38) in Spain, and 34% (95% CI, 16-52) in Sweden. The reductions in severe and fatal crashes were even greater, at 34% (95% CI, 24-44) in Spain and 42% (95% CI, 23-61) in Sweden. The overall reductions of crashes involving ABS-equipped scooters (at least 250 cc) were 27% (95% CI, 12-42) in Italy and 22% (95% CI, 2-42) in Spain. ABS on scooters with at least a 250 cc engine reduced severe and fatal crashes by 31% (95% CI, 12-50), based on Spanish data alone. At this stage, there is more than sufficient scientific-based evidence to support the implementation of ABS on all motorcycles, even light ones. Further research should aim at understanding the injury mitigating effects of motorcycle ABS, possibly in combination with combined braking systems.

  19. Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei; Yuan, Wanli

    2015-01-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and E10 (90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED) including regulated and unregulated emissions. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions including carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and Tenax TA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the emission factors of total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) from E10 fueling motorcycles decreased by 26%-45% and 63%-73%, while the emission factor of NOx increased by 36%-54% compared with those from gasoline fueling motorcycles. For unregulated emissions, the emission amount of VOCs from motorcycles fueled with E10 decreased by 18%-31% while total carbonyls were 2.6-4.5 times higher than those for gasoline. For evaporative emissions of THC and VOCs, for gasoline or E10, the diurnal breathing loss (DBL) was higher than hot soak loss (HSL). Using E10 as a fuel does not make much difference in the amount of evaporative THC, while resulted in a slightly growth of 14%-17% for evaporative BETX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A data mining approach to investigate the factors influencing the crash severity of motorcycle pillion passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    Motorcycle passengers comprise a considerable proportion of traffic crash victims. During a 5 year period (2006-2010) in Iran, an average of 3.4 pillion passengers are killed daily due to motorcycle crashes. This study investigated the main factors influencing crash severity of this group of road users. The Classification and Regression Trees (CART) method was employed to analyze the injury severity of pillion passengers in Iran over a 4 y ear period (2009-2012). The predictive accuracy of the model built with a total of 16 variables was 74%, which showed a considerable improvement compared to previous studies. The results indicate that area type, land use, and injured part of the body (head, neck, etc.) are the most influential factors affecting the fatality of motorcycle passengers. Results also show that helmet usage could reduce the fatality risk among motorcycle passengers by 28%. The findings of this study might help develop more targeted countermeasures to reduce the death rate of motorcycle pillion passengers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptions of activity-supportive environment and motorcycle use among urban Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Liao, Yung

    2017-08-18

    Although research has shown that numerous perceived environmental factors are supportive of physical activity, little is known about their associations with sedentary transport in motorcycle-oriented countries. This study examined the association between perceptions of Taiwan's environmental factors and urban adults' motorcycle use. Cross-sectional data from 1003 Taiwanese adults aged 20-64 years from three urban cities were collected through telephonic surveys in 2015. Data on motorcycle use, sociodemographic variables, and perceived environmental attributes were obtained. Logistic regression analyses were performed. In Model 1, adults who perceived favorable access to public transport and destinations, presence of sidewalks, and safety from crimes at night were less likely to use motorcycles. In Model 2, in which potential covariates were additionally adjusted for, the same four environmental attributes (perceived favorable access to public transport and destinations, presence of sidewalks, and safety from crimes at night; odds ratio [OR] = 0.46, 0.65, 0.63, 0.64, respectively) were significantly associated with motorcycle use. The investigated perceived environmental factors, which have previously been associated with facilitating active transportation, discourage sedentary modes of transport, such as motorized vehicles.

  2. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicity assessment of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motorcycle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-T.; Chen, B.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the toxicity of various pollutant species from motorcycle exhaust via dose-response analysis and margin of safety using Escherichia coli DH5α. The toxicity evaluation of the major components of motorcycle exhaust volatile organic compounds (VOCs), collected with impinger, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), collected with filter and XAD-2, is essential to determine emission standards for motorcycles. The toxicity of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E) and xylene (X) was selected for comparison as standard VOCs emitted from motorcycles. In addition, three types of reformulated gasoline (high oxygenate and high benzene content (No. 1), low oxygen and high benzene (No. 2), and low oxygen and low benzene (No. 3) were prepared to reveal combined toxicity of individual compositions. Motorcycle exhaust is significantly more toxic than BTEX due to the highly toxic VOCs generated from incomplete combustion. Overall toxicity evaluation showed that the toxicity, indicated as EC 50 , was approximately as follows: PAHs > two-stroke engines > four-stroke engines > BTEX

  4. Toxicity assessment of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motorcycle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chang-Tang; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2008-05-30

    This study investigates the toxicity of various pollutant species from motorcycle exhaust via dose-response analysis and margin of safety using Escherichia coli DH5 alpha. The toxicity evaluation of the major components of motorcycle exhaust volatile organic compounds (VOCs), collected with impinger, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), collected with filter and XAD-2, is essential to determine emission standards for motorcycles. The toxicity of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E) and xylene (X) was selected for comparison as standard VOCs emitted from motorcycles. In addition, three types of reformulated gasoline (high oxygenate and high benzene content (No. 1), low oxygen and high benzene (No. 2), and low oxygen and low benzene (No. 3) were prepared to reveal combined toxicity of individual compositions. Motorcycle exhaust is significantly more toxic than BTEX due to the highly toxic VOCs generated from incomplete combustion. Overall toxicity evaluation showed that the toxicity, indicated as EC50, was approximately as follows: PAHs>two-stroke engines>four-stroke engines>BTEX.

  5. AT89S52 Microcontroller Based A Speed Restraint Equipment for Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan hidayat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Security riding is very important in the aspects of traffic. One of the main factors of traffic accidents is high speed. Therefore, it is required a speed restraint equipment for pressing the number of accidents. The car speed restraint system is available in the market, but on a motorcycle is not available yet. This paper presents a design of speed restraint equipment for motorcycle that safe for users, and is expected to reduce traffic accident. The Main idea this speed restriction is cutting off the flow of electrical signals from the pulser (the time ignition trigger sensor to the CDI for 1 second. The cutting Signal with mechanical relays controlled by microcontroller AT89S52 using the on-off algorithm. Speed sensor use optocoupler is used to detect the number of rounds wheel motorcycle. If a result of measurement is more than the speed setpoint, microcontroler make a decission to cut motorcycle ignition signal. Results of this research is a prototype speed restraint shown that it able to process data from the measurement of the speed limit on the speed of a motorcycle. This prototype safe for all users and accordance with the set value and the level of success is above 90% for speed of 10 km/hr to 40 km/hr.

  6. Motorcycles Health and Traffic Safety: Evidence from Commercial Motorcyclists in Gombe State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiru Inuwa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although commercial motorcyclists are gaining acceptance by all and sundry as a means of public transport which are adapted to the contemporary Nigerian society. However, expose to all hazards including accidents are further worsened by the lack of proper knowledge on road safety measures of the commercial motorcycle riders. Therefore, this study evaluates the effects of a commercial motorcycle on health and traffic safety in Gombe metropolis, Gombe State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in Gombe Metropolis with using the random sampling technique to select 500 motorcyclists sample size. The data generated were analyzed using simple percentages. The study finds that most of the motorcycles accidents were caused by reckless riding, drug abuse and disregard to traffic rules. Similarly, the study finds that Tricycles are the most important factor causing motorcycle accidents in Gombe metropolis. Furthermore, the study finds that most of the respondents suffer from at least one health challenge as a result of their continuous use of the motorcycle. The study therefore recommends that government and other relevant agencies should be equipped with materials and human resources to embark on regular and massive breath testing of motorcyclists to detect riders who ride under the influence of drugs. This can be achieved through identifying the Drunken riders and make them face the wrath of the law.

  7. Profile of motorcycle victims from the emergency service of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Amim Zabeu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological survey of motorcycle accidents occurring in a city with over one million inhabitants and treated at university hospital of reference between the months of July and November 2010. METHODS: Cross sectional study using structured interview (standardized form to document the data collection: age, gender, income, using time and capacity of the motorcycle. RESULTS: From 114 cases, it was observed that the profile of the victim of motorcycle accident treated at this hospital is a young person, male, possessing a driver's license for less than five years, with a monthly income average around one thousand reais (local currency, owner of a motorcycle with low capacity (less than 150 cc and low educational attainment. The accidents occurred predominantly in the urban area, in the afternoons and one third of them were considered work-related accidents, death generated in 3 per cent of cases and open fractures in 11 per cent of them. CONCLUSION: The incidence of motorcycle accidents involved mainly young men with little experience in traffic and low level of education.

  8. [Traffic accidents from the motorcycle couriers' perspective: feedback for health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Andréa Márian; de Oliveira, Dora Lúcia Leidens Corrêa

    2006-12-01

    This research note is the result of a qualitative study in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aimed at exploring traffic accident risk from the motorcycle couriers' point of view. The research results highlight the importance of accident prevention and health promotion for these workers. The study was based on sociological theories of risk, especially those emphasizing the social and cultural nature of its meanings. Information was gathered through focus groups and analyzed according to the Data-Based Theory. According to the research subjects, all motorcycle couriers, the traffic accident risk is inherent to their daily work duties and is produced by personal and social interests like money, speed, and urgency. Motorcycle couriers attempt to control such risks by using self-defense strategies. Considering the high incidence of traffic accidents with motorcycle couriers in Porto Alegre, these strategies have apparently not been effective. This note emphasizes that traffic accidents involving motorcycle couriers are work-related accidents, and that health promotion measures to prevent them should target not only the couriers themselves but also their employers and customers.

  9. 40 CFR 86.447-2006 - What provisions apply to motorcycle engines below 50 cc that are certified under the Small SI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What provisions apply to motorcycle... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.447-2006 What provisions apply to motorcycle engines below 50 cc that are certified under the Small SI program or the Recreational-vehicle...

  10. Effects of repealing the motorcycle helmet law in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Zachary; Simon, Robert; Barnes, Wesley; Mohammad, Azmath; Sevak, Shruti; Ziegler, Kathryn; Iacco, Anthony; Janczyk, Randy

    2017-09-01

    In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal helmet law. Our study assessed the clinical impact of this repeal. Our trauma database was queried retrospectively for 2 motorcycle riding seasons before and 3 seasons after repeal. On-scene death data was obtained from the Medical Examiner. Helmet use in hospitalized patients decreased after the helmet law repeal. Non-helmeted patients had a significant increased rate of head injury. Non-helmeted patients were more likely to die during hospitalization. While, helmet use and drugs/alcohol status significantly affected the risk for head injury, only drug/alcohol had a significant effect on overall mortality. Following helmet law repeal, helmet use has decreased. Helmet status and drug/alcohol use was found to significantly increase risk of head injury. Although overall mortality was only affected by drug/alcohol use, non-helmeted patients did have a higher inpatient mortality. These findings deserve furthermore study and may provide a basis for reinstating the universal helmet law. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Motorcycle Safety Education Programs: Report of a Survey of State Departments of Education and of Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Driver and Traffic Safety Education Association, Washington, DC.

    A survey of State departments of education and colleges and universities, conducted by the Motorcycle Industry Council Safety and Education Foundation, revealed the need for more teacher education programs, instructional materials, and organized workshops that promote motorcycle safety education. The primary interest indicated by State departments…

  12. Determinants of helmet use behaviour among employed motorcycle riders in Yazd, Iran based on theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mehri; Saeed, Mazloomy Mahmoodabad Seyed; Ali, Morowatisharifabad Mohammad; Haidar, Nadrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on predictors of helmet use behaviour, using variables based on the theory of planned behaviour model among the employed motorcycle riders in Yazd-Iran, in an attempt to identify influential factors that may be addressed through intervention efforts. In 2007, a cluster random sample of 130 employed motorcycle riders in the city of Yazd in central Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control, intention along with helmet use behaviour). Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. The statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and multiple regression. Based on the results, 56 out of all the respondents (43.1%) had history of accident by motorcycle. Of these motorcycle riders only 10.7% were wearing their helmet at the time of their accident. Intention and perceived behavioural control showed a significant relationship with helmet use behaviour and perceived behaviour control was the strongest predictor of helmet use intention, followed by subjective norms, and attitude. It was found that that helmet use rate among motorcycle riders was very low. The findings of present study provide a preliminary support for the TPB model as an effective framework for examining helmet use in motorcycle riders. Understanding motorcycle rider's thoughts, feelings and beliefs about helmet use behaviour can assist intervention specialists to develop and implement effective programs in order to promote helmet use among motorcycle riders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities in the wake of governmentally implemented change: a retrospective analysis of the motorcycle morbidity and mortality before, during, and after the repeal of a statewide helmet mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Shane F; Ambekar, Sudheer; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Nanda, Anil

    2013-06-01

    On August 15, 2004, Louisiana's universal motorcycle helmet mandate was reinstated. Previous studies have shown that mortality and morbidity of motorcycle riders who crashed had increased during the 5 years the mandate was repealed. The objective of this study was to discern whether the reinstatement of the universal helmet mandate has resulted in a subsequent decrease in motorcycle-related mortality and morbidity in the state of Louisiana. A retrospective analysis was performed observing the regularity of helmet use and the associated morbidity and mortality of motorcycle traffic accidents from the time before, during, and after the universal motorcycle helmet mandate was repealed in the state of Louisiana. Fatality statistics were obtained through the National Highway Safety Traffic Association. Injury, helmet use, and collision data were obtained from the Louisiana Highway Safety Commission. Motorcycle registration data were obtained from the Federal Highway Administration. Motorcycle crash-related fatalities increased significantly when the statewide helmet mandate was repealed, and interestingly, after reinstatement, these fatality rates never returned to their previous lows. Motorcycle fatalities have increased out of proportion to the increase in motorbike registrations, even when yearly fatalities are normalized to fatalities per 10,000 registered bikes. An all-time high in fatalities was seen in 2006, a year subsequent to the mandate's reinstatement. Fatalities per collision were elevated significantly after the mandate's repeal but did not return to prerepeal lows after the mandate's reinstatement. Although helmet use after reinstatement has reached all-time highs, fatality rates have remained elevated since the original mandate repeal in 1999. Other achievable changes in state policy and law enforcement should be explored to quell this heightened risk to motorcycle enthusiasts in Louisiana, and states considering changing their own motorcycle helmet

  14. Marshall properties of asphalt concrete using crumb rubber modified of motorcycle tire waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the effect of Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) of motorcycle tire waste on Marshall properties of asphalt mix. Two types of aggregate gradation, asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC) and asphalt concrete base (ACB), and CRM passing #50 sieve size were used. Seven levels of CRM content were investigated in this study, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, and 6% by weight of aggregate. Marshall test is conducted on Marshall specimens. The specimens are tested in their optimum binder content (OBC). The results indicate that CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste increases the Marshall stability of the both mix, ACWC and ACB. In addition, 1% CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste of the total mix weight is the best mix.

  15. Epidemiological pattern of motorcycle injuries with focus on riding purpose: Experience from a middle-income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leili Abedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death worldwide which usually occurs among people aged between15-29 years. In most LAMICs, half of fatal road traffic injuries occur among motorcyclists, which little is known about purpose of riding among motorcycle riders. Objectives: To map out epidemiological aspects of motorcycle traffic injuries with a focus on purpose of riding among victims admitted to referral centers, Tabriz, Iran. Materials/Patients and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on 200 motorcycle traumatic patients admitted to Shohada and Imam Reza trauma centers in Tabriz((because these two hospitals are referral for trauma in East Azarbyjan Province, Iran from April till November 2013. A questionnaire was filled out through face to face interview for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11. Results: All subjects were male with mean age of 29 years old. Among injured riders, 70% and 22% of them used helmet and had a riding license, respectively. About 23% of motorcycle riders stated that their main purpose of motorcycle riding was only for fun. Among motorcycle riders who used the motorcycle for fun purposes, the rate of helmet wearing was 43.5% versus 78% among those riding for other purposes (P 0.05; Odd ratio=1. 56, 95% CI: 0. 67-3.4. Crashes have happened more in the summer and during the afternoon times. Conclusion: Motorcyclists who rode motorcycles for fun and amusement, not having rider licenses and helmets wearing were less than other motorcycle riders. Since motorcyclists are mainly young, the rate of risky behavior in this group is higher. Therefore, it is suggested that young motorcycle riders who ride for fun, needs the priority for safety promotion intervention.

  16. Underbelly injury based identification of the driver in a three-rider motorcycle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengxiong; Yin, Zhiyong; Su, Sen; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a three-rider motorcycle accident which took place in a suburb of Chongqing China. In the accident, the motorcycle impacted the terminal of a bridge footpath and led to two riders died and one rider injured. After the accident, one rider received injuries around the groin area including the underbelly area and the perineum area. Another rider suffered from injuries only on the perineum areas. In medico-legal judgments, injuries around the groin area also called groin injuries in victims of motorcycle accidents are usually regarded as "fuel tank injuries" which are commonly found in drivers. But, the injuries around the groin area are sometimes confused with the perineum injuries. Therefore, the perineum injuries are often wrongly reckoned as the "fuel tank injuries" and used to identify the drivers too. Actually, passengers can sometimes suffer from perineum injuries in many head-on impacting motorcycle accidents. It is of vital matters to understand the differences between groin injuries and perineum injuries so that the real driver who should be responsible for the accident can be recognized. In this paper, the three-rider motorcycle accident was presented and the injury information of the three riders was studied in order to distinguish the real driver from the riders. We consider that the groin injury has some differences with the perineum injury and the latter should not always be related to the driver especially in high-speed head-on impacting motorcycle accidents. In addition, the injury on underbelly areas is important to identify the driver. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. FACTORS RELATED TO MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NORTHEASTERN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpawadee, Urai; Homchampa, Pissamai; Thongkrajai, Pramote; Suwanimitr, Amorn; Chadbunchachai, Witaya

    2015-07-01

    Young motorcycle drivers in Thailand are at high risk for road traffic accidents. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with motorcycle accident risk behavior (MARB). We studied 372 randomly selected university students aged 18-22 years (mean 20.2 years; women comprised 68.0% of our participants), who attend a government university in northeastern Thailand. Each student was asked to fill out a questionnaire asking about MARB and factors associated with this behavior. The respondents had an average of 6.2 years (SD+3.09) motorcycle driving experience, 72.3% had a motorcycle driver's license and 83.0% had accident insurance. The prevalence of self-reported motorcycle accident injuries was 42.7%. Their major MARB were using a telephone while driving (69.3%), speeding (45.4%), driving with more than one passenger (40.1%), drunk driving (22.1%), and not wearing a helmet (23.3%). Factors related to MARB were: gender, with men engaged in risky behavior more often than women (p motorcycle driving--drivers with > 5 years experience were more likely to engage in risky behavior (p < 0.05); and knowledge of safe driving, those with a greater knowledge of safe driving were more likely to drive safely (p < 0.001). Having a greater awareness of MARB was associated with lower risk of engaging in risky behavior (p < 0.001). Students who engaged in risky behavior were more likely to view it as normal behavior (p < 0.001) and less likely to have adequate self-control (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate a need to strengthen accident prevention programs for university students in northeastern Thailand.

  18. Population based case–control study of serious non-fatal motorcycle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Motorcycle sales, registration and use are increasing in many countries. The epidemiological literature on risk factors for motorcycle injury is becoming outdated, due to changes in rider demography, licensing regulations, traffic mix and density, road environments, and motorcycle designs and technologies. Further, the potential contribution of road infrastructure and travel speed has not yet been examined. Methods/design A population based case–control study together with a nested case-crossover study is planned. Cases will be motorcycle riders who are injured but not killed in a motorcycle crash on a public road within 150 km radius of Melbourne, Australia, and admitted to one of the study hospitals. Controls will be motorcycle riders who ride through the crash site on the same type of day (weekday or weekend) within an hour of the crash time. Data on rider, bike, and trip characteristics will be collected from the participants by questionnaire. Data on crash site characteristics will be collected in a structured site inspection, and travel speed for the cases will be estimated from these data. Travel speed for the controls will be measured prior to recruitment with a radar traffic detection device as they ride through the crash site. Control sites for the case-crossover study will be selected 1 km upstream from the crash site and matched on either intersection status or road curvature (either straight or cornered). If the initial site selected does not match the case site on these characteristics, then the closest matching site on the case route will be selected. Conditional multivariate logistic regression models will be used to compare risk between the matched case and control riders and to examine associations between road infrastructure and road environment characteristics and crash occurrence. Interactions between type of site and speed will be tested to determine if site type is an effect modifier of the relationship between speed and crash

  19. Improving car drivers' perception of motorcycle motion through innovative headlight configurations.

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALLO, Viola; RANCHET, Maud; PINTO, Maria; ESPIE, Stéphane; VIENNE, Fabrice; DANG, Nguyen-Thong

    2015-01-01

    L'article présente une expérimentation sur simulateur de conduite qui examine l'effet de différentes configurations de feux avant de moto sur les créneaux temporels acceptés par des automobilistes lorsqu'ils tournent à gauche face à à des motocycles. L'impact des configurations de feux est évalué dans différentes conditions d'illumination (jour, crépuscule, nuit). The most frequent cause of motorcycle accidents occurs when another vehicle violates the motorcycle's right-of-way at an inters...

  20. Implementation of Automatic Clustering Algorithm and Fuzzy Time Series in Motorcycle Sales Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasim; Junaeti, E.; Wirantika, R.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate forecasting for the sale of a product depends on the forecasting method used. The purpose of this research is to build motorcycle sales forecasting application using Fuzzy Time Series method combined with interval determination using automatic clustering algorithm. Forecasting is done using the sales data of motorcycle sales in the last ten years. Then the error rate of forecasting is measured using Means Percentage Error (MPE) and Means Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). The results of forecasting in the one-year period obtained in this study are included in good accuracy.

  1. Paternalism and its discontents: motorcycle helmet laws, libertarian values, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-02-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists' advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering.

  2. Influence of dimension box differences and time differences during operations of red box for motorcycles at signalized intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadi, Agah Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Performance of signalized intersection has declined due to a large number of motorcycles. The number of motorcycles reached 98.2 million units and the composition of motorcycles has reached around 81.7% of the total composition of vehicles in Indonesia (AISI, 2017). To solve that problem, the red box for motorcycles are provided at the signalized intersection. Red box for the motorcycle at signalized intersections was developed from the concept of Advance Stop Line (ASL) for bicycles. The Red Box was developed to split the queue between motorcycles and other vehicles when waiting at red light. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of the red box dimension and red time operation differences. The survey was conducted as many as 30 cycles of traffic signals per day. The data were analyzed using software IBM SPSS Statistics 20 by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to obtain p-value (significant). The analysis shows that there are insignificant influences between the occupancy rates to the dimension of Red Box. Furthermore, that there is a significant difference that shows the dependency of only motorcycles in the Red Box Area towards red time operation.

  3. Considering the effects of ambient particulate matter on the lung function of motorcycle taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hara, Kunio; Mahasandana, Suwisa

    2018-02-01

    The motorcycle taxi drivers of Bangkok have been heavily exposed to high concentrations of PM 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm), and the impact of this on their lungs has been neither documented nor studied. This study examines the association between exposure to PM 10 and lung function decline among motorcycle taxi drivers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangkok between two groups: a subject group of motorcycle taxi drivers and control group of enclosed vehicle taxi drivers. The findings of the Thailand Pollution Control Department were used to estimate the annual ambient PM 10 concentration levels in the metropolis. Pulmonary functions of motorcycle taxi drivers and enclosed vehicle taxi drivers were measured and compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to estimate the effects of PM 10 exposure on the lung function of motorcycle taxi drivers. A total of 1283 motorcycle taxi drivers and 600 taxi drivers were investigated. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) of the motorcycle taxi drivers was significantly lower than that of the taxi drivers (P Organization (WHO) vehicular emission standards should be recognized and eventually enforced.

  4. Motorcycle On-Road Driving Parameters Influencing Fuel Consumption and Emissions on Congested Signalized Urban Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atthapol Seedam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the on-road driving parameters influencing fuel consumption and emissions of motorcycle driving on a congested signalized urban corridor. A motorcycle onboard measurement system was developed to measure instantaneously and continuously record on-road driving data, including speed-time profile, emissions, and fuel consumption, by the second. The test motorcycles were driven by 30 sample motorcyclists on a signalized urban corridor in Khon Kaen City, Thailand, to collect their on-road driving behavior during the morning peak period. Cluster analysis was applied to analyze collected driving data and to categorize the drivers by level of fuel consumption and on-road driver behavior. The on-road driving parameter influencing fuel consumption and emissions was then determined. Results revealed that proportion of idle time significantly influenced fuel consumption and emissions of motorcycle driving on a congested signalized urban corridor, though aggressive driving behavior, hard acceleration and deceleration, did not have the same kind of influence.

  5. Do Children Understand the Basic Relationship Between Speech and Writing? The Mow-Motorcycle Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; And Others

    School children (N=218) who have not yet attained moderate reading fluency were tested for their awareness of a fundamental relationship between our writing system and speech: that the sounds of speech are represented in writing. Children were shown a long and short word written on a card (e.g., mow and motorcycle), and asked which word…

  6. A multibody motorcycle model with rigid-ring tyres: formulation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Luca; Mancinelli, Nicolò

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is the development and validation of a three-dimensional multibody motorcycle model including a rigid-ring tyre model, taking into account both the slopes and elevation of the road surface. In order to achieve accurate assessment of ride and handling performances of a road racing motorcycle, a tyre model capable of reproducing the dynamic response to actual road excitation is required. While a number of vehicle models with such feature are available for car application, the extension to the motorcycle modelling has not been addressed yet. To do so, a novel parametrisation for the general motorcycle kinematics is proposed, using a mixed reference point and relative coordinates approach. The resulting description, developed in terms of dependent coordinates, makes it possible to include the rigid-ring kinematics as well as road elevation and slopes, without affecting computational efficiency. The equations of motion for the whole multibody system are derived symbolically and the constraint equations arising from the dependent coordinate formulation are handled using the position and velocity vector projection technique. The resulting system of equations is integrated in time domain using a standard ordinary differential equation (ODE) algorithm. Finally, the model is validated with respect to experimentally measured data in both time and frequency domains.

  7. The full moon and motorcycle related mortality: population based double control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Shafir, Eldar

    2017-12-11

    To test whether a full moon contributes to motorcycle related deaths. Population based, individual level, double control, cross sectional analysis. Nighttime (4 pm to 8 am), United States. 13 029 motorcycle fatalities throughout the United States, 1975 to 2014 (40 years). Motorcycle fatalities during a full moon. 13 029 motorcyclists were in fatal crashes during 1482 relevant nights. The typical motorcyclist was a middle aged man (mean age 32 years) riding a street motorcycle with a large engine in a rural location who experienced a head-on frontal impact and was not wearing a helmet. 4494 fatal crashes occurred on the 494 nights with a full moon (9.10/night) and 8535 on the 988 control nights without a full moon (8.64/night). Comparisons yielded a relative risk of 1.05 associated with the full moon (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.09, P=0.005), a conditional odds ratio of 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.37, Pmotorcycle crashes, although potential confounders cannot be excluded. An awareness of the risk might encourage motorcyclists to ride with extra care during a full moon and, more generally, to appreciate the power of seemingly minor distractions at all times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. The Effects of Prompting and Reinforcement on Safe Behavior of Bicycle and Motorcycle Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was…

  9. The Art of the Motorcycle and the History of Art (and Condensed Matter Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles

    Many topics in physics are such that they are difficult to present in ways that the general public finds engaging. In this talk I will discuss two topics I have worked on, directly related to my research in optical and condensed matter physics, that continue to have widespread appeal. In 1871 Louis Guillaume Perreaux installed a compact steam engine in a commercial bicycle and thus produced the world's first motorcycle. The 145 years since the Michaux-Perreaux have resulted in standard production motorcycles incorporating such materials as carbon-fiber composites, maraging steels, and ''exotic'' alloys of magnesium, titanium and aluminum that can exceed 190 mph straight from the show room floor. As a result of 'The Art of the Motorcycle' exhibition I co-curated at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum the public has learned the evolution of motorcycles is interwoven with developments in materials physics. In a second topic, discoveries I made with the renowned artist David Hockney convincingly demonstrated optical instruments were in use - by artists, not scientists - nearly 200 years earlier than commonly thought possible, and for the first time account for the remarkable transformation in the reality of portraits that occurred early in the 15th century. By learning a few principles of geometrical optics the public gains insight into the working process of artists such as van Eyck, Bellini and Caravaggio. Acknowledgement: Portions of this work done in collaboration with David Hockney.

  10. Motorcycle Area Design and Location: Impacts on the Recreational Experiences of Riders and Nonriders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Richard L.; Fillmore, Edgar C.

    This study analyzes some of the psychological and sociological effects of constructing motorcycle riding areas adjacent to fixed-site compgrounds. Findings include rider and camper profiles, self- and camper-perceptions of riders, and preferences and satisfactions of campers and riders concerning the proximity and design of riding areas.…

  11. Fatal motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran: a com-munity-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To identify the main character-istics of victims of motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province which has the fourth largest population of all 31 provinces in Iran from March 2009 to June 2010. We included data from all 542 recorded cases of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents. Data were recorded from the foren-sic medicine registry consisting of demographic and acci-dent-related information. Demographic information con-sisted of name, age, sex, status of fatal victim (motorcycle driver vs passenger and educational level. Results: Of the 2 345 autopsy records from the foren-sic medicine archives, 542 (23.1% gave the cause of death as motor vehicle accidents. Mean age of these victims was (31.4±16.5 years, and the male to female ratio was 28. Head injury was the most common cause of death in these victims, and overall they tended to have a low level of education. Motorcycle accidents frequently involved younger age groups (15-35 years, and head trauma related with non-use of a helmet was the most common cause of death. Conclusions: Head injury is frequent among victims in the province we studied. This situation may be related to the victims’ low socioeconomic status and little education regarding traffic laws leading to speeding and disregard of these laws along with their weak enforcement. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Motorcycles; Iran

  12. [Association between psychosocial aspects of work and quality of life among motorcycle taxi drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Pereira, Rafael; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Rios, Marcela Andrade; Amorim, Camila Rego; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of motorcycle taxi drivers and the association with psychosocial characteristics of their work. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 400 motorcycle taxi drivers in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil. The study used a form containing demographic and socioeconomic data, WHO Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Motorcycle taxi drivers with greater decision-making control over their work showed better self-rated quality of life in the psychological domain; those with high psychological demands presented better self-rated quality of life in the social relations and environmental domains; those with high strain and active work showed better self-rated quality of life in the social and environmental domains. The psychosocial work environment and especially decision-making autonomy were thus important determinants of self-rated quality of life in this group of motorcycle taxi drivers.

  13. Influence of front light configuration on the visual conspicuity of motorcycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Maria; Cavallo, Viola; Saint-Pierre, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    A recent study (Cavallo and Pinto, 2012) showed that daytime running lights (DRLs) on cars create "visual noise" that interferes with the lighting of motorcycles and affects their visual conspicuity. In the present experiment, we tested three conspicuity enhancements designed to improve motorcycle detectability in a car-DRL environment: a triangle configuration (a central headlight plus two lights located on the rearview mirrors), a helmet configuration (a light located on the motorcyclist's helmet in addition to the central headlight), and a single central yellow headlight. These three front-light configurations were evaluated in comparison to the standard configuration (a single central white headlight). Photographs representing complex urban traffic scenes were presented briefly (for 250ms). The results revealed better motorcycle-detection performance for both the yellow headlight and the helmet configuration than for the standard configuration. The findings suggest some avenues for defining a new visual signature for motorcycles in car-DRL environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting motorcycle crash injury severity using weather data and alternative Bayesian multivariate crash frequency models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Gill, Gurdiljot Singh; Sakrani, Taha; Dasu, Mohan; Zhou, Jiao

    2017-11-01

    Motorcycle crashes constitute a very high proportion of the overall motor vehicle fatalities in the United States, and many studies have examined the influential factors under various conditions. However, research on the impact of weather conditions on the motorcycle crash severity is not well documented. In this study, we examined the impact of weather conditions on motorcycle crash injuries at four different severity levels using San Francisco motorcycle crash injury data. Five models were developed using Full Bayesian formulation accounting for different correlations commonly seen in crash data and then compared for fitness and performance. Results indicate that the models with serial and severity variations of parameters had superior fit, and the capability of accurate crash prediction. The inferences from the parameter estimates from the five models were: an increase in the air temperature reduced the possibility of a fatal crash but had a reverse impact on crashes of other severity levels; humidity in air was not observed to have a predictable or strong impact on crashes; the occurrence of rainfall decreased the possibility of crashes for all severity levels. Transportation agencies might benefit from the research results to improve road safety by providing motorcyclists with information regarding the risk of certain crash severity levels for special weather conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of sulfur and aromatic contents in gasoline on motorcycle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, An-Lin; Jeng, Fu-Tien

    By investigating the effect of sulfur and aromatic contents in gasoline on the criteria pollutant emissions [CO, total hydrocarbons (THCs), and NO x] and on air toxics in the exhaust from a non-catalyst four-stroke motorcycle engine, inferences can be made concerning the effect of fuel composition on motorcycle emissions. The fuels were blended with different contents of sulfur (40 and 150 ppmw) and aromatics (20 and 30 vol%). The data indicate that the sulfur content does not correlate with the emissions of the criteria pollutants from the catalyst free engine. Instead, lowering aromatic content in gasoline reduced the THC emission by over 30%, especially in the cruising test. The NO x emission, however, showed an inverse correlation with the aromatic content in gasoline. While a reduction of aromatic content in gasoline may decrease emissions of benzene and toluene, it will increase the emission of aldehyde. Since the percentage changes of emission factor of THC and air toxics in the motorcycle were larger than those in passenger cars, the benefit of emission reduction due to fuel composition changes in motorcycles may have significant impacts in health risk analysis.

  16. Optimization of suitable ethanol blend ratio for motorcycle engine using response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Liang; Chen, Suming; Tsai, Jin-Ming; Tsai, Chao-Yin; Fang, Hsin-Hsiung; Yang, I-Chang; Liu, Sen-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In view of energy shortage and air pollution, ethanol-gasoline blended fuel used for motorcycle engine was studied in this work. The emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) and engine performance of a 125 cc four-stroke motorcycle engine with original carburetor using ethanol-gasoline fuels were investigated. The model of three-variable Box Behnken design (BBD) was used for experimental design, the ethanol blend ratios were prepared at 0, 10, 20 vol%; the speeds of motorcycle were selected as 30, 45, 60 km/h; and the throttle positions were set at 30, 60, 90 %. Both engine performance and air pollutant emissions were then analyzed by response surface method (RSM) to yield optimum operation parameters for tolerable pollutant emissions and maximum engine performance. The RSM optimization analysis indicated that the most suitable ethanol-gasoline blended ratio was found at the range of 3.92-4.12 vol% to yield a comparable fuel conversion efficiency, while considerable reductions of exhaust pollutant emissions of CO (-29 %) and NO(X) (-12 %) when compared to pure gasoline fuel. This study demonstrated low ethanol-gasoline blended fuels could be used in motorcycle carburetor engines without any modification to keep engine power while reducing exhaust pollutants.

  17. Human Performance in Motorcycle Road Racing: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Artibale, Emanuele; Laursen, Paul B; Cronin, John B

    2018-03-13

    Performance in motorcycle road racing is typically considered as the summation of interactions between rider, motorcycle, tires, and environment. Despite the substantial investments made towards the development of motorcycle technology and the business interests of manufacturers, published research focusing on the riders is relatively sparse, and a bike-centered mentality tends to dominate the sport. This manuscript reviews the known human performance aspects of motorcycle road racing and suggests directions for future research. In this sport, riders are exposed to a complex interaction of physiological, mechanical, and psychological stresses, alongside the ever-present potential for injury from crashes or localized muscular overload (i.e., chronic exertional forearm compartmental syndrome). The reviewed literature shows that riders involved in competitive road racing should develop proper levels of body composition, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, specific flexibility, and heat tolerance in addition to their all-important technical riding skills. Furthermore, specific resistance to inertial stresses, visual acuity, mental and physical resilience, psychological strategies, and behavioral awareness all appear to be meaningful contributors to successful performance. Further work is needed to profile riders according to their level to create evidence-based methodologies that improve performance. Additionally, future research should aim to improve safety for these athletes and deepen the understanding about the magnitude of metabolic, mental, technical, biomechanical, and muscular demands in relation to anthropometric characteristics, sex, categories of competition, and success rate.

  18. 49 CFR 571.123 - Standard No. 123; Motorcycle controls and displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... handgrip. If a motorcycle with an automatic clutch other than a scooter is equipped with a supplemental rear brake control, the control shall be located on the left handlebar. If a scooter with an automatic... equipped with self-proportioning or antilock braking devices utilizing a single control for front and rear...

  19. Motorcycle emissions and fuel consumption in urban and rural driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K S; Wang, W C; Chen, H M; Lin, C F; Hsu, H C; Kao, J H; Hu, M T

    2003-08-01

    This work reports sampling of motorcycle on-road driving cycles in actual urban and rural environments and the development of representative driving cycles using the principle of least total variance in individual regions. Based on the representative driving cycles in individual regions, emission factors for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)=NO+NO(2)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)), as well as fuel consumption, were determined using a chassis dynamometer. The measurement results show that the representative driving cycles are almost identical in the three largest cities in Taiwan, but they differ significantly from the rural driving cycle. Irrespective of driving conditions, emission factors differ insignificantly between the urban and rural regions at a 95% confidence level. However, the fuel consumption in urban centers is approximately 30% higher than in the rural regions, with driving conditions in the former usually poor compared to the latter. Two-stroke motorcycles generally have considerably higher HC emissions and quite lower NO(x) emissions than those of four-stroke motorcycles. Comparisons with other studies suggest that factors such as road characteristics, traffic volume, vehicle type, driving conditions and driver behavior may affect motorcycle emission levels in real traffic situations.

  20. Motorcycle emissions and fuel consumption in urban and rural driving conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.S.; Wang, W.C.; Chen, H.M.; Lin, C.F.; Hsu, H.C.; Kao, J.H.; Hu, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    This work reports sampling of motorcycle on-road driving cycles in actual urban and rural environments and the development of representative driving cycles using the principle of least total variance in individual regions. Based on the representative driving cycles in individual regions, emission factors for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO x =NO+NO 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), as well as fuel consumption, were determined using a chassis dynamometer. The measurement results show that the representative driving cycles are almost identical in the three largest cities in Taiwan, but they differ significantly from the rural driving cycle. Irrespective of driving conditions, emission factors differ insignificantly between the urban and rural regions at a 95% confidence level. However, the fuel consumption in urban centers is approximately 30% higher than in the rural regions, with driving conditions in the former usually poor compared to the latter. Two-stroke motorcycles generally have considerably higher HC emissions and quite lower NO x emissions than those of four-stroke motorcycles. Comparisons with other studies suggest that factors such as road characteristics, traffic volume, vehicle type, driving conditions and driver behavior may affect motorcycle emission levels in real traffic situations

  1. Bi-fuel System - Gasoline/LPG in A Used 4-Stroke Motorcycle - Fuel Injection Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthisripok, Tongchit; Phusakol, Nachaphat; Sawetkittirut, Nuttapol

    2017-10-01

    Bi-fuel-Gasoline/LPG system has been effectively and efficiently used in gasoline vehicles with less pollutants emission. The motorcycle tested was a used Honda AirBlade i110 - fuel injection type. A 3-litre LPG storage tank, an electronic fuel control unit, a 1-mm LPG injector and a regulator were securely installed. The converted motorcycle can be started with either gasoline or LPG. The safety relief valve was set below 48 kPa and over 110 kPa. The motorcycle was tuned at the relative rich air-fuel ratio (λ) of 0.85-0.90 to attain the best power output. From dynamometer tests over the speed range of 65-100 km/h, the average power output when fuelling LPG was 5.16 hp; dropped 3.9% from the use of gasoline91. The average LPG consumption rate from the city road test at the average speed of 60 km/h was 40.1 km/l, about 17.7% more. This corresponded to lower LPG’s energy density of about 16.2%. In emission, the CO and HC concentrations were 44.4% and 26.5% lower. Once a standard gas equipment set with ECU and LPG injector were securely installed and the engine was properly tuned up to suit LPG’s characteristics, the converted bi-fuel motorcycle offers efficiently, safely and economically performance with environmental friendly emission.

  2. The relationship between Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire scores and crashes for riders in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, A N; Brown, J; de Rome, L; Baldock, M R J; Fernandes, R; Fitzharris, M

    2017-05-01

    Motorcycle riders are over-represented in road fatalities in Australia. While riders represent 18% of the road users killed each year, motorcycle registrations constitute only 4.5% of the registered vehicle fleet. The Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) was developed with a view toward understanding behaviours likely to be associated with crash risk. These include behaviours that are either intentional (such as violations of road and speed regulations and stunts) or unintentional (such as errors relating to traffic or control of the motorcycle), as well as protective behaviours related to use of safety equipment. The dual aims of the current study were, first, to determine the appropriate structure of a modified version of the MRBQ for use in a representative sample of riders in Australia and, second, to understand which MRBQ factors are associated with crash involvement. A stratified sampling procedure was undertaken to ensure the socio-economic status of local government area, age and gender of the sample was representative of the broader population of riders in New South Wales, Australia. The sample consisted of 470 riders (males=89%). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 29-item, five factor structure was suitable on the Australian data encompassing traffic errors, speed violations, protective gear, control errors and stunts. Overall, riders reported relatively safe behaviours, with frequent use of protective gear and infrequent aberrant behaviours. However, even though infrequent, violations of speed and errors related to control of the motorcycle increased the odds of near-crash involvement, whilst stunt behaviours were associated with increased odds of crash involvement. Interventions and countermeasures need to target these specific behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Factors for Motorcycle-related Severe Injuries in a Medium-sized City in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lili; Zhu, Yao; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Background Motorcycle vehicles are frequent in China, especially in the small and medium sized cities. Road traffic collisions involving motorcycles often result in severe injuries. We aimed to identify risk factors for severe injuries in inpatients sustaining motorcycle collisions. Methods Patients with road traffic injuries involving motorcycles who presented to the neurosurgery and orthopedic departments of three major comprehensive hospitals in Shantou city were reviewed from October 2012 to June 2013. Data from 349 patients was investigated. Crash and injury characteristics were documented by interviewing patients, their family members, and their doctors. Binary logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for severe injuries. Results There were 253 males (72.49%) and 96 females (27.51%), with a male to female ratio of 2.64:1. The mean age was 38.21±17.32 years. One-hundred and fifty patients were in the severe injury group with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 15.34±9.13. The simple and multiple logistic model showed that males, lack of safeguards, morning and night hours, non-urban areas, collision of a motorcycle with a cycle, ambulance transportation to hospital, admission to a neurosurgery department, lack of traffic control, unobstructed traffic, and poor visibility were all the risk factors. Conclusions This research highlights some problems: less helmet wearing in motorcyclists and cyclists, rural injuries being more serious than urban ones, and head injuries being the main diagnosis in severe injuries. The result of this research is predictable. If the safety equipment is required to be used, such as helmets, and the traffic environment is improved, such as traffic flow, medical resources to injuries and deaths is seasonable, then traffic safety will be improved and accidents will be reduced. PMID:29546203

  4. Emergency department visits by pediatric patients sustained as a passenger on a motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Allison; Owen, Stephanie; Hoffman, Shelley M; Davis, Stephen M; Sharon, Melinda J

    2018-01-02

    Currently only 5 out of the 50 states in the United States have laws restricting the age of passengers permitted to ride on a motorcycle. This study sought to characterize the visits by patients under the age of 16 to U.S. emergency departments (EDs) for injuries sustained as a passenger on a motorcycle. In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) for the years 2006 to 2011. Pediatric patients who were passengers on a motorcycle that was involved in a crash were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) External Cause of Injury codes. We also examined gender, age, disposition, regional differences, common injuries, and charges. Between 2006 and 2011 there were an estimated 9,689 visits to U.S. EDs by patients under the age of 16 who were passengers on a motorcycle involved in a crash. The overall average patient age was 9.4 years, and they were predominately male (54.5%). The majority (85%) of these patients were treated and released. The average charges for discharged patients were $2,116.50 and amounted to roughly $17,500,000 during the 6 years. The average cost for admission was $51,446 per patient and totaled over $54 million. The most common primary injuries included superficial contusions; sprains and strains; upper limb fractures; open wounds of head, neck, and trunk; and intracranial injuries. Although there were only about 9,700 visits to U.S. EDs for motorcycle crashes involving passengers less than 16 years old for 2006 to 2011, the total cost of visits that resulted in either ED discharge or hospital admission amounted to over $71 million.

  5. Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? evidence from urban cities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra

    2013-09-01

    Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

  6. Motorcycle accident injury profiles in Jamaica: an audit from the University Hospital of the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandon, I W; Harding, H E; Cawich, S O; McDonald, A H; Fearron-Boothe, D

    2009-09-01

    There is little data available on the prevalence of motorcycle accidents, their resultant injuries and the demand on the health care services in Jamaica. We performed a descriptive, analytical study to evaluate the extent of this problem and the need for preventative national policy measures. Between 1 January 2000 and 1 January 2007, demographic and clinical data on all motorcycle accident victims admitted to the University Hospital of the West Indies were collected in a prospective database. The data were analysed using the SPSS version 12.0. Of 270 motorcycle accident victims, there were 257 (95.2%) males and 13 (4.8%) females. Overall, 134 (49.6%) victims wore helmets at the time of their accident. The more common injuries were as follows: soft tissue trauma 270 (100%); head injuries 143 (53.0%); long bone fractures 126 (46.7%); abdominal injuries 38 (14.1%); thoracic injuries 71 (26.3%); vascular injuries 11 (4.1%). The mean injury severity score was 9.0 (SD 9.4; Median 8; Mode 4). There were 195 patients needing surgical intervention in the form of orthopaedic operations (94), neurosurgical operations (43), abdominal operations (49) and vascular operations (14). The mean duration of hospitalisation was 10 days (SD 11.2; Range 0-115; Median 6; Mode 3). There were 12 (4.4%) deaths, 9 (75%) due to traumatic brain injuries. Fatal injuries were more common in males (11) and un-helmeted patients (10). Motorcycle accidents take a heavy toll on this health care facility in Jamaica. Measures to prevent motorcycle accidents and reduce consequent injuries may be one way in which legislators can preserve precious resources that are spent during these incidents. This can be achieved through active measures such as educational campaigns, adherence to traffic regulations and enforcement of helmet laws.

  7. Factors associated with utilization of motorcycle ambulances by pregnant women in rural eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssebunya, Rogers; Matovu, Joseph K B

    2016-03-03

    Evidence suggests that use of motorcycle ambulances can help to improve health facility deliveries; however, few studies have explored the motivators for and barriers to their usage. We explored the factors associated with utilization of motorcycle ambulances by pregnant women in eastern Uganda. This was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study conducted among 391 women who delivered at four health facilities supplied with motorcycle ambulances in Mbale district, eastern Uganda, between April and May 2014. Quantitative data were collected on socio-demographic and economic characteristics, pregnancy and delivery history, and community and health facility factors associated with utilization of motorcycle ambulances using semi-structured questionnaires. Qualitative data were collected on the knowledge and attitudes towards using motorcycle ambulances by pregnant women through six focus group discussions. Using STATA v.12, we computed the characteristics of women using motorcycle ambulances and used a logistic regression model to assess the correlates of utilization of motorcycle ambulances. Qualitative data were analyzed manually using a master sheet analysis tool. Of the 391 women, 189 (48.3%) reported that they had ever utilized motorcycle ambulances. Of these, 94.7% were currently married or living together with a partner while 50.8% earned less than 50,000 Uganda shillings (US $20) per month. Factors independently associated with use of motorcycle ambulances were: older age of the mother (≥35 years vs ≤24 years; adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.03, 9.13), sharing a birth plan with the husband (aOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.19, 5.26), husband participating in the decision to use the ambulance (aOR =3.22, 95% CI: 1.92, 5.38), and having discussed the use of the ambulance with a traditional birth attendant (TBA) before using it (aOR =3.12, 95% CI: 1.88, 5.19). Qualitative findings indicated that community members were aware of what motorcycle ambulances

  8. ROADSIDE BARRIER AND PASSIVE SAFETY OF MOTORCYCLISTS ALONG EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. IBITOYE

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous increase in number of motorcycles and fatalities in some ASEAN countries is becoming a main concern for the safety of motorcyclists along exclusive motorcycle lanes. The existing w-beam guardrail system along exclusive motorcycle lanes was originally designed to reduce severity of a crash when cars and trucks involve in run-off road accident – but not specifically to protect motorcyclists during such accident. However, the consequences of this guardrail design on the passive safety of motorcyclist have been given little consideration. Thus, Probability of the motorcyclists getting injured on collision with guardrail is higher compared to other motor vehicle’s driver. In order to investigate the passive safety of motorcyclists while in collision with this guardrail, this study carried out computer simulation of typical crash scenario and conducted a physical crash test to validate the simulation model. The study examines the crash mechanism as related to injury severity when motorcyclist interacts with W-beam guardrail. A three-dimensional computer simulation of a scaled Hybrid III 50th percentile Male dummy mounted on a motorcycle and colliding with W-beam guardrail was carried out. Multi-body model of motorcycle and finite element model of guardrail were developed with commercially available software called MADYMO. The simulation model is validated with a simple crash test conducted with same initial impact configuration. The subsequent simulations were set up for impacting the existing w-beam guardrail with 110 kg motorcycle using eighteen impact conditions that consist of impact angles 15o, 30o and 45o, impact speeds of 32, 48 and 60km/h as well as post spacing of 2m and 4m. The predicted rider’s injury risk criteria were used to assess safety of guardrail response to motorcyclists. The obtained results confirmed that the existing w-beam guardrail is not safe to motorcyclist, especially for the head injury at impact speed

  9. Exploratory field trial of motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB): Considerations on the acceptability of unexpected automatic decelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Giovanni; Pierini, Marco; Thompson, Jason; Fitzharris, Michael; Lenné, Michael G

    2016-11-16

    Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) acts to slow down a vehicle when an unavoidable impending collision is detected. In addition to documented benefits when applied to passenger cars, AEB has also shown potential when applied to motorcycles (MAEB). However, the feasibility of MAEB as practically applied to motorcycles in the real world is not well understood. In this study we performed a field trial involving 16 riders on a test motorcycle subjected to automatic decelerations, thus simulating MAEB activation. The tests were conducted along a rectilinear path at nominal speed of 40 km/h and with mean deceleration of 0.15 g (15% of full braking) deployed at random times. Riders were also exposed to one final undeclared brake activation with the aim of providing genuinely unexpected automatic braking events. Participants were consistently able to manage automatic decelerations of the vehicle with minor to moderate effort. Results of undeclared activations were consistent with those of standard runs. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a moderate automatic deceleration in a scenario of motorcycle travelling in a straight path, supporting the notion that the application of AEB on motorcycles is practicable. Furthermore, the proposed field trial can be used as a reference for future regulation or consumer tests in order to address safety and acceptability of unexpected automatic decelerations on a motorcycle.

  10. Obese motorcycle riders have a different injury pattern and longer hospital length of stay than the normal-weight patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-04-14

    The adverse effects of obesity on the physical health have been extensively studied in the general population, but not in motorcycle riders (includes both drivers and pillions). The aim of this study was to compare injury patterns, injury severities, mortality rates, and in-hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) between obese and normal-weight patients who were hospitalized for the treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a level I trauma center. Detailed data of 466 obese adult patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and 2701 normal-weight patients (25 > BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2)) who had sustained motorcycle accident-related injuries were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. We used the Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and independent Student's t-test to analyze differences between the two groups. Compared to normal-weight motorcycle riders, more obese riders were men and drivers as opposed to pillions. In addition, fewer obese motorcycle riders showed alcohol intoxication. Analyses of the patients' Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that obese motorcycle riders presented with a higher rate of injury to the thorax, but a lower rate of injury to the face than normal-weight patients. In addition, obese motorcycle riders had a 2.7-fold greater incidence of humeral, 1.9-fold greater incidence of pelvic, and 1.5-fold greater incidence of rib fractures. In contrast, normal-weight motorcycle riders sustained a significantly higher rate of maxillary and clavicle fractures. Obese motorcycle riders had a significant longer in-hospital LOS than normal-weight motorcycle riders did (10.6 days vs. 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.044), with an increase in in-hospital LOS of 0.82 days associated with every 10-unit increase in BMI. No statistically significant differences in Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma

  11. First motorcycle-exclusive lane (Motovia) in Colombia: perceptions of users in Cali, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Cuéllar, Gisel V; Pacichana-Quinayaz, Sara G; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Jaramillo-Molina, Ciro; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María I

    2017-06-01

    This study's goal was to evaluate the pilot exclusive lane for motorcycles (Motovía) in Cali, Colombia, from the perception of its users in 2012-2013. A cross-sectional study using roadside surveys plus a qualitative component of individual semi-structured interviews was carried out. Road users' perceptions were investigated before and after implementation of lane dividers (LD) and were compared with other roads in the city. Perceptions were compared using chi-square tests. In the study, 293 motorcyclists, 111 cyclists, and 115 automobile drivers were interviewed. Following the installation of the LD, the majority of motorcyclists and cyclists reported that LD made easier the driving maneuvers and decreased travel time, in contrast to perceptions of automobile drivers (p motorcycles. Further research about vulnerable road users' infrastructure is required.

  12. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Choon Wah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Saifizul, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables. PMID:24523660

  13. Validation of X1 motorcycle model in industrial plant layout by using WITNESSTM simulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzas, M. F. M. A.; Bareduan, S. A.; Zakaria, M. Z.; Tan, W. J.; Zairi, S.

    2017-09-01

    This paper demonstrates a case study on simulation, modelling and analysis for X1 Motorcycles Model. In this research, a motorcycle assembly plant has been selected as a main place of research study. Simulation techniques by using Witness software were applied to evaluate the performance of the existing manufacturing system. The main objective is to validate the data and find out the significant impact on the overall performance of the system for future improvement. The process of validation starts when the layout of the assembly line was identified. All components are evaluated to validate whether the data is significance for future improvement. Machine and labor statistics are among the parameters that were evaluated for process improvement. Average total cycle time for given workstations is used as criterion for comparison of possible variants. From the simulation process, the data used are appropriate and meet the criteria for two-sided assembly line problems.

  14. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. The effects of motorcycle helmets on hearing and the detection of warning signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moorhem, W. K.; Shepherd, K. P.; Magleby, T. D.; Torian, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of the at-ear helmet-generated aerodynamic noise and helmet insertion loss were carried out for the two major types of motorcycle helmets. From these data and existing information on noise generation by flow around a bare head it was found that for quiet motorcycles at typical operating speeds a significant part of the riders at-ear noise is generated by the air flow. An assessment of the possibility of hearing damage was then carried out. It was found that only with extremely high usage would there be a significant risk of hearing damage for either the bare headed or helmeted rider. Helmets did, however, give significant protection. Detection of warning signals was then considered. It was found that under none of the conditions investigated here did the helmet put its wearer at a disadvantage compared with the bare headed rider, and at typical constant speeds the helmet gave a rider an advantage in the detection of warning signals.

  16. Psychological models for development of motorcycle helmet use among students in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Satiennam, W.; Trinh, Tu Anh

    2018-04-01

    A helmet can reduce head accident severity. The aim of this research study was to study the intention for helmet use of students who ride motorcycles in Vietnam, by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Questionnaires developed by several traffic psychology modules, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Traffic Locus of Control (T-LOC), and Health Belief Model (HBM), were distributed to students at Ton Thang University and University of Architecture, Ho Chi Minh City. SEM was used to explain helmet use behaviour. The results indicate that TPB, T-LOC and HBM could explain the variance in helmet use behaviour. However, TPB can explain behaviour (helmet use intention) better than T-LOC and HBM. The outcome of this study is useful for the agencies responsible to improve motorcycle safety.

  17. The burden of motorcycle-related neuro-trauma in Ireland and associated helmet usage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, R K J

    2009-04-01

    Motorcycles represent less than 2% of the licensed vehicles but motorcyclists account for 12% of road deaths in Ireland. The British Road Safety Authority has introduced the Sharp programme, which hopes to save 50 lives in the U.K. each year alone by helping riders to choose the best-fitting and safest helmets. We evaluated the pattern of head injuries sustained by motorcyclists referred to the two neurosurgical centres Beaumont Hospital and Cork University Hospital in Ireland and ascertained if the new SHARP guidelines could be of benefit in reducing the burden of motorcycle related neurotrauma and disability in Ireland. Despite Ireland having mandatory helmet laws almost a quarter of our motorcyclists with traumatic brain injury were unhelmeted. A significant reduction in mortality and morbidity is predicted if all motorcyclists in Ireland were to wear helmets that satisfied the SHARP criteria.

  18. Controller Design and Evaluation of Lane-Keeping-Assistance System for Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Nozomi; Marumo, Yoshitaka; Tsunashima, Hitoshi

    This study seeks to design a lane keeping controller for motorcycles and to evaluate it by computer simulation with a four-degree-of-freedom model and a rider control model. We applied the optimal control theory to the lane keeping controller as a model-based control. By examining the computer simulation with the rider-in-the-loop system consisting of the motorcycle, the controller, and the rider control model, good lane following performance is achieved without interference between the control input and the rider's input. In addition, the virtual point regulator, which compensates the lateral displacement at the virtual point ahead of the vehicle, corresponds to not only the steering torque disturbance but also the lateral force disturbance by choosing the distance to the virtual point.

  19. Motorcycle That See: Multifocal Stereo Vision Sensor for Advanced Safety Systems in Tilting Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, have shown the possibility to anticipate crash accidents and effectively assist road users in critical traffic situations. This is not the case for motorcyclists, in fact ADAS for motorcycles are still barely developed. Our aim was to study a camera-based sensor for the application of preventive safety in tilting vehicles. We identified two road conflict situations for which automotive remote sensors installed in a tilting vehicle are likely to fail in the identification of critical obstacles. Accordingly, we set two experiments conducted in real traffic conditions to test our stereo vision sensor. Our promising results support the application of this type of sensors for advanced motorcycle safety applications.

  20. Motorcycles that See: Multifocal Stereo Vision Sensor for Advanced Safety Systems in Tilting Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, have shown the possibility to anticipate crash accidents and effectively assist road users in critical traffic situations. This is not the case for motorcyclists, in fact ADAS for motorcycles are still barely developed. Our aim was to study a camera-based sensor for the application of preventive safety in tilting vehicles. We identified two road conflict situations for which automotive remote sensors installed in a tilting vehicle are likely to fail in the identification of critical obstacles. Accordingly, we set two experiments conducted in real traffic conditions to test our stereo vision sensor. Our promising results support the application of this type of sensors for advanced motorcycle safety applications. PMID:29351267

  1. Motorcycle That See: Multifocal Stereo Vision Sensor for Advanced Safety Systems in Tilting Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Gustavo; Savino, Giovanni; Piantini, Simone; Pierini, Marco

    2018-01-19

    Advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, have shown the possibility to anticipate crash accidents and effectively assist road users in critical traffic situations. This is not the case for motorcyclists, in fact ADAS for motorcycles are still barely developed. Our aim was to study a camera-based sensor for the application of preventive safety in tilting vehicles. We identified two road conflict situations for which automotive remote sensors installed in a tilting vehicle are likely to fail in the identification of critical obstacles. Accordingly, we set two experiments conducted in real traffic conditions to test our stereo vision sensor. Our promising results support the application of this type of sensors for advanced motorcycle safety applications.

  2. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Almeida da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. METHOD: correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. RESULT: 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. CONCLUSION: motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  3. Paternalism & Its Discontents: Motorcycle Helmet Laws, Libertarian Values, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists’ advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering. PMID:17194856

  4. The Relationship Analysis between Motorcycle Emission and Road Facilities under Heterogeneous Traffic Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, M. I.; Hanami, Z. A.; Aly, S. H.; Pasra, M.; Hustim, M.

    2018-04-01

    Motor vehicles have long been a source of pollution in many major cities in the world, including Indonesia. The increasing of the motor vehicle on the road leads to the rising of air pollution that exhausted by the vehicles as consequently. This research is intended to analyze the relationship between motorcycle emission and road facilities for each kind of road facilities in four different arterial road types. This study is quantitative research in which data collection is done directly in 4 types of road such as 2/1 UD, 4/1 UD, 4/2 D, and 6/2 UD in Makassar using motorcycle the Gas Analyzer Portable Measurement System and GPS emission test for speed tracking. The results are the emission tend to increase in road facilities where JS3TB (unsignalized junction) has the highest amount of CO and CO2 emission compared to other types.

  5. Relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin in motorcycle taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Almeida; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Terra, Fábio de Souza

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relation between workplace accidents and the levels of carboxyhemoglobin found in motorcycle taxi drivers. Correlational, quantitative study involving 111 workers and data obtained in July 2012 through a questionnaire to characterize the participants and blood collection to measure carboxyhemoglobin levels. 28.8% had suffered workplace accidents; 27.6% had fractured the lower limbs and significant symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure were verified in smokers. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were higher among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. Motorcycle taxi drivers had increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin, possibly due to the exposure to carbon monoxide; these levels are also increased among smokers and victims of workplace accidents. The study provides advances in the knowledge about occupational health and environmental science, and also shows that carboxyhemoglobin can be an indicator of exposure to environmental pollutants for those working outdoors, which can be related to workplace accidents.

  6. The effect of road characteristics on motorcycle accident in Batu east Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusini, Sobri

    2013-09-01

    Safe of transportation on road is global problem with not only transportation problem, but also social teritory problem in sosial life. WHO pay attention to safe transportation on road to decide healthy day in the world 2004 with caption: Road Safety is no Accident. WHO is clariafy that road accident level in the world have to reach 1.2 mellion victim death and over 30 mellion injuries every year. As much 85% sacrifice death are accident in develop state, where vehicle number only 32% from vehicle number in the world. That becouse as the objective is to decide influence road charakteristics geometrics for motorcycle accident in Batu East Java Indonesia. Using some statistical analysis it is found that the best-fit motorcycle accident model is: Acc = 0,009F0,703exp(-0,334SW-0,361G+0.077S) Where: Acc = number of accident, F = Flow, pcu/hr, SW = shoulder width (m), S = speed, km/hr, G = Gradient (0,1) The model shows that the affecting factors are flow, shoulder width and speed, therefore local government should improve some related factor (flow, shoulder width, Gradient and speed) that can reduce the number of motorcycle accident at crossing road in Batu.

  7. FAULT DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION IN MOTORCYCLES BASED ON THE CHAIN CODE OF PSEUDOSPECTRA AND ACOUSTIC SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Anami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles produce sound signals with varying temporal and spectral properties under different working conditions. These sounds are indicative of the condition of the engine. Fault diagnosis is a significantly difficult task in geographically remote places where expertise is scarce. Automated fault diagnosis can assist riders to assess the health condition of their vehicles. This paper presents a method for fault detection and location in motorcycles based on the chain code of the pseudospectra and Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC features of acoustic signals. The work comprises two stages: fault detection and fault location. The fault detection stage uses the chain code of the pseudospectrum as a feature vector. If the motorcycle is identified as faulty, the MFCCs of the same sample are computed and used as features for fault location. Both stages employ dynamic time warping for the classification of faults. Five types of faults in motorcycles are considered in this work. Observed classification rates are over 90% for the fault detection stage and over 94% for the fault location stage. The work identifies other interesting applications in the development of acoustic fingerprints for fault diagnosis of machinery, tuning of musical instruments, medical diagnosis, etc.

  8. Optimal design of a novel hybrid MR brake for motorcycles considering axial and radial magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an optimal solution of a new type of motorcycle brake featuring different smart magnetorheological (MR) fluids. In this study, typical types of commercial MR fluid are considered there for the design of a motorcycle MR brake; MRF-122-2ED (low yield stress), MRF-132-DG (medium yield stress) and MRF-140-CG (high yield stress). As a first step, a new configuration featuring a T-shaped drum MR brake is introduced and a hybrid concept of magnetic circuit (using both axial and radial magnetic flux) to generate braking force is analyzed based on the finite element method. An optimal design of the MR brake considering the required braking torque, the temperature due to friction of the MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions is then performed. For the optimization, the finite element analysis (FEA) is used to achieve principal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. In addition, the size, mass and power consumption of three different MR motorcycle brakes are quantitatively analyzed and compared. (paper)

  9. [Motorcycle accidents in the municipality of Rio Branco in the State of Acre: characterization and trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Greiciane da Silva; Schor, Néia

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess traffic accidents involving motorcycles, the victims involved and the increase in the fleet compared with other vehicles in Rio Branco, State of Acre. It is an epidemiological, descriptive and transversal study of accidents between 2005 and 2008 recorded by the Acre State Highway Department. There were 3,582 motorcycle accidents and 3,768 victims in the period. The motorcycle fleet increased by 72.8%, with involvement in accidents increasing by 42.2%, while accidents involving other vehicles only increased by 9.2%. As regards victims, there is a predominance of men, with rates of 561.1, with the age groups of between 20 and 29 and 30 and 39 being the highest, with 755.4 and 542.2, respectively. With reference to accident characteristics, the highest number of accidents - 32.4% - occurred in the afternoon, followed by the morning with 29.2% and the evening with 28.9%. 18.3% occurred on Saturdays and 15.7% on Sundays. Collisions were the commonest kind of accident, with 3,036 (84.8%) occurrences. The conclusion drawn is that it is essential to stage ongoing preventive programs and ensure greater integration among the institutions involved, with planning and campaigns to reverse the current situation.

  10. Viet Nam’s mandatory motorcycle helmet law and its impact on children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Aaron; Sidik, Mirjam; McKinley, Tyler; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure the use of motorcycle helmets in children and to determine the reasons why children wear helmets less often than adults. Methods The frequency of helmet wearing among adults and children was ascertained by trained roadside observers, and randomized road user surveys were completed in four major centres in Viet Nam: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho and Da Nang. Survey data on key questions were cross tabulated, and χ² was calculated for significant differences between parents and non-parents (0.05). Findings The frequency of helmet use in the four study locations ranged from 90–99% among adults, from 15–53% among children ≤ 7 years of age, and from 38–53% among children > 7 but ≤ 14. Of the parents surveyed, 67% said the fear of neck injury was the most important reason their children did not wear a helmet. Conclusion Children wear motorcycle helmets much less often than adults. Legislation to penalize adults whose children do not wear motorcycle helmets has been proposed in Viet Nam. Furthermore, ongoing advocacy and social marketing efforts are being made to disseminate information about the safety benefits of helmets to combat erroneous public perceptions. PMID:19551255

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Taghi Heydari; Mehrdad Vossoughi; Armin Akbarzadeh; Kamran B.Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani; Kazem Javanmardi; Ali Akbary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers.Methods:This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran.Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the dayThe data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some of the risky behaviors during driving.Results:A total of 414 drivers with a mean ± SD age of(27.0 + 9.3) years participated in the study.Alcohol or substance consumptions two hours before driving was significantly associated with risky driving behaviors such as using mobile phone during driving,poor maneuvering,and driving over the speed limit (both p < 0.001).It was also associated with carelessness about safety such as driving with technical defects (p < 0.001) and not wearing a crash helmet (p =0.008).Conclusion:Screening for alcohol and substance consumption among motorcycle drivers is an efficient way to identifiy drivers that are at a greater risk for road traffic accidents.

  12. Motorcycle-related hospitalization of adolescents in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chi-Cheng; Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2015-08-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the injury pattern, mechanisms, severity, and mortality of adolescents and adults hospitalized for treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a Level I trauma center. Detailed data regarding patients aged 13-19 years (adolescents) and aged 30-50 years (adults) who had sustained trauma due to a motorcycle accident were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012. The Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, or the independent Student's t-test were performed to compare the adolescent and adult motorcyclists and to compare the motorcycle drivers and motorcycle pillion. Analysis of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that the adolescent patients had sustained higher rates of facial, abdominal, and hepatic injury and of cranial, mandibular, and femoral fracture but lower rates of thorax and extremity injury; hemothorax; and rib, scapular, clavicle, and humeral fracture compared to the adults. No significant differences were found between the adolescents and adults regarding Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma-Injury Severity Score (TRISS), mortality, length of hospital stay, or intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate. A significantly greater percentage of adolescents compared to adults were found not to have worn a helmet. Motorcycle riders who had not worn a helmet were found to have a significantly lower first Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and a significantly higher percentage was found to present with unconscious status, head and neck injury, and cranial fracture compared to those who had worn a helmet. Adolescent motorcycle riders comprise a major population of patients hospitalized for treatment of trauma. This population tends to present with a higher injury severity compared to other hospitalized trauma patients and a bodily injury pattern differing from that of adult motorcycle riders, indicating the

  13. The design of the Comet streamliner: An electric land speed record motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Ethan Alexander

    The development of the land speed record electric motorcycle streamliner, the Comet, is discussed herein. Its design process includes a detailed literary review of past and current motorcycle streamliners in an effort to highlight the main components of such a vehicle's design, while providing baseline data for performance comparisons. A new approach to balancing a streamliner at low speeds is also addressed, a system henceforth referred to as landing gear, which has proven an effective means for allowing the driver to control the low speed instabilities of the vehicle with relative ease compared to tradition designs. This is accompanied by a dynamic stability analysis conducted on a test chassis that was developed for the primary purpose of understanding the handling dynamics of streamliners, while also providing a test bed for the implementation of the landing gear system and a means to familiarize the driver to the operation and handling of such a vehicle. Data gathered through the use of GPS based velocity tracking, accelerometers, and a linear potentiometer provided a means to validate a dynamic stability analysis of the weave and wobble modes of the vehicle through linearization of a streamliner model developed in the BikeSIM software suite. Results indicate agreement between the experimental data and the simulation, indicating that the conventional recumbent design of a streamliner chassis is in fact highly stable throughout the performance envelope beyond extremely low speeds. A computational fluid dynamics study was also performed, utilized in the development of the body of the Comet to which a series of tests were conducted in order to develop a shape that was both practical to transport and highly efficient. By creating a hybrid airfoil from a NACA 0018 and NACA 66-018, a drag coefficient of 0.1 and frontal area of 0.44 m2 has been found for the final design. Utilizing a performance model based on the proposed vehicle's motor, its rolling resistance, and

  14. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of

  15. The scourge of head injury among commercial motorcycle riders in Kampala; a preventable clinical and public health menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamulegeya, Louis H; Kizito, Mark; Nassali, Rosemary; Bagayana, Shiela; Elobu, Alex E

    2015-09-01

    Trauma is an increasingly important cause of disease globally. Half of this trauma is from road traffic injuries with motorcycles contributing 21-58%. Low protective gear use, lack of regulation and weak traffic law enforcement contribute to unsafe nature of commercial motorcycles also known as "boda boda" in Uganda. To determine the prevalence of protective gear use, the occurrence of head injury and the relationship between the two among commercial motorcycle riders in Kampala. Following ethical approval we recruited consecutive consenting participants to this analytical cross-sectional study. Data was collected using pretested interviewer administered questionnaires, double entered in Epidata and analyzed with STATA. Proportions and means were used to summarize data. Odds ratios were calculated for association between wearing helmets and occurrence and severity of head injury. All 328 participants recruited were male. Of these, 18.6% used Protective gear and 71.1 % sustained head injury. Helmets protected users from head injury (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.23-0.8) and significantly reduced its severity when it occurred. Protective gear use was low, with high occurrence of head injury among commercial motorcycle riders in Uganda. More effective strategies are needed to promote protective gear use among Uganda's commercial motorcycle riders.

  16. Muscular Activities Measurements of Forward Lean and Upright Sitting Motorcycling Postures via Surface Electromyography (sEMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’arof Muhammad Izzat Nor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycling postures are generically speculated to be physical and physiologically demanding – which in-turn may lead to motorcycling fatigue, and then becoming a possible factor to road accident. The objective of this study was to measure the muscular activities of various motorcycling postures. High muscular activity reading will signifies that motorcycling is indeed physically and physiologically demanding to the motorcyclist. For this particular study, the following postures were tested: i forward lean, ii upright sitting, and iii neutral sitting (as control. Surface electromyography (sEMG measurement was conducted on the following muscles: i extensor carpi radialis, ii upper trapezius iii latissimus dorsi, and iv erector spinae. The results showed that for all test subjects, the muscular activities readings for the forward lean posture was actually close to neutral sitting’s. Whilst, the upright sitting had showed much higher muscular activities measurement instead. Conclusively, this study had proven that any types of discomforts associated with the forward lean posture is not originated from muscular activities. Whereas, confirming that any discomforts in regards to the upright sitting is indeed related to muscular activities. Further studies are warranted to discover the actual risk factors that causes physical and physiological discomforts for the forward lean motorcycling posture.

  17. With power comes responsibility: motorcycle engine power and power-to-weight ratio in relation to accident risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Markus; Summala, Heikki

    2010-02-01

    Current European legislation allows the EU member states to restrict the maximum power output of motorcycles to 74 kW even though evidence supporting the limit is scarce and has produced mixed results-perhaps because motorcycle performance has been measured by engine displacement, not engine power, in most of the previous studies. This study investigates the relationship of motorcycle engine power and power-to-weight ratio to risk of fatal and nonfatal crashes in Finland. The fatality rate (number of fatal accidents/number of registered motorbikes) for riders of different ages riding bikes belonging to different power and power-to-weight ratio classes was examined using a comprehensive in-depth database. Data on nonfatal accidents were acquired from a Web questionnaire (N = 2708), which also served as a basis for estimating riders' annual mileage. Mileage data allowed the calculation of accident risk per kilometer ridden for bikes differing in power and power-to-weight ratio. The fatality risk per number of registered motorcycles and per kilometer ridden increases both with power and power-to-weight ratio, independently of rider's age. No relationship between performance and risk of a less severe crash was found. The pre-accident speed of the most powerful bikes was 20 km/h or more over the speed limit in a large proportion of the fatal accidents (odds ratio = 4.8 for > 75 kW motorbikes; odds ratio = 6.2 for > 0.3 kW/kg motorbikes). The risk of being involved in a fatal crash is higher among the riders of powerful motorcycles. However, it is not clear whether the results are related to the riding habits of the riders that choose the most powerful bikes available or whether the high risk is due to the properties of the bikes themselves. Therefore, further research is needed before considering legal limits on motorcycle performance.

  18. Motorcycle accident is the main cause of maxillofacial injuries in the Penang Mainland, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hasnah; Iqbal, Syed

    2011-02-01

    Maxillofacial injuries are among the commonest forms of body injuries. There are three divisions, namely, facial bone fractures, soft tissue injuries, and dentoalveolar injuries. Etiologies include motor vehicle accidents, assaults, falls, and sporting injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles including the causes of maxillofacial injuries seen in an urban government hospital in the mainland of Penang State, Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study that recruited cases reported within a period of 1 year. The source population was maxillofacial injury patients presenting to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of an urban hospital in the Penang Mainland, North Malaysia between May 2007 and May 2008. Cases of patients involved in accidents that occurred outside the reference vicinity were excluded. A case report form was developed and completed by the attending clinicians. Data were analyzed using spss version 12.0. A total of 194 cases were studied, with the mean patient age being 27.8 (SD 15.20) years. The majority of patients were Malay men between 20 and 29 years of age. The main cause of injury was motorcycle accident (53.6%). The commonest injury (in isolation/combination with other injuries) involved the soft tissues (87.2%), dentoalveolar region (33.4%), and facial bones (23.9%). Laceration was the commonest soft tissue injury, and crown fracture was the most frequent dentoalveolar injury. The facial bone that was most highly involved in the injury was the zygoma. Subjects involved in motorcycle accidents had a significantly higher incidence of sustaining facial bone fractures. Motorcycle accidents were the commonest cause of maxillofacial injuries in the Penang Mainland, Malaysia. Most patients were young men. Hence, it is prudent to reinforce appropriate road safety and awareness interventions particularly focusing young male motorcyclists so as to reduce the risk of accidents. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. A comparison of contributing factors between alcohol related single vehicle motorcycle and car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistros, Alexander; Schneider, William H; Savolainen, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol related crashes have accounted for approximately 35% of fatal crashes per year since 1994 nationwide, with approximately 30% involving impairment over the legal blood alcohol content limit of 0.08%. Educational campaigns and law enforcement efforts are two components of multi-faceted programs aimed toward reducing impaired driving. It is crucial that further research be conducted to guide the implementation of enforcement and educational programs. This research attempts to provide such guidance by examining differences in alcohol-involved crashes involving motorcycles and passenger cars. Prior safety research has shown that motorcyclists follow a significantly different culture than the average passenger car operator. These cultural differences may be reflected by differences in the contributing factors affecting crashes and the severity of the resulting injuries sustained by the driver or motorcyclist. This research is focused on single-vehicle crashes only, in order to isolate modal effects from the contribution of additional vehicles. The crash data provided for this study are from the Ohio Department of Public Safety from 2009 through 2012. The injury severity data are analysed through the development of two mixed logit models, one for motorcyclists and one for passenger car drivers. The models quantify the effects of various factors, including horizontal curves, speeds, seatbelt use, and helmet use, which indicate that the required motor skills and balance needed for proper motorcycle operation compounded with a lack of mechanical protection make motorcyclists more prone to severe injuries, particularly on curves and in collisions with roadside objects. The findings of this study have been incorporated into combined motorcycle and sober driving educational safety campaigns. The results have shown to be favorable in supporting national campaign messages with local justification and backing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Motorcycle exhaust particles induce airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in BALB/C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2004-06-01

    A number of large studies have reported that environmental pollutants from fossil fuel combustion can cause deleterious effects to the immune system, resulting in an allergic reaction leading to respiratory tract damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP), a major pollutant in the Taiwan urban area, on airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in laboratory animals. BALB/c mice were instilled intratracheally (i.t.) with 1.2 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg of MEP, which was collected from two-stroke motorcycle engines. The mice were exposed 3 times i.t. with MEP, and various parameters for airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness were sequentially analyzed. We found that MEP would induce airway and pulmonary inflammation characterized by infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung. In addition, MEP treatment enhanced BALF interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) cytokine levels and serum IgE production. Bronchial response measured by unrestrained plethysmography with methacholine challenge showed that MEP treatment induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in BALB/c mice. The chemical components in MEP were further fractionated with organic solvents, and we found that the benzene-extracted fraction exerts a similar biological effect as seen with MEP, including airway inflammation, increased BALF IL-4, serum IgE production, and induction of AHR. In conclusion, we present evidence showing that the filter-trapped particles emitted from the unleaded-gasoline-fueled two-stroke motorcycle engine may induce proinflammatory and proallergic response profiles in the absence of exposure to allergen.

  1. The combined benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in preventing crashes and reducing crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the benefits of motorcycle antilock braking systems (ABS) in reducing injury crashes, due to improved stability and braking performance. Both aspects may prevent crashes but may also reduce the crash severity when a collision occurs. However, it is still unknown to what extent the reductions in injury crashes with ABS may be due to a combination of these mechanisms. Swedish hospital and police reports (2003-2012) were used. The risk for permanent medical impairment (RPMI) was calculated, showing the risk of at least 1 or 10% permanent medical impairment. In total, 165 crashes involving ABS-equipped motorcycles were compared with 500 crashes with similar motorcycles without ABS. The analysis was performed in 3 steps. First, the reduction in emergency care visits with ABS was calculated using an induced exposure approach. Secondly, the injury mitigating effects of ABS were investigated. The mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ were analyzed for different crash types. The distributions of impairing injuries (PMI 1+) and severely impairing injuries (PMI 10+) were also analyzed. In the third step, the total reduction of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists was calculated by combining the reductions found in the previous steps. An additional analysis of combined braking systems (CBS) together with ABS was also performed. The results showed that emergency care visits were reduced by 47% with ABS. In the second step, it was found that the mean RPMI 1+ and RPMI 10+ with ABS were 15 and 37% lower, respectively. Finally, the third step showed that the total reductions in terms of crash avoidance and mitigation of PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ injured motorcyclists with ABS were 67 and 55%, respectively. However, PMI 1+ and PMI 10+ leg injuries were not reduced by ABS to the same extent. Indications were found suggesting that the benefits of ABS together with CBS may be greater than ABS alone. This article indicated that motorcycle ABS reduced impairing injuries

  2. A review on bicycle and motorcycle rider control with a perspective on handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, J. D. G.; Schwab, A. L.

    2013-11-01

    This paper is a review study on handling and control of bicycles and motorcycles, the so-called single-track vehicles. The first part gives a brief overview on the modelling of the dynamics of single-track vehicles and the experimental validation. The second part focusses on a review of modelling and measuring human rider control. The third part deals with the concepts of handling and manoeuvrability and their experimental validation. Parallels are drawn with the literature on aircraft handling and pilot models. The paper concludes with the open ends and promising directions for future work in the field of handling and control of single-track vehicles.

  3. Heat transfer simulation of motorcycle fins under varying velocity using CFD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahril, K.; Mohd Kasim, Nurhayati Binti; Sabri, M.

    2013-12-01

    Motorcycle engine releases heat to the atmosphere through the mode of force convection. To solve this, fins are provided on the outer of the cylinder. The heat transfer rate is defined depending on the velocity of vehicle, fin geometry and the ambient temperature. Increasing the temperature difference between the object and the environment, increasing the convection heat transfer coefficient, or increasing the surface area of the object increases the heat transfer. Many experimental methods are available in literature to analyze the effect of these factors on the heat transfer rate. However, CFD analysis will be use to simulate the heat transfer of the engine block. ANSYS software is selected to run the simulation.

  4. Motorcycle-related trauma in Alberta: a sad and expensive story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, John P.; Buckley, Richard; Dyer, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Background Trauma caused by motorcycle-related injuries is extensive, expensive and increasing. Recent American literature reported that in 2004 the chance of a motorcyclist dying was 34 times greater than that for someone using any other motor vehicle for every mile travelled. In the United Kingdom a motorcyclist is killed or seriously injured every 665 894 km, compared with 18 661 626 km for cars. If this pattern is repeated in Canada, then this information should be in the public domain to support initiatives for injury prevention. Methods We gathered and analyzed retrospective population data on the injury patterns of adult motorcyclists and other adult motor vehicle drivers and passengers across Alberta from Apr. 1, 1995, to Mar. 31, 2006. We collected data from 3 Alberta sources: the Alberta Trauma Registry, the Alberta Office of the Chief Medical Examiners and the Government of Alberta Department of Infrastructure and Transportation. We compared the numbers and causes of crashes, injuries and deaths, as well as the acute care costs on the roads, and specifically compared motorcycle-related injuries to all other motor vehicle–related injuries. Results There were 70 605 registered motorcycles and 2 748 204 other registered motor vehicles in Alberta during the study period. During these 11 years, there were 286 motorcyclists killed and 712 were severely injured, representing a total of 998 injuries and deaths. There was 5386 deaths related to other motor vehicles and 6239 severe injuries, for a total of 11 625 injuries and deaths. This represents a percentage of 1.4% of all registered motorcycles and 0.4% of all other registered motor vehicles (3.5 times more motorcyclist injuries). The impact on the health care system can be measured in several ways. During the period of this study, motorcyclists accounted for 10 760 bed days. Assuming the patient was not admitted to intensive care, each admission cost Can$9200 (average in 2008). Conclusion Analysis of the

  5. Correlates and Barriers Associated with Motorcycle Helmet Use in Wa, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Yakubu, Ibrahim; Akanbang, Bernard Afiik Akanpabadai

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the correlates and barriers to helmet use among motorcycle riders in Wa, a motorcycle-predominant town in Ghana. An additional objective was to determine the association between helmet use and riders' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward helmets. Cross-sectional surveys including both observation of helmet use and interviews were conducted among motorcycle riders at 6 randomly selected fuel stations and 4 motorcycle service centers within and outside the Central Business District of Wa. Questions covered riders' sociodemographic and riding characteristics, helmet use, reasons for use or nonuse of helmets, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about helmets. Analyses were based on frequencies and testing of strength of association using adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) in binary logistic regression. The prevalence of helmet use among the 271 sampled riders was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.2-52.0). Gender, age, marital status, and occupation were significant sociodemographic correlates of helmet use in Wa. Compared to currently married riders, unmarried riders were 5 times less likely to use a helmet. No significant association existed between riders' educational attainment and helmet use. Helmet use was also positively correlated with helmet ownership and license holding. The leading reasons stated for helmet nonuse among nonusers were not traveling a long distance and helmets block vision and hearing. Protection from injury, legal requirement, and coping with the police for fear of being accosted for helmet nonuse were identified as common reasons for helmet use. Positive attitudes and beliefs were also significantly correlated with helmet use. Despite the existence of a legislation mandating the use of helmets on all roads as well as the high level of awareness among riders on this legislation and the benefits of helmets, the incidence of helmet use among motorists continue to be low in Wa

  6. Modeling of Thermoelectric Generator Power Characteristics for Motorcycle-Type Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipkov, Alexey; Poshekhonov, Roman; Arutyunyan, Georgy; Basov, Andrey; Safonov, Roman

    2017-10-01

    Thermoelectric generation in vehicles such as motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, and snowmobiles opens the possibility of additional electrical energy generation by means of exhaust heat utilization. This is beneficial because replacing the mechanical generator used in such vehicles with a more powerful one in cases of electrical power deficiency is impossible. This paper proposes a calculation model for the thermoelectric generator (TEG) operational characteristics of the low-capacity internal combustion engines used in these vehicles. Two TEG structures are considered: (1) TEG with air cooling and (2) TEG with water cooling. Modeling consists of two calculation stages. In the first stage, the heat exchange coefficients of the hot and cold exchangers are determined using computational fluid dynamics. In the second stage, the TEG operational characteristics are modeled based on the nonlinear equations of the heat transfer and power balance. On the basis of the modeling results, the dependence of the TEG's major operating characteristics (such as the electrical power generated by the TEG and its efficiency and mass) on operating conditions or design parameters is determined. For example, the electrical power generated by a TEG for a Yamaha WR450F motorcycle engine with a volume of 0.449 × 10-3 m3 was calculated to be as much as 100 W. Use of the TEG arrangements proposed is justified by the additional electrical power generation for small capacity vehicles, without the need for internal combustion engine redesign.

  7. INTER-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD CAR AND MOTORCYCLE OWNERSHIP BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro SANKO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates household car and motorcycle ownership in Nagoya metropolitan area of Japan. Bivariate ordered probit models of household vehicle ownership were developed using the data from the case study area at three time points, 1981, 1991, and 2001. The accessibility that is generally known to be correlated with vehicle ownership decisions is incorporated as an input for the proposed vehicle ownership model to investigate the potential relationship between them. The mode choice models for the area were first estimated to quantify the accessibility indexes that were later integrated into the vehicle ownership models. Inter-temporal comparison and temporal transferability analysis were conducted. Some of the major findings suggest: 1 that age and gender differences have become less important in modal choices and car ownership as motorization proceeds; 2 that the accessibility seems to have a significant correlation with vehicle ownership; 3 that car and motorcycle ownership may not be independent and may have a complementary relationship; and 4 that the deep insights concerning the model selection are obtained from the viewpoints of the temporal transferability.

  8. Behavioural Comparison of Driverswhen Driving a Motorcycle or a Car: A Structural Equation Modelling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Topolšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to investigate if the drivers behave in the same way when they are driving a motorcycle or a car. For this purpose, the Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire and Driver Behaviour Questionnaire were conducted among the same drivers population. Items of questionnaires were used to develop a structural equation model with two factors, one for the motorcyclist’s behaviour, and the other for the car driver’s behaviour. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were also applied in this study. Results revealed a certain difference in driving behaviour. The principal reason lies probably in mental consciousness that the risk-taking driving of a motorbike can result in much more catastrophic consequences than when driving a car. The drivers also pointed out this kind of thinking and the developed model has statistically confirmed the behavioural differences. The implications of these findings are also argued in relation to the validation of the appropriateness of the existing traffic regulations.

  9. Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal comfort of motorcycle helmet during hot weather is important as it can affect the physiological and psychological condition of the rider. This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system. The result shows that the PCM-cooled helmet is able to prolong the thermal comfort period compared to a normal helmet. The findings also indicate that the heat generation from the head is the predominant factor that will affect the PCM melting time. Simulated solar radiation and ram-air due to vehicle motion under adiabatic condition can have very little influences on the PCM melting time. The results suggested that the helmet usage time would be influenced by the amount of heat generated from the head. Some major design considerations based on these findings have been included. Although this investigation focuses on the cooling of a motorcyclist helmet, the findings would also be useful for the development of PCM-cooling systems in other applications.

  10. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among motorcycle mechanics, Lahore (Pakistan: an application of standardized Nordic questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujtaba Baqar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a follow up to our previously published “letter to the editor”, whose purpose was to report the relationship of pain prevalence (work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and trouble prohibiting to normal work (work-related musculoskeletal disorders with descriptive variables among motorcycle mechanics using standardized Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ as a tool. Results demonstrates that the pain prevalence was significantly high in shoulders, neck, low-back, wrists, ankles and elbows compared to other body parts. Among variables “age of participants and working hours” were found to be directly associated whereby shoulder and neck pain had significant correlation with lower age groups and more working hours. Regarding trouble prohibited to normal work, a total of 121 (46% participants reported hindrance in normal work with serious complaints about shoulders for younger age group; wrists and hips for middle age group; and neck, lower back, knees, ankles for old age group. Finally, results of a frequencies and cross-tabulations indicated that prolong work hours were significantly associated with emergence of musculoskeletal symptoms. This high prevalence of WMSS leading to WMSD among the motorcycles mechanics reflects the ignorance of occupational duties. A possible recommendation of this research includes the development and implementation of health and safety guidelines for the mentioned industry.

  11. Effectiveness of daytime motorcycle headlights in the European Union. On behalf of KeyMed Medican and Industrial Equipment Ltd.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, F.D.

    1997-01-01

    In this report a synthesis is given of the state of the art of the (obligatory) use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL) by motorcycles in the European Union. In particular, attention is given to Austria. In this country a new law was introduced in 1982. Using a generalised linear model, it has been

  12. Social and hospital costs of patients admitted to a university hospital in Brazil due to motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, Katia Campos; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Mattar, Rames

    2017-08-18

    This study aimed to investigate the social and hospital costs of patients treated at a public hospital who were motorcycle crash victims. This prospective study was on 68 motorcycle riders (drivers or passengers), who were followed up from hospital admission to 6 months after the crash. A questionnaire covering quantitative and qualitative questions was administered. Motorcycle crash victims were responsible for 12% of the institution's hospital admissions; 54.4% were young (18-28 years of age); 92.6% were the drivers; 91.2% were male; and 50% used their motorcycles as daily means of transportation. Six months afterward, 94.1% needed help from someone; 83.8% had changed their family dynamics; and 73.5% had not returned to their professional activities. Among the injuries, 94.7% had some type of fracture, of which 53.5% were exposed fractures; 35.3% presented temporary sequelae; and 32.4% presented permanent sequelae. They used the surgical center 2.53 times on average, with a mean hospital stay of 18 days. The per capita hospital cost of these victims' treatment was US$17,481.50. The social and hospital costs were high, relative to the characteristics of a public institution. Temporary or permanent disability caused changes to family dynamics, as shown by the high numbers of patients who were still away from their professional activities more than 6 months afterward.

  13. Calling, texting, and searching for information while riding a motorcycle: A study of university students in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; De Gruyter, Chris; Nguyen, Hang T T

    2017-08-18

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of calling, texting, and searching for information while riding a motorcycle among university students and the influences of sociodemographic characteristics, social norms, and risk perceptions on these behaviors. Students at 2 university campuses in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, the 2 largest cities in Vietnam, were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Data collection was conducted during March and May 2016. There were 741 respondents, of whom nearly 90% of students (665) were motorcycle riders. Overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding is 80.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77.9-83.9%) with calling having a higher level of prevalence than texting or searching for information while riding: 74% (95% CI, 70.7-77.3%) vs. 51.7% (95% CI, 47.9-55.5%) and 49.9% (95% CI, 46.1-53.7%), respectively. Random parameter ordered probit modeling results indicate that mobile phone use while riding is associated with gender, motorcycle license duration, perceived crash risk, perceived risk of mobile phone snatching, and perceptions of friends' mobile phone use while riding. Mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle is highly prevalent among university students. Educational programs should focus on the crash and economic risk of all types of mobile phone use while riding, including calling, texting, and searching for information. In addition, they should consider targeting the influence of social norms and peers on mobile phone use while riding.

  14. The Buddha in the Digital Computer: Art and Technology in Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edwin W.

    The novel, "Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance" attempts to reconcile the dichotomy that exists between art and technology. The main character, Pirsig, believes that technology, or the making of things, is essentially art for two reasons: the Greeks never separated art from manufacture and real technology does not exploit nature.…

  15. Comparison of Injury Severity Between Moped and Motorcycle Crashes: A Finnish Two-Year Prospective Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, N; Nurmi-Lüthje, I; Lüthje, P

    2016-03-01

    The coverage of the official statistics is poor in motorcycle and moped accidents. The aim of this study was to analyze the severity of motorcycle and moped crashes, and to define the degree of under-reporting in official statistics. All first attendances due to an acute motorcyclist or moped driver injury registered in the emergency department between June 2004 and May 2006 were analyzed. The severity of the injuries was classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale score and the New Injury Severity Score. The hospital injury data were compared to the traffic accident statistics reported by the police and compiled and maintained by Statistics Finland. A total of 49 motorcyclists and 61 moped drivers were involved in crashes, leading to a total of 94 and 109 injuries, respectively. There were slightly more vertebral and midfoot fractures among motorcyclists than among moped drivers (p = 0.038 and 0.016, respectively). No significant differences were found between the severity (maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale and median New Injury Severity Scores) of the motorcycle and moped crashes. There was no in-hospital mortality. The degree of agreement (overlap) between the hospital dataset and the official statistics was 32%. The rate of under-reporting was 68%. According to the maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale and New Injury Severity Scores, the injury severity was equal for motorcycle and moped crashes. The degree of agreement between the hospital dataset and the official statistics was 32%. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2015.

  16. 49 CFR 579.23 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of 5,000 or more motorcycles annually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., 20 wheels, 23 fire, 98 where a system or component not covered by categories 01 through 20 is... motorcycle that allegedly contributed to the incident, and whether the incident involved a fire, coded as follows: 01 steering, 02 suspension, 03 service brake system, 06 engine and engine cooling, 07 fuel system...

  17. 78 FR 29811 - Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2002 BMW R1100S Motorcycles Are Eligible for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Tires for Vehicles other than Passenger Cars, 122 Motorcycle Brake Systems, 205 Glazing Materials. The..., front directional lamp, front running lights, and rear stop lamp. Standard No. 111 Rearview Mirrors: installation of U.S.-model mirrors. Standard No. 120 Tire Selection and Rims for Vehicles other than Passenger...

  18. 78 FR 29810 - Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2003 BMW K 1200 GT Motorcycles Are Eligible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... New Pneumatic Tires for Vehicles other than Passenger Cars, 122 Motorcycle Brake Systems, 205 Glazing... red reflectors, and front running lights. Standard No. 111 Rearview Mirrors: installation of U.S.-model mirrors. Standard No. 120 Tire Selection and Rims for Vehicles other than Passenger Cars...

  19. The effect of incentives and technology on the adoption of electric motorcycles : a stated choice experiment in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, L.R.; Cherry, C.R.; Vu, T.A.; Quang, N.N.; Quang, Ngoc Quang

    2013-01-01

    Many Asian cities are experiencing rapid growth in the ownership of personal gasoline-powered motorcycles, a shift away from relatively low-emitting modes of transportation that is contributing to deteriorated air quality. Electric two-wheelers have the potential for significant air pollution

  20. The organization enacts the environment and the environment feeds back : mortality rates in the UK motorcycle industry, 1895-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, Filippo Carlo

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses the information on 648 manufacturers during the period included between 1895 and 1993 to explore the interaction of different levels of analysis in developing of the United Kingdom motorcycle industry. It provides three general results. First, it demonstrates how long term changes of

  1. Development of a continuous motorcycle protection barrier system using computer simulation and full-scale crash testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atahan, Ali O; Hiekmann, J Marten; Himpe, Jeffrey; Marra, Joseph

    2018-07-01

    Road restraint systems are designed to minimize the undesirable effects of roadside accidents and improve safety of road users. These systems are utilized at either side or median section of roads to contain and redirect errant vehicles. Although restraint systems are mainly designed against car, truck and bus impacts there is an increasing pressure by the motorcycle industry to incorporate motorcycle protection systems into these systems. In this paper development details of a new and versatile motorcycle barrier, CMPS, coupled with an existing vehicle barrier is presented. CMPS is intended to safely contain and redirect motorcyclists during a collision event. First, crash performance of CMPS design is evaluated by means of a three dimensional computer simulation program LS-DYNA. Then full-scale crash tests are used to verify the acceptability of CMPS design. Crash tests were performed at CSI proving ground facility using a motorcycle dummy in accordance with prEN 1317-8 specification. Full-scale crash test results show that CMPS is able to successfully contain and redirect dummy with minimal injury risk on the dummy. Damage on the barrier is also minimal proving the robustness of the CMPS design. Based on the test findings and further review by the authorities the implementation of CMPS was recommended at highway system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban poverty and informal motorcycle transport services in a Nigerian intermediate settlement: a synthesis of operative motives and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Zakariyya Al-Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at examining operations motives and satisfaction in motorcycle taxi operators in Auchi. Primary data were sourced using structured questionnaires. Of the 148 questionnaires administered, 135 were found analysable. SPSS software version 17.0 was used for data analysis. The frequency distribution result of the demographic information of the respondents revealed that males, aged 21–30 year (58%, are predominantly involved in the operation. The education level of the majority of operators was in the secondary cohort (62.2%. Among operators, 56% operate motorcycle taxis for self-employment, whilst 34.1% was for augmenting income. A test of hypothesis result suggested that operator satisfaction based on the motive behind operation is statistically significant at 1%. The findings also strengthen previous studies. In terms of sustainability, informal motorcycle taxis are considered by the study to be unrealistic given the efficient transport system and enabling economic situation. Moreover, their operation impacts negatively on the environment, health, social and human capital development. Government and transport policy-makers should pursue efficient integrated modal transport system. Poverty alleviation machinery by government should explore viable initiatives that will engage the urban poor, especially youths, to divest their massive involvements in motorcycle taxi operation in Nigeria.

  3. THE EFFICACY OF MOTORCYCLE TRAINING TO REDUCE SELF-REPORTED NEGATIVE BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE (CASE STUDY IN UK AND INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winna Justiana Sirait

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcyclists are vulnerable road users because of their particular combination of physical vulnerability. Motorcyclists’ training and licensing system have already implemented in so many countries in the world particularly developed countries. In the other hand, there are countries, particularly developing countries, where motorcyclists are less regulated in term of licensing, enforcement, and insurance. Therefore the objective of this research are to analyses the behavior and attitude of motorcyclists in Yorkshire and Humber Region (UK and Jakarta (Indonesia, and to analyses the efficacy of motorcycle training in UK to influence the self-reported negative behavior and attitude of motorcyclists. Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ and Motorcyclists Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ are used to conduct this study. The Mann Whitney test is used to evaluate the significance different of the mean score, which obtained from the survey in each country (UK and Indonesia. Mean score computation showed that Yorkshire and Humber Region’s respondents have better mean score than Jakarta’s respondents. However Mann Whitney test showed that the mean score different is not significant for speed violation factor in MRBQ and drink driving and speeding factor in MAQ. Keywords: motorcyclist, motorcycle training, Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ, Motorcyclist Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ.

  4. Methodology for determining motorcycle operator crash risk and alcohol impairment. Vol. 1, Synthesis report on alternative approaches with priorities for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Alcohol-involvement continues to be a prominent factor in motorcycle crashes. Automobile-driver drinking and driving has been researched extensively, and the relationship between drivers' blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and crash risk is well-unde...

  5. Assessment of lubricating oil degradation in small motorcycle engine fueled with gasohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakorn Tippayawong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the degradation of lubricating oil was performed on the lubricants which had been used in a small motorcycle engine fueled with gasohol in comparison with the lubricants from gasoline-run engine. The lubricant properties examined in the assessment were lubricating capacity, viscosity and stability to oxidation. Lubricating capacity was evaluated by accelerated wear test on the Timken tester. Lubricating oils from gasohol-run engine appeared to produce about 10% greater wear than that made in oils from gasoline-run engine. There was no significant difference between the effect of gasohol and gasoline on the viscosity of the used lubricating oils. Moreover, no oxidation products in any used oil samples could be detected.

  6. Estimation of the emission polluting agents by Motorcycles in the Aburra Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Aristizabal, William Alonso; Toro Gomez, Maria Victoria

    2008-01-01

    The motorcycle is considered a generating movable polluting gas source like the volatile organic compounds and the carbon monoxide that are released to the atmosphere. In Colombia they have registered in the last years a high increase in the use of this type of vehicles having increased therefore the emissions, which has contributed with the deterioration of the quality of the air of the Valley of Aburra. In the other hand environmental regulation is recent and has not applied rigorously yet. Consequently and having like reference international Literature and the measurements in slow motion or minimum march, made by the Metropolitan Area, between January and March of 2006, factors of emission for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons for the estimation of the impact in the city.

  7. Analysis of the minimum swerving distance for the development of a motorcycle autonomous braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Federico; Savino, Giovanni; Pierini, Marco; Baldanzini, Niccolò

    2013-10-01

    In the recent years the autonomous emergency brake (AEB) was introduced in the automotive field to mitigate the injury severity in case of unavoidable collisions. A crucial element for the activation of the AEB is to establish when the obstacle is no longer avoidable by lateral evasive maneuvers (swerving). In the present paper a model to compute the minimum swerving distance needed by a powered two-wheeler (PTW) to avoid the collision against a fixed obstacle, named last-second swerving model (Lsw), is proposed. The effectiveness of the model was investigated by an experimental campaign involving 12 volunteers riding a scooter equipped with a prototype autonomous emergency braking, named motorcycle autonomous emergency braking system (MAEB). The tests showed the performance of the model in evasive trajectory computation for different riding styles and fixed obstacles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of moisture damage in asphalt concrete with CRM motorcycle tire waste passing #50 sieve size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Pranoto; Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experimental research is to evaluate moisture damage in Asphalt Concrete (AC) with Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) motorcycle tire waste passing #50 and retaining #100 sieve size. Two gradations were used in this research, the first gradation is usual for asphalt concrete base (ACB) and the second gradation is for asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC). Marshall testing apparatus was used for testing the Marshall specimens. Seven levels of CRM content were used, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5% and 6% by weight of mixtures. Retained stability represent the level of moisture damage of AC pavement. The result indicates that addition CRM to the AC mixture increases their the stability to a maximum value and subsequent addition decrease the stability. The addition CRM to AC decreases their moisture damage susceptibility. AC with 1% CRM is the best asphalt-CRM mix.

  9. Research and Development of Miniaturized Fuel Evaporation Closed Chamber for Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly serious environmental pollution, pollution emissions of motorcycles had gradually been concerned in all developed countries. But the fuel evaporative emissions had not attracted sufficient attention and its test equipment was far from perfect. Thus, this paper addressed the miniaturized problems of closed chamber. On the basis of analyzing fuel evaporative emission regulations and the features of closed room, technical solutions are determined and a prototype was successfully developed. The paper successfully resolved the seal problem and innovatively developed the pressure balance system and the temperature and humidity regulation system. After experimental verification, the prototype had reliable performance and stable operation. And it met the requirements of the relevant standards and it was also equivalent to imported equipments. Thus, this paper successfully resolved the miniaturized problems of closed chamber.

  10. Investigation on the production of hydrogen rich gas in a plasma converter for motorcycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, R.-F.; Chang, Y.-P.; Wu, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    A plasma fuel converter producing a hydrogen rich gas fuel has been designed and constructed. The methodology included using a high voltage electric arc generator to ionize the mixture of methane fuel and air, which was then reformed into a hydrogen rich gas. It transpired from the experiment that the higher the arc frequency, the higher was the generated hydrogen concentration, with a maximum concentration of 43 vol.% attained with an arc frequency of 200 Hz and an O/C (O 2 /CH 4 ) ratio of 0.10. The maximum hydrogen yield of 0.55 was obtained with an arc frequency of 200 Hz and an O/C ratio between 0.20 and 0.25. By fueling a four stroke motorcycle engine with the hydrogen rich gas, low emissions during the cold start idle condition can be obtained

  11. Laryngeal Fracture after Blunt Cervical Trauma in Motorcycle Accident and Its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ribeiro-Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal fracture is a rare traumatic injury, potentially fatal, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 30,000 patients admitted to severe trauma centers. Because of the rarity of this injury, physician may be not aware of its existence, leading to a late diagnosis of this entity. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman admitted to the emergency room after a motorcycle accident with cervical trauma. The patient presented with dysphonia, hemoptysis, cervical subcutaneous emphysema, and increasing respiratory distress that led to the intubation of the patient. CT-scan demonstrated displaced fracture of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage. The patient was submitted to tracheostomy and the fracture was surgically repaired. Tracheostomy was removed in third postoperative month. The patient presented a good recovery, reporting only hoarseness but without swallowing or breathing problems at 6-month follow-up.

  12. Methods of estimating the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and psychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Anna; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Luczak, Anna; Konarska, Maria; Pietrowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a method for a comprehensive assessment of the effect of integral motorcycle helmets on physiological and cognitive responses of motorcyclists. To verify the reliability of commonly used tests, we conducted experiments with 5 motorcyclists. We recorded changes in physiological parameters (heart rate, local skin temperature, core temperature, air temperature, relative humidity in the space between the helmet and the surface of the head, and the concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and in psychological parameters (motorcyclists' reflexes, fatigue, perceptiveness and mood). We also studied changes in the motorcyclists' subjective sensation of thermal comfort. The results made it possible to identify reliable parameters for assessing the effect of integral helmets on performance, i.e., physiological factors (head skin temperature, internal temperature and concentration of O(2) and CO(2) under the helmet) and on psychomotor factors (reaction time, attention and vigilance, work performance, concentration and a subjective feeling of mood and fatigue).

  13. The Economic Impact of Helmet Use on Motorcycle Accidents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Literature from the Past 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yeon; Wiznia, Daniel H; Averbukh, Leon; Dai, Feng; Leslie, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and cost of motorcycle accidents are projected to increase. Motorcycle helmets are accepted as an effective strategy for reducing the morbidity and therefore the cost of motorcycle accidents. Despite this, states have continued to repeal helmet laws in the past 20 years. In addition, variations in the methodologies and outcomes of published reports have contributed to uncertainty regarding the health care dollars saved due to motorcycle helmet use. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to clarify the economic impact of motorcycle helmet use. Our primary source was Medline. Search terms included "motorcycle," "motorbike," "motorcycle helmet," "head protective devices," and "cost and cost analysis." The review only included articles that were primary studies, written in English, evaluations of periods after 1994, and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Two independent authors extracted data using predefined data fields. Meta-analysis was done using the R-metafor package. Twelve papers met the criteria for inclusion. Meta-analysis demonstrated that nonhelmeted patients required $12,239 more in hospital costs per patient. Nonhelmeted patients also required more postdischarge care and were more likely to use publicly funded insurance. Studies also found lower injury severity and better hospital course in the helmeted population. Study limitations included selection bias, unclear statistical assumptions, lack of precision measures, confounding variables, and lack of standardization to a common year. Meta-analysis demonstrated an I2 of 67%, attributing a significant proportion of outcome variation to study differences. Motorcycle helmet use reduces morbidity and contributes to significant health care cost savings. Continuing antihelmet legislation will impose a substantial economic burden to the health care system, the government, and the public.

  14. The social context of motorcycle riding and the key determinants influencing rider behavior: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliff, Deborah; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M; Lewis, Ioni; Wishart, Darren

    2011-08-01

    Given the increasing popularity of motorcycle riding and heightened risk of injury or death associated with being a rider, this study explored rider behavior as a determinant of rider safety and, in particular, key beliefs and motivations that influence such behavior. To enhance the effectiveness of future education and training interventions, it is important to understand riders' own views about what influences how they ride. Specifically, this study sought to identify key determinants of riders' behaviors in relation to the social context of riding, including social and identity-related influences relating to the group (group norms and group identity) as well as the self (moral/personal norm and self-identity). Qualitative research was undertaken via group discussions with motorcycle riders (n = 41). The findings revealed that those in the group with which one rides represent an important source of social influence. Also, the motorcyclist (group) identity was associated with a range of beliefs, expectations, and behaviors considered to be normative. Exploration of the construct of personal norm revealed that riders were most cognizant of the "wrong things to do" when riding; among those issues raised was the importance of protective clothing (albeit for the protection of others and, in particular, pillion passengers). Finally, self-identity as a motorcyclist appeared to be important to a rider's self-concept and was likely to influence on-road behavior. Overall, the insight provided by the current study may facilitate the development of interventions including rider training as well as public education and mass media messages. The findings suggest that these interventions should incorporate factors associated with the social nature of riding in order to best align it with some of the key beliefs and motivations underpinning riders' on-road behaviors.

  15. Motorcycle Diaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Hope J.

    2005-01-01

    This article relates the experiences of Jeff Fischer, an instructor in the Computer Integrated Machining department at South Central College (SCC) in North Mankato, Minnesota. Facing dwindling student enrollment and possible departmental budget costs, Fischer was able to turn his passion for custom-built cycles and the intricate machining that…

  16. Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among motorcycle riders killed in road crashes in Norway during 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Gjerde, Hallvard

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples from motorcycle riders who died in road crashes in Norway from 2001 to 2010. An additional aim was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples from fatally injured motorcycle riders and car drivers who died during the same time period. Blood samples from motorcycle riders who died within 24h after the accident (n=207, 63% of all killed riders), were analysed for alcohol, psychoactive drugs (medicinal and illicit drugs). The cut-off concentrations for alcohol and drugs findings in blood samples (i.e., the drug concentrations above which a finding was regarded as positive) were set according to the legislative limits under the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. Results were assessed in relation to age, sex, time of the day and week, and single versus multiple-vehicle accidents. Alcohol or drugs were found in 27.1 percent of all investigated riders. For riders killed in single or multiple-vehicle accidents, alcohol or drugs were found in 44.6 and 15.3 percent, respectively. Alcohol was the most frequently found substance for all age groups and most prevalent in samples from riders below 25 years who died in single-vehicle accidents (45.8 percent). Drugs were most often found among riders between 25 and 34 years (19.6 percent in total and 25.9% for those killed in single-vehicle crashes). The prevalence of alcohol or drugs was highest among riders killed in single-vehicle accidents during weekend days and nights (60.9 and 65.2 percent). Alcohol and drugs were less often found in samples from killed motorcycles riders than in samples from car and van drivers (40.2 percent). For single-vehicle accidents, the total prevalence of alcohol or drugs among killed motorcycles riders and car drivers was 44.6 percent and 63.8 percent, respectively. The same pattern of alcohol and drugs was found among the two groups, except that the prevalence among motorcycle riders was lower

  17. The Influence of Green Marketing on Green Satisfaction Mediated By Perceived Quality and Its Impact to Green Trust in Injection Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelvy Kurniawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, motorcycle manufacturers are increasingly motivated to replace their motorcycle into fuel injection products. The growing concern from the consumers to the environment and the regulations of emission standards, that is Euro 3, for motorcycle industry is being finalized in the Ministry of Environment in order to be implemented in Indonesia. Through this research, the writer will examine the effect of green marketing on perceived quality, green satisfaction, and green trust, the effect of perceived quality on green satisfaction, and the effect of green satisfaction on green trust. Those effects needs to be investigated in order to know how far the effects of green marketing and to ensure whether green marketing is well accepted or not by the market in motorcycle industry. Scope of this research is also limited to the user of fuel injection motorcycle in Jakarta for Honda and Yamaha who involved as decision maker when the motorcycle is purchased. Sampling technique used in this research is quota sampling and the analysis method is structural equation modeling (SEM. The findings of this research are: green marketing has a significant direct effect on perceived quality, perceived quality has a significant direct effect on green satisfaction, green satisfaction has a significant direct effect on green trust, green marketing has a significant direct and indirect effect on green satisfaction, and green marketing has a significant direct and indirect effect on green trust. All of those effects are found to be positive effects.

  18. Impact of Helmet Use on Injury and Financial Burden of Motorcycle and Moped Crashes in Hawai‘i: Analysis of a Linked Statewide Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Nikki A; Wong, Linda L; Steinemann, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Helmet use reduces injury severity, disability, hospital length of stay, and hospital charges in motorcycle riders. The public absorbs billions of dollars annually in hospital charges for unhelmeted, uninsured motorcycle riders. We sought to quantify, on a statewide level, the healthcare burden of unhelmeted motorcycle and moped riders. We examined 1,965 emergency medical service (EMS) reports from motorcycle and moped crashes in Hawai‘i between 2007–2009. EMS records were linked to hospital medical records to assess associations between vehicle type, helmet use, medical charges, diagnoses, and final disposition. Unhelmeted riders of either type of vehicle suffered more head injuries, especially skull fractures (adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.48, P motorcycle and moped riders, with a significant (P = .006) difference between helmeted ($27,176) and unhelmeted ($40,217) motorcycle riders. Unhelmeted riders were twice as likely to self-pay (19.3%, versus 9.8% of helmeted riders), and more likely to have Medicaid or a similar income-qualifying insurance plan (13.5% versus 5.0%, respectively). Protective associations with helmet use are stronger among motorcyclists than moped riders, suggesting the protective effect is augmented in higher speed crashes. The public financial burden is higher from unhelmeted riders who sustain more severe injuries and are less likely to be insured. PMID:27980882

  19. Rates of motorcycle helmet use and reasons for non-use among adults and children in Luang Prabang, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Michelle C; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Dwyer, Jessica L; Taylor, Yvonne K; Mobasser, Arian; Strong, Theresa M; Werner, Susanne; Ouansavanh, Siamphone; Mounmingkham, Amphone; Kasuavang, Mai; Sittiphone, Dalika; Phoumesy, Khamhak; Sysaythong, Keo; Khantysavath, Khauphan; Bounnaphone, Somchit; Vilaysom, Amphone; Touvachao, Sengchanh; Mounmeuangxam, Siviengxam; Souralay, Somchittana; Lianosay, Baoher; Lia, Thongher; Spector, Jonathan M

    2015-09-28

    Motorcycles make up 81 % of the total vehicle population and 74 % of road traffic deaths in Lao PDR. Helmets reduce the risk and severity of injuries resulting from motorcycle accidents by 72 %. Although Lao law mandates motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers, the prevalence of helmet use in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR is unknown. This project aimed to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among riders (i.e., drivers and passengers) in Luang Prabang. An observational survey in Luang Prabang was conducted in February 2015 to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers. Additionally, non-helmet wearing riders were surveyed to identify the reasons for helmet non-use. Of 1632 motorcycle riders observed, only 16.2 % wore helmets. Approximately 29 % of adults wore helmets while less than 1 % of all children wore helmets. When surveyed about attitudes towards helmet use, the majority of adult drivers indicated that they did not like how adult helmets feel or made them look. Additionally, almost half of motorcyclists who did not own child helmets reported that their child was too young to wear a helmet. Our finding that children wear helmets at significantly lower rates compared to adults is consistent with findings from neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. Results of this study have implications for public health campaigns targeting helmet use, especially among children.

  20. An observation of histological evidence on internal organ damages in mice caused by repeated exposures to motorcycle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, Arinto Y. P.; Juswono, Unggul P.; Noor, Johan A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been identified as a source of ultrafine particles, which have significant impacts on human health. Repeated and prolonged exposure to ultrafine particles may have a significant association with organ damage. Here, we evaluated the correlation between repeated exposure to ultrafine particles and organ damage in mice. Motorcycle emissions were injected into an exposure chamber with mice for a period of 20 seconds. This treatment was conducted over 10 days. The mice were sacrificed on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th days for organ preparations. Based on the results, motorcycle emission exposure caused organ damage in mice, with different severities depending on the organ. The highest damage was found for the lung, followed by the kidney, erythrocytes, and liver.

  1. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Nonuse of Seatbelts in Cars and Helmets on Motorcycles among People Living in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Malekafzali Ardakani, Hossein; Majdzadeh, Reza; Bidarpour, Farzam; Mohammad, Kazem; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the socioeconomic inequalities in nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles in Kurdistan Province, west of Iran, 2009. The data used in this study was collected from the data gathered in non-communicable disease surveillance system (NCDSS) in 2009 in Kurdistan. A total of 1000 people were included in this study. The outcome variable of this study was the nonuse of seatbelts and helmets. The socio-economic status (SES) was calculated based on participants' residential area and assets using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. The concentration index, concentration curve, and comparison of Odds Ratio (OR) in different SES groups were used to measure the socioeconomic inequalities using logistic regression. In order to determine the contribution of determinants of inequality, decomposition analysis was used. The prevalence of nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles were 47.5%, 95%CI [44%, 55%], respectively. The Concentration index was -0.097, CI [-0.148, -0.046]. The OR of nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles in the richest group compared with the poorest group was 0.39, 95%CI [0.23, 0.68]. The results of the decomposition analysis showed that 34% of inequalities were due to SES, 47% were due to residential area, and 12% were due to unknown factors. There is a reverse association between SES and nonuse of seatbelts in cars and helmets on motorcycles. This issue must be considered while planning to reduce traffic accidents injuries.

  2. Does an on-road motorcycle coaching program reduce crashes in novice riders? A randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Sakashita, Chika; Senserrick, Teresa; Elkington, Jane; Lo, Serigne; Boufous, Soufiane; de Rome, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Motorcycle riding is increasing globally and confers a high risk of crash-related injury and death. There is community demand for investment in rider training programs but no high-quality evidence about its effectiveness in preventing crashes. This randomised trial of an on-road rider coaching program aimed to determine its effectiveness in reducing crashes in novice motorcycle riders. Between May 2010 and October 2012, 2399 newly-licensed provisional riders were recruited in Victoria, Australia and completed a telephone interview before randomisation to intervention or control groups. Riders in the intervention group were offered an on-road motorcycle rider coaching program which involved pre-program activities, 4h riding and facilitated discussion in small groups with a riding coach. Outcome measures were collected for all participants via telephone interviews at 3 and 12 months after program delivery (or equivalent for controls), and via linkage to police-recorded crash and offence data. The primary outcome was a composite measure of police-recorded and self-reported crashes; secondary outcomes included traffic offences, near crashes, riding exposure, and riding behaviours and motivations. Follow-up was 89% at 3 months and 88% at 12 months; 60% of the intervention group completed the program. Intention-to-treat analyses conducted in 2014 indicated no effect on crash risk at 3 months (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.65-1.27) or 12 months (adjusted OR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.78-1.29). Riders in the intervention group reported increased riding exposure, speeding behaviours and rider confidence. There was no evidence that this on-road motorcycle rider coaching program reduced the risk of crash, and we found an increase in crash-related risk factors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparative injury severity analysis of motorcycle at-fault crashes on rural and urban roadways in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Samantha; Brown, Joshua

    2017-11-01

    The research described in this paper explored the factors contributing to the injury severity resulting from the motorcycle at-fault accidents in rural and urban areas in Alabama. Given the occurrence of a motorcycle at-fault crash, random parameter logit models of injury severity (with possible outcomes of fatal, major, minor, and possible or no injury) were estimated. The estimated models identified a variety of statistically significant factors influencing the injury severities resulting from motorcycle at-fault crashes. According to these models, some variables were found to be significant only in one model (rural or urban) but not in the other one. For example, variables such as clear weather, young motorcyclists, and roadway without light were found significant only in the rural model. On the other hand, variables such as older female motorcyclists, horizontal curve and at intersection were found significant only in the urban model. In addition, some variables (such as, motorcyclists under influence of alcohol, non-usage of helmet, high speed roadways, etc.) were found significant in both models. Also, estimation findings showed that two parameters (clear weather and roadway without light) in the rural model and one parameter (on weekend) in the urban model could be modeled as random parameters indicating their varying influences on the injury severity due to unobserved effects. Based on the results obtained, this paper discusses the effects of different variables on injury severities resulting from rural and urban motorcycle at-fault crashes and their possible explanations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the potential benefits of the motorcycle autonomous emergency braking using detailed crash reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Giovanni; Giovannini, Federico; Baldanzini, Niccolò; Pierini, Marco; Rizzi, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and quantitative potential benefits of a motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB) system in fatal rear-end crashes. A further aim was to identify possible criticalities of this safety system in the field of powered 2-wheelers (PTWs; e.g., any additional risk introduced by the system itself). Seven relevant cases from the Swedish national in-depth fatal crash database were selected. All crashes involved car-following in which a non-anti-lock braking system (ABS)-equipped motorcycle was the bullet vehicle. Those crashes were reconstructed in a virtual environment with Prescan, simulating the road scenario, the vehicles involved, their precrash trajectories, ABS, and, alternatively, MAEB. The MAEB chosen as reference for the investigation was developed within the European Commission-funded Powered Two-Wheeler Integrated Safety (PISa) project and further detailed in later studies, with the addition of the ABS functionality. The boundary conditions of each simulation varied within a range compatible with the uncertainty of the in-depth data and also included a range of possible rider behaviors including the actual one. The benefits of the MAEB were evaluated by comparing the simulated impact speed in each configuration (no ABS/MAEB, ABS only, MAEB). The MAEB proved to be beneficial in a large number of cases. When applicable, the benefits of the system were in line with the expected values. When not applicable, there was no clear evidence of an increased risk for the rider due to the system. MAEB represents an innovative safety device in the field of PTWs, and the feasibility of such a system was investigated with promising results. Nevertheless, this technology is not mature yet for PTW application. Research in the field of passenger cars does not directly apply to PTWs because the activation logic of a braking system is more challenging on PTWs. The deployment of an autonomous deceleration would affect the

  5. Modeling the reaction kinetics of a hydrogen generator onboard a fuel cell -- Electric hybrid motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Karthik

    Owing to the perceived decline of the fossil fuel reserves in the world and environmental issues like pollution, conventional fuels may be replaced by cleaner alternative fuels. The potential of hydrogen as a fuel in vehicular applications is being explored. Hydrogen as an energy carrier potentially finds applications in internal combustion engines and fuel cells because it is considered a clean fuel and has high specific energy. However, at 6 to 8 per kilogram, not only is hydrogen produced from conventional methods like steam reforming expensive, but also there are storage and handling issues, safety concerns and lack of hydrogen refilling stations across the country. The purpose of this research is to suggest a cheap and viable system that generates hydrogen on demand through a chemical reaction between an aluminum-water slurry and an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to power a 2 kW fuel cell on a fuel cell hybrid motorcycle. This reaction is essentially an aluminum-water reaction where sodium hydroxide acts as a reaction promoter or catalyst. The Horizon 2000 fuel cell used for this purpose has a maximum hydrogen intake rate of 28 lpm. The study focuses on studying the exothermic reaction between the reactants and proposes a rate law that best describes the rate of generation of hydrogen in connection to the surface area of aluminum available for the certain reaction and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Further, the proposed rate law is used in the simulation model of the chemical reactor onboard the hybrid motorcycle to determine the hydrogen flow rate to the fuel cell with time. Based on the simulated rate of production of hydrogen from the chemical system, its feasibility of use on different drive cycles is analyzed. The rate of production of hydrogen with a higher concentration of sodium hydroxide and smaller aluminum powder size was found to enable the installation of the chemical reactor on urban cycles with frequent stops and starts

  6. Development of emission factors for motorcycles and shared auto-rickshaws using real-world driving cycle for a typical Indian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Prasenjit; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2016-02-15

    Vehicular emission is one of the most important contributors of urban air pollution. To quantify the impact of traffic on urban air quality, it is necessary to quantify vehicular emission. In many cities of India, such as Dhanbad, shared auto-rickshaw is the pre-dominant mode of transportation. Indian Driving Cycle (IDC) and Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) are used for emission testing of motorcycles, shared auto-rickshaws and passenger cars in India for regulatory purposes. IDC used for motorcycles and shared auto-rickshaws does not recognize the difference in two vehicle classes in terms of driving pattern. In real world, shared auto-rickshaws, behave differently than motorcycles. To quantify the impact of shared auto-rickshaws on urban air quality accurately, emission factors (EFs) are required to derive from real-world driving cycles (DCs). In heterogeneous traffic, vehicles of one class affect the behavior of vehicles of other classes. To estimate the emissions from different vehicle classes accurately, EFs for motorcycles and passenger cars are also required to be revised. In this study, real-world DCs were developed for motorcycles, shared auto-rickshaws and passenger cars in Dhanbad. Developed DCs were used to calculate EFs for respective classes. Shared auto-rickshaws were found to have the highest deviation from EFs derived using IDC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Li Ping

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Methods Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. Results A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years. Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77 years (range: 2 months to 12 years, with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%, followed by alcohol drinking (27.8% and recreational drug use (18.8%. Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Conclusion Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  8. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-06-08

    This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years). Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77) years (range: 2 months to 12 years), with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%), followed by alcohol drinking (27.8%) and recreational drug use (18.8%). Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  9. Motorcycle Start-stop System based on Intelligent Biometric Voice Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winda, A.; E Byan, W. R.; Sofyan; Armansyah; Zariantin, D. L.; Josep, B. G.

    2017-03-01

    Current mechanical key in the motorcycle is prone to bulgary, being stolen or misplaced. Intelligent biometric voice recognition as means to replace this mechanism is proposed as an alternative. The proposed system will decide whether the voice is belong to the user or not and the word utter by the user is ‘On’ or ‘Off’. The decision voice will be sent to Arduino in order to start or stop the engine. The recorded voice is processed in order to get some features which later be used as input to the proposed system. The Mel-Frequency Ceptral Coefficient (MFCC) is adopted as a feature extraction technique. The extracted feature is the used as input to the SVM-based identifier. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent voice recognition and word recognition system. It show that the proposed method produces a good training and testing accuracy, 99.31% and 99.43%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed system shows the performance of false rejection rate (FRR) and false acceptance rate (FAR) accuracy of 0.18% and 17.58%, respectively. In the intelligent word recognition shows that the training and testing accuracy are 100% and 96.3%, respectively.

  10. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand N. Bosmia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.

  11. Emergency motorcycle: has it a place in a medical emergency system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Oliveira, Miguel; Egipto, Paula; Costa, Isabel; Cunha-Ribeiro, Luis Manuel

    2007-07-01

    In an emergency medical service system, response time is an important factor in determining the prognosis of a victim. There are well-documented increases in response time in urban areas, mainly during rush hour. Because prehospital emergency care is required to be efficient and swift, alternative measures to achieve this goal should be addressed. We report our experience with a medical emergency motorcycle (MEM) and propose major criteria for dispatching it. This work presents a prospective analysis of the data relating to MEM calls from July 2004 to December 2005. The analyzed parameters were age, sex, reason for call, action, and need for subsequent transport. A comparison was made of the need to activate more means and, if so, whether the MEM was the first to arrive. There were 1972 calls. The average time of arrival at destination was 4.4 +/- 2.5 minutes. The main action consisted of administration of oxygen (n = 626), immobilization (n = 118), and control of hemorrhage (n = 101). In 63% of cases, MEM arrived before other emergency vehicles. In 355 cases (18%), there was no need for transport. The MEM can intervene in a wide variety of clinical situations and a quick response is guaranteed. Moreover, in specific situations, MEM safely and efficiently permits better management of emergency vehicles. We propose that it should be dispatched mainly in the following situations: true life-threatening cases and uncertain need for an ambulance.

  12. A literature review on human factors research using motorcycle simulators. Paper presented at the Driving Simulation Conference (DSC) 2015 Edition, 16-18 Sept 2015, Tübingen (Germany).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovácsová, N. Di Gesu, M. Schwab, A.L. Toso, A. Gubitosa, M. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Winter, J.C.F. de

    2015-01-01

    Motorcycle simulators are used for a variety of purposes, including rider assessment, rider training, the evaluation of vehicle technology, and research on support and warning systems. One of the main advantages of using simulators, as opposed to using real motorcycles, is that it is possible to

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis of the influence of tyres' properties on the straight running stability of a sport-touring motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossalter, Vittore; Doria, Alberto; Formentini, Matteo; Peretto, Martino

    2012-03-01

    The behaviour of a motorcycle on the road is largely governed by tyre properties. This paper presents experimental and numerical analyses dealing with the influence of tyre properties on the stability of weave and wobble in straight running. The final goal is to find optimal sets of tyre properties that improve the stability of a motorcycle. The investigation is based on road tests carried out on a sport-touring motorcycle equipped with sensors. Three sets of tyres are tested at different speeds in the presence of weave and wobble. The analysis of telemetry data highlights significant differences in the trends of frequency and damping of weave and wobble against speed. The experimental analysis is integrated by a parametric numerical analysis. Tyre properties are varied according to the design of experiments method, in order to highlight the single effects on stability of lateral and cornering coefficient of front and rear tyres.

  14. [Work profile and traffic accidents among motorcycle couriers in two medium-sized cities in the State of Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniela Wosiack da; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Soares, Darli Antonio; Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2008-11-01

    This cross-sectional study focused on motorcycle couriers (work profile, work conditions, and traffic accidents) in Londrina and Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Data were collected from self-completed questionnaires in 2005-2006. In Londrina and Maringá, respectively, 377 and 500 motorcycle couriers completed the questionnaire, with mean ages of 28 and 29 years. Londrina showed a higher proportion of couriers that earned per delivery, worked both day and night or on night shifts only, and who worked more than 10 hours a day (p work and traffic conditions in Londrina, there was no significant difference in the accident rates during the 12 months prior to the survey in Londrina and Maringá (2.89 and 2.80 per 100 person-months, respectively). The study detected precarious work conditions, high exposure to hazardous traffic conditions, and high accident rates among motorcycle couriers.

  15. A Comprehensive Approach to Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Prevention: Experiences from the Field in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Greig; Van Bui, Truong; Sidik, Mirjam; Moore, Danielle; Ederer, David J; Parker, Erin M; Ballesteros, Michael F; Sleet, David A

    2017-11-30

    Motorcyclists account for 23% of global road traffic deaths and over half of fatalities in countries where motorcycles are the dominant means of transport. Wearing a helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by as much as 69% and death by 42%; however, both child and adult helmet use are low in many countries where motorcycles are a primary mode of transportation. In response to the need to increase helmet use by all drivers and their passengers, the Global Helmet Vaccine Initiative (GHVI) was established to increase helmet use in three countries where a substantial portion of road users are motorcyclists and where helmet use is low. The GHVI approach includes five strategies to increase helmet use: targeted programs, helmet access, public awareness, institutional policies, and monitoring and evaluation. The application of GHVI to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Uganda resulted in four key lessons learned. First, motorcyclists are more likely to wear helmets when helmet use is mandated and enforced. Second, programs targeted to at-risk motorcyclists, such as child passengers, combined with improved awareness among the broader population, can result in greater public support needed to encourage action by decision-makers. Third, for broad population-level change, using multiple strategies in tandem can be more effective than using a single strategy alone. Lastly, the successful expansion of GHVI into Cambodia and Uganda has been hindered by the lack of helmet accessibility and affordability, a core component contributing to its success in Vietnam. This paper will review the development of the GHVI five-pillar approach in Vietnam, subsequent efforts to implement the model in Cambodia and Uganda, and lessons learned from these applications to protect motorcycle drivers and their adult and child passengers from injury.

  16. Are automatic systems the future of motorcycle safety? A novel methodology to prioritize potential safety solutions based on their projected effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Gustavo; Savino, Giovanni; Piantini, Simone; Baldanzini, Niccolò; Happee, Riender; Pierini, Marco

    2017-11-17

    Motorcycle riders are involved in significantly more crashes per kilometer driven than passenger car drivers. Nonetheless, the development and implementation of motorcycle safety systems lags far behind that of passenger cars. This research addresses the identification of the most effective motorcycle safety solutions in the context of different countries. A knowledge-based system of motorcycle safety (KBMS) was developed to assess the potential for various safety solutions to mitigate or avoid motorcycle crashes. First, a set of 26 common crash scenarios was identified from the analysis of multiple crash databases. Second, the relative effectiveness of 10 safety solutions was assessed for the 26 crash scenarios by a panel of experts. Third, relevant information about crashes was used to weigh the importance of each crash scenario in the region studied. The KBMS method was applied with an Italian database, with a total of more than 1 million motorcycle crashes in the period 2000-2012. When applied to the Italian context, the KBMS suggested that automatic systems designed to compensate for riders' or drivers' errors of commission or omission are the potentially most effective safety solution. The KBMS method showed an effective way to compare the potential of various safety solutions, through a scored list with the expected effectiveness of each safety solution for the region to which the crash data belong. A comparison of our results with a previous study that attempted a systematic prioritization of safety systems for motorcycles (PISa project) showed an encouraging agreement. Current results revealed that automatic systems have the greatest potential to improve motorcycle safety. Accumulating and encoding expertise in crash analysis from a range of disciplines into a scalable and reusable analytical tool, as proposed with the use of KBMS, has the potential to guide research and development of effective safety systems. As the expert assessment of the crash

  17. In depth analysis of urban accidents involving motorcycle and moped riders in France, construction of prototypical accident scenarios and prospects for their prevention. Poster

    OpenAIRE

    CLABAUX, N

    2007-01-01

    in France, in 2006, in spite of a low part of travel, motorcycle and moped riders accounted for 23% of all traffic fatalities and 31% of all injuries recorded. This extra risk is particularly marked in urban areas and in large cities. According to national accident statistics, in urban areas, accidents involving motorcycles and mopeds account for 20% and 23,6% respectively, of all injury accidents recorded. In the city of Paris, in 2005, powered two-wheelers accounted for 3% of all travel but...

  18. Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J

    2017-01-02

    Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate

  19. The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics from residual liner crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Stephanie J; Gardiner, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab S; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-09-01

    Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner's maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm 3 ), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm 3 . Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet's residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The costs of traumatic brain injury due to motorcycle accidents in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo Thuy TN

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic accidents are the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal injuries in Vietnam. The purpose of this study is to estimate the costs, in the first year post-injury, of non-fatal traumatic brain injury (TBI in motorcycle users not wearing helmets in Hanoi, Vietnam. The costs are calculated from the perspective of the injured patients and their families, and include quantification of direct, indirect and intangible costs, using years lost due to disability as a proxy. Methods The study was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Data on treatment and rehabilitation costs, employment and support were obtained from patients and their families using a structured questionnaire and The European Quality of Life instrument (EQ6D. Results Thirty-five patients and their families were interviewed. On average, patients with severe, moderate and minor TBI incurred direct costs at USD 2,365, USD 1,390 and USD 849, with time lost for normal activities averaging 54 weeks, 26 weeks and 17 weeks and years lived with disability (YLD of 0.46, 0.25 and 0.15 year, respectively. Conclusion All three component costs of TBI were high; the direct cost accounted for the largest proportion, with costs rising with the severity of TBI. The results suggest that the burden of TBI can be catastrophic for families because of high direct costs, significant time off work for patients and caregivers, and impact on health-related quality of life. Further research is warranted to explore the actual social and economic benefits of mandatory helmet use.

  1. Preparation of activated carbon from banana peel waste for reducing air pollutant from motorcycle muffler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafidz Achmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gas or emission from motor vehicle contains various pollutants and some of them are toxic and very harmful for human health. In the present work, we prepared an activated carbon to reduce the toxic pollutants (via adsorption process from the exhaust gas of the motor vehicle (particularly motorcycle in this work. The activated carbon was prepared from local banana peel which considered as an agricultural waste without economic value. To prepare the activated carbon, banana peel was carbonized using furnace at 500°C. Then the resulted carbon was activated using chemical activation with ZnCl2 and physical activation with either microwave (300 W or furnace (700°C. The prepared activated carbon was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR analysis. The SEM result showed that the pore of microwave induced ZnCl2 activated carbon (ACM was larger than the pore of virgin char/carbon and furnace induced ZnCl2 activataed carbon (ACF. The FT-IR spectrum of ACM showed some peaks at 3408.59 cm-1, 1589.25 cm-1, and 1093.63 cm-1. They are assigned to O-H stretching, C=O stretching, and C-OH stretching. Additionally, the adsorption performance of the prepared activation carbon to reduce the pollutants concentration (i.e. CO and CH from the exhaust gas of motor vehicle was investigated. The results showed that the activated carbon induced by microwave and ZnCl2 activation (ACM gave the best result. The adsorption or removal efficiency of gas CO reached approximately 97.64 %vol.

  2. A High Torque Segmented Outer Rotor Permanent Magnet Flux Switching Motor for Motorcycle Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbadiwe I Enwelum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric scooters also known as electric motorcycle are viable and personal means of road transportation have been making their ways into the world markets now because in them, combustion engine with the use of fuel oil for propulsion have been completely eliminated for economic and environmental imperatives. Electric motor which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is used to overcome the complication of combustion engine. As it is, everyone is opting for combustion engine free and fuel-less type of vehicle. For this reason, manufacturers have exhibited interest, making research on electric motor very attractive. Meanwhile, surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM has been successfully developed having output torque of 110 Nm, the assembly of motor lacked mechanical strength between the rotor yoke and the mounted permanent magnet (PM which heats up during speed operation, resulting to poor performance. To overcome the challenges laced with SPMSM, this paper presents a novel design of 24 stator 14 pole outer rotor-permanent magnet flux switching motor (SOR-PMFSM capable of high torque and high performance. It employs an unconventional segmented rotor which has short flux path flow. It also embraces alternate stator tooth windings to reduce material cost. Design specifications and restriction with input DC current are the same with SPMSM. The 2D-FEA by JMAG, version 14 is used to examine the performance of the proposed motor in terms of cogging torque, back-emf, average torque, power and efficiency. Preliminary results showed that torque, power output and efficiency of the proposed motor are 1.9Nm times, 5.8kW times more than SPMSM and efficiency of 84% thus, can sustain acceleration for long distance travel.

  3. Optimal design of disc-type magneto-rheological brake for mid-sized motorcycle: experimental evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Jeon, Juncheol; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a disc-type magneto-rheological (MR) brake is designed for a mid-sized motorcycle and its performance is experimentally evaluated. The proposed MR brake consists of an outer housing, a rotating disc immersed in MR fluid, and a copper wire coiled around a bobbin to generate a magnetic field. The structural configuration of the MR brake is first presented with consideration of the installation space for the conventional hydraulic brake of a mid-sized motorcycle. The design parameters of the proposed MR brake are optimized to satisfy design requirements such as the braking torque, total mass of the MR brake, and cruising temperature caused by the magnetic-field friction of the MR fluid. In the optimization procedure, the braking torque is calculated based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model, which predicts MR fluid behavior well at high shear rate. An optimization tool based on finite element analysis is used to obtain the optimized dimensions of the MR brake. After manufacturing the MR brake, mechanical performances regarding the response time, braking torque and cruising temperature are experimentally evaluated.

  4. Accuracy evaluation of Fourier series analysis and singular spectrum analysis for predicting the volume of motorcycle sales in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmita, Yoga; Darmawan, Gumgum

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to evaluate the performance of forecasting by Fourier Series Analysis (FSA) and Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) which are more explorative and not requiring parametric assumption. Those methods are applied to predicting the volume of motorcycle sales in Indonesia from January 2005 to December 2016 (monthly). Both models are suitable for seasonal and trend component data. Technically, FSA defines time domain as the result of trend and seasonal component in different frequencies which is difficult to identify in the time domain analysis. With the hidden period is 2,918 ≈ 3 and significant model order is 3, FSA model is used to predict testing data. Meanwhile, SSA has two main processes, decomposition and reconstruction. SSA decomposes the time series data into different components. The reconstruction process starts with grouping the decomposition result based on similarity period of each component in trajectory matrix. With the optimum of window length (L = 53) and grouping effect (r = 4), SSA predicting testing data. Forecasting accuracy evaluation is done based on Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The result shows that in the next 12 month, SSA has MAPE = 13.54 percent, MAE = 61,168.43 and RMSE = 75,244.92 and FSA has MAPE = 28.19 percent, MAE = 119,718.43 and RMSE = 142,511.17. Therefore, to predict volume of motorcycle sales in the next period should use SSA method which has better performance based on its accuracy.

  5. Energy improvement and performance evaluation of a novel full hybrid electric motorcycle with power split e-CVT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Cheng-Ta; Hung, Yi-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative hybrid powertrain system using a planetary gearset and dual one-way clutch. • Three operation modes: EV-mode, engine-driven mode and power split e-CVT mode. • Outstanding energy improvement (max. 32+%) compared to traditional vehicles. • Experimentally implemented for light-duty vehicles in the near future. - Abstract: The power split electronic-continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) has been globally accepted as a main architecture for developing a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). In this paper, a novel full hybrid electric motorcycle with power split e-CVT is proposed. It consists of an engine, a reversible generator, a reversible driving motor, a set of the planetary gear, two one-way clutches, and transmission components arranged for a planetary gearset and dual one-way clutch transmission (PDOC). Three operation modes were properly switched for optimal output dynamics: EV-mode, engine-driven mode, and power split e-CVT mode. Performance simulation compared with that of a baseline system using the conventional rubber-belt CVT is conducted to evaluate its feasibility and potential. The results present superior driving performance and fuel economy for the proposed motorcycle (maximum 32% fuel economy improvement) and thus offer a favorable support for further development

  6. The importance of post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in confrontation with conventional forensic autopsy of victims of motorcycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskała, Artur; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Kluza, Piotr; Romaszko, Karol; Lopatin, Oleksij

    2016-01-01

    Since traffic accidents are an important problem in forensic medicine, there is a constant search for new solutions to help with an investigation process in such cases. In recent years there was a rapid development of post-mortem imaging techniques, especially post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). In our work we concentrated on a potential advantage of PMCT in cases of motorcycle accident fatalities. The results of forensic autopsy were compared with combined results of the autopsy and PMCT to check in which areas use of these two techniques gives statistically important increase in number of findings. The hypothesis was confirmed in case of pneumothorax and fractures of skull, spine, clavicle, scapula, lower leg bones. As for majority of other bone fractures locations and brain injures there were single cases with pathologies visible only in PMCT, but too few to reach expected level of p-value. In case of injuries of solid organs and soft tissues statistical analysis did not confirmed any advantage of unenhanced PMCT use. On the whole it has been shown that PMCT used as an adjunct to forensic autopsy can cause an increase in information about vitally important regions in case of motorcycle accident fatalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of mandatory motorcycle helmet wearing legislation on head injuries in Viet Nam: results of a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Jonathon; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Luong, Mai Anh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2010-04-01

    To compare estimated prevalence of head injuries among road traffic injury patients admitted to hospitals, before and after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Before and after study of all road traffic injury patients with head injuries admitted to 20 provincial and central hospitals 3 months before and after the new law came into effect on 15 December 2007. Relative risk was computed and comparison made for the periods of 3 months before and after the new law. The study found a 16 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries (4683 to 3522; relative risk [RR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and an 18 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic death (deaths in hospital plus injured patients discharged to die at home; 566 to 417; RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.93). Over the first 3 months of the comprehensive mandatory helmet legislation there has been a significant reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries among patients admitted to 20 hospitals. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets is suspected of leading to positive road safety benefits and should be seen as a policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for transport.

  8. Detection of active noise control on the standard motorcycle exhaust Supra X 125 D using PVC pipe technique form Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isranuri, I.; Alfisyahrin; Nasution, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    This detection aims to obtain noise reduction on the supra X 125D motorcycle exhaust by using the Active Noise Control Method. The technique is done using a Y-shaped PVC pipe to be bolted on the exhaust, which then branch Y PVC is placed loudspeaker with impermeable conditions. The function of this loudspeaker is as a secondary noise to counter the primary noise of the sound of exhaust motorcycle Supra X 125D. The sound generator in this study is the ISD 4004 module, which serves to generate noise to counter the source noise. How this ISD 4004 module works is by recording source noise then recording the source noise and then reversed the phase 180° by phase reversing circuit. So that, the noise generated by the sound generator will hit the source noise and encounter or such as addition of two different phase of sound will result in noise reduction when detected at the end of the Y-shaped PVC pipe. Inverted phase reversed using feed-back resistor 1 kΩ and 2 kΩ input resistors, 16V capacitor 2500μf and as amplifier using ICL 7660 and TL 702 CP. Test results on the highest 1000 rpm rotation engine speed on the Z axis of 2 dB, and at the highest 2000 rpm rotation engine speed also occurs on the Z axis of 1.5 dB.

  9. Single-vehicle and Multi-vehicle Accidents Involving Motorcycles in a Small City in China: Characteristics and Injury Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a gap that involves examining differences between patients in single-vehicle (SV versus multi-vehicle (MV accidents involving motorcycles in Shantou, China, regarding the injury patterns and mortality the patients sustained. This study aims to address this gap and provide a basis and reference for motorcycle injury prevention. Method: Medical record data was collected between October 2002 and June 2012 on all motorcycle injury patients admitted to a hospital in the city of Shantou of the east Guangdong province in China. Comparative analysis was conducted between patients in SV accidents and patients in MV accidents regarding demographic and clinic characteristics, mortality, and injury patterns. Results: Approximately 48% (n = 1977 of patients were involved in SV accidents and 52% (n = 2119 were involved in MV accidents. The average age was 34 years. Collision of a motorcycle with a heavy vehicle/bus (4% was associated with a 34 times greater risk of death (RR: 34.32|95% CI: 17.43–67.57. Compared to patients involved in MV accidents, those involved in SV accidents were more likely to sustain a skull fracture (RR: 1.47|95% CI: 1.22–1.77, an open head wound (RR: 1.46|95% CI: 1.23–1.74, an intracranial injury (RR: 1.39|95% CI: 1.26–1.53, a superficial head injury (RR: 1.37|95% CI: 1.01–1.86, an injury to an organ (RR: 2.01|95% CI: 1.24–3.26, and a crushing injury (RR: 1.98|95% CI: 1.06–3.70 to the thorax or abdomen. However, they were less likely to sustain a spinal fracture (RR: 0.58|95% CI: 0.39–0.85, a pelvic fracture (RR: 0.22|95% CI: 0.11–0.46, an upper extremity fracture (RR: 0.75|95% CI: 0.59–0.96, or injuries to their lower extremities, except for a dislocation, sprain, or injury to a joint or ligament (RR: 0.82|95% CI: 0.49–1.36. Conclusion: The relative risk of death is higher for patients involved in multi-vehicle accidents than patients in single-vehicle accidents, especially when a

  10. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part G. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #22--Refrigerator Mechanic; #24--Motorcycle Repairperson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This fourth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Refrigerator Mechanic and Motorcycle Repairperson. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE number, career ladder, D.O.T. general educational…

  11. What Else after Behavior Was Changed? the Effects of a University's Policy on Student Participation in Motorcycle Emission Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2014-01-01

    With an attempt to realize the effectiveness of a university's policy on motorcycle emission, this study compared its students' participation behavior, associated knowledge, and attitudes toward relevant environmental issues with those of three other universities without similar measures. The results of a survey on a total of 504 students revealed…

  12. Epidemiology and patterns of musculoskeletal motorcycle injuries in the USA [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/444

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean T. Burns

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motorcycles have become an increasingly popular mode of transportation despite their association with a greater risk for injury compared with automobiles. Whereas the recent incidence of annual passenger vehicle fatalities in the United States of America (USA has progressively declined, motorcycle fatalities have steadily increased in the past 11 years. Although motorcycle injuries (MIs have been studied, to the author’s knowledge there are no published reports on MIs in the USA during this 11-year period. Methods: Study data were derived from a prospectively collected Level I trauma center database. Data sampling included motorcycle crash injury evaluations for the 10-year period ending on 31 August 2008. This retrospective analysis included patient demographic and medical data, helmet use, Glasgow coma scale (GCS score, injury severity score (ISS, length of hospital stay (LOS, specific injury diagnosis, and death. Data statistics were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and logistic regression. Results: The study identified 1252 motorcycle crash injuries. Helmets were worn by 40.7% of patients for which helmet data were available. The rates of the most common orthopedic injuries were tibia/fibula (19.01%, spine (16.21%, and forearm (10.14% fractures. The most common non-orthopedic motorcycle crash injuries were concussions (21.09%, skull fractures (8.23%, face fractures (13.66%, and hemo- and pneumothorax (8.79%. There was a significant correlation between greater age and higher ISS (r=0.21, P<0.0001 and longer LOS (r=0.22, P<0.0001. Older patients were also less likely to wear a helmet (OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.98, 0.997, associated with a significantly higher risk for death (after adjustment for helmet use OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05. All patients without helmets had a significantly lower GCS score (P=0.0001 and a higher mortality rate (after adjustment for patient demographic data OR=2.28, 95

  13. Timing performance of a self-cancelling turn-signal mechanism in motorcycles based on the ATMega328P microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbuwat, Adzin Kondo; Eryandi, Kholid Yusuf; Estriyanto, Yuyun; Widiastuti, Indah; Pambudi, Nugroho Agung

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the time performance of a self-cancelling turn signal mechanism based on the In this study the performance of self-cancelling turn signal based on ATMega328P microcontroller is measured at low speed and high speed treatment on motorcycles commonly used in Indonesia. Time performance measurements were made by comparing the self-cancelling turn signal based on ATMega328P microcontroller with standard motor turn time. Measurements of time at low speed treatment were performed at a speed range of 15 km / h, 20 km / h, 25 km / h on the U-turn test trajectory. The angle of the turning angle of the potentiometer is determined at 3°. The limit of steering wheel turning angle at the potentiometer is set at 3°. For high-speed treatment is 30 km / h, 40 km / h, 50km / h, and 60 km / h, on the L-turn test track with a tilt angle (roll angle) read by the L3G4200D gyroscope sensor. Each speed test is repeated 3 replications. Standard time is a reference for self-cancelling turn signal performance. The standard time obtained is 15.68 s, 11.96 s, 9.34 s at low speed and 4.63 s, 4.06 s, 3.61 s, 3.13 s at high speed. The time test of self-cancelling turn signal shows 16.10 s, 12.42 s, 10.24 s at the low speed and 5.18, 4.51, 3.73, 3.21 at the high speed. At a speed of 15 km / h occurs the instability of motion turns motorcycle so that testing is more difficult. Small time deviations indicate the tool works well. The largest time deviation value is 0.9 seconds at low speed and 0.55 seconds at high speed. The conclusion at low velocity of the highest deviation value occurred at the speed of 25 km / h test due to the movement of slope with inclination has started to happen which resulted in slow reading of steering movement. At higher speeds the time slows down due to rapid sensor readings on the tilt when turning fast at ever higher speeds. The timing performance of self-cancelling turn signal decreases as the motorcycle turning

  14. Lap time simulation and design optimisation of a brushed DC electric motorcycle for the Isle of Man TT Zero Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bianco, N.; Lot, R.; Matthys, K.

    2018-01-01

    This works regards the design of an electric motorcycle for the annual Isle of Man TT Zero Challenge. Optimal control theory was used to perform lap time simulation and design optimisation. A bespoked model was developed, featuring 3D road topology, vehicle dynamics and electric power train, composed of a lithium battery pack, brushed DC motors and motor controller. The model runs simulations over the entire ? or ? of the Snaefell Mountain Course. The work is validated using experimental data from the BX chassis of the Brunel Racing team, which ran during the 2009 to 2015 TT Zero races. Optimal control is used to improve drive train and power train configurations. Findings demonstrate computational efficiency, good lap time prediction and design optimisation potential, achieving a 2 minutes reduction of the reference lap time through changes in final drive gear ratio, battery pack size and motor configuration.

  15. Necrotizing Fasciitis Secondary to a Primary Suture for Anoperineal Trauma by Motorcycle Accident in a Healthy Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Saigusa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old man experienced a swollen scrotum three days after a motorcycle accident and presented to our hospital. He had had a primary suture repair for anoperineal trauma in an outside hospital at the time of the injury. He presented to us with general fatigue, low grade fevers, and perineal pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed subcutaneous emphysema from the scrotum to the left chest. The sutured wound had foul-smelling discharge and white exudate. We made the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis and immediately opened the sutured wound and performed initial debridement and lavage with copious irrigation. We continued antibiotics and lavage of the wound until the infection was controlled. Fortunately, the necrotizing fasciitis did not worsen and he was discharged after 15 days. Our experience indicates that anoperineal injuries should not be closed without careful and intensive follow-up due to the potential of developing necrotizing fasciitis.

  16. PURCHASE PREFERENCE OF SELECTED MALAYSIAN MOTORCYCLE BUYERS: THE DISCRIMINATING ROLE OF PERCEPTION OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN OF BRAND AND ETHNOCENTRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neoh Chee Yeong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of country of origin on the evaluation of products and purchase intention has been studied for decades. However, this paradigm has shifted where nowadays, products are typically designed in one country, manufactured in another and assembled elsewhere which led to the proliferation of "hybrid products". Consumers are confused and are no longer able to identify or recognize the difference between country of origin of brand and country of assembly or country of product design which, in turn, may lead towrong purchasing decisions. The objective of this study is to understand the variables influencing consumers' purchase preference related to motorcycles in the Malaysian market. Results have confirmed that country of origin of brand and consumer ethnocentrism influence consumer purchase preference. Implications of the results and directions for future researches are also discussed.

  17. Influences of motorcycle rider and driver characteristics and road environment on red light running behavior at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensupakarn, Auearree; Kanitpong, Kunnawee

    2018-04-01

    In Thailand, red light running is considered as one of the most dangerous behaviors at intersection. Red light running (RLR) behavior is the failure to obey the traffic control signal. However, motorcycle riders and car drivers who are running through red lights could be influenced by human factors or road environment at intersection. RLR could be advertent or inadvertent behavior influenced by many factors. Little research study has been done to evaluate the contributing factors influencing the red-light violation behavior. This study aims to determine the factors influencing the red light running behavior including human characteristics, physical condition of intersection, traffic signal operation, and traffic condition. A total of 92 intersections were observed in Chiang Mai, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi, the major provinces in each region of Thailand. In addition, the socio-economic characteristics of red light runners were obtained from self-reported questionnaire survey. The Binary Logistic Regression and the Multiple Linear Regression models were used to determine the characteristics of red light runners and the factors influencing rates of red light running respectively. The results from this study can help to understand the characteristics of red light runners and factors affecting them to run red lights. For motorcycle riders and car drivers, age, gender, occupation, driving license, helmet/seatbelt use, and the probability to be penalized when running the red light significantly affect RLR behavior. In addition, the results indicated that vehicle travelling direction, time of day, existence of turning lane, number of lanes, lane width, intersection sight distance, type of traffic signal pole, type of traffic signal operation, length of yellow time interval, approaching speed, distance from intersection warning sign to stop line, and pavement roughness significantly affect RLR rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A cross-sectional study with an improved methodology to assess occupational air pollution exposure and respiratory health in motorcycle taxi driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawin, Herve; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Ayelo, Paul; Kagima, Jacqueline; Sonoukon, Rodrigue; Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand H.; Awopeju, Olayemi; Vollmer, William M.; Nemery, Benoit; Burney, Peter; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Motorcycle taxi driving is common in many African cities. This study tested whether this occupation is associated with more respiratory disorders in a context of widespread urban air pollution with an improved methodology. Methods: In a cross sectional study we compared 85 male motorcycle taxi drivers in the capital city of the Republic of Benin (Cotonou) with an age and neighborhood matched control group. All participants carried a portable carbon monoxide data logger for 8 hours per day to assess exposure to air pollution. Respiratory symptoms were obtained using a standardized questionnaire and pulmonary function was assessed by spirometry. Results: The two groups did not differ significantly (p > 0.10) in their age, height, educational level, and exposures to smoke from biomass fuels and tobacco products. The taxi drivers were exposed to higher mean (SD) levels of carbon monoxide (7.6 ± 4.9 ppmvs. 5.4 ± 3.8 ppm p = 0.001). They reported more phlegm and tended to have slightly lower levels of lung function, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: In this cross sectional study of young motorcycle taxi drivers with substantial exposure to urban traffic and a matched control group, we found no evidence for respiratory impairment. A follow-up of such study population with other pollution exposure surrogate and other clinical endpoint may provide a more robust conclusion regarding the exposure response in this professional group. - Highlights: • Need of improved study method to assess air pollution effect in exposed workers • This study compared motorcycle taxi drivers and a matched control group • Personal carbon monoxide exposure and respiratory disorders were collected • No evidence of more respiratory disorders even though pollutant exposure was higher

  19. The protective effect of helmet use in motorcycle and bicycle accidents: a propensity score-matched study based on a trauma registry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-08-07

    Transportation by motorcycle and bicycle has become popular in Taiwan, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of helmet use during motorcycle and bicycle accidents by using a propensity score-matched study based on trauma registry system data. Data of adult patients hospitalized for motorcycle or bicycle accidents between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System. These included 7735 motorcyclists with helmet use, 863 motorcyclists without helmet use, 76 bicyclists with helmet use, and 647 bicyclists without helmet use. The primary outcome measurement was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were the hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, and ICU LOS. Normally distributed continuous data were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data. Propensity score matching (1:1 ratio using optimal method with a 0.2 caliper width) was performed using NCSS software, adjusting for the following covariates: sex, age, and comorbidities. Further logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of helmet use on mortality rates of motorcyclists and bicyclists, respectively. The mortality rate for motorcyclists with helmet use (1.1%) was significantly lower than for motorcyclists without helmet use (4.2%; odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.37; p Motorcycle helmets provide protection to adult motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents and their use is associated with a decrease in mortality rates and the risk of head injuries. However, no such protective effect of helmet use was observed for bicyclists involved in collisions.

  20. In-depth analysis of urban accidents involving motorcycle and moped riders in France, construction of prototypical accident scenarios and prospects for their prevention

    OpenAIRE

    CLABAUX, N

    2007-01-01

    owered two-wheeler users constitute, with cyclists and pedestrians, a category of road users who are particularly vulnerable in case of accident, since the slightest impact exposes them to injury. The recent and actual growth in the use of powered two-wheelers in France, notably in urban areas, and the over-representation of this category of road users in injury accidents show the need for a better understanding of motorcycle and moped accident phenomena in order to define new countermeasures...

  1. New research assessing the effect of engine operating conditions on regulated emissions of a 4-stroke motorcycle by test bench measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iodice, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.iodice@unina.it; Senatore, Adolfo

    2016-11-15

    In the latest years the effect of powered two-wheelers on air polluting emissions is generally noteworthy all over the world, notwithstanding advances in internal combustion engines allowed to reduce considerably both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of SI engines. Nowadays, in fact, these vehicles represent common means of quotidian moving, serving to meet daily urban transport necessities with a significant environmental impact on air quality. Besides, the emissive behavior of the two-wheelers measured under fixed legislative driving standards (and not on the local driving conditions) might not be sufficiently representative of real world motorcycle riding. The purpose of this investigation is a deeper research on emissive levels of in-use motorcycles equipped with last generation SI engines under real world driving behavior. In order to analyze the effect of vehicle instantaneous speed and acceleration on emissive behavior, instantaneous emissions of CO, HC and NO{sub X} were measured in the exhaust of a four-stroke motorcycle, equipped with a three-way catalyst and belonging to the Euro-3 legislative category. Experimental tests were executed on a chassis dynamometer bench in the laboratories of the National Research Council (Italy), during the Type Approval test cycle, at constant speed and under real-world driving cycles. This analytical-experimental investigation was executed with a methodology that improves vehicles emission assessment in comparison with the modeling approaches that are based on fixed legislative driving standards. The statistical processing results so obtained are very useful also in order to improve the database of emission models commonly used for estimating emissions from road transport sector, then they can be used to evaluate the environmental impact of last generation medium-size motorcycles under real driving behaviors.

  2. New research assessing the effect of engine operating conditions on regulated emissions of a 4-stroke motorcycle by test bench measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodice, Paolo; Senatore, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    In the latest years the effect of powered two-wheelers on air polluting emissions is generally noteworthy all over the world, notwithstanding advances in internal combustion engines allowed to reduce considerably both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of SI engines. Nowadays, in fact, these vehicles represent common means of quotidian moving, serving to meet daily urban transport necessities with a significant environmental impact on air quality. Besides, the emissive behavior of the two-wheelers measured under fixed legislative driving standards (and not on the local driving conditions) might not be sufficiently representative of real world motorcycle riding. The purpose of this investigation is a deeper research on emissive levels of in-use motorcycles equipped with last generation SI engines under real world driving behavior. In order to analyze the effect of vehicle instantaneous speed and acceleration on emissive behavior, instantaneous emissions of CO, HC and NO X were measured in the exhaust of a four-stroke motorcycle, equipped with a three-way catalyst and belonging to the Euro-3 legislative category. Experimental tests were executed on a chassis dynamometer bench in the laboratories of the National Research Council (Italy), during the Type Approval test cycle, at constant speed and under real-world driving cycles. This analytical-experimental investigation was executed with a methodology that improves vehicles emission assessment in comparison with the modeling approaches that are based on fixed legislative driving standards. The statistical processing results so obtained are very useful also in order to improve the database of emission models commonly used for estimating emissions from road transport sector, then they can be used to evaluate the environmental impact of last generation medium-size motorcycles under real driving behaviors.

  3. A cross-sectional study with an improved methodology to assess occupational air pollution exposure and respiratory health in motorcycle taxi driving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawin, Herve, E-mail: hervelawin@yahoo.fr [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin); Agodokpessi, Gildas [Centre National Hospitalier et Universitaire de Pneumo-Phtisiologie, Cotonou (Benin); Ayelo, Paul [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin); Kagima, Jacqueline [Department of internal medicine, Egerton University (Kenya); Sonoukon, Rodrigue [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin); Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand H. [Department of Internal Medicine, Douala General Hospital, Cameroon Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala (Cameroon); Awopeju, Olayemi [Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife (Nigeria); Vollmer, William M. [Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland (United States); Nemery, Benoit [Dept. of Public Health, Occupational and Environmental Insurance Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Burney, Peter [National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Fayomi, Benjamin [Unit of Teaching and Research in Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin)

    2016-04-15

    Introduction: Motorcycle taxi driving is common in many African cities. This study tested whether this occupation is associated with more respiratory disorders in a context of widespread urban air pollution with an improved methodology. Methods: In a cross sectional study we compared 85 male motorcycle taxi drivers in the capital city of the Republic of Benin (Cotonou) with an age and neighborhood matched control group. All participants carried a portable carbon monoxide data logger for 8 hours per day to assess exposure to air pollution. Respiratory symptoms were obtained using a standardized questionnaire and pulmonary function was assessed by spirometry. Results: The two groups did not differ significantly (p > 0.10) in their age, height, educational level, and exposures to smoke from biomass fuels and tobacco products. The taxi drivers were exposed to higher mean (SD) levels of carbon monoxide (7.6 ± 4.9 ppmvs. 5.4 ± 3.8 ppm p = 0.001). They reported more phlegm and tended to have slightly lower levels of lung function, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: In this cross sectional study of young motorcycle taxi drivers with substantial exposure to urban traffic and a matched control group, we found no evidence for respiratory impairment. A follow-up of such study population with other pollution exposure surrogate and other clinical endpoint may provide a more robust conclusion regarding the exposure response in this professional group. - Highlights: • Need of improved study method to assess air pollution effect in exposed workers • This study compared motorcycle taxi drivers and a matched control group • Personal carbon monoxide exposure and respiratory disorders were collected • No evidence of more respiratory disorders even though pollutant exposure was higher.

  4. Niobium Solar Mobile Project — High Strength Niobium Microalloyed Steel as a Solution to Improve Electric Super Scooter and Motorcycle Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Terry; Kauppi, Erik; Flanagan, Lauren; Ribeio, Eduardo A. A. G.; Nogueira, Marcos A. Stuart; McCourtney, Ian

    This paper presents the advantages of replacing mild steel with high strength niobium microalloyed steel in the structure of Electric Super Scooters, Electric Cargo Motorcycles and Solar Charging Stations. The Mini-Fleet-in-a-Box concept was developed by Current Motor to guarantee mobility, efficiency and solar generated electricity. With the adoption of niobium microalloyed high strength steel for more than 90% of the Super Scooter and Motorcycle structures, it was possible to redesign the frame, resulting in a 31% weight reduction and a very modern and functional body. Together with a new powertrain, these changes were responsible for increasing Motorcycle autonomy by more than 15%, depending on average speed. The new frame design reduced the number of high strain points in the frame, increasing the safety of the project. The Solar Charging Station was built using the container concept and designed with high strength niobium microalloyed steel, which resulted in a weight reduction of 25%. CBMM's facility in Araxá, Brazil was selected in the second half of 2013 as the demonstration site to test the efficiency of the Super Scooter and Solar Charging Station. Each Super Scooter has run more than 2,000 km maintenance-free with an autonomy of more than 100 km per charge.

  5. Application of banana peels waste as adsorbents for the removal of CO2, NO, NOx, and SO2 gases from motorcycle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viena, V.; Elvitriana; Wardani, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate the application of banana peels as adsorbent for the removal of CO, NO, NOx and SO2 gases from motorcycles emissions. The effect of differents thermal activation on the characteristics of banana peels adsorbent (BPA) such as moisture content, ash content, volatile matter and fixed carbon has been studied using proximate analysis. The study of Iodine adsorption capacity of BPA was obtained at 952 mg/g adsorbent. Structure and morphology of BPA were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that BPA could significantly adsorbed the CO and SO2 gases emissions from motorcycles, but not applicable for NO, NOx gases. After 10 minutes of flue gas analysis at idle mode using BPA adsorption tube, CO gas could be totally removed, from initial 19618 ppm to 0 ppm, while SO2 gas could also be totally removed from 24523 ppm to 0 ppm. SEM test showed that temperature of activation had significant effect on the size of pores of BPA formed. BPA was suitable for application in removing CO and SO2 gases emissions from motorcycles and it helps to reduce the green house gas effects of fossil fuel to the environment.

  6. Relationship between level of economic development and motorcycle and car ownerships and their impacts on fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongthanaisawan, Jakapong; Sorapipatana, Chumnong [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    An increase in road vehicles secondary to economic development has strongly pushed up energy demand and adversely impact the environment by the emission of greenhouse gases and pollutants. This paper aims to analyse the relationship between motorcycle and car ownerships and level of economic development in Thailand. In addition, an overall private vehicle ownership which is a sum of both types of private vehicle ownership is also studied. An understanding of these relationships due to the economic development is a key knowledge for the sustainable transport policy in the future. The results of this study revealed that at the early stage of economic development of developing countries like Thailand, the number of motorcycles predominates over private cars. Economic development strongly affects the ownership of private vehicles in two ways: (1) overall private vehicle ownerships increase as the income levels grow and (2) after personal income grows up to a certain level, people will shift from motorcycle to car ownerships for their prestige, convenience, comfort and safety. Because of continuing economic development and population growth, the expected increase in overall private vehicle ownership is projected to push up the total private vehicle stock of Thailand in the year 2050 to about twice of the present level. This will drive fuel demands in 2050 to about 2.4 times, and the greenhouse gases (GHG) emission to about 2.5 times of the current levels. Hence, policy makers in developing countries should not overlook the impacts on the consequences of increasing overall private vehicle stock in the near future. The best and most appropriate policies should be given to the development of public transport as the first priority rather than the traditional one, which gives highest priority to traffic mobility of private vehicles by road transport neglecting the effectiveness of passengers' mobility of the public transport. In addition, policies to promote high

  7. The accuracy comparison between ARFIMA and singular spectrum analysis for forecasting the sales volume of motorcycle in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitohang, Yosep Oktavianus; Darmawan, Gumgum

    2017-08-01

    This research attempts to compare between two forecasting models in time series analysis for predicting the sales volume of motorcycle in Indonesia. The first forecasting model used in this paper is Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA). ARFIMA can handle non-stationary data and has a better performance than ARIMA in forecasting accuracy on long memory data. This is because the fractional difference parameter can explain correlation structure in data that has short memory, long memory, and even both structures simultaneously. The second forecasting model is Singular spectrum analysis (SSA). The advantage of the technique is that it is able to decompose time series data into the classic components i.e. trend, cyclical, seasonal and noise components. This makes the forecasting accuracy of this technique significantly better. Furthermore, SSA is a model-free technique, so it is likely to have a very wide range in its application. Selection of the best model is based on the value of the lowest MAPE. Based on the calculation, it is obtained the best model for ARFIMA is ARFIMA (3, d = 0, 63, 0) with MAPE value of 22.95 percent. For SSA with a window length of 53 and 4 group of reconstructed data, resulting MAPE value of 13.57 percent. Based on these results it is concluded that SSA produces better forecasting accuracy.

  8. Effects of gasoline aromatic content on emissions of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes from a four-stroke motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng

    2013-01-01

    A new four-stroke carburettor motorcycle engine without any engine adjustments was used to study the impact of fuel aromatic content on the exhaust emissions of organic air pollutants (volatile organic compounds and carbonyls). Three levels of aromatic content, i.e. 15, 25, and 50% (vol.) aromatics mixed with gasoline were tested. The emissions of aromatic fuel were compared with those of commercial unleaded gasoline. The results indicated that the A 15 (15 vol% aromatics in gasoline) fuel exhibited the greatest total organic emission improvement among these three aromatic fuels as compared with commercial gasoline, reaching 59%. The highest emission factors of alkanes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups appeared in the reference fuel (RF) among all of the test fuels. A 15 showed the highest emission reduction in alkanes (73%), aromatics (36%), and carbonyls (28%), as compared to those of the RF. The highest emission reduction ofalkenes was observed when using A25 as fuel. A reduction in fuel aromatic content from 50 to 25 and 15 vol% in gasoline decreased benzene and toluene emissions, but increased the aldehyde emissions. In general, the results showed that the highest emission reductions for the most of measured organic pollutants appeared when using A 15 as the fuel.

  9. Identification of the characteristics of motorcycle and scooter tyres in the presence of large variations in inflation pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossalter, V.; Doria, A.; Giolo, E.; Taraborrelli, L.; Massaro, M.

    2014-10-01

    Stability and safety of road vehicles are largely affected by tyre properties. Single-track vehicles are characterised by weakly damped modes of vibration (weave and wobble) and therefore this phenomenon is even more important. This article focuses on the study of both steady-state and transient properties of motorcycle and scooter tyres in the presence of very low and very high inflation pressures. The steady-state properties are defined as lateral forces (side-slip and camber forces) and yaw torques (self-aligning and twisting). The transient properties are described in terms of relaxation length, which represents the distance needed to reach a certain percentage of the steady-state value of the tyre force. Experimental tests are carried out on a specific rotating disk machine. Three sets of tyres are analysed. Steady-state properties are measured by increasing step by step the values of camber and side-slip angles. Transient properties are studied carrying out tests with harmonic side-slip excitation and measuring the phase lag between the excitation (input) and the tyre force (output). Experimental results show important variations in tyre properties with inflation pressure with general trends of all the tested tyres and particular features related to the tyre's geometry. After the analysis and discussion of experimental results, the measured data are fitted by means of a specific version of the Magic Formula. The dependence of the Magic Formula's coefficients on inflation pressure is analysed and interpolation curves are given.

  10. In-cylinder tumble flows and performance of a motorcycle engine with circular and elliptic intake ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R. F.; Lin, K. H.; Yeh, C.-N.; Lan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The temporal and spatial evolution processes of the flows in the cylinder of a four-valve, four-stroke, single cylinder, reciprocating motorcycle engine installed with the elliptic and circular intake ports were experimentally studied by using the particle image velocimetry (PIV). The engine was modified to fit the requirements of PIV measurement. The velocity fields measured by the PIV were analyzed and quantitatively presented as the tumble ratio and turbulence intensity. In the symmetry plane, both the circular and elliptic intake ports could initiate a vortex around the central region during the intake stroke. During the compression stroke, the central vortex created in the cylinder of the engine with the circular intake port disappeared, while that in the engine cylinder with the elliptic intake port further developed into the tumble motion. In the offset plane, weak vortical structures were initiated by the bluff-body effect of the intake valves during the intake stroke. The vortical structures induced by the elliptic intake port were more coherent than those generated by the circular intake port; besides, this feature extends to the compression stroke. The cycle-averaged tumble ratio and the turbulence intensity of the engine with the elliptic intake port were dramatically larger than those of the engine with the circular intake port. The measured engine performance was improved a lot by installing the elliptic intake port. The correlation between the flow features and the enhancement of the engine performance were argued and discussed.

  11. Development of a thin-shaped lightweight MF battery for motorcycles. Nirinshayo usugata keiryo maintenance free battery no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Onozuka, T. (Honda Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Uemichi, S. (Yuasa Battery Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes a thin-shaped lightweight maintenance free motorcycle battery used in a motor scooter, a new product from Honda Motors launching its sales in 1992, as well as the related structural development thereof. The points aimed at in the development include more utilization of available space in a vehicle, improved maintainability, and adoption of perfect instant activation system (dry-charged system) which makes a battery serviceable upon initial filling of electrolyte. Attentions have been given on reducing the battery volume by 30% and weight by 20% compared with the conventional batteries, and ensuring interchangeability, leakage-free performance, and free and easy replacement. Contrivances for practical application have been given on assuring low-temperature high-rate discharge performance for reliable engine starting. Devised also are the thinner battery plates, better vibration resistance, longer life, uniformed plate thickness, higher separator porosity, and better stability in plate group pressurization. Better performance than the conventional batteries was realized by improving parts construction and mounting systems, including one-touch terminal connection, fast coupling of terminal posts, soldering, and fuse built-in couplers. The battery has superior appearance and design. 18 figs.

  12. Effects of heating energy and heating position on the conversion characteristics of the catalyst of a four-stroke motorcycle engine in cold start conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, R.-F.; Chou, H.-M.; Hsu, T.-C.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of heating energy and heating position on the conversion efficiency of an electrically heated catalyst of a four stroke motorcycle engine under cold start conditions were investigated in this study. In general, during cold start, the operating temperatures of a four stroke motorcycle engine and its catalyst would not be optimized. It was found in this paper that by applying heat to the catalyst however, the reaction of the catalyst could be promoted, which, consequently, improved the conversion efficiency. The experimented parameters were heating energy, heating position, heating temperature and the carbon monoxide (CO) setting level. The heating temperatures included 100, 140 and 180 deg. C, while three different heating powers and six different heating positions were used. The CO levels were set as 1.0%, 1.8% and 2.3%. The best CO conversion efficiency was obtained by applying heating at the inlet of the catalyst. It was revealed that a high heating power induced a high temperature rising rate and, consequently, a high CO conversion efficiency. In terms of energy economy efficiency, however, heating at the mid-section of the catalyst gave the best results and through a relatively low heating power

  13. Model izbora motocikla za potrebe saobraćajne podrške vojske / Model of motorcycle choice for traffic support needs in the military of Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Stamenković

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Motocikli koji se koriste u jedinicama za regulisanje i kontrolu saobraćaja u Vojsci treba da imaju takve tehničko-eksploatacione karakteristike koje će u toku eksploatacionog perioda u potpunosti zadovoljiti stroge zahteve regulisanja i kontrole vojnog putnog saobraćaja i poboljšati kvalitet saobraćajne podrške u suvremenim borbenim dejstvima. Pri optimalnom izboru motocikla važno je razmatrati karakteristike motocikla i zahteve koje treba da ispuni. U radu je prikazan model izbora motocikala primenom metode višekriterijumskog rangiranja Promethee. / Motorcycles used in traffic direct and control units in the Military of Serbia and Montenegro should have such technical and operational characteristics that -will completely meet strict demands for directing and controlling military traffic and that -will improve the quality of traffic support in modern combat conditions. It is important to discuss characteristics of a motorcycle and demands it has to meet -when choosing "optimal" motorcycle model. This paper shows model of motorcycle choice using Promethee method of multiple ranging criteria.

  14. Traffic legislation and safety in Europe concerning the moped and the A1 category (125 cc) motorcycle : a literature and questionnaire study commissioned by the Swedish National Road Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    A study, commissioned by the Swedish National Road Administration, of the safety aspects of mopeds and the light motorcycle A1 category (max. 125 cc) has been carried out. The study consists of a comparison of European countries. An important part of the information was gathered using questionnaires

  15. Promotion of energy efficient automobiles via the tax on passenger cars and motorcycles (BPM). A comparative evaluation of different BPM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroten, A.; Blom, M.J.; De Jong, F.L.

    2009-05-01

    The environmental effectiveness of eight different BPM systems (BPM: tax on passenger cars and motorcycles) has been examined for three variants: (1) Basic BPM; (2) BPM systems where basic BPM is combined with a claims bonus/claims penalty system; (3) BPM systems based on absolute CO2 emission. The comparison of different BPM systems consists of (1) providing insight in the financial incentive that various systems provide to consumers to buy a more efficient car, and (2) making an assessment of the CO2 reductions that could be realized in the implementation of the different systems. In both cases the run-down of the BPM system has been taken into account in preparation of the implementation of road pricing. [nl

  16. Alcohol and drug involvement in motorcycle driver injuries in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis of crash culpability and other associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa; Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Bernini, Celso; Silva, Jorge Santos; Leyton, Vilma; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Earlier studies have already identified that a greater proportion of injured drivers are under the effects of illicit drugs than alcohol in Brazil, but the crash risk attributable to each substance is still unknown. Injured motorcycle drivers who were involved in traffic accidents in the West Zone of the city of Sao Paulo were recruited for a cross-sectional study based on crash culpability analysis. Alcohol and drug positivity among drivers was evaluated according to their responsibility for the crash. Culpability ratios were generated based on the proportion of drivers who were deemed culpable in relation to those considered not culpable according to the use of drugs and alcohol. Of the 273 drivers recruited, 10.6% tested positive for alcohol. Among those who were also tested for drugs (n=232), 20.3% had consumed either alcohol and/or other drugs, 15.5% of whom were positive only for drugs other than alcohol, specifically cannabis and cocaine. Drivers who tested positive for alcohol were significantly less likely to possess a valid driver's license and to report driving professionally, whereas those who had consumed only drugs were more likely to drive professionally. The culpability ratio estimated for alcohol-positive drivers was three times higher than that for alcohol-free drivers, showing a superior ratio than drivers who had consumed only drugs other than alcohol, who presented a 1.7 times higher culpability ratio than drug-free drivers. Substance use was overrepresented among culpable motorcycle drivers, with alcohol showing a greater contribution to crash culpability than other drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure of motorcycle, car and bus commuters to carbon monoxide on a main road in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchter, Oded; Oz, Meirav; Brenner, Shmuel; Yaakov, Yaron; Schnell, Izhak

    2014-12-01

    Short-term personal exposure of passengers in different types of motor vehicles to carbon monoxide was investigated in an intensively used main road in Israel's Tel Aviv metropolitan area. According to monitoring stations of the Ministry for Environmental Protection (MEP), concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) along the road, at a height of 3 m above pedestrian level, in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, are currently very low. However, these measurements do not reflect the actual exposure of commuters, which were the main objective of this study. Four vehicle types/travel modes were investigated: private cars with closed windows, private cars with open windows, motorcycles, and buses. The commuter CO average exposure was the accumulative exposure divided by the duration of the sampling taken along the route, for each type of vehicles. The results showed that commuters in cars with closed windows were exposed to the highest mean CO level, 27.2 ppm, for a period of 38 min; those in a car with open windows, to 19.7 ppm for 38 min; motorcycle riders, to 12.8 ppm, for 17 min; and bus users were exposed to the lowest mean pollution level, of only 3.6 ppm, for 25 min. Thus, CO values of 1 to 3 ppm, as measured at an MEP adjacent monitoring station, may indicate the exposure to CO pollution of area residents, but do not represent the actual exposure of commuters on the congested main road.

  18. Changes of Air Pollution and Climate Forcing Emissions due to Fuel Switching to Gasohol in Motorcycle Fleet in an Urban Area of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattapon Onchang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the exhaust emission changed due to fuel switching to gasohol in actual motorcycles (MC fleet in Nakhon Pathom municipality, Thailand. International Vehicle Emissions (IVE model was applied by specifying the year 2010 as a base case and the target year of 2020 as Business as Usual (BAU. The parking lot survey, GPS monitoring and MC counting on selected roads during weekday and weekend were conducted. Fuel switching from gasoline octane number 91 to gasohol in all MC fleet in the municipality was set as a scenario according to current Thailand’s transport energy policies. Total pollution emissions reduction of the following pollutants after switching to gasohol E10 (10% of ethanol for all MC in the fleet compared to BAU were obtained: benzene (86%, 1,3-butadiene (69%, VOC (including evaporation (31% and CO (29%, while the following pollutants increased: acetaldehydes (>100%, formaldehydes (51%, NOx (9% and PM (5%. Gasohol use scenario produced larger amount of CO2 (29% and CH4 (9%. Only a small deviation of climate forcer emissions in CO2-equivalent (reduced by 8% for 20-year and increased by 2% for 100-year horizon were obtained. Switching to gasohol in MC fleet in Nakhon Pathom municipality unable to achieve air quality and climate co-benefit. Restriction of the local emission factors (EFs available for adjusting the model’s EFs can be influence to the emission calculation. Also, as PM was excluded from the calculation of GWP due to lack of OC and EC information, this can affect the analysis of climate forcer emissions.

  19. Negotiating Left-Hand and Right-Hand Bends: A Motorcycle Simulator Study to Investigate Experiential and Behaviour Differences Across Rider Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundall, Elizabeth; Crundall, David; Stedmon, Alex W.

    2012-01-01

    Why do motorcyclists crash on bends? To address this question we examined the riding styles of three groups of motorcyclists on a motorcycle simulator. Novice, experienced and advanced motorcyclists navigated a series of combined left and right bends while their speed and lane position were recorded. Each rider encountered an unexpected hazard on both a left- and right-hand bend section. Upon seeing the hazards, all riders decreased their speed before steering to avoid the hazard. Experienced riders tended to follow more of a racing line through the bends, which resulted in them having to make the most severe changes to their position to avoid a collision. Advanced riders adopted the safest road positions, choosing a position which offered greater visibility through the bends. As a result, they did not need to alter their road position in response to the hazard. Novice riders adopted similar road positions to experienced riders on the left-hand bends, but their road positions were more similar to advanced riders on right-hand bends, suggesting that they were more aware of the risks associated with right bends. Novice riders also adopted a safer position on post-hazard bends whilst the experienced riders failed to alter their behaviour even though they had performed the greatest evasive manoeuvre in response to the hazards. Advanced riders did not need to alter their position as their approach to the bends was already optimal. The results suggest that non-advanced riders were more likely to choose an inappropriate lane position than an inappropriate speed when entering a bend. Furthermore, the findings support the theory that expertise is achieved as a result of relearning, with advanced training overriding ‘bad habits’ gained through experience alone. PMID:22253845

  20. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from garbage burning, wood and dung cooking fires, motorcycles and brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, T. S.; Rathnayake, C.; Stockwell, C.; Daugherty, K.; Islam, R. M.; Christian, T. J.; Bhave, P.; Praveen, P. S.; Panday, A. K.; Adhikari, S.; Rasmi, M.; Goetz, D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Saikawa, E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stone, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in-situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia by determining emission factors (EF) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. Garbage burning had the highest EF PM2.5 among the sampled sources ranging 7-124 g kg-1, with maximum EFs for garbage burned under higher moisture conditions. Garbage burning emissions contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) that are associated with acute and chronic health effects. Triphenylbenzene and antimony (Sb) were unique to garbage burning are good candidates for tracing this source. Cook stove emissions varied largely by stove technology (traditional mud stove, 3-stone cooking fire, chimney stove, etc.) and biomass fuel (dung, hardwood, twigs, and mixtures thereof). Burning dung consistently emitted more PM2.5 than burning wood and contained characteristic fecal sterols and stanols. Motorcycle emissions were evaluated before and after servicing, which decreased EF PM2.5 from 8.8 g kg-1 to 0.7 g kg-1. Organic species analysis indicated that this reduction in PM2.5­ is largely due to a decrease in emission of motor oil. For brick kilns, the forced draft zig-zag kilns had higher EF PM2.5 (12-19 g kg-1) compared to clamp kilns (8-13 g kg-1) and also exhibited chemical differences. PM2.5 emitted from the zig-zag kiln were mainly OC (7%), sulfate (32%) and uncharacterized chemical components (60%), while clamp kiln emissions were dominated by OC (64%) and ammonium sulfate (36%). The quantitative emission factors developed in this study may be used for source apportionment and to update regional emission inventories.

  1. Analysis of motorcycle fleet in Hanoi for estimation of air pollution emission and climate mitigation co-benefit of technology implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Phuong, Mai Thi; Permadi, Didin Agustian

    2012-11-01

    A fleet of over two million motorcycles (MC) in Hanoi is believed to contribute a substantial emission of air pollutants and climate forcers but has not been thoroughly characterized. This study conducted a survey of the MC technologies and activities in Hanoi using questionnaires, GPS monitoring, and video camera in 2008. The data were collected for three typical road types (highways, arterials, residential streets) in 3 zones of the city. Majority of MC in Hanoi were relatively new (3.6 years), had 4-stroke engine, but only 6% was equipped with catalyst exhaust control devices. About 35% of the fleet did not comply with any EURO standards. The MC daily driving was 20 km, mostly done on arterial streets. The main driving features in Hanoi arterials and residential streets were of low speeds with frequent starts/stops and idling. International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model produced adjusted emission factors (EFs) that were compared with the limited available measurement data. The fleet emission was estimated for 2008 as a base case and for two “what-if” faster technology implementation scenarios: scenario 1 assumed that the entire fleet in 2008 conformed at least EURO2 and scenario 2 assumed 100% MC met the EURO3 standard. Total emissions from the fleet in 2008 of CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, PM10, and CH4 were 158, 51.5, 9.5, 0.17, 2.4 and 9.5 kt, respectively. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehydes, formaldehydes and benzene were 0.26, 1.2, 4.9 and 2.1 kt, respectively. Faster EURO3 technology intrusion in scenario 2 would significantly reduce the emission of pollutants (by 53-94%) and climate forcers in CO2-equivalent (53% for 20-year and 38% for 100-year horizon), which tripled the reductions obtained under scenario 1. Substantial co-benefits for air quality and climate forcer mitigation could be achieved by the faster technology implementation.

  2. Posterior urethral injuries associated with motorcycle accidents and pelvic trauma in adolescents: analysis of urethral lesions occurring prior to a bony fracture using a computerized finite-element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréaud, J; Montoro, J; Lecompte, J F; Valla, J S; Loeffler, J; Baqué, P; Brunet, C; Thollon, L

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent males involved in motorcycle accidents are particularly at risk for pelvic injury, which may provoke a posterior urethral injury. The aim of this study was to develop a model to analyze the association between injuries and fractures of the pelvic ring and the risk of posterior urethral injury. Based on experience with traffic accident modeling, a computerized finite-element model was extrapolated from a computerized tomography scan of a 15-year-old boy. The anatomic structures concerned in urethral and pelvic ring trauma were isolated, rendered in 3D and given biomechanical properties. The model was verified according to available experiments on pelvic ring trauma. To apply the model, we recreated three impact mechanisms on the pelvic ring: lateral impact, antero-posterior impact and a real car‒motorcycle accident situation (postero-lateral impact). In all three situations, stretching of the posterior urethra was identified prior to bony fracture visualization. Application of this model allowed us to analyze precisely the link between trauma of the pelvic ring and lesions of the posterior urethra. The results should help to establish guidelines for urethral catheterization in male adolescents in cases of pelvic trauma, even when no bony fracture is present, in order to prevent iatrogenic worsening of a misdiagnosed posterior urethral trauma. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Internações hospitalares por acidentes de moto no Vale do Paraíba Hospitalization due to motorcycle accidents in the Paraíba Valley using spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Neves Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar aglomerados de municípios com elevadas taxas de internações por acidentes de moto no Vale do Paraíba. MÉTODOS: Foi um estudo ecológico e exploratório com dados do DATASUS referentes ao período compreendido de 2001 a 2005, de 27 municípios do Vale do Paraíba paulista com uma população em torno de um milhão de habitantes. A análise espacial utilizou o programa Terraview e foram obtidos os coeficientes de Moran Global para taxa de internação e para frota de motocicleta e a correlação de Pearson para internação. Foram construídos mapas temáticos com informações sobre a distribuição espacial e do BoxMap. Os dados de internação foram abordados como taxas por 100 mil habitantes. RESULTADOS: No período de estudo foram internados 1268 pessoas, variando entre uma internação até 608 internações por município. Os coeficientes de Moran (global I = 0,34 (p = 0,02 para a taxa de internação e I = 0,42 (p = 0,012 para taxa de internação de acordo com a frota. Para a taxa de internação por acidente de moto, também houve forte correlação entre frota de moto e internação (r = 0,94. CONCLUSÃO: Foi possível identificar um grande aglomerado que envolve nove municípios na região oeste do Vale do Paraíba, que localiza a residência dos internados por acidentes de moto, apontando municípios em que medidas preventivas devem ser aplicadas.OBJECTIVE: To identify clusters of municipalities with high rates of hospitalization due to motorcycle accidents in the "Vale do Paraíba". METHODS: This was an ecological study and exploratory data was obtained by DATASUS for the period 2001 to 2005 in 27 municipalities in the "Vale do Paraíba Paulista", covering a population of about one million inhabitants. The spatial analysis used the program Terraview and the Moran Global coefficients with respect to hospitalization rate and fleet of motorcycle were obtained. while the Pearson correlation was used for

  4. An examination of outlaw motorcycle gangs and their involvement in the illicit drug market and the effectiveness of anti-association legislative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, Terry; McGillivray, Laura

    2017-03-01

    In 2013 the Queensland Government introduced criminal association and mandatory sentencing laws for members of outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs). Forms of "criminal association" or "anti-bikie" laws have been introduced in several Australian jurisdictions, and recent High Court decisions upholding their constitutionality will ensure that they remain part of our justice landscape. Generally, the aims of these laws are to declare a specific organisation as "criminal" and impose various legal orders and offences that thwart the consorting of members and address organised crime, such as unexplained wealth regimes. There have been significant criticisms of these styles of association laws both here and internationally. The aim of this research is to show the extent of involvement of OMCGs in the drug trade and associated organised crime activity, and whether anti-association laws are an effective response to this type of organised criminal activity. This paper relied on six years of data outlining the criminal activity of OMCGs from the Queensland Police Service (QPS) obtained under the legislative framework of The Queensland Right to Information Act (RTI) 2009. Information obtained from the Queensland Commission into Organised Crime (2015) and Queensland Taskforce into organised crime legislation (2015) was also used. The data suggest that the role of OMCGs in the drug market has been overstated and is not as dominant as has been portrayed by government agencies and the popular media. Generally, OMCGs account for less than one percent of organised crime type activity. This is also true for drug type offences where OMCGs are responsible for less than one percent of offences. The findings show that the Queensland example has highlighted the ineffectiveness of the criminal association laws and the mandatory sentencing provisions in that they have had little impact on drug market activity and little success in the courts. The analysis presented here is twofold: an

  5. Motociclistas de entrega: algumas características dos acidentes de trânsito na região sul do Brasil Motorcycle couriers: characteristics of traffic accidents in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conhecer características dos acidentes de trânsito ocorridos com motoboys nos municípios de Londrina e Maringá, Estado do Paraná. MÉTODOS: Foram considerados 327 motoboys que relataram, em 2005/2006, acidentes de motocicleta nos 12 meses anteriores à pesquisa (147 de Londrina e 180 de Maringá. RESULTADOS: Dos entrevistados, 39,6% relataram mais de um acidente de trânsito. Os acidentes foram percebidos como graves por 21,4% dos motoboys e 56,3% relataram conhecer motoboy afastado do trabalho por acidente. A maioria dos acidentes (82,9% ocorreu durante o trabalho. Foram observadas diferenças significativas, entre os municípios, para condições climáticas (p=0,013, período do dia (p=0,002, atendimento pré-hospitalar (p=0,032 e necessidade de internação hospitalar (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed at understanding characteristics of traffic accidents with motorcycle couriers in the cities of Londrina and Maringá, in the State of Paraná (Brazil. METHODS: A total of 327 couriers who reported, in 2005/2006, motorcycle accident in the previous 12 months took part in the study (147 in Londrina and 180 in Maringá. RESULTS: Of all the interviewed, 39.6% reported more than one traffic accident. The accidents were perceived as serious by 21.4% of them and 56.3% reported knowing a convalescing courier due to a traffic accident. Most injuries (82.9% occurred during work hours. Significant differences were observed between the cities concerning climatic conditions (p=0.013, time of the day (p=0.002, pre-hospital care (p=0.032 and hospital admission (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The high incidence and the recurrence of traffic accidents highlight the susceptibility of motorcycle couriers to these events and the need for strategies and specific prevention policies.

  6. Motorcycles from Berlin 1969 - 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassl, D.H. [comp.; Jakobs, F.

    1998-07-01

    Each edition of BMW Profiles aims to give you, as an admirer of historical BMW vehicles, the opportunity to look more closely at the roles they have each played in their respective day and age. Editions of BMW Profiles appear at irregular intervals, each focusing on a specific topic relating to the history of the company and its products. A vivid portrayal of the BMW vehicles presented, in relation to their historical content, emerges through the reproduction of original documentation, such as drawings, photographs, press releases and reviews, advertisements, sales catalogues and posters. At the same time, it becomes clear how BMW has developed over the years into the brand personality that it is today. (orig.)

  7. Os riscos dos acidentes de trânsito na perspectiva dos moto-boys: subsídios para a promoção da saúde Traffic accidents from the motorcycle couriers' perspective: feedback for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Márian Veronese

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota resulta de uma pesquisa qualitativa realizada na cidade de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com o objetivo de explorar o fenômeno "risco do acidente de trânsito" na perspectiva de moto-boys. O estudo foi embasado nas teorias sociológicas sobre risco, em especial, as que enfatizam o caráter sócio-cultural dos seus significados. As informações foram coletadas por meio de grupos focais e analisadas seguindo os passos da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Segundo os moto-boys, os riscos do acidente de trânsito são inerentes ao cotidiano de trabalho e produzidos por interesses pessoais e sociais, no sentido das demandas por dinheiro, velocidade e urgência. Os moto-boys tentam controlar esses riscos utilizando estratégias de autocuidado. Considerando a alta incidência de acidentes de trânsito envolvendo moto-boys em Porto Alegre, parece que tais estratégias têm sido pouco eficazes. A nota argumenta que os acidentes de trânsito envolvendo moto-boys são acidentes de trabalho e, portanto, as ações de promoção da saúde que investem na sua prevenção precisam extrapolar o grupo de indivíduos que pilotam as motocicletas, sendo dirigidas também a clientes e patrões de serviços de telentrega.This research note is the result of a qualitative study in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aimed at exploring traffic accident risk from the motorcycle couriers' point of view. The research results highlight the importance of accident prevention and health promotion for these workers. The study was based on sociological theories of risk, especially those emphasizing the social and cultural nature of its meanings. Information was gathered through focus groups and analyzed according to the Data-Based Theory. According to the research subjects, all motorcycle couriers, the traffic accident risk is inherent to their daily work duties and is produced by personal and social interests like money, speed, and urgency. Motorcycle

  8. Systematization of the protein sequence diversity in enzymes related to secondary metabolic pathways in plants, in the context of big data biology inspired by the KNApSAcK motorcycle database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shun; Abe, Takashi; Nakamura, Yukiko; Kibinge, Nelson; Hirai Morita, Aki; Nakatani, Atsushi; Ono, Naoaki; Ikemura, Toshimichi; Nakamura, Kensuke; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-05-01

    Biology is increasingly becoming a data-intensive science with the recent progress of the omics fields, e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The species-metabolite relationship database, KNApSAcK Core, has been widely utilized and cited in metabolomics research, and chronological analysis of that research work has helped to reveal recent trends in metabolomics research. To meet the needs of these trends, the KNApSAcK database has been extended by incorporating a secondary metabolic pathway database called Motorcycle DB. We examined the enzyme sequence diversity related to secondary metabolism by means of batch-learning self-organizing maps (BL-SOMs). Initially, we constructed a map by using a big data matrix consisting of the frequencies of all possible dipeptides in the protein sequence segments of plants and bacteria. The enzyme sequence diversity of the secondary metabolic pathways was examined by identifying clusters of segments associated with certain enzyme groups in the resulting map. The extent of diversity of 15 secondary metabolic enzyme groups is discussed. Data-intensive approaches such as BL-SOM applied to big data matrices are needed for systematizing protein sequences. Handling big data has become an inevitable part of biology.

  9. Incorporação de pó de pneu em uma formulação para banda de rodagem de pneu de motocicleta Incorporation of solid rubber tire powder into a formulation for motorcycle tire tread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela A. Gujel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A reciclagem de elastômeros vulcanizados tem sido um problema para as empresas geradoras de resíduos elastoméricos, e ao mesmo tempo um amplo campo de estudo para pesquisadores da área. Diante da possibilidade de recuperação desses resíduos, deu-se início a este trabalho, relacionado à incorporação de pó de pneu de automóvel (STR-r como uma carga, em uma formulação típica para banda de rodagem de pneu de motocicleta (formulação base - FB. O estudo teve início com a caracterização do STR-r, com base na análise granulométrica, análise termogravimétrica (TG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC. A incorporação do STR-r na FB foi realizada em misturador aberto, nas proporções de 5 a 20 phr. Foram calculados os parâmetros reométricos de vulcanização e determinadas as propriedades mecânicas como resiliência, dureza (Shore A, resistência à abrasão, à tração e ao rasgamento dos compósitos preparados. Os resultados foram comparados aos da FB de um processo produtivo de uma empresa de pneus para motocicleta. A partir da análise dos resultados dos diferentes compósitos, foi escolhida a formulação com 10 phr de STR-r para ser produzida em escala industrial, ou seja, em misturador fechado, tipo Banbury. Os cálculos do custo de produção foram realizados com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade econômica deste desenvolvimento.The recycling of vulcanized elastomers represents a problem for companies generating elastomeric residues and has become a wide field of study for researchers in this area. This study addresses the possible use of these residues and investigates an alternative for their recovery through incorporation of tread powder of cars tires (STR-r as a filler into a typical formulation for motorcycle tire tread (base formulation - BF. The study began with the characterization of the STR-r, based on granulometric, thermogravimetric (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses. The

  10. Design and integration of an essay model for motorcycles within the project of emissions norm for the federal district government, Mexico; Diseno e integracion de un modulo de ensayos para motocicletas para el proyecto de normativa de emisiones del GDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Gomez, Pedro Ignacio

    2004-02-15

    The Emissions Control Laboratory housed in the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) Engineering faculty was created in order to study the emissions of the internal combustion motors. To reach this goal the laboratory takes advantage of the different measurement instruments, such as: gas analyzers, dynamometers, etc. Some instruments or devices that can only be obtained abroad are designed in this laboratory with the aid of the Engineering Institute's Instrument Coordination. The development of these devices allows the laboratory to have each time more useful equipment adequate to its needs. In the present thesis the development of a project from the Emissions Control Laboratory is shown; it relates the electronic instrumentation of a dynamometric bench for motorcycles in order to cooperate with the generation of the Mexican Official Norm of pollution emissions from this type of vehicles in conjunction with the governmental authorities of the Mexican Federal District. To be able to do this, this device was designed in such a way that automatic measurements could be made of velocity, distance, time, torque, power, oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, to generate a database. In the development of this project a personal computer was used and a data acquisition card to capture the electronic signals of the torque and velocity sensors. The software that is utilized for the acquisition card was developed with developmental software of use assigned for instrumentation, which allowed generating a very versatile and easy- handling virtual instrument. To this date, the dynamometric bench for motorcycles operates as an additional laboratory instrument and it is believed that in the future it can be a part of the equipment of verification centers for this type of vehicles. [Spanish] El Laboratorio de Control de Emisiones de la Facultad de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico fue creado con

  11. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ting-Min; Tsai, Tsung-Cheng; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-07-21

    High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI) remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher's exact or Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann-Whitney's U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133) of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005) and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033), as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038) than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a higher incidence of complications than motorcyclists. The results also

  12. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Min Hsieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. Methods: High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher’s exact or Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student’s t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann–Whitney’s U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Results: In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133 of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005 and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033, as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038 than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a

  13. Motorcycle crash causes and outcomes : pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The number of motorcyclist crash-related fatalities has more than doubled during the past 10 years. In the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) P.L. 109-59, Congress directed the Secretary ...

  14. Beto Rockefeller, the motorcycle and engov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Hamburger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the seven episodes of Beto Rockfeller, a telenovela produced and aired by São Paulo pioneer TUPI station in 1968-9, and written by theater writer Braulio Pedroso, which are part of the TUPI archive and which have been recently restaured as part of the Fapesp financed project of digitalization of the TUPI archive by Cinemateca Brasileira, this paper explores the potentialities of TV archives to open new venues of understanding of Brazilian recent history, especially of the connections between telenovelas and shifting notions about the urban space, gender and social relations. The paper explores specific connections between diegetic and extra diegetic references to specific urban and social landscapes and the emerging consumerism of the time.

  15. An Assessment of Commercial Motorcycle Transport Operators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CMTO) is ubiquitous in Zaria metropolis and its growing effects fully felt. Consequently there is the need of a research focusing on its assessment. The aim of this study is to assess the activities of CMTO with a view to positively repositioning and ...

  16. Avaliação do conhecimento dos pais sobre segurança no transporte de crianças em veículos automotores e motocicletas Evaluación del conocimiento de los padres sobre seguridad en el transporte de niños en vehículos automotores y motocicletas Evaluation of knowledge of parents about safety in transportation of children in vehicles and motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza do Nascimento G Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o nível de conhecimento dos pais sobre segurança no transporte de crianças em veículos automotores e motocicletas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado por meio de questionário autoaplicável em pais e responsáveis que acompanhavam crianças na sala de espera de ambulatórios público e privado. Para avaliar os conhecimentos sobre segurança no transporte de crianças, foram utilizadas as recomendações da Associação Brasileira de Medicina do Tráfego. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio do teste do qui-quadrado e as variáveis quantitativas testadas por Mann-Whitney, sendo significante pOBJETIVO: Evaluar el nivel de conocimiento de los padres sobre seguridad en el transporte de niños en vehículos automotores y motocicletas. MÉTODOS: Estudio con delineación transversal, realizado mediante cuestionario autoaplicable en padres y responsables que acompañaban a niños en la sala de espera de ambulatorio público y privado. Para evaluar los conocimientos sobre seguridad en el transporte de niños, se utilizaron las recomendaciones de la Asociación Brasileña de Medicina del Tráfico. El análisis de los datos fue realizado mediante la prueba de chi cuadrado y las variables cuantitativas probadas por el test Mann-Whitney, siendo significante pOBJECTIVE:To evaluate parents' knowledge on safe transport of children in motor vehicles and motorcycles. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that applied a questionnaire to parents and guardians who were accompanying children in the waiting room for outpatient public and private services. To evaluate knowledge on safe transport of children, the recommendations of the Brazilian Association on Traffic Medicine were used. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests for categorical and numerical variables respectively, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 248 parents, 119 from private and 129 public medical services. Among the

  17. Perfil das ocorrências de politrauma em condutores motociclísticos atendidos pelo SAMU de Teresina-PI Perfil de ocurrencias de politraumatismos en conductores de motocicletas atendidos por el SAMU de Teresina-PI Profile of multiple trauma occurrences in motorcycle drivers attended by the SAMU of Teresina-PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinah Sá Rezende Neta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou investigar o perfil das ocorrências de politrauma em condutores motociclísticos atendidos pelo Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência de Teresina-PI. Realizou-se um estudo quantitativo e documental, mediante informações colhidas das fichas de atendimento desse serviço no ano de 2009. A coleta dos dados ocorreu nos meses de fevereiro e março do ano de 2010. As motocicletas envolveram-se em 84% dos acidentes, sendo os homens de 21 a 30 anos os mais acometidos. O final de semana e a zona urbana registraram mais casos. Destacaram-se os traumas musculoesqueléticos (59%. As vítimas alcoolizadas totalizaram 12%. A mortalidade correspondeu a 1%. Conclui-se ser imprescindível a adoção de medidas socioeducativas que garantam o comportamento adequado dos indivíduos no trânsito.El objetivo del estudio fue investigar el perfil de ocurrencias de politraumatismos en conductores de motocicleta atendidos por el Servicio de Atención Móvil de Urgencia de Teresina-PI. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo y documental, con la información siendo recopilada a través de las historias clínicas de este servicio en 2009. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo en febrero y marzo de 2010. Las motocicletas participaron en 84% de los accidentes, y los hombres de 21 a 30 años fueron los más afectados. El fin de semana y el área urbana registraron más casos. Lo más destacado fue el trauma osteomuscular (59%. Las víctimas alcohólicas ascendieron a 12%. La mortalidad fue del 1%. Llega-se a la conclusión de que es indispensable adoptar medidas educativas para asegurar el buen comportamiento de los individuos en tránsito.The study aimed to investigate the profile of polytrauma occurrences in motorcycle drivers Service at Mobile Emergency Care of the county of Teresina-PI. We conducted a quantitative and documentary study, with information gathered through the medical records of that service, in 2009. Data collection was conducted

  18. Scrotal/testicular trauma in motorcycle accidents | Popoola | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. African Journal of Urology Vol. 11(4) 2005: 292-294. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  19. USE OF MOTORCYCLE HELMETS IN YOGYAKARTA : SOME OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Conrad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cedera kepala merupakan sebab utama kematian dalam kecelakaan sepeda motor. Penelitian di Ame­rika Serikat, menunjukkan pemakaian helm mengurangi risiko cedera dan kematian. Penelitian ini mene­liti ketaatan terhadap peraturan pemakaian helm di Yogyakarta. Data dikumpulkan melalui observasi sistematik (N=9242 dan wawancara terbuka (n=150 di lima jalan utama yang berbeda di seluruh kota. Ketaatan umum terhadap peraturan pemakaian helm adalah 87% untuk pengemudi, dengan variasi kepen­tingan terhadap waktu dan tempat.Hanya 55% pengemudi memakai helm dengan baik (dengan tali di ikatkan dan hanya 20% penumpang memakai helm. Jadi hanya 50% orang yang naik sepeda motor terlindungi secara maksimum. Di dalam wawancara, responden mengatakan ketidak-enakan fisik dan "malas" sebagai alasan paling umum untuk tidak memakai helm; beberapa orang menyatakan helm tidak perlu di jalan-jalan kota dan di waktu malam. Wawancara mengisyaratkan bahwa orang yang naik sepeda motor memakai helm kebanyakan karena takut di tegur polisi dan responden hanya tahu sedikit tentang nilai keselamatan helm. Banyaknya pemakaian helm sekarang ini merupakan ketaatan semu ("token compliance" terhadap peraturan. Dari hasil studi diusulkan cara-cara agar keselamatan pemakaian helm di Indonesia bisa di­tingkatkan.

  20. Motorcycle crash causes and outcomes: pilot study : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The number of motorcyclist crash-related fatalities has more than doubled during the past 10 years. In the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), Congress directed the Secretary of Transport...

  1. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia secondary to motorcycle handle bar injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Jamabo

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: We recommend a high level of clinical suspicion for traumatic abdominal wall herniation in all patients with traumatic abdominal wall injuries. It is instructive that the area be explored with primary repair of the hernia and other tissue planes of the abdominal wall.

  2. Prevalence and severity of pterygium among commercial motorcycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pterygium is common among outdoor workers who are daily exposed to sunlight and dust due to repeated conjunctival /corneal drying and microtrauma especially in the tropics. Commercial motorcyclists in Nigeria are outdoor workers who spend the greater part of the day outdoors under the intense heat and ...

  3. The scourge of head injury among commercial motorcycle riders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lated deaths and disability worldwide but more so in low and middle ... industry have been received with mixed feelings, resist- ance by operators ... Efforts to promote road safety especial- ly protective gear use ... of human and non-human resources and inadequate .... nity at large. With the right strategies, these injuries can.

  4. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), and exhibit no resonant frequencies below 2,000 Hz. S7.1.6 The monorail drop test system is used for... assembly weight for the monorail system is the drop assembly weight minus the combined weight of the test... axes of the test headform assembly on a monorail drop test equipment are oriented as follows: From the...

  5. 40 CFR 205.155 - Motorcycle class and manufacturer abbreviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... separate combinations of the following parameters: (1) Engine type: (i) Gasoline—two stroke. (ii) Gasoline—four stroke. (iii) Gasoline—rotary. (iv) Other. (2) Engine displacement. (3) Engine configuration: (i...

  6. Motorcycle safety device investigation: A case study on airbags

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analysis methods for research evaluation of rider crash protective devices fitted to ... The safety evaluation is then based on simulation of the 200 impact types. ... with recording of ISO 13232 car-front impact tests to evaluate the qualitative.

  7. patterns of morbidity and mortality amongst motorcycle riders and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    in many studies on their traffic behaviors,6-8 however this is the first attempt ... if there was a culture of the use of crash helmets. This finding ... from Malaysia, which noted that ″at any one time, the number of ... social perspective. Malaysian J ...

  8. Risk Factor Profile of Motorcycle Crash Victims in Rural Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protective gear, alcohol use and overloading of passengers were the main risk factors observed. Our observations call for more stringent regulations and .... poor ventilation and noisiness have been cited by previous authors as reasons why people are reluctant to use helmets (15). In a study conducted in the highly ...

  9. Geo-demographic analysis of fatal motorcycle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the combined motor vehicle crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with the Claritas geo-demographic database from the lifestyle perspective to determine the appropriate media to use in ...

  10. Dentofacial injuries in commercial motorcycle accidents in Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a hospital based study conducted in 6 out of 10 regional ... large portion of road traffic accidents in developing ... networks, unplanned urban transportation with the ... This study was of 387 cases of dentofacial injuries at-.

  11. 76 FR 28131 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... treatment, sometimes resulting in lifelong disability, while other head injuries, concussions and skull... be systematically organized using the Haddon Matrix, a paradigm used for systematically identifying...

  12. Injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users are vulnerable on the road and are at high risk of death resulting from head ..... time of injury sustained head injury reflecting its importance in prevention of head .... WHO (2006) Helmets: A Road Safety Manual for Decision-makers and ...

  13. 76 FR 3934 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... training courses, Departments of Motor Vehicles, motorcycle dealerships, motorcycle accessory shops..., injuries, and motor vehicle citations. Data collected from motorcycle riders that have received entry-level...

  14. Fuel consumption and emission on fuel mixer low-grade bioethanol fuelled motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abikusna Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is currently used as an alternative fuel for gasoline substitute (fossil fuel because it can reduce the dependence on fossil fuel and also emissions produced by fossil fuel which are CO2, HO, NOx. Bioethanol is usually used as a fuel mixed with gasoline with certain comparison. In Indonesia, the usage is still rare. Bioethanol that is commonly used is bioethanol anhydrous 99.5%. In the previous studies, bioethanol was distilled from low to high grade to produce ethanol anhydrous. But the result is only able to reach 95% or ethanol hydrous. This study is objected to design a simple mechanism in the mixing of bioethanol hydrous with the gasoline using a fuel mixer mechanism. By this mechanism, the fuel consumption and the resulting emissions from combustion engine can be analyzed. The fuel blend composition is prepared as E5, E10, and E15/E20, the result of fuel consumption and emission will be compared with pure gasoline. The using of bioethanol hydrous as a fuel mixture was tended to produce more stable bioethanol fuel consumption. However, the utilization of the mixture was found able to reduce the exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx.

  15. Vision-based measuring system for rider's pose estimation during motorcycle riding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheli, F.; Mazzoleni, P.; Pezzola, M.; Ruspini, E.; Zappa, E.

    2013-07-01

    Inertial characteristics of the human body are comparable with the vehicle ones in motorbike riding: the study of a rider's dynamic is a crucial step in system modeling. An innovative vision based system able to measure the six degrees of freedom of the driver with respect to the vehicle is proposed here: the core of the proposed approach is an image acquisition and processing technique capable of reconstructing the position and orientation of a target fixed on the rider's back. The technique is firstly validated in laboratory tests comparing measured and imposed target motion laws and successively tested in a real case scenario during track tests with amateur and professional drivers. The presented results show the capability of the technique to correctly describe the driver's dynamic, his interaction with the vehicle as well as the possibility to use the new measuring technique in the comparison of different driving styles.

  16. A comparative study of emission motorcycle with gasoline and CNG fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasongko, M. N.; Wijayanti, W.; Rahardja, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    A comparison of the exhaust emissions of the engine running gasoline and Compressed Natural Gas have been performed in this study. A gasoline engine 4 stroke single-cylinder with volume of 124.8 cc and compression ratio of 9.3:1 was converted to a CNG gaseous engine. The fuel injector was replaced with a solenoid valve system for injecting CNG gas to engine. The concentrations of CO, CO2, O2 and HC in the exhaust gas of engine were measured over the range of fuel flow rate from 25.32 mg/s to 70.22 mg/s and wide range of Air Fuel Ratio. The comparative analysis of this study showed that CNG engine has a lower HC, CO2 and CO emission at the stoichiometry mixture of fuel and air combustion. The emissions increased when the Air-Fuel ratio was switched from the stoichiometry condition. Moreover, CNG engine produced a lower HC and CO emission compared to the gasoline for difference air flow rate. The average of HC and CO emissions of the CNG was 92 % and 78 % lower than that of the gasoline

  17. IMPLEMENTASI PROGRAM CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR USED MOTORCYCLE DEPARTMENT DALAM MENINGKATKAN CITRA PT. SUMMIT OTO FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERRIANSYAH FIRDAUS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is a program that held by the company as a form of social or environmental responsibility. UMC Dept of PT Summit Oto Finance do the CSR programs to establish good relations with the public and dealers. CSR program is handled by some sections, namely UMC Dept. Head, UMC Staff, Branch Manager and Marketing Head.The purpose of this report is to investigate the preparation, implementation and evaluation of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR UMC Department to improve the image of PT Summit Oto Finance. The concept of this research is public relations, corporate social responsibility and corporate image. This study used a qualitative approach with case study method. The data obtained by using observation, library research and in-depth interviews of key informants. The results of this study discusses the UMC Dept. CSR program in improving the image of PT Summit Oto Finance are divided into three stages, namely the preparation and planning stages, stages of implementation and evaluation stages. These three stages are carried out by the HO (head office that UMC Dept. Head and Staff and from the branch are Branch Manager and Marketing Head. The conclusion of this report is the CSR program UMC held on July 22, 2014. The three stages are performed optimally for results that have been planned, namely to establish good relations with the community and dealers as well as increasing the image that has been built.   Tanggung Jawab Sosial Perusahaan (CSR adalah program yang diselenggarakan oleh perusahaan sebagai bentuk tanggung jawab sosial atau lingkungan. UMC Dept dari PT Summit Oto Finance melakukan program CSR untuk menjalin hubungan baik dengan masyarakat dan dealer. Program CSR ditangani oleh beberapa bagian, yaitu Kepala Dept UMC, Staf UMC, Branch Manager dan Marketing Head. Tujuan dari laporan ini adalah untuk mengetahui persiapan, pelaksanaan dan evaluasi Tanggung Jawab Sosial Perusahaan UMC untuk memperbaiki citra. Dari PT Summit Oto Finance. Konsep penelitian ini adalah hubungan masyarakat, corporate social responsibility dan corporate image. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan metode studi kasus. Data diperoleh dengan menggunakan observasi, penelitian kepustakaan dan wawancara mendalam terhadap informan kunci. Hasil penelitian ini membahas program CSR UMC Dept dalam meningkatkan citra PT Summit Oto Finance yang terbagi dalam tiga tahap, yaitu tahap persiapan dan perencanaan, tahapan pelaksanaan dan tahap evaluasi. Ketiga tahapan tersebut dilakukan oleh HO (kantor pusat bahwa Kepala Staf dan Kepala UMC dan cabang adalah Branch Manager and Marketing Head. Kesimpulan dari laporan ini adalah program CSR UMC yang diselenggarakan pada 22 Juli 2014. Ketiga tahapan tersebut dilakukan secara optimal untuk hasil yang telah direncanakan, yaitu untuk menjalin hubungan baik dengan masyarakat dan dealer serta meningkatkan citra yang telah dibangun.

  18. Acoustic Data for Hybrid and Electric Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Electric Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 requires NHTSA to conduct a rulemaking to establish a Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard requiring an alert sound for pedestrians to be emitted by all types of motor vehicles that are electric o...

  19. 76 FR 23854 - Reclassification of Motorcycles (Two and Three Wheeled Vehicles) in the Guide to Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... and the unintended consequences of misclassification. Harley Davidson Motor Company (HDMC) stated that... concerns about the administrative, logistical and financial burdens of providing information based on the... estimated that the cost of updating their computers to process the information included in the new guidance...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND... travel greater than 10 inches. (E) Engine displacement greater than 50 cc. (F) The absence of a... operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family. (ii...

  1. A tale about Zen philosophy and a motorcycle (that is: OER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislandi Patrizia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the concept of education quality, mainly based on a shared culture, that is a background for a permanent reflection on a process in which teachers, students, and stakeholders are involved, in a gradual improvement of their competence. People can achieve quality if they head for an open, participatory, iterative trajectory towards personal identity construction through the achievement of satisfaction of a well done work. In this context measurement tools and final quality controls are only a means “toward the end of satisfying the peace of mind of those responsible for the work” (Pirsig, first edition 1974, 2005, p.304.

  2. 49 CFR 571.122 - Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cover, seal, and cover retention device. Each reservoir shall have a minimum capacity equivalent to one... capacity and retention device. (e) Master cylinder label for compliance with S5.1.2.2. Table I—Stopping..., 1974) at 40 mph, omitting water delivery as specified in paragraphs 7.1 and 7.2 of that method...

  3. Use and Testing of the Motorcycle by the US Army April 1917 to February 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-10

    the-road capability for most of its other vehicles by converting them to four-wheel drive. According to Major General George A. Lynch, the overweight ...No Norway MAJ Ola Aabakken Yes Yes No Pakistan MAJ Najeeb Ahmed Yes Yes No Peru * MAJ Alberto Arciniega Philippines COL Mariano P. Adalem No

  4. Relationship Between Driving-violation Behaviours and Risk Perception in Motorcycle Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy S.K. Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This study could assist occupational-therapy practitioners involved in driving rehabilitation and training to identify strategies to deal with drivers' violation behaviours and risk perception. It could also provide evidence-based recommendations for drivers' education, driving-safety campaigns, or even licensing policies.

  5. Sen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: Adaptive Preferences and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive preferences are both a central justification and continuing problem for the use of the capability approach. They are illustrated here with reference to a project examining the choices of young people who had rejected higher education. Jon Elster, Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum have all criticised utilitarianism on the grounds that a…

  6. Can Physics Teaching be improved by Explanation of Tricks with a Motorcycle?

    OpenAIRE

    Risch, Matthias R.

    2010-01-01

    A priority of physics instruction is to help students make the connection between the formulae they think they are required to memorize and the real world in which they interact every day. If you ask students to describe a situation in real life involving physical principles, the most commonly cited examples will pertain to vehicular motion. One situation in real life involving physical principles is vehicle dynamics. Even students who have little interest in physics eagerly discuss problems ...

  7. Dutch in-depth accident investigation: first experiences and analysis results for motorcycles and mopeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Galliano, F.

    2001-01-01

    In September 1999 the Dutch Accident Research Team (DART) within TNO Automotive started with the in-depth investigation of traffic accidents. In this paper, the methodology, working procedures and experiences of the team are described and explained in detail. Furthermore, an elaborate description of

  8. Motorcycles as public transport service based on smart phone android applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwijoko Ansusanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of traffic in the city of Yogyakarta is dominated by private vehicle, while the urban public transport service is not satisfactory for consumer. In November 2015 the transport service based application called Go-Jek began operation in Yogyakarta. This service offers a transportation service that is safe, convenient, fast, cheap and more attractive the interest of consumers to use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the operating system Go-Jek services, the public interest to this service, the feasibility of Go-Jek services as a mode of transportation in Yogyakarta. This research was conducted in the city of Yogyakarta and Sleman. The research method is done by using a questionnaire to the respondents: the driver and the consumer of Go-Jek. The analysis was conducted to assess the level of satisfaction and expectations of respondents using Importance-Performance analysis methods. Operating system Go-Jek is currently quite good, but needs to be further improved. Ranges of Income from 843.300 3.243.300 Indonesian Rupiah per month be perceived by the driver is good enough, while minimum income of workers on average in 2017 amounted 1.337.645 Indonesian rupiah per month in Yogyakarta Special District. Recommendations to the Go-Jek company in order to implement transparency in setting policies and systems to avoids the problems to the driver Go-Jek

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subparts D... - Motorcycle Noise Emission Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sound level meter may be used with a magnetic tape recorder and/or a graphic level recorder or... end point. (5) Throttle opening must be controlled to avoid excessive wheel slip or lift-off. (6) To..., a microphone or sound level meter may be used with a magnetic tape recorder and/or a graphic level...

  10. Penetrating injury caused by the gear pedal of a motor-cycle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    He had no neurovascular injury but was found radiologically to have an ipsilateral tibia fracture. ... radiologiquement d'avoir une fracture du tibia ipsilatéral. ... the ankle joint. It passed out from the lateral aspect approximately 6 cm distal to the lateral malleolus. He also sustained a laceration measuring about 10cm on the ...

  11. Prevalence and determinants of non-standard motorcycle safety helmets amongst food delivery workers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; See, Lai Git; Kaviyarasu, Y; Nor Afiah, M Z

    2012-05-01

    Almost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label. A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label. The response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience. Non-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence Use of NGK Platinum C 7hvx Sparkplug toward Performance and Emision Gas of Four Stroke Motorcycle 110 Cc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Pulo Mangesa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Spark plug is a tool for producing an electric fire arc which has influences in process of combustion perfection, in internalcombustion engines. Spark plugs with electrode tip made of platinum, have good conducting character. The spark plugs areclaimed by their manufactures, are able to improve engines performance and able to reduce waste gases emission rate. Targets ofthis research is comparison C 7HSA Standard NGK Spark plug with NGK Platinum C 7HVX spark plug, in engine performance (power, efficiency, fuel consumptions and in waste gases emission rate ( CO rate level at engine rotation 2500 rpm, 3000 rpm,and 3500 rpm. 1 kg, 1,5 kg, 2 kg loads were used in waste gases emission rate examinations and fuel consumptions examinations.Data-processing methods were used in this research were descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and regression linieranalysis. Results of this research showed that by using NGK Platinum C 7HVX spark plug will be able to improve engineperformance ( power, efficiency, fuel consumptions and gases emission rate ( CO rate level if we compare with engine whichusing C 7HSA Standard NGK Spark plug.

  13. Possiblity of substituting 12XH3A steel in the manufacture of gears for a Sova motorcycle gearing box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, L. M.; Karabanov, V. P.; Abramov, V. L.; Astakhin, A. S.

    1996-03-01

    The experimental work describes the possibility of substituting the expensive alloying steel 12XH3A for the low-cost material (steel 40X) in manufacturing gears of the motor cycle gearing box. It ban be achieved on the basis of the obtained results and with the help of laser melting treatment of small-alloying steel. We can speak about the dependence of laser melting radiation efficiency on the regimes and procedures. The breakage of the gearing box of the motor cycle 'Sova' may be explained by the low carry ability of its first gearing box gear. This investigation includes the determination of the cause of this problem. One of the most wide spread methods of such decisions is the substitution of the used materials by another. The most important criteria for the new materials are: (1) the increase of mechanical characteristics (solidity, plasticity); (2) the increase of such characteristics as hardness, specific percussive viscosity; (3) the improvement of the technological characteristics; (4) the condencention of the manufacturing expenditures (economical effect). In accordance with these creations some materials (35X, 40X, 20XH, 40XHM steels) were chosen. The best material is 40X steel, because it allows us to treat the gears by laser radiation with the surface melt. Surface melt allows us to produce: (1) martensite structure with high solidity and low percussive viscosity; (2) martensite structure with chrome carbides and high percussive viscosity, but low plasticity; (3) amorphous or monocrystallic structures with the best characteristics. The last structure has the best characteristics because dislocation defects in such material are practically absent. Also, the amorphous surface of the materials is the most interesting. The spirit of the investigation is to define the parameters of production such as radiation power, size of laser spot, and speed of spot.

  14. From scootes to choppers : Product protfolio change and organizational failure - Evidence from the UK motorcycle industry 1895 to 1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, FC; van Witteloostuijn, A

    This article explores the conditions under which organizational change increases the risk of organizational failure. To reach this goal, we examine the pros and cons of flexibility and inertia arguments. Empirically, we measure the survival consequences of product portfolio expansion in the British

  15. 78 FR 65758 - Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2011-2012 BMW S1000RR Motorcycles Are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Docket Management Facility: U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200... by Docket Management at the address and times given above. You may also view the documents from the... lamp. Standard No. 120 Tire Selection and Rims for Vehicles other than Passenger Cars: Installation of...

  16. An innovative multi dof TMD system for motorcycle handlebars designed to reduce structural vibrations and human exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, S.; Cheli, F.; Leo, E.; Pezzola, M.

    2012-08-01

    Motor vehicle ride comfort is mainly affected by reciprocating engine inertia unbalances. These forces are transmitted to the driver through the main frame, the engine mounts, and the auxiliary sub systems—all components with which he physically comes into contact. On-road traction vehicle engines are mainly characterized by transient exercise. Thus, an excitation frequency range from 800 RPM (≈15 Hz for stationary vehicles) up to 15,000 RPM (≈250 Hz as a cut off condition) occurs. Several structural resonances are induced by the unbalancing forces spectrum, thus exposing the driver to amplified vibrations. The aim of this research is to reduce driver vibration exposure, by acting on the modal response of structures with which the driver comes into contact. An experimental methodology, capable of identifying local vibration modes was developed. The application of this methodology on a reference vehicle allows us to detect if/when/how the above mentioned resonances are excited. Numerical models were used to study structural modifications. In this article, a handlebar equipped with an innovative multi reciprocating tuned mass damper was optimized. All structural modifications were designed, developed and installed on a vehicle. Modal investigations were then performed in order to predict modification efficiency. Furthermore, functional solution efficiency was verified during sweep tests performed on a target vehicle, by means of a roller bench capable of replicating on-road loads. Three main investigation zones of the vehicle were detected and monitored using accelerometers: (1) engine mounts, to characterize vibration emissions; (2) bindings connecting the engine to the frame, in order to detect vibration transfer paths, with particular attention being paid to local dynamic amplifications due to compliances and (3) the terminal components with which the driver comes into contact.

  17. Giant Post-traumatic Cyst after Motorcycle Injury: A Case Report with Review of the Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic cysts of soft tissue usually occur at the junction of the subcutaneous fat and deep fascia, most often filled with serosanguinous fluid and lined with fibrous tissue. It appears as complication after severe injuries when crushing and shearing forces cause separation of the skin and subcutaneous fat from the deep fascia and muscle, creating a cavity filled with hematoma and liquefied fat. This rare condition calls Morel-Lavallee lesion, which was first described by this French physician in 1853 (Sterling et al., 1977; Tull and Borrelli, 2003. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for detection and revealing the exact size and location of these lesions. The best method of treatment is surgical excision with complete resection.

  18. Physiotherapists' perceptions of their role in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: As motorcycle ownership remains an all-time high, the incidences of motorcycle-related deaths and traumatic brain injuries are expected to remain at high levels due to poor safety adherence by motorcycle users. Information regarding the role played by physiotherapists would assist to develop a motorcycle ...

  19. Analisa Pengaruh Bauran Pemasaran terhadap Minat Beli Ulang Sepeda Motor Honda Kategori Sport Mid

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, Eric Kusnadi

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the industry motorcycles in Indonesia continues to increase. As more and more brands of motorcycle industry, such as Honda, Yamaha, Suzuki, and others, causing consumers are faced with many alternative brands. Based on the data obtained from PT. Daya Adicipta Mustika as Honda Motorcycles Main Dealer in West Java, it is known that Honda Motorcycles brand has the highest sales volume in the motorcycle industry in Indonesia. However, it is known that there is one category of Honda ...

  20. The organizational advantage of nations : An ecological perspective on the evolution of the motorcycle industry in Belgium, Italy and Japan, 1898-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, FC; Lomi, A

    2003-01-01

    Why do nations succeed in particular industries? Why do certain industries prosper in one country, but languish in others? Several recent attempts to address these core questions in the study of geography and strategy are based on the notion of domestic rivalry as the essence of the persistence of

  1. Padrão das lesões nas vítimas de acidentes de motocicleta Injury patterns in motorcycle accident victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sumie Koizumi

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma análise do padrão das injúrias nas vítimas de acidentes de motocicleta internadas num hospital governamental de ensino, do Município de São Paulo, o qual conta com um serviço de emergência de referência. Ficou confirmado que nas vítimas internadas predominam os jovens, do sexo masculino e que a grande maioria recebe alta do hospital. Quanto às injúrias, verificou-se predomínio das classificadas no grau de intensidade leve (ISS de 1 a 9 e as lesões mais freqüentes foram as fraturas de membros e pelve, os ferimentos de superfície externa, os traumatismos crânio-encefálicos e as luxações de membros e pelve. Nas que faleceram, além das fraturas de membros e pelve, as lesões de órgãos abdominais e traumatismos crânio-encefálicos preponderaram e a ISS foi superior a 20. Nos pacientes com trauma de crânio, constatou-se relação direta entre escores altos da Escala de Coma de Glasgow e baixos da ISS e vice-versa.An analysis of the injury patterns presented by inpatients of a government teaching hospital, known as one of the emergency centers of S. Paulo city, Brazil, is given the majority of victims are young, male adults and most of them were later discharged from the hospital. In relation to the injuries the majority of the patients were classified as being of minor injury grade (ISS between 1 and 9 and the most frequent injuries were extremity and pelvic fractures, surface trauma, traumatic brain injury and extremity and pelvic dislocations. Besides extremity and pelvic fractures, the victims who died showed abdominal organ injury and traumatic brain injury and the ISS was over 20. Head injury patients who had a high Glasgow Coma Scale score had a low ISS and vice-versa.

  2. Life-cycle Energy and Emissions Inventories for Motorcycles, Diesel Automobiles, School Buses, Electric Buses, Chicago Rail, and New York City Rail

    OpenAIRE

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-01-01

    The development of life-cycle energy and emissions factors for passenger transportation modes is critical for understanding the total environmental costs of travel. Previous life-cycle studies have focused on the automobile given its dominating share of passenger travel and have included only few life-cycle components, typically related to the vehicle (i.e., manufacturing, maintenance, end-of-life) or fuel (i.e., extraction, refining, transport). Chester (2009) provides the first comprehensiv...

  3. Smartphone Android untuk Mengontrol Perangkat Keamanan Sepeda Motor Berbasis Mikrokontroler Promini

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Chairul Saleh

    2015-01-01

    According to the report the theft received by the police of the Republic of Indonesia in 2010, as many as 9.112 unit a motorcycle was declared stolen, in 2011, as many as 4.725 units motorcycle and in 2012 as much as 4.602 unit motorcycle was stolen. Because of this, needed an alternative solution for improving motorcycle safety. To enhance the security of these motorcycles, one of the ways used is with the modernization of the security system of the motorcycle from the conventional way of be...

  4. 78 FR 35094 - Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect Petition, DP12-001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... ``Goldwing'' and was the heaviest motorcycle in BMW's lineup during those model years. As a ``full- dress... motorcycles (with distinct vehicle identification numbers) alleging final drive failures. These reports were...

  5. Improving car drivers' perception of motorcyclists through innovative headlight configurations

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALLO, Viola; RANCHET, Maud; PINTO, Maria; ESPIE, Stéphane; VIENNE, Fabrice; DANG, Nguyen-Thong

    2013-01-01

    The most frequent cause of motorcycle accidents involves another vehicle violating the motorcycle's right-of-way at an intersection. In addition to detection errors, the misperception of the approaching motorcycle's speed and time-to-arrival is another driver error that may account for these accidents (e.g., Horswill et al., 2005). This misperception has been shown to be related to the small size of the motorcycle and the small angular velocity when it is approaching. In two experiments we te...

  6. Prediksi Kerawanan Wilayah Terhadap Tindak Pencurian Sepeda Motor Menggunakan Metode (S)ARIMA Dan CART

    OpenAIRE

    Utomo, Pradita Eko Prasetyo; SN, Azhari

    2017-01-01

    Motor vehicle theft is a crime that is most common in Indonesia. Growth of vehicle motorcycle significant in each year accompanied by the increasing theft of motorcycles in each year, we need a system that is able to forecast the development and the theft of the motorcycle. This research proposes the development of forecasting models vulnerability criminal offense of theft of motorcycles with ARIMA forecasting method. This method not only forecast from variable of theft but also residents...

  7. VOC species and emission inventory from vehicles and their SOA formation potentials estimation in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    C. Huang; H. L. Wang; L. Li; Q. Wang; Q. Lu; J. A. de Gouw; M. Zhou; S. A. Jing; J. Lu; C. H. Chen

    2015-01-01

    VOC species from vehicle exhaust and gas evaporation were investigated by chassis dynamometer and on-road measurements of 9 gasoline vehicles, 7 diesel vehicles, 5 motorcycles, and 4 gas evaporation samples. The SOA mass yields of gasoline, diesel, motorcycle exhausts, and gas evaporation were calculated based on the mixing ratio of individual VOC species. The SOA mass yields of gasoline and motorcycle exhaust were similar to the results of the published smo...

  8. Penerapan Teori Permainan dalam Analisa Persaingan Pasar Produk Sepeda Motor Honda dengan Yamaha di Universitas Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Erbin

    2015-01-01

    Automotive industry of Indonesia was enlivened by a choice variety of products especially of the motorcycle. Many choices with the motorcycle products resulted in rivalry, in which the object is clinched the market with most sales. Market, tough competition in demanding companies motorcycle to capable of being decided on the optimum strategy for their products. To the research is aimed to get strategy optimum for the company. Case study taken is the product honda and yamaha which are shared o...

  9. USSR Report, Consumer Goods and Domestic Trade, No. 40

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    The report contains articles on USSR consumer goods production and distribution with particular attention to Food Services, milk processing, textile, household goods production, and motorcycle spare parts...

  10. BENTUK DAN MAKNA VERBAL SERTA FUNGSI PERISTILAHAN PADA IKLAN MOBIL DAN SEPEDA MOTOR DI SURAT KABAR SOLOPOS

    OpenAIRE

    Putri Sri Winarsih; Markhamah Markhamah; Andi Haris Prabawa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study to describe: (1) the verbal form of terminology used in car and motorcycle advertisement found in the Solopos, (2) the meaning of terminology used in car and motorcycle advertisement found in the Solopos, and (3) the function of terminology used in car and motorcycle advertisement found in the Solopos. This study was a qualitative research and the object of the study is verbal form, meaning, and function used in car and motorcycle advertisement found in the Solopos. ...

  11. 15 CFR 30.38 - Exemption from the requirements for reporting complete commodity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... personal adornment, toilet articles, medicinal supplies, food, souvenirs, games, and similar personal... vehicles, such as passenger cars, station wagons, trucks, trailers, motorcycles, bicycles, tricycles, baby...

  12. Influence of positions of the incidence and severity of maxillofacial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common vehicle involved in RTA was the mini bus, 34.3% followed by motorcycle, 26.5%. Middle seat passengers, drivers and motorcycle passengers and riders sustained more and severe injuries during crashes. The mandible was more frequently fractured at the symphysis (24.6%) than at any other site while ...

  13. Het waarnemen van motoren : literatuurstudie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides results of a literature search into the perception of the presence of motorcycles. The literature concerns accidents, field test and laboratory tests. This information provides sufficient indications to show that perceiving motorcycles is more difficult than perceiving cars. The

  14. Understanding Student Travel Behaviour in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manullang, O. R.; Tyas, W. P.; Anas, N.; Aji, F. N.

    2018-02-01

    The highest movement in Semarang City is dominated by motorcycles, which reached 79% of the number of vehicles. Highest percentage movement use motorcycle caused the highest percentage accident by motorcycle users, which reached 66% and 9% involving high school students. This happens because of the dependence of motorcycles usage in fulfilling the needs of movement in the city of Semarang. Understanding student travel behavior based on their activities is used to know travel needs and the cause of dependence on motorcycle usage. Analysis method in this study use network analysis to compare the potential accessibility and actual accessibility to known why motorcycle chosen by students as the main mode. In addition, phenomenology analysis is used to explain the intent and reasons the data produced by network analysis. The analysis result indicates that the high use of motorcycles by high school students in the Semarang city due to the absence of other effective and efficient modes in fulfilling the movement needs. Even, the student which can potentially use public transport preferred to use a motorcycle. This mode is more effective and efficient because of its flexibility and lower costs.

  15. 75 FR 21567 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... the motorcycle headlighting system location requirements for a single headlamp with multiple light sources. The current standard requires that the light sources contained in a single motorcycle headlamp containing multiple light sources be located on the vertical centerline of the vehicle or horizontally...

  16. a cross sectional observational study.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    2009-04-15

    Apr 15, 2009 ... overpopulated city and brought a new wave of inexperienced motorists. Many young men are using their motorcycles as makeshift taxis, often without licences or personal protection. This coupled with poor road conditions has created a perfect environment for motorcycle related trauma. (MRT). The aim of ...

  17. 40 CFR 86.406-78 - Introduction, structure of subpart, further information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... projected sales. (1) New motorcycles, produced by a manufacturer whose projected U.S. sales of motorcycles... United States. The manufacturer is required to submit an application with sales data, product information... manufacturer's results. The Administrator will review the data and either grant or deny certification. If the...

  18. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Murali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive thermal burns resulting from roadside accidents (RSA involving motorcycles are very rare. Here we are going to present a case report in which the pillion rider was burnt to death underneath a motorcycle which caught fire following an impact with a roadside structure. Few points regarding the fire safety of two wheelers have also been mentioned.

  19. Is there difference between men and women motorcyclists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneri Borstlap

    2018-03-01

    Contribution: The study contributes to the motorcycle literature and provides a greater understanding of motorcyclists’ behaviour and what motivates them to attend a motorcycle festival. The research provides guidelines to event organisers to effectively market such an event. The research also identifies different segments to this event, which provides more indications on what the motorcyclist looks like.

  20. E.L.C. Watson se pionierstog deur Suid-Afrika (1912) | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the light of the Victorian era with all its restrictions, this new freedom of movement was very alluring. The motorcycle evolved out of the bicycle. Following the first Isle of Man TT (Tourist Trophy) in 1907, there was no stopping the popularity of the motorcycle. This influence was felt even in South Africa. It was in this zeitgeist ...

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    per 100,000 populations respectively12. Motorcycle accidents have drawn great attention from the Tanzanian government authorities. For example, 2010 Road Safety Week had a theme of Discourage High Speed; Cyclists Wear. Helmets; Accidents Kill, Injuress13. Motorcycles has recently become increasingly popular in.

  2. Numerical Modelling of the Operation of a Novel Two Stroke V4 Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Boretti

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents simulations of the operation of a novel two-stroke engine for road Super Sport motorcycles. Two-stroke engines were preferred to four-stroke engines in Grand Prix motorcycle racing until the start of the Moto GP era when new rules phased out the two-stroke engines. Reasons for the change were the poor fuel economy and significant pollutant emissions. The paper discusses the opportunity of a came back at least in road Super Sport motorcycles thanks to the recent advantages i...

  3. Numerical Modelling of the Operation of a Novel Two Stroke V4 Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boretti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents simulations of the operation of a novel two-stroke engine for road Super Sport motorcycles. Two-stroke engines were preferred to four-stroke engines in Grand Prix motorcycle racing until the start of the Moto GP era when new rules phased out the two-stroke engines. Reasons for the change were the poor fuel economy and significant pollutant emissions. The paper discusses the opportunity of a came back at least in road Super Sport motorcycles thanks to the recent advantages in direct injection and precise lubrication for two-stroke engines, plus the opportunity to use jet ignition, based on performance simulations.

  4. 76 FR 21422 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... this proposed collection of information will assist NHTSA in addressing the problem of alcohol-impaired..., NHTSA intends to conduct up to 12,000 face- to-face interviews with motorcycle riders. Interview length...

  5. Dálník čili ekomobil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ireinová, Martina

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2003), s. 222-223 ISSN 0027-8203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9061902 Keywords : Czech denomination of cab- motorcycle * spoken language * linguistics Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  6. 18 CFR 367.3920 - Account 392, Transportation equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Electrical vehicles. (5) Motor trucks. (6) Motorcycles. (7) Repair cars or trucks. (8) Tractors and trailers. (9) Other transportation vehicles. .... (a) This account must include the cost of transportation vehicles used for service company purposes...

  7. Pop / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: The Sleepy Jackson "Lovers", Ralph Myerz & the Jack Herren Band "A Special Album", David Bowie "Reality", Monster Magnet "Greatest Hits", Black Rebel Motorcycle Club "Take Them On, On Your Own"

  8. RJHS Vol 5(2) SOS.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Keywords: Eye care practice, Commercial drivers, Road traffic crash, Developing country. *Correspondence .... relied on self-reported road traffic crashes by the respondents. .... EU for drivers of cars and motorcycles is to have a binocular ...

  9. 76 FR 40860 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... of the sound such as frequency, phase, and amplitude values of the sound) for a selection of hybrid..., noisy restaurant 70 Average city traffic, garbage disposals, alarm clock at 80 2 feet Subway, motorcycle...

  10. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk range 80 to 90 Heavy city traffic, power lawn mower 90 Motorcycle 100 Snowmobile, hand drill 110 Chain saw, rock concert Injury range 120 Ambulance siren 140 (pain threshold) Jet engine at takeoff 165 12-guage ...

  11. 76 FR 19766 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Number 1053.10; NSPS for Electric Utility Steam Generating Units; 40 CFR part 60, subparts A and Da; was... Vehicles, Light Duty Trucks, and Highway Motorcycles (Change Worksheet); 40 CFR parts 85 and 86; 40 CFR 85...

  12. SISTEM INFORMASI PEMBAYARAN KREDIT PADA PRISMA MOTOR LUBUKLINGGAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Anto Tri S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In its use, computer is not only used for office activities, but also used in designing and developing an application, of course, with the assistance of applications such as Microsoft Visual Basic, Microsoft Access and others. In this study, the authors try to design and create a database application relating to motorcycle loan payments. Developed application contains forms such as employee master data form, a form used to add, edit, and delete data related to employees, the motorcycle master form, a form motorcycle used to add, edit, and delete data related to motorcycles as well as the transaction form that serves to enter data related to credit payment transactions in the company. In the design and development of the database application, the author utilizes Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 as a supporting application.Keywords: common people (users, Visual Basic 6.0, credit payment information system

  13. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO2 emissions through 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    During this study a methodology was developed to project growth trends of the motor vehicle population and associated oil demand and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China through 2050. In particular, the numbers of highway vehicles, motorcycles, an...

  14. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... 1300 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0054] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  15. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulated by EPA EPA or a designated Federal agency regulates noise sources, such as rail and motor carriers, low noise emission products, construction equipment, transport equipment, trucks, motorcycles, and the labeling of hearing ...

  16. Concussion - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or operate machines Play contact sports, such as football, hockey, and soccer Ride a bicycle, motorcycle, or ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  17. Concussion - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child's provider about: Playing contact sports, such as football, hockey, and soccer Riding a bicycle, motorcycle, or ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...

  18. 40 CFR 51.491 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... different users. RFP baseline means the total of actual volatile organic compounds or nitrogen oxides..., industrial equipment, construction vehicles, off-road motorcycles, and marine vessels). National ambient air...

  19. Methodology Application: Logistic Regression the Using CODES Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-06

    Congress directed the Secretary of Transportation, through the Intermodal : Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, to carry out a study or : studies to determine the impact of safety belt and motorcycle helmet use. In : order to carry...

  20. 76 FR 2082 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... IceAge Manufacturing, Inc. MN 56751. various other components for snowmobiles. Concept Works, Inc... kitchen faucets, commercial hardware, bathroom fixtures and motorcycle components. RW Chang & Co. Inc 1202...

  1. IMPACT OF ROAD TRANSPORT ON AGRICULTURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-09

    Mar 9, 2012 ... transport has both positive and negative impact on agricultural development in the study area. However ... Keywords: Rural Development, Marketing, Transportation, Agricultural .... motorcycle and public transport (lorries, pick-.

  2. 15 CFR 740.14 - Baggage (BAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of personal adornment, toilet articles, medicinal supplies, food, souvenirs, games, and similar..., trucks, trailers, motorcycles, bicycles, tricycles, perambulators, and their containers. (4) Tools of... business activities that involve the transmission and use of the technology authorized under this license...

  3. Pop / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: "Myth Takes", Mira Calix "Eyes Set Against The Sun", Brides in Bloom "Love Criminal", Forgotten Sunrise "Willand", Radiohead "Airbag / How Am I Driving", Jimi Tenor & Kabu Kabu "Joystone", The Concretes "Hey Trouble", Black Rebel Motorcycle Club "Baby 81"

  4. Helmet use and associated factors among motorcyclists in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    in Malaysia and the highest (10) in Brunei Duressalam. Stricter .... in line with the global findings that the introduction and enforcement of legislation on helmet .... Motorcycle helmet wearing behavior among Naresuan university students.

  5. Profiles and Outcomes of Head Injury at Nakuru Level 5 Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    An eleven months' prospective cross sectional descriptive ... In females, domestic violence was the common mode of violence and it was perpetrated by a spouse. Motorcycle ... with other studies that majority of head injured victims are young ...

  6. Plaadid / Margus Kiis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiis, Margus

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest S Club 7 "Best The Greatest Hits", "Animatrix. The Album", "Jenifer", DJ Kayslay "The Streetsweeper vol. 1", Black Rebel Motorcycle Club "Take Them On, On Your Own", John Mellencamp "Trouble No More"

  7. Popmuusika / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest John Lennon "Working Class Hero", Tito Puente y Su Orchestra "Viva Mambo", Sigur Ros "Takk", Ladytron "Witching Hour", Black Rebel Motorcycle Club "Howl", Ans. Andur "Tuled peale", Emmilou Harris "Heartaches & Highways"

  8. Pop / Mart Niineste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineste, Mart, 1983-

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Transplants "Haunted Cities", Tu'm "Just one night", Black Rebel Motorcycle Club "Howl", Opeth "Ghost Reveries", Iron Maiden "Death on the Road", Yes "The Word is Live", Mogwai "Government Commisions: BBC Sessions 1996 - 2003"

  9. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and four spaces for the advertised engine displacement respectively. (7) All motorcycle manufacturers... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout GAD...

  10. Plaadid / Mart Normet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normet, Mart, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Black Rebel Motorcycle Club "HOWL", The gathering "Accessories", Joshua redman Elastic Band "Momentum", The Rasmus "Hide From The Sun", Nihilistikrypt "Required Sacrifices", "Gasolina - 100% Reggaeton", Bond "Explosive: The Best of Bond"

  11. ANALISA PENGARUH BRAND IMAGE TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN KONSUMEN DALAM PEMBELIAN SEPEDA MOTOR HONDA

    OpenAIRE

    Warter Agustim

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays the rivalry of motorcycle industry in Indonesia increases rapidly. In facing this condition, the motorcycle producers are demanded to form a strong competitive superior component by making a good brand image for consumers. Brand image is a trade mark association; it is formed and stuck on consumers’ mind. It has three components i.e. producer, consumer, and product image. This research aimed to find out and analyze the affect of brand image consisted of producer, consumer, and produc...

  12. ANALISA PENGARUH BRAND IMAGE TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN KONSUMEN DALAM PEMBELIAN SEPEDA MOTOR HONDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warter Agustim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the rivalry of motorcycle industry in Indonesia increases rapidly. In facing this condition, the motorcycle producers are demanded to form a strong competitive superior component by making a good brand image for consumers. Brand image is a trade mark association; it is formed and stuck on consumers’ mind. It has three components i.e. producer, consumer, and product image. This research aimed to find out and analyze the affect of brand image consisted of producer, consumer, and product image to the consumers’ decision in buying Honda motorcycle, both in partially and simultaneously to find out which variables had domain effect. The type of this research is explanatory research explaining the causal relationship among variables by using hypothesis test. The sample of this research was 69 S-1 students of Economic Faculty of Tribhuwana Tunggadewi University of Malang; they had ever bought Honda motorcycle. The data analysis method used in this research was multiple linier regressions.  The result gained by using multiple linier regressions showed that both in partially and simultaneously producer image variable (X1, consumer image (X2, and product image (X3 had a significant effect to the consumers decision in buying Honda motorcycle. Whereas, the variable which was dominant to the consumers was product image variable (X3.            The conclusion which could be taken from this research was the three independent variables i.e. producer image, consumer image, and product image both in partially and simultaneously had a significant effect to the consumers’ decision in buying Honda motorcycle. Product image variable (X3 was the variable having a dominant effect to the consumers’ decision in buying Honda motorcycle. By having know that brand image had a significant effect to the consumers’ decision, it was suggested that Honda Company could maintain its brand image formed nowadays so that it could increase the sale of

  13. American River Watershed Investigation, California. Volume 2. Appendixes F-L

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    regularly observed fishing in the NEMDC and its tributary streams. Illegal off-road vehicle use (4- wheel drive vehicles and motorcycles...relatively deep runout with strong hydraulics evidenced both on, and below the water surface, ending in a slow moving deep channel. The ease of access...gravel bar adjacent to the river. The primary recreational use of this area is an off-highway vehicle (OHV) use area (motorcycles, three- and four- wheel

  14. Pengaruh Promosi, Kualitas Pelayanan Dan Harga Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Sepeda Motor Yamaha Jupiter All Variant Pada Yamaha Mataram Sakti Cabang Soegiyopranoto Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Pramana, Pryas Aji; Hidayat, Wahyu; Waloejo, Handoyo Djoko

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of the promotion, service quality and price on purchase decisions of Yamaha Jupiter All variant at Mataram Sakti , Soegiyopranoto Branch Semarang. This study used explanatory research. Primary data obtained from respondents using data collection instruments such as questionnaires and secondary data gained from the site in the form of a percentage of sales of Yamaha motorcycles with other motorcycle brands. The population of this research is consum...

  15. Rotary Speed Sensor for Antilocking Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Sensor based on fluidic principles produces negative pressure approximately proportional to rotational speed. Sensor developed as part of antilocking brake system for motorcycles. Uses inlet pressure rather than outlet pressure as braking-control signal, eliminating pressure pulsations caused by pump vanes and ensuring low-noise signal. Sensor is centrifugal air pump turned by one of motorcycle wheels. Air enters pump through orifice plates, and suction taken off through port in pump inlet plenum.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of the Environmental Benefits of Drone-Based Delivery Services in Urban and Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyoon Park; Solhee Kim; Kyo Suh

    2018-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, drones) used as delivery vehicles have received increasing attention due to their mobility and accessibility to remote areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of drone versus motorcycle delivery and to compare the expected environmental improvements due to drone delivery in urban and rural areas. In addition, the potential environmental contributions of electric motorcycles were assessed to determine the effects of introducing t...

  17. Gap Acceptance Behavior Model for Non-signalized

    OpenAIRE

    Fajaruddin Bin Mustakim

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes field studies that were performed to determine the critical gap on the multiple rural roadways Malaysia, at non-signalized T-intersection by using The Raff and Logic Method. Critical gap between passenger car and motorcycle have been determined.   There are quite number of studied doing gap acceptance behavior model for passenger car however still few research on gap acceptance behavior model for motorcycle. Thus in this paper, logistic regression models were developed to p...

  18. Perancangan Knalpot Berbahan Aluminium Untuk Mengurangi Kebisingan Pada Sepeda Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Simarmata, Chandra

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to design an exhaust that is good at absorbing noise on motorcycles. Motorcycle used in the study is the brand Yamaha Jupiter Z 2009. In the analysis of exhaust spherical shape calculation selected for the simulation results are used through software and calculations performed solidwork noise exhaust spherical shape amounted to 133.33 dB while noise form the exhaust oval / elliptical is amounting to 133.95. Furthermore, after receiving the exhaust spherical shape that will ...

  19. Prevenção de acidentes: o reconhecimento das estratégias operatórias dos motociclistas profissionais como base para a negociação de acordo coletivo Accident prevention: recognition of motorcycle couriers’ work strategies as the basis for collective bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Paceli Hatem Diniz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar como o estudo das estratégias operatórias contribui para elaborar medidas de prevenção dos acidentes sofridos pelos motociclistas profissionais, conhecidos popularmente como "motoboys". Os autores apresentam uma crítica à concepção do erro humano, hegemônica dentre os especialistas em segurança do trabalho. Os resultados apresentados foram obtidos de um estudo ergonômico iniciado por demanda do sindicato dos motociclistas profissionais de Minas Gerais. No total, 85 motociclistas profissionais foram observados e entrevistados. Os procedimentos adotados foram: registro da atividade por meio de filmagens nas ruas e avenidas da cidade; autoconfrontação das cenas do filme e das rotas elaboradas em mapas, e de certos aspectos das atividades de trabalho observadas na expedição das duas empresas selecionadas. Ao final, os autores discutem os limites das normas de segurança prescritas que não consideram o saber desenvolvido pelos próprios trabalhadores. As medidas de transformação das situações geradoras de acidentes elaboradas com apoio no estudo detalhado das estratégias implementadas pelos sujeitos estudados serviram para a elaboração da convenção coletiva de trabalho.The aim of this study is to present, as operational strategies, the contribuition to elaborate some prevention measures to protect the professional motorcyclists, popularly known as "motoboys", against accidents. The authors present a critic to the human error conception that is hegemonic to the experts at work security. The results come from an Ergonomics study that started over an Union demand of the professional motorcyclists in Minas Gerais. The total come to 85 professional motorciclists who were interviewed and observed. The procedures were: report the activity filmed in the city streets and avenues; selfconfrontation of the scenes and of the map rutes, and of some aspects obeserved in the two selected companies. Finally the authors discuss the limits of the security rules without considering the knowledge obtained by the workers themselves. The measures to change the situation that make the accidents happen were used to elaborate the collective work convention. These measures were supported by a detailed study of the implemented strategies by the individuals who were analised.

  20. Helmet Use and Associated Factors among Thai Motorcyclists during Songkran Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviroj, Penprapa; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Morarit, Sompong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess helmet use and associated factors among motorcycle riders during Songkran festival in Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of helmet use among Thai motorcycle riders (sample size = 18,998) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample, the population of motorcycle riders was consecutively selected using quota sampling from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist. Results indicate that 44.2% of the motorcycle riders and 72.5% of the motorcycle passengers had not been using a helmet. In multivariable analysis demographics, environmental factors, helmet use experiences and attitudes and recalling a lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign were associated with non-helmet use among motorcyclists. It appears that the RSA campaign may have some positive effect on reducing non-helmet use among motorcycle riders during the Songkran festival. PMID:23202686